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Sample records for gazoduc provenant du

  1. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  3. Provenance in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie-Graham, Allan J; Van Horn, John D; Woods, Roger P; Crawford, Karen L; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-08-01

    Provenance, the description of the history of a set of data, has grown more important with the proliferation of research consortia-related efforts in neuroimaging. Knowledge about the origin and history of an image is crucial for establishing data and results quality; detailed information about how it was processed, including the specific software routines and operating systems that were used, is necessary for proper interpretation, high fidelity replication and re-use. We have drafted a mechanism for describing provenance in a simple and easy to use environment, alleviating the burden of documentation from the user while still providing a rich description of an image's provenance. This combination of ease of use and highly descriptive metadata should greatly facilitate the collection of provenance and subsequent sharing of data. PMID:18519166

  4. Provenance in bioinformatics workflows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we used the PROV-DM model to manage data provenance in workflows of genome projects. This provenance model allows the storage of details of one workflow execution, e.g., raw and produced data and computational tools, their versions and parameters. Using this model, biologists can access details of one particular execution of a workflow, compare results produced by different executions, and plan new experiments more efficiently. In addition to this, a provenance simulator was created, which facilitates the inclusion of provenance data of one genome project workflow execution. Finally, we discuss one case study, which aims to identify genes involved in specific metabolic pathways of Bacillus cereus, as well as to compare this isolate with other phylogenetic related bacteria from the Bacillus group. B. cereus is an extremophilic bacteria, collected in warm water in the Midwestern Region of Brazil, its DNA samples having been sequenced with an NGS machine. PMID:24564294

  5. Provenance Store Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2008-03-01

    Requirements for the provenance store and access API are developed. Existing RDF stores and APIs are evaluated against the requirements and performance benchmarks. The team’s conclusion is to use MySQL as a database backend, with a possible move to Oracle in the near-term future. Both Jena and Sesame’s APIs will be supported, but new code will use the Jena API

  6. Provenance for Environmental Cyberenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futrelle, J.

    2006-12-01

    Scientific collaboration is a complex distributed process that spans disciplinary, organizational, and spatiotemporal boundaries. As information technology (IT) is deployed in scientific communities, new techniques are required to manage these complex processes so that the digital artifacts associated with scientific knowledge can be used as effectively as possible. Cyberenvironments (CE) propose to extend current IT infrastructure to support distributed, collaborative work, comprising online collaboration tools, distributed data management, distributed processing, and social networking analysis. The Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demonstrator (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) is exploring cyberenvironment directions for environmental research, motivated in particular by the requirements being identified through the NSF's CLEANER/CUASHI/WATERS environmental observatory planning activities. These requirements entail providing integrated access to an evolving set of community sensor networks, data collections, models, analysis tools, literature, and community members, and tracking the relationships between them. The metadata and provenance information required to support resource discovery and information fusion to support new scientific endeavors is anticipated to come from a variety of sources including human inputs, direct reporting from individual tools, and inferences from observations of human and system activities and to evolve over time. At NCSA, we have been developing a lightweight, distributed infrastructure for managing metadata and provenance information and, through ECID, applying it in support of environmental observatory scenarios. This poster will provide an overview of the technical infrastructure being created, describe the set of tools and types of information being managed in ECID, and outline concepts such as sharing of best-practice workflows and community model validation that would leverage this

  7. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  8. Provenance through Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to reproduce scientific results is a cornerstone of the scientific method, and access to the data upon which the results are based is essential to reproducibility. Access to the data alone is not enough though, and research communities have recognized the importance of metadata (data documentation) to enable discovery and data access, and facilitate interpretation and accurate reuse. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was first funded in late 2006 by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biology and Chemistry Sections to help ensure that data generated during NSF OCE funded research would be preserved and available for future use. The BCO-DMO was formed by combining the formerly independent data management offices of two marine research programs: the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) and the US GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (US GLOBEC) program. Since the US JGOFS and US GLOBEC programs were both active (1990s) there have been significant changes in all aspects of the research data life cycle, and the staff at BCO-DMO has modified the way in which we manage data contributed to the office. The supporting documentation that describes each dataset was originally displayed as a human-readable text file retrievable via a Web browser. BCO-DMO still offers that form because our primary audience is marine researchers using Web browser clients; however we are seeing an increased demand to support machine client access. Metadata records from the BCO-DMO data system are now extracted and published out in a variety of formats. The system supports ISO 19115, FGDC, GCMD DIF, schema.org Dataset extension, formal publication with a DOI, and RDF with semantic markup including PROV-O, FOAF and more. In the 1990s, data documentation helped researchers locate data of interest and understand the provenance sufficiently to determine fitness for purpose. Today, providing data

  9. Provenance of unknown plutonium material.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2008-10-01

    The determination of the provenance of 'unknown' plutonium material is demonstrated through a simulation study based on an isotopic fingerprinting approach. Plutonium of known provenance was considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to evaluate the potential of the approach and verify its predictive capabilities. Factor analysis was used to compare the Pu isotopic composition of the 'unknown' material with Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. The provenance of the 'unknown material' is assigned to the commercial fuel with which exhibits the highest degree of similarity with respect to the Pu composition. The approach appears promising since it accurately predicted the provenance of the one 'unknown' sample considered; nevertheless, the approach is still at the development stage. Important challenging issues related to the simulation uncertainties and its testing on real laboratory samples have to be explored prior to evaluating the potential of the approach. PMID:18639370

  10. A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-06-06

    Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.

  11. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  12. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  13. PROX: Approximated Summarization of Data Provenance

    PubMed Central

    Ainy, Eleanor; Bourhis, Pierre; Davidson, Susan B.; Deutch, Daniel; Milo, Tova

    2016-01-01

    Many modern applications involve collecting large amounts of data from multiple sources, and then aggregating and manipulating it in intricate ways. The complexity of such applications, combined with the size of the collected data, makes it difficult to understand the application logic and how information was derived. Data provenance has been proven helpful in this respect in different contexts; however, maintaining and presenting the full and exact provenance may be infeasible, due to its size and complex structure. For that reason, we introduce the notion of approximated summarized provenance, where we seek a compact representation of the provenance at the possible cost of information loss. Based on this notion, we have developed PROX, a system for the management, presentation and use of data provenance for complex applications. We propose to demonstrate PROX in the context of a movies rating crowd-sourcing system, letting participants view provenance summarization and use it to gain insights on the application and its underlying data. PMID:27570843

  14. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  15. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  16. Special Issue: The First Provenance Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, Luc; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Altintas, Ilkay; Barga, Roger S.; Bowers, Shawn; Callahan, Steven P.; Chin, George; Clifford, Ben; Cohen, Shirley; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Davidson, Susan; Deelman, Ewa; digiampietri, Luciano; Foster, Ian T.; Freire, Juliana; Frew, James; Futrelle, Joe; Gibson, Tara D.; Gil, Yolanda; Goble, Carole; Golbeck, Jennifer; Groth, Paul; Holland, David A.; Jiang, Sheng; Kim, Jihie; Koop, David; Krenek, Ales; McPhillips, Timothy; Mehta, Gaurang; Miles, Simon; Metzger, Dominic; Munroe, Steve; Myers, James D.; Plale, Beth A.; Podhorszki, norbert; Ratnakar, Varun; Emanuele , Santos; scheidegger, Carlos E.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Simmhan, Yogesh L.; Claudio, Silva T.; Slaughter, Peter; Stephan, Eric G.; Stevens, Robert; Turi, Daniele; Vo, Huy T.; Wilde, Mike J.; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2008-04-01

    The first Provenance Challenge was set up in order to provide a forum for the community to help understand the capabilities of different provenance systems and the expressiveness of their provenance representations. To this end, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging workflow was defined, which participants had to either simulate or run in order to produce some provenance representation, from which a set of identified queries had to be implemented and executed. Sixteen teams responded to the challenge, and submitted their inputs. In this paper, we present the challenge workflow and queries, and summarise the participants contributions.

  17. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  18. Provenance for Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Duggan, B.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth Science Data Systems across NASA play a critical role in data processing, management, and analysis of NASA observations. However, there is a growing need to provide the provenance of these datasets as scientists increasingly need more transparency of the data products to improve their understanding and trust of the science results. Lessons learned from Climategate show that there is public demand for more transparency and understanding in the science process. Science data systems are key to enabling the capture, management, and use of production provenance information. Science analysis now also may involve merging multi-sensor datasets where lineage can facilitate the understanding of the data. But there does not exist a formal recommendation for an interoperable standard for provenance representation for use in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems. The W3C Provenance Working Group has a specification for the representation of provenance information. The standard is very general and intended to support the breadth of any domain. To better serve the needs of specific domain communities, the standard has several built in points of extensibility. We will present efforts by NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance to develop an Earth Science extension to the PROV specification (PROV-ES) and how it can be used in science data system to capture, consume, and interpret provenance information.

  19. Tracking Provenance of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Yelena; Halem, Milton

    2010-01-01

    Tremendous volumes of data have been captured, archived and analyzed. Sensors, algorithms and processing systems for transforming and analyzing the data are evolving over time. Web Portals and Services can create transient data sets on-demand. Data are transferred from organization to organization with additional transformations at every stage. Provenance in this context refers to the source of data and a record of the process that led to its current state. It encompasses the documentation of a variety of artifacts related to particular data. Provenance is important for understanding and using scientific datasets, and critical for independent confirmation of scientific results. Managing provenance throughout scientific data processing has gained interest lately and there are a variety of approaches. Large scale scientific datasets consisting of thousands to millions of individual data files and processes offer particular challenges. This paper uses the analogy of art history provenance to explore some of the concerns of applying provenance tracking to earth science data. It also illustrates some of the provenance issues with examples drawn from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) run at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center by the first author.

  20. Provenance in Observational Solar Physics Data Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Garcia, J.; Zednik, S.

    2008-05-01

    A limiting factor for virtual observatories which intend to make diverse data sets available to a diverse user base is that the following use cases are very difficult to implement: 1. Determine which flat field calibration was applied to the image taken on January, 26, 2005 around 2100UT by the ACOS Mark IV polarimeter. 2. What processing steps were completed to obtain the ACOS PICS limb image of the day for January 26, 2005. 3. What was the cloud cover and atmospheric seeing conditions during the local morning of January 26, 2005 at MLSO. Key to addressing these use cases often requires information that was either not collected from different stages in the data processing pipeline or it was but was not carried forward when the datasets were made available on-line. Collectively, this information is called provenance and in a semantic web data framework; knowledge provenance. In this presentation, we describe the knowledge provenance requirements that have emerged in our previous work on virtual observatories as well as requirements identified from a series of uses cases collected from scientific data users and instrument scientists. We will describe the progress we are making on meeting these requirements in the context of solar physics image data processing pipelines. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) is a NSF OCI/SDCI-funded project to implement an extensible meta data provenance scheme within the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory.

  1. An R package for statistical provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Resentini, Alberto; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces provenance, a software package within the statistical programming environment R, which aims to facilitate the visualisation and interpretation of large amounts of sedimentary provenance data, including mineralogical, petrographic, chemical and isotopic provenance proxies, or any combination of these. provenance comprises functions to: (a) calculate the sample size required to achieve a given detection limit; (b) plot distributional data such as detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra as Cumulative Age Distributions (CADs) or adaptive Kernel Density Estimates (KDEs); (c) plot compositional data as pie charts or ternary diagrams; (d) correct the effects of hydraulic sorting on sandstone petrography and heavy mineral composition; (e) assess the settling equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition; (f) quantify the dissimilarity between distributional data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Sircombe-Hazelton distances, or between compositional data using the Aitchison and Bray-Curtis distances; (e) interpret multi-sample datasets by means of (classical and nonmetric) Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA); and (f) simplify the interpretation of multi-method datasets by means of Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA) and 3-way MDS. All these tools can be accessed through an intuitive query-based user interface, which does not require knowledge of the R programming language. provenance is free software released under the GPL-2 licence and will be further expanded based on user feedback.

  2. Sediment generation and provenance: processes and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Garzanti, E.; von Eynatten, H.; Weltje, G. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to trace sediments from their sources to sedimentary basins is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis of Earth-surface dynamics. The comparatively recent revival of sedimentary provenance analysis goes hand-in-hand with the ever expanding range of analytical tools available for quantifying sediment properties (isotopic, mineral, chemical, and petrographic composition, grain-size and shape distributions, age spectra, etc.), and for interpreting such data in paleo-geographic, -tectonic and -climatic terms. The breakdown of sediment budgets into source-specific contributions - one of the most important tasks of provenance analysis - permits quantification of rates of surface processes in the geological past ("deep time"), even in cases where the source areas themselves have been destroyed by global tectonics. Quantitative sedimentary provenance analysis is therefore crucial to the reconstruction of ancient sediment-routing systems, the fundamental units of mass transfer at the Earth's surface.

  3. "Cirque du Freak."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and child readers. (SG)

  4. Analysis Traceability and Provenance for HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Kovács, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the use of the CRISTAL software in the N4U project. CRISTAL was used to create a set of provenance aware analysis tools for the Neuroscience domain. This paper advocates that the approach taken in N4U to build the analysis suite is sufficiently generic to be able to be applied to the HEP domain. A mapping to the PROV model for provenance interoperability is also presented and how this can be applied to the HEP domain for the interoperability of HEP analyses.

  5. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  6. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance informationmore » and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research« less

  7. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric; Alex, Endert; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research

  8. Characterizing Provenance in Visualization and Data Analysis: An Organizational Framework of Provenance Types and Purposes.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Eric D; Endert, Alex; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    While the primary goal of visual analytics research is to improve the quality of insights and findings, a substantial amount of research in provenance has focused on the history of changes and advances throughout the analysis process. The term, provenance, has been used in a variety of ways to describe different types of records and histories related to visualization. The existing body of provenance research has grown to a point where the consolidation of design knowledge requires cross-referencing a variety of projects and studies spanning multiple domain areas. We present an organizational framework of the different types of provenance information and purposes for why they are desired in the field of visual analytics. Our organization is intended to serve as a framework to help researchers specify types of provenance and coordinate design knowledge across projects. We also discuss the relationships between these factors and the methods used to capture provenance information. In addition, our organization can be used to guide the selection of evaluation methodology and the comparison of study outcomes in provenance research. PMID:26340779

  9. PAV ontology: provenance, authoring and versioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Provenance is a critical ingredient for establishing trust of published scientific content. This is true whether we are considering a data set, a computational workflow, a peer-reviewed publication or a simple scientific claim with supportive evidence. Existing vocabularies such as Dublin Core Terms (DC Terms) and the W3C Provenance Ontology (PROV-O) are domain-independent and general-purpose and they allow and encourage for extensions to cover more specific needs. In particular, to track authoring and versioning information of web resources, PROV-O provides a basic methodology but not any specific classes and properties for identifying or distinguishing between the various roles assumed by agents manipulating digital artifacts, such as author, contributor and curator. Results We present the Provenance, Authoring and Versioning ontology (PAV, namespace http://purl.org/pav/): a lightweight ontology for capturing “just enough” descriptions essential for tracking the provenance, authoring and versioning of web resources. We argue that such descriptions are essential for digital scientific content. PAV distinguishes between contributors, authors and curators of content and creators of representations in addition to the provenance of originating resources that have been accessed, transformed and consumed. We explore five projects (and communities) that have adopted PAV illustrating their usage through concrete examples. Moreover, we present mappings that show how PAV extends the W3C PROV-O ontology to support broader interoperability. Method The initial design of the PAV ontology was driven by requirements from the AlzSWAN project with further requirements incorporated later from other projects detailed in this paper. The authors strived to keep PAV lightweight and compact by including only those terms that have demonstrated to be pragmatically useful in existing applications, and by recommending terms from existing ontologies when plausible. Discussion

  10. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Mouallem; Vouk, Mladen; Klasky, Scott A; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  11. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, P. A.; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are prov- ing to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petas- cale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This infor- mation then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate track- ing specific information such as data files locations.

  12. Tracking Files in the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, Pierre A; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  13. Obsidian provenance research in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Glascock, Michael D

    2002-08-01

    The characterization of archaeological materials to support provenance research has grown rapidly over the past few decades. Volcanic obsidian has several unique properties that make it the ideal archaeological material for studying prehistoric trade and exchange. This Account describes our laboratory's development of a systematic methodology for the characterization of obsidian sources and artifacts from Mesoamerica and other regions of North and South America in support of archaeological research. PMID:12186565

  14. The du Bois sign.

    PubMed

    Voelpel, James H; Muehlberger, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    According to the current literature, the term "du Bois sign" characterizes the condition of a shortened fifth finger as a symptom of congenital syphilis, Down syndrome, dyscrania, and encephalic malformation. Modern medical dictionaries and text books attribute the eponym to the French gynecologist Paul Dubois (1795-1871). Yet, a literature analysis revealed incorrect references to the person and unclear definitions of the term. Our findings showed that the origin of the term is based on observations made by the Swiss dermatologist Charles du Bois (1874-1947) in connection with congenital syphilis. In addition, a further eponymical fifth finger sign is closely associated with the du Bois sign. In conclusion, the du Bois sign has only limited diagnostic value and is frequently occurring in the normal healthy population. PMID:21263293

  15. Functions and possible provenance of primordial proteins.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andrei P; Miyake, Norimune; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Narlikar, Jayant V; Al-Mufti, Shirwan

    2004-01-01

    Nanobacteria or living nanovesicles are of great interest to the scientific community because of their dual nature: on the one hand, they appear as primal biosystems originating life; on the other hand, they can cause severe diseases. Their survival as well as their pathogenic potential is apparently linked to a self-synthesized protein-based slime, rich in calcium and phosphate (when available). Here, we provide challenging evidence for the occurrence of nanobacteria in the stratosphere, reflecting a possibly primordial provenance of the slime. An analysis of the slime's biological functions may lead to novel strategies suitable to block adhesion modalities in modern bacterial populations. PMID:15595742

  16. Actualistic Ophiolite Provenance: The Cyprus Case.

    PubMed

    Garzanti; Andò; Scutellà

    2000-03-01

    The island of Cyprus represents an excellent site to assess quantitatively petrologic clastic response to actively obducting oceanic sources in order to define an actualistic reference for ophiolite provenance, in terms of framework composition and heavy mineral suites. An improved methodology, an extension of the classic ternary QFL logic to include a wider spectrum of key indexes and ratios, provides an accurate synthesis of modal data and allows differentiation of three main petrographic provinces and at least seven subprovinces. Diagnostic signatures of detritus from various levels of an oceanic lithospheric source, and criteria for distinguishing provenance from suprasubduction versus mid-oceanic ophiolites are also outlined. Modern sands derived from the Troodos Ophiolite contain variable proportions of largely pelagic carbonate to chert, boninite to basalt, diabase to metabasite, plagiogranite to gabbroic, and cumulate grains supplied from progressively deeper-seated levels of the multilayered oceanic crust. Dense minerals are mainly clinopyroxenes (diopside), prevailing over orthopyroxenes (enstatite, hypersthene, clinoenstatite), hornblende, tremolite/actinolite, and epidote. Where serpentinized mantle harzburgites have been unroofed, detritus is markedly enriched in cellular serpentinite grains and enstatite, with still negligible olivine and spinel. Sedimentaclastic sands dominated by chert (Mamonia Province) or carbonate grains (Kyrenia Province) are deposited along the southern and northern shores of the island, respectively. Compositions of Cyprus sands are virtually unaffected by climatic, sedimentary, or anthropic processes; recycling of sandstones from foreign sources is a major process only in the Karpaz Peninsula. Petrographic analysis also provides an independent mean to identify prevalent directions of longshore sand transport. PMID:10736270

  17. Data Provenance in Photogrammetry Through Documentation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, N.; Bruseker, G.; Guillem, A.; Bellido Castañeda, D.; Coughenour, C.; Domajnko, M.; de Kramer, M.; Ramos Calles, M. M.; Stathopoulou, E. K.; Suma, R.

    2016-06-01

    Documenting the relevant aspects in digitisation processes such as photogrammetry in order to provide a robust provenance for their products continues to present a challenge. The creation of a product that can be re-used scientifically requires a framework for consistent, standardised documentation of the entire digitisation pipeline. This article provides an analysis of the problems inherent to such goals and presents a series of protocols to document the various steps of a photogrammetric workflow. We propose this pipeline, with descriptors to track all phases of digital product creation in order to assure data provenance and enable the validation of the operations from an analytic and production perspective. The approach aims to support adopters of the workflow to define procedures with a long term perspective. The conceptual schema we present is founded on an analysis of information and actor exchanges in the digitisation process. The metadata were defined through the synthesis of previous proposals in this area and were tested on a case study. We performed the digitisation of a set of cultural heritage artefacts from an Iron Age burial in Ilmendorf, Germany. The objects were captured and processed using different techniques, including a comparison of different imaging tools and algorithms. This augmented the complexity of the process allowing us to test the flexibility of the schema for documenting complex scenarios. Although we have only presented a photogrammetry digitisation scenario, we claim that our schema is easily applicable to a multitude of 3D documentation processes.

  18. Standardized wellheads proven economical for subsea operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, C.C.; Silva Paulo, C.A. )

    1994-05-02

    A standardization program for subsea wellheads and completion equipment has made development of Brazil's offshore fields more economical and efficient. The resulting operational flexibility associated with the use of field-proven equipment and procedures saves rig time and can reduce production loss during workovers. Additionally, investments can be rationalized economically by installing part of the completion equipment at the end of the drilling job and then delaying purchase and installation of the christmas tree and the flow lines until installation of the production platform. Savings are also realized from the reduction in the number of spare parts and tools. Moreover, the savings related to improved operations exceed considerably those from equipment acquisition and storage. Thus, the greatest benefit is the operational flexibility. The paper discusses initial standards, the subsea programs, philosophy, implementation, diver-assisted trees, diverless trees, and economics.

  19. Titian: Data Provenance Support in Spark

    PubMed Central

    Interlandi, Matteo; Shah, Kshitij; Tetali, Sai Deep; Gulzar, Muhammad Ali; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Miryung; Millstein, Todd; Condie, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Debugging data processing logic in Data-Intensive Scalable Computing (DISC) systems is a difficult and time consuming effort. Today’s DISC systems offer very little tooling for debugging programs, and as a result programmers spend countless hours collecting evidence (e.g., from log files) and performing trial and error debugging. To aid this effort, we built Titian, a library that enables data provenance—tracking data through transformations—in Apache Spark. Data scientists using the Titian Spark extension will be able to quickly identify the input data at the root cause of a potential bug or outlier result. Titian is built directly into the Spark platform and offers data provenance support at interactive speeds—orders-of-magnitude faster than alternative solutions—while minimally impacting Spark job performance; observed overheads for capturing data lineage rarely exceed 30% above the baseline job execution time. PMID:26726305

  20. Scientific Workflows + Provenance = Better (Meta-)Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and processing history of an artifact is known as its provenance. Data provenance is an important form of metadata that explains how a particular data product came about, e.g., how and when it was derived in a computational process, which parameter settings and input data were used, etc. Provenance information provides transparency and helps to explain and interpret data products. Other common uses and applications of provenance include quality control, data curation, result debugging, and more generally, 'reproducible science'. Scientific workflow systems (e.g. Kepler, Taverna, VisTrails, and others) provide controlled environments for developing computational pipelines with built-in provenance support. Workflow results can then be explained in terms of workflow steps, parameter settings, input data, etc. using provenance that is automatically captured by the system. Scientific workflows themselves provide a user-friendly abstraction of the computational process and are thus a form of ('prospective') provenance in their own right. The full potential of provenance information is realized when combining workflow-level information (prospective provenance) with trace-level information (retrospective provenance). To this end, the DataONE Provenance Working Group (ProvWG) has developed an extension of the W3C PROV standard, called D-PROV. Whereas PROV provides a 'least common denominator' for exchanging and integrating provenance information, D-PROV adds new 'observables' that described workflow-level information (e.g., the functional steps in a pipeline), as well as workflow-specific trace-level information ( timestamps for each workflow step executed, the inputs and outputs used, etc.) Using examples, we will demonstrate how the combination of prospective and retrospective provenance provides added value in managing scientific data. The DataONE ProvWG is also developing tools based on D-PROV that allow scientists to get more mileage from provenance metadata

  1. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence of Quachita provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, S.J. . Dept. of Earth Resources); Land, L.S.; Hutson, F. . Dept. of Geological Science); Awwiller, D.N. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    Provenance of the extremely thick Ouachita flysch has not been specifically identified, despite several recent studies. Detrital mineral compositions, Sm-Nd model ages, and single zircon dates strongly suggest that several sources contributed sediment that became well-mixed before deposition. Sm-Nd model ages are nearly uniform for flysch samples, regardless of geographic position or exact stratigraphic position. These ages appear to rule out significant contribution by a Paleozoic island arc, and suggest a single source, multiple sources with similar model ages, or thorough mixing of sources with different model ages. In contrast, single zircon ages are variable, including Archean, Proterozoic, and Paleozoic ages. These ages indicate multiple sediment sources, including some external to North America. The zircon ages, however, may not be generally representative of Ouachita sediment sources because they were obtained on zircons far larger than typical Ouachita detrital zircons. The Sm-Nd model ages and single zircon ages can both be explained if sediment entering the Ouachita Trough came from multiple sources, but was already thoroughly mixed before entering the trough. Such mixing is also suggested by detrital mineral analyses. Muscovite, garnet, and tourmaline have been analyzed.

  2. On Estimating Provenances of Lunar Highland Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Brad L.

    1998-01-01

    That even relatively small impacts can spread material across the face of the Moon is evident from the rays of Tycho. Tycho ejecta triggered the landslide that produced the light mantle deposit at Apollo 17 and perhaps excavated the Central Valley craters there. Basin-sized impacts appear to follow the same scaling laws as smaller impacts, as indicated by the satisfaction of a geophysical model. These giant impacts rearranged huge amounts of premare material, complicating the determination of provenance of materials collected from the highlands. We have developed a model to estimate the probability that material at a particular location might derive from a given basin or large crater. This model is based on crater scaling laws, and effects of secondary cratering. Because it accounts for the volume of primary ejecta from the basin-forming transient craters and the excavating and mixing effects of these ejecta with the substrate onto which they fall, it gives much thicker deposits than an early work. Our modeling takes into account the distribution of sizes of primary ejecta fragments (PriFrags) to obtain the probability at a given site for a deposit of a particular thickness and with a fraction of PriFrags.

  3. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  4. Securing Provenance of Distributed Processes in an Untrusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syalim, Amril; Nishide, Takashi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Recently, there is much concern about the provenance of distributed processes, that is about the documentation of the origin and the processes to produce an object in a distributed system. The provenance has many applications in the forms of medical records, documentation of processes in the computer systems, recording the origin of data in the cloud, and also documentation of human-executed processes. The provenance of distributed processes can be modeled by a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where each node represents an entity, and an edge represents the origin and causal relationship between entities. Without sufficient security mechanisms, the provenance graph suffers from integrity and confidentiality problems, for example changes or deletions of the correct nodes, additions of fake nodes and edges, and unauthorized accesses to the sensitive nodes and edges. In this paper, we propose an integrity mechanism for provenance graph using the digital signature involving three parties: the process executors who are responsible in the nodes' creation, a provenance owner that records the nodes to the provenance store, and a trusted party that we call the Trusted Counter Server (TCS) that records the number of nodes stored by the provenance owner. We show that the mechanism can detect the integrity problem in the provenance graph, namely unauthorized and malicious “authorized” updates even if all the parties, except the TCS, collude to update the provenance. In this scheme, the TCS only needs a very minimal storage (linear with the number of the provenance owners). To protect the confidentiality and for an efficient access control administration, we propose a method to encrypt the provenance graph that allows access by paths and compartments in the provenance graph. We argue that encryption is important as a mechanism to protect the provenance data stored in an untrusted environment. We analyze the security of the integrity mechanism, and perform experiments to measure

  5. Data Provenance Architecture for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, F.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The pace at which geoscientific insights inform societal development quickens with time and these insights drive decisions and actions of ever-increasing human and economic significance. Until recently academic, commercial and government bodies have maintained distinct bodies of knowledge to support scientific enquiry as well as societal development. However, it has become clear that the curation of the body of data is an activity of equal or higher social and commercial value. We address the community challenges in the curation of, access to, and analysis of scientific data including: the tensions between creators, providers and users; incentives and barriers to sharing; ownership and crediting. We also discuss the technical and financial challenges in maximising the return on the effort made in generating geoscientific data. To illustrate how these challenges might be addressed in the broader geoscientific domain, we describe the high-level data governance and analytical architecture in the upstream Oil Industry. This domain is heavily dependent on costly and highly diverse geodatasets collected and assimilated over timeframes varying from seconds to decades. These data must support both operational decisions at the minute-hour timefame and strategic and economic decisions of enterprise or national scale, and yet be sufficiently robust to last the life of a producing field. We develop three themes around data provenance, data ownership and business models for data curation. 1/ The overarching aspiration is to ensure that data provenance and quality is maintained along the analytical workflow. Hence if data on which a publication or report changes, the report and its publishers can be notified and we describe a mechanism by which dependent knowledge products can be flagged. 2/ From a cost and management point of view we look at who "owns" data especially in cases where the cost of curation and stewardship is significant compared to the cost of acquiring the data

  6. Geochemical provenance of Florida basement components

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherington, A.L.; Mueller, P.A. . Dept. of Geology); Dallmeyer, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The pre-Cretaceous basement of Florida is generally considered to be exotic with respect to Proterozoic Laurentia. Paleontologic and paleomagnetic evidence have suggested a Gondwanan provenance for the Floridan basement, as either a peri-Gondwanide terrane or as a rifted block of the West African craton. The report of generally similar lithologic sequences and a record of similar Ar-Ar cooling ages in some Floridan and West African lithologic units has led to very specific correlations between these units. U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr geochronologic studies as well as isotopic and elemental abundance data have been used to evaluate the validity of these correlations. Results indicate: (1) geochemical similarities between volcanic rocks of northeastern Florida and a Pan-African metavolcanic sequence (Niokola-Koba group) exposed in Senegal; (2) an absence of a Grenvillian-age (i.e., Laurentian) component in zircons separated from a Paleozoic Suwanee basin sandstone; and (3) whole-rock Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon evidence for an Archean ([approximately]3.0 Ga) component in the neo-Proterozoic Osceola granitoid(s). Although silicic rocks from throughout Florida have Nd model ages (T[sub DM]) that are predominantly Grenvillian (1.1--1.4 Ga), the absence of a Grenvillian component in zircons separated from granite and sandstone suggests that the model ages represent a mixture of older and younger components. Overall, the evidence for Birimian ([approximately]2.1 Ga) and Liberian ([approximately]3.0 Ga) age components in the Florida basement are consistent with its origin as a rifted block of cratonic Gondwana. In addition to demonstrating a strong affinity between the Florida basement and cratonic West Africa/northern South America, these data provide a basis for comparison with other circum-Atlantic terranes traditionally described as Avalonian/Cadomian, etc.

  7. Key Provenance of Earth Science Observational Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Plale, B.; Aktas, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Purohit, P.; Jensen, S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the sheer volume of data increases, particularly evidenced in the earth and environmental sciences, local arrangements for sharing data need to be replaced with reliable records about the what, who, how, and where of a data set or collection. This is frequently called the provenance of a data set. While observational data processing systems in the earth sciences have a long history of capturing metadata about the processing pipeline, current processes are limited in both what is captured and how it is disseminated to the science community. Provenance capture plays a role in scientific data preservation and stewardship precisely because it can automatically capture and represent a coherent picture of the what, how and who of a particular scientific collection. It reflects the transformations that a data collection underwent prior to its current form and the sequence of tasks that were executed and data products applied to generate a new product. In the NASA-funded Instant Karma project, we examine provenance capture in earth science applications, specifically the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Science Investigator-led Processing system (SIPS). The project is integrating the Karma provenance collection and representation tool into the AMSR-E SIPS production environment, with an initial focus on Sea Ice. This presentation will describe capture and representation of provenance that is guided by the Open Provenance Model (OPM). Several things have become clear during the course of the project to date. One is that core OPM entities and relationships are not adequate for expressing the kinds of provenance that is of interest in the science domain. OPM supports name-value pair annotations that can be used to augment what is known about the provenance entities and relationships, but in Karma, annotations cannot be added during capture, but only after the fact. This limits the capture system's ability to record something it

  8. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  9. Application of Named Graphs Towards Custom Provenance Views

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Tara D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2009-02-10

    Provenance capture as applied to execution oriented and interactive workflows is designed to record minute detail needed to support a "modify and restart" paradigm as well as re-execution of past workflows. In our experience, provenance also plays an important role in human-centered verification, results tracking, and knowledge sharing. To enable this we must overcome the low level of detail received from most provenance capture mechanisms and pre-sent it in a user oriented view. In this paper, we present a design which leverages named graphs to create and man-age views as a server-side function, simplifying user presentation of provenance data.

  10. Semantic Workflows and Provenance-Aware Software (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Workflows are increasingly used in science to manage complex computations and data processing at large scale. Intelligent workflow systems provide assistance in setting up parameters and data, validating workflows created by users, and automating the generation of workflows from high-level user guidance. These systems use semantic workflows that extend workflow representations with semantic constraints that express characteristics of the data and analytic models. Reasoning algorithms propagate these semantic constraints throughout the workflow structure, select executable components for underspecified steps, and suggest parameter values. Semantic workflows also enhance provenance records with abstract steps that reflect the overall data analysis method rather than just execution traces. Intelligent workflow systems are provenance-aware, since they both use and generate provenance and metadata as the data is being processed. Provenance-aware software enhances scientific analysis by propagating upstream metadata and provenance to new data products. Through the use of provenance standards, such as the recent W3C PROV recommendation for provenance on the Web, provenance-aware software can significantly enhance scientific data analysis, publication, and reuse. New capabilities are enabled when provenance is brought to the forefront in the design of software systems for science.

  11. Towards a common provenance model for research publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L.; Ma, X.; West, P.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance is information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness. In a research publication, provenance includes entities, activities and people involved in the process leading to the parts of the publication such as figures, tables, paragraphs etc. Such information is often desirable for the readers to correctly interpret publication content and enables them to evaluate the credibility of the reported results by digging into the software in use, source data and responsible agents or even reproducing the results themselves. In this presentation, we will describe our ontology designed to model the preparing process of research publications based on our experience from two projects, both focusing on provenance capturing for research publications. The first project is about capturing provenance information for a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), and the second about capturing provenance information for an Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). Both projects base their provenance modeling on the W3C Provenance ontology (PROV-O), which proves to be an effective way to create models for provenance capturing. We will illustrate the commonalities and differences between use cases of these two projects and how we derive a common model from models specifically designed to capture provenance information for each of the projects.

  12. SEIS-PROV: Practical Provenance for Seismological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischer, L.; Smith, J. A.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is widely recognized that reproducibility is crucial to advance science, but at the same time it is very hard to actually achieve. This results in it being recognized but also mostly ignored by a large fraction of the community. A key ingredient towards full reproducibility is to capture and describe the history of data, an issue known as provenance. We present SEIS-PROV, a practical format and data model to store provenance information for seismological data. In a seismological context, provenance can be seen as information about the processes that generated and modified a particular piece of data. For synthetic waveforms the provenance information describes which solver and settings therein were used to generate it. When looking at processed seismograms, the provenance conveys information about the different time series analysis steps that led to it. Additional uses include the description of derived data types, such as cross-correlations and adjoint sources, enabling their proper storage and exchange. SEIS-PROV is based on W3C PROV (http://www.w3.org/TR/prov-overview/), a standard for generic provenance information. It then applies an additional set of constraints to make it suitable for seismology. We present a definition of the SEIS-PROV format, a way to check if any given file is a valid SEIS-PROV document, and two sample implementations: One in SPECFEM3D GLOBE (https://geodynamics.org/cig/software/specfem3d_globe/) to store the provenance information of synthetic seismograms and another one as part of the ObsPy (http://obspy.org) framework enabling automatic tracking of provenance information during a series of analysis and transformation stages. This, along with tools to visualize and interpret provenance graphs, offers a description of data history that can be readily tracked, stored, and exchanged.

  13. Kyste hydatique primitif du sein

    PubMed Central

    Mouslik, Rabii; Settaf, Abdellatif; Elalami, Yacir; Lahnini, Hicham; Lahlou, Khalid; Chad, Bouziane

    2012-01-01

    Le kyste hydatique du sein est une parasitose rare même dans les pays endémiques. Nous rapportons une nouvelle observation d'une patiente de 30 ans qui présentait une masse du sein gauche. Le diagnostic de kyste hydatique du sein a été évoqué devant les données de l'examen clinique et de la mammographie couplée à l’échographie. Le geste chirurgical a consisté en une kystectomie. L'examen anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. PMID:23133704

  14. The Symbiotic Relationship between Scientific Workflow and Provenance (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the symbiotic nature of scientific workflows and provenance. We will also discuss the current trends and real world challenges facing these two distinct research areas. Although motivated differently, the needs of the international science communities are the glue that binds this relationship together. Understanding and articulating the science drivers to these communities is paramount as these technologies evolve and mature. Originally conceived for managing business processes, workflows are now becoming invaluable assets in both computational and experimental sciences. These reconfigurable, automated systems provide essential technology to perform complex analyses by coupling together geographically distributed disparate data sources and applications. As a result, workflows are capable of higher throughput in a shorter amount of time than performing the steps manually. Today many different workflow products exist; these could include Kepler and Taverna or similar products like MeDICI, developed at PNNL, that are standardized on the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). Provenance, originating from the French term Provenir “to come from”, is used to describe the curation process of artwork as art is passed from owner to owner. The concept of provenance was adopted by digital libraries as a means to track the lineage of documents while standards such as the DublinCore began to emerge. In recent years the systems science community has increasingly expressed the need to expand the concept of provenance to formally articulate the history of scientific data. Communities such as the International Provenance and Annotation Workshop (IPAW) have formalized a provenance data model. The Open Provenance Model, and the W3C is hosting a provenance incubator group featuring the Proof Markup Language. Although both workflows and provenance have risen from different communities and operate independently, their mutual

  15. PROVEN ALTERNATIVES FOR ABOVEGROUND TREATMENT OF ARSENIC IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as an issue paper for the EPA Engineering Forum, summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative performance and cost. The four technologies reviewed are: preci...

  16. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  17. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  18. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  19. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Shen, S.; Prados, A.; Fox, P.; Yang, W.; Min, M.; Holloway, D.; Enloe, Y.

    2008-12-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This implies a need for deeper data interoperability than we have now. Many efforts (e.g. OPeNDAP, Open Geospatial Consortium) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross- calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must determine how to match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the exact nature of the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, exact location in space-time, or the quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, the results can be meaningless or even lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace back to how the data came to be: sensors, processing, and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio-temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences and/or calibration issues. This provenance information must therefore be captured in a semantic framework that allows sophisticated data inter-use tools to incorporate it, and eventually aid in the interpretation of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representations, and data quality representation in a well-structured, machine- readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance- related distinctions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance

  20. ISO TC211 standards on Provenance for Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Deng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Data provenance, also called lineage, records the derivation history of a data product. The history could include the algorithms used, the process steps taken, the computing environment run, data sources input to the processes, the organization/person responsible for the product, etc. Provenance provides important information to data users for them to determine the usability and reliability of the product. In the science domain, the data provenance is especially important since scientists need to use the information to determine the scientific validity of a data product and to decide if such a product can be used as the basis for further scientific analysis. Provenance is a kind of metadata. In Earth science domain, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 211 (ISO TC 211) have set geospatial metadata standards for geospatial data, including ISO 19115:2003-Metadata, ISO 19115-2:2009-Metadata-Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data, and ISO 19115-1:2014 - Metadata -- Part 1: Fundamentals. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define the fundamental metadata for documenting geospatial data products, and ISO 19115-2 provides additional metadata classes for imagery and gridded data. ISO 19115-1:2014 is the revised version of ISO 19115:2003. ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-1 define fundamental lineage information classes and subclasses. They miss some key information classes needed for documenting the provenance in the Web service environment, such as the running environment, the algorithms, and software executables. However, ISO 19115-2 extends the lineage model in ISO 19115 and provides additional metadata classes needed for documenting provenance information. The combination of lineage models in ISO 19115 and ISO 19115-2 provides a comprehensive provenance information model needed for the web service environment. Currently the ISO Provence standard is not compatible with W3C Prov standard. The revision of ISO 19115-2 will be started in

  1. Computational provenance in hydrologic science: a snow mapping example.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jeff; Frew, James

    2009-03-13

    Computational provenance--a record of the antecedents and processing history of digital information--is key to properly documenting computer-based scientific research. To support investigations in hydrologic science, we produce the daily fractional snow-covered area from NASA's moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). From the MODIS reflectance data in seven wavelengths, we estimate the fraction of each 500 m pixel that snow covers. The daily products have data gaps and errors because of cloud cover and sensor viewing geometry, so we interpolate and smooth to produce our best estimate of the daily snow cover. To manage the data, we have developed the Earth System Science Server (ES3), a software environment for data-intensive Earth science, with unique capabilities for automatically and transparently capturing and managing the provenance of arbitrary computations. Transparent acquisition avoids the scientists having to express their computations in specific languages or schemas in order for provenance to be acquired and maintained. ES3 models provenance as relationships between processes and their input and output files. It is particularly suited to capturing the provenance of an evolving algorithm whose components span multiple languages and execution environments. PMID:19087938

  2. Provenance Usage in the OceanLink Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Fils, D.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Janowicz, K.; Jones, M.; Krisnadhi, A.; Lehnert, K. A.; Mickle, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Schildhauer, M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve thedissemination of scientific research. The OceanLink project, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is utilizing semantic technologies tointegrate geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Provenance is a vital componentin meeting both the scientific and engineering requirements of OceanLink. Provenance plays a key role in justification and understanding when presenting users with results aggregated from multiple sources. In the engineering sense, provenance enables the identification of new data and the ability to determine which data sources to query. Additionally, OceanLink will leverage human and machine computation for crowdsourcing, text mining, and co-reference resolution. The results of these computations, and their associated provenance, will be folded back into the constituent systems to continually enhance precision and utility. We will touch on the various roles provenance is playing in OceanLink as well as present our use of the PROV Ontology and associated Ontology Design Patterns.

  3. Isozyme variation among teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Kertadikara, A W; Prat, D

    1995-05-01

    Fourteen enzyme systems were analysed in leaf parenchyma of nine native and introduced populations of teak. These enzyme systems were encoded by 20 putative loci of which 18 were polymorphic. Populations showed a general lack of heterozygosity (average FIS = 0.11). On average over the 18 polymorphic loci, the genetic differentiation among provenances varied according to the estimator: 0.09 for GST, 0.12 for FST and 0.19 for δ. The cluster analysis showed two main gene pools, the first consisted of the Indian provenances and the second of African, Indonesian and Thai provenances. Genetic distances among populations of the same group were similar, and lower than the genetic distances between populations from different groups. The factorial analysis on genotypes of seedlings also showed the same geographic differentiation into two major groups. The possible natural distribution of teak in Java is discussed. PMID:24172922

  4. Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G; Halter, Todd D; Critchlow, Terence J; Pinheiro Da Silva, Paulo; Salayandia, Leonardo

    2010-06-18

    Using Domain Requirements to Achieve Science-Oriented Provenance Eric Stephan1 Todd Halter1 Terence Critchlow1 Paulo Pinheiro da Silva2 Leonardo Salayandia2 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA, USA 2 University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso TX, USA Abstract. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radi- ation Measurement Program (ARM) is adopting the use of formalized provenance to support observational data products produced by ARM operations and relied upon by researchers. Because of the diversity of needs in the climate community provenance will need to be conveyed in a domain-oriented context. This paper explores a use case where semantic abstract workflows (SAW) are employed as a means to filter, aggregate, and contextually describe the historical events responsible for the ARM data product the scientist is relying upon.

  5. Provenance in Data Interoperability for Multi-Sensor Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Berrick, Steve; Shen, Suhung; Prados, Ana; Fox, Peter; Yang, Wenli; Min, Min; Holloway, Dan; Enloe, Yonsook

    2008-01-01

    As our inventory of Earth science data sets grows, the ability to compare, merge and fuse multiple datasets grows in importance. This requires a deeper data interoperability than we have now. Efforts such as Open Geospatial Consortium and OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) have broken down format barriers to interoperability; the next challenge is the semantic aspects of the data. Consider the issues when satellite data are merged, cross-calibrated, validated, inter-compared and fused. We must match up data sets that are related, yet different in significant ways: the phenomenon being measured, measurement technique, location in space-time or quality of the measurements. If subtle distinctions between similar measurements are not clear to the user, results can be meaningless or lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. Most of these distinctions trace to how the data came to be: sensors, processing and quality assessment. For example, monthly averages of satellite-based aerosol measurements often show significant discrepancies, which might be due to differences in spatio- temporal aggregation, sampling issues, sensor biases, algorithm differences or calibration issues. Provenance information must be captured in a semantic framework that allows data inter-use tools to incorporate it and aid in the intervention of comparison or merged products. Semantic web technology allows us to encode our knowledge of measurement characteristics, phenomena measured, space-time representation, and data quality attributes in a well-structured, machine-readable ontology and rulesets. An analysis tool can use this knowledge to show users the provenance-related distrintions between two variables, advising on options for further data processing and analysis. An additional problem for workflows distributed across heterogeneous systems is retrieval and transport of provenance. Provenance may be either embedded within the data payload, or transmitted

  6. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  7. L'Aventure du LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Cette présentation s?adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l?engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  8. L'Aventure du LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-11

    Cette présentation s’adressera principalement aux personnes qui ont construit le LHC. La construction du LHC fut longue et difficile. De nombreux problèmes sont apparus en cours de route. Tous ont été résolus grâce au dévouement et à l’engagement du personnel et des collaborateurs. Je reviendrai sur les coups durs et les réussites qui ont marqués ces 15 dernières années et je vous montrerai combien cette machine, le fruit de vos efforts, est extraordinaire.

  9. An extensible framework for provenance in human terrain visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rick; Slingsby, Aiden; Dykes, Jason; Xu, Kai; Wood, Jo; Nguyen, Phong H; Stephens, Derek; Wong, B L William; Zheng, Yongjun

    2013-12-01

    We describe and demonstrate an extensible framework that supports data exploration and provenance in the context of Human Terrain Analysis (HTA). Working closely with defence analysts we extract requirements and a list of features that characterise data analysed at the end of the HTA chain. From these, we select an appropriate non-classified data source with analogous features, and model it as a set of facets. We develop ProveML, an XML-based extension of the Open Provenance Model, using these facets and augment it with the structures necessary to record the provenance of data, analytical process and interpretations. Through an iterative process, we develop and refine a prototype system for Human Terrain Visual Analytics (HTVA), and demonstrate means of storing, browsing and recalling analytical provenance and process through analytic bookmarks in ProveML. We show how these bookmarks can be combined to form narratives that link back to the live data. Throughout the process, we demonstrate that through structured workshops, rapid prototyping and structured communication with intelligence analysts we are able to establish requirements, and design schema, techniques and tools that meet the requirements of the intelligence community. We use the needs and reactions of defence analysts in defining and steering the methods to validate the framework. PMID:24051780

  10. From Observation to Impacts: Provenance for Earth Science Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, H.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Privette, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) on Provenance is working on a provenance specification for use in Earth science data systems to capture, consume, and interpret the end-to-end data life cycle information. Based on W3C PROV, this Earth Science extension can be used as an interoperable specification for representing Earth science resources that includes observations by instruments, data producers, data processing systems, data archive centers, data users, analysis findings, and societal impacts. NASA is participating in the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) and also leading a related Climate Data Initiative (CDI) effort. Under CDI, NASA is also working with the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) to identify and make interoperable relevant data from multiple interagency sources. These interagency efforts will improve the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Federal data and information products derived from civil Earth observations. We will present our progress to develop a provenance specification for representing Earth science resources from observation to impacts and how it can be used to support these initiatives. We will show how it can be used in earth science data systems to automatically capture, consume, and interpret provenance information using semantic technologies.

  11. Geospatial Data Provenance in the Semantic Web Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yue, P.

    2008-12-01

    Geospatial data will grow to multi-exabytes very soon. The major form of geospatial data is imagery collected by the Earth observing community through remote sensing methods. Those data, along with their derived products and model outputs, are archived in many data centers around the world. Geospatial data has to be converted to user-specific information and knowledge before they become useful. Such a user-specific information and knowledge is normally derived from multi-source data through a set of geoprocess steps. Recent technology advances in the united representation of geospatial data, information, and knowledge, the geospatial semantic web, the geospatial interoperability, and the artificial intelligence have made the automatic derivation of user-specific information and knowledge from diverse data sources in the web service environment possible. A prototype system for proofing such technologies has been constructed and successfully demonstrated. An operational systems is being development. With the ontology support, the system automatically constructs the executable workflow based on users' descriptions of what they want and the available services and the input data over the web, and execute the workflow to generate the user- specific product. In order for users to have the confidence to use such automatically generated products in real applications, complete and accurate provenance information must be provided to users, even before such user-specific products are generated. In this presentation, we will discuss the representation of geospatial data provenance, the automatic capturing of geospatial data provenance in the semantic web environment, and the management of geospatial data provenance. We will also discuss a prototype provenance management system that allows the users to query and access providence information.

  12. Representing annotation compositionality and provenance for the Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though the annotation of digital artifacts with metadata has a long history, the bulk of that work focuses on the association of single terms or concepts to single targets. As annotation efforts expand to capture more complex information, annotations will need to be able to refer to knowledge structures formally defined in terms of more atomic knowledge structures. Existing provenance efforts in the Semantic Web domain primarily focus on tracking provenance at the level of whole triples and do not provide enough detail to track how individual triple elements of annotations were derived from triple elements of other annotations. Results We present a task- and domain-independent ontological model for capturing annotations and their linkage to their denoted knowledge representations, which can be singular concepts or more complex sets of assertions. We have implemented this model as an extension of the Information Artifact Ontology in OWL and made it freely available, and we show how it can be integrated with several prominent annotation and provenance models. We present several application areas for the model, ranging from linguistic annotation of text to the annotation of disease-associations in genome sequences. Conclusions With this model, progressively more complex annotations can be composed from other annotations, and the provenance of compositional annotations can be represented at the annotation level or at the level of individual elements of the RDF triples composing the annotations. This in turn allows for progressively richer annotations to be constructed from previous annotation efforts, the precise provenance recording of which facilitates evidence-based inference and error tracking. PMID:24268021

  13. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  14. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  15. Sensor Data Management, Validation, Correction, and Provenance for Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Rossiter, Jeffrey S; Hensley, Zachary; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts research on technologies that use a wide range of sensors to develop and characterize building energy performance. The management of high-resolution sensor data, analysis, and tracing lineage of such activities is challenging. Missing or corrupt data due to sensor failure, fouling, drifting, calibration error, or data logger failure is another issue. This paper focuses on sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance to combat these issues, ensuring complete and accurate sensor datasets for building technologies applications and research. The design and development of two integrated software products are discussed: Sensor Data Validation and Correction (SensorDVC) and the Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS) platform.

  16. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; Branson, Andrew; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  17. Examining the Prospective Scuba Diver: Which Exclusions are Proven?

    PubMed Central

    Beauprie, Ian

    1989-01-01

    Who can safely dive? All prospective divers in Canada must have a physician's approval to start training. Many review articles and typical check-list medical forms, however, imply exclusions that are not well proven. The author critically analyzes current diving and diving accident statistics and discusses the physiology of risk. He also discusses diving morbidity and mortality from pressure changes, illness caused by immersion only, hypothermia, and diving during pregnancy. PMID:21248872

  18. Provenance of sandstones in the Golconda terrane, north central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.A. )

    1991-02-01

    The upper Paleozoic Golconda terrane of north-central Nevada is a composite of several structurally bounded subterranes made of clastic, volcanic, and carbonate rocks. The clastic rocks provide important clues for the interpretation of the provenance and paleogeographic settings of the different lithologic assemblages found in these subterranes. Two petrographically distinct sandstones are identified in the Golconda terrane in the Osgood Mountains and the Hot springs Range of north-central Nevada. The sandstone of the Mississippian Farrel Canyon Formation, part of the Dry Hills subterrane, is characterized by quartzose and sedimentary and lithic-rich clasts with a small feldspar component. in contrast, the sandstone of the Permian Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is a silty quartzarenite with no lithic component, and a very limited feldspar component. The sandstone of the Farrel Canyon Formation is similar to nonvolcanic sandstones reported from elsewhere in the Golconda terrane. Modal data reflect a provenance of a recycled orogen and permit the interpretation that it could have been derived from the antler orogen as has been proposed for other sandstones of the golconda terrane. The sandstone of the Poverty Peak (II) subterrane is more mature than any of the other sandstones in either the Golconda terrane, the Antler overlap sequence, or the Antler foreland basin sequence. Modal data put the Poverty Peak (II) sandstone in the continental block provenance category. The distinct extrabasinal provenances represented in these different sandstones support the idea that the Golconda basin was made up of complex paleogeographic settings, which included multiple sources of extrabasinal sediment.

  19. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  20. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient. PMID:24240719

  1. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  2. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Cantisani, Vito; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Ignee, Andre; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sparchez, Zeno; Sporea, Ioan; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE) in comparison to other multilocular benign focal liver lesions (FLL). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HEHE and 45 patients with histologically proven multilocular benign FLL were retrospectively reviewed. Four radiologists assessed the CEUS enhancement pattern in consensus. RESULTS: HEHE manifested as a single (n = 3) or multinodular (n = 22) FLL. On CEUS, HEHE showed rim-like (18/25, 72%) or heterogeneous hyperenhancement (7/25, 28%) in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement (25/25, 100%) in the portal venous and late phases (PVLP), a sign of malignancy. Eighteen patients showed central unenhanced areas (18/25, 72%); in seven patients (7/25, 28%), more lesions were detected in the PVLP. In contrast, all patients with hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia showed hyperenhancement as the most distinctive feature (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: CEUS allows for characterization of unequivocal FLL. By analyzing the hypoenhancement in the PVLP, CEUS can determine the malignant nature of HEHE. PMID:27217705

  3. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  4. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  5. Making Sense of 'Big Data' in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2014-12-01

    Huge online databases can be 'mined' to reveal previously hidden trends and relationships in society. One could argue that sedimentary geology has entered a similar era of 'Big Data', as modern provenance studies routinely apply multiple proxies to dozens of samples. Just like the Internet, sedimentary geology now requires specialised statistical tools to interpret such large datasets. These can be organised on three levels of progressively higher order:A single sample: The most effective way to reveal the provenance information contained in a representative sample of detrital zircon U-Pb ages are probability density estimators such as histograms and kernel density estimates. The widely popular 'probability density plots' implemented in IsoPlot and AgeDisplay compound analytical uncertainty with geological scatter and are therefore invalid.Several samples: Multi-panel diagrams comprising many detrital age distributions or compositional pie charts quickly become unwieldy and uninterpretable. For example, if there are N samples in a study, then the number of pairwise comparisons between samples increases quadratically as N(N-1)/2. This is simply too much information for the human eye to process. To solve this problem, it is necessary to (a) express the 'distance' between two samples as a simple scalar and (b) combine all N(N-1)/2 such values in a single two-dimensional 'map', grouping similar and pulling apart dissimilar samples. This can be easily achieved using simple statistics-based dissimilarity measures and a standard statistical method called Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Several methods: Suppose that we use four provenance proxies: bulk petrography, chemistry, heavy minerals and detrital geochronology. This will result in four MDS maps, each of which likely show slightly different trends and patterns. To deal with such cases, it may be useful to use a related technique called 'three way multidimensional scaling'. This results in two graphical outputs: an MDS

  6. Provenance-Enabled Integration of Sensor Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ontology design in support of sensor networks requires deep scientific and technical knowledge. For instance, sensor network ontologies may define concepts rich enough to describe the selection of sensor locations that are driven by both scientific use cases, such as proximity to a physical entity, and technical requirements, such as wireless coverage. Our work in collaboration with IBM and the FUND for Lake George is set within the context of the Jefferson Project that aims to monitor, analyze, and understand observation and simulation data in support of decision making concerning the ecosystem of Lake George, NY. We have designed a Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology (HASNet-O) that we believe is broadly reusable. We will highlight its contributions, describe its relationships to well used ontologies, and demonstrate it in action in the Jefferson Project. The ontology leverages best in class foundational ontologies including OBOE, VSTO, and PROV. One of the reasons HASNet-O is reusable is because it uses a provenance perspective to generalize what initially looked like sensor-specific terms that can be more accurately viewed as provenance terms. For example, we observe that the Activity concept from the PROV language, a W3C provenance standard, can be used to explain complete sensor lifecycles by describing how a network operates including how human interventions may interfere with the quality of the sensor network data, even for highly automated networks. We further observe that Observation activities, which are at the core of most sensor network ontologies, are not described in terms of deployments. In fact, Deployment activities are rarely documented in sensor data/metadata although Observation instances can only occur during the lifetime of Deployment instances. Our analysis of network ontologies in light of provenance knowledge includes a discussion about relationships. For instance, relationships between sensors and data are well-established provenance

  7. A Provenance Model for Real-Time Water Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Bai, Q.; Zednik, S.; Taylor, P.; Fox, P. A.; Taylor, K.; Kloppers, C.; Peters, C.; Terhorst, A.; West, P.; Compton, M.; Shu, Y.; Provenance Management Team

    2010-12-01

    Generating hydrological data products, such as flow forecasts, involves complex interactions among instruments, data simulation models, computational facilities and data providers. Correct interpretation of the data produced at various stages requires good understanding of how data was generated or processed. Provenance describes the lineage of a data product. Making provenance information accessible to hydrologists and decision makers not only helps to determine the data’s value, accuracy and authorship, but also enables users to determine the trustworthiness of the data product. In the water domain, WaterML2 [1] is an emerging standard which describes an information model and format for the publication of water observations data in XML. The W3C semantic sensor network incubator group (SSN-XG) [3] is producing ontologies for the description of sensor configurations. By integrating domain knowledge of this kind into the provenance information model, the integrated information model will enable water domain researchers and water resource managers to better analyse how observations and derived data products were generated. We first introduce the Proof Mark Language (PML2) [2], WaterML2 and the SSN-XG sensor ontology as the proposed provenance representation formalism. Then we describe some initial implementations how these standards could be integrated to represent the lineage of water information products. Finally we will highlight how the provenance model for a distributed real-time water information system assists the interpretation of the data product and establishing trust. Reference [1] Taylor, P., Walker, G., Valentine, D., Cox, Simon: WaterML2.0: Harmonising standards for water observation data. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12. [2] da Silva, P.P., McGuinness, D.L., Fikes, R.: A proof markup language for semantic web services. Inf. Syst. 31(4) (2006), 381-395. [3] W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator

  8. Provenance-Powered Automatic Workflow Generation and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Lee, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, scientists have learned how to codify tools into reusable software modules that can be chained into multi-step executable workflows. Existing scientific workflow tools, created by computer scientists, require domain scientists to meticulously design their multi-step experiments before analyzing data. However, this is oftentimes contradictory to a domain scientist's daily routine of conducting research and exploration. We hope to resolve this dispute. Imagine this: An Earth scientist starts her day applying NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) published climate data processing algorithms over ARGO deep ocean temperature and AMSRE sea surface temperature datasets. Throughout the day, she tunes the algorithm parameters to study various aspects of the data. Suddenly, she notices some interesting results. She then turns to a computer scientist and asks, "can you reproduce my results?" By tracking and reverse engineering her activities, the computer scientist creates a workflow. The Earth scientist can now rerun the workflow to validate her findings, modify the workflow to discover further variations, or publish the workflow to share the knowledge. In this way, we aim to revolutionize computer-supported Earth science. We have developed a prototyping system to realize the aforementioned vision, in the context of service-oriented science. We have studied how Earth scientists conduct service-oriented data analytics research in their daily work, developed a provenance model to record their activities, and developed a technology to automatically generate workflow starting from user behavior and adaptability and reuse of these workflows for replicating/improving scientific studies. A data-centric repository infrastructure is established to catch richer provenance to further facilitate collaboration in the science community. We have also established a Petri nets-based verification instrument for provenance-based automatic workflow generation and recommendation.

  9. Indus Basin sediment provenance constrained using garnet geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizai, Anwar; Clift, Peter D.; Still, John

    2016-08-01

    The chemical and mineralogical diversity of western Himalayan rivers is the result of each of them draining different tectonic and lithologic units, whose character is partly transferred to the sediments carried by those rivers. Garnet geochemistry was employed to discriminate provenance in the Indus River system. We characterized the geochemistry of garnet sediment grains from the modern Indus and all its major tributaries, as well as the related but ephemeral Ghaggar-Hakra River and dune sand from the Thar Desert. Garnet geochemistry displays a unique signature for the Himalayan rivers on the east of the Indus drainage compared to those in the western drainage. The trunk Indus remains distinct because of the dominant arc-type pyrope-garnet derived from Kohistan and the Karakoram. The Jhellum, which lies just east of the modern Indus has modest concentrations of arc-type pyrope garnets, which are more depleted in the other eastern tributaries. Their presence in the Jhellum reflects recycling of trunk Indus garnets through the Miocene Siwalik Group foreland sedimentary rocks. The Thar Desert dune sample contains significant numbers of grains similar to those in the trunk Indus, likely reworked by monsoon winds from the SW. Our data further indicate the presence of a Himalayan river channel east of the present Indus, close to the delta, in the Nara River valley during the middle Holocene. Sands from this channel cannot be distinguished from the Indus on the basis of their garnet geochemistry alone but we favour their sedimentation from an Indus channel rather than reworking of desert sands by another stream. The garnet geochemistry shows some potential as a provenance tool, but cannot be used alone to uniquely discriminate Indus Basin provenance.

  10. CT imaging signs of surgically proven bowel trauma.

    PubMed

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Bates, David D B; Khalil, Ramy; Matherly, David; Wing, Heidi; Burke, Peter A; Soto, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and interobserver agreement of individual CT findings as well as the bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) in surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients 14 years or older who sustained surgically proven bowel injury after blunt abdominal trauma between 1/1/2004 and 6/30/2015 were included. Admission trauma MDCT scans were independently interpreted by two abdominal fellowship-trained radiologists who recorded the following CT findings: intraperitoneal fluid, mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding, bowel wall thickening/hematoma, active intravenous contrast extravasation, free intraperitoneal air, bowel wall discontinuity, and focal bowel hypoenhancement. Subsequently, the electronic medical records of the included patients, admission abdominal physical exam results, admission white blood cell count, and findings at exploratory laparotomy of the included patients were recorded. Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence and interobserver agreement of the CT findings were as follows: intraperitoneal fluid 93.9 %, kappa = 0.784 (good); mesenteric hematoma/fat stranding 84.8 %, kappa = 0.718 (good); bowel wall thickening/hematoma 42.4 %, kappa = 0.491 (moderate); active IV contrast extravasation 36.3 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); free intraperitoneal air 21.2 %, kappa = 0.904 (very good), bowel wall discontinuity 6.1 %, kappa = 1.00 (perfect); and focal bowel hypoenhancement 6.1 %, kappa = 0.468 (moderate). An absence of the specified CT findings was encountered in 9.1 % with surgically proven bowel injuries (kappa = 1.00, perfect). In our study, 9/16 patients or 56.3 % had a bowel injury prediction score (BIPS) of 2 or more as defined by McNutt et al. (J Trauma Acute Care Surg 78(1):105-111, 2014). The presence of intraperitoneal fluid and

  11. From static to dynamic provenance analysis-Sedimentary petrology upgraded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The classical approach to sandstone petrology, established in the golden years of plate tectonics and based on the axiom that "detrital modes of sandstone suites primarily reflect the different tectonic settings of provenance terranes," has represented a benchmark for decades. The composition of sand and sandstone, however, simply provides us with a distorted image of the lithological structure of source terranes and gives us little clue whether they are allochthonous or autochthonous, orogenic or anorogenic, young or old. What we may able to see reflected in detrital modes is the nature of source terranes (continental, arc, oceanic) and the tectonostratigraphic level reached by erosion in space and time. The proposed new approach to the petrology of sand and sandstone (1) starts with a simple classification scheme circulated since the 1960s, which is purely descriptive, objective, and free of ill-defined ambiguous terms and (2) focuses on the nature and tectonostratigraphic level of source terranes. Further steps are essential to upgrade provenance analysis. Acquiring knowledge from modern settings is needed to properly identify and wherever possible correct for physical and chemical processes introducing environmental and diagenetic bias and thus address nature's complexities with adequate conceptual tools. Equally important is the integration of multiple techniques, ideally including bulk-sediment, multi-mineral, and single-mineral methods. Bulk-sediment petrography remains the fundamental approach that allows us to capture the most precious source of direct provenance information, represented by the mineralogy and texture of rock fragments. Bulk-sediment geochemistry, applicable also to silt and clay carried in suspension, is a superior method to check for hydraulic sorting, chemical weathering, and fertility of detrital minerals in different sediment sources. Detrital geochronology, thermochronology, and isotope geochemistry reveal the diverse time structures

  12. Capturing, Harmonizing and Delivering Data and Quality Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Lynnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have proven to be vital for various scientific and applications needs. However, the usability of these data depends not only on the data values but also on the ability of data users to assess and understand the quality of these data for various applications and for comparison or inter-usage of data from different sensors and models. In this paper, we describe some aspects of capturing, harmonizing and delivering this information to users in the framework of distributed web-based data tools.

  13. The Apollo 16 Mare Component: Petrography, Geochemistry, and Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The A16 (Apollo16) site in the lunar nearside highlands is 220 km from the nearest mare. Thus it is no surprise that mare basalt samples are uncommon at the site. Here, we present the petrography and geochemistry of 5 new mare basalt samples found at the A16 site. We also discuss possible provenances of all A16 mare basalt samples using high-resolution global data for the distribution of Fe and Ti on the lunar surface derived from Clementine UV-VIS data [1-2].

  14. Mesusage du tramadol par les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Djibo Douma; Seyni, Houdou; Moussa, Ali Ousmane; Sidikou, Amadou

    2012-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude transversale et descriptive était de décrire quelques caractéristiques de l’addiction au Tramadol chez les adolescents et jeunes adultes en situation de rue, rattachés aux centres d’écoute du Service Educatif, Judiciaire et préventif (SEJUP) de Niamey. Le recueil des données a porté sur les variables sociodémographiques et la consommation de tramadol. L’analyse des données a calculé les moyennes, minima, maxima et écarts types. Les résultats indiquent que : trois centres d’écoute sur huit participaient à l’étude. L’échantillon constituait 61 adolescents et jeunes adultes dont l’âge moyen était de 17,49 ans. L’analyse indique que 47 adolescents et jeunes adultes de toutes les catégories sociodémographiques (sexe, niveau d’instruction, provenance familiale ; région de provenance ; antécdents médicaux; antécédents judiciaires) étaient usagers du Tramadol. 46 étaient dépendants du Tramadol. La quantité moyenne consommée était de 1455,31 ± 901,4mg. Le mésusage du tramadol par les jeunes en situation de rue est probablement une des conséquences de la vente illicite et libre des médicaments, dont il est urgent de préciser les données médicales et sociales. PMID:23330046

  15. Clinical differences among PCR-proven dengue serotype infections.

    PubMed

    Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Yingsakmongkon, Sangchai; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Chuananon, Somchai; Kongphrai, Yuphin; Kowasupathr, Surasak; Rojanawatsirivit, Chaiyaporn; Mammen, Mammen P; Jampangern, Wipawee

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical spectra of the dengue serotypes proven by the PCR technique. This retrospective study reviewed the clinical information of dengue-infected patients who were admitted to northeastern provincial hospitals in Thailand from June to September 2002. Dengue infection and viral serotypes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Paired anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM from paired sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ninety-nine PCR-proven dengue-infected Thai patients were studied. Their ages ranged from 3-30 years. They were infected with DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4 in 21, 55, 12, and 12%, respectively. Twenty-two percent had primary and 78% had secondary infections. Dengue fever was the most common presentation for both primary (77.2%) and secondary infections (46.7%). The ratios of dengue fever:dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF:DHF) and non-dengue shock syndrome:dengue shock syndrome (non-DSS:DSS) for DEN2 was the lowest of the dengue serotypes. There was no difference in the duration of fever, percentage of hepatomegaly and bleeding among the serotypes in both DF and DHF. The trends in the white blood cells, lymphocyte and atypical lymphocyte counts in DEN3 were the highest, while those of DEN1 were the lowest of the dengue serotypes. PMID:16610645

  16. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identical to prostate cancer preventive measures, especially in regard to aggressive disease. Thus, apart from lifestyle measures that can encourage optimal heart and prostate health there are potentially several dietary supplements that need to be avoided in healthy men because they may also increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, there are also several low-cost, generic, safe in the appropriate individuals, and naturally derived agents that could reduce prostate cancer risk, and these can be discussed and remembered utilizing the acronym S.A.M. (statins, aspirin, and/or metformin). PMID:26112486

  17. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  18. A proven knowledge-based approach to prioritizing process information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsberg, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Many space-related processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect is rapid analysis of the changing process information. During a disturbance, this task can overwhelm humans as well as computers. Humans deal with this by applying heuristics in determining significant information. A simple, knowledge-based approach to prioritizing information is described. The approach models those heuristics that humans would use in similar circumstances. The approach described has received two patents and was implemented in the Alarm Filtering System (AFS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). AFS was first developed for application in a nuclear reactor control room. It has since been used in chemical processing applications, where it has had a significant impact on control room environments. The approach uses knowledge-based heuristics to analyze data from process instrumentation and respond to that data according to knowledge encapsulated in objects and rules. While AFS cannot perform the complete diagnosis and control task, it has proven to be extremely effective at filtering and prioritizing information. AFS was used for over two years as a first level of analysis for human diagnosticians. Given the approach's proven track record in a wide variety of practical applications, it should be useful in both ground- and space-based systems.

  19. Spectral data analysis approaches for improved provenance classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorauf, Kellen J.; Bauer, Amy J. R.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2015-06-01

    In the last 10 years various chemometric methods have been developed and used for the analysis of spectra generated by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). One of the more successful and proven methods is Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Recently PLS-DA was utilized for purposes of provenance of spent brass cartridges and achieved correct classification at around 93% with a false alarm rate of around 5%. The LIBS spectra from the cartridge samples are rich in emission lines from numerous mostly metallic elements comprising the brass and the cited results were based on the analysis of the full broadband high resolution spectra. It was observed that some of the lines were clearly saturated in all spectra, while others were sometimes saturated due to pulse-to-pulse variation. The pulse-to-pulse variation was also evident in the intensity variations of the spectra within cartridges and between cartridges. In order to improve on the accuracy of the classification we have developed some preprocessing strategies including the removal of spectral wavelength ranges susceptible to saturation and normalization techniques to diminish the effects of intensity variations in the spectra. The results indicate incremental improvements when applying additional preprocessing steps to the limit of 100% True Positives and 0% False Positives when utilizing selected wavelengths that are normalized and averaged.

  20. Triangulating the provenance of African elephants using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Yasuko; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Hondo, Tomoko; Roca, Alfred L

    2013-01-01

    African elephant mitochondrial (mt) DNA follows a distinctive evolutionary trajectory. As females do not migrate between elephant herds, mtDNA exhibits low geographic dispersal. We therefore examined the effectiveness of mtDNA for assigning the provenance of African elephants (or their ivory). For 653 savanna and forest elephants from 22 localities in 13 countries, 4258 bp of mtDNA was sequenced. We detected eight mtDNA subclades, of which seven had regionally restricted distributions. Among 108 unique haplotypes identified, 72% were found at only one locality and 84% were country specific, while 44% of individuals carried a haplotype detected only at their sampling locality. We combined 316 bp of our control region sequences with those generated by previous trans-national surveys of African elephants. Among 101 unique control region haplotypes detected in African elephants across 81 locations in 22 countries, 62% were present in only a single country. Applying our mtDNA results to a previous microsatellite-based assignment study would improve estimates of the provenance of elephants in 115 of 122 mis-assigned cases. Nuclear partitioning followed species boundaries and not mtDNA subclade boundaries. For taxa such as elephants in which nuclear and mtDNA markers differ in phylogeography, combining the two markers can triangulate the origins of confiscated wildlife products. PMID:23798975

  1. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  2. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  3. Ontology-Driven Provenance Management in eScience: An Application in Parasite Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Weatherly, D. Brent; Mutharaju, Raghava; Anantharam, Pramod; Sheth, Amit; Tarleton, Rick L.

    Provenance, from the French word "provenir", describes the lineage or history of a data entity. Provenance is critical information in scientific applications to verify experiment process, validate data quality and associate trust values with scientific results. Current industrial scale eScience projects require an end-to-end provenance management infrastructure. This infrastructure needs to be underpinned by formal semantics to enable analysis of large scale provenance information by software applications. Further, effective analysis of provenance information requires well-defined query mechanisms to support complex queries over large datasets. This paper introduces an ontology-driven provenance management infrastructure for biology experiment data, as part of the Semantic Problem Solving Environment (SPSE) for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi). This provenance infrastructure, called T.cruzi Provenance Management System (PMS), is underpinned by (a) a domain-specific provenance ontology called Parasite Experiment ontology, (b) specialized query operators for provenance analysis, and (c) a provenance query engine. The query engine uses a novel optimization technique based on materialized views called materialized provenance views (MPV) to scale with increasing data size and query complexity. This comprehensive ontology-driven provenance infrastructure not only allows effective tracking and management of ongoing experiments in the Tarleton Research Group at the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), but also enables researchers to retrieve the complete provenance information of scientific results for publication in literature.

  4. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  5. Determining the Provenance of Late Paleozoic Loess Using Radiogenic Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, M. R.; Aciego, S.; Soreghan, G. S.; Bailey, A.; Heavens, N. G.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Loess deposits in the sedimentary record of the Late Paleozoic tropics are anomalous because Quaternary loess is commonly glaciogenic, and thus confined to mid-high latitudes. The only loess in the tropics today is associated with mountain glaciation. Given the icehouse conditions of the Late Paleozoic, tropical loess could perhaps reflect sourcing from glaciogenic weathering in the Central Pangaean Mountains. Our goals are to constrain spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric "dustiness" and loess/dust provenance. To test the glacial weathering hypothesis and evaluate loess provenance, we collected preliminary data from two intervals (Moscovian or middle Pennsylvanian) of the Copacabana Formation, Madre de Dios Basin (Bolivia). Two 15-m sections representing carbonate inner platform environments were processed to separate the fine-grained silicate mineral fraction (SMF). Given the proximity to arc volcanism, ash fall could complicate the wind-blown weathering signal; initial work is aimed at assessing the volcanic versus continental inputs to the basin. Visual inspection and initial physical - chemical measurements of the dust-loess size fraction indicates discrete differences between the two sections, as well as between ash-rich and ash-poor intervals. The lower section has intervals with up to 72% suspected ash and SMF (non-ash) of 1-7%. The suspected ash layers in the lower section have higher grain sizes (20-40 µm) and distinct 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions (ɛNd = -3.5, -3.8) compared to the ash-poor intervals (8 µm, ɛNd = -5.0 to -8.8). The upper section, free of visible ash layers, has high SMF (mean 4-7% up to 41%) with similar size distributions (6-11 µm) and ɛNd (-7.4 to -7.7) to the lower section, but more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr compositions (0.797 versus 0.71 - 0.75). The distinct physical and isotopic characteristics of the ash and SMF in the sections and sub-intervals suggests that deconvolving ash and loess/dust inputs will be possible

  6. Provenance Capture in Data Access and Data Manipulation Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.; Gallagher, J. H.; Holloway, D.; Potter, N.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing need to trace back the origins of data products, whether images or charts in a report, data obtained from a sensor on an instrument, a generated dataset referenced in a research paper, in government reports on the environment, or in a publication or poster presentation. Yet, most software applications that perform data access and manipulation keep only limited history of the data, i.e. the provenance. Imagine the following scenario: There is a figure in a report showing multiple graphs and plots related to global climate, the report is being drafted for a government agency. The graphs and plots are generated using an algorithm from an iPython Notebook, developed by a researcher who is using a particular data portal, where the algorithm pulls data from four data sets from that portal. That data is aggregated together over the time dimension, constrained to a few parameters, accessed using a particular piece of data access software, and converted from one datatype to another datatype; All the processing on the data sets was conducted by three different researchers from a public university, on a project funded by the same government agency requesting the report, with one Principal Investigator and two Co-Investigators. In this scenario, today we're lucky to get a blob of text under the figure that might say a couple things about the figure with a reference to a publication that was written a few years ago. Data citation, data publishing information, licensing information, and provenance are all lacking in the derived data products. What we really want is to be able to trace the figure all the way back to the original datasets, including what was done to those datasets; and to see information about the researchers, the project, the agency funding, the award, and the organizations collaborating on the project. In this paper we discuss the need for such information and traceback features, as well as new technologies and standards that can help us

  7. A Multi-Tier Provenance Model for Global Climate Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Halter, Todd D.; Gibson, Tara D.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Schuchardt, Karen L.

    2009-08-19

    Global climate researchers rely upon many forms of sensor data and analytical methods to help profile subtle changes in climate conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program provides researchers with curated products called Value Added Products (VAPs) resulting from continuous instrumentation streams, data fusion, and analytical profiling. To provide these projects the ARM operations and research teams rely upon a number of techniques to ensure strict quality control and quality assurance codes are maintained. End users in the climate research community are highly interested in obtaining as much causal evidence as possible and currently either not all the evidence are easily attainable or easily identifiable without significant effort. Our research interests are to identify a provenance model that serves both the producers and consumers of the VAP maintaining the quality assurance/quality control standards and tailored to meeting the individual researcher’s needs.

  8. Provenance of Apollo 15 deep drill core sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Modal analysis and electron probe microanalysis were performed on polished thin sections prepared from Apollo 15 deep drill core soils in an effort to characterize their provenance. The particles were in the 0.25-1.00 mm size range. The particles were classified into mineral fragments, agglutinates, glasses, rock fragments, and breccias. The results show that highland and mare material occur in the core in an approximately 60:40 ratio, with mare component generally increasing from bottom to top in the core. Quartz-normative basalts are nearly twice as abundant as olivine basalts. Nonmare sources include KREEP basalt flow units from some depth in the crust, excavated by cratering events and supplied to the site as 'rays'.

  9. Functional Requirements for Information Resource Provenance on the Web

    SciTech Connect

    McCusker, James P.; Lebo, Timothy; Graves, Alvaro; Difranzo, Dominic; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; McGuinness, Deborah L.

    2012-06-19

    We provide a means to formally explain the relationship between HTTP URLs and the representations returned when they are requested. According to existing World Wide Web architecture, the URL serves as an identier for a semiotic referent while the document returned via HTTP serves as a representation of the same referent. This begins with two sides of a semiotic triangle; the third side is the relationship between the URL and the representation received. We complete this description by extending the library science resource model Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Resources (FRBR) with cryptographic message and content digests to create a Functional Requirements for Information Resources (FRIR). We show how applying the FRIR model to HTTP GET and POST transactions disambiguates the many relationships between a given URL and all representations received from its request, provides fine-grained explanations that are complementary to existing explanations of web resources, and integrates easily into the emerging W3C provenance standard.

  10. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  11. Provenance In Sensor Data Management: A Cohesive, Independent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In today's information-driven workplaces, data is constantly undergoing transformations and being moved around. The typical business-as-usual approach is to use email attachments, shared network locations, databases, and now, the cloud. More often than not, there are multiple versions of the data sitting in different locations and users of this data are confounded by the lack of metadata describing its provenance, or in other words, its lineage. Our project is aimed to solve this issue in the context of sensor data. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Building Technologies Research and Integration Center has reconfigurable commercial buildings deployed on the Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). These FRPs are instrumented with a large number of sensors which measure a number of variables such as HVAC efficiency, relative humidity, and temperature gradients across doors, windows, and walls. Sub-minute resolution data from hundreds of channels is acquired. This sensor data, traditionally, was saved to a shared network location which was accessible to a number of scientists for performing complicated simulation and analysis tasks. The sensor data also participates in elaborate quality assurance exercises as a result of inherent faults. Sometimes, faults are induced to observe building behavior. It became apparent that proper scientific controls required not just managing the data acquisition and delivery, but to also manage the metadata associated with temporal subsets of the sensor data. We built a system named ProvDMS, or Provenance Data Management System for the FRPs, which would both allow researchers to retrieve data of interest as well as trace data lineage. This provides researchers a one-stop shop for comprehensive views of various data transformation allowing researchers to effectively trace their data to its source so that experiments, and derivations of experiments, may be reused and reproduced without much overhead of the repeatability of experiments that

  12. ASDF: An Adaptable Seismic Data Format with Full Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.; Lefebvre, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order for seismologists to maximize their knowledge of how the Earth works, they must extract the maximum amount of useful information from all recorded seismic data available for their research. This requires assimilating large sets of waveform data, keeping track of vast amounts of metadata, using validated standards for quality control, and automating the workflow in a careful and efficient manner. In addition, there is a growing gap between CPU/GPU speeds and disk access speeds that leads to an I/O bottleneck in seismic workflows. This is made even worse by existing seismic data formats that were not designed for performance and are limited to a few fixed headers for storing metadata.The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is a new data format for seismology that solves the problems with existing seismic data formats and integrates full provenance into the definition. ASDF is a self-describing format that features parallel I/O using the parallel HDF5 library. This makes it a great choice for use on HPC clusters. The format integrates the standards QuakeML for seismic sources and StationXML for receivers. ASDF is suitable for storing earthquake data sets, where all waveforms for a single earthquake are stored in a one file, ambient noise cross-correlations, and adjoint sources. The format comes with a user-friendly Python reader and writer that gives seismologists access to a full set of Python tools for seismology. There is also a faster C/Fortran library for integrating ASDF into performance-focused numerical wave solvers, such as SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Finally, a GUI tool designed for visually exploring the format exists that provides a flexible interface for both research and educational applications. ASDF is a new seismic data format that offers seismologists high-performance parallel processing, organized and validated contents, and full provenance tracking for automated seismological workflows.

  13. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  14. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed. PMID:19705108

  15. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  16. Provenance and sediment fluxes in the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Wang, Jiangang; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Limonta, Mara

    2016-04-01

    The Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwadi) River, still a natural system scarcely affected by human activities, ranks among the five major rivers in the world for its annual suspended load, estimated as 364±60 million tons (Robinson et al., 2007). Sourced in Himalayan glaciers southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at ca. 28°N, the Irrawaddy originates from the confluence of the Nmai and Mali Rivers, flows southward to receive its major Chindwin tributary in the middle of the central Myanmar Basin, and eventually empties through a nine-armed delta into the Andaman Sea. The compositional fingerprint of bedload sand in the upper Irrawaddy is characterized by common feldspars, medium/high rank of metamorphic rock fragments and high heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance from mid-crustal granitoids, amphibolite-facies and subordinately greenschist-facies rocks widely exposed in the Mogok Belt and Lohit Plutonic Complex. Minor volcanic/metavolcanic and serpentinite grains indicate additional supply from volcanic-arc remnants and the Neotethyan ophiolitic suture. Sand of the Chindwin River has much higher quartz/feldspar ratio and much lower metamorphic indices and heavy-mineral concentration, reflecting provenance mainly from upper crustal sedimentary and very low-grade metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges (Garzanti et al., 2013). Feldspatho-litho-quartzose to litho-feldspatho-quartzose composition in the lower Irrawaddy is intermediate between that of Chindwin and upper Irrawaddy sand. The slight progressive downstream increase in volcanic rock fragments and chert, and decrease in metamorphic indices, point to additional local supply from volcanic and sedimentary cover rocks. U-Pb age spectra of detrital zircons are characterized by a major cluster between 30 and 150 Ma, corresponding to the long-lasting magmatic activity of the Western Myanmar Arc (Wang et al., 2014), with other clusters at 500-600 Ma and 800-1200 Ma, and a few ages between 1

  17. Geochemical Signatures as a Tool for Vermiculite Provenance Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Carl D. Palmer

    2008-09-01

    Thirty-eight samples of known origin (China, Libby MT, South Africa, South Carolina) and 6 vermiculite product samples of unknown origin were analyzed for major and trace elements, including rare earth elements to determine the feasibility of distinguishing the provenance of the samples based upon a geochemical signature. Probability plots suggest that two of the four groups (Libby, South Carolina) were comprised of two subgroups. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis are highly sensitive to the linkage method chosen. Ward’s method is the most useful for this data and suggests that there are five groups within the data set (South African samples, two subsets of the Libby samples, a subset of the South Carolina samples, and a second subset of the South Carolina samples combined with the China samples). Similar results were obtained using k-cluster analysis. Neither clustering method was able to distinguish samples from China from the South Carolina samples. Discriminant analysis was used on a four-category model comprised of the original four groups and on a six-category model comprised of the five categories identified from the cluster analysis but with the China samples grouped into a sixth category. The discriminant/classification model was able to distinguish all of the groups including the China samples from one another for both the four- and six-category models with 100% of the samples properly classified. The 6 unknown product samples were classified with a probability of consistency of 99%. Both discriminant models were also run with a subset of our analyte set to be consistent with the smaller Gunter et al., (2005) analyte set. Twenty vermiculite samples (nine of known origin and eleven of unknown origin) from their study were classified based on our discriminant models with the reduced set of analytes. Of the twenty samples, Gunter et al. (2005) was able to classify 16 with cluster analysis while our 4-category discriminant analysis model allowed us

  18. Detrital shocked minerals: microstructural provenance indicators of impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavosie, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of detrital shocked minerals (DSMs) merges planetary science, sedimentology, mineralogy/crystallography, accessory mineral geochemistry, and geochronology, with the goal of identifying and determining provenance of shock metamorphosed sand grains. Diagnostic high-pressure impact-generated microstructures (planar fractures, planar deformation features) are readily identified on external grain surfaces using standard SEM imaging methods (BSE), and when found, unambiguously confirm an impact origin for a given sand grain. DSMs, including quartz, zircon, monazite, and apatite, have thus far been documented at the Vredefort Dome [1,2,3], Sudbury [4], Rock Elm [5], and Santa Fe [6,7] impact structures. DSMs have been identified in alluvium, colluvium, beach sand, and glacial deposits. Two main processes are recognized that imply the global siliciclastic record contains DSMs: they survive extreme distal transport, and they survive 'deep time' lithification. Distal transport: In South Africa, shocked minerals are preserved in alluvium from the Vaal River >750 km downstream from the Vredefort impact; SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology has confirmed the origin of detrital shocked zircon and monazite from shocked Vredefort bedrock [2]. Vredefort-derived shocked zircons have also been found at the mouth of the Orange River on the Atlantic coast, having travelled ~2000 km downriver from Vredefort [8]. Deep time preservation: Vredefort-derived shocked zircon and quartz has been documented in glacial diamictite from the 300 Myr-old Dwyka Group in South Africa. Shocked minerals were thus entrained and transported in Paleozoic ice sheets that passed over Vredefort [9]. An impact crater can thus be viewed as a unique 'point source', in some cases for billions of years [2,4]; DSMs thus have applications in studying eroded impact craters, sedimentary provenance, landscape evolution, and long-term sediment transport processes throughout the geologic record. This work was supported by

  19. Rutile geochemistry and its potential use in quantitative provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, T.; von Eynatten, H.; Kronz, A.

    2004-10-01

    Rutile is among the most stable detrital minerals in sedimentary systems. Information contained in rutile is therefore of prime importance, especially in the study of mature sediments, where most diagnostic minerals are no longer stable. In contrast to zircon, rutile provides information about the last metamorphic cycle as rutile is not stable at greenschist facies conditions. Several known geochemical characteristics of rutile can be used to retrace provenance. The lithology of source rocks can be determined using Nb and Cr contents in rutile, because the most important source rocks for rutile, metapelites and metabasites, imprint a distinct Nb and Cr signature in rutiles. Since Zr in rutile, coexisting with zircon and quartz, is extremely temperature dependent, this relationship can be used as a geothermometer. Metapelites always contain zircon and quartz, thus the Nb and Cr signatures of metapelites indicate rutiles that can be used for thermometry. The result is effectively a single-mineral geothermometer, which is to our knowledge the first of its kind in provenance studies. Several other trace elements are variably enriched in rutile, but the processes creating these variations are so far not understood. In a case study, Al, Si, V, Cr, Fe, Zr, Nb and W contents in rutiles were obtained by electron microprobe from three sediment samples from Upstate New York. A Pleistocene glacial sand, whose source was granulite-facies rocks of the southern Adirondacks, has detrital rutile geochemical signatures which are consistent with the local Geology; a predominantly metapelitic source with a minor metabasitic contribution. Calculated temperatures for the metapelitic rutiles from the glacial sand are consistent with a predominantly granulite-facies source. The two other samples are from Paleozoic clastic wedges deposited in the foreland of the Taconian and Acadian orogenies. Here several geochemical patterns of detrital rutiles are comparable to rutiles derived from the

  20. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  1. Bridging the Gap between Scientific Data Producers and Consumers: A Provenance Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    Despite the methodical and painstaking efforts made by scientists to record their scientific findings and protocols, a knowledge gap problem continues to persist today between producers of scientific results and consumers because technology is performing the exchange of data as opposed to scientists making direct contact. Provenance is a means to formalize how this knowledge is transferred. However, for it to be meaningful to scientists, the provenance research community needs continued contributions from the scientific community to extend and leverage provenance-based vocabularies and technology from the provenance community. Going forward the provenance community must also be vigilant to meet scalability needs of data intensive science

  2. LQCD workflow execution framework: Models, provenance and fault-tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Luciano; Dubey, Abhishek; Simone, James N.; Kowalkowlski, James B.

    2010-04-01

    Large computing clusters used for scientific processing suffer from systemic failures when operated over long continuous periods for executing workflows. Diagnosing job problems and faults leading to eventual failures in this complex environment is difficult, specifically when the success of an entire workflow might be affected by a single job failure. In this paper, we introduce a model-based, hierarchical, reliable execution framework that encompass workflow specification, data provenance, execution tracking and online monitoring of each workflow task, also referred to as participants. The sequence of participants is described in an abstract parameterized view, which is translated into a concrete data dependency based sequence of participants with defined arguments. As participants belonging to a workflow are mapped onto machines and executed, periodic and on-demand monitoring of vital health parameters on allocated nodes is enabled according to pre-specified rules. These rules specify conditions that must be true pre-execution, during execution and post-execution. Monitoring information for each participant is propagated upwards through the reflex and healing architecture, which consists of a hierarchical network of decentralized fault management entities, called reflex engines. They are instantiated as state machines or timed automatons that change state and initiate reflexive mitigation action(s) upon occurrence of certain faults. We describe how this cluster reliability framework is combined with the workflow execution framework using formal rules and actions specified within a structure of first order predicate logic that enables a dynamic management design that reduces manual administrative workload, and increases cluster-productivity.

  3. On the Provenance of Pluto's Nitrogen (N2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; Stern, S. Alan

    2015-08-01

    N2 is abundant in Pluto’s atmosphere and on its surface, but the supply is depleted by prodigious atmospheric escape. We demonstrate that cometary impacts could not have delivered enough N mass to resupply Pluto’s N2 atmospheric escape over time; thus Pluto’s N2 is likely endogenous, and therefore was either acquired early in its history or created by chemistry inside/{on} Pluto. We find that cratering could excavate a considerable amount of N2 to resupply the atmosphere against escape if the near-surface N2 reservoir is deep. However, we find that this process likely falls short of that necessary to resupply the atmosphere against escape by at least an order of magnitude. We conclude that either the escape of N2 from Pluto’s atmosphere was on average much lower than the predictions for the current epoch, or that internal activity could be necessary to bring N2 to the surface and resupply escape losses. Observations made by the New Horizons spacecraft in mid-2015 will yield further constraints on the provenance and evolution of Pluto’s surface and atmospheric N2, and could reveal evidence for past or present internal activity.

  4. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

  5. Numerical analysis of sandstone composition, provenance, and paleogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Smosma, R.; Bruner, K.R.; Burns, A.

    1999-09-01

    Cretaceous deltaic sandstones of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska exhibit an extreme variability in their mineral makeup. A series of numerical techniques, however, provides some order to the petrographic characteristics of these complex rocks. Ten mineral constituents occur in the sandstones, including quartz, chert, feldspar, mica, and organic matter, plus rock fragments of volcanics, carbonates, shale, phyllite, and schist. A mixing coefficient quantities the degree of heterogeneity in each sample. Hierarchical cluster analysis then groups sandstones on the basis of similarities among all ten mineral components--in the Alaskan example, six groupings characterized mainly by the different rock fragments. Multidimensional scaling shows how the clusters relate to one another and arranges them along compositional gradients--two trends in Alaska based on varying proportions of metamorphic/volcanic and shale/carbonate rock fragments. The resulting sandstone clusters and petrographic gradients can be mapped across the study area and compared with the stratigraphic section. This study confirms the presence of three different source areas that provided diverse sediment to the Cretaceous deltas as well as the general transport directions and distances. In addition, the sand composition is shown to have changed over time, probably related to erosional unroofing in the source areas. This combination of multivariate-analysis techniques proves to be a powerful tool, revealing subtle spatial and temporal relationships among the sandstones and allowing one to enhance provenance and paleogeographic conclusions made from compositional data.

  6. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  7. Documenting scientific workflow: the metadata, provenance and ontology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, J.; Wright, J.; Abla, G.; Chanthavong, R.; Schissel, D.; Romosan, A.; Shoshani, A.

    2014-10-01

    Careful management of data, its creation and transformation (provenance) and associated metadata is a critical part of any scientific enterprise. Traditionally this was the role of the lab notebook, but the digital era has resulted instead in the fragmentation of data, processing and annotation. This paper describes an ongoing multi-institutional project aimed at remedying this problem by developing tools to automate documentation of scientific workflows and associated information. Data and all processes that create or modify that data are represented mathematically as a directed acyclic graph, providing explicit information about the relationships between elements with all elements having globally unique and persistent IDs. The export of data, for publication, presentation or external databases would be recorded, allowing traceability in either direction - answering the questions ``Where was this data used?'' or ``Where did the data in this figure come from.'' Namespace management is provided through a well structured ``ontology,'' which can be customized for any particular community or application. Supported by DOE Contract DE-SC0008736.

  8. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  9. A global renewable mix with proven technologies and common materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabrera, J.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Turiel, A.

    2012-04-01

    A global alternative mix to fossil fuels is proposed, based on proven renewable energy technologies that do not use scarce materials. Taking into account the availability of materials, the resulting mix consists of a combination of onshore and offshore wind turbines, concentrating solar power stations, hydroelectricity and wave power devices attached to the offshore turbines. Solar photovoltaic power could contribute to the mix if its dependence on scarce materials is solved. Material requirements are studied for the generation, power transport and for some future transport systems. The order of magnitude of copper, aluminium, neodymium, lithium, nickel, zinc and platinum that might be required for the proposed solution is obtained and compared with available reserves. While the proposed global alternative to fossil fuels seems technically feasible, lithium, nickel and platinum could become limiting materials for future vehicles fleet if no global recycling system were implemented and rechargeable zinc-air batteries could not be developed. As much as 60% of the current copper reserves would have to be employed in the implementation of the proposed solution. Altogether, the availability of materials may become a long-term physical constraint, preventing the continuation of the usual exponential growth of energy consumption.

  10. Descartes Mountains and Cayley Plains - Composition and provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace element compositions of petrographically characterized 2-4 mm lithic fragments from Apollo 16 soil samples are used to calculate initial REE concentrations in liquids in equilibrium with lunar anorthosites and to discuss the provenance of the Cayley Formation. Lithic fragments may be subdivided into four groups: (1) ANT rocks, (2) K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks, (3) poikiloblastic rocks, and (4) (spinel) troctolites. Model liquids in equilibrium with essentially monominerallic anorthosites have initial REE concentrations 5-8 times those of chondrites. The REE contents of K- and SiO2-rich mesostasis-bearing rocks and poikiloblastic rocks are dominated by the mesostasis phases. ANT rocks appear to be more abundant in the Descartes Mountains, while poikiloblastic rocks appear to be more abundant in the Cayley Plains. Poikiloblastic rocks have intermediate to high LIL-element concentrations yet the low gamma-ray activity of Mare Orientale implies low LIL-element concentrations. Consequently, it is unlikely that the Cayley Formation is Orientale ejecta. A local origin as ejecta from smaller impacts is a more plausible model for the deposition of the Cayley Formation.

  11. Murder by insulin: suspected, purported and proven-a review.

    PubMed

    Marks, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    Murder by insulin-whether attempted, suspected or proven-is rare. Only 66 cases worldwide could be found for this review. A conviction was secured in 31 cases and additional weapon was employed in 11. Differentiation of attempted homicide from Munchausen syndrome by proxy in the young and from 'mercy killing' in the elderly was not attempted. Most perpetrators were close relatives and most victims were alive when discovered and responded to treatment. Hypoglycaemia is the first clue to homicidal insulin use in living subjects and requires the demonstration of a plasma insulin concentration of generally more than 1000 pmol/L and undetectable plasma C-peptide concentration to establish the diagnosis. Serum glucose measurements are valueless in victims found dead. The presence near the body of insulin vials, syringes or needles, loose talk by the suspected perpetrator or their ready access to insulin may be the only clue. The demonstration of insulin in tissue around an injection site by immunohistopathology or by measuring it in an extract clinches the diagnosis. Immunoassays suitable for clinical use to detect and measure insulin and C-peptide are subject to random errors and cannot be relied upon unless special precautions including separation by gel filtration or HPLC are undertaken prior to analysis. They do not detect or measure accurately a new generation of synthetic insulin analogues. Mass spectrometry will be required to do this and to validate clinical immunoassays, upon which convictions have always had to rely in the past. PMID:20355194

  12. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  13. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process. PMID:26357398

  14. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  15. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  16. Provenance of Mesozoic Sandstones in the Banda Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz-rich sandstones in the Banda Arc islands of Tanimbar, Babar, Timor and Sumba are equivalent of Mesozoic sandstones on the Australian margin where they are important hydrocarbon reservoirs. They have been exposed by on-going collision providing an opportunity to study their provenance. Previous studies suggested that rivers draining Australia provided most input. New light mineral, heavy mineral and detrital zircon data provide information on sources of sediments and constraints on palaeogeographic models. Conventional light mineral plots of sandstones from the islands typically show a recycled orogen and continental block origin, consistent with an Australian source. However many of the sandstones are texturally immature. Many samples also contain volcanic quartz and volcanic lithic fragments. Heavy mineral assemblages of most samples contain material from acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, with few indications of mafic or ultramafic sources. Rounded ultrastable minerals are typical, but these are commonly mixed with angular grains. Detrital zircon (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages range from Archean to Mesozoic, but variations in age populations indicate differences in source areas along the Banda Arc in locality and time. We recognise distinctive Permo-Triassic, older Palaeozoic and Proterozoic ages characteristic of a Bird's Head, New Guinea, acid igneous source and this component diminishes from east to west. On Tanimbar and Babar, sediment came from both Australia and the Bird's Head. Sandstones in Timor have immature textures and show differences from east to west. They contain zircons derived from the Birds Head, as well as Precambrian zircons suggesting a northern Australian origin. In contrast, immature textures, heavy minerals and Cretaceous zircon ages in rocks from Sumba suggest that they were mainly derived from metamorphic sources. Mesozoic to Archean zircons indicate derivation from Australian crust that had collided in Sulawesi during the Cretaceous.

  17. A proven approach for more effective software development and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajerski, Rose; Hall, Dana; Sinclair, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Modern space flight mission operations and associated ground data systems are increasingly dependent upon reliable, quality software. Critical functions such as command load preparation, health and status monitoring, communications link scheduling and conflict resolution, and transparent gateway protocol conversion are routinely performed by software. Given budget constraints and the ever increasing capabilities of processor technology, the next generation of control centers and data systems will be even more dependent upon software across all aspects of performance. A key challenge now is to implement improved engineering, management, and assurance processes for the development and maintenance of that software; processes that cost less, yield higher quality products, and that self-correct for continual improvement evolution. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a unique experience base that can be readily tapped to help solve the software challenge. Over the past eighteen years, the Software Engineering Laboratory within the code 500 Flight Dynamics Division has evolved a software development and maintenance methodology that accommodates the unique characteristics of an organization while optimizing and continually improving the organization's software capabilities. This methodology relies upon measurement, analysis, and feedback much analogous to that of control loop systems. It is an approach with a time-tested track record proven through repeated applications across a broad range of operational software development and maintenance projects. This paper describes the software improvement methodology employed by the Software Engineering Laboratory, and how it has been exploited within the Flight Dynamics Division with GSFC Code 500. Examples of specific improvement in the software itself and its processes are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Finally, the initial findings are given when this methodology was applied across the

  18. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. PMID:25854802

  19. Provenance control on chemical indices of weathering (Taiwan river sands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Geochemical parameters obtained from the analysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks are widely used to infer weathering and paleo-weathering conditions in source areas. Chemical indices of weathering, however, may not reflect weathering only, or even principally. The concentration of chemical elements in terrigenous sediments is constrained by the original mineralogy of source rocks, and is thus provenance-dependent. Moreover, the mineralogy and consequently the geochemistry of sediments may undergo substantial modifications by diverse physical processes during transport and deposition, including recycling and hydraulic sorting by size, density or shape, and/or by chemical dissolution and precipitation during diagenesis. Around the island of Taiwan, temperature and rainfall are consistently high and relatively homogeneous, and no significant correlation is observed between geochemical and climatic parameters. Physical erosion, fostered by landslides induced by frequent earthquakes and typhoons, prevails because of high relief and extreme rates of tectonic uplift. In such a dynamic orogenic setting, all chemical indices of weathering are controlled principally by the geology of source terranes. Sedimentaclastic and metasedimentaclastic sands carried by western Taiwan rivers draining the pro-wedge display the strongest depletion in Na, Ca, Mg and Sr relative to average upper continental crust, and no depletion or even enrichment in K, Rb and Ba. Low WIP indices reflect erosion of phyllosilicate-dominated rocks in the Slate Belt and extensive recycling of clastic rocks exposed in the Western Foothills. Instead, metamorphiclastic sands carried by eastern Taiwan rivers draining the retro-wedge show no depletion or even enrichment in Mg and Ca, and low CIA and PIA, reflecting contributions from the Tailuko Belt and Coastal Range. Volcaniclastic sands have the same CIA values of their andesitic source rocks (47 ± 1 versus 47 ± 7), indicating that weathering is

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the diffusion

  1. Geisinger's ProvenCare methodology: driving performance improvement within a shared governance structure.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Ruth; Wary, Andrea; King, Megan; Laam, Leslie A; Hallick, Susan

    2011-05-01

    Many performance improvement projects fail because they occur in parallel to the organization's shared governance structure. Leveraging the full potential of its nursing shared governance structure, Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare methodology harnessed the full potential of its staff nurses to create truly reliable workflows that benefit patients and that the team finds professionally satisfying. Using ProvenCare Perinatal and its smoking cessation education intervention and outcomes as an example, the authors describe the ProvenCare methodology. PMID:21519209

  2. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  3. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  4. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  5. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  6. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  7. Extending eScience Provenance with User-Submitted Semantic Annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, J.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    eScience based systems generate provenance of their data products, related to such things as: data processing, data collection conditions, expert evaluation, and data product quality. Recent advances in web-based technology offer users the possibility of making annotations to both data products and steps in accompanying provenance traces, thereby expanding the utility of such provenance for others. These contributing users may have varying backgrounds, ranging from system experts to outside domain experts to citizen scientists. Furthermore, such users may wish to make varying types of annotations - ranging from documenting the purpose of a provenance step to raising concerns about the quality of data dependencies. Semantic Web technologies allow for such kinds of rich annotations to be made to provenance through the use of ontology vocabularies for (i) organizing provenance, and (ii) organizing user/annotation classifications. Furthermore, through Linked Data practices, Semantic linkages may be made from provenance steps to external data of interest. A desire for Semantically-annotated provenance has been motivated by data management issues in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photomoeter-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into final data products consumable by end users. At intermediate stages of ACOS processing, factors such as evaluations by human experts and weather conditions are logged, which could impact data product quality. If such factors are linked via user-submitted annotations to provenance, it could be significantly beneficial for other users. Likewise, the background of a user could impact the credibility of their annotations. For example, an annotation made by a citizen scientist describing the purpose of a provenance step may not be as reliable as a similar annotation made by an ACOS project member. For this work, we have developed a software package that

  8. Presenting Provenance Based on User Roles - Experiences from the ACOS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Fox, P. A.; Zednik, S.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    One goal of provenance is to provide users an understanding of the steps a system took to generate data products. Here, the level of detail captured by provenance becomes an important consideration. As detail is added, more questions can be hypothetically addressed. However, presenting significant provenance detail may also overwhelm end users, for one of two reasons: (i) the detail presented is irrelevant to the objectives, or (ii) the detail requires background knowledge a user lacks. Both of these challenges are present for data generated by the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photometer-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into data products consumable by end users. To fully understand these sequences of steps, background knowledge corresponding to various areas (e.g., astronomy, digital imaging, and ACOS specific techniques) is required by end users. This makes reviewing provenance difficult for users outside the ACOS development team, where varying degrees of background may be expected (ranging from outside domain experts in Solar Physics to citizen scientists). Likewise, even when steps taken by ACOS are understandable, they may provide undesired detail to an end user if presented. The work with ACOS involved the development of a Semantic Web based framework to selectively present provenance detail for data products in ACOS. Here, provenance is captured according to two sets of ontologies, the Proof Markup Language, which is an ontology based domain-independent provenance model, and a step ontology, designed to capture hierarchies of provenance steps. Used in combination, these ontology sets enable the creation of multiple levels of provenance, ranging from coarse to fine grained detail. In this setting, users may choose to expand/collapse provenance steps to view desired details. However, the specific provenance details a user initially sees is defined through

  9. Multi-scale Science: Supporting Emerging Practice with Semantically Derived Provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Lansing, Carina S.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Ashish, N., Goble, C

    2003-10-20

    Scientific progress is becoming increasingly dependent of our ability to study phenomena at multiple scales and from multiple perspectives. The ability to recontextualize third party data within the semantic and syntactic framework of a given research project is increasingly seen as a primary barrier in multi-scale science. Within the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Science (CMCS) project, we are developing a general-purpose informatics-based approach that emphasizes ''on-demand'' metadata creation, configurable data translations, and semantic mapping to support the rapidly increasing and continually evolving requirements for managing data, metadata, and data relationships in such projects. A concrete example of this approach is the design of the CMCS provenance subsystem. The concept of provenance varies across communities, and multiple independent applications contribute to and use provenance. In CMCS, we have developed generic tools for viewing provenance relationships and for using them to, for example, scope notifications and searches. These tools rely on a configurable concept of provenance defined in terms of other relationships. The result is a very flexible mechanism capable of tracking data provenance across many disciplines and supporting multiple uses of provenance information.

  10. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  11. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  12. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain) based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index). Both indices were derived from infrared images during a 6-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain) expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland). Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period) than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  13. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  14. Diverging drought resistance of Scots pine provenances revealed by infrared thermography and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Hannes; Schunk, Christian; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming and more frequent and severe drought events will alter the adaptedness and fitness of tree species. Especially, Scots pine forests have been affected above average by die-off events during the last decades. Assisted migration of adapted provenances might help alleviating impacts by recent climate change and successfully regenerating forests. However, the identification of suitable provenances based on established ecophysiological methods is time consuming, sometimes invasive, and data on provenance-specific mortality are lacking. We studied the performance, stress and survival of potted Scots pine seedlings from 12 European provenances grown in a greenhouse experiment with multiple drought and warming treatments. In this paper, we will present results of drought stress impacts monitored with four different thermal indices derived from infrared thermography imaging as well as an ample mortality study. Percent soil water deficit (PSWD) was shown to be the main driver of drought stress response in all thermal indices. In spite of wet and dry reference surfaces, however, fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly in terms of air temperature and humidity, altered the measured stress response. In linear mixed-effects models, besides PSWD and meteorological covariates, the factors provenance and provenance - PSWD interactions were included. The explanatory power of the models (R2) ranged between 0.51 to 0.83 and thus, provenance-specific responses to strong and moderate drought and subsequent recovery were revealed. However, obvious differences in the response magnitude of provenances to drought were difficult to explicitly link to general features such Mediterranean - continental type or climate at the provenances' origin. We conclude that seedlings' drought resistance may be linked to summer precipitation and their experienced stress levels are a.o. dependent on their above ground dimensions under given water supply. In respect to mortality, previous

  15. An agent-based approach for capturing and linking provenance in geoscience workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narock, Tom; Yoon, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Provenance is becoming increasingly important as web services and computational workflows enable new methods by which work is conducted. Yet, there exist sets of questions that cannot be addressed by current provenance capture systems. We address these challenges by leveraging a service provenance ontology that captures execution details of workflow constituent web services. The ontology is used in conjunction with a multi-agent system to automate provenance aggregation and collation. The use of a multi-agent system eliminates the need to modify service interfaces, as was done in previous research. Simulation experiments are used to evaluate multiple agent topologies and identify an efficient and scalable system that scales to large numbers of workflows.

  16. 77 FR 57637 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Place of Provenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Styles in Tibetan Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to... the exhibition ``The Place of Provenance--Regional Styles in Tibetan Painting,'' imported from...

  17. Connecting Provenance with Semantic Descriptions in the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, modeling and knowledge collaboratory that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. Some of the main goals of NEX are transparency and repeatability and to that extent we have been adding components that enable tracking of provenance of both scientific processes and datasets produced by these processes. As scientific processes become more complex, they are often developed collaboratively and it becomes increasingly important for the research team to be able to track the development of the process and the datasets that are produced along the way. Additionally, we want to be able to link the processes and the datasets developed on NEX to an existing information and knowledge, so that the users can query and compare the provenance of any dataset or process with regard to the component-specific attributes such as data quality, geographic location, related publications, user comments and annotations etc. We have developed several ontologies that describe datasets and workflow components available on NEX using the OWL ontology language as well as a simple ontology that provides linking mechanism to the collected provenance information. The provenance is captured in two ways - we utilize existing provenance infrastructure of VisTrails, which is used as a workflow engine on NEX, and we extend the captured provenance using the PROV data model expressed through the PROV-O ontology. We do this in order to link and query the provenance easier in the context of the existing NEX information and knowledge. The captured provenance graph is processed and stored using RDFlib with MySQL backend that can be queried using either RDFLib or SPARQL. As a concrete example, we show how this information is captured during anomaly detection process in large satellite datasets.

  18. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin. PMID:26960387

  19. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  20. [Brief discussion on "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases"].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; He, Quan; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Hongxing

    2015-07-01

    The connotations of "du-fu" and "Sanli" in "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases" are discussed in this paper, which can provide theoretical foundation for the clinical application of "Sanli acupoint for du-fu diseases". Based on ancient literature combined with related theories in the Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic), a deep discussion is performed through the relationship between Zusanli (ST 36) and stomach, indication and mechanism of Zusanli (ST 36) on du-fu diseases and comparison between Zusanli (ST 36) and Shousanli (LI 10). It is believed that "du" should be pronounced as "dŭ", meaning stomach, and it indicates that Zusanli (ST 36) is closely related to stomach and spleen when it is used for du-fu diseases; "fu" means abdomen area, including liver-gallbladder, spleen, stomach-intestine, kidney, uterus, triple energizer; "sanli' means exclusively the acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36). PMID:26521594

  1. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    PubMed

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment. PMID:11550629

  2. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  3. Annotating and embedding provenance in science data repositories to enable next generation science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Zednik, S.; Del Rio, N.; Ding, L.; West, P.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the increased need for knowledge provenance in interdisciplinary eScience efforts, we have begun an effort to enhance a real-world data production pipeline and the resulting data services with semantic provenance. This work designing and implementing in an existing fielded virtual observatory setting has allowed us to collect key provenance requirements for a broad variety of end users. We have documented several image data pipelines for solar physics instruments at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and have documented almost 20 use cases covering usage from instrument scientists, observers, data analysts and managers, and end-user scientists. These use cases have guided our work developing an initial infrastructure that can be searched, queried, or browsed by these users. We use a multi-stage approach to provenance as data and information artifacts progress along processing pipelines. Our motivation, is that both the qualitative and quantitative measures of uncertainty may be vastly improved when treated in an end-to-end manner. This also reduces the likelihood that critical information is left behind or obscurely represented, making the later use of the data and information difficult or impossible. Another motivation is that provenance captured consistently at ingest time supports transparency of sources and propagation of credit for data generation, thereby increasing the likelihood of contribution and reuse. We present the current stages of implementation of our provenance infrastructure, tools and impact on what users are able to learn from the annotated information streams. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) project is an NSF/OCI/SDCI funded effort involving the High Altitude Observatory at NCAR, McGuinness Associates and the University of Michigan.

  4. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  5. Persistent identifiers for web service requests relying on a provenance ontology design pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley; Si, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Delivering provenance information for datasets produced from static inputs is relatively straightforward: we represent the processing actions and data flow using provenance ontologies and link to stored copies of the inputs stored in repositories. If appropriate detail is given, the provenance information can then describe what actions have occurred (transparency) and enable reproducibility. When web service-generated data is used by a process to create a dataset instead of a static inputs, we need to use sophisticated provenance representations of the web service request as we can no longer just link to data stored in a repository. A graph-based provenance representation, such as the W3C's PROV standard, can be used to model the web service request as a single conceptual dataset and also as a small workflow with a number of components within the same provenance report. This dual representation does more than just allow simplified or detailed views of a dataset's production to be used where appropriate. It also allow persistent identifiers to be assigned to instances of a web service requests, thus enabling one form of dynamic data citation, and for those identifiers to resolve to whatever level of detail implementers think appropriate in order for that web service request to be reproduced. In this presentation we detail our reasoning in representing web service requests as small workflows. In outline, this stems from the idea that web service requests are perdurant things and in order to most easily persist knowledge of them for provenance, we should represent them as a nexus of relationships between endurant things, such as datasets and knowledge of particular system types, as these endurant things are far easier to persist. We also describe the ontology design pattern that we use to represent workflows in general and how we apply it to different types of web service requests. We give examples of specific web service requests instances that were made by systems

  6. Nitrogen partitioning in oak leaves depends on species, provenance, climate conditions and soil type.

    PubMed

    Hu, B; Simon, J; Kuster, T M; Arend, M; Siegwolf, R; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    Climate-tolerant tree species and/or provenances have to be selected to ensure the high productivity of managed forests in Central Europe under the prognosticated climate changes. For this purpose, we studied the responses of saplings from three oak species (i.e. Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) and provenances of different climatic origin (i.e. low or high rainfall, low or high temperature habitats) with regard to leaf nitrogen (N) composition as a measure of N nutrition. Saplings were grown in model ecosystems on either calcareous or acidic soil and subjected to one of four treatments (control, drought, air warming or a combination of drought and air warming). Across species, oak N metabolism responded to the influence of drought and/or air warming with an increase in leaf amino acid N concentration at the expense of structural N. Moreover, provenances or species from drier habitats were more tolerant to the climate conditions applied, as indicated by an increase in amino acid N (comparing species) or soluble protein N (comparing provenances within a species). Furthermore, amino acid N concentrations of oak leaves were significantly higher on calcareous compared to acidic soil. From these results, it can be concluded that seeds from provenances or species originating from drier habitats and - if available - from calcareous soil types may provide a superior seed source for future forest establishment. PMID:22934888

  7. L’identification et traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie

    PubMed Central

    Foldes-Busque, Guillaume; Marchand, André; Landry, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Renseigner les médecins de première ligne au sujet de l’identification précoce, du diagnostic et du traitement du trouble panique avec ou sans agoraphobie (TP/A). QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Les données et recommandations présentées proviennent d’une recension des écrits scientifiques réalisée via les banques de données PsycLIT, PsyINFO et MEDLINE (1985 à 2006) en utilisant les descripteurs panic disorder, psychotherapy, psychosocial treatment, treatment et pharmacotherapy. Les recommandations formulées par les auteurs s’appuient sur des données probantes provenant d’études d’excellente qualité. Les informations concernant le diagnostic et l’évaluation du TP/A proviennent d’études épidémiologiques récentes, de consensus et d’opinions d’experts. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE Le TP/A est un trouble psychiatrique souvent rencontré en médecine de première ligne, mais il est fréquemment sous-diagnostiqué et sous-traité. L’identification précoce de ce trouble demande une attention particulière aux symptômes médicalement inexpliqués et, le cas échéant, le médecin doit utiliser des questions spécifiques permettant d’identifier d’éventuelles attaques de panique et de cerner leur signification pour le patient. Le traitement de premier choix pour ce trouble est une psychothérapie d’orientation cognitivo-comportementale administrée par un psychologue ou un psychiatre spécialisé. Si de telles ressources ne sont pas disponibles, le médecin peut opter pour un traitement psychopharmacologique. CONCLUSION Les médecins de famille peuvent jouer un rôle central dans l’identification et le traitement des patients souffrant d’un TP/A. PMID:17934032

  8. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, Catherine E.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Whitmore, Robert C.; De Lucia, Frank C. Jr.; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo no. 1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance.

  9. Use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in the determination of gem provenance: beryls.

    PubMed

    McManus, Catherine E; McMillan, Nancy J; Harmon, Russell S; Whitmore, Robert C; De Lucia, Frank C; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2008-11-01

    The provenance of gem stones has been of interest to geologists, gemologists, archeologists, and historians for centuries. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a minimally destructive tool for recording the rich chemical signatures of gem beryls (aquamarine, goshenite, heliodor, and morganite). Broadband LIBS spectra of 39 beryl (Be(3)Al(2)Si(6)O(18)) specimens from 11 pegmatite mines in New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Maine (USA) are used to assess the potential of using principal component analysis of LIBS spectra to determine specimen provenance. Using this technique, beryls from the three beryl-bearing zones in the Palermo #1 pegmatite (New Hampshire) can be recognized. However, the compositional variation within this single mine is comparable to that in beryls from all three states. Thus, a very large database with detailed location metadata will be required to routinely determine gem beryl provenance. PMID:19122706

  10. Provenance of surface sediments along the southeastern Adriatic coast off Italy: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudeau, Marie-Louise S.; Grauel, Anna-Lena; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; de Lange, Gert J.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-proxy studies are necessary to understand sediment composition and related provenance on continental shelfs. Here it is shown that the spatial distribution of geochemical composition and grain size for surface sediments along the southeastern Italian coast is related to provenance and mechanisms influencing sediment pathways. A northern Adriatic/Italian provenance can be distinguished from a southern Apennine river source. This is done independent of grain size using the element ratios Ce/Ni and Zr/Cr. Furthermore, the origin of organic matter is determined using bulk carbon isotopes and the C/N ratio. Integrating these results with those from complementary studies on δ18O and δ13C of Globigerinoides ruber (white), the BIT index, stable isotopes of plant waxes and dinoflagellate cyst distribution from the same set of samples reveals that:

  11. Provenance and compositional analysis of marbles from the medieval Abbey of San Caprasio, Aulla (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzerini, M.; Di Battistini, G.; Zucchi, D.; Miriello, D.

    2012-08-01

    A compositional study of twenty-two marble artefacts from the medieval Benedictine Abbey of San Caprasio at Aulla (North-western Tuscany, Central Italy) has been carried out. The mineralogical and petrographic analyses, the estimation of the maximum grain size of the calcite crystals, and the determination of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes support a provenance of most marbles from the Apuan Alps quarries (Italy). Only some marbles indicate a probable provenance from the islands of Paros and Thasos in the eastern Mediterranean area.

  12. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  13. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    PubMed Central

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  14. 76 FR 68124 - Television Broadcasting Services; Fond du Lac, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... reconsideration of an August 12, 2009 Report and Order changing the allotted channel for station WWAZ-TV, Fond du... 5 for channel 44 at Fond du Lac ] because it permitted WLS-TV, an ABC network affiliate in Chicago... network service to numerous viewers that had lost service after the transition of WLS-TV to...

  15. 33 CFR 117.443 - Du Large Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Du Large Bayou. 117.443 Section 117.443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.443 Du Large Bayou. The draw of...

  16. LA-ICP-MS as Tool for Provenance Analyses in Arctic Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildau, Antje; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The hydraulic transport of sediments is a major geological process in terrestrial and marine systems and is responsible for the loss, redistribution and accumulation of minerals. Provenance analyses are a powerful tool for assessing the origin and dispersion of material in ancient and modern fluvial and marine sediments. Provenance-specific heavy minerals (e.g., zircon, rutile, tourmaline) can therefore be used to provide valuable information on the formation of ore deposits (placer deposits), and the reconstruction of paleogeography, hydrology, climate conditions and developments. The application of provenances analyses for the latter reason is of specific interest, since there is need for research on the progressing climate change, and heavy minerals represent good proxies for the evaluation of recent and past changes in the climate. The study of these fine particles provides information about potential regional or long distance transport paths, glacial / ice drift and current flows, freezing and melting events as well as depositional centers for the released sediments. Classic methods applied for provenance analyses are mapping of the presence / absence of diagnostic minerals, their grain size distribution, modal mineralogy and the analysis of variations in ratio of two or more heavy minerals. Electron microprobe has been established to discover changes in mineral chemistry of individual mineral phases, which can indicate fluctuations or differences in the provenance. All these methods bear the potential of high errors that lower the validity of the provenance analyses. These are for example the misclassification of mineral species due to undistinguishable optical properties or the limitations in the detection / variations of trace elements using the election microprobe. For this case study, marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean have been selected to test if LA-ICP-MS can be established as a key technique for precise and reliable provenance analyses. The Laptev

  17. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  18. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  19. Continuous improvement journey at Du Pont photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Robert K.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the history and experiences of Du Pont Photomasks in their efforts to integrate the continuous improvement philosophy and practices embodied in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria into their way of doing business. A case study of key learnings in this almost four year long process is presented. Specific topics discussed include the process applied to achieve ISO 9000 certification, the quality systems deployed in this effort, and the use of a balanced set of business and quality metrics to assess and improve upon performance.

  20. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  1. Protru: Leveraging Provenance to Enhance Network Trust in a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Gulustan

    2013-01-01

    Trust can be an important component of wireless sensor networks for believability of the produced data and historical value is a crucial asset in deciding trust of the data. A node's trust can change over time after its initial deployment due to various reasons such as energy loss, environmental conditions or exhausting sources. Provenance can…

  2. Spanish melons (Cucumis melo L.) of the Madrid provenance: A unique germplasm reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces of the Madrid provenance, Spain, have received national distinction for their high fruit quality and sensorial attributes. More specifically, a unique array of Group Inodorus landraces have been continuously cultivated and conserved by farmers in the municipality o...

  3. Preparing All Teachers to Use Proven, Effective Instructional Methods across the Curriculum. High Schools That Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that certain ways of teaching can make a difference in whether students learn standards-based content. Many strategies have proven to be effective in teaching literacy, mathematics, science and social studies. These strategies have facilitated blending academic and career/technical subjects to make learning more meaningful for…

  4. Garnet Ratios and Provenance in The Glacial Drift of Western New York.

    PubMed

    Connally, G G

    1964-06-19

    The ratio of purple to red garnet identifies drift provenance. Low ratios indicate glacier flow from the central Adirondacks. Ratios of 1.4 or greater indicate flow from Canada, by way of the St. Lawrence lowland. The heavy mineral assemblages were evidently undiluted by local sources in western New York. PMID:17777111

  5. ACSM Fitness Book: A Proven Step-By-Step Program from the Experts. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

    This offers advice on the health benefits of regular physical activity. It includes a scientifically proven fitness test to determine one's starting point and monitor ongoing progress, offering step-by-step instructions, sample programs, and insights on nutrition, weight control, motivation, and overcoming setbacks. Seven chapters examine: (1) "An…

  6. K/Ar geochronology as a tool for tracing dust provenance in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, J.; Koffman, B. G.; Recasens, C.; Hemming, S. R.; Kaplan, M. R.; Gombiner, J. H.; Boswell, S.; Williams, T.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the sources and transport pathways of dust can provide a better understanding of past atmospheric circulation and give insight into nutrient and radiative effects on the climate system. Mineralogy and radiogenic isotope chemistry using strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) have been able to constrain sources of dust but are not sufficient to distinguish among important potential source areas in the Southern Hemisphere. The K/Ar isotope system can improve our ability to infer dust provenance because it can discriminate between sources that have similar crustal residence ages but different subsequent tectonothermal histories. To assess K/Ar ages as a provenance tool, we measured radiogenic argon concentrations of samples from potential dust sources such as glaciogenic sediments in Patagonia and New Zealand. Provenance ages from Patagonian sediments cluster around 70 Ma with a range from 33.2 ± 0.4 Ma to 120 ± 3 Ma, and those from New Zealand sediments cluster around 160 Ma with a range from 125 ± 1 Ma to 191 ± 2 Ma, showing that K/Ar geochronology can discriminate between these two source areas and improve upon previous provenance studies. In addition, as a proof of concept we made a case study of a sedimentary time series from core TN057-6 on the Agulhas Ridge in the southeast Atlantic Ocean as well as a set of Holocene and glacial samples from four cores along the SE African margin. We found that K/Ar provenance ages of the <5μm terrigenous material from TN057-6 are best explained as the result of mixing of sediments transported from Patagonia and Africa-derived sediments delivered by the Agulhas Current. The K/Ar method was also able to show different sediment provenance between glacial and interglacial times, with a dominant Patagonian signature during glacial intervals. Ongoing work aims to characterize additional Southern Hemisphere dust sources, including the ice-free regions of Antarctica, and apply the K/Ar provenance tool to dust in Antarctic

  7. Facilitating Scientific Research through Workflows and Provenance on the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludaescher, B.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.; Missier, P.; Dey, S.; Kianmajd, P.; Wei, Y.; Koop, D.; Chirigati, F.; Altintas, I.; Belhajjame, K.; Bowers, S.

    2013-12-01

    Provenance data has numerous applications in science. Two key ones are 1) replication: facilitate the repeatable derivation of results and 2) discovery: enable the location of data based on processing history and derivation relationships. The following scenario illustrates a typical use of provenance data. Alice, a climate scientist, has developed a VisTrails workflow to prepare Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data. After verifying that the workflow generates data in the desired form, she uses the ReproZip tool to create a reproducible package that will enable other scientists to re-run the workflow without having to install and configure the particular libraries she is using. In addition, she exports the provenance information of the workflow execution and customizes it through a tool such as the ProvExplorer, in order to eliminate the information she regards as superfluous. She then creates and shares a DataONE data package containing the data she prepared, the ReproZip package, the customized provenance, and additional science/system metadata. Both the customized provenance and metadata are indexed by the DataONE Cyberinfrastructure (CI) for discovery purposes. Bob, another climate scientist, is looking for a benchmark GPP data to validate the Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM) he has developed. Searching the DataONE repository he finds Alice's data package. He retrieves its ReproZip package, customizes it (e.g. changing the spatial resolution), and re-runs it to generate the benchmark data in the form he desires. The newly generated data is then used as input for his own model evaluation workflow. His workflow generates residual maps and a Taylor diagram that enable him to evaluate the similarity between the results of his model and the benchmark data. At this point, Bob can also make use of the tools Alice used to publish his results as another discoverable and reproducible data package. In order to support these capabilities, we propose to extend the Data

  8. Effect of salt treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two Mesembryanthemum edule provenances.

    PubMed

    Falleh, Hanen; Jalleli, Inès; Ksouri, Riadh; Boulaaba, Mondher; Guyot, Sylvain; Magné, Christian; Abdelly, Chedly

    2012-03-01

    Mesembryanthemum edule L. is an edible and medicinal halophyte widespread in Tunisia seashore. In this study, parameters of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were comparatively investigated in two M. edule provenances (Jerba and Bizerte, respectively sampled from arid and humid bioclimatic stages). Plants were subjected to 0, 300 and 600mM NaCl treatment under glasshouse conditions. Results showed that M. edule response to salinity depends on provenance (P), salt treatment (T) and their interaction (P×T). (T) affected more significantly the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant activities than (P) and (P×T). Conversely, (P) was much affluent for tannin polymerization degree and interaction between the two factors (P×T) was more determinants for analyzed antioxidant parameters. The higher salt tolerance of Jerba plants was associated with low levels of malondialdehyde and of electrolyte leakage mainly at 600mM NaCl. Besides, antioxidant activities of Jerba provenance, were more efficient than Bizerte. In addition, avicularin was the major phenolic in both provenances. This compound concentration increased with salinity in Jerba shoots, while it was reduced in Bizerte especially at 600mM NaCl. Overall, the higher salt tolerance of plants from Jerba provenance, and to a lower extent of those from Bizerte, may be partly related to their better capacity to limit oxidative damage when salt-challenged, and this is likely the result of redistribution in phenolic composition. Besides, abiotic factors such as salinity could be determinant in antioxidant potentiality of this medicinal plant. PMID:22305062

  9. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  10. The Pic du Midi solar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    We carry a long term survey of the solar activity with our coronagraphic system at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees (CLIMSO). It is a set of two solar telescopes and two coronagraphs, taking one frame per minute for each of the four channels : Solar disk in H-α (656.28 nm), prominences in H-α, disk in Ca II (393.3 nm), prominences in He I (1083 nm), all year long, weather permitting. Since 2015 we also take images of the FeXIII corona (1074.7 nm) at the rate of one every 10 minutes. These images cover a large field: 1.25 solar diameter, 2k*2K pixels, and are freely downloadable form a database. The improvements made since 2015 concern an autoguiding system for better centering of the solar disk behind the coronagraphic masks, and a new Fe XIII channel at λ=1074.7 nm. In the near future we plan to provide radial velocity maps of the disc and polarimetry maps of the disk and corona. This survey took its present form in 2007 and we plan to maintain image acquisition in the same or better experimental conditions for a long period: one or several solar cycles if possible. During the partial solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, the CLIMSO instruments and the staff at Pic du Midi operating it have provided several millions internet users with real time images of the Sun and Moon during all the phenomenon.

  11. Élimination du bore du silicium par plasma inductif sous champ électrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, R.; Morvan, D.; Picard, G.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed purification mechanisms of silicon by inductive plasma with a fluoride slag. The aim is to study boron elimination from doped electronic grade silicon in function of the nature of the slag to obtain a photovoltaic grade silicon. The steady began with the calculation and the comparison of the stability diagram of boron compounds in presence of CaF2, BaF2 and MgF2. This study led us to conclude that BaF2 is the better slag for silicon purification. This has been confirmed by experience. In a second time, we made purifications under electric bias to enhance slag efficiency. We noticed that BaF2 is more sensitive to electric bias than other slags. Nous avons analysé le mécanisme de purification du silicium sous plasma inductif en présence d'un laitier fluoré. L'objectif principal est d'étudier l'élimination du bore du silicium électronique dopé en fonction de la nature du fluorure pour obtenir un silicium de qualité photovoltaïque. L'étude a commencé par l'établissement et la comparaison de diagrammes des composés du bore en présence de CaF2, de MgF2 et de BaF2. Nous avons déduit de cette première étude que BaF2 est le meilleur laitier pour la purification du silicium. Ceci a été corroboré par l'expérience. Nous avons ensuite opéré en présence d'un champ électrique dans le but d'améliorer encore l'efficacité des laitiers. Nous avons constaté que BaF2 est plus sensible au champ électrique que les deux autres laitiers utilisés.

  12. A coastal and an interior Douglas fir provenance exhibit different metabolic strategies to deal with drought stress.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Kleiber, Anita; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kammerer, Bernd; Ensminger, Ingo; Gessler, Arthur; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress affecting growth and vitality of forest ecosystems. In the present study, foliar nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism of two Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) provenances with assumed different drought tolerance were investigated. We worked with 1-year-old seedlings of the interior provenance Fehr Lake (FEHR) originating from a dry environment and the coastal provenance Snoqualmie (SNO) from a more humid origin. Total C and N, structural N and the concentrations of soluble protein, total amino acids (TAAs) and individual amino acids as well as the relative abundance of polar, low-molecular-weight metabolites including antioxidants were determined in current-year needles exposed either to 42 days of drought or to 42 days drought plus 14 days of rewatering. The seedlings reacted in a provenance-specific manner to drought stress. Coastal provenance SNO showed considerably increased contents of TAAs, which were caused by increased abundance of the quantitatively most important amino acids arginine, ornithine and lysine. Additionally, the polyamine putrescine accumulated exclusively in drought-stressed trees of this provenance. In contrast, the interior provenance FEHR showed the opposite response, i.e., drastically reduced concentrations of these amino acids. However, FEHR showed considerably increased contents of pyruvate-derived and aromatic amino acids, and also higher drought-induced levels of the antioxidants ascorbate and α-tocopherol. In response to drought, both provenances produced large amounts of carbohydrates, such as glucose and fructose, most likely as osmolytes that can readily be metabolized for protection against osmotic stress. We conclude that FEHR and SNO cope with drought stress in a provenance-specific manner: the coastal provenance SNO was mainly synthesizing N-based osmolytes, a reaction not observed in the interior provenance FEHR; instead, the latter increased the levels of scavengers of reactive

  13. Ontology development for provenance tracing in National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zheng, J. G.; Goldstein, J.; Duggan, B.; Xu, J.; Du, C.; Akkiraju, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The periodical National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) [1] produces reports about findings of global climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States. Those findings are of great public and academic concerns and are used in policy and management decisions, which make the provenance information of findings in those reports especially important. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS), in which the NCA reports and associated provenance information are the primary records. We were modeling and developing Semantic Web applications for the GCIS. By applying a use case-driven iterative methodology [2], we developed an ontology [3] to represent the content structure of a report and the associated provenance information. We also mapped the classes and properties in our ontology into the W3C PROV-O ontology [4] to realize the formal presentation of provenance. We successfully implemented the ontology in several pilot systems for a recent National Climate Assessment report (i.e., the NCA3). They provide users the functionalities to browse and search provenance information with topics of interest. Provenance information of the NCA3 has been made structured and interoperable by applying the developed ontology. Besides the pilot systems we developed, other tools and services are also able to interact with the data in the context of the 'Web of data' and thus create added values. Our research shows that the use case-driven iterative method bridges the gap between Semantic Web researchers and earth and environmental scientists and is able to be deployed rapidly for developing Semantic Web applications. Our work also provides first-hand experience for re-using the W3C PROV-O ontology in the field of earth and environmental sciences, as the PROV-O ontology is recently ratified (on 04/30/2013) by the W3C as a recommendation and relevant applications are still rare. [1] http

  14. Influence of Rock Strength on Landscape Evolution and Sediment Provenance Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, A. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Yanites, B.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital minerals within the stratigraphic record provide key constraints for a range of geologic problems, including the first order tectonic setting of basins, structural histories within orogens, changes in climate, and major drainage network reorganizations. Numerous provenance techniques exist for linking detrital minerals to their source areas, but the majority of these methods share an underlying assumption that sediment delivered to a basin is a representative sample of the bedrock geology of the source area. Satisfying this assumption requires that sediment production rates, i.e. erosion rates, of a source area are uniform throughout. In detail, erosion rates within a source area vary as a function of patterns of landscape evolution dictated by rock erodibility, climate, and relative uplift rate, thus long-term and transient biasing of sediment provenance records is expected. Biases associated with landscape evolution in response to changes in climate, tectonics, or strength of exposed rock can last 10s Myr. Previous work recognized a potential influence of differential erosion on provenance records, but the relative importance of this effect has proven difficult to quantify with field data. To address this, we are using a modified version of the CHILD landscape evolution model (LEM), which supports numerous lithologies with different erodibilities within a landscape. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the relative influence of rock strength and changes in climate or uplift rate on provenance records. We focus on U-Pb detrital zircon records because these data have seen wide adoption as a provenance tool and the refractory nature of zircon makes them less likely to be influenced by chemical weathering effects that are beyond the scope of this work. We plan to test several scenarios including variations in rock erodibility and temporal changes in climate or uplift rate. We will then use results from the LEM to calculate erosion rates from different

  15. Graphical representations of the chemistry of garnets in a three-dimensional MATLAB based provenance plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria; Gier, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed, MATLAB based garnet provenance plot allows a three-dimensional tetrahedral representation of the chemistry of garnets for the endmembers almandine, pyrope, spessartine and grossular. Based on a freely accessible database of Suggate & Hall (2013) and additional EPMA-data on the internet, the chemistry of more than 2500 garnets was evaluated and used to create various subfields that correspond to different facies conditions of metapelitic, metasomatic and metaigneous rocks as well as granitic rocks. These triangulated subfields act as reference structures within the tetrahedron, facilitating assignments of garnet chemistries to different lithologies. In comparison with conventional tenary garnet discrimination diagrams by Mange & Morton (2007), Wright/Preston et al. (1938/2002) and Aubrecht et al. (2009), this tetrahedral provenance plot enables a better assessment of the conditions of formation of garnets by reducing the overlapping of certain subfields. In particular, a clearer distinction between greenschist facies rocks, amphibolite facies rocks and granitic rocks can be achieved. First applications of the tetrahedral garnet plot provided new insights on sedimentary processes during the Lower Miocene in the pre-Alpine Molasse basin. Bibliography Aubrecht, R., Meres, S., Sykora, M., Mikus, T. (2009). Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt , Western Carpathians, Slovakia). In: Geologica Carpathica, Dec. 2009, 60, 6, pp. 463-483. Mange, M.A., Morton, A.C. (2007). Geochemistry of Heavy Minerals. In: Mange, M.A. & Wright, D.T.(2007).Heavy Minerals in Use, Amsterdam, pp. 345-391. Preston, J., Hartley, A., Mange-Rajetzky, M., Hole, M., May, G., Buck, S., Vaughan, L. (2002). The provenance of Triassic continental sandstones from the Beryl Field, northern North Sea: Mineralogical, geochemical and sedimentological constraints. In: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, pp. 18

  16. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  17. Molasse of the Belskii depression of the Cis-Uralian foredeep: Modern data about provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizens, G. A.; Maslov, A. V.; Badida, L. V.; Vovna, G. M.; Kiselev, V. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Hiller, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The crystallochemical characteristics of Cr-spinels and tourmalines in combination with U-Pb isotope data on detrital zircons from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sandstones of the Belskii Depression showed that the main provenances of the molasse sequence in the southern part of the Cis-Uralian foredeep were Lower Paleozoic (Sakmara zone) and Precambrian (Uraltau zone) complexes. The absence of Late Paleozoic zircons in the Tatarian (Upper Permian) sandstones, as well as their small amount in the Lower Triassic psammites together with geochemical and petrographic data, suggest that granite massifs of the Main Granitic Axis of the Urals, as Middle-Upper Paleozoic magmatic complexes of the Magnitogorsk Megazone, were not involved in erosion. At the same time, the significant amount of Precambrian zircons is indicative of the presence of metamorphic complexes in the provenance of the Uraltau zone.

  18. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  19. Rapid Elemental Analysis and Provenance Study of Blumea balsamifera DC Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaona; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Zhao, Na; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data. Scores and loadings of computed principal components visually illustrated the differing spectral data. The PLS-DA algorithm showed good classification performance. The PLS-DA model using complete spectra as input variables had similar discrimination performance to using selected spectral lines as input variables. The down-selection of spectral lines was specifically focused on the major elements of B. balsamifera samples. Results indicated that LIBS could be used to rapidly analyze elements and to perform provenance study of B. balsamifera. PMID:25558999

  20. Rapid evolution and range expansion of an invasive plant are driven by provenance-environment interactions.

    PubMed

    Zenni, Rafael D; Bailey, Joseph K; Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To improve our ability to prevent and manage biological invasions, we must understand their ecological and evolutionary drivers. We are often able to explain invasions after they happen, but our predictive ability is limited. Here, we show that range expansions of introduced Pinus taeda result from an interaction between genetic provenance and climate and that temperature and precipitation clines predict the invasive performance of particular provenances. Furthermore, we show that genotypes can occupy climate niche spaces different from those observed in their native ranges and, at least in our case, that admixture is not a main driver of invasion. Genotypes respond to climate in distinct ways, and these interactions affect the ability of populations to expand their ranges. While rapid evolution in introduced ranges is a mechanism at later stages of the invasion process, the introduction of adapted genotypes is a key driver of naturalisation of populations of introduced species. PMID:24703489

  1. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  2. Rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaona; Zhang, Qiao; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Zhao, Na; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a rapid elemental analysis and provenance study of Blumea balsamifera DC. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data. Scores and loadings of computed principal components visually illustrated the differing spectral data. The PLS-DA algorithm showed good classification performance. The PLS-DA model using complete spectra as input variables had similar discrimination performance to using selected spectral lines as input variables. The down-selection of spectral lines was specifically focused on the major elements of B. balsamifera samples. Results indicated that LIBS could be used to rapidly analyze elements and to perform provenance study of B. balsamifera. PMID:25558999

  3. A Multi-technique Approach for Provenance Studies of Mesozoic Clastic Rocks in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, N. E.; Zimmermann, U.; Støle, L.; Ruud, C.; Mostafa, E.; Andò, S.; Borromeo, L.; Magnaghi, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments of Mesozoic age deposited in the Arctic Hammerfest and Tromsø basins (southern Barents Sea) are the focus of a comprehensive provenance study which forms part of ongoing work by the LoCrA consortium (Lower Cretaceous Basin Studies in the Arctic). Jurassic (Stø, Fuglen, Hekkingen) and Cretaceous (Knurr, Kolje, Kolmule) formations were sampled from seven wells. Analytical methods include petrography, whole-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral (HM) analysis and U-Pb on detrital zircons. HM concentration is <1%, with an ultrastable HM assemblage of zircon, rutile, tourmaline, spinel, apatite, garnet, chloritoid and common authigenic heavy minerals and opaques. Cretaceous sedimentary rocks show geochemical variations that reflect an unrecycled Upper Continental Crust signature, whereas Jurassic detritus tends to show more evidence of recycling with a relatively low input of mafic material. Kolmule Formation whole-rock geochemistry indicates sediment recycling from a major Sc-depleted but intermediate to mafic source and hence suggests input of rift detritus from the syn-depositional opening of the Atlantic Ocean. U-Pb ages for detrital zircons for Cretaceous sandstones show age groups of 200-500 Ma, 1200-1800 Ma, and 2100-2800 Ma, indicating potential source regions in the Urals/Novaya Zemlya, the Caledonides, Grenvillian/Sveconorwegian, and Palaeoproterozoic and Archean sources. Provenance data via geochemistry and HM analysis indicate different sources in the same formation basin-wide, with a significant change in provenance and sediment composition from Jurassic to Cretaceous and between the Knurr and Kolmule formations. These differences in composition need to be compared to detailed single grain studies and may only be explained in terms of basin dynamics, or even on a smaller scale, in terms of facies distributions. If so, this case study raises concerns about the use of single samples for provenance models on a larger scale.

  4. New Tools and the Road to Quantitative Models in Sedimentary Provenance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Eynatten, Hilmar

    2010-05-01

    Sedimentary provenance analysis is one of the major techniques to link source area geology, climate evolution, and basin dynamics to the compositional characteristics of the clastic basin fill. The high potential of sediments for precise chronostratigraphic calibration in combination with state-of-the-art provenance analysis allows for detailed reconstruction of source area evolution in space and time. A wealth of new and/or refined analytical techniques has been developed in the last decade, especially regarding high-precision single-grain geochemical and geochronological techniques. Accordingly, ultrastable heavy minerals such as rutile or zircon provide inert mineral tracers in sedimentary systems and their analysis yield precise information on source rock petrology and chronology. In terms of quantitative provenance analysis there is, however, a strong need for connecting these detailed information on specific source rocks to the bulk mass transfer and sediment modification from source to sink. Such quantitative provenance models are still in their infancy for a number of reasons, among them (1) the overall complexity of the processes involved including multiple feedback mechanisms, (2) the heterogeneity of data bases with respect to large-scale basin-wide studies, and (3) the lack of tailor-made and user-friendly statistical-numerical models allowing for both forward and inverse modelling that consider the compositional nature of most bulk sediment data. First steps towards fully quantitative models include (i) development of algorithms relating petrographic-mineralogic and geochemical data to sediment grain size, (ii) quantifying chemical, physical, and biological processes and their impact on sediment production and modification, (iii) compositional mixture models, and (iv) verifying these analytical modules in large-scale modern systems, followed by (v) similar ancient systems that are even more complicated due to diagenetic processes.

  5. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient

    PubMed Central

    Hufford, Kristina M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north–south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  6. Provenance of the upper Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay deposits of the Chinese loess plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Junsheng; Peng, Wenbin; Möller, Andreas; Song, Yougui; Stockli, Daniel F.; Stevens, Thomas; Horton, Brian K.; Liu, Shanpin; Bird, Anna; Oalmann, Jeffrey; Gong, Hujun; Fang, Xiaomin

    2014-12-01

    A clear understanding of the provenance of late Cenozoic Chinese loess and the underlying Red Clay deposits will shed light on the history and mechanisms of Asian aridification. Although much progress has been made in understanding the source of Quaternary loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), the provenance of the underlying upper Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence is largely unknown. Here we present the first provenance history of the Red Clay sequence based on zircon U-Pb ages from the central CLP. Visual and statistical analyses of the U-Pb age populations and comparison with results from potential source regions reveals that (1) the lowermost Red Clay of the late Miocene (depositional age of ∼8 Ma) is likely sourced from the nearby Liupan Mountains and the Qaidam Basin; (2) the middle Red Clay (5.5-4 Ma) of the early-mid Pliocene is sourced mainly from the Taklamakan desert, transported via lower-level westerly winds; (3) the upper Red Clay of the late Pliocene (∼3 Ma) is sourced from mixed areas, although western source materials from middle-northern Tibetan plateau (including Qaidam Desert sediments and materials eroded from the Qilian Mountains) sediments appear to dominate; and (4) the Quaternary loess is also sourced from mixed source regions, albeit with dominant northern CLP proximal desert sediments transported via winter monsoon winds, which in turn may be transported from mountain source regions of the northeastern Tibet and Gobi Altai via major river systems. This long term shift in sources suggests a progressive eastward aridification during the Pliocene in Asia with the specific timing of provenance shifts synchronous with large-scale climatic transitions and Tibetan uplift, demonstrating that Asian desertification is controlled by both factors.

  7. Impacts of drought on mineral macro- and microelements in provenances of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peuke, Andreas D; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2011-02-01

    Beech seedlings originating from 11 German provenances with different climatic conditions were grown in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The composition of macro- and microelements in roots, axes and leaves was measured after half of the seedlings were subjected to a simulated summer drought. The recently described sensitivity of these provenances to drought was compared with drought-mediated changes in the elemental and ionic composition in organs of the seedlings; in addition, partitioning between roots and shoots was evaluated. A number of element concentrations were decreased in roots due to drought (K 94% of control, Mg 94%, Mn 75% and Zn 85%). However, chloride concentration increased in all organs (115-125%) and was the only element affected in leaves. Some changes in ionome can be related to sensitivity of provenances, but it is difficult to decide whether these changes are a result of, or a reason for, drought tolerance or sensitivity. Observed increases in chloride concentration in all plant parts of drought-treated beech seedlings can be explained by its function in charge balance, in particular since the level of phosphate was reduced. As a result of chloride accumulation, the sum of added charges of anions (and cations) in water extracts of leaf and root material was similar between drought and control plants. Since only the partitioning of Ca and Al (both only in axis) as well as Mn was affected and other elements (together with previously observed effects on C, N, S and P) remained unaffected by drought in all provenances, it can be concluded that direct effects by means of mass flow inhibition in xylem and phloem are unlikely. Secondary effects, for example on the pH of transport sap and the apoplastic space, cannot be excluded from the present study. These effects may affect partitioning between the apoplast and symplast and therefore may be significant for drought sensitivity. PMID:21450981

  8. Genetic delineation of local provenance defines seed collection zones along a climate gradient.

    PubMed

    Hufford, Kristina M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to re-establish native plant species should consider intraspecific variation if we are to restore genetic diversity and evolutionary potential. Data describing spatial genetic structure and the scale of adaptive differentiation are needed for restoration seed sourcing. Genetically defined provenance zones provide species-specific guidelines for the distance within which seed transfer likely maintains levels of genetic diversity and conserves locally adapted traits. While a growing number of studies incorporate genetic marker data in delineation of local provenance, they often fail to distinguish the impacts of neutral and non-neutral variation. We analysed population genetic structure for 134 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in Stylidium hispidum (Stylidiaceae) along a north-south transect of the species' range with the goal to estimate the distance at which significant genetic differences occur among source and recipient populations in restoration. In addition, we tested AFLP markers for signatures of selection, and examined the relationship of neutral and putatively selected markers with climate variables. Estimates of population genetic structure revealed significant levels of differentiation (ΦPT = 0.23) and suggested a global provenance distance of 45 km for pairwise comparisons of 16 populations. Of the 134 markers, 13 exhibited evidence of diversifying selection (ΦPT = 0.52). Using data for precipitation and thermal gradients, we compared genetic, geographic and environmental distance for subsets of neutral and selected markers. Strong isolation by distance was detected in all cases, but positive correlations with climate variables were present only for markers with signatures of selection. We address findings in light of defining local provenance in ecological restoration. PMID:26755503

  9. Provenance and diagenesis of Oligocene sandstones, southern San Joaquin basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    Oligocene Vedder sandstones and correlatives from the southern San Joaquin basin provide an opportunity to compare diagenesis resulting from variable provenance, depositional environment, and burial or tectonic history. Sandstones were examined from 15 cores in this basin-wide petrographic survey. Oligocene sandstones typically are fine to medium grained, moderately sorted, subangular, and quartzofeldspathic, although sandstones from the western and east-central basin are enriched in potassium feldspar and intermediate volcanic rock fragments, respectively. Detrital compositions are transitional between uplifted continental block and undissected to dissected magmatic arc on provenance diagrams. Sediment provenance included the granodioritic Sierra Nevada-Tehachapi Mountain magmatic arc complex and perhaps granitic terranes to the west. Volcanic detritus was shed from southern and eastern sources. Diagenesis varies within the basin, partly reflecting local pore-fluid evolution and detrital composition. The effects of variable geothermal gradients, sedimentation rate, and tectonism on diagenesis await evaluation. In the composite basin-wide paragenetic sequence, calcite, dolomite, siderite, and chlorite-smectite are earliest authigenic phases. Variable cement and compaction relationships indicate nonuniform depth and timing of cementation. Early cements inhibited subsequent diagenesis and compaction. With deeper burial, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and carbonates dissolved, pore-filling kaolinite precipitated, plagioclase was albitized and zeolitized, and late-stage carbonates crystallized. Further geochemical analyses will better define composition and origin of authigenic phases and document reaction progress. Cement zones and sources may be identified and spatially and temporally linked in an attempt to constrain scales and rates of mass transfer of calcium basin wide.

  10. Potential and pitfalls in establishing the provenance of Earth-related samples in forensic investigations.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Barry G; Kemp, Simon J; Hodgkinson, Emily H; Riding, James B; Vane, Christopher H; Poulton, Catherine; Freeborough, Katy

    2006-07-01

    Earth scientists are often asked to establish or constrain the likely provenance of very small quantities of earth-related material as part of a forensic investigation. We tested the independent and collective interpretations of four experts with differing analytical skills in the prediction of sample provenance for three samples from different environmental settings. The methods used were X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the assessment of pollen assemblages, and structural characterization of organic matter at the molecular level. Independent interpretations were less accurate than those where multiple techniques were combined. Collective interpretation was very effective in the assessment of provenance for two of the three sites where the mineralogy and plant communities were distinctive. At the other site, although the mineralogical analysis correctly identified the Triassic mudstone soil parent material, Carboniferous spores from domestic coal were initially interpreted as deriving directly from bedrock. Such an interpretation could be a common pitfall owing to anthropogenic redistribution of material such as coal. PMID:16882228

  11. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  12. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-teporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  13. Strontium isotopes in otoliths of a non-migratory fish (slimy sculpin): Implications for provenance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Cerling, Thure E.; Brown, Randy J.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of river-dissolved strontium (Sr) across geologically diverse environments provides a useful tool for investigating provenance, connectivity and movement patterns of various organisms and materials. Evaluation of site-specific 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability throughout study regions is a prerequisite for provenance research, but the dynamics driving temporal variability are generally system-dependent and not accurately predictable. We used the time-keeping properties of otoliths from non-migratory slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) to evaluate multi-scale 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability of river waters throughout the Nushagak River, a large (34,700 km2) remote watershed in Alaska, USA. Slimy sculpin otoliths incorporated site-specific temporal variation at sub-annual resolution and were able to record on the order of 0.0001 changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. 87Sr/86Sr profiles of slimy sculpin collected in tributaries and main-stem channels of the upper watershed indicated that these regions were temporally stable, whereas the Lower Nushagak River exhibited some spatio-temporal variability. This study illustrates how the behavioral ecology of a non-migratory organism can be used to evaluate sub-annual 87Sr/86Sr temporal variability and has broad implications for provenance studies employing this tracer.

  14. Tracing the provenance of fine-grained dust deposited on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youbin; Tada, Ryuji; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Toyoda, Shin; Tani, Atsushi; Ji, Junfeng; Isozaki, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    Eolian dust deposits in north China provide an excellent means of determining past variations in continental paleoclimate and atmospheric circulation. However, debate still exists on which deserts in east Asia are the dominant sources of Chinese loess and whether the dust provenance has shifted significantly at different time scales. Here we present new constraints on the provenance of fine-grained dust deposited on the central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) by combining electron spin resonance signal intensity and crystallinity index of fine-grained quartz contained in samples from two loess-paleosol sequences. Our results show that the fine-grained dust deposits on the CLP originate mainly from the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia and the sandy deserts in northern China (primarily the Badain Juran and Tengger deserts), rather than from the Taklimakan desert in western China, at least during the last climatic cycle. The dominant source of fine-grained dust varied significantly, from southern Mongolia during cold periods, to northern China during warm periods. The glacial-interglacial provenance fluctuations are strongly coupled with changes in the intensity of the near-surface northwesterly winter monsoon.

  15. Discrimination of sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea: Secondary grain-size effect and REE proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Jeong, Do-Hyun; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Tiegang

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed grain size and elemental concentrations (Al, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REEs)) in 91 surface sediments to elucidate sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea. Elemental concentrations were normalized by Al concentration (Celement/CAl) to minimize the sediment grain-size effect (GSE). However, noticeable linear relationships between Al concentration (or mean grain size) and the ratio (e.g., Mg/Al or Fe/Al) appeared unexpectedly in pair diagrams. The spatial distribution patterns of Fe/Al and Mg/Al ratios were also similar to the pattern of mean grain size. This implies that the GSE was not removed completely, even after the normalization process. Thus, great care must be taken when applying the ratios of Celement/CAl as a proxy of sediment provenance. To improve provenance discrimination of the sediments in the Yellow Sea, the difference between the REE distribution patterns of Chinese and Korean river sediments, expressed as δ (δ = REE∗(La) - REE∗(Lu)), was calculated, and the spatial distribution patterns of the δ values were mapped. The δ values gradually increased from the western to the eastern part of the Yellow Sea, except for low δ values in the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. This result indicates that the majority of Chinese and Korean river sediments are accumulating near to their respective coasts, except for a deposit along the southwestern coast of Korea in which a considerable amount of sediment from Chinese rivers has been accumulating.

  16. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  17. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  18. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  19. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  20. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  1. Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, drawn by Pierre du Simitiere (papers in Philadelphia Library) DRAWING OF REDWOOD LIBRARY IN 1768. - Redwood Library, 50 Bellevue Avenue, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. 301.92-2 Section 301.92-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (a) Restricted articles. The following are...

  4. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. 301.92-2 Section 301.92-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (a) Restricted articles. The following are...

  5. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. 301.92-2 Section 301.92-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (a) Restricted articles. The following are...

  6. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. 301.92-2 Section 301.92-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (a) Restricted articles. The following are...

  7. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. 301.92-2 Section 301.92-2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa. (a) Restricted articles. The following are...

  8. Oxidation states of uranium in DU particles from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Janssens, K; Lind, O C; Proost, K; Danesi, P R

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation states of uranium contained in depleted uranium (DU) particles were determined by synchrotron radiation based micro-XANES, applied to individual particles in soil samples collected at Ceja Mountain, Kosovo. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with XRMA prior to micro-XANES, DU particles ranging from submicrons to about 30 microm (average size: 2 microm or less) were identified. Compared to well-defined standards, all investigated DU particles were oxidized. About 50% of the DU particles were characterized as UO2, the remaining DU particles present were U3O8 or a mixture of oxidized forms (ca. 2/3 UO2, 1/3 U3O8). Since the particle weathering rate is expected to be higher for U3O8 than for UO2, the presence of respiratory U3O8 and UO2 particles, their corresponding weathering rates and subsequent remobilisation of U from DU particles should be included in the environmental or health impact assessments. PMID:12500803

  9. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  10. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  11. Locally Derived Sediment, Yet Chemically and Chronologically Unique - Overcoming the "Stepladder Effect" in Provenance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonich, M. B.; Samson, S. D.; Fedo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The trace element composition of clastic sedimentary rocks has frequently been used to characterize sediment provenance. To test the efficacy of whole-rock chemical composition as a provenance indicator, researchers examined alluvium solely derived from the 74 Ma Stepladder pluton (SP), in the Mojave Desert of SE California. Despite the low degree of chemical alteration and minimal transport distance neither trace element concentration or immobile elements ratios accurately reflected that of the source pluton. Furthermore, there is a considerable discrepancy between the frequency of zircon U-Pb ages from the SP and its derived alluvium. The majority (~ 75%) of the zircon grains from the SP are ~ 74 Ma and the remaining 25% are ~ 1.65 Ga. In contrast, ~ 50 to 85% of the detrital zircon, of varying grain sizes, yielded Proterozoic ages. Both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and Likeness tests were used to compare all 120 possible samples pairs; the KS test rejected the null hypothesis that the zircon are derived from the same population, and the likeness test showed that most sediments are not like the source. These results, which we refer to as the "Stepladder effect", led us to consider Sr isotopic composition as a potentially more robust metric of provenance. Several of the sediment samples have similar present-day 87Sr/86Sr to that determined for four SP samples which range from 0.71055 to 0.71129. However, three sediment samples are distinctly different, suggesting a sedimentary sorting effect (e.g. concentration of biotite in finer sediments). To minimize this confounding effect we will determine the Sr isotopic composition of detrital apatite and biotite to compare with the same minerals of SP source. Using these specific minerals, which represent end-members of Rb-Sr spectrum, may help to constrain the degree of mixing with an externally sourced material (e.g. aeolian-derived grains) that have been added to the alluvium shedding further light on the Stepladder

  12. Effects of temperature and drought manipulations on seedlings of Scots pine provenances.

    PubMed

    Taeger, S; Sparks, T H; Menzel, A

    2015-03-01

    Rising temperatures and more frequent and severe climatic extremes as a consequence of climate change are expected to affect growth and distribution of tree species that are adapted to current local conditions. Species distribution models predict a considerable loss of habitats for Pinus sylvestris. These models do not consider possible intraspecific differences in response to drought and warming that could buffer those impacts. We tested 10 European provenances of P. sylvestris, from the southwestern to the central European part of the species distribution, for their response to warming and to drought using a factorial design. In this common-garden experiment the air surrounding plants was heated directly to prevent excessive soil heating, and drought manipulation, using a rain-out shelter, permitted almost natural radiation, including high light stress. Plant responses were assessed as changes in phenology, growth increment and biomass allocation. Seedlings of P. sylvestris revealed a plastic response to drought by increased taproot length and root-shoot ratios. Strongest phenotypic plasticity of root growth was found for southwestern provenances, indicating a specific drought adaptation at the cost of overall low growth of aboveground structures even under non-drought conditions. Warming had a minor effect on growth but advanced phenological development and had a contrasting effect on bud biomass and diameter increment, depending on water availability. The intraspecific variation of P. sylvestris provenances could buffer climate change impacts, although additional factors such as the adaptation to other climatic extremes have to be considered before assisted migration could become a management option. PMID:25262794

  13. Inferring tectonic provenance of siliciclastic rocks from their chemical compositions: A dissent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhijit; Bickford, Marion E.; Deasy, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Chemical compositions of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are commonly used to infer their tectonic provenance. We have tested the universal applicability of the underlying principle in a small, but controlled study expecting 100% confirmation of the practice. A comparison is made between the chemical composition of the ~ 1480 Ma Butler Hill Granite in an uplifted cratonic block of the St. Francois Mountain Igneous Complex and that of a small ~ 1-m-thick regolith body, a weathered granite sample, and the basal quartz arenites of the ~ 520 Ma Lamotte Formation immediately above the regolith. The results show that in plots of K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2/Al2O3, the regolith and sandstone samples correctly plot in the Passive Margin field, although the weathered granite plots in the Arc field. In plots of Th-Sc-Zr/10 and La-Th-Sc, the results plot in the Passive and Active Continental Margins and their extensions. In other common plots to discriminate tectonic provenance (e.g., SiO2 vs. K2O/Na2O, Fe2O3 + MgO vs. Al2O3/SiO2, Fe2O3 + MgO vs. TiO2, Sc/Cr vs. La/Y) a few points plot in the Passive Margin field but scatter into and outside of other fields of tectonic provenances. The chondrite-normalized REE distributions show variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies, with flat HREE, conforming to a felsic source. The LREE distributions show both positive and negative Ce anomalies that can be ascribed to the variability of redox conditions during weathering and diagenesis of the original siliciclastic sediments. The variability of the Eu anomaly was likely affected by post-erosion processes in addition to whatever was inherited from the parent rocks. We conclude that chemical compositions can provide good clues, but are neither strong indicators nor unique identifiers of their tectonic provenance. Rather, they indicate a dominantly felsic or dominantly mafic, or a mixed set of source rocks.

  14. Associating uncertainty with datasets using Linked Data and allowing propagation via provenance chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Fitch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    With earth-science datasets increasingly being published to enable re-use in projects disassociated from the original data acquisition or generation, there is an urgent need for associated metadata to be connected, in order to guide their application. In particular, provenance traces should support the evaluation of data quality and reliability. However, while standards for describing provenance are emerging (e.g. PROV-O), these do not include the necessary statistical descriptors and confidence assessments. UncertML has a mature conceptual model that may be used to record uncertainty metadata. However, by itself UncertML does not support the representation of uncertainty of multi-part datasets, and provides no direct way of associating the uncertainty information - metadata in relation to a dataset - with dataset objects.We present a method to address both these issues by combining UncertML with PROV-O, and delivering resulting uncertainty-enriched provenance traces through the Linked Data API. UncertProv extends the PROV-O provenance ontology with an RDF formulation of the UncertML conceptual model elements, adds further elements to support uncertainty representation without a conceptual model and the integration of UncertML through links to documents. The Linked ID API provides a systematic way of navigating from dataset objects to their UncertProv metadata and back again. The Linked Data API's 'views' capability enables access to UncertML and non-UncertML uncertainty metadata representations for a dataset. With this approach, it is possible to access and navigate the uncertainty metadata associated with a published dataset using standard semantic web tools, such as SPARQL queries. Where the uncertainty data follows the UncertML model it can be automatically interpreted and may also support automatic uncertainty propagation . Repositories wishing to enable uncertainty propagation for all datasets must ensure that all elements that are associated with uncertainty

  15. Innovative features providing proven solutions for integration of composite pressure vessels into aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, C. A.

    1993-06-01

    Some specific proven aerospace applications of pressure vessels made of a thin aluminum liner overwrapped with a composite of epoxy resin and high-strength carbon fiber are discussed. The discussion focuses on the safety and reliability of carbon overwrapped vessels. In particular, attention is given to safety with respect to impact damage and exposure to corrosive fluids, safety factor on operating pressure, stress rupture of carbon fiber, and the ability of the aluminum liner to contain the fluid for the life of the mission.

  16. [Study on Provenance of Kraak Porcelains from "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck].

    PubMed

    Du, Jing-nan; Chen, Yue; Li, Nai-sheng; Ming, Chao-fang; Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wu-gan

    2015-06-01

    The "Kraak Porcelain" was a kind of Blue and White Porcelain which exported from China to Europe in Ming and Qing period. The study of Kraak Porcelain is a focus issue in international field of porcelain research. In 2007, the discovery of "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck of Ming Dynasty and the porcelains loaded in it, provided precious materials for the research on Kraak Porcelain. In this paper, we explored the provenance of 10 Kraak Porcelain samples from Nan'ao I, using both traditional visual method and WDXRF. PMID:26601402

  17. Provenance of the lower Miocene of the Gulf of Mexico from detrital zircon double dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lower Miocene interval of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has recently gained increasing attention from oil and gas industry due to its hydrocarbon potential below the salt canopy. However, it has been less well studied than both the underlying Oligocene and overlying middle Miocene strata. The lower Miocene worldwide is a transitional period of tectonic, climatic, and oceanographic change. In particular, it is a period of major tectonic reorganization in the western interior of North America (Rocky Mountains), involving a shift from the Oligocene thermal phase, with abundant volcanic activity recorded in the thick Frio/Vicksburg succession of the GOM, to the Miocene Basin-Range extensional phase. Climatic conditions also changed from a relatively arid Oligocene to wetter Miocene, resulting in increased sediment yields from exhumed tectonic structures. Previous provenance studies used proportions of quartz, feldspar and lithic fragments and consideration of likely river courses through known paleogeomorphological elements. Only limited detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb studies on Paleocene strata have been undertaken and there has been no previous U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating in the GOM. In this study we apply the latest analytical approaches, such as DZ U-Pb dating to gain robust source terranes ages and more fully elucidate the complex sediment provenance and dispersal history of GOM. We also employ DZ (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating, combined with DZ U-Pb, to not only define sedimentary provenance but also the exhumation histories of detrital source regions. Samples of lower Miocene outcrop exposures in Texas and Louisiana have been collected to discriminate the varied tectonic and drainage system changes across the basin in lateral. In addition, samples from the Eocene, Oligocene and middle Miocene have been obtained to reveal vertical shift of source terranes contributions. Our initial age data show detrital zircons of lower Miocene sediments come from a wide range of source

  18. Getting Double the Work Done with Half the Effort: Provenance and Metadata with Semantic Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The variety, velocity, and volume of big data are dwarfing our ability to analyze it using the computational tools and models at our disposal. Studies report that researchers spend more than 60% of their time just preparing the data for model input or data-model inter-comparison just to start a baseline in a given science project. Computational workflow systems can assist with these tasks by automating the execution of complex computations. When metadata is available, semantic workflow systems can use it to make intelligent decisions based on the type of data and models requirements. This talk will discuss the importance of provenance-aware software that both generates and uses metadata as the data is being processed, and what new capabilities are enabled for researchers. This combined system was used to develop and test a near-real time scientific workflow to facilitate the observation of the spatio-temporal distribution of whole-stream metabolism estimates using available monitoring station flow and water quality data. The data integration steps combined data from public government repositories and local sensors with the implication of different associated properties (data integrity, sampling intervals, units), and (2) the variability of the interim flows requires adaptive model selection within the framework of the metabolism calculations. These challenges are addressed by using a data integration system in which metadata and provenance are generated as the data is prepared and then subsequently used by a semantic workflow system to automatically select and configure models, effectively customizing the analysis to the daily data. Data preparation involves the extraction, cleaning, normalization and integration of the data coming from sensors and third-party data sources. In this process, the metadata and provenance captured includes sensor specifications, data types, data properties, and process documentation, and is passed along with the data on to the workflow

  19. The case for physician assisted suicide: how can it possibly be proven?

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, E; Levy, N

    2006-01-01

    In her paper, The case for physician assisted suicide: not (yet) proven, Bonnie Steinbock argues that the experience with Oregon's Death with Dignity Act fails to demonstrate that the benefits of legalising physician assisted suicide outweigh its risks. Given that her verdict is based on a small number of highly controversial cases that will most likely occur under any regime of legally implemented safeguards, she renders it virtually impossible to prove the case for physician assisted suicide. In this brief paper, we suggest some ways that may enable us to weigh the risks and benefits of legalisation more fairly and, hopefully, allow us to close the case for physician assisted suicide. PMID:16731731

  20. Blood-culture-proven neonatal septicaemia: a review of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Misallati, A; el-Bargathy, S; Shembesh, N

    2000-01-01

    The cases of 36 newborns seen in the neonatal unit of Al-Fatah Children's Hospital in Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, with blood-culture-proven septicaemia were reviewed to determine clinical profile and outcome. There were 22 males and 14 females. Of these, 12 infants were premature with a gestational age of < 37 weeks and 24 were full term (gestational age > 37 weeks). At diagnosis, 11 cases were under 4 days of age. The most common symptoms were lethargy and feeding intolerance. Klebsiella was the most common etiological microorganism. Bacterial isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin but sensitive to cefotaxime. Of the 36 infants, 12 died (fatality rate = 33%). PMID:11556040

  1. Etude du strabisme chez des enfants de 0 à 15 ans suivis a Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo: analyse des aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, Yogolelo Asani; Angel, Musau Nkola; Sebastien, Mbuyi Musanzayi; Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Léon, Kabamba Ngombe; Eugene, Twite Kabange; Chami, Cham Lubamba; Prosper, Kalenga Muenze Kayamba; Claude, Speeg-Schatz; Gaby, Chenge Borasisi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le strabisme est défini comme un syndrome à double composante: motrice et sensorielle. Le but de ce travail est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques du strabisme chez l'enfant congolais de 0 à 15 ans dans la ville de Lubumbashi. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive longitudinale sur les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques du strabisme chez l'enfant congolais de 0 à 15 ans dans la ville de Lubumbashi entre Décembre 2012 à Décembre 2013. Nous avons recueilli l’âge des patients, leur sexe, leur provenance, le type de strabisme, la réfraction, le fond d'oeil, les antécédents (hérédité) ainsi que le type de la déviation strabique observé sur 70 patients. Résultats Nous avons observé 70 cas de strabisme manifeste dont 31 cas (44,28%) étaient dans la tranche d’âge comprise entre 0 et 5 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 6,7 ans avec une prédominance du sexe féminin, soit 51,42%. Le strabisme était convergent dans 65,71%, divergent dans 30%, et vertical dans 4,28%. Les ésotropies représentaient 65 cas (92,85%), quatre cas (5,71%) avaient un antécédent familial de strabisme au premier degré de parenté, 21 cas (30%) au second degré de parenté, 45 cas (64,28%) n'avaient pas cet antécédent. L'oeil gauche était le plus dominé dans 30% des cas. Les facteurs favorisant le strabisme étaient inconnus dans 54 cas (77,14%). Le strabisme était secondaire à l'hypermétropie chez 32 patients (42,71%). Conclusion La fréquence du strabisme dans la ville de Lubumbashi chez les enfants âgés de 0 à 15 ans est de 0,50%. Comme dans la plupart des études sur le strabisme de l'enfant, c'est l’ésotropie qui est la déviation la plus commune. PMID:26834919

  2. Defining the “proven technology” technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia’s nuclear power program

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-29

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that “proven technology” is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for “proven technology” is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the “proven technology” term according to a specific country’s requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of “proven technology” that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia’s definition of “proven technology”.

  3. Mise à jour sur le nouveau vaccin 9-valent pour la prévention du virus du papillome humain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, David Yi; Bracken, Keyna

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Informer les médecins de famille quant à l’efficacité, à l’innocuité, aux effets sur la santé publique et à la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent contre le virus du papillome humain (VPH). Qualité des données Des articles pertinents publiés dans PubMed jusqu’en mai 2015 ont été examinés et analysés. La plupart des données citées sont de niveau I (essais randomisés et contrôlés et méta-analyses) ou de niveau II (études transversales, cas-témoins et épidémiologiques). Des rapports et recommandations du gouvernement sont aussi cités en référence. Message principal Le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH, qui offre une protection contre les types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 et 58 du VPH, est sûr et efficace et réduira encore plus l’incidence des infections à VPH, de même que les cas de cancer lié au VPH. Il peut également protéger indirectement les personnes non immunisées par l’entremise du phénomène d’immunité collective. Un programme d’immunisation efficace peut prévenir la plupart des cancers du col de l’utérus. Les analyses montrent que la rentabilité du vaccin 9-valent chez les femmes est comparable à celle du vaccin quadrivalent original contre le VPH (qui protège contre les types 6, 11, 16 et 18 du VPH) en usage à l’heure actuelle. Toutefois, il faut investiguer plus en profondeur l’utilité d’immuniser les garçons avec le vaccin 9-valent contre le VPH. Conclusion en plus d’être sûr, le vaccin 9-valent protège mieux contre le VPH que le vaccin quadrivalent. Une analyse coûtefficacité en favorise l’emploi, du moins chez les adolescentes. Ainsi, les médecins devraient recommander le vaccin 9-valent à leurs patients plutôt que le vaccin quadrivalent contre le VPH.

  4. Lowering the Barriers to Integrative Aquatic Ecosystem Science: Semantic Provenance, Open Linked Data, and Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T.; Hofmann, A. F.; Utz, R.; Deelman, E.; Hanson, P. C.; Szekely, P.; Villamizar, S. R.; Knoblock, C.; Guo, Q.; Crichton, D. J.; McCann, M. P.; Gil, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental cyber-observatory (ECO) planning and implementation has been ongoing for more than a decade now, and several major efforts have recently come online or will soon. Some investigators in the relevant research communities will use ECO data, traditionally by developing their own client-side services to acquire data and then manually create custom tools to integrate and analyze it. However, a significant portion of the aquatic ecosystem science community will need more custom services to manage locally collected data. The latter group represents enormous intellectual capacity when one envisions thousands of ecosystems scientists supplementing ECO baseline data by sharing their own locally intensive observational efforts. This poster summarizes the outcomes of the June 2011 Workshop for Aquatic Ecosystem Sustainability (WAES) which focused on the needs of aquatic ecosystem research on inland waters and oceans. Here we advocate new approaches to support scientists to model, integrate, and analyze data based on: 1) a new breed of software tools in which semantic provenance is automatically created and used by the system, 2) the use of open standards based on RDF and Linked Data Principles to facilitate sharing of data and provenance annotations, 3) the use of workflows to represent explicitly all data preparation, integration, and processing steps in a way that is automatically repeatable. Aquatic ecosystems workflow exemplars are provided and discussed in terms of their potential broaden data sharing, analysis and synthesis thereby increasing the impact of aquatic ecosystem research.

  5. Quantifying Sediment Provenance Using Multiple Composite Fingerprints in a Small Watershed in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X C John; Liu, B L; Liu, B; Zhang, G H

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative information on sediment provenance is needed for improved calibration and validation of process-based soil erosion models. However, sediment source data are often limited due to difficulties in directly measuring source contributions at a watershed scale. Our objectives in this study were to estimate sediment source contributions in a 15-km watershed using analytical solutions to a three end-member mixing model using multiple composite fingerprints and to compare the results with those estimated with a single radionuclide, Cs. Surface soil samples were collected from 23 croplands, 19 rangelands, and 26 gully banks in the watershed, and 31 geochemical elements were analyzed for each sample. The elements served as tracers and were screened using statistical tests and range checks. The mean concentrations of all the nonconflict tracer pairs were used in the mixing model to calculate source contributions for the three sources. Results showed that although source contributions were strongly influenced by topography and land use, gully or subsoil erosion was found to be the main source of fine sediment in most subwatersheds. This study demonstrates that estimated source contributions may vary substantially among different composite fingerprints and that the use of multiple composite fingerprints greatly improves accuracy while reducing uncertainty. The source contributions estimated using multiple composite fingerprints agreed well with those estimated with Cs, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69 for gully contributions. This good agreement increases our confidence in using the multiple composite fingerprint method to identify sediment provenance in relatively small watersheds. PMID:27380078

  6. Provenance of Pliocene clay deposits from the Iberian Atlantic Margin and compositional changes during recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinis, Pedro; Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-05-01

    The XRD mineralogy and geochemistry of recycled fine-grained deposits from the West Iberia Atlantic Margin are used to establish sediment provenance and evaluate the features that most closely reflect the nature of the source areas and the transformations during the last depositional cycle. A set of Pliocene sediment samples is organized according to grain size distribution, geochemistry, and mineralogy, and their chemical composition is compared with the composition of possible source rocks. Most deposits located to the north of the Mondego River were derived from the uplifted Precambrian metapelites of the basin edge, while to the south of the Mondego River they result mainly from recycling of Cretaceous and Cenozoic clastic units, which, in turn, were derived from Precambrian-Paleozoic granitoids and metasedimentary rocks. This differentiation is supported by several element ratios and biplots involving La, Sm, Gd, Sc, Th, U, Y, Yb, and Zr. For the specific grain size range of the deposits studied, which are mainly made up of silt and clay particles, composition is not substantially affected by the grain size distribution of the sediment. Multi-element diagrams designed to discriminate the tectonic setting and the nature of source rocks are of little use in the interpretation of provenance but help to trace geochemical and mineralogical transformations during the last depositional cycles. Despite the evidence of element leaching during the Pliocene depositional cycle, the geochemical and mineralogical indicators of weathering intensities are largely determined by the nature of the previous cycle units.

  7. Neuroimaging Study Designs, Computational Analyses and Data Provenance Using the LONI Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo; Lozev, Kamen; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Pierce, Jonathan; Zamanyan, Alen; Chakrapani, Shruthi; Van Horn, John; Parker, D. Stott; Magsipoc, Rico; Leung, Kelvin; Gutman, Boris; Woods, Roger; Toga, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Modern computational neuroscience employs diverse software tools and multidisciplinary expertise to analyze heterogeneous brain data. The classical problems of gathering meaningful data, fitting specific models, and discovering appropriate analysis and visualization tools give way to a new class of computational challenges—management of large and incongruous data, integration and interoperability of computational resources, and data provenance. We designed, implemented and validated a new paradigm for addressing these challenges in the neuroimaging field. Our solution is based on the LONI Pipeline environment [3], [4], a graphical workflow environment for constructing and executing complex data processing protocols. We developed study-design, database and visual language programming functionalities within the LONI Pipeline that enable the construction of complete, elaborate and robust graphical workflows for analyzing neuroimaging and other data. These workflows facilitate open sharing and communication of data and metadata, concrete processing protocols, result validation, and study replication among different investigators and research groups. The LONI Pipeline features include distributed grid-enabled infrastructure, virtualized execution environment, efficient integration, data provenance, validation and distribution of new computational tools, automated data format conversion, and an intuitive graphical user interface. We demonstrate the new LONI Pipeline features using large scale neuroimaging studies based on data from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping [5] and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [6]. User guides, forums, instructions and downloads of the LONI Pipeline environment are available at http://pipeline.loni.ucla.edu. PMID:20927408

  8. Geochemical indicators of provenance and tectonic setting of Mississippian pelites of the Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.W. ); Blatt, H.; Weaver, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions of the southern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic are inconclusive. Numerous conflicting models have been proposed for the opening and closing of the Iapetus Ocean and the subsequent deposition and deformation of the Ouachita System. Considerable confusion also exists concerning the provenance of the Carboniferous flysch deposits of the Ouachitas. Trace element geochemistry of shales from the Stanley Group constrain both the provenance of the sediments and the plate tectonic setting during the Mississippian evolution of the southern continental margin. Th/Sc and Cr/Th ratios support a cratonic source for the majority of samples analyzed. However, in several samples the Th/Sc ratio decreases and the Cr/Th ratio increases, suggesting a contribution from a more mafic source. Using element ratio-ratio diagrams, all of the samples plot along a curve consistent with a two-component mixing model between a felsic and a mafic source. Both a tantalum-niobium trough and a strongly negative strontium anomaly are seen in upper-crust-normalized trace element spiderdiagrams. These anomalies are also present in interbedded volcaniclastics within the Stanley. The Stanley shales also exhibit a positive vanadium-chromium-nickel anomaly. The pervasive occurrence of these anomalies is interpreted as inherited from their source, and not from diagenetic alteration or sedimentary processes.

  9. Provenance Analysis of Surface Sediments in the Chew Bahir Basin (Ethiopia) using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesche, N.; Trauth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southern Ethiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.

  10. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  11. Crowded EDs leaving proven strategies for improving patient flow on the table.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    While there is a plethora of proven strategies to address crowding, some of the most crowded EDs have failed to take full advantage of these tactics, according to a new study that examined the adoption of a range of both ED-based and hospital-wide interventions at hospitals between 2007 and 2010. The investigators are calling for a national strategy to address crowding as well as the implementation of new measures. They also say that more steps need to be taken so that hospital leaders are held accountable for ED crowding. Researchers found that the average number of interventions adopted to reduce crowding increased during the study period from 5.2% to 6.6%, but that some of the most crowded facilities failed to adopt interventions that have been proven to work well. For instance, 19% of the most crowded EDs did not use bedside registration and 94% did not adopt surgical schedule smoothing, an intervention that can be adopted at little or no cost. Investigators note that the hospitals that have been successful at addressing ED crowding are those that embrace systemic solutions. PMID:26939352

  12. Provenance of freshwater pulses in the Gulf of Mexico during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sionneau, T.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Flower, B. P.; Bory, A.; Tribovillard, N.; Kissel, C.; Van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Montero Serrano, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    During the last deglaciation, the decaying Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) delivered huge volumes of meltwater toward the Gulf of Mexico. The present investigation of clay mineralogy and grain-size characteristics of terrigenous sediments deposited in the Orca Basin (Gulf of Mexico) offers a unique opportunity to link the marine record of these meltwater floods with the reconstructed continental glacial history and the modeled drainage patterns. Five peculiar sedimentary levels, characterized by high smectite content and low CaCO 3 content, were identified and occurred simultaneously with major meltwater floods. According to recently published clay mineral distribution maps for North America, these results help to pinpoint the southwestern margin of the LIS as a main contributor to most of the meltwater discharges. In addition, the peculiar mineralogical composition (illite and chlorite-rich) of the sediments characterizing the meltwater episode associated with Heinrich event 1 suggests a provenance from the Great Lakes area, supporting the interpretation of destabilization of the LIS southeastern margin during this event. Decreased terrigenous contribution associated with changing provenance of sediments after 12.9 cal ka BP suggests strong modifications of the continental hydrography in relation to Lake Agassiz history and changes in the morphology of Mississippi delta due to rising sea level.

  13. Various anatomic locations of surgically proven endometriosis: A single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Ye Mi; Kim, Yong Beom; Suh, Chang Suk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis. Methods Pathologic reports (n=1,376) of women who underwent surgeries at a single center between April 2005 and March 2013 were retrieved from the electronic medical record system of the hospital. Pathologic reports were included after performing a search by using the key-words "endometrial cyst," "endometriotic cyst," "endometriosis," or "endometrioma." Only reports dealing with female patients were selected, and the pathologic reports of 1,350 women (1,374 surgery cases) were included in the analysis. Results The predominant location of endometriosis was the ovaries (96.4%), followed by the soft tissue (2.8%), gastrointestinal tract (0.3%) and urinary tract (0.2%). Laparoscopic surgery was the major surgical technique used for the pelvic endometriosis (89.2%). Adrenal gland endometriosis was found in a 55-year-old woman. Conclusion We established the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis in Korean women. PMID:25629019

  14. Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

  15. Detrital provenance of Early Mesozoic basins in the Jiangnan domain, South China: Paleogeographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianbing; Tang, Shuai; Lin, Shoufa

    2016-04-01

    Detrital provenance analysis is an effective way to understand paleogeographic change and geodynamics. In this paper, we present petrological, whole-rock geochemical and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analysis of Early and Middle Jurassic terrestrial clastic rocks in the Jingdezhen Basin and the Huangshan Basin in the Jiangnan domain, South China. Petrology and whole-rock geochemistry show that the source rocks are dominated by intermediate to acid component. The Chemical Index of Alteration ranges from 69 to 86, suggesting a moderate weathering history for the source rocks. The Early-Middle Jurassic sediments in the Jingdezhen and Huangshan basins were mostly sourced from magmatogenic greywackes and felsic magmatic rocks, respectively. Detrital zircons have seven age peaks at ~ 240 Ma, ~ 430 Ma, ~ 1390 Ma, ~ 1880 Ma, ~ 2500 Ma, -3200 Ma and 788-999 Ma (a wide peak). Provenance analysis indicates that the source rocks are in the Jiangnan domain, the Northwest Zhejiang Basin and the Wuyishan domain. Combining these with previous results and paleocurrent directions, we infer that the NE-trending Wuyishan and Xuefengshan domains and the nearly E-W-Jiangnan domain and Nanling tectonic belt were orogenic uplifts and watersheds during the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. The Early Mesozoic geodynamics in the South China Block was related to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate and the northward continent-continent collision following the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  16. Controls on Quaternary Sediment Erosion and Provenance in the Himalayan Rain Shadow, Zanskar River, Northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonell, T. N.; Clift, P. D.; Carter, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Summer Monsoon exerts strong control over erosion in the frontal Himalaya and possibly farther onto the periphery of the Tibetan Plateau in the Himalayan rain shadow. This study evaluates the Zanskar River, a large rain shadow tributary to the Indus River system, to establish how monsoonal precipitation controls erosion patterns, sediment yield, and sediment composition in the Himalayan rain shadow. Bulk sediment petrography and U-Pb detrital zircon ages demonstrate that Zanskar River sands are overwhelmingly dominated by 600-850 Ma zircon, which is consistent with material eroding from Greater Himalayan lithologies. In particular, modern sediment production appears to be heavily concentrated in the wettest and most glaciated subcatchment. River terrace sands indicate that no significant change in the area of sediment production and basin-wide provenance signal has occurred since ~11.5 ka, despite changes in monsoon strength. Variability in subcatchment provenance signals, however, do shift locally with enhanced precipitation around the time of the Monsoon Maximum (10-8 ka). Detrital apatite fission track ages suggest rates of erosion typical for the northwest Indian Himalaya for the last 6.4 M.y. in Zanskar, in spite of the changing monsoonal climate. Together these data indicate most sediment in the Zanskar River is freshly-eroded and transmitted immediately downstream into the Indus River with only modest buffering in terraces.

  17. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    Collision orogens have a complex structure, including diverse rock units assembled in various ways by geodynamic processes. Consequently, orogenic detritus embraces a varied range of signatures, and unravelling provenance of clastic wedges accumulated in adjacent foreland basins, foredeeps, or remnant-ocean basins is an arduous task. Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Dickinson (1985) recognized the intrinsically composite nature of orogenic detritus, but did not attempt to establish clear conceptual and operational distinctions within their broad "Recycled Orogenic Provenance". In the Alpine and Himalayan belts, the bulk of the detritus is produced by focused erosion of the central backbone of the orogen, characterized by high topography and exhumation rates (Garzanti et al., 2004; Najman, 2006). Detritus derived from such axial nappe pile, including slivers of thinned continental-margin lithosphere metamorphosed at depth during early collisional stages, has diagnostic general features, which allows us to define an "Axial Belt Provenance" (Garzanti et al., 2007). In detail, "Axial Belt" detrital signatures are influenced by metamorphic grade of source rocks and relative abundance of continental versus oceanic protoliths, typifying distinct subprovenances. Metasedimentary cover nappes shed lithic to quartzolithic detritus, including metapelite, metapsammite, and metacarbonate grains of various ranks; only amphibolite-facies metasediments supply abundant heavy minerals (e.g., almandine garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, diopsidic clinopyroxene). Continental-basement nappes shed hornblende-rich quartzofeldspathic detritus. Largely retrogressed blueschist to eclogite-facies metaophiolites supply albite, metabasite and foliated antigorite-serpentinite grains, along with abundant heavy minerals (epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, lawsonite, actinolitic to barroisitic amphiboles, glaucophane, omphacitic clinopyroxene). Increasing metamorphic grade and deeper

  18. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  19. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  20. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Common sediment fingerprinting techniques use either (1) extensive analytical datasets, sometimes nearly complete with respect to accessible characterization techniques; they are processed by multidimensional statistics based on certain statistical assumptions on distribution functions of analytical results and conservativeness/additivity of some components, or (2) analytically demanding characteristics such as isotope ratios assumed to be unequivocal "labels" on the parent material unaltered by any catchment process. The inherent problem of the approach ad (1) is that interpretation of statistical components ("sources") is done ex post and remains purely formal. The problem of the approach ad (2) is that catchment processes (weathering, transport, deposition) can modify most geochemical parameters of soils and sediments, in other words, that the idea that some geochemistry parameters are "conservative" may be idealistic. Grain-size effects and sediment provenance have a joint influence on chemical composition of fluvial sediments that is indeed not easy to distinguish. Attempts to separate those two main components using only statistics seem risky and equivocal, because grain-size dependence of element composition is nearly individual for each element and reflects sediment maturity and catchment-specific formation transport processes. We suppose that the use of less extensive datasets of analytical results and their interpretation respecting fundamental principles should be more robust than only statistic tools applied to overwhelming datasets. We examined sediment composition, both published by other researchers and gathered by us, and we found some general principles, which are in our opinion relevant for fingerprinting: (1) Concentrations of all elements are grain-size sensitive, i.e. there are no "conservative" elements in conventional sense of provenance- or transport-pathways tracing, (2) fractionation by catchment processes and fluvial transport changes

  1. The suitability of the GERDyzer instrument in pH-test-proven laryngopharyngeal reflux patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Pin; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Chen-Chi; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The use of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for the treatment outcome measure of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is crucial given the lack of objective markers. However, current symptom-based PRO instruments can only partially capture the impact of LPR. The GERD Analyzer (GERDyzer), an existing disease-specific PRO instrument, which measures multidimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL) affected by the illness rather than by any specific symptoms, has been validated in patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration PRO guidance, we cross-culturally adapted the GERDyzer instrument into Chinese, and examined the qualitative and quantitative psychometric properties of the Chinese version GERDyzer in pH-test-proven LPR patients.The GERDyzer comprises 10 dimensions of HRQL, including general well-being, pain/discomfort, physical health, diet, energy, activities, leisure activities, social life, mood, and sleep. To examine the content validity, we recruited 26 pH-test-proven LPR participants to conduct 4 focus group meetings for direct patient input on clinical manifestations and HRQL impacts. We also tested the quantitative psychometric properties, including reliability, validity, and responsiveness in 100 pH-test-proven LPR patients.Saturation of concept elicitation was achieved from the 4 focus groups, and a strong conceptual match was evident between the GERDyzer contents and responses from the focus group participants. Cognitive debriefing assessment showed that the Chinese version GERDyzer was adequate for use by patients as it demonstrated linguistic validation and cultural harmonization. Quantitative psychometric properties showed evidence of high internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.96), good to excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.98). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor structure. Convergent validity was confirmed by

  2. Provenance and depositional conditions of Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sandstones from northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehrmann, Stephanie; Augustsson, Carita; Izaguirre Valdez, Rocio Nereyda; Jenchen, Uwe; Schulte, Peter

    2012-12-01

    We compare Late Maastrichtian siliciclastic sandstone in northeastern Mexico with those representing the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary to reveal differences in provenance and depositional conditions between background sedimentation and K-Pg sand. Lithology and compositional variations are presented for the deep-water Burgos Basin and the shallow-water La Popa Basin. The Late Maastrichtian sandstones in the Burgos Basin have sharp lower contacts, contain abundant trace fossils and are separated by meter-thick marl layers. They represent sporadic mass flows from coastal areas separated by long phases of hemipelagic sedimentation. The K-Pg sandstone layers are amalgamated, contain thin marl intercalations only in the uppermost part and trace fossils are present in the top sandstone layer only. Also this succession represents mass-flow deposits, but the sand may have been deposited during a very short period. The La Popa Basin sandstones represent deltaic sedimentation interrupted by submarine channel deposition during the K-Pg boundary transition with abundant rip-up clasts and bioclasts at the base. The sandstones of the Burgos Basin are quartz to akosic wacke dominated by quartz (> 90%) and some feldspar (< 10%) in calcite cement and matrix. Lithic fragments are rare and dominated by chert and bioclasts. Ultra-stable heavy minerals (ZTR = 50-80) and plutonic quartz grains (ca. 40% of the total quartz population) are particularly common in the K-Pg sandstones. In the Maastrichtian sandstones, metamorphic heavy minerals, particularly chlorite, clinozoisite, and tourmaline (20-50% of the heavy mineral population), and metamorphic quartz (80% of the quartz population) have higher abundances. The La Popa sandstones are subarkose to arkose and arkosic wacke and have a high abundance of feldspar (15-30%) and lithic fragments (5-20%), mainly of siltstone and carbonate. The sandstones from both basins have chemical compositions typical for recycling (Zr/Sc = 12-27 and

  3. Quantitative models of sediment generation and provenance: State of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltje, Gert Jan

    2012-12-01

    An overview of quantitative approaches to analysis and modelling of sediment generation and provenance is presented, with an emphasis on major framework components as determined by means of petrographic techniques. Conceptual models of sediment provenance are shown to be consistent with two classes of numerical-statistical models, i.e. linear mixing models and compositional linear models. These cannot be placed within a common mathematical framework, because the former requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of proportions, whereas the latter requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of log-ratios of proportions. Additivity of proportions, a fundamental assumption in linear mixing models, cannot be readily expressed in log-ratio terms. Linear mixing models may be used to describe compositional variability in terms of physical and conceptual (un)mixing. Models of physical (un)mixing are appropriate for describing compositional variation within transport-invariant subpopulations of grains as a result of varying rates of supply of detritus from multiple sources. Conceptual (un)mixing governs the relations among chemical, mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of sediments, which represent different descriptive levels within a compositional hierarchy. Compositional linear process models may be used to describe compositional and/or textural evolution resulting from selective modifications induced by sediment transport, as well as chemical and mechanical weathering. Current approaches to modelling of surface processes treat the coupled evolution of source areas and sedimentary basins in terms of bulk mass transfer only, and do not take into account compositional and textural sediment properties. Moving from the inverse modelling approach embodied in provenance research to process-based forward models of sediment generation which provide detailed predictions of sediment properties meets with considerable (albeit not insurmountable

  4. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  5. The suitability of the GERDyzer instrument in pH-test-proven laryngopharyngeal reflux patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Pin; Liang, Wen-Miin; Wang, Chen-Chi; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for the treatment outcome measure of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is crucial given the lack of objective markers. However, current symptom-based PRO instruments can only partially capture the impact of LPR. The GERD Analyzer (GERDyzer), an existing disease-specific PRO instrument, which measures multidimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL) affected by the illness rather than by any specific symptoms, has been validated in patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration PRO guidance, we cross-culturally adapted the GERDyzer instrument into Chinese, and examined the qualitative and quantitative psychometric properties of the Chinese version GERDyzer in pH-test-proven LPR patients. The GERDyzer comprises 10 dimensions of HRQL, including general well-being, pain/discomfort, physical health, diet, energy, activities, leisure activities, social life, mood, and sleep. To examine the content validity, we recruited 26 pH-test-proven LPR participants to conduct 4 focus group meetings for direct patient input on clinical manifestations and HRQL impacts. We also tested the quantitative psychometric properties, including reliability, validity, and responsiveness in 100 pH-test-proven LPR patients. Saturation of concept elicitation was achieved from the 4 focus groups, and a strong conceptual match was evident between the GERDyzer contents and responses from the focus group participants. Cognitive debriefing assessment showed that the Chinese version GERDyzer was adequate for use by patients as it demonstrated linguistic validation and cultural harmonization. Quantitative psychometric properties showed evidence of high internal consistency (Cronbach α: 0.96), good to excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84–0.98). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor structure. Convergent validity was

  6. Responses to mild water deficit and rewatering differ among secondary metabolites but are similar among provenances within Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hovenden, Mark J; Davies, Noel W; McAdam, Scott A M; Ross, John J; Rodemann, Thomas; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit associated with drought can severely affect plants and influence ecological interactions involving plant secondary metabolites. We tested the effect of mild water deficit and rewatering on physiological, morphological and chemical traits of juvenile Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. We also tested if responses of juvenile eucalypts to water deficit and rewatering varied within species using provenances across a rainfall gradient. Both species and all provenances were similarly affected by mild water deficit and rewatering, as only foliar abscisic acid levels differed among provenances during water deficit. Across species and provenances, water deficit decreased leaf water potential, above-ground biomass and formylated phloroglucinol compound concentrations, and increased condensed tannin concentrations. Rewatering reduced leaf carbon : nitrogen, and total phenolic and chlorogenic acid concentrations. Water deficit and rewatering had no effect on total oil or individual terpene concentrations. Levels of trait plasticity due to water deficit and rewatering were less than levels of constitutive trait variation among provenances. The overall uniformity of responses to the treatments regardless of native provenance indicates limited diversification of plastic responses when compared with the larger quantitative variation of constitutive traits within these species. These responses to mild water deficit may differ from responses to more extreme water deficit or to responses of juvenile/mature eucalypts growing at each locality. PMID:26496959

  7. Modelisation du Signal Radar EN Milieu Stratifie et Evaluation de Techniques de Mesure de L'humidite du Sol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Johanne

    La presente etude se penche sur des problemes relies a l'echantillonnage de l'humidite de sol et a l'estimation du signal radar sur sols nus. Le travail se divise en deux volets. Le volet 1 evalue trois techniques de mesure de l'humidite du sol (gravimetrie, reflectometrie temporelle et sonde dielectrique) et deux protocoles d'echantillonnage. Dans le volet 2, un modele de simulation du signal en milieu stratifie est developpe, et les estimes de signal obtenus sont compares aux estimes bases uniquement sur une valeur moyenne d'humidite du sol prise sur une profondeur fixe d'echantillonnage. Les differences entre les deux estimes dependent de la frequence et du choix judicieux de la profondeur d'echantillonnage; elles sont plus importantes aux faibles angles et en polarisation HV, puis VV. Le modele de simulation a aussi ete utilise pour etudier la profondeur de penetration du signal et en deduire la profondeur optimale d'echantillonnage en tenant compte des caracteristiques du signal. Une variation de 25 ^circ de l'angle d'incidence a peu d'effet sur la profondeur de penetration en bande Ku; l'ecart reste inferieur ou egal a 0,5 cm en bande C mais peut atteindre 1,3 cm en bande L. L'impact de la polarisation est nul en bande Ku mais croi t avec l'angle d'incidence en bande C et L. A 50^circ, il est, en moyenne de 1 cm en bande C et de 2 cm en bande L. En polarisation VV, la profondeur croi t avec une augmentation de l'angle alors que l'effet est inverse en polarisation HH. Deux methodes pour estimer la profondeur d'echantillonnage en conditions operationnelles sont presentees. Lorsqu'on inverse un modele pour estimer l'humidite du sol a partir du signal, ces methodes permettent aussi d'estimer l'epaisseur de sol representee par l'humidite ainsi estimee.

  8. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie and Brown Counties, Wisconsin AGENCY... proposed Interstate conversion of U.S. Highway 41 in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac... 41 to an Interstate in Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Outagamie,...

  9. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-08-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42-33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat.

  10. Distribution and provenance of lunar highland rock types at North Ray Crater, Apollo 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Ostertag, R.; Borchardt, R.; Malley, J.; Rehfeldt, A.; Reimold, W. U.

    In connection with its selenographic setting in the central lunar highlands, the Apollo 16 landing site in the Descartes area is highly important as a prime sampling area for rocks which formed as part of the primordial crust and as a key location for the analysis of the deformation and transport of crustal material by impact processes. The present investigation is concerned with the North Ray crater, which is located on the N-S running boundary between the smooth Cayley plains to the west and the Descartes mountains to the east. Attention is given to aspects of selenography and location of samples, the ejecta distribution of post-Cayley impact craters, sample classification, the frequency distribution of rock types in the North Ray Crater ejecta, an interpretation of compositional and age data, a model of the target stratigraphy and excavation of North Ray Crater, and implications for the emplacement and provenance of North Ray target rocks.

  11. Provenances of late Pliocene rare-metal-titanium placers in the Tamansky Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefranova, A. V.; Lalomov, A. V.

    2013-02-01

    The comprehensive mineralogical analysis of the Taman nearshore Ti-Zr placers and their provenances in the adjoining late Pliocene sedimentation basin is presented. Taking into account paleogeographic reconstructions and contemporary mineral potential of sediments in the Sea of Azov, a contribution of specific feeding sources of terrigenous minerals to the formation of the late Pliocene placers have been estimated. These sources are crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the Caucasus, the southern Russian Plate, and the southeastern Ukrainian Shield (listed in the order of their contribution). The Miocene placers of the Stavropol Arch and Adygea Prominence, as well as the Cretaceous and younger placers of the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Anteclise are suggested to be transitional reservoirs. Economic deposits are forecasted in the zone of paleostraits.

  12. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance

    PubMed Central

    Licht, A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Abels, H. A.; Lai, Z.; Guo, Z.; Abell, J.; Giesler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42–33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  13. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  14. ILP, the Blind, and the Elephant: Euclidean Embedding of Co-proven Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hannes; Kersting, Kristian; Karwath, Andreas

    Relational data is complex. This complexity makes one of the basic steps of ILP difficult: understanding the data and results. If the user cannot easily understand it, he draws incomplete conclusions. The situation is very much as in the parable of the blind men and the elephant that appears in many cultures. In this tale the blind work independently and with quite different pieces of information, thereby drawing very different conclusions about the nature of the beast. In contrast, visual representations make it easy to shift from one perspective to another while exploring and analyzing data. This paper describes a method for embedding interpretations and queries into a single, common Euclidean space based on their co-proven statistics. We demonstrate our method on real-world datasets showing that ILP results can indeed be captured at a glance.

  15. Close or not so close? Provenance studies of megalithic monuments from Alentejo (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaventura, R.; Moita, P.

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant amount of studies about megalithic tombs conducted in the Alentejo region. However the geological provenance of monoliths used in the construction of those tombs usually was not a priority among researchers with rare exceptions (Dehn, Kalb and Vortisch, 1991; Boaventura, 2000). Recent studies of dolmens (Oliveira, 1997 and 2006; Gonçalves, 2003) refer only to a brief characterization of rocks, such as "granite or schist slabs", highlighting certain types if the geological stratum is identical or not to the stone blocks. On the other hand, when the type of raw material appears to be similar with the bedrock, it is common and empirically assumed its local provenance. With the aim of testing and expand the knowledge about the provenance of the slabs used in the construction of megalithic tombs, several lithic samples from dolmen slabs and outcrops in their surroundings were collected for analysis and comparison. The samples were characterized by petrographic studies in thin section as well with a geochemical analyses performed by XRF that gives major elements as well some trace elements. The dolmens tested for this project are located roughly between the northeast to west of the town of Monforte (Upper region of Alentejo, Portugal) and are named, from south to north, as Serrinha, Rabuje group (1 to 5), Geodésico de Besteiros 3 and Velho. The field work and petrographic studies revealed that the slabs are constituted mainly by several types of granitoids (gnaissic, red, white, tonalitic), amphibolites and mottled schist shale. The comparison of chemical analyses between slabs and selected outcrops revealed that the provenances are in most of the cases from the nearby geological stratum. In fact, major elements (e.g. MgO, SiO2, CaO) as well trace elements (e.g. Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) compositions are similar on slab samples and in rocks from the outcrops. If in terms of major elements a similarity was already expectable, or easier to obtain, the

  16. Gold Provenance Studies for Romanian Archaeological Objects Using Micro-SR-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilescu, Angela; Constantinescu, Bogdan; Bugoi, Roxana; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Simon, Rolf

    2010-04-06

    Studies by Synchrotron Radiation--X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) for the search of the presence of trace elements like Sb, Sn, Te and Pb in archaeological metallic objects found on the territory of Romania--old coins and Bronze Age jewelry, aimed to determine the provenance of the gold used in their manufacture. The results are compared with the detailed elemental composition of alluvial or primary gold samples, obtained by the same technique. This work attempted to establish the origin of the gold used for the mint of two different types of koson coins. We found that the kosons with monogram are made of refined gold, while the one used for the kosons without monogram is mainly alluvial. The gold used in the manufacture of the Calarasi Vulchitrun-type disk and the Tauteu hair ring is also of alluvial origin.

  17. Gold Provenance Studies for Romanian Archaeological Objects Using Micro-SR-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilescu, Angela; Constantinescu, Bogdan; Bugoi, Roxana; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Simon, Rolf

    2010-04-01

    Studies by Synchrotron Radiation—X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-XRF) for the search of the presence of trace elements like Sb, Sn, Te and Pb in archaeological metallic objects found on the territory of Romania—old coins and Bronze Age jewelry, aimed to determine the provenance of the gold used in their manufacture. The results are compared with the detailed elemental composition of alluvial or primary gold samples, obtained by the same technique. This work attempted to establish the origin of the gold used for the mint of two different types of koson coins. We found that the kosons with monogram are made of refined gold, while the one used for the kosons without monogram is mainly alluvial. The gold used in the manufacture of the Calarasi Vulchitrun-type disk and the Tauteu hair ring is also of alluvial origin.

  18. An Approach to Evaluate Scientist Support in Abstract Workflows and Provenance Traces

    SciTech Connect

    Salayandia, Leonardo; Gates, Ann Q.; Pinheiro da Silva, Paulo

    2012-11-02

    Abstract workflows are useful to bridge the gap between scientists and technologists towards using computer systems to carry out scientific processes. Provenance traces provide evidence required to validate results and support their reuse. Assuming both technologies are based on formal semantics, a knowledge-based system that consistently merges both technologies is useful for scientists that produce data to document their data collecting and transformation processes; it is also useful for scientists that reuse data to assess scientific processes and resulting datasets produced by others. While evaluation of each technology is necessary for a given application, this work discusses their combined evaluation. The claim is that both technologies should complement each other and align consistently to a scientist’s perspective in order to be effective for science. Evaluation criteria are proposed based on lessons learned and exemplified for discussion.

  19. Field-proven transportable GC/MS: Real-world case studies and success stories

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, J.; Gallis, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has evolved into being the preferred technique for analyzing challenging environmental samples in complex matrices. The authors present case studies and successes achieved in applying a field-proven, fully transportable GC/MS system that is conveniently deployed to perform on-site GC/MS analyses with results equivalent to benchtop laboratory systems. This on-site GC/MS analytical capability provides real-time, decision-quality data, while reducing sample handling delays, minimizing laboratory analysis costs, and eliminating sample degradation so that analytical results accurately represent actual on-site conditions. A confidential site in the northeastern US was characterized as having shallow soil PCB contamination.

  20. Cheminformatics and the Semantic Web: adding value with linked data and enhanced provenance.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jeremy G; Bird, Colin L

    2013-09-01

    Cheminformatics is evolving from being a field of study associated primarily with drug discovery into a discipline that embraces the distribution, management, access, and sharing of chemical data. The relationship with the related subject of bioinformatics is becoming stronger and better defined, owing to the influence of Semantic Web technologies, which enable researchers to integrate heterogeneous sources of chemical, biochemical, biological, and medical information. These developments depend on a range of factors: the principles of chemical identifiers and their role in relationships between chemical and biological entities; the importance of preserving provenance and properly curated metadata; and an understanding of the contribution that the Semantic Web can make at all stages of the research lifecycle. The movements toward open access, open source, and open collaboration all contribute to progress toward the goals of integration. PMID:24432050

  1. Capturing Provenance, Evolution and Modification of Clinical Protocols via a Heterogeneous, Semantic Social Network.

    PubMed

    Portokallidis, Nick; Drosatos, George; Kaldoudi, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is largely based on medical best practices as in clinical protocols. Research so far has addressed the computerized execution of clinical protocols by developing a number of related representation languages, execution engines and integrated platforms to support real time execution. However, much less effort has been put into organizing clinical protocols for use and reuse. In this paper we propose a heterogeneous semantic social network to describe and organize clinical protocols based on their provenance, evolution and modifications. The proposed approach allows semantic tagging and enrichment of clinical protocols so that they can be used and re-used across platforms and also be linked directly to other relevant scientific information, e.g. published works in PubMed or personal health records, and other clinical information systems. PMID:27332270

  2. Resilience of the Asian atmospheric circulation shown by Paleogene dust provenance.

    PubMed

    Licht, A; Dupont-Nivet, G; Pullen, A; Kapp, P; Abels, H A; Lai, Z; Guo, Z; Abell, J; Giesler, D

    2016-01-01

    The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China support the presence of arid conditions and modern atmospheric pathways for the last 25 million years (Myr). Here, we present provenance data from older (42-33 Myr) dust deposits, at a time when the Tibetan Plateau was less developed, the Paratethys sea still present in central Asia and atmospheric pCO2 much higher. Our results show that dust sources and near-surface atmospheric circulation have changed little since at least 42 Myr. Our findings indicate that the locus of central Asian high pressures and concurrent aridity is a resilient feature only modulated by mountain building, global cooling and sea retreat. PMID:27488503

  3. Beyond Magnetism: a Short History of Obsidian Provenance Studies and Magnetic Personalities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, S.

    2010-12-01

    For many decades now, geologists and archaeologists have been analyzing archaeological obsidian using a spate of techniques. No single technology, however, can solve all of the chemical, petrological, or archaeological problems that arise from this disordered substance. The future is indistinct for obsidian studies with the rising use and misuse of portable XRF (PXRF) and ICP-MS, the apparent decline of the use of neutron activation (NAA), continual misuse of megascopic source assignment, and the maturation of laboratory x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Magnetic property analysis of obsidian is yet another tool for the understanding of source provenance and may very well become a tool that fills a gap in our analytical repertoire. This discussion is designed to provide historical context for this resurrected technique and serve as a reminder that we don’t always know what we know in geoarchaeological science.

  4. Distribution and provenance of lunar highland rock types at North Ray Crater, Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Ostertag, R.; Borchardt, R.; Malley, J.; Rehfeldt, A.; Reimold, W. U.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with its selenographic setting in the central lunar highlands, the Apollo 16 landing site in the Descartes area is highly important as a prime sampling area for rocks which formed as part of the primordial crust and as a key location for the analysis of the deformation and transport of crustal material by impact processes. The present investigation is concerned with the North Ray crater, which is located on the N-S running boundary between the smooth Cayley plains to the west and the Descartes mountains to the east. Attention is given to aspects of selenography and location of samples, the ejecta distribution of post-Cayley impact craters, sample classification, the frequency distribution of rock types in the North Ray Crater ejecta, an interpretation of compositional and age data, a model of the target stratigraphy and excavation of North Ray Crater, and implications for the emplacement and provenance of North Ray target rocks.

  5. Paleocurrent, petrography and provenance analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), southeastern Benue Trough, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amajor, L. C.

    1987-09-01

    Paleocurrent, petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses of the Ajali Sandstone (Late Cretaceous) in southeastern Nigeria show that the sedimentary rocks on the Santonian Okigwe-Abakaliki anticlinorium provided the major detritus, whereas minor contributions of the eastern Precambrian basement block (Oban massif) are confined along a narrow belt southeast of Alayi in the Afikpo Basin. The sandstones derived from the major sedimentary source are quartz arenites characterized by a zircon-tourmaline heavy-mineral assemblage and a radial paleocurrent pattern which parallels the paleoslope of the provenance. On the other hand, those sands generated from the eastern basement block are arkose and sub-arkose dominated by a garnet-apatite-rutile heavy-mineral assemblage and southwesterly directed paleocurrent modes. The results of this study support the previous hypothesis that most ancient quartz arenites are multicycle in origin.

  6. Cheminformatics and the Semantic Web: adding value with linked data and enhanced provenance

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Jeremy G; Bird, Colin L

    2013-01-01

    Cheminformatics is evolving from being a field of study associated primarily with drug discovery into a discipline that embraces the distribution, management, access, and sharing of chemical data. The relationship with the related subject of bioinformatics is becoming stronger and better defined, owing to the influence of Semantic Web technologies, which enable researchers to integrate heterogeneous sources of chemical, biochemical, biological, and medical information. These developments depend on a range of factors: the principles of chemical identifiers and their role in relationships between chemical and biological entities; the importance of preserving provenance and properly curated metadata; and an understanding of the contribution that the Semantic Web can make at all stages of the research lifecycle. The movements toward open access, open source, and open collaboration all contribute to progress toward the goals of integration. PMID:24432050

  7. Evaluating Rifean Corridor Closure using Detrital Zircon Sediment Provenance of the Taza-Guercif Basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J. R.; Barbeau, D. L.; Emran, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the late Miocene, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean was tectonically severed leading to severe evaporative draw down of Mediterranean sea level such that the entire basin was desiccated or near desiccated in an event from ~5.96-5.33 Ma known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The MSC sequestered 6% of global ocean salinity into evaporite deposits, created a deep, dry and hot basin that altered global atmospheric circulation, opened passageways for mammal migration between Europe, Africa and Arabia and ended in the largest flood observed in the geologic record. The combined effects of the Messinian Salinity Crisis make it the most important oceanic event in the last 20 million years, yet despite the dramatic ramifications of the MSC, the exact nature of its cause has remained both elusive and controversial. By examining the sedimentary provenance of Rifean Corridor, this research evaluates the progression of corridor closure and the tectonic context of the initiation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The difficulty in evaluating the progression of closure is due to the tectonic complexity of the Africa-Eurasia convergent plate boundary in north-central Morocco. The shortening associated with the tectonic convergence is accommodated by two genetically and tectonically distinct orogenic systems, the Rif and Atlas mountain belts, which lie in juxtaposition to the slab-rollback dominated Alboran Sea. The basins of the Rifean corridor lie between these two orogens and as such shortening and uplift associated with either or both ranges could be the cause of the corridor closure. Several hypotheses have been posited for the tectonic controls on basin emergence including slab-rollback related delamination on the Alboran margin, domal uplift of the Middle Atlas as well as a more traditional propagation of the Rifean orogenic wedge. This research provides the first quantitative provenance data for the Taza-Guercif basin in the form of LA

  8. La chirurgie du diaphragme sous aortique

    PubMed Central

    Moutakiallah, Younes; Maaroufi, Ilham; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Bamous, Mehdi; Abdou, Abdessamad; Atmani, Noureddine; Hatim, Abdedaïm; Amahzoune, Brahim; Bekkali, Youssef El; Boulahya, Abdelatif

    2016-01-01

    Le diaphragme sous aortique se caractérise par une certaine latence clinique et une faible morbi-mortalité. La chirurgie reste le traitement de choix malgré un réel risque de récurrence à long terme. Nous rapportons 18 patients opérés entre Avril 1994 et Mars 2011 pour diaphragme sous aortique d’âge moyen de 18,1±9,7 ans avec 11 patients de sexe masculin. Le diaphragme était de nature fibreuse chez 13 patients et fibro-musculaire chez 5 patients. Tous les patients ont été opérés par résection de diaphragme associée à une myectomie, une plastie aortique, une fermeture de communication interventriculaire et une ligature de canal artériel perméable respectivement chez 3, 3, 2 et 2 patients. La Mortalité opératoire était nulle et sans aucun cas de trouble de conduction postopératoire. Le suivi a duré en moyenne 44,3±36,8 mois sans aucun décès tardif. Deux patients ont présenté une récidive de diaphragme qui a nécessité une réopération avec bonne évolution. La tendance actuelle dans la chirurgie du diaphragme se fait vers des interventions précoces et des résections plus extensives. Cependant, le risque de récidive impose une surveillance échographique systématique et rapprochée. PMID:27516830

  9. Testing Models of Modern Glacial Erosion of the St. Elias Mountains, Alaska Using Marine Sediment Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkrot, M. L.; Jaeger, J. M.; Loss, D. P.; Bruand, E.

    2015-12-01

    The glaciated coastal St. Elias Range in Alaska is a primary site to examine climate-tectonic interactions. Work has primarily focused on the Bering-Bagley and Malaspina-Seward ice fields, utilizing detrital and bedrock zircon and apatite geochronology to examine local exhumation and glacial erosion (Berger et al., 2008; Enkelmann et al., 2009; Headly et al., 2013). These studies argue for specific regions of tectonically focused or climatically widespread glacial erosion. Analyzed zircon and apatite grains are sand size, however glacial erosion favors the production of finer-grained sediments. This study focuses on the geochemical provenance of the silt-size fraction (15-63μm) of surface sediments collected throughout the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) seaward of the Bering and Malaspina glaciers to test if the exhumation patterns observed in zircon and apatites are also applicable for the silt size fraction. Onshore bedrock Al-normalized elemental data were used to delineate sediment sources, and a subset of provenance-applicable elements was chosen. Detrital thermochronologic data suggest that sediment produced by the Bagley/Bering system is derived from bedrock on the windward side with input from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC) underlying the Bagley only during glacial surge events (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt deposited during the 1994-95 surge event confirm input of CMC sediment (elevated in Cr, Ni, Sc, Sr, depleted in Hf, Pb and Rb relative to Kultieth and Poul Creek formations). We also observe a windward-side sediment source (Kultieth and Poul Creek). It is hypothesized that the sediment carried by the Malaspina is primarily from CMC rock underlying the Seward ice field mixed with Yakataga formation rock that underlies the Seward throat (Headly et al., 2013). Geochemical observations of GOA silt support this hypothesis.

  10. Petrology and provenance of Upper Cretaceous Sandstone, southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Toyne, C.D.

    1987-05-01

    Petrologic analysis of 24 medium to coarse-grained sandstone samples, collected from a 2950-m submarine fan complex of late Campanian-early Maestrichtian age exposed within Mono Creek Canyon, reveal commonly calcite cemented, poorly sorted, subangular biotic arkoses. Framework averages 86.0%. Matrix - primarily detrital quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments finer than 0.03 mm and mechanically and chemically altered phyllosilicates and labile aphanites - averages 8.9%. Calcite cement averages 4.2%. Porosity averages 0.9%. Gazzi-Dickinson point counts of 400 framework grains per slide yield modal averages of Q/sub 37.7/ F/sub 49.8/ L/sub 12.5/; Qm/sub 27.4/ F/sub 49.8/ Lt/sub 22.8/; Qm/sub 35.6/ P/sub 43.7/ K/sub 20.7/; and Qp/sub 49.4/ Lv/sub 22.1/ Ls/sub 28.5/. P/F averages 0.68, Lv/L averages 0.45, Qp/Q averages 0.27, and detrital phyllosilicate, predominantly biotite, averages 5.7% of total framework. Neither primary nor secondary parameters vary systematically with stratigraphic position. Miscellaneous constituents average 1.3% of framework and include epidote, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, zircon, and tourmaline as well as carbonaceous blebs, opaque minerals, and unidentifiable lithic fragments. Separate analysis of 100 medium sized quartz grains per slide indicates a mean population of 63.0% non-undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 9.1% undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 10.1% polycrystalline quartz of 2 to 3 crystals, and 17.9% polycrystalline quartz composed of more than 3 crystals. Modal data, plotted upon provenance discrimination diagrams, indicate a plutonic provenance transitional between a dissected magmatic arc and uplifted basement terrane. Paleocurrent data, neglecting possible clockwise rotation, indicate sediment transport from the north.

  11. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  12. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  13. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 C degrees up to 2 C. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed.

  14. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur sandstones, Chattisgarh basin: A petrographic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Basudeb

    2005-06-01

    Sandstones of early Neoproterozoic Chandarpur Group, Chattisgarh Supergroup, central India display progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity from base to top of the succession. The clay-silt matrix decreases, sorting of sand grains improves, frequency of rounded grains increases, monocrystalline quartz content increases with concomitant decrease in polycrystalline quartz, feldspar and rock fragments. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different stratigraphic levels. The sandstones of the basal Lohardih Formation are alluvial fan deposits, characterized by high matrix and feldspar content, iron-oxide impregnated highly angular grains and poor sorting. Petrographic properties collectively indicate that the sandstones were derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Abundance of well rounded grains within the alluvial fan and overlying braided fluvial deposit indicates prolonged wind action during episodes of high aridity. The shallow marine deposit overlying the fluvial deposits in the upper part of the Lohardih Formation exhibits bed-to-bed variation in the frequency of angular grains, feldspar content and overall maturity suggesting environmentally controlled segregation of sediments. The abrupt appearance of coarse-grained immature sandstones with concomitant reappearance of iron-oxide impregnated/altered feldspar grains in the upper part of the shelf deposits of the Chaporadih Formation point to a phase of tectonic uplift that possibly triggered a regression. Continued regression and peneplanation heralded the deposition of supermature medium-grained purple quartzarenite of the upper shoreface Kansapathar Formation in the uppermost part of the Chandarpur succession under a hot desertic climatic condition. The provenance analysis revealed that the Chandarpur clastics were derived from granites and granite-gneisses of a continental

  15. Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Frezzotti, Massimo; Ruti, Paolo Michele

    2011-11-01

    Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2-6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60-70°S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies.

  16. Detrital zircon provenance of the Paleogene syn-rift sediments in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Pang, Xiong; Jiang, Tao; Qiao, Peijun; Zhao, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The early rift sedimentation history of the South China Sea is still not well understood due to restricted borehole coverage of the Paleogene strata and lack of reliable stratigraphic dating. We use detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to explore the source-to-sink characteristics of syn-rift sequences in the northern South China Sea. The results reveal significant intrabasinal provenances in addition to the well-perceived terrigenous supply from the north. The Dongsha Uplift is considered to account for the dominance of the Early Cretaceous zircons in the Eocene samples. The Lower Oligocene sediments in the Qiongdongnan Basin could have been sourced from Hainan Island and local uplifts, but their distinction cannot be confirmed by the U-Pb age spectra. Contemporary sediments in the northern Pearl River Mouth Basin were most likely transported from southeastern South China with well-rounded zircon grains showing U-Pb age similarity to those from the northeastern tributaries of the Pearl River. By contrast, intrabasinal sources from the west and east are suggested to have contributed the infill of the southern part of the Pearl River Mouth Basin based on generally euhedral zircon shapes. These sedimentary source patterns appear to change very little in the Oligocene northern South China Sea. However, the newly detected Neoproterozoic zircons in the Upper Oligocene sediments from borehole L21 tend to indicate a southern source. The episodic and diachronic nature of rifting and erosion processes in the early South China Sea is the cause of complex patterns in the Paleogene provenance history.

  17. Exploring the temporal change in provenance encoded in the late Quaternary deposits of the Ganga Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Shailesh; Sanyal, Prasanta; Balakrishnan, Srinivasan; Dash, Jitendra K.

    2013-07-01

    Temporal analysis of Sr isotopes in soil carbonates and Sr and Nd isotopes in silicate fractions has been carried out in a sedimentary core (Kalpi core; 50 m long) raised from the southern bank of the Yamuna river, Ganga Plain, India. The aim of the study is to constrain sediment provenance through comparison with the modern Himalayan and peninsular river systems' water and bank sediments. Sr isotopic data in soil carbonates (0.71874 to 0.71410) and Srsbnd Nd isotopic data in silicate (0.72865 to 0.74544 and - 13.9 to - 17.2, respectively) vary significantly with depth and are indicative of both Himalayan and peninsular sources for sediments in the southern Ganga Plain. The positive correlation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and 1/Sr in soil carbonate and the negative correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd in silicate confirm mixing of sediments from these sources. Variations of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil carbonates show that at ~ 80 and 45 ka the Himalaya acted as the major source of sediments in the southern part of the Ganga Plain. The gradual decrease in 87Sr/86Sr ratios after 80 and 45 ka indicates change in source to peninsular India which is also supported by limited Sr and Nd isotope data in silicates. The change in sediment provenance corresponds well with the available climatic record and is suggestive of strong climatic control in sediment supply with high supply from the Himalaya during the interglacial period and peninsular sediments during glacial period.

  18. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  19. Investigating the provenance of thermal groundwater using compositional multivariate statistical analysis: a hydrogeochemical study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Murray, John; Flood, Rory; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The geothermal energy of thermal groundwater is currently being exploited for district-scale heating in many locations world-wide. The chemical compositions of these thermal waters reflect the provenance and hydrothermal circulation patterns of the groundwater, which are controlled by recharge, rock type and geological structure. Exploring the provenance of these waters using multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) techniques increases our understanding of the hydrothermal circulation systems, and provides a reliable tool for assessing these resources. Hydrochemical data from thermal springs situated in the Carboniferous Dublin Basin in east-central Ireland were explored using MSA, including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the source aquifers of the thermal groundwaters. To take into account the compositional nature of the hydrochemical data, compositional data analysis (CoDa) techniques were used to process the data prior to the MSA. The results of the MSA were examined alongside detailed time-lapse temperature measurements from several of the springs, and indicate the influence of three important hydrogeological processes on the hydrochemistry of the thermal waters: 1) increased salinity due to evaporite dissolution and increased water-rock-interaction; 2) dissolution of carbonates; and 3) dissolution of metal sulfides and oxides associated with mineral deposits. The use of MSA within the CoDa framework identified subtle temporal variations in the hydrochemistry of the thermal springs, which could not be identified with more traditional graphing methods (e.g., Piper diagrams), or with a standard statistical approach. The MSA was successful in distinguishing different geological settings and different annual behaviours within the group of springs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the application of MSA within the CoDa framework in order to better understand the underlying controlling processes

  20. A recipe for the use of rutile in sedimentary provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triebold, Silke; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Zack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Rutile has received considerable attention in the last decade as a valuable petrogenetic indicator mineral. Based on both new and previously published data, we carve out advantages and pitfalls regarding TiO2-minerals in sedimentary provenance analysis. This results in a recipe for the use of rutile in provenance studies. The main points are: Rutile geochemistry from different grain size fractions does not differ systematically, and hence rutiles should be extracted from the fraction containing the most rutile grains (usually 63-200 μm). Similarly, different magnetic susceptibility of rutile does not systematically imply different trace element composition. Before interpretation of TiO2-mineral data, it is important to determine the polymorph type. Rutile, anatase and brookite appear to differ systematically in trace element composition. As an alternative to Raman spectroscopy, chemical classification according to Nb, Cr, Sn, Fe, V, and Zr concentrations can be applied. For rutile, a new host lithology discrimination scheme based on Cr-Nb systematics is introduced (x = 5 ∗ (Nb [ppm] - 500) - Cr [ppm]), which leads to better classification results than previously published discrimination methods. According to this equation, metamafic rutiles have negative values of x, while metapelitic rutiles have positive values. Evaluation of the growth temperature calculations of metamorphic rutile after different authors shows that the equations given by Tomkins et al. (2007) should be applied to both metamafic and metapelitic rutiles. Although there is a pressure effect on the Zr incorporation in rutile, the pressure range for most rutiles of 5-15 kbar introduces an uncertainty in calculated temperature of no more than ± 35 °C. The distribution of calculated temperatures from detrital rutiles is crucial; only well-defined temperature populations should be used for thermometry interpretation.

  1. Antral follicle count in normal (fertility-proven) and infertile Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Arjit; Verma, Ashish; Agarwal, Shubhra; Shukla, Ram Chandra; Jain, Madhu; Srivastava, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antral follicle count (AFC) has been labeled as the most accurate biomarker to assess female fecundity. Unfortunately, no baseline Indian data exists, and we continue using surrogate values from the Western literature (inferred from studies on women, grossly different than Indian women in morphology and genetic makeup). Aims: (1) To establish the role of AFC as a function of ovarian reserve in fertility-proven and in subfertile Indian women. (2) To establish baseline cut-off AFC values for Indian women. Settings and Design: Prospective observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing workup for infertility were included and compared to equal number of controls (women with proven fertility). The basal ovarian volume and AFC were measured by endovaginal. USG the relevant clinical data and hormonal assays were charted for every patient. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS platform was used to perform the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test for intergroup comparisons. Correlations were determined by Pearson's ranked correlation coefficient. Results: Regression analysis revealed the highest correlation of AFC and age in fertile and infertile patients with difference in mean AFC of both the groups. Comparison of the data recorded for cases and controls showed no significant difference in the mean ovarian volume. Conclusions: AFC has the closest association with chronological age in normal and infertile Indian women. The same is lower in infertile women than in matched controls. Baseline and cut-off values in Indian women are lower than that mentioned in the Western literature. PMID:25114395

  2. Are Local Filters Blind to Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More than Natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Dean E.; Icasatti, Nadia S.; Hierro, Jose L.; Bird, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant species in central Argentina. Ant seed predation proved to be an important local filter that strongly suppressed plant recruitment, but ants suppressed exotic recruitment far more than natives (89% of exotic species vs. 22% of natives). Seed size predicted ant impacts on recruitment independent of origins, with ant preference for smaller seeds resulting in smaller seeded plant species being heavily suppressed. The disproportionate effects of provenance arose because exotics had generally smaller seeds than natives. Exotics also exhibited greater emergence and earlier peak emergence than natives in the absence of ants. However, when ants had access to seeds, these potential advantages of exotics were negated due to the filtering bias against exotics. The differences in traits we observed between exotics and natives suggest that higher-order introduction filters or regional processes preselected for certain exotic traits that then interacted with the local seed predation filter. Our results suggest that the interactions between local filters and species traits can predict invasion outcomes, but understanding the role of provenance will require quantifying filtering processes at multiple hierarchical scales and evaluating interactions between filters. PMID:25099535

  3. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths. PMID:25225116

  4. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  5. Contributions of Sediment Provenance and Sediment Diagenesis to Western Antarctic Peninsula Magnetic Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachfeld, S.; Manley, P.; Gorring, M.; Ryan, P.

    2007-05-01

    We examine the role of sediment provenance, iron-sulfur diagenesis, and iron-silica diagenesis in shaping environmental magnetic proxy records in Antarctic biosiliceous sediments. A 20-m sediment core from the Gerlache Drift, western Antarctic Peninsula, contains an ultra-high resolution record of environmental change spanning the last 4000 years. Magnetic susceptibility and several remanence parameters appear to record regularly repeating patterns in biogenic and terrigenous sedimentation, with a major shift at the Middle Holocene to Late Holocene transition. This shift is manifested as an abrupt downcore decrease in magnetic susceptibility, concomitant with an increase in biogenic silica. However, this record does not show the typical pattern associated with iron-sulfur diagenesis, i.e., selective dissolution of fine particles and coarsening of the residual assemblage. We observe multidomain magnetite above the transition, and PSD-magnetite plus hematite below the transition, which suggests a change in sediment provenance. However, we observe a change in clay mineralogy downcore that is consistent with predictions for iron-silica diagenesis. In order to investigate the role of changing sediment sources vs. post-depositional diagenesis, we have examined bulk sediment geochemistry, total organic carbon and total sulfur content to identify possible diagenetic fronts, and bulk mineralogic assemblages and lithic clast composition to examine sediment sources. In addition, we have examined the lithologic and geochemical characteristics of surface sediment samples and diamict samples from a North- South suite of western AP fjords and inner shelf basins, which we use to fingerprint potential sediment source regions. These tools may be able to distinguish between sediment supplied from local Antarctic Peninsula geologic terranes, Bransfield Basin volcanics entrained in the nearshore countercurrent, or West Antarctic sediment supplied by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  6. Provenance record of Paleogene exhumation and Laramide basin evolution along the southern Rocky Mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, M. A.; Horton, B. K.; Murphy, M. A.; Stockli, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Sangre de Cristo and Nacimiento uplifts of the southern Rocky Mountains formed key parts of a major Paleogene topographic boundary separating the Cordilleran orogenic system from the North American plate interior. This barrier largely isolated interior Laramide basins from a broad Laramide foreland with fluvial systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, and thereby played a critical role in the evolution of continental-scale paleodrainage patterns. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral provenance analyses of Cretaceous-Paleogene siliciclastic strata in the Raton, Galisteo-El Rito, and San Juan basins record the partitioning of the broad Cordilleran (Sevier) foreland basin by Laramide basement uplifts. These trends are recognized both in provenance signals and depositional styles corresponding to cratonward (eastward) propagation of the Laramide deformation front and resultant advance of flexural depocenters in the North American interior. Along the eastern flank of the deformation front, the Raton basin shows a mix of Cordilleran, Appalachian, and Grenville age zircons restricted to the Cretaceous Dakota and Vermejo formations, marine units of the Western Interior Seaway. Upsection, the Cordilleran age peaks are absent from Paleocene-Eocene units, consistent with significant Laramide drainage reorganization and isolation from Cordilleran sources to the west. In the Galisteo-El Rito basin system, a shift to dominantly Mazatzal-Yavapai basement ages is recognized in the Paleocene El Rito and Oligocene Ritito formations. The heavy mineral results show a corresponding shift to less mature, dominantly metamorphic source compositions. These new datasets bear upon Cretaceous-Cenozoic reconstructions of North American paleodrainage and have implications for potential linkages between major fluvial systems of the southern Rocky Mountains and Paleogene deepwater reservoir units in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

  7. The provenance of extreme flood induced submarine gravity flow deposits off Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Su, C.

    2012-12-01

    Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC) is the major pathway for sediments disperse from Gaoping River (GPR) into deep sea. In previous studies (Su et al., 2012), the cores collected from GPSC show the catastrophic events induced by typhoon may lead to extreme export of terrestrial sediment into GPSC and temporally quick buried in the upper reach or further caused gravity flows in the canyon. For understanding the provenance of the terrestrial sediments deposited in the GPSC during the extreme flooding period, core samples collected in cruise OR1-785, OR1-851 and OR1-923 were used for clay mineral analysis. Clay minerals are one of the most useful indicators to decipher the provenance and transport of sediments in marine environments. The composition and distribution of clay minerals in sediments are related to the climate and the nature of their parent rocks. Our result shows illite is the most abundant clay mineral in the GPSC (over 70%), chlorite and kaolinite are minor (around 20%), and nearly no smectite in core samples. According to the 550°C treatment X-ray diffraction patterns, the diffraction peaks at 7Å and 3.5Å partly preserved in OR1-785-GC5A, OR1-851-GCC and OR1-923-K11A core samples and implies the existence of Mg-chlorite which is widespread in green rocks in the Central Mountain Range. We suggested the extreme flooding event may fast transport the sediment from the Central Mountain Range through GPSC into deep sea environment.

  8. An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Bussell, John D; Hobbs, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimize negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 100 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (ΦPT = 0.18). Pairwise population genetic dissimilarity was correlated with geographic distance, but not environmental distance derived from 15 climate variables, suggesting overall neutrality of these markers with regard to these climate variables. Nevertheless, Bayesian outlier analysis identified four markers potentially under selection, although these were not correlated with the climate variables. We calculated a global R-statistic using analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) to test the statistical significance of population differentiation and to infer a threshold seed collection zone distance of ∼60 km (all markers) and 100 km (outlier markers) when genetic distance was regressed against geographic distance. Population pairs separated by >60 km were, on average, twice as likely to be significantly genetically differentiated than population pairs separated by <60 km, suggesting that habitat-matched sites within a 30-km radius around a restoration site genetically defines a local provenance seed collection zone for B. menziesii. Our approach is a novel probability-based practical solution for the delineation of a local seed collection zone to minimize negative genetic impacts in ecological restoration. PMID:23919158

  9. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  10. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  11. Du pont ''Freon'' helps tap geothermal wells for power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Low-grade heat from geothermal wells can now be harnessed to produce electricity by using Du Pont ''Freon'' IF as the power conversion fluid. The new system was developed by Turbonetics Energy Inc. The company's Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system takes advantage of the low boiling point (117F) of Du Pont ''Freon'' TF. Geothermal energy is harnessed by utilizing the heat from 200F to 400F water to vaporize the ''Freon'' power fluid. Then the fluid expands through a turbine and drives a generator. The system can produce from 600 kW of electric power.

  12. Baisse du HDL-cholestérol indicateur du stress oxydatif dans le diabète de type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Bakari, Salvius Amuri; Longanga, Albert Otshudi; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala

    2014-01-01

    L'hypercholestérolémie est étroitement liée au stress oxydatif. Lorsqu'il y a trop de cholestérol qui circule dans le sang, il n'est pas utilisé en totalité par les cellules et il risque de s'accumuler dans les vaisseaux sanguins. Cela peut entrainer la formation des plaques d'athérosclérose qui gênent la circulation sanguine et provoquent des accidents cardiovasculaires. Le stress oxydatif apparait très tôt dans l'histoire des complications du diabète de type 2, et est lié à l'oxydation du glucose mais aussi à la peroxydation lipidique. Le cholestérol-HDL est un marqueur important du stress oxydatif par sa capacité à faciliter la métabolisation du cholestérol, sa baisse est souvent considérée comme la source de beaucoup d'inquiétudes. L'objectif est l’évaluation de la variation du taux de cholestérol-HDL, marqueur du stress oxydatif, chez les patients diabétiques de type 2 dans la population congolaise. Nous avons inclus dans cette étude prospective des cas témoins des patients diabétiques de type 2 reconnus et diagnostiqués, et des témoins non diabétiques appariés selon l’âge et le sexe. Parallèlement au bilan biologique classique, une analyse d'un des facteurs de risque du stress oxydatif a été réalisée: baisse de HDL-Cholestérol. L’âge moyen des 30 patients diabétiques (47,77±10,78 ans) était comparable à celui des 30 témoins (48,83±10,73 ans). Une baisse significative du cholestérol-HDL dans le sang était observée chez 100% des diabétiques et 50% des témoins (p=0,0000). L'augmentation du HDL cholestérol permet d’éliminer le mauvais cholestérol en excès en nettoyant les tissus et en ramenant le cholestérol vers le foie. Lors du diabète de type 2 on constate une baisse sanguine sensible du taux de HDL-cholestérol, qui est signe indicateur du stress oxydatif. PMID:25767660

  13. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-06-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sampled across North America; however, the results revealed that local populations could be outperformed by nonlocal ones. Provenances originating from south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec, Canada, close to the southern edge of the species' natural distribution, demonstrated superior growth in more northerly environments compared with local populations and performed much better than populations from western Canada and Alaska, United States. During the 19-28 years between planting and measurement, the southern provenances have not been more susceptible to freezing damage compared with local populations, indicating they have the potential to be used now for the reforestation of more northerly planting sites; based on changing temperature, these seed sources potentially could maintain or increase white spruce productivity at or above historical levels at northern sites. A universal response function (URF), which uses climatic variables to predict provenance performance across field trials, indicated a relatively weak relationship between provenance performance and the climate at provenance origin. Consequently, the URF from this study did not provide information useful to ISAM. The ecological and economic importance of conserving white spruce genetic resources in south-central Ontario and southwestern Québec for use in ISAM is discussed. PMID:25360273

  14. Consequences experimentales des effets des fluctuations du vide sur la fluorescence parametrique et la generation du second harmonique en milieu confine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Luc

    Les fluctuations du vide, qui consistent en l'apparition momentanee de particules, ce qui est permit par le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg, joue un role primordial dans les processus photoniques, en particulier les processus non-lineaires. Par la manipulation de ces fluctuations du vide a l'aide de confinement optique, on retrouve deux phenomenes particuliers : l'intensification de la fluorescence parametrique (Walker, 2008) et l'inhibition de la generation du second harmonique (Collette, 2013). Dans ce travail, on presente les resultats dans le cas classique ; c'est-a-dire sans fluctuations du vide et confinement. Par la suite, on presente les effets des fluctuations du vide et du confinement, ce qui mene aux deux effets mentionnes. Dans le cas de la fluorescence parametrique, le bruit quantique sur le champ interne et externe est calcule, le role du desaccord de phase dans le modele est expose et une generalisation tridimensionnelle est etudiee afin de generaliser la conception du modele d'un cas unidimensionnel a un cas tridimensionnel planaire. Dans le cas de la generation du second harmonique, les difficultes d'un modele purement tridimensionnel sont exposees et ensuite le cas limite planaire est etudie.

  15. Provenance and Dispersal of Quaternary Sediments in the Gaxun Nur Basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpf, S.; Diekmann, B.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Gaxun Nur Basin is an intramontane accumulation area with one of the biggest continental alluvial fans in the world. It is situated in the western part of Inner Mongolia and its origin is the result of the interplay between tectonic activity and climate dynamics. Due to the endorheic character of the basin, it is predestined as a terrestrial longtime-archive of climate and environmental change. The sediments in the Gaxun Nur basin were deposited during the last 250 kyr by the Hei River System with a catchment size of roughly 130.000 km2. To understand the sedimentary processes of this huge sediment cascade from the Qilian Mountains in the south to the terminal lakes in the north, sources of sediments have to be investigated. Sediment provenance can be deduced from mineralogical fingerprints of modern sediments deposited along the recent pathways from the sources (Qilian Mountains) to the sink (Gaxun Nur Basin). The resulting spatial variation serves as a reference for the mineralogical data from a drilling core in the distal part of the Gaxun Nur Basin. Inferring spatial and temporal variation of sediment provenance provides important information for reconstructing sediment input by fluvial, eolian, lacustrine, and glacial processes. The methodical approach focusses on the analysis of clay and heavy minerals, using XRD and petrographic techniques. Other methods involve geochemistry of heavy mineral grains, using computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM), as well as bulk geochemistry, XRF element scanning and a statistical data processing. In this poster we present geochemical and mineralogical data of a 20 m long sediment core (GN100) combined with the results of about 200 surface sediment samples from different archives of the whole Hei River catchment. Lithological changes in the drilling core reveal temporal variations in the depositional environment. These variations are related to alternating phases of fluvial and eolian activity supported

  16. Tracking eolian dust with helium and thorium: Impacts of grain size and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, David; Winckler, Gisela; Borunda, Alejandra; Serno, Sascha; Anderson, Robert F.; Recasens, Cristina; Bory, Aloys; Gaiero, Diego; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kaplan, Michael; McManus, Jerry F.; Revel, Marie; Sun, Youbin

    2016-02-01

    terrigenous He in studies of extraterrestrial He in sediments and ice. We also investigate the use of He/Th ratios as a provenance tracer. Our results suggest differences in fine fraction He/Th ratios between East Asia, Australia, central South America and Patagonia, with ratios showing a positive relationship with the geological age of source rocks. He/Th ratios may thus provide useful provenance information, for example allowing separation of Patagonian sources from Puna-Central West Argentina or Australian dust sources. He/Th ratios in open-ocean marine sediments are similar to ratios in the fine fraction of upwind dust source areas. He/Th ratios in mid-latitude South Atlantic sediments suggest that dust in this region primarily derives from the Puna-Central West Argentina region (23-32°S) rather than Patagonia (>38°S). In the equatorial Pacific, He/Th ratios are much lower than in extratropical Pacific sediments or potential source areas measured as a part of this study (East Asia, South America, Australia) for reasons that are at present unclear, complicating their use as provenance tracers in this region.

  17. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.

    2010-12-01

    Strontium - named after the small Scottish town Strontian - as such is an element with little popularity. Firstly described by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1798, the metal is used in metallurgy to some extent whereas its compounds are interesting in glass industries, electronics and pyrotechnics. The element has chemical similarity to Ca and makes up 1/60 of the earth’s amount of the latter. Nonetheless, it is its isotopic composition which makes Sr so interesting for a large number of scientists. The natural composition of the four naturally occurring isotopes (84Sr, 86Sr 87Sr and 88Sr) varies in nature due to the radioactive decay of 87Rb to 87Sr. Thus, it was early recognized as geochronometer especially in Ca rich matrices. With increasing precision of applied methodology, the natural variation of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio (analyzed at first mainly by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)) became more and more popular in provenance studies. The natural variation of the ratio is mainly determined by the geological age and the original composition of the rock and can be used therefore as fingerprint of the local geology. The ratio is transferred with no significant fractionation via the water into plants and finally via the food chain into animal and human tissues (especially bones and teeth). As the element is chemically similar to Ca, it appears in most matrices. The use for provenance studies is supported by the fact that the long half life (4.8 x 1010 years) does not lead to an alteration during the time scales which are investigated (from recent samples to human or animal skeletal remains which date back up to 30.000 BC). The uniqueness of the system besides the natural variation is defined by the ubiquity in nature and the relatively high (and thus measurable) elemental concentration in most tissues. It was finally the advent of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) which augmented the number of applications

  18. Nd and Sr isotope compositions in modern and fossil bones - Proxies for vertebrate provenance and taphonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütken, Thomas; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Pfretzschner, Hans-U.

    2011-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), while not essential for the physiologic functions of animals, are ingested and incorporated in ppb concentrations in bones and teeth. Nd isotope compositions of modern bones of animals from isotopically distinct habitats demonstrate that the 143Nd/ 144Nd of the apatite can be used as a fingerprint for bedrock geology or ambient water mass. This potentially allows the provenance and migration of extant vertebrates to be traced, similar to the use of Sr isotopes. Although REE may be enriched by up to 5 orders of magnitude during diagenesis and recrystallization of bone apatite, in vivo143Nd/ 144Nd may be preserved in the inner cortex of fossil bones or enamel. However, tracking the provenance of ancient or extinct vertebrates is possible only for well-preserved archeological and paleontological skeletal remains with in vivo-like Nd contents at the ppb-level. Intra-bone and -tooth REE analysis can be used to screen for appropriate areas. Large intra-bone Nd concentration gradients of 10 1-10 3 are often measured. Nd concentrations in the inner bone cortex increase over timescales of millions of years, while bone rims may be enriched over millenial timescales. Nevertheless, ɛ Nd values are often similar within one ɛ Nd unit within a single bone. Larger intra-bone differences in specimens may either reflect a partial preservation of in vivo values or changing ɛ Nd values of the diagenetic fluid during fossilization. However, most fossil specimens and the outer rims of bones will record taphonomic 143Nd/ 144Nd incorporated post mortem during diagenesis. Unlike REE patterns, 143Nd/ 144Nd are not biased by fractionation processes during REE-uptake into the apatite crystal lattice, hence the ɛ Nd value is an important tracer for taphonomy and reworking. Bones and teeth from autochthonous fossil assemblages have small variations of ±1 ɛ Nd unit only. In contrast, fossil bones and teeth from over 20 different marine and terrestrial fossil

  19. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application. PMID:25782348

  20. "Fingerprinting" tectono-magmatic provenance using trace elements in igneous zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. B.; Wooden, J. L.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 5300 recent SHRIMP-RG analyses of trace elements (TE) in igneous zircon have been compiled and classified based on their original tectono-magmatic setting to empirically evaluate "geochemical fingerprints" unique to those settings. Immobile element geochemical fingerprints used for lavas are applied with the same rational to zircon, including consideration of mineral competition on zircon TE ratios, and new criteria for distinguishing mid-ocean ridge (MOR), magmatic arc, and ocean island (and other plume-influenced) settings are proposed. The elemental ratios in zircon effective for fingerprinting tectono-magmatic provenance are systematically related to lava composition from equivalent settings. Existing discrimination diagrams using zircon U/Yb versus Hf or Y do not distinguish TE-enriched ocean island settings (i.e., Iceland, Hawaii) from magmatic arc settings. However, bivariate diagrams with combined cation ratios involving U-Nb-Sc-Yb-Gd-Ce provide a more complete distinction of zircon from these settings. On diagrams of U/Yb versus Nb/Yb, most MOR, ocean island, and kimberlite zircon define a broad "mantle-zircon array"; arc zircon defines a parallel array offset to higher U/Yb. Distinctly low U/Yb ratios of MOR zircon (typically <0.1) mirror their parental magmas and long-term incompatible element depletion of the MORB mantle. Plume-influenced sources are distinguished from MOR by higher U/Yb, U/Nb, Nb/Yb, and Nb/Sc. For zircon with U/Yb > 0.1, high Sc/Yb separates arc settings from low-Sc/Yb plume-influenced sources. The slope of scandium enrichment trends in zircon differ between MOR and continental arc settings, likely reflecting the involvement of amphibole during melt differentiation. Scandium is thus also critical for discriminating provenance, but its behavior in zircon probably reflects contrasting melt fractionation trends between tholeiitic and calc-alkaline systems more than compositional differences in primitive magmas sourced at each

  1. Provenance analysis of Neogene sediments in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B. R.; Wagreich, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The regional geology of the basin is dominated by a basement of Tibetan-Tethys sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age (Fort et al., 1982; Yoshida et al., 1984). Stratigraphically, the graben sediments have been divided into four formations; the Miocene Tetang and Thakkhola formations, disconformably overlain by the Plio-Pleistocene Sammargaon and Marpha formations. In the present study, the sediment provenance and the nature of the source rocks have been investigated. Field mapping, logging of 22 profiles, measurement of pebble imbrication and lithology in all possible beds and heavy mineral sampling (50 samples) were carried out. Paleocurrent data from imbricated pebbles (no other palaeocurrent indicators were seen) in the western part of the graben shows SE-directed flow while in the eastern part it shows a SSW transport. Sandstone, mudstone, quartzite and granite clasts are dominant in the Ghiling, Chaile and Dhakmar sections on the western side while carbonate clasts are dominant in the Tetang and Dhinkyo Khola sections in the southeastern part of the basin. Tourmaline, staurolite, zircon, garnet and apatite constitute a significant proportion of the heavy-minerals whereas epidote, andalusite, kyanite, chloritoid, hornblende, chrome-spinel, rutile and amphibole are less common. Paleocurrent data of imbricated conglomerates in all formations of the basin show a southward flow direction of the Kaligandaki River. All the paleocurrent data and composition analysis of the conglomerates in the northwestern part of the basin (Dhi and Tange) of the Thakkhola Formation suggest that the clasts were derived from Mesozoic rocks to the east. Mostly Paleozoic clasts, with

  2. Geochemically tracking provenance changes in marine sediment from the South Pacific Gyre throughout the Cenozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlea, A. G.; Murray, R. W.; Sauvage, J.; Spivack, A. J.; Harris, R. N.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The South Pacific Gyre (SPG), characterized by extremely slow sedimentation rates, is the world's largest oceanic desert. The little eolian dust from continents in the Southern Hemisphere must traverse great distances to reach the SPG, and the ultra-oligotrophic waters minimize the biogenic flux of sediment to the seafloor. However sparse, the pelagic sediment that is ultimately found on the seafloor retains a chemical record that can be used to trace its origin. Using cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329, we trace downcore fluctuations in major, trace, and rare earth element (REE) composition and flux to yield clues to the geological, chemical, and biological evolution of the SPG throughout the Cenozoic. The shipboard scientific party generally described the completely oxic, brown pelagic clays recovered during Exp. 329 as zeolitic metalliferous clay. The homogenous, very fine-grained nature of these sediments speaks to the challenges we face in resolving eolian detrital material ("dust"), fine-grained ash (commonly altered), and authigenic aluminosilicates from one another. Based on ICP-ES and ICP-MS analyses followed by multivariate statistical treatments, we are developing chemical records from a number of sites located throughout the SPG. Building on earlier work at DSDP Site 596 (Zhou and Kyte, 1992, Paleocean., 7, 441-465), and based on backtrack paths from 100 Ma forward, we are working to construct a regionally and temporally continuous paleoclimatological history of the SPG. Preliminary La-Th-Sc concentrations from Sites U1367, U1368, and U1369 show a distinct authigenic influence, but several refractory elements retain their original provenance signature. Sediment ages are constrained using a constant-Co model, based on the geochemically similar work that Zhou and Kyte (1992) performed in the SPG. REE concentrations normalized to post-archean average shale (PAAS) reveal a negative Ce anomaly that becomes more pronounced closer to

  3. Data Publication: Addressing the Issues of Provenance, Attribution, Citation, and Accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by publisher and funding agency mandates, and a desire to properly attribute data sets to originating investigators, the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and a team of data managers and scientists are collaborating with representatives from the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The work is inspired by a June 2008 SCOR/IODE Workshop on Data Publishing. The goal is to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers for data published in journal articles. To improve efficacy of data directly associated with a scientific article those data must be discoverable, citeable and freely available on the Internet. Resources, standards, and workflows must be defined to support publisher and funding agency mandates. For the data to be discoverable, appropriate metadata, defined using community accepted metadata standards, must be associated with the data source. Data will be made citeable by the assignment of a persistent identifier as well as provenance and attribution metadata. The availability of the data will be assured by submission to a data repository that has stability and permanence. In April 2010, project participants were challenged to develop and execute pilot projects related to two use cases in which: (1) data held by data centers are packaged and served in formats that can be cited and (2) data related to traditional journal articles are assigned persistent identifiers referred to in the articles and stored in institutional repositories, such as DSpace. The MBLWHOI Library team chose to focus on data that support published articles, particularly the data used to create the figures and tables. Several published papers were identified and used to test the MBLWHOI Library model based on open archive

  4. The geochemical signature of Neogene Eastern Mediterranean sediment: evidence for temporal and spatial variations in provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaver, Martijn; Vroon, Pieter; Wijbrans, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Subducted sediment is one of the main geochemical components in arc magmas. Although an east-west gradient in Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) sediment composition has been evoked to explain the along-arc geochemical variations in Aegean arc magmas [1], solid evidence for E-W changes in EMS sediment composition is lacking. The EMS sediment dataset is limited to Holocene samples, while the sediment currently underneath the volcanic arc has an age of at least 6 Ma. In order to characterise EMS sediment, we have used a combination of thermogravimetric and geochemical analyses of 45 Neogene DSDP and ODP drill core samples. Thermogravimetric dissociation curves provide a rapid way to determine carbonate-content and relative abundance of clay mineral groups in mixed sediment samples. Clear clay mineral distribution patterns are observed in the EMS: smectite is dominant in Nile sediment, aeolian dust consist mainly of kaolinite while illite is present in coarser (shelf) sediment. Four distinct provenance areas can be recognised on the basis of radiogenic isotope and trace element ratios of the EMS sediment samples. In line with previous studies [e.g. 2], we conclude that Sahara dust and Nile sediment are main constituents of EMS sediment. However, we recognize two additional source areas. Sediment derived from Cyprus and/or SW Turkey, characterised by high Ni/Nb ratios, is an important component in Quaternary EMS sediment. Sediment from the Aegean region has an arc signature (e.g. high La/Nb) and is distinguishable only in the Hellenic Trench. During the Neogene, an increase in aeolian dust input to the EMS is observed, which is consistent with the progressive aridification of the Sahara region. The geochemical characterisation of Neogene EMS sediment and the recognition of distinct provenance areas can be used to assess the contribution of subducted sediment to magmas in the Aeolian and Aegean volcanic arcs. In addition, it allows further high-resolution investigation of

  5. Geochemical insights into the provenance of large scale North Atlantic turbidites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Millie; Hunt, James; Talling, Peter; Allin, Josh; Pope, Ed

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic margin has been subject to several very large (>100 km3) submarine landslides. Motion of some of these slides has been shown to generate damaging tsunamis, which travelled long distances across the ocean, such as that generated by the Storegga slide at 8.15 ka BP. If such a tsunami occurred again, it would pose a major hazard to northern European coastlines. Therefore identifying the source and age of past slide deposits is important to quantifying the risk to UK and the rest of coastal Europe. In this study we analyse the distal deposits of slides (turbidites) to assess their provenance. We present initial results from a new shallow piston core dataset from the Storegga slide, Trænadjupet slide, Lofoten Drift and basin, and the outer edge of the Voring plateau. Turbidite mudcaps were analysed using both the non-destructive, semi-quantitative Itrax micro-XRF core scanner at BOSCORF for major elements. In addition ICP-MS was used to determine the rare earth element (REE) abundances, allowing the relationship of distal turbidite deposits to be established. REEs are a good source discriminator due to the stability and immobility of lanthanide group elements, and the preservation of elemental ratios during transport. Due to hydraulic fractionation only the finest mud fraction was analysed to avoid the bias associated with heavy mineral concentrations . Clusters of distinct elemental ratios indicate different provenances for the distal turbidites, notably the Eu/Eu* anomaly and (Gd/Yb)N. The clusters demonstrate each deposit has a unique geochemical signature and provide insights into the history of past large-volume slides in the region and the influence of contour current-reworking of deep-water deposits. The Norwegian margin has a long record of large-scale landslides, which are commonly linked to glacial-interglacial transitions. This margin is also an important location of deep-water formation, with strong currents capable of transporting

  6. 50years of oral lipid-based formulations: Provenance, progress and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Orlagh M; Crum, Matthew F; McEvoy, Claire L; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Charman, William N; Bergström, Christel A S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-06-01

    Lipid based formulations (LBF) provide well proven opportunities to enhance the oral absorption of drugs and drug candidates that sit close to, or beyond, the boundaries of Lipinski's 'rule-of-five' chemical space. Advantages in permeability, efflux and presystemic metabolism are evident; however, the primary benefit is in increases in dissolution and apparent intestinal solubility for lipophilic, poorly water soluble drugs. This review firstly details the inherent advantages of LBF, their general properties and classification, and provides a brief retrospective assessment of the development of LBF over the past fifty years. More detailed analysis of the ability of LBF to promote intestinal solubilisation, supersaturation and absorption is then provided alongside review of the methods employed to assess formulation performance. Critical review of the ability of simple dispersion and more complex in vitro digestion methods to predict formulation performance subsequently reveals marked differences in the correlative ability of in vitro tests, depending on the properties of the drug involved. Notably, for highly permeable low melting drugs e.g. fenofibrate, LBF appear to provide significant benefit in all cases, and sustained ongoing solubilisation may not be required. In other cases, and particularly for higher melting point drugs such as danazol, where re-dissolution of crystalline precipitate drug is likely to be slow, correlations with ongoing solubilisation and supersaturation are more evident. In spite of their potential benefits, one limitation to broader use of LBF is low drug solubility in the excipients employed to generate formulations. Techniques to increase drug lipophilicity and lipid solubility are therefore explored, and in particular those methods that provide for temporary enhancement including lipophilic ionic liquid and prodrug technologies. The transient nature of these lipophilicity increases enhances lipid solubility and LBF viability, but

  7. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (Ntr) Propulsion: A Proven Game-Changing Technology for Future Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The NTR represents the next evolutionary step in high performance rocket propulsion. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) of approx.900 seconds (s) or more V twice that of today s best chemical rockets. The technology is also proven. During the previous Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) nuclear rocket programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested. These tests demonstrated: (1) a wide range of thrust; (2) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuel; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability V all the requirements needed for a human mission to Mars. Ceramic metal cermet fuel was also pursued, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant growth and evolution potential. Configured as a bimodal system, it can generate electrical power for the spacecraft. Adding an oxygen afterburner nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, simple assembly and mission operations. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, NTP requires no large technology scale-ups. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program V the 25,000 lbf (25 klbf) Pewee engine is sufficient for human Mars missions when used in a clustered engine arrangement. The Copernicus crewed spacecraft design developed in DRA 5.0 has significant capability and a human exploration strategy is outlined here that uses Copernicus and its key components for precursor near Earth asteroid (NEA) and Mars orbital missions prior to a Mars landing mission. Initially, the basic Copernicus vehicle can enable reusable 1-year round trip human missions to candidate NEAs like 1991 JW and Apophis in the late 2020 s to check out vehicle systems. Afterwards, the

  8. Data Provenance as a Tool for Debugging Hydrological Models based on Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wombacher, A.; Huq, M.; Wada, Y.; Van Beek, R.

    2012-12-01

    There is an increase in data volume used in hydrological modeling. The increasing data volume requires additional efforts in debugging models since a single output value is influenced by a multitude of input values. Thus, it is difficult to keep an overview among the data dependencies. Further, knowing these dependencies, it is a tedious job to infer all the relevant data values. The aforementioned data dependencies are also known as data provenance, i.e. the determination of how a particular value has been created and processed. The proposed tool infers the data provenance automatically from a python script and visualizes the dependencies as a graph without executing the script. To debug the model the user specifies the value of interest in space and time. The tool infers all related data values and displays them in the graph. The tool has been evaluated by hydrologists developing a model for estimating the global water demand [1]. The model uses multiple different data sources. The script we analysed has 120 lines of codes and used more than 3000 individual files, each of them representing a raster map of 360*720 cells. After importing the data of the files into a SQLite database, the data consumes around 40 GB of memory. Using the proposed tool a modeler is able to select individual values and infer which values have been used to calculate the value. Especially in cases of outliers or missing values it is a beneficial tool to provide the modeler with efficient information to investigate the unexpected behavior of the model. The proposed tool can be applied to many python scripts and has been tested with other scripts in different contexts. In case a python code contains an unknown function or class the tool requests additional information about the used function or class to enable the inference. This information has to be entered only once and can be shared with colleagues or in the community. Reference [1] Y. Wada, L. P. H. van Beek, D. Viviroli, H. H. Drr, R

  9. Erosion in the Western Alps (Dora Baltea basin). 1. Quantifying sediment provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo; Monguzzi, Stefano

    2004-10-01

    Sourced in the M. Bianco, the highest mountain of the Alps, the Dora Baltea River cuts across the arc of the Western Alps, drains all major Alpine tectonic units from the Helvetic domain to the South alpine domain, and finally joins the Po River. Petrographic composition of clastic detritus carried by the Dora Baltea River and its tributaries faithfully mirrors the complex geology of the Western Alps. High-resolution modal analysis of Dora Baltea sands allowed us to distinguish seven end-member metamorphoclastic provenances. River sands from the M. Bianco External Massif are dominated by quartz, feldspars, and hornblende. Detritus from basement and cover rocks of the Briançonnais zone includes low-grade metasedimentary lithic fragments, epidote, chloritoid, and garnet. Sands from the Internal Penninic Massifs include quartz and subordinate feldspars, garnet, and epidote. Abundant metabasite and serpentine-schist lithic grains, along with epidote, actinolite, and few pyroxenes, characterize detritus from the calcschists and meta-ophiolites of the oceanic Piemonte zone. Sands from the Austroalpine zone include quartz, abundant metamorphic lithic fragments, garnet, and locally significant sillimanite (Dent Blanche kinzigites). The relative contribution of each end member to the Dora Baltea sediment flux was assessed with forward modelling of end-member mixing. Our estimates, calculated from the entire petrographic and mineralogical data set, indicate that the main sources of bed load in the Dora Baltea mountain basin are the granitoid to gneissic rocks exposed in the M. Bianco Massif and in the Austroalpine zone. In order to make allowance for the contribution of a particular bedrock constituent in a compound source area to the derivative sand, the original concept of sand generation index (SGI) was modified to assess the relative contribution of the seven end-member sources of detritus. The highest total-basin SGI indices are calculated for the M. Bianco Massif (SGI

  10. College of DuPage Student Portrait, Fall Quarter 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL. Office of Research and Planning.

    The report profiles the College of DuPage's (COD) fall quarter 1999 student body. It presents a brief history of the college's enrollment and a comparison of enrollments with other Illinois community colleges. It also provides demographic information on current students. Additionally, enrollment information is included by program, division, and…

  11. W. E. B. Du Bois: Reform, Will, and the Veil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lynn; Warner, W. Keith

    2013-01-01

    While W. E. B. Du Bois is widely recognized for his contributions to the sociology of race, his contributions to the foundations of sociology are largely ignored. His sociology is based on African American reformism, a version of pragmatism, and a contingent historicism. The basic view of sociology is one that emphasizes the role of chance and…

  12. Pic-du-Midi Observatory (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees) (OMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    OMP is under the administrative supervision of both the Institute des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU) of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Ministry of Research, Technology and Education. It has laboratories located at the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, Bagnères, Lannemezan and at the summit of Pic du Midi de Bigorre....

  13. Cost-Effective Remediation of Depleted Uranium (DU) at Environmental Restoration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,MARK; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; VANDERPOEL,GLENN; JOHNSON,ED; COPLAND,JOHN; SALAZAR,MICHAEL

    1999-11-03

    Numerous sites in the United States and around the world are contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. A prevalent form is fragmented DU originating from various scientific tests involving high explosives and DU during weapon-development programs, at firing practice ranges, or in war theaters where DU was used in armor-piercing projectiles. The contamination at these sites is typically very heterogeneous, with discrete, visually identifiable DU fragments mixed with native soil. The bulk-averaged DU activity is quite low, whereas DU fragments, which are distinct from the soil matrix, have much higher specific activity. DU is best known as a dark metal that is nearly twice as dense as lead, but DU in the environment readily weathers (oxidizes) to a distinctive bright yellow color that is quite visible. While the specific activity (amount of radioactivity per mass of soil) of DU is relatively low and presents only a minor radiological hazard, the fact that DU is radioactive and visually identifiable makes it desirable to remove the DU ''contamination'' from the environment. The typical approach to conducting this DU remediation is to use radiation-detection instruments to identify the contaminant and then to separate it from the adjacent soil, packaging it for disposal as radioactive waste. This process can be performed manually or by specialized, automated equipment. Alternatively, a more cost-effective approach might be simple mechanical or gravimetric separation of the DU fragments from the host soil matrix. At SNL/NM, both the automated and simple mechanical approaches have recently been employed. This paper discusses the pros/cons of the two approaches.

  14. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  15. Khnifiss Beach's Black Sand: Provenance and Transport Pathways Investigation Using Heavy Minerals' Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Ahmamou, M.; Masmoudi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Arid areas in south of Morocco suffer from silting problem causing destruction of villages infrastructure, roads, agriculture land and oasis heritage. Black sand on Khnifiss beach near Tarfaya city (S-W Morocco) is marked by enrichment of heavy minerals. This later is an important fraction that could help to assess the provenance and transport pathways of sediment. The sand's origin investigation could be useful to fight against erosion and silting problems from the source of supply, to this end, mineralogical analysis was carried out in Khnifiss beach's sand using Optic Microscope and Scanning Electronic Microscope with dispersive energy (SEM- EDS), in addition to physico-chemical analysis provided by Electronic Microprobe. The results revealed: (i) a high grade of oxides (Rutile, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Ulvöspinel) in samples, (ii) silicates (Quartz, Clinopyroxene, feldspar, Zircon), (iii) phosphate (apatite) and (iv) carbonate (calcite). The dominance of iron oxides justifies the black sand's colour. Then, the mineral composition supposes interference between different origins: proximal source (Calcareous cliff) for calcite, distal sources of oxides and silicates are supposed to be eroded and carried by Drâa valley from granite and igneous rocks in Anti-Atlasic field. Another source supposed might be a proximal volcanic island (Canaries island).

  16. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients. PMID:25303853

  17. Provenance matters: thermal reaction norms for embryo survival among sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, C K; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A

    2013-04-01

    Differences in thermal tolerance during embryonic development in Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were examined among nine populations in a controlled common-garden incubation experiment. Forcing embryonic development at an extreme temperature (relative to current values) of 16° C, representing a future climate change scenario, significantly reduced survival compared to the more ecologically moderate temperature of 10° C (55% v. 93%). Survival at 14° C was intermediate between the other two temperatures (85%). More importantly, this survival response varied by provenance within and between temperature treatments. Thermal reaction norms showed an interacting response of genotype and environment (temperature), suggesting that populations of O. nerka may have adapted differentially to elevated temperatures during incubation and early development. Moreover, populations that historically experience warmer incubation temperatures at early development displayed a higher tolerance for warm temperatures. In contrast, thermal tolerance does not appear to transcend life stages as adult migration temperatures were not related to embryo thermal tolerance. The intra-population variation implies potential for thermal tolerance at the species level. The differential inter-population variation in thermal tolerance that was observed suggests, however, limited adaptive potential to thermal shifts for some populations. This infers that the intergenerational effects of increasing water temperatures may affect populations differentially, and that such thermally mediated adaptive selection may drive population, and therefore species, persistence. PMID:23557297

  18. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  19. The incidence of biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy is associated with multiple socioeconomic deprivation.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Mackinnon, Bruce; McNeice, Valerie; Fox, Jonathan G; Geddes, Colin C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is more common in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, but the relationship with the incidence and diagnosis of biopsy-proven renal disease is unknown. In order to study this, all consecutive adult patients undergoing renal biopsy in West and Central Scotland over an 11-year period were prospectively analyzed for demographics, indication, and histologic diagnosis. Using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1555 eligible patients were separated into quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation according to postcode. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to undergo biopsy compared with patients from less deprived areas (109.5 compared to 95.9 per million population/year). Biopsy indications were significantly more likely to be nephrotic syndrome, or significant proteinuria without renal impairment. Patients in the most deprived quintile were significantly more likely to have glomerulonephritis. There was a significant twofold increase in the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy in the patients residing in the most compared with the least deprived postcodes not explained by the demographics of the underlying population. Thus, patients from areas of socioeconomic deprivation in West and Central Scotland are significantly more likely to undergo native renal biopsy and have a higher prevalence of IgA nephropathy. PMID:24025641

  20. A convergent diffusion and social marketing approach for disseminating proven approaches to physical activity promotion.

    PubMed

    Dearing, James W; Maibach, Edward W; Buller, David B

    2006-10-01

    Approaches from diffusion of innovations and social marketing are used here to propose efficient means to promote and enhance the dissemination of evidence-based physical activity programs. While both approaches have traditionally been conceptualized as top-down, center-to-periphery, centralized efforts at social change, their operational methods have usually differed. The operational methods of diffusion theory have a strong relational emphasis, while the operational methods of social marketing have a strong transactional emphasis. Here, we argue for a convergence of diffusion of innovation and social marketing principles to stimulate the efficient dissemination of proven-effective programs. In general terms, we are encouraging a focus on societal sectors as a logical and efficient means for enhancing the impact of dissemination efforts. This requires an understanding of complex organizations and the functional roles played by different individuals in such organizations. In specific terms, ten principles are provided for working effectively within societal sectors and enhancing user involvement in the processes of adoption and implementation. PMID:16979466

  1. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. PMID:25309956

  2. Prediction of Uncertainty in Watershed Scale Sediment Provenance Model Using Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, I.; Karim, A.; Boutton, T. W.; Strom, K.

    2014-12-01

    The study, conducted on the urbanized Buffalo Bayou Watershed in Harris County, Texas, draws on two methods to quantify and compare the uncertainties in sediment fingerprint or provenance model. There are two sources of uncertainty. One is from the physically based watershed sediment yield model due to spatial variation in the watershed terrain slopes. The other is from the use of long-range episodic rainfall time series data. The work finds the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method as more mathematically robust compared with the traditional optimization based Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method for prediction of sediment yield fraction estimate uncertainty. Thereby, the work attempts to close the existing gap in research in this area of uncertainty comparison. The link between Markov Chain rainfall time series and the Bayesian MCMC simulation model is established using an erosion process parameter that promotes uncertainty in the statistical soil yield fraction estimates. The research hypothesis was tested using physical and statistical computational models in soil erosion and geostatistics with the use of rain gauge data and soil biogeochemical properties.

  3. Data Analysis Provenance: Use Case for Exoplanet Search in CoRoT Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, L.; Salete Marcon Gomes Vaz, M.; Emílio, M.; Ferreira da Rocha, J. C.; Janot Pacheco, E.; Carlos Boufleur, R.

    2012-09-01

    CoRoT (COnvection Rotation and Planetary Transits) is a mission led by the French national space agency CNES, in collaboration with Austria, Spain, Germany, Belgium and Brazil. The mission priority is dedicated to exoplanet search and stellar seismology. CoRoT light curves database became public after one year of their delivery to the CoRoT Co-Is, following the CoRoT data policy. The CoRoT archive contains thousands of light curves in FITS format. Several exoplanet search algorithms require detrend algorithms to remove both stellar and instrumental signal, improving the chance to detect a transit. Different detrend and transit detection algorithms can be applied to the same database. Tracking the origin of the information and how the data was derived in each level in the data analysis process is essential to allow sharing, reuse, reprocessing and further analysis. This work aims at applying a formalized and codified knowledge model by means of domain ontology. It allows to enrich the data analysis with semantic and standardization. It holds the provenance information in the database for a posteriori recovers by humans or software agents.

  4. Clay mineral distribution and provenance in the Heuksan mud belt, Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyen Goo; Kim, Soon-Oh; Kwak, Kyeong Yoon; Choi, Hunsoo; Khim, Boo-Keun

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (HMB), located in the southeastern Yellow Sea, runs parallel to the southwest coast of Korea. In this study, the distribution and relative contribution of four major clay minerals are investigated using 101 surface sediment samples collected in the course of KIOST (2001, 2010, 2011) and KIGAM (2012) cruises, as well as 33 river sediment samples (four from the Huanghe River, three from the Changjiang River, and 26 from Korean rivers) in order to clarify the provenance of fine-grained sediments in the HMB. Based on this currently largest and most robust dataset available for interpretation, the clay mineral assemblages of the fine-grained sediments in the HMB are found to be on average composed of 64.7% illite, 17.9% chlorite, 11.4% kaolinite, and 5.9% smectite. Overall, the clay mineral assemblages are similar in both the northern and the southern parts of the HMB, although smectite seems to be relatively enriched in the southern part, whereas kaolinite is slightly more dominant in the northern part. This clearly indicates that the clays are mostly derived from Korean rivers and, in the southern part of the HMB, partly also from the Huanghe River in China. The new data thus confirm and strengthen the tentative interpretation of some earlier work based on a more limited dataset.

  5. Provenance of the Middle Ordovician Blount clastic wedge, Georgia and Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Greg H.

    1985-04-01

    Convergent tectonism along the Appalachian continental margin in Middle Ordovician time resulted in cratonward-prograding clastic wedges. Detrital modes of 52 sandstones of the Blount clastic wedge in Georgia and Tennessee are dominated by monocrystalline quartz (68%), feldspar (10%, plagioclase >K-feldspar), and pelitic rock fragments (10%), with lesser amounts of polycrystalline quartz (6%), chert (2%), low-grade metamorphic rock fragments (2%), and quartzofeldspathic rock fragments (0.3%). The primary source rocks were sedimentary; subordinate contributions were from low-grade metamorphic and plagioclase-rich plutonic and/or gneissic rocks. The composition of sandstones from the Martinsburg clastic wedge, based on point-counting 18 samples from the collection of McBride, and from the Taconic clastic wedge, based on data of Hiscott, is similar to the Blount clastic wedge except that Martinsburg and Taconic sandstones have additional evidence of derivation from intermediate or mafic volcanic and deep-water sedimentary source rocks, which were lacking in the Blount source terrane. The differences in provenance among the clastic wedges may indicate along-strike variations in tectonic style, or variations in the distribution of rock types, or differences in the level of erosion within orogenic terranes of similar origin.

  6. Venezuela near doubles proven reserves. 2. US protectionism and the geopolitics of petro-geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-11

    This issue honors the late Dan Lundberg, founder and former publisher of Energy Detente (ED). Mr. Lundberg founded ED a few months after his first visit to Venezuela in December 1979 and attending his first OPEC meeting. His acute awareness of factors affecting crises in oil markets was combined permanently in the publication founded in 1980, and it was designed from the very first to illuminate Western hemisphere and especially still-undeveloped hydrocarbon resources. Two unrelated events are treated as very much related in this issue: (A) The USA National Petroleum Council released Factors Affecting US Oil and Gas Outlook. (B) Almost simultaneously Petroleos de Venezuela, the national oil company of Venezuela released its new proven oil figures, close to 90% higher, at 55.5 billion barrels. The possible importance to US foreign policy is discussed. This issue of ED also contains: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for mid March 1987; and (2) the ED fuel price/tax series March 1987 edition for countries of the Western Hemisphere. 8 figures, 6 tables.

  7. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the βmin is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the βmin, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the βmin. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  8. Academic Provenance: Mapping Geoscience Students' Academic Pathways to their Career Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H. R.; Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Targeted recruitment and retention efforts for the geosciences have become increasingly important with the growing concerns about program visibility on campuses, and given that geoscience degree production remains low relative to the demand for new geoscience graduates. Furthermore, understanding the career trajectories of geoscience degree recipients is essential for proper occupational placement. A theoretical framework was developed by Houlton (2010) to focus recruitment and retention efforts. This "pathway model" explicitly maps undergraduate students' geoscience career trajectories, which can be used to refine existing methods for recruiting students into particular occupations. Houlton's (2010) framework identified three main student population groups: Natives, Immigrants or Refugees. Each student followed a unique pathway, which consisted of six pathway steps. Each pathway step was comprised of critical incidents that influenced students' overall career trajectories. An aggregate analysis of students' pathways (Academic Provenance Analysis) showed that different populations' pathways exhibited a deviation in career direction: Natives indicated intentions to pursue industry or government sectors, while Immigrants intended to pursue academic or research-based careers. We expanded on Houlton's (2010) research by conducting a follow-up study to determine if the original participants followed the career trajectories they initially indicated in the 2010 study. A voluntary, 5-question, short-answer survey was administered via email. We investigated students' current pathway steps, pathway deviations, students' goals for the near future and their ultimate career ambitions. This information may help refine Houlton's (2010) "pathway model" and may aid geoscience employers in recruiting the new generation of professionals for their respective sectors.

  9. Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

    2012-04-01

    The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

  10. Modelling Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport and Provenance in the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holleman, R. C.; Gross, E. S.; MacVean, L. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Fringer, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds is an immense and ongoing project with potentially far-reaching ramifications related to sediment supply, resuspension of contaminants, salt intrusion dynamics, tidal propagation and morphologic change. The rate of accretion in breached ponds depends on many factors, and the source of deposited material may be local or from other embayments. We present a high resolution hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay which resolves a broad range of spatial scales ranging from tens of kilometers in the coastal ocean, down to meters in a series of breached levees located in the Island Ponds. Complexities of the hydrodynamic model include both the generation of intertidal bathymetry and the numerical stability of wetting and drying when grid resolution is at the meter scale. Tides and currents show good validation against observed flows near the breaches. Hydrodynamic results are used to drive a particle-tracking based sediment model, allowing for detailed sediment provenance studies. Results demonstrate the viability of pond-deposited sediments sourced from beyond Calaveras Point even over short time periods.

  11. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Y Gao, Z.; Li, R. W.; Zhao, W. J.; Xie, J. Z.; Feng, S. L.; Zhuo, Z. X.; Y Fan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z. F.; Liu, H.

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports our study of the provenance of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain. The content of 29 elements in the Yaozhou porcelain samples was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analysed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the trend fuzzy cluster diagrams. These samples with different glaze colour, ranging over more than 700 years, were fired in different kilns. Our analysis indicates the relatively concentrated distribution of the sources of the raw material for the Yaozhou porcelain body samples. They can be classified into two independent periods, i.e. the Tang (AD 618-907) and the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) period, and the Song (AD 960-1279) and Jin (AD 1115-1234) period. Our analysis also indicates that the sources of the raw material for the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples are quite scattered and those for the black glaze in the Tang Dynasty are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the celadon glaze and the white glaze in the Tang Dynasty are widely distributed and those for the celadon glaze in the Song Dynasty are close to those of the bluish white glaze in the Jin Dynasty, and they are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the porcelain glazes cover those of the porcelain bodies.

  12. Provenance analysis and tectonic setting of late Neoproterozoic metasedimentary successions in NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Campo, M.; Guevara, S. Ribeiro

    2005-06-01

    Major, trace, and rare-earth element data for Puncoviscana Formation metasediments were used to constrain their provenance and tectonic setting. This unit, which crops out in northwest Argentina, consists mainly of pelite-greywacke turbidite sequences. Incipient regional metamorphism and a polyphase deformation, with a main deformation during the latest Proterozoic-earliest Cambrian Braziliano orogeny, affected the sedimentary sequences. The enrichment in light rare-earth and other incompatible trace elements over compatible ones, as well as the high and uniform Th/Sc ratios, indicate a predominance of upper-crust acid rocks as parental material. Some chemical characteristics of these rocks, such as their high Th/U, Rb/Sr, and Zr/Sc ratios, imply sedimentary recycling. On the basis of tectonic discriminant diagrams that employ trace elements considered relatively immobile during low-grade metamorphism, a passive margin setting can be inferred. Moreover, the comparison of the trace element contents of Puncoviscana metapelites with those of mudstones deposited in known tectonic settings shows the closest matching with passive margin shales.

  13. Provenance variations in the Holocene deposits from the southern Yellow Sea: Clay mineralogy evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Hu, Bangqi; Wei, Helong; Zhao, Jingtao; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Fang, Xisheng

    2014-11-01

    We present a provenance study of two cores (YSC-1 and YSC-4) from the Central Yellow Sea Mud (CYSM) to investigate the source and transport processes of clay minerals during the Holocene. Clay mineral assemblages of Cores YSC-1 and YSC-4 mainly consist of illite, followed by chlorite and kaolinite, and scarce smectite. Combined with other published data, it is found that the fine sediments in the CYSM are most likely a mixing product of the Changjiang and Korean Peninsula small rivers sediments. In contrast, the influence of Huanghe sediments is rather limited and only appears in the bottom part of Core YSC-1. Decreased contribution of terrigenous supply from the Changjiang to the CYSM since 6.4 ka may be related to the formation of modern ocean circulation pattern. After 6.4 ka, the finer sediments of Taedong and Chongchon Rivers from the northern Korean Peninsula are dominated in the CYSM. The oceanic fronts likely prevent both the suspended sediments of the west (modern and older Huanghe) and east (southern Korean Peninsula small rivers) sides from dispersing into the central Yellow Sea. Our results thus highlight the highly complex nature of sediment source and dispersal pattern in the Yellow Sea during the Holocene. More detailed studies are needed to better understand the sediment source-to-sink history of Yellow Sea.

  14. Maximum sedimentation ages and provenance of metasedimentary rocks from Tinos Island, Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsken, Tim; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper; Gärtner, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of five metasedimentary rocks from the Lower Unit on Tinos Island (Cycladic blueschist belt, Greece) document supply of detritus from various Proterozoic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic source rocks as well as post-depositional metamorphic zircon formation. Essential features of the studied zircon populations are Late Cretaceous (70-80 Ma) maximum sedimentation ages for the lithostratigraphic succession above the lowermost dolomite marble, significant contributions from Triassic to Neoproterozoic source rocks, minor influx of detritus recording Paleoproterozoic and older provenance (1.9-2.1, 2.4-2.5 and 2.7-2.8 Ga) and a lack or paucity of zircons with Mesoproterozoic ages (1.1-1.8 Ga). In combination with biostratigraphic evidence, the new dataset indicates that Late Cretaceous or younger rocks occur on top of or very close to the basal Triassic metacarbonates, suggesting a gap in the stratigraphic record near the base of the metamorphic succession. The time frame for sediment deposition is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon ages (70-80 Ma) and metamorphic overgrowths that are related to high-pressure/low-temperature overprinting in the Eocene. This time interval possibly indicates a significant difference to the sedimentation history of the southern Cyclades, where Late Cretaceous detrital zircons have not yet been detected.

  15. Deep water provenance and dynamics of the (de)glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippold, Jörg; Gutjahr, Marcus; Blaser, Patrick; Christner, Emanuel; de Carvalho Ferreira, Maria Luiza; Mulitza, Stefan; Christl, Marcus; Wombacher, Frank; Böhm, Evelyn; Antz, Benny; Cartapanis, Olivier; Vogel, Hendrik; Jaccard, Samuel L.

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing past modes of ocean circulation is an essential task in paleoclimatology and paleoceanography. To this end, we combine two sedimentary proxies, Nd isotopes (εNd) and the 231Pa/230Th ratio, both of which are not directly involved in the global carbon cycle, but allow the reconstruction of water mass provenance and provide information about the past strength of overturning circulation, respectively. In this study, combined 231Pa/230Th and εNd down-core profiles from six Atlantic Ocean sediment cores are presented. The data set is complemented by the two available combined data sets from the literature. From this we derive a comprehensive picture of spatial and temporal patterns and the dynamic changes of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation over the past ∼25 ka. Our results provide evidence for a consistent pattern of glacial/stadial advances of Southern Sourced Water along with a northward circulation mode for all cores in the deeper (>3000 m) Atlantic. Results from shallower core sites support an active overturning cell of shoaled Northern Sourced Water during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Furthermore, we report evidence for a short-lived period of intensified AMOC in the early Holocene.

  16. Provenance studies on Dead Sea scrolls parchment by means of quantitative micro-XRF.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Timo; Rabin, Ira; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kindzorra, Emanuel; Hahn, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of the provenance and origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts. A characteristic low ratio of chlorine to bromine, corresponding to that of the Dead Sea water, may serve as an indicator for local production. For this aim we developed a non-destructive procedure to determine the Cl/Br ratio in the parchment of these manuscripts. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) measurements of a large number of parchment and leather fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls were analyzed with a routine we developed based on fundamental parameter quantification. This routine takes into account the absorption of the collagen matrix and the influence of the different sample thicknesses. To calculate the representative Cl/Br ratio for each fragment, we investigated the lateral homogeneity and determined the total mass deposition using the intensity of the inelastically scattered, characteristic tube radiation. The distribution of the Cl/Br ratios thus obtained from the μ-XRF measurements make it possible to distinguish fragments whose origin lies within the Dead Sea region from those produced in other locations. PMID:21805315

  17. Proven, long-life hydrogen/oxygen thrust chambers for space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, G. P.; Price, H. G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the manned space station has necessitated the development of technology related to an onboard auxiliary propulsion system (APS) required to provide for various space station attitude control, orbit positioning, and docking maneuvers. A key component of this onboard APS is the thrust chamber design. To develop the required thrust chamber technology to support the Space Station Program, the NASA Lewis Research Center has sponsored development programs under contracts with Aerojet TechSystems Company and with Bell Aerospace Textron Division of Textron, Inc. During the NASA Lewis sponsored program with Aerojet TechSystems, a 25 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen thruster has been developed and proven as a viable candidate to meet the needs of the Space Station Program. Likewise, during the development program with Bell Aerospace, a 50 lb sub f hydrogen/oxygen Thrust Chamber has been developed and has demonstrated reliable, long-life expectancy at anticipated space station operating conditions. Both these thrust chambers were based on design criteria developed in previous thruster programs and successfully verified in experimental test programs. Extensive thermal analyses and models were used to design the thrusters to achieve total impulse goals of 2 x 10 to the 6th power lb sub f-sec. Test data for each thruster will be compared to the analytical predictions for the performance and heat transfer characteristics. Also, the results of thrust chamber life verification tests will be presented.

  18. Discordance of the U Pb system in detrital zircons: Implication for provenance studies of sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchin, Alexander A.; Cawood, Peter A.

    2005-12-01

    Provenance studies involving U / Pb analysis of detrital zircons have become increasingly popular through the application of microanalytical techniques. Adopted one-dimensional methods for the presentation of detrital zircon data, such as probability density distribution plots, generally require various degrees of filtering of discordant analyses. However, a uniform approach for filtering does not exist, making comparison of data from different samples and sedimentary units, as well as different studies of detrital populations, extremely difficult. The problem is further complicated by the need to switch from 207Pb / 206Pb based ages to 206Pb / 238U ages when zircon populations within a sample show a range of ages from Archean to Proterozoic or even Phanerozoic. Ion probe analysis of multiple spots within a single zircon crystal and calculation of an internal isochron can potentially eliminate problems associated with discordance, but this is a time consuming approach. Comparison of internal isochron ages for zircons generated by multiple ion probe intra-grain zircon analyses from a sample of psammite within the Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland with a data set from the same sample based on single grain ion probe analysis using various filtering methods suggests good agreement between the two approaches particularly when filtering is based on the probability of concordance. However, when precise information is required, such as the age of the youngest zircon grains so as to accurately constrain the maximum depositional age of the strata, then multiple analyses of individual zircon grains may be required.

  19. Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Macey, P.H.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R.M.; Potter, C.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Miller, J.A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.

    2011-01-01

    New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

  20. Multi-Proxy provenance analysis of the Tarim basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andy; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Lu, Huayu; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-04-01

    The Tarim Basin in NW China hosts one of the largest active sand deserts, and has been considered as one possible source of the sediments that form the Chinese Loess Plateau.To gain a better understanding of the recent sediment system, this study analysed several provenance proxies (zircon U-Pb ages, heavy mineral content and composition) on sediment samples from recent fluvial deposits, alluvial fans, sand dunes across the basin. Here, we present zircon U-Pb data from 38 samples (over 4000 grain analyses) from the Tarim basin, together with their respective heavy mineral analyses, and also compare these to a large data set for the Chinese Loess Plateau and source areas, compiled from own analyses and literature (over 16000 grain analyses). Traditional approaches used to compare such large, multivariate data sets are prone to subjective interpretations. To avoid this, we applied MDS mapping, an established statistical method. Our results demonstrate; a) the power of this tool to quantitatively identify (dis-)similarities and trends within large data sets, b) a dominant southern Kunlun, Karakorum, Altun Shan source area compared to a minor influence from the Tian Shan in the north c) the sediment flux follows the general topographic gradient from south to north, driven by hydraulic transport during seasonal flooding, rather than the main wind directions from the north-east.

  1. Frequency and significance of physical evidence in legally proven cases of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    De Jong, A R; Rose, M

    1989-12-01

    Clinicians have long recognized and attorneys have disputed that physical evidence of injury, sexually transmitted diseases, and seminal fluid are often absent in cases of child sexual abuse. To determine the frequency and significance of physical evidence in legally "proven" felony cases with penetration, a retrospective review of sexual abuse court records was done. A total of 45 randomly selected cases were reviewed; 39 (87%) had resulted in conviction of the perpetrator for felony. Charges of vaginal rape were made in 32 cases, and charges of oral and/or anal sodomy in 23 cases. No significant difference in rate of felony conviction was found in cases with or without physical evidence. Of 32 cases without physical evidence, 30 (94%) resulted in felony convictions, whereas only 9 of 13 cases (69%) with physical evidence resulted in a felony conviction. Multiple variables describing the abuse situation were not shown to effect the legal outcome of the cases. Of cases that resulted in felony convictions, physical evidence was present in only 23% (9 of 39). These results should be helpful for the clinician in counseling the family of the sexual abuse victim and the attorney who prosecutes child sexual abuse cases. PMID:2587130

  2. Pattern of biopsy proven renal diseases at PNS SHIFA, Karachi: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Sohail; Mubarak, Muhammed; Ul-Haq, Irfan; Bibi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous renal biopsy (RB) is an invaluable diagnostic procedure in patients with medical renal diseases.Objectives: To determine the pattern of biopsy proven renal disease (BPRD) from a tertiary care naval hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods and Materials: All the renal biopsies in adult patients (≥18 years) performed at our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The biopsies were evaluated by light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results: A total 60 cases were analyzed. The mean age was 33.3±12.9 years (range: 18 to 72 years).The male to female ratio was 3:1. The most common indication of renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (43.3%), followed by renal failure (26.6%) and non-nephrotic proteinuria (23.3%). Primary glomerulonephritides (PGN) were predominant overall lesions, found in 46 (76.6%) of the total biopsies. Among PGN, the most common lesion was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and chronic sclerosing glomerulonephritis (CSGN) and a variety of rare lesions. Secondary glomerulonephritides (SGN) were found in only three (5%) cases. There were two cases of amyloidosis and one of lupus nephritis (LN). Tubulointerstitial disease (TID) and vascular disease were rare. Conclusion: This study provides information about the epidemiology of BPRD in a large tertiary care naval center in Southern Pakistan. PMID:25340152

  3. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  4. Paroxysmal dyskinesias revisited: a review of 500 genetically proven cases and a new classification.

    PubMed

    Erro, Roberto; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2014-08-01

    Paroxysmal movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions manifesting as episodic dyskinesia with sudden onset and lasting a variable duration. Based on the difference of precipitating factors, three forms are clearly recognized, namely, paroxysmal kinesigenic (PKD), non-kinesigenic (PNKD), and exercise induced (PED). The elucidation of the genetic cause of various forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia has led to better clinical definitions based on genotype-phenotype correlations in the familial forms. However, it has been increasingly recognized that (1) there is a marked pleiotropy of mutations in such genes with still expanding clinical spectra; and (2) not all patients clinically presenting with either PKD, PNKD, or PED have mutations in these genes. We aimed to review the clinical features of 500 genetically proven cases published to date. Based on our results, it is clear that there is not a complete phenotypic-genotypic correlation, and therefore we suggest an algorithm to lead the genetic analyses. Given the fact that the reliability of current clinical categorization is not entirely valid, we further propose a novel classification for paroxysmal dyskinesias, which takes into account the recent genetic discoveries in this field. PMID:24963779

  5. Distribution and provenance of trace elements in Gulf of Mexico sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood B.K.; Trefry, J.H.

    1983-09-01

    By knowing the dispersion patterns of river-borne sediments in marine environments, one can predict the spatial distribution of selected minerals, elements, and particle-bound pollutants. One potentially useful method for determining sediment pathways is by contouring selected trace metals in the sediment seaward of the river outflow. Using computer techniques involving trend surface analysis and a massive data set, the authors have contoured the regional distribution of chromium, copper, iron, nickel, and lead in surficial sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Spatially, these metals range from very low concentrations in the sediments of the west Florida shelf to highest values on the Mississippi delta and along portions of the south Texas shelf. Intermediate concentrations are interspersed between these areas. Observed contour patterns are referenced to suspended matter trace metal data for the Apalachicola, Mobile, Mississippi, Brazos, and Rio Grande Rivers to determine sediment-metal provenance and thus infer river dispersal patterns. Statistical treatment of the trace metal and sediment data was also carried out to identify the important geochemical variables (grain-size, carbonate content, and clay mineralogy) that control the observed sediment trace metal patterns.

  6. Provenance study from petrography of the late Permian - Early Triassic sandstones of the Balfour Formation Karoo Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghenekome, M. E.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Hammond, N. Q.; van Bever Donker, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Non marine clastic sediments from the Late Permian - Early Triassic Balfour Formation of the Karoo Supergroup were studied to infer the composition, provenance and influence of weathering conditions. Petrographic studies based on quantitative analysis of the detrital minerals reveal that these sediments (mainly sandstones) are mostly composed of quartz, feldspar and sedimentary and metamorphic rock fragments. There is no significant petrographic variation across the sandstone succession of the study. The sandstones are dominantly feldspathic litharenite and ultralithofeldspathic in composition indicating a metamorphic source area. Modal analysis data plot in the dissected and transitional arc block provenance fields of QmFLt (quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments) diagram suggesting an active margin and magmatic arc signature preserving a recycled provenance.

  7. Above-Ground Dimensions and Acclimation Explain Variation in Drought Mortality of Scots Pine Seedlings from Various Provenances.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical part of the life cycle, thus seedling survival might be even more important for forest persistence under recent and future climate change. Scots pine forests have been disproportionally more affected by climate change triggered forest-dieback. Nevertheless, some Scots pine provenances might prove resilient to future drought events because of the species' large distributional range, genetic diversity, and adaptation potential. However, there is a lack of knowledge on provenance-specific survival under severe drought events and on how acclimation alters survival rates in Scots pine seedlings. We therefore conducted two drought-induced mortality experiments with potted Scots pine seedlings in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, 760 three-year-old seedlings from 12 different provenances of the south-western distribution range were subjected to the same treatment followed by the mortality experiment in 2014. In the second experiment, we addressed the question of whether acclimation to re-occurring drought stress events and to elevated temperature might decrease mortality rates. Thus, 139 four-year-old seedlings from France, Germany, and Poland were subjected to different temperature regimes (2012-2014) and drought treatments (2013-2014) before the mortality experiment in 2015. Provenances clearly differed in their hazard of drought-induced mortality, which was only partly related to the climate of their origin. Drought acclimation decreased the hazard of drought-induced mortality. Above-ground dry weight and height were the main determinants for the hazard of mortality, i.e., heavier and taller seedlings were more prone to mortality. Consequently, Scots pine seedlings exhibit a considerable provenance-specific acclimation potential against drought mortality and the selection of suitable provenances might thus facilitate seedling establishment and the persistence of Scots pine forest. PMID:27458477

  8. Above-Ground Dimensions and Acclimation Explain Variation in Drought Mortality of Scots Pine Seedlings from Various Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannes; Menzel, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seedling establishment is a critical part of the life cycle, thus seedling survival might be even more important for forest persistence under recent and future climate change. Scots pine forests have been disproportionally more affected by climate change triggered forest-dieback. Nevertheless, some Scots pine provenances might prove resilient to future drought events because of the species’ large distributional range, genetic diversity, and adaptation potential. However, there is a lack of knowledge on provenance-specific survival under severe drought events and on how acclimation alters survival rates in Scots pine seedlings. We therefore conducted two drought-induced mortality experiments with potted Scots pine seedlings in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, 760 three-year-old seedlings from 12 different provenances of the south-western distribution range were subjected to the same treatment followed by the mortality experiment in 2014. In the second experiment, we addressed the question of whether acclimation to re-occurring drought stress events and to elevated temperature might decrease mortality rates. Thus, 139 four-year-old seedlings from France, Germany, and Poland were subjected to different temperature regimes (2012–2014) and drought treatments (2013–2014) before the mortality experiment in 2015. Provenances clearly differed in their hazard of drought-induced mortality, which was only partly related to the climate of their origin. Drought acclimation decreased the hazard of drought-induced mortality. Above-ground dry weight and height were the main determinants for the hazard of mortality, i.e., heavier and taller seedlings were more prone to mortality. Consequently, Scots pine seedlings exhibit a considerable provenance-specific acclimation potential against drought mortality and the selection of suitable provenances might thus facilitate seedling establishment and the persistence of Scots pine forest. PMID:27458477

  9. U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

  10. Paralysie néonatal unilatérale du nerf radial

    PubMed Central

    Benemmane, Halima; Hali, Fouzia; Marnissi, Farida; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2015-01-01

    La paralysie néonatale unilatérale du nerf radial est rare, son diagnostic est essentiellement clinique, elle peut-être diagnostiquée à tort en tant que paralysie du plexus brachial. Nous rapportons un cas clinique. A l'examen clinique du nouveau-né; l'extension du poignet, du pouce et des articulations métacarpo-phalangiennes était impossible, alors qu'il y avait une conservation de la prono-supination et la flexion du poignet et des mouvements de l’épaule et du coude. Le diagnostic de la paralysie du plexus brachial était écarté cliniquement devant la mobilisation active de l’épaule et la flexion du coude. Notre patient a bénéficié de kinésithérapie pour éviter l'apparition d'attitudes vicieuses et d'amyotrophie. L'extension active du poignet était obtenue après deux mois. PMID:26587133

  11. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Moses, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users' not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  12. Tracing erosion patterns in Taiwan by quantitative provenance and geomorphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, Alberto; Goren, Liran; Castelltort, Sebastien; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan is one of the world's foremost natural laboratories for studies of orogenesis. After only a few Ma of ongoing collision between the Chinese continental margin and the Luzon Arc, the associated orogen has reached nearly 4 km in height and 100-150 km in width. High rates of convergence leading to rapid rock uplift combine with the wet stormy climate of the sub-tropical typhoon belt to deliver annually an average detrital mass of 9500 t/km2. The doubly-vergent thrust belt is composed of more than 85% of sedimentary rocks dominant in the pro-wedge, but metamorphic rocks as young as < 10 Ma are exposed in the retro-wedge, where zircon fission-track, apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He ages are all reset and as young as 1 Ma or younger, indicating very recent fast exhumation. There is hardly another region where rock-uplift, unroofing and sediment production are of equal intensity. Quantitative analyses of tectonic and erosional processes around Taiwan have been carried out following diverse independent ways, including estimates of fluvial discharge of suspended solids, thermochronological techniques, cosmogenic measurements, and morphometry of river profiles (Dadson et al., 2003; Willett et al., 2003; Fox et al., 2014). Also the appearance and relative abundance of diagnostic rock fragments and other detrital minerals in Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary successions has been used to constrain unroofing rates, but a systematic description of compositional signatures of sediments shed by distinct tectonic domains has not been carried out so far. In this study we combine high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral analyses of modern sands carried by rivers all around Taiwan with their estimated sediment loads to calculate the detrital volumes generated from different lithologic assemblages within the orogen. River sediments are potent integrators of information that efficiently mediate provenance signals from different parts of the entire watershed, thus offering a

  13. Triassic and Jurassic-Cretaceous deposits in the Western Chukotka: geodynamic implications, provenance studies and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchkova, M.

    2012-04-01

    chemical composition and mineral assemblages are different from Triassic sandstone. Besides, Upper Jurassic sandstones differs from Cretaceous sandstones. Our investigations indicate that Triassic, Upper Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary basins were related to different source provenance. In the paper will discuss the sedimentation, provenances, and geodynamic settings of Triassic and Jurassic-Cretaceous deposits. The studied part of western Chukotka is composed of variably deformed, folded and cleaved rhythmic deposits. Widely distributed and intensively deformed Triassic sequences (Tuchkova et al., 2007) and J-K units both intruded by Aptian-Albian postcollisional plutons and dikes (Katkov et al., 2010). Collisional-related fabric and subsequent granitoids are complicated by small-scale latest normal faults, in particular related to the westernmost segment of South Chukchi (Hope) basin development in Upper Cretaceous (?)-Cenozoic. Intensity of the compressional deformation of Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks is significantly less than in Triassic sequence. Work was supported by RBRR projects 11-05-00787, 11-05-00074, Scientific school # NSh-5177.2012.5, kontrakts No. 04.740.11.0190, and 01/14/20/11.

  14. Isotope provenance of Eastern Himalayan rivers draining to the south into India, Nepal and Bhutan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemignani, Lorenzo; Wijbrans, Jan; Najman, Yani; van der Beek, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The two syntaxis of the Himalaya (Eastern and western) are exhuming anomalously fast compared to the rest of Himalaya , and various hypothesis and models have been proposed to explain this, including coupled tectonic-erosion model of (Tectonic Aneurism)1-2 and ductile extrusion of weak lower crust from beneath Tibet by 'channel flow' 3 . The Namche Barwa metamorphic massif constitutes the eastern syntaxis of the belt and has experienced a complex history of uplift and deformation both influenced by intense fluvial erosion associated with the Yarlung-Tzangpo. Therefore, the Himalayas represent a unique natural laboratory where the interactions between the tectonics, erosion, climate and drainage evolution can be investigated. The purpose of the work is to understand in collaboration with other PhD students and European researchers collaborating in the iTECC Marie Curie Initial training Network the importance of processes involving the complex links and feedbacks between climate, tectonics and erosion. In this multi-disciplinary and multi-technique study the mains goals will be to assess the timing of rapid exhumation, to determine provenance source area exhumation of the syntaxis in relation to the big river capture event that has implicates the Yarlung-Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra, and the effect of the dilution of the syntaxis signal 's downstream. During the work the 40Ar/39Ar dating of single-grain detrital micas technique will be used to analyze smaller and younger grains using newly developed high sensitivity multi-collection noble gas mass spectrometry. Detrital zircon fission-track is perform to provides robust cooling age time of the sources terrains. Input from eastern syntaxis has been identified in the Brahmaputra sedimentary record by the appearance of very young grains (from 10 Ma to 6 Ma)4. To compare and to increase the previously collected data, fifteen samples from the Yarlung-Brahmaputra River system and from tributaries draining the Himalaya, the

  15. Characterization and provenance of the building stones from Pompeii's archaeological site (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balassone, G.; Kastenmeier, P.; di Maio, G.; Mormone, A.; Joachimski, M.

    2009-04-01

    Pompeii is one of the most famous and complex areas of archaeological investigation in the world and with a uniquely favorable state of preservation. Even if many studies have been devoted in time to many archaeological aspects of this ancient city, large-scale and detailed studies aimed at characterizing mineralogy, petrography and isotope geochemistry of the building stones are still lacking. The scope of the present research is to fill this gap, pointing to the definition of the provenance of the stony materials used for ancient constructions of the city of Pompeii and to the possible trade routes. This work is part of a large-scale survey carried out by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut of Berlin, with the purposes of reconstructing the sources of raw materials of various archaeological sites of the Sarno Plain (e.g. Longola-Poggiomarino settlement, Nuceria, Stabiae, etc.) and consequently also the paleo-environments of this area during the Olocene (Seiler, 2006, 2008; Kastemeier and Seiler, 2007). We sampled all the litotypes with different macroscopic characteristics from various buildings according to location, age (time span VI century B.C. - I century A.D.) and utilization; the architectural buildings considered for this study are mainly represented public and religious buildings, houses and funerary monuments. As possible source areas, representative litotypes have been sampled from ancient pits and outcrops surrounding Pompeii as well. A set of 80 samples have been sampled by means of micro-drillings for mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical analyses, comprising optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass, X-ray fluorescence and C-O isotope geochemistry. Minero-petrographic and XRD studies of Pompeii rock samples have shown that at least ten different litologies occur as building stones, belonging to basaltic to tephritic lavas, pyroclasts (tuffs, scoriae, etc.) and sedimentary rocks (limestone, travertines

  16. Provenance of Palouse Loess and Relation to Late Pleistocene Glacial Outburst Flooding, Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, M. R.; Busacca, A. J.; Gaylord, D. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2002-12-01

    The eolian system of the Pacific Northwest is a product of long-term deflation of expansive sedimentary units by prevailing winds throughout the Quaternary. The Palouse loess is a deposit of wind-blown silt that covers approximately 10,000 sqare km up to 75 m thick. Late Quaternary units of the loess become finer texturally and thinner to the northeast, suggesting that they were derived from sedimentary basins south and west. The source of the loess has been inferred and hypothesized but never directly determined. A geochemical study of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene L1 unit of the Palouse loess and its possible sources was conducted to determine its provenance. There are two sedimentary units that lie upwind of the loess that may have contributed sediment via eolian deflation: 1) sand- and silt-rich slackwater sediment derived from late-Pleistocene outburst flooding of glacial Lake Missoula, and 2) sand- and silt-rich sediment from the Miocene-Pliocene Ringold Formation. Both are very similar in mineral composition, being derived from plutonic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks of the western United States and southern British Columbia. Major and trace element data determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) of silt to very fine sand from loess and potential source sediments was used to pinpoint the exact source of the loess. A one-to-one relationship of major and trace elements exists between eolian and flood sediments, whereas Ringold Formation sediments have elevated Ti, P, Mg, and Ca oxides and lower K oxide values as well as scattered trace element values relative to Palouse loess. These trends may be due to the presence of basalt lithic grains in flood sediment that have been broken down and distributed throughout the loess. The Ringold Formation lacks appreciable amounts of basalt. The geochemical data from this study demonstrates that flood sediment is the dominant source of eolian material for the Palouse loess. The spatial distribution of the possible source

  17. Provenance and paleoweathering reconstruction of the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation (1.4 Ga), northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyong; Zhong, Ningning; Wang, Yannian; Ma, Ling; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study presenting major and trace elemental data from the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation shales in Yanshan basin, North China, in order to reconstruct its provenance and chemical weathering history. The shales are strongly depleted in Na2O and Sr and enriched in Y and transition metal elements relative to upper continental crust. Low Zr concentrations and various discriminant plots (e.g., Th/Sc-Zr/Sc and Al2O3-TiO2-Zr) indicate insignificant mineral sorting or recycling of these shales. The rocks show light rare earth element (REE) enrichment (La/YbCN = 3.99-6.92), flat heavy REE, and significantly negative Eu anomalies (Euan = 0.57-0.68) in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean Australian average shales. The fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate that the Hongshuizhuang Formation shales were derived from a felsic source area with granodiorite as the dominant contributor. Mixing calculations suggest a mixture of 30 % granite porphyry, 5 % basalt, and 65 % granodiorite as the possible source of the shales, also supporting that granodiorite was the predominant source. Intense chemical weathering of the source terrain is indicated by high values of the premetasomatized chemical index of alteration, plagioclase index of alteration, Rb/Sr, a strong positive correlation between TiO2 and Al2O3, depletion of CaO, Na2O, and Sr, and mineral compositions. Such strong chemical weathering suggests a warm and wet paleoclimate, perhaps due to high atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and a near-equatorial location of the North China Craton in the Columbia supercontinent at 1.4 Ga.

  18. Composition and provenance of the Puente Formation (Miocene), Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Critelli, S. ); Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. )

    1994-04-01

    The Puente Formation (PFm) is a middle to upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the middle to lower Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, within the Los Angeles basin (LAB). The PFm, about 3900m thick, is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, and mudrock deposited on a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest active tectonics during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward thickening and coarsening megacycles reflecting submarine fan progradation. The PFm is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded fine sandstone and shale (La Vida M.) grading to thick-bedded coarse sandstone an conglomerate (soquel M.); (2) thin-bedded siltstone, mudrock and sandstone (Yorba M.) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon M.). Sandstones of the PFm are quartzofeldspathic and suggest a probable local provenance from the plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. Petrological parameters, however, suggest variable contribution of these source rock units through time. Coarse-grained plutonic rock fragments are abundant for the entire succession and consist of plagioclase-rich plutonic rocks perhaps sourced from the Lowe granodiorite. Microlitic, lathwork to felsitic volcanic lithic grains are also present in the lower and middle part. In the Yorba M. there is a local increase of volcanic detritus (Lv/L - 0.80), represented by larger volcanic lithics and abundant volcaniclastic matrix. Metamorphic detritus is not very abundant; it is concentrated in the La Vida M. the PFm represents sedimentation during tectonically active time in the evolution of southern California.

  19. Proven high-reliability assembly methods applied to avionics fiber-optics high-speed transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas; Larose, Robert; Dion, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Harsh environment avionics applications require operating temperature ranges that can extend to, and exceed -50 to 115°C. For obvious maintenance, management and cost arguments, product lifetimes as long as 20 years are also sought. This leads to mandatory long-term hermeticity that cannot be obtained with epoxy or silicone sealing; but only with glass seal or metal solder or brazing. A hermetic design can indirectly result in the required RF shielding of the component. For fiber-optics products, these specifications need to be compatible with the smallest possible size, weight and power consumption. The products also need to offer the best possible high-speed performances added to the known EMI immunity in the transmission lines. Fiber-optics transceivers with data rates per fiber channel up to 10Gbps are now starting to be offered on the market for avionics applications. Some of them are being developed by companies involved in the "normal environment" telecommunications market that are trying to ruggedize their products packaging in order to diversify their customer base. Another approach, for which we will present detailed results, is to go back to the drawing boards and design a new product that is adapted to proven MIL-PRF-38534 high-reliability packaging assembly methods. These methods will lead to the introduction of additional requirements at the components level; such as long-term high-temperature resistance for the fiber-optic cables. We will compare both approaches and demonstrate the latter, associated with the redesign, is the preferable one. The performance of the fiber-optic transceiver we have developed, in terms of qualification tests such as temperature cycling, constant acceleration, hermeticity, residual gaz analysis, operation under random vibration and mechanical shocks and accelerated lifetime tests will be presented. The tests are still under way, but so far, we have observed no performance degradation of such a product after more than

  20. Integrated Provenance Studies in Northwestern South America, Linking Tectonic and Sedimentary Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.; Ramirez, V. O.; Bayona, G.; Ayala, C.; Valencia, V.

    2009-12-01

    Post-collisional late Eocene to Oligocene extensional basins (Plato-San Jorge basin in Colombia) and syn-collisional basins to the east contain the record of drainages and source areas as a former passive margin obliquely collided with the Caribbean deformation front. A 2 to 8 km thick, shallowing-upward and almost entirely fine-grained, upper Eocene and younger sedimentary sequence contains the record of post-collisional paleogeography behind the advancing deformation front. Sedimentation in the syn-collisional margin is fragmentary along the northern margins of Colombia and Venezuela in the Guajira province. An integrated provenance approach is being undertaken with detrital zircon geochronology, whole rock geochemistry, heavy mineral analysis and tectonic modeling. Source areas contain distinctive assemblages that should be diagnostic and include cratonic contributions with Grenville and older provinces, Andean contributions with Mesozoic-age signatures and Caribbean contributions with latest Cretaceous and Paleogene contributions. The complex Paleogene tectonic interactions along the northwestern South American margin include the simultaneous opening of basins (Plato-San Jorge basin in Colombia), micro-block rotation (Santa Marta massif), shortening and mountain building (Perija range) and oblique accretionary wedges along the margin (Sinu-San Jacinto deformed belts). Rivers draining the interior of South America to the north would have been deflected by this Paleogene configuration, and local drainages would have similarly developed in response to changing depocenters. Distinctive signatures should have developed in the sedimentary sequence as the sources dynamically changed from cratonic (Grenville and older cratonic) to Andean (Mesozoic continental crust and reworked) to Caribbean (volcanic arcs and collision zones).

  1. The Chemical Information Ontology: Provenance and Disambiguation for Chemical Data on the Biological Semantic Web

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Janna; Chepelev, Leonid; Willighagen, Egon; Adams, Nico; Steinbeck, Christoph; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cheminformatics is the application of informatics techniques to solve chemical problems in silico. There are many areas in biology where cheminformatics plays an important role in computational research, including metabolism, proteomics, and systems biology. One critical aspect in the application of cheminformatics in these fields is the accurate exchange of data, which is increasingly accomplished through the use of ontologies. Ontologies are formal representations of objects and their properties using a logic-based ontology language. Many such ontologies are currently being developed to represent objects across all the domains of science. Ontologies enable the definition, classification, and support for querying objects in a particular domain, enabling intelligent computer applications to be built which support the work of scientists both within the domain of interest and across interrelated neighbouring domains. Modern chemical research relies on computational techniques to filter and organise data to maximise research productivity. The objects which are manipulated in these algorithms and procedures, as well as the algorithms and procedures themselves, enjoy a kind of virtual life within computers. We will call these information entities. Here, we describe our work in developing an ontology of chemical information entities, with a primary focus on data-driven research and the integration of calculated properties (descriptors) of chemical entities within a semantic web context. Our ontology distinguishes algorithmic, or procedural information from declarative, or factual information, and renders of particular importance the annotation of provenance to calculated data. The Chemical Information Ontology is being developed as an open collaborative project. More details, together with a downloadable OWL file, are available at http://code.google.com/p/semanticchemistry/ (license: CC-BY-SA). PMID:21991315

  2. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaprian, Hampapuram K.; Moses, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  3. Provenance, Paleoaltimetry, and Tectonic Significance of the Liuqu Conglomerate, Southern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, R.; DeCelles, P. G.; Quade, J.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-Cenozoic Liuqu Conglomerate was deposited in alluvial fan and coarse-grained fluvial deposystems along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone and provides information critical for constraining the timing and nature of the India-Asia collision. The Liuqu basins formed between ophiolitic mélanges (to the south) and uplifted Cretaceous forearc deposits (to the north) along the central, 1000 km long segment of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. Sedimentological analysis shows the unit to be composed of mixed sediment-gravity flow and fluvial lithofacies assemblages, locally punctuated by mature paleosols of mainly vertic character. Paleocurrent and provenance data demonstrate predominantly northward sediment transport from source terranes in ophiolitic and oceanic rocks in the hanging wall of a north-vergent thrust system that forms the southern limit of most Liuqu outcrops. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra define age clusters of 80-110 Ma, 120-135 Ma, 500-600 Ma, and 1100-1200 Ma, requiring input from both Asian and Indian sources. The youngest detrital zircon U-Pb ages obtained thus far are ca. 32 Ma, providing a maximum depositional age. Analysis of paleosol carbonates yielded δ13C values between -12‰ and -8‰ which indicate deposition in a well vegetated setting; this is consistent with the intensely weathered paleosols preserved in this unit. Together these initial results indicate that (a) the India-Asia collision was well underway by the time of Liuqu deposition (no later than 32 Ma); (b) deposition occurred under paleogeographic and/or paleoclimatic conditions that promoted intense weathering on Liuqu floodplains and alluvial fan margins. The latter is significant insofar as intense weathering would be surprising at high paleoelevations predicted by the development of the Tethyan Himalayan thrust belt beginning in Eocene time.

  4. Resolving Paragneiss Provenance at Grollier Lake in the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Western Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ply, Dustin

    U-Pb crystallization ages of metamorphic and detrital zircons from all three paragneiss samples fall into the range of ca. 1.85-2.59 Ga, excluding two much older grains. Evidence suggests that the paragneiss of Grollier Lake record deformation exclusively from the Taltson and Trans-Hudson orogenies. It is apparent from geochronological data that the Taltson orogeny played an exceedingly larger role in the deformation of these rocks than the Trans-Hudson. Deposition of the paragneiss protoliths most likely culminated between ca. 2037-1994 Ma with metamorphism ceasing by 1852.1 +/- 11.1 Ma. The oldest overgrowth considered to be concordant is 1994 +/- 12 Ma and interpreted to represent the first signature of burial facilitated by the Taltson orogeny. U-Pb crystallization ages ranging from ca. 1872-1900 Ma can be attributed to metamorphisms from both the late Taltson or early Trans-Hudson orogenies given that the transition between these events is hard to delineate. Zircons dated > ca. 2.04 Ga are detrital in origin with U-Pb crystallization ages for these grains possibly being discordant as supported by the concordia diagrams. However, these ages can still be explained by provenance from sources such as the ca. 2.17-2.13 Ga Rutledge River basin to the west of Grollier Lake, and the ca. 2.3 Ga Arrowsmith subduction-related plutons north of Lake Athabasca. Older zircons (2955.6 +/- 10.7 Ma and 3078 +/- 13.9 Ma) in the migmatitic paragneiss are inferred to be inherited from Neoarchean and early Paleoproterozoic crust below. It is possible that rocks of the lower structural levels will record deformation from the Arrowsmith orogeny.

  5. Prospective Evaluation of Serum β-Glucan Testing in Patients With Probable or Proven Fungal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Angebault, Cécile; Lanternier, Fanny; Dalle, Frédéric; Schrimpf, Cécile; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Dupuis, Aurélie; Agathine, Aurélie; Scemla, Anne; Paubelle, Etienne; Caillot, Denis; Neven, Bénédicte; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; d'Enfert, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    Background.  Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in invasive fungal diseases (IFD). Serum (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG) is believed to be an early IFD marker, but its diagnostic performance has been ambiguous, with insufficient data regarding sensitivity at the time of IFD diagnosis (TOD) and according to outcome. Whether its clinical utility is equivalent for all types of IFD remains unknown. Methods.  We included 143 patients with proven or probable IFD (49 invasive candidiasis, 45 invasive aspergillosis [IA], and 49 rare IFD) and analyzed serum BG (Fungitell) at TOD and during treatment. Results.  (1-3)-β-d-glucan was undetectable at TOD in 36% and 48% of patients with candidemia and IA, respectively; there was no correlation between negative BG results at TOD and patients' characteristics, localization of infection, or prior antifungal use. Nevertheless, patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans were more likely to test positive for BG at TOD (odds ratio = 25.4, P = .01) than patients infected with other Candida species. In 70% of the patients with a follow-up, BG negativation occurred in >1 month for candidemia and >3 months for IA. A slower BG decrease in patients with candidemia was associated with deep-seated localizations (P = .04). Thirty-nine percent of patients with rare IFD had undetectable BG at TOD; nonetheless, all patients with chronic subcutaneous IFD tested positive at TOD. Conclusions.  Undetectable serum BG does not rule out an early IFD, when the clinical suspicion is high. After IFD diagnostic, kinetics of serum BG are difficult to relate to clinical outcome. PMID:27419189

  6. Geochemistry of archean shales from the Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa: source-area weathering and provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Condie, K.C.

    1987-09-01

    With a few exceptions, shales from the Archean Witwatersrand Supergroup in South Africa are depleted in Na, Ca, Large ion lithophile elements (LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and half field strength elements ((HFSE) compared to Phanerozoic shales. Cr, Co and Ni are enriched in all Witwatersrand shales and Fe and Mg are high in shales from the West Rand Groups (WRG) and lower Central Rand Group (CRG). Shales from the CRG and uppermost WRG are enriched in Na, Al, LILE, REE, HFSE and transition metals relative to shales from the lower WRG. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for all Witwatersrand shales are enriched in light-REE and exhibit small to moderate negative Eu anomalies. Relative to shales from the CRG, shales from the WRG exhibit depletions of Na, Ca and Sr, a feature probably reflecting intense chemical weathering of their source rocks. CIA indices in Witwatersrand shales are variable, even within the same shale unit. Such variations reflect chiefly variable climatic zones or rates of tectonic uplift in source areas with perhaps some contribution from provenance and element remobilization during metamorphism. Compared to present-day upper continental crust, all but the Orange Grove, Roodepoort, and K8 shales appear to have been derived from continental sources depleted in LILE, REE, and HFSE and enriched in transition metals. Computer mixing models abased on six relatively immobile elements (Th, Hf, Yb, La, Sc, Co) and four source rocks indicate that the relative proportions of granite, basalt and komatiite increased with time in sediment source areas at the expense of tonalite.

  7. Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic provenance record of Paleo-Pacific subduction beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lisha; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Yang, Jianghai; Jiao, Liangxuan

    2015-05-01

    Northeast trending Yong'an Basin, southeast South China Craton, preserves a Permian-Jurassic, marine to continental, siliciclastic-dominated, retroarc foreland basin succession. Modal and detrital zircon data, along with published paleocurrent data, sedimentary facies, and euhedral to subhedral detrital zircon shapes, indicate derivation from multicomponent, nearby sources with input from both the interior of the craton to the northwest and from an inferred arc accretionary complex to the southeast. The detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra range in age from Archean to early Mesozoic, with major age groups at 2000-1700 Ma, 1200-900 Ma, 400-340 Ma, and 300-240 Ma. In addition, Early Jurassic strata include zircon detritus with ages of 200-170 Ma. Regional geological relations suggest that Precambrian and Early Paleozoic detritus was derived from the inland Wuyi Mountain region and Yunkai Massif of the South China Craton. Sources for Middle Paleozoic to early Mesozoic detrital zircons include input from beyond the currently exposed China mainland. Paleogeographic reconstruction in East Asia suggests derivation from an active convergent plate margin along the southeastern rim of the craton that incorporated part of Southwest Japan and is related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Integration of the geologic and provenance records of the Yong'an Basin with the time equivalent Yongjiang and Shiwandashan basins that lie to the southwest and south, respectively, provides an integrated record of the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean along the southeast margin of the South China Craton and termination of subduction of the Paleo-Tethys beneath its southwest margin in Permo-Triassic.

  8. Geochemical variability induced by entrainment sorting: quantified signals for provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Daniel; Ravenne, Christian; Maréchal, Benoît; Moutte, Jacques

    2004-10-01

    A substantial part of the mineralogical and chemical heterogeneity of clay-poor sands, at the bed scale, results from tractive redistribution of the grains in the bedload. Since coarse and light particles are more easily entrained than denser and smaller heavy minerals, the latter commonly concentrate in grain scale lags, that alternate with sand depleted in these minerals. When sampled and analysed at the centimetre scale, this primary heterogeneity translates into nice geochemical covariations between the minor/trace elements that concentrate in some heavy minerals (Zr, Ti, P, Cr, V, Y, Ce among others). Regressing these variations allow us to derive two chemical fingerprints of the sand: one records the proportions between some heavy minerals, the other the average composition of framework grains, i.e., a sand composition corrected from the contribution of heavy minerals. Both relate to provenance and allow different sand beds to be compared in appropriate spider diagrams. The construction of these diagrams, their potential use and their limitations are discussed using two contrasting examples. Continental channel sandstones from the Ravenscar Group (middle Jurassic, Yorkshire, UK) illustrate how these geochemical fingerprints vary from the local to the Group scales and how robust they are against diagenetic overprint. At Ravenscar, the Zr vs. Ti, V, Cr covariations record the presence of Ti oxides and magnetite together with zircon and of volcanic lithoclasts at the deposition stage, despite a high degree of diagenetic alteration. Overbank sandstones (lateral to channels) from the deep marine Grès d'Annot Formation (Eocene-Oligocene, Alps) illustrates how apatite and monazite delivered by a dominantly granitic source generate covariations between Zr and P, Y, Ce and Th contents with characteristically steep slopes.

  9. Geochemical variability induced by entrainment sorting as a robust tool in provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, D.

    2003-04-01

    A major part of the mineralogical and chemical heterogeneity of clay-poor sands, at the bed scale, results from tractive redistribution of the grains on the bedload. Since coarse and light particles are more easily entrained than denser and smaller heavy minerals, the later commonly concentrate in grain scale lag layers, that alternate with heavies-depleted sand. When sampled and analysed at the centimetre scale, this primary heterogeneity translates into surprisingly simple geochemical covariations between the minor / trace elements that concentrate in heavy minerals (Zr, Ti, P, Cr, V, Ce among others). This provides a simple, quantitative tool, for evaluating from bulk rock analysis two properties of the sand that relate to its provenance : the relative proportions between some heavy minerals, and the average composition of framework particles, i.e. the composition corrected from the heavies contribution.The case of channel sandstones from the Ravenscar group (mid Jurassic, Yorkshire, UK) illustrate how these two components of the geochemical signal vary at the formation scale and how robust they are against diagenesis. In this case, the Zr vs. Ti, V, Cr covariations, that result from by tractive redistribution of zircon, Ti oxide and magnetite at the deposition stage, survive well to the dissolution of magnetite upon burial and provide a robust tool to identify volcanic contributions. Similarly, the clean (overbank) sandstones from the turbiditic Annot formation (Eocene-Oligocene, southern Alps) illustrate how granitic inputs generate characteristic covariations between Zr, P, Ce and Th, in relation with the abundances of apatite and monazite in their heavy mineral population.

  10. Detrital zircon geochronology and provenance analysis applied to the onshore Makran accretionary wedge, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Burg, J.; Winkler, W.; Ruh, J. B.; Von Quadt, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Makran is one of the largest accretionary wedges in the world, located in Southeast Iran. The Makran Basin is composed of turbidity sediments ranging in age from late Cretaceous to Holocene. The analysis of detrital zircons is important to interpret the provenance of the sediments and to clarify the geological history of the sedimentary basins and their surrounding source regions. We present about 2777 new U-Pb ages (ICP laser ablation mass spectrometry) from individual detrital zircons of 18 sandstone samples collected throughout the onshore Makran. 101 detrital zircon ages from a late Cretaceous fine grained sandstone ranges from 180-160 Ma (Mid-Jurassic). 478 detrital zircon ages obtained from the mid to late Eocene sandstone reveals different sources for the NE and NW parts of the Makran Basin. Zircon grains in the NE basin belong to two populations peaked at Mid-Jurassic and Mid-Eocene, with the noticeable absence of Cretaceous grains. In the NW basin, detrital zircons are Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 587 detrital zircon grains from fine to medium grained Oligocene sandstones collected in different parts of the basin range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. 1611 detrital zircon age from Early Miocene sandstones collected in the eastern and western parts of the basin show distinctly different detrital zircon ages. They range from Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the eastern basin, from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene in the west. Detrital zircon ages from Mid and Late Miocene sandstones rang from Late Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene. These new detrital zircon U-Pb age data show that the eastern and western parts of the Makran Basin received sediments from different source areas during Eocene and Early Miocene times. Mid and Late Miocene sediment are recycled (cannibalism) from the Oligocene units of the basin.

  11. Provenance of geogenic arsenic in the Goose River basin, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, W.; Wotten, B.; Murphy, E.

    2001-11-01

    Occurrences of arsenic (As) are sporadic in drinking water from many wells in mid-coastal Maine. This is particularly the case where water supplies are pumped from fractured igneous and metamorphic bedrock. Although health risk-based As contamination levels are lowered, it is likely that the provenance of trace As concentrations will need to be scrutinized. Approximately 33% of wells sampled in the Goose River ground-watershed had at least one occurrence of 10 µg l-1 As. Geologic mapping in combination with the rock petrology and mineral chemistry were important in deciphering probable local source areas for arsenic. Median whole rock As is greater than 39 mg kg-1 in the Bucksport Formation and anatectic granitoids of the Waldoboro Pluton Complex. 34S isotopic composition of arsenian pyrites indicate that local areas of anomalous arsenic-bearing, transported soils are not the source of trace As in groundwater, but, instead, the As is derived from oxidation processes in the fractured bedrock along the western margin of the ground-watershed. In groundwater, the As3+/As5+ ratios ranged from 0.01 to 4.45 and were inconsistent spatially and temporally. Although it is probable that the stability field in most groundwater supplies is HAsO4 2-, arsenic speciation is not necessarily an aid to predicting transport. Instead an isotopic evaluation of associated groundwater SO4 2- clearly indicates a consistent correlation of elevated As with enriched δ34SSO4. The δ34SSO4 ranges of +4.05 to +4.61‰ may be characteristic of local oxidation in the fractured groundwater flow systems. Potential areas of geogenic As transport may be predictable.

  12. The Circum-Rhodope Belt, northern Greece: Age, provenance, and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, Guido; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios K.

    2013-06-01

    The Circum-Rhodope Belt (CRB) sensu stricto comprises low-grade metamorphosed Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks fringing the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope massifs in northern Greece. Main outcrops occur in the easternmost part of the Vardar suture zone in the Chalkidiki peninsula (Melissochori Formation; formerly Svoula flysch) and in Thrace (Makri unit and Melia Formation). The tectonostratigraphic relationship between the CRB and the high-grade metamorphics has been the subject of long discussions. Older interpretations maintain that the CRB represents the original Mesozoic stratigraphic cover of the Serbo-Macedonian crystalline basement, whereas later revisions propose the existence of two distinct greenschist-facies Mesozoic metasedimentary units: an eastern unit related to the development of a Jurassic black shale basin north of the Rhodope, and a western unit related to the development of an olistostromic flysch in the Cretaceous. Here we present a critical re-evaluation of the CRB with regard to its age, provenance, and tectonic setting based on novel geochemical and isotopic data. The Makri unit and the Melissochori Formation belong to the CRB proper and were deposited in proximity to Carboniferous-Early Permian igneous basement rocks (Pelagonia / Strandja / Thracia Terrane) in latest Triassic and Jurassic times, as shown by a prominent detrital zircon age population of 350-290 Ma. By contrast, the Melia Formation is unrelated to the CRB and was deposited in a foreland basin in front of a metamorphic nappe pile with Rhodopean affinities in the early Cretaceous, as shown by a prominent detrital zircon age population of 315-285 Ma and xenocrysts of ~ 550 Ma and ~ 450 Ma. Thus, the commonly accepted CRB concepts have to be revisited. All units have been tectonically juxtaposed to their present location during Balkan and Alpine orogenic processes.

  13. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    PubMed

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2015-04-01

    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  14. Composition, provenance and source weathering of Mesozoic sandstones from Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, F.

    2014-03-01

    weathering at the source. The source areas are mainly composed of intermediate-felsic rocks with minor, but not negligible, mafic supply, as suggested by provenance proxies.

  15. Heavy-mineral analysis and provenance of Yellow River sediments around the China Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Baotian; Pang, Hongli; Gao, Hongshan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Zou, Yu; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Fuqiang; Jia, Yunxia

    2016-09-01

    In its upper-middle reaches the Yellow River has high sand contents after traversing through large areas of desert and the China Loess Plateau. Understanding riverbed sediment composition in the channel is critical for the interpretation of the potential provenance, aeolian sand transport and the linkage between the Loess Plateau and the Yellow River. To address these issues, we collected 52 samples from the modern riverbed, proximal deserts, and major tributaries and used analyses of grain size, grain morphology, and heavy-mineral compositions, to establish the spatial distribution and characteristics of source regions and riverbed sediments. The heavy-mineral assemblages demonstrate significant variations for the different sections of the Yellow River. The riverbed samples from the upper reach are dominated by opaque minerals (limonite and magnetite), amphibole and epidote, with minor zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Riverbed sediments from the middle reach are garnet-rich, reflecting the widespread distribution of Mesozoic sandstones. This variability closely reflects the source regions. Our data show that seasonal tributaries (the "Ten Great Gullies") carrying detritus from the Ordos Plateau may account for the localized high garnet concentrations in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper reach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of quartz grains show that the river sediments are characterized by composite microtextures acquired in both fluvial and eolian environments of the Hedong, Ulan Buh and Kubuq Deserts. The mineralogical composition in the upper reach (Lanzhou-Yinchuan) is similar to that of sediments in the Loess Plateau and Northeast Tibet Plateau (Western Lanzhou). However, the composition differs markedly from that in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper and middle reaches. This variation indicates that in the upper reach the Northeast Tibet Plateau contributes significant volumes of sediment to the Yellow River and Loess Plateau, but

  16. Forest phenology and a warmer climate - Growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Carla A; Edwards, Nelson T; Walker, Ashley V; O'Hara, Keiran H; Campion, Christina M; Hanson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Predicting forest responses to warming climates relies on assumptions about niche and temperature sensitivity that remain largely untested. Observational studies have related current and historical temperatures to phenological shifts, but experimental evidence is sparse, particularly for autumn responses. A five-year field experiment exposed four deciduous forest species from contrasting climates (Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus rubra, Populus grandidentata, and Betula alleghaniensis) to air temperatures 2 and 4 C above ambient controls. Impacts of year-round warming on bud burst (BB), senescence and abscission were evaluated in relation to thermal provenance. Leaves emerged earlier in all species, by an average of 6-9 days at +2 and +4 C. Magnitude of advance varied with species and year, but was larger for the first 2 C increment than the second. The effect of warming increased with early BB, favoring Liquidambar, from the warmest climate, but even BB in northern species advanced, despite temperatures well beyond those of the realized niche. Treatment differences in BB were poorly explained by temperature sums, which increased with treatment. In autumn, chlorophyll was retained an average of 4 and 7 days longer in +2 and +4 C treatments, and abscission delayed by 8 and 13 days. Species differences in autumn responses were marginally significant. Growing seasons in the warmer atmospheres were 6 - 28 days longer, with the least impact in Quercus. Results are compared with a 16-year record of canopy onset and offset in a nearby upland deciduous forest, where BB showed similar responsiveness to spring temperatures (2 - 4 days C-1). Offset dates in the stand tracked August-September temperatures, except when late summer drought caused premature senescence. The common garden-like experimental approach provides evidence that warming alone extends the growing season, at both ends, even if stand-level impacts are complicated by other environmental factors.

  17. Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic West Congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Tack, Luc; Basei, Miguel S.; Nutman, Allen P.; Boven, Ariel

    2006-10-01

    Lithogeochemical, chemostratigraphic, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope as well as U-Pb single zircon age data from the principal stratigraphic units of the West Congolian Group (West Congo Supergroup) in the West Congo Belt, Democratic Republic of Congo, presented in this reconnaissance study provide new insights into regional stratigraphic correlation and sediment provenance. The oldest unit (Sansikwa Subgroup) is a continental rift basin fill that culminated in a marine glacial diamictite (Lower Mixtite Formation), which is correlated with the global 750-720 Ma Sturtian glaciation. This is followed by a post-glacial, marine carbonate-dominated succession (Haut Shiloango Subgroup), a second diamictite unit (Upper Mixtite Formation) for which a syn-Marinoan (636 Ma) age is favoured, a post-glacial carbonate succession (Schisto-Calcaire Subgroup) and finally molasse sediments that experienced orogenic deformation at c. 566 Ma, as indicated by new 40Ar- 39Ar data. The youngest unit (Inkisi Group) is post-orogenic, derived from the West Congo Belt, and thus not part of the same supersequence. The proposed regional to global correlation of the various units is in line with progressively younger detrital zircon age spectra up-section. Overall, these age spectra indicate a Neoarchaean basement source (Congo Craton) and a Palaeoproterozoic source from the known Kimezian Supergroup to the west of the belt, which corresponds in age with the Eburnean of southern Africa. In addition, we identified a hitherto unknown late Mesoproterozoic source to the west of the belt, the age of which is comparable to the Espinhaço Supergroup of the Araçuai Belt in Brazil.

  18. Lithofacies control in detrital zircon provenance studies: Insights from the Cretaceous Methow basin, southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaff-Surpless, K.; Mahoney, J.B.; Wooden, J.L.; McWilliams, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency sampling for detrital zircon analysis can provide a detailed record of fine-scale basin evolution by revealing the temporal and spatial variability of detrital zircon ages within clastic sedimentary successions. This investigation employed detailed sampling of two sedimentary successions in the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin of the southern Canadian Cordillera to characterize the heterogeneity of detrital zircon signatures within single lithofacies and assess the applicability of detrital zircon analysis in distinguishing fine-scale provenance changes not apparent in lithologic analysis of the strata. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin contains two distinct stratigraphic sequences of middle Albian to Santonian clastic sedimentary rocks: submarine-fan deposits of the Harts Pass Formation/Jackass Mountain Group and fluvial deposits of the Winthrop Formation. Although both stratigraphic sequences displayed consistent ranges in detrital zircon ages on a broad scale, detailed sampling within each succession revealed heterogeneity in the detrital zircon age distributions that was systematic and predictable in the turbidite succession but unpredictable in the fluvial succession. These results suggest that a high-density sampling approach permits interpretation of finescale changes within a lithologically uniform turbiditic sedimentary succession, but heterogeneity within fluvial systems may be too large and unpredictable to permit accurate fine-scale characterization of the evolution of source regions. The robust composite detrital zircon age signature developed for these two successions permits comparison of the Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin age signature with known plutonic source-rock ages from major plutonic belts throughout the Cretaceous North American margin. The Methow/Methow-Tyaughton basin detrital zircon age signature matches best with source regions in the southern Canadian Cordillera, requiring that the basin developed in close proximity to the

  19. Prospective Evaluation of Serum β-Glucan Testing in Patients With Probable or Proven Fungal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Angebault, Cécile; Lanternier, Fanny; Dalle, Frédéric; Schrimpf, Cécile; Roupie, Anne-Laure; Dupuis, Aurélie; Agathine, Aurélie; Scemla, Anne; Paubelle, Etienne; Caillot, Denis; Neven, Bénédicte; Frange, Pierre; Suarez, Felipe; d'Enfert, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in invasive fungal diseases (IFD). Serum (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG) is believed to be an early IFD marker, but its diagnostic performance has been ambiguous, with insufficient data regarding sensitivity at the time of IFD diagnosis (TOD) and according to outcome. Whether its clinical utility is equivalent for all types of IFD remains unknown. Methods. We included 143 patients with proven or probable IFD (49 invasive candidiasis, 45 invasive aspergillosis [IA], and 49 rare IFD) and analyzed serum BG (Fungitell) at TOD and during treatment. Results. (1-3)-β-d-glucan was undetectable at TOD in 36% and 48% of patients with candidemia and IA, respectively; there was no correlation between negative BG results at TOD and patients' characteristics, localization of infection, or prior antifungal use. Nevertheless, patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans were more likely to test positive for BG at TOD (odds ratio = 25.4, P = .01) than patients infected with other Candida species. In 70% of the patients with a follow-up, BG negativation occurred in >1 month for candidemia and >3 months for IA. A slower BG decrease in patients with candidemia was associated with deep-seated localizations (P = .04). Thirty-nine percent of patients with rare IFD had undetectable BG at TOD; nonetheless, all patients with chronic subcutaneous IFD tested positive at TOD. Conclusions. Undetectable serum BG does not rule out an early IFD, when the clinical suspicion is high. After IFD diagnostic, kinetics of serum BG are difficult to relate to clinical outcome. PMID:27419189

  20. Les inconvénients de perdre du poids

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les raisons pour lesquelles la perte de poids à long terme échoue la plupart du temps et évaluer les conséquences de diverses trajectoires pondérales, y compris la stabilité, la perte et le gain. Source des données Les études qui évaluent les paramètres pondéraux dans la population sont en majorité observationnelles. Des données probantes de niveau I ont été publiées pour évaluer l’influence des interventions relatives au poids sur la mortalité et la qualité de vie. Message principal Seulement un petit pourcentage des personnes qui désirent perdre du poids réussissent à le faire de manière durable. La mortalité est la plus faible chez les personnes se situant dans la catégorie de poids élevé-normal et surpoids. La trajectoire pondérale la plus sécuritaire est la stabilité du poids avec une optimisation de la condition physique et métabolique. Il est démontré que la mortalité est plus faible chez les personnes ayant des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité si elles perdent du poids. Il est aussi établi que la qualité de vie sur le plan de la santé est meilleure chez les personnes obèses qui perdent du poids. Par contre, la perte de poids chez une personne obèse autrement en santé est associée à une mortalité accrue. Conclusion La perte de poids est recommandable seulement chez les personnes qui ont des comorbidités reliées à l’obésité. Les personnes obèses en santé qui veulent perdre du poids devraient être informées qu’il peut y avoir des risques à le faire. Une stratégie qui se traduit par un indice de masse corporelle stable avec une condition physique et métabolique optimisée, peu importe le poids, est l’option d’intervention la plus sécuritaire en ce qui concerne le poids.

  1. Rupture simultanée du ligament croisé antérieur et du ligament patellaire: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Achkoun, Abdessalam; Houjairi, Khalid; Quahtan, Omar; Hassoun, Jalal; Arssi, Mohamed; Rahmi, Mohamed; Garch, Abdelhak

    2016-01-01

    La rupture simultanée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur est une lésion relativement rare. Son diagnostic peut facilement manquer lors de l'examen initial. Les options de traitement incluent la réparation immédiate du tendon rotulien avec soit la reconstruction simultanée ou différée de ligament croisé antérieur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une rupture combinée du tendon rotulien et du ligament croisé antérieur chez un jeune footballeur de 22 ans. Une approche de traitement en deux temps a été effectuée avec un excellent résultat fonctionnel. PMID:27366288

  2. Provenance determination of oriental porcelain using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Bartle, Emma K; Watling, R John

    2007-03-01

    The sale of fraudulent oriental ceramics constitutes a large proportion of the illegal artifact and antique trade and threatens to undermine the legitimate international market. The sophistication and skill of forgers has reached a level where, using traditional appraisal by eye and hand, even the most experienced specialist is often unable to distinguish between a genuine and fraudulent piece. In addition, current provenancing techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and thermoluminescence (TL) dating can result in significant damage to the artifact itself. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), a relatively nondestructive analytical technique, has been used for the provenance determination of materials based on geographical origin. The technique requires the production of a laser crater, c. 100 microm in diameter, which is essentially invisible to the naked eye. Debris from this crater is analyzed using ICP-MS, with the results forming the basis of the provenance establishment protocol. Chinese, Japanese, and English porcelain shards have been analyzed using this protocol and generic isotopic distribution patterns have been produced that enable the provenance establishment of porcelain artifacts to their country of production. Minor variations between elemental fingerprints of artifacts produced in the same country also indicate that it may be possible to further provenance oriental ceramics to a specific production region or kiln site. PMID:17316230

  3. Using Motivational Interviewing with School-Age Bullies: A New Use for a Proven, Evidence-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Brenna A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Curtis, Russell C.; Thompson, E. Heather; Coll, Kenneth M.; Yu, Fangzhou; Moyer, Michael S.; Mullett, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a proven, evidence-based intervention. It has been successfully utilized as a potent intervention with students presenting a broad range of concerns from substance abuse to obesity. To date, however, no articles exist within the general counseling literature or the "Journal of School Counseling" specifically…

  4. Chemical Variation of Silicate Mineral Phases in Lunar Feldspathic Granulitic Impactites: Implications for Thermal Histories and Provenances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincke, E. M.; Ryder, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the internal variation and abundances of minor elements of silicate phases in lunar granulitic impactites to assess their thermal histories and the pre-metamorphic provenances of the minerals and the process that assembled the rocks. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. A Semantic Provenance-aware Expert Advisory System in a Web-based Science Data Analysis Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Lynnes, C.; Fox, P. A.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Pan, J.

    2010-12-01

    Web-based science analysis and processing tools allow users to access, analyze, and generate visualizations of data while alleviating users from having to directly manage complex data processing operations. These tools provide value by streamlining the data analysis process, but usually shield users from details of the data processing steps, algorithm assumptions, caveats, etc. Correct interpretation of the final analysis requires user understanding of how data has been generated and processed and what potential biases, anomalies, or errors may have been introduced. By providing services that leverage data lineage provenance and domain-expertise, expert systems can be built to aid the user in understanding data sources, processing, and the suitability for use of products generated by the tools. As an example of such a system, we describe a semantic, provenance-aware, expert-knowledge advisory system applied to an existing web-based Earth science data analysis tool (e.g. Giovanni from NASA/GSFC). First we introduce our integrated semantic data model, which is comprised of provenance, data processing, and science domain ontologies. Then we describe how we developed an initial set of expert rules, to reason over our data model and discover conditions in the processing provenance that could lead to anomalies or errors in the processing results. Finally we will highlight how knowledge from the semantic data model and inferences of the advisory expert ruleset may be presented to the user to assist in user understanding of the suitability of products generated by the analysis tool.

  6. Provenance of eastern Magallanes foreland basin sediments: Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal Paleogene tectonic unroofing of the Fuegian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Khandaker

    Though southern South America and the Antarctic Peninsula were previously connected through a Paleozoic-Mesozoic subduction system on the western margin of Gondwana, this connection was tectonically disrupted in the Cenozoic by forming the Drake Passage in the Scotia Sea. Heavy mineral composition data from the eastern Magallanes basin of southernmost South America indicate that Campanian to middle Eocene sediments had a mafic/ophiolitic provenance which is interpreted as being derived from the Patagonian-Fuegian magmatic arc and the mafic floor of the preceding Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Upper middle Eocene to lower Miocene heavy minerals, on the other hand, indicate a metamorphic/metasedimentary provenance, which suggest being derived from the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex. While the rare earth element patterns of all of these samples are typical to those of average post-Archean upper continental crustal types, the younger middle-upper Eocene and lower Oligocene samples contain a higher concentration of the light REEs (LaN/SmN) ratio compared to the older upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene samples suggesting an eastern Andean metamorphic complex provenance for younger sediments. Trace elements plot of stratigraphically older samples exhibit a lower Th/Sc ratio compared to the younger samples suggesting a mafic origin. Nd isotope data show a shift in epsilonNd values from a less negative to a more negative value also during the middle to late Eocene. Together, these data indicate an abrupt shift in sediment provenance in middle to late Eocene time, thereby corroborating recent interpretations of the basin's detrital-zircon geochrononology and thermochronology, and providing further support for temporal and possibly genetic relationships between development of the Patagonian orocline, the opening of Drake Passage and the Oi-1 glaciation of Antarctica. Quantifying the relative abundance of different framework mineral components of sandstone is a common

  7. Provenance and sediment dynamics within river basins in Western Peru through detrital zircons U-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camille, Litty; Pierre, Lanari; Marco, Burn; Fritz, Schlunegger

    2016-04-01

    U-Pb dating of detrital zircons from clastic sediments by LA-ICPMS has become a popular method in sedimentary correlation and provenance studies. Because of remarkable durability, detrital zircons may be reworked through multiple sedimentary cycles and provide an ideal material to study the sedimentary provenance in rivers and the erosional characteristics. The Western side of the Peruvian Andes has experienced multiple pluvial periods induced phases of erosion and the formation of subsequent cut-and-fill terrace sequences since the Pleistocene. The aim of the study is to estimate the source areas of the terrace and modern deposits to infer changes in sediment dynamics through time and correlate them with the climatic change and especially precipitation patterns. To this extent, we determined the provenance of 4 dated terrace deposits along with modern sediments from the same streams by matching detrital-zircon ages with crystallization ages of source rocks. Age populations of detrital zircons are derived using U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis of about 50 zircons. Results show changes in the sediment provenance through time. Nowadays, sediment source areas are mainly located on the uppermost reach of the rivers whereas during the Pleistocene, sediment source areas were both located in the headwaters and along the middle reach of the rivers. These differences in terms of provenance could correlate with a change in precipitation locations and rates. Indeed a scenario where the locus of precipitation occurrence shifted from the middle reaches including the Altiplano during the past, to the Altiplano only as observed today, along with higher precipitation rates during the periods of terraces formation, offers an explanation to explain the erosional patterns recorded by detrital zircons.

  8. Integrated provenance analysis of Zakeen (Devonian) and Faraghan (early Permian) sandstones in the Zagros belt, SW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoleikhaei, Yousef; Amini, Abdolhossein; Zamanzadeh, S. Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Successions of a controversial period of time in the Zagros and Arabian Plate stratigraphic column, including Zakeen (Devonian) and Faraghan (early Permian) formations are investigated for their provenance characteristics. Nearly similar depositional environments of the formations, regardless of 70-80 My hiatus between them, is the main motivation for this study. Evidence from various methods are put together to reconstruct a comprehensive image of their provenance. Results from petrographic and detrital mode analysis indicate a continental block provenance for of the sandstones of both formations. In addition, evidence of recycling is evident from some rock fragments in the conglomeratic facies. Heavy mineral diversities are limited to the ultra-stable species which represent consistent morphological characteristics in both formations. However, the values of rutile: zircon index (RZi) showed intermittent changes from low RZi to high RZi intervals in both formations. Detrital zircon age data in previous studies represented the same source for these two formations, which also remained unchanged from Neo-Proterozoic to late Paleozoic successions. Zircon grains' morphology, however, showed remarkable difference between the Zakeen and Faraghan formations on the one hand and successions deposited in the basin prior to the tectonic movements of mid-Paleozoic time on the other. Outcomes of this study show that, although each single technique may shed light on a particular aspect of the greater provenance problem, by integration of all the data, important evidence of recycled nature of these successions could be confirmed. Changes in the thickness of the Paleozoic units, the nature of their stratal surfaces, along with the information from magmatic events in the area provide a tectono-stratigraphic framework for northern margin of Gondwana in which the recycled nature of these successions is justifiable. The recycled nature of the studied formations on the one hand, and

  9. Citation and Recognition of contributions using Semantic Provenance Knowledge Captured in the OPeNDAP Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Michaelis, J.; Lebot, T.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Providing proper citation and attribution for published data, derived data products, and the software tools used to generate them, has always been an important aspect of scientific research. However, It is often the case that this type of detailed citation and attribution is lacking. This is in part because it often requires manual markup since dynamic generation of this type of provenance information is not typically done by the tools used to access, manipulate, transform, and visualize data. In addition, the tools themselves lack the information needed to be properly cited themselves. The OPeNDAP Hyrax Software Framework is a tool that provides access to and the ability to constrain, manipulate, and transform, different types of data from different data formats, into a common format, the DAP (Data Access Protocol), in order to derive new data products. A user, or another software client, specifies an HTTP URL in order to access a particular piece of data, and appropriately transform it to suit a specific purpose of use. The resulting data products, however, do not contain any information about what data was used to create it, or the software process used to generate it, let alone information that would allow the proper citing and attribution to down stream researchers and tool developers. We will present our approach to provenance capture in Hyrax including a mechanism that can be used to report back to the hosting site any derived products, such as publications and reports, using the W3C PROV recommendation pingback service. We will demonstrate our utilization of Semantic Web and Web standards, the development of an information model that extends the PROV model for provenance capture, and the development of the pingback service. We will present our findings, as well as our practices for providing provenance information, visualization of the provenance information, and the development of pingback services, to better enable scientists and tool developers to be

  10. A Conversation with Lee Alvin DuBridge - Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, Judith R.

    Physicist Lee A. DuBridge became president of the California Institute of Technology in 1946. In this interview he recalls the immediate problems he faced, including his dealings with Robert A. Millikan, whom he replaced as chief administrator of the institute; institute financing and inadequate salaries. DuBridge also talks about the advent of federal support for peacetime science and Millikan's distaste for it; his close working relationship with Robert F. Bacher, who came to the institute in 1949 as chairman of the Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy; his recollections of the meteorologist Irving P. Krick, the physicist Alexander Goetz, and the chemist Linus Pauling; and his attempts to build up the Humanities Division.

  11. Sediment Provenance in the Equatorial Atlantic and its Implications on Paleocirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahler, S. H.; Franzese, A. M.; Hemming, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    Ocean circulation in the Equatorial Atlantic is composed of a diverse range of currents from the surface level equatorial currents and countercurrents to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Sediments deposited in this region are derived from Africa and South America by a combination of aeolian and fluvial pathways and then transported by ocean currents. Fifteen cores from the Equatorial Atlantic (10°N to 10°S, 0° to 45°W) were used to determine sediment provenance during the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and specifically to test whether sediment was transported by surface or deep water currents. The radiogenic isotopic composition of any rock depends on its age, initial composition and its geologic history. The strontium isotopic composition of the terrigenous portion of marine sediments can often be used to identify the source rock(s) from which they weathered. By incorporating this new sediment core data from both Holocene and LGM depths with previous research designating the 87Sr/86Sr ratios for source areas in Africa and South America we were able to connect possible source areas with core locations. In general, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the Holocene are higher than those from the LGM, indicating a greater contribution from geologically older sediment sources during the Holocene. Primary sediment transport from African sources is best explained by wind transport, while sediment derived from South American sources is most easily explained by river input. The geographic pattern of 87Sr/86Sr ratios appears to be correlated to deep ocean circulation, specifically the NADW which flows southward along the western side of the Atlantic near South America and then cuts east along the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ, ~0°) before continuing south once again in the eastern basin near Africa. Based on our results, there is no observable difference in transport mechanisms between the Holocene and LGM; however, the difference in ratios between the two time

  12. Provenance of Tertiary volcanoclastic sediment in NW Thrace (Bulgaria): Evidence from detrital amphibole and pyroxene geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, Luca; Orlando, Andrea; Marchev, Peter; Critelli, Salvatore; Manetti, Piero; Raycheva, Raya; Riley, David

    2016-05-01

    Detrital heavy mineral and bulk rock geochemistry and a review of sandstone petrographic data have been used to investigate the post-collisional effusive magmatism that followed the closure of the Vardar Ocean and the generation of volcanic sediments in a complex and compositionally variable volcanic region. Available petrographic data gives evidence of contributions from three key source areas corresponding to the three main tectonic units: the structurally lower Gneiss-Migmatite Complex (Byala Reka-Kechros and Kesebir-Kardamos domes) and the upper Variegated (Kimi) Complex, both fringed by the low-to-medium-grade Mesozoic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt. Besides the deposition of siliciclastic material, volcanic contributions from both, intermediate and acid products represent an important source of sediment in the area. Despite dominant intermediate to acid volcanic products, volcanic lithic fragments in sandstones (microlithic, lathwork and brown vitric textures) indicate main inputs from intermediate and basic-intermediate products generating questions on the interpretation of volcanic detritus in reconstruction of provenance. Detrital amphibole and pyroxene chemistry is used to characterise the supply of volcanic material as well as the dispersal mechanisms and understand the role played by each of the volcanic centers present in the area in the infill of the north-western Thrace basin. Amphibole chemistry reveals high compositional heterogeneity according to both compositional variability of the numerous volcanic centres active at the time of deposition and presence of metamorphic amphibole. 4Al and AlT apfu values indicate that most of the amphiboles from the NERZ are not of volcanic origin and their presence can only be attributed to the numerous amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks abundantly documented in the area. Detrital amphibole compositions from the ZKVS indicate major contributions from the Iran Tepe and Zvedzel volcanoes. Analysed detrital

  13. Data Quality, Provenance and IPR Management services: their role in empowering geospatial data suppliers and users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Keiran

    2015-04-01

    This paper looks at current experiences of geospatial users and geospatial suppliers and how they have been limited by suitable frameworks for managing and communicating data quality, data provenance and intellectual property rights (IPR). Current political and technological drivers mean that increasing volumes of geospatial data are available through a plethora of different products and services, and whilst this is inherently a good thing it does create a new generation of challenges. This paper consider two examples of where these issues have been examined and looks at the challenges and possible solutions from a data user and data supplier perspective. The first example is the IQmulus project that is researching fusion environments for big geospatial point clouds and coverages. The second example is the EU Emodnet programme that is establishing thematic data portals for public marine and coastal data. IQmulus examines big geospatial data; the data from sources such as LIDAR, SONAR and numerical simulations; these data are simply too big for routine and ad-hoc analysis, yet they could realise a myriad of disparate, and readily useable, information products with the right infrastructure in place. IQmulus is researching how to deliver this infrastructure technically, but a financially sustainable delivery depends on being able to track and manage ownership and IPR across the numerous data sets being processed. This becomes complex when the data is composed of multiple overlapping coverages, however managing this allows for uses to be delivered highly-bespoke products to meet their budget and technical needs. The Emodnet programme delivers harmonised marine data at the EU scale across seven thematic portals. As part of the Emodnet programme a series of 'check points' have been initiated to examine how useful these services and other public data services actually are to solve real-world problems. One key finding is that users have been confused by the fact that often

  14. Detrital provenance of the Grenvillian Oaxacan Complex, southern Mexico: a zircon perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, Luigi A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando; Elías-Herrera, Mariano; Ortega-Obregón, Carlos; Macías-Romo, Consuelo; Reyes-Salas, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    The Oaxacan Complex is the largest exposure of Grenvillian-age rocks in Mexico, constituting the backbone of the Oaxaquia microcontinent. Whereas the main rock-forming events were previously established at 1,150-1,200 Ma (charnockite-syenite-gabbros), 1,020 Ma (AMCG suite), 990 Ma (granulite-facies metamorphism), and ca. 970 Ma post-tectonic pegmatites, no data are yet available to establish provenance links with other Grenville-age terranes. In this work, we studied detrital zircons belonging to 12 samples, all metamorphosed under granulite facies but variably affected by retrogression. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry U-Pb geochronology was employed on selected zircons to determine their crystallization age and geochemistry. The results of the analysis of about 100 crystals per sample show that the studied zircons range between ca. 940 and 1,400 Ma, with only three samples having zircons between 1,400 and 1,600 Ma, and only one showing older zircons up to ca. 1,775 Ma. Whereas some of the slightly discordant (1-5 %) zircons in several samples show ages younger than the granulite metamorphism (probably as a result of Pb loss), and thus a disturbed geochemical pattern (abnormal enrichment in LREE, decreasing HREE), a few metamorphic zircons show flat and depleted HREE patterns, contrasting with the igneous pattern of older zircons (positive Ce anomaly, negative Eu anomaly, enriched HREE pattern). The main distributions observed using the kernel density estimator diagrams fall in the range 975-995 Ma (six samples), 1,100 Ma (four samples) and 1,120-1,170 Ma (six samples). Only the southernmost sample shows a marked peak at ca. 1,400 Ma. The application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistical test to the studied samples and particularly the comparison of obtained P values yield interesting similarities. Overall, two sample groups show internal similarities, i.e., they may belong to the same source area, whereas only one sample is

  15. One Stop Post Op cardiac surgery recovery--a proven success.

    PubMed

    Joyce, L; Pandolph, P

    2001-01-01

    the delivery of care on the patient. With proven success in clinical outcomes, patient, physician and caregiver satisfaction, it is anticipated that this innovative approach will drive hospitals to integrate clinical process with physical planning in the future. PMID:11596524

  16. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  17. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been

  18. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven Growth Technology for Human NEO/Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next "evolutionary step" in high performance rocket propulsion. Unlike conventional chemical rockets that produce their energy through combustion, the NTR derives its energy from fission of Uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine s reactor core. Using an "expander" cycle for turbopump drive power, hydrogen propellant is raised to a high pressure and pumped through coolant channels in the fuel elements where it is superheated then expanded out a supersonic nozzle to generate high thrust. By using hydrogen for both the reactor coolant and propellant, the NTR can achieve specific impulse (Isp) values of 900 seconds (s) or more - twice that of today s best chemical rockets. From 1955 - 1972, twenty rocket reactors were designed, built and ground tested in the Rover and NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications) programs. These programs demonstrated: (1) high temperature carbide-based nuclear fuels; (2) a wide range of thrust levels; (3) sustained engine operation; (4) accumulated lifetime at full power; and (5) restart capability - all the requirements needed for a human Mars mission. Ceramic metal "cermet" fuel was pursued as well, as a backup option. The NTR also has significant "evolution and growth" capability. Configured as a "bimodal" system, it can generate its own electrical power to support spacecraft operational needs. Adding an oxygen "afterburner" nozzle introduces a variable thrust and Isp capability and allows bipropellant operation. In NASA s recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the NTR was selected as the preferred propulsion option because of its proven technology, higher performance, lower launch mass, versatile vehicle design, simple assembly, and growth potential. In contrast to other advanced propulsion options, no large technology scale-ups are required for NTP either. In fact, the smallest engine tested during the Rover program

  19. Epidemiology of Histologically Proven Glomerulonephritis in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Okpechi, Ikechi G.; Ameh, Oluwatoyin I.; Bello, Aminu K.; Ronco, Pierre; Swanepoel, Charles R.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Data on epidemiology and outcomes of glomerular diseases from Africa is still limited. We conducted a systematic review on the epidemiology of histologically proven glomerular diseases in Africa between 1980 and 2014. Materials and methods We searched literature using PubMed, AfricaWide, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature on EBSCO Host, Scopus, African Journals online databases, and the African Index Medicus, for relevant studies. The review was conducted using standard methods and frameworks using only biopsy-confirmed data. Results Twenty four (24) studies comprising 12,093 reported biopsies from 13 countries were included in this analysis. The median number of biopsies per study was 127.0 (50–4436), most of the studies (70.0%) originated from North Africa and the number of performed kidney biopsies varied from 5.2 to 617 biopsies/year. Nephrotic syndrome was the commonest indication of renal biopsy. The frequency of reported primary pathologic patterns included, minimal change disease (MCD); 16.5% (95%CI: 11.2–22.6), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); 15.9% (11.3–21.1), mesangiocapillary GN (MCGN); 11.8% (9.2–14.6), crescentic GN; 2.0% (0.9–3.5) and IgA nephropathy 2.8% (1.3–4.9). Glomerular diseases related to hepatitis B and systemic lupus erythematosus had the highest prevalence among assessed secondary diseases: 8.4% (2.0–18.4) and 7.7% (4.5–11.7) respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias and regional differences were seen mostly for secondary GNs. Conclusions Glomerular diseases remain poorly characterized in sub-Saharan Africa due to declining renal biopsy rates and consequent paucity of data on pathologic patterns of key renal diseases. Development of renal biopsy registries in Africa is likely to enable adequate characterization of the prevalence and patterns of glomerular diseases

  20. Mesozoic tectonics of the Arctic: New constraints from provenance studies,Taimyr, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is important for understanding global tectonics and the framework of petroleum and mineral resources in the Arctic area. The Eurasia and Amerasia basins are the principal physiographic domains of the Arctic Ocean. The Eurasia Basin is known to be the result of slow seafloor spreading; the origin of the Amerasia Basin however remains controversial. Lack of information on the timing, structure, and geochemistry of geological units around the Amerasia Basin limits our ability to understand its development. The Taimyr Peninsula where Mesozoic deformation is well-developed provides a natural laboratory to investigate the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Provenance studies of Taimyr constrain the source areas of Mesozoic sediments in the region and thus identify affinities between them. Detrital zircons from six samples of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone from Southern Taimyr were dated using LA-ICP-MS to test existing models for the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Triassic samples present great similarity in detrital zircon population with Triassic sandstone from the paleo-Taimyr river system, including Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands. These samples all contain Permo-Triassic (236 - 250 Ma), Permo-Carboniferous (260 - 330 Ma), Devonian (340 - 390 Ma) late Precambrian-Silurian (420 - 580 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (620 - 1000 Ma) zircons. These detrital zircon ages suggest Triassic sediments in these locations may have been derived from Siberia Trap, Taimyr and the Ural Mountains of Arctic Russia. It is therefore likely that Taimyr, Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands which are separated at present were close to each other or belonged to the same large drainage system before the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Middle Jurassic samples and two Upper Jurassic samples from Taimyr have dominant Permo-Triassic peaks (246 - 260 Ma) suggesting a proximal source

  1. Towards a strontium isoscape for the determination of provenance of prehistoric wooden findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsky, Monika; Tintner, Johannes; Bolka, Monika; Grabner, Michael; Kowarik, Kerstin; Reschreiter, Hans; Kern, Anton; Horacek, Micha; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric wood artefacts have been excavated from ancient salt mine galleries in Hallstatt, Austria. These findings present a unique archive of information on Bronze and Iron Age mining and trade relations, as for certain tools a production elsewhere and transport to the mine is assumed. These wooden artefacts contain the geochemical information of their growth location, though masked by secondary salts due to the storage conditions. Consequently, the analysis of the biogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of the findings was carried out in comparison to the respective signatures of trees from possible regions of origin, in order to draw conclusions on prehistoric trade routes. Thus - in addition to Hallstatt - seven regions in the Alpine region of Austria as well as in the Northern and Southern lowlands were selected based on known settlements in the time period of interest. Within all regions, the geological bedrock variability was considered for the definition of sampling spots, which resulted in a total of 26 locations. Four tree species represented in the archaeological finds (i.e. Picea abies, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus sp.) were sampled upon availability. Wood sample digests from eight replicate trees per location were analysed using multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). In order to reveal the biogenic signatures of the prehistoric findings, a decontamination method based on acid leaching was developed. We could successfully separate biogenic from secondary Sr and adopted a mixing theory to account for possibly incomplete removal of the latter. The Sr isotope ratio data obtained from modern trees (i.e. bioavailable Sr) reflect the geological heterogeneity of the Alps, which challenges the creation of an isoscape and its applicability to distinct provenance determination. Different geologic bedrock types can be clearly distinguished by their 87Sr/86Sr, e.g. marine sedimentary and igneous rocks. Furthermore, the data

  2. Variations in the provenance of the late Neogene Red Clay deposits in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yuan; Beets, Christiaan J.; Tang, Hui; Prins, Maarten A.; Lahaye, Yann; van Elsas, Roel; Sukselainen, Leena; Kaakinen, Anu

    2016-04-01

    The voluminous loess-Red Clay deposits in northern China forming part of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are valuable terrestrial archives of climatic evolution for the late Cenozoic Era. Fundamental in reconstructing the late Miocene and Pliocene wind patterns and aridification history is a detailed knowledge of the provenance of these deposits. This paper provides end member modelling of bulk grain-size distributions and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons for three distant Red Clay sequences in the northeastern (Baode), southern (Lantian) and western (Dongwan) CLP. Data show that these different sections each display a distinctive compositional structure indicating variable depositional processes, but they also share two significant zircon age populations of 200-300 Ma and 400-500 Ma. While the Permian-Triassic (200-300 Ma) group accounts for a larger proportion of zircons' ages in the northeastern (NE) CLP, the Ordovician-Silurian (400-500 Ma) component is dominant in the southern and western CLP. It is suggested that the Red Clay in the southern and western CLP was mainly derived from the Northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) and the Taklimakan desert by low-level westerly winds. Samples of the NE CLP show an increased signature of sediments transported by near-surface northwesterly winds from the broad area of the Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB). This spatial transport and deposition pattern is supported by the results from the backtrace trajectory modelling of the dominant dust transport pathways in the CLP. It is noted that the Red Clay sample of around 3.6 Ma obtained from the NE CLP shows increased detrital contributions from its west, possibly indicating an intensified westerly wind strength and/or aridity of the NTP and Taklimakan desert due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan Mountains in the Pliocene. The onset of enhanced drainage of the Yellow River caused by the increased denudation of the NETP since 3.6 Ma could also have contributed to this.

  3. Sedimentary and geochemical characterization and provenance of the Portuguese continental shelf soft-bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, R.; Azevedo, M. R.; Mamede, R.; Sousa, B.; Freitas, R.; Rocha, F.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Grain-size and geochemical analyses for soft-bottom sediments from the Portuguese continental shelf are used to determine their provenance and to identify the main factors governing the sediment distribution patterns. The deeper areas of the northwestern and central sectors of the Portuguese shelf and most of its southwestern sector are covered by fine and very fine sands. Coarse deposits are found in the inner and middle shelf of the northernmost sector and immediately south of the Nazaré and Setúbal canyons, while muddy sediments are restricted to areas located off the mouths of major rivers (Douro and Tagus mud patches). In contrast, the southern shelf corresponds to a low energy environment receiving most of its sediment supply from the Guadiana River. As a result, an expressive mud patch is developed off the Guadiana estuarine system. The application of multivariate analysis to geochemical data allowed the classification of the studied samples into four main groups: (a) a group of mud deposits constituted by detrital clay minerals and authigenic iron-manganese oxyhydroxides, displaying high contents for organic matter and for most major and trace elements; (b) a group of biogenic carbonate-rich sands showing high CaO, Sr and U contents which is well represented throughout the entire Portuguese shelf; (c) a group of quart-rich sediments, with very high SiO 2 contents and moderate Al 2O 3, K 2O and TiO 2 contents, supporting a major terrigenous contribution and (d) a group of coarse sand samples with high As levels from off important rivers, pointing to anthropogenic contamination. Trace metal enrichments observed in the muddy areas from both the western and southern coasts appear to result from natural causes and do not exceed the international sediment quality thresholds. There is, however, local evidence for As, Zn, Cr and Pb anthropogenic contamination in near-shore sediments associated with rivers draining regions characterized by urban, industrial or

  4. Provenance of things - describing geochemistry observation workflows using PROV-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Car, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemistry observations typically follow a complex preparation process after sample retrieval from the field. Description of these are required to allow readers and other data users to assess the reliability of the data produced, and to ensure reproducibility. While laboratory notebooks are used for private record-keeping, and laboratory information systems (LIMS) on a facility basis, this data is not generally published, and there are no standard formats for transfer. And while there is some standardization of workflows, this is often scoped to a lab, or an instrument. New procedures and workflows are being developed continually - in fact this is a key expectation in the development of the science. Thus formalization of the description of sample preparation and observations must be both rigorous and flexible. We have been exploring the use of the W3C Provenance model (PROV) to capture complete traces, including both the real world things and the data generated. PROV has a core data model that distinguishes between entities, agents and activities involved in producing a piece of data or thing in the world. While the design of PROV was primarily conditioned by stories concerning information resources, application is not restricted to the production of digital or information assets. PROV allowing a comprehensive trace of predecessor entities and transformations at any level of detail. In this paper we demonstrate the use of PROV for describing specimens managed for scientific observations. Two examples are considered: a geological sample which undergoes a typical preparation process for measurements of the concentration of a particular chemical substance, and the collection, taxonomic classification and eventual publication of an insect specimen. PROV enables the material that goes into the instrument to be linked back to the sample retrieved in the field. This complements the IGSN system, which focuses on registration of field sample identity to support the

  5. Managing Data, Provenance and Chaos through Standardization and Automation at the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, W.

    2013-12-01

    lifecycle, from initial import through quality control, revision and integration by our data processing system (GCE Data Toolbox for MATLAB), and included in metadata for versioned data products. This high level of automation and system integration has proven very effective in managing the chaos and scalability of our information management program.

  6. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  7. Stream capture and piracy recorded by provenance in fluvial fan strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikesell, Leslie R.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Karachewski, John A.

    2010-03-01

    Stream capture and piracy in tectonically active regions have been described in geomorphic systems worldwide; however, few studies show the influence stream capture has on the rock record. We present an analysis of fluvial fan stratigraphy that developed as a result of multiple stream capture events, building a complex stratigraphic succession beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California. The LLNL site is located in the southeast portion of the tectonically active Livermore Basin, a transpressional basin in the California Coast Ranges. Geomorphic evidence for this stream capture include: (1) the Arroyo Seco enters the basin from the south through an uplifted fault block, (2) south of this fault block lies an abandoned Arroyo Seco fluvial fan, (3) north of the fault block, in the Livermore Basin, Arroyo Seco built a 7-km 2 fluvial fan, apparently forcing the Arroyo Las Positas, a smaller stream that enters the basin from the east, northward around the Arroyo Seco fan, and (4) a knickpoint exists near the point of capture on Arroyo Seco. Stratigraphic evidence reflecting this shift in the Arroyo Seco position into the Livermore Basin was evaluated through a provenance study of 215 gravel units from 34 boreholes spaced evenly over the 2.6 km 2 LLNL site. The Arroyo Seco derives its sediment from both the Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage and the Altamont Hills (which are comprised of Mesozoic Great Valley Group and Tertiary continental sediments). The Arroyo Las Positas drains only the Altamont Hills and thus lacks the Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts. The origin of the individual gravel units was determined by the percentage of Franciscan Assemblage indicator pebbles (red chert, green chert and blueschist) in the samples. Through this analysis, we determined that high-percentage Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts were present below a depth of approximately 35 m below the surface, low-percentage Franciscan Assemblage

  8. Decorative marbles from the Krkonoše-Jizera Terrane (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): provenance criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šťastná, Aneta; Přikryl, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Marbles from western part of the Krkonoše-Jizera Terrane (northern part of the Bohemian Massif) have been studied to obtain mineropetrographic and chemical reference data for provenance studies. Samples from six different quarries were analysed by mineralogical-petrographic and geochemical methods (optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, stable isotope ratio analysis, cathodoluminescence, bulk magnetic susceptibility). Petrographic characteristics permit a distinction between fine-grained to medium-grained marbles from the Jizera Mts (amphibolite metamorphic facies) and fine-grained marbles from the Ještěd Mts (low-grade greenschist facies). The samples studied are mainly calcitic, with the exception of those from Raspenava in which dolomite is abundant in two types. The mineralogical composition of the insoluble residues is clinochlore ± serpentine ± tremolite ± diopside ± pyrite + magnetite in case of the locality Raspenava and clinochlore + muscovite ± quartz ± pyrite ± rutile ± haematite in case of the localities from the Ještěd Mts. δ13C and δ18O variations in primary and secondary carbonate phases allow to distinguish genetically different carbonate veins and permit quarry separation in one case (Raspenava, Jizera Mts). The δ13C and δ18O values of the groundmass range from -1 to +3‰ and from -8 to -20‰ (PDB), respectively. The δ13C and δ18O values of secondary carbonate veins decrease to -3‰ and reach more negative values up to -26‰ in case of δ18O. The fabric of cathodomicrofacies allows the distinction between calcite and dolomite, except three localities (Pilínkov, Horní Hanychov, Jitrava—rose type) with majority of quenchers (high content of iron in carbonate). The genetically different calcite is characterised by a pale and dark orange luminescence distribution. Serpentine, tremolite, forsterite, opaque minerals and quartz have no luminescence and very dull luminescence, respectively. The majority of studied marbles

  9. Provenance and diagenesis of the evaporite-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLennan, S.M.; Bell, J.F., III; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; de Souza, P.A.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Fike, D.A.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Glotch, T.D.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Hahn, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Johnson, S.S.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knoll, A.H.; Learner, Z.; Malin, M.C.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Pocock, J.; Ruff, S.W.; Soderblom, L.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Tosca, N.J.; Watters, W.A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Impure reworked evaporitic sandstones, preserved on Meridiani Planum, Mars, are mixtures of roughly equal amounts of altered siliciclastic debris, of basaltic provenance (40 ?? 10% by mass), and chemical constituents, dominated by evaporitic minerals (jarosite, Mg-, Ca-sulfates ?? chlorides ?? Fe-, Na-sulfates), hematite and possibly secondary silica (60 ?? 10%). These chemical constituents and their relative abundances are not an equilibrium evaporite assemblage and to a substantial degree have been reworked by aeolian and subaqueous transport. Ultimately they formed by evaporation of acidic waters derived from interaction with olivine-bearing basalts and subsequent diagenetic alteration. The rocks experienced an extended diagenetic history, with at least two and up to four distinct episodes of cementation, including stratigraphically restricted zones of recrystallization and secondary porosity, non-randomly distributed, highly spherical millimeter-scale hematitic concretions, millimeter-scale crystal molds, interpreted to have resulted from dissolution of a highly soluble evaporite mineral, elongate to sheet-like vugs and evidence for minor synsedimentary deformation (convolute and contorted bedding, possible teepee structures or salt ridge features). Other features that may be diagenetic, but more likely are associated with relatively recent meteorite impact, are meter-scale fracture patterns, veins and polygonal fractures on rock surfaces that cut across bedding. Crystallization of minerals that originally filled the molds, early cement and sediment deformation occurred syndepositionally or during early diagenesis. All other diagenetic features are consistent with formation during later diagenesis in the phreatic (fluid saturated) zone or capillary fringe of a groundwater table under near isotropic hydrological conditions such as those expected during periodic groundwater recharge. Textural evidence suggests that rapidly formed hematitic concretions post

  10. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  11. The provenance of sub-cratonic mantle beneath the Limpopo Mobile Belt (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Quinten H. A.; Klaver, Martijn; Waight, Tod E.; Davies, Gareth R.

    2013-06-01

    followed by metasomatic addition of Si-Al-Ca, forming high-temperature orthopyroxene from which clinopyroxene and garnet exsolved. Si enrichment is a characteristic feature of the majority of the Kaapvaal Craton to the south of the LMB but not of the Zimbabwe Craton to the north, implying a Kaapvaal origin. The provenance of the High-T lithosphere beneath the LMB is less well constrained as it is intensely modified by kimberlitic magmatism and diamond inclusion chemistry does not show significant systematic variation across the cratons. The presence of rare, mildly silica enriched high-temperature harzburgites suggests that a Kaapvaal origin for the entire lithosphere beneath the LMB is most likely.

  12. Advances in Provenance Tracking and Configuration Management for Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Production of Earth science data involves two different production paradigms: 1. Large scale, batch production in which a network of programs and files create a collection of data for access by users 2. Small scale, fine-grained production in which users interact with data in files or databases These two paradigms lead to two different models for configuration management of data. The first model is one that recognizes that data production is similar to other large-scale manufacturing processes and inventories both the collection of files, the processes the produce them, and the connections between the files and the processes. This model requires traversing the mathematical graph created by the network of processes and files. The second model is better described as a workflow that modifies the data by fine- grained transactions. In this case, provenance tracking is equivalent to tracking the history of transactions created by the workflow. In the large scale production paradigm, the rates of data ingest and the number of processes and files is sufficiently large that production needs to be automated. For example, in the upcoming NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), a typical time granularity for ingested data files is about 86 seconds. A single spectral channel from the VIIRS instrument on this satellite produces about 1000 files per day of calibrated data. Given the large number of channels on this instrument, production must be highly automated. An archive must be prepared to catalog millions of files per year. In this situation, data producers operate by creating source code that the production system compiles and links into executable objects. The executable code is often unchanged over many instances, so that production is very homogeneous over extended periods of time. This fact means that versioning of data products is also quite discrete and leads naturally to a hierarchical inventory structure. In the small scale production paradigm, the number of files is

  13. A Geochronological Study of Paleogene -Neogene Foreland Basin Sediments Western Nepal Himalaya: Implication of Provenance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, U.; Lin, D.; Chamlagain, D.

    2015-12-01

    After the collision between the Indian and Asian plates, during early Cenozoic several south propagating thrusts were active and the sediments deposited at the northern tip of the Greater India have been reworked, recycled and metamorphosed, and were subsequently exhumed and transported to the foreland basin. Petrography, detrital zircon (DZ) dating and Lu-Hf isotope analysis, and trace element analysis were conducted from two sections of Nepal Himalaya for the determination of change in provenance, and constrain the possible timing of Indo-Asiacollision. The U-Pb ages of the DZ grains from Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene Amile Formation are older than early Mesoproterozoic with dominant number of grains showing ƐHf (t) value between 0 to +10. The trace element data shows that the sediments are from passive margin with northward paleoflow direction. These finding conclude that the sediments during this time was sourced from northern margin of Indian Plate that elucidate the possibility of the Ind0-Asia collisionsomewhere between late Paleocene to early Eocene (~58-50 Ma).The U-Pb ages from the marine Eocene Bhainskati Formation dominantly clusters between ~1000 and 500 Ma and the ƐHf (t) values ranges from -10 to +10. The trace element result shows that the sediments were from both the passive and active continental margin. The transition of deposition from marine Bhainskati Formation to continental Dumri Formation is marked by 3-4 m thick Oxisol layer with a ~10-15 Mya deposition gap during the Oligocene. The U-Pb ages of detritus from Early to mid-Miocene Dumri Formation have a wide range of detritus ranging from Archean to Mesozoic age with dominant numbers resembling the age of the Tethys Himalaya (TH) and Upper Lesser Himalaya (ULH). The presence of younger grains of Cenozoic age (~80-50 Ma) put the possibility of the Gangdase arc source deposited directly in Dumri Formation or first deposited in the TH and later transported to it. The ƐHf (t) value ranges

  14. Du Pont Classifications of 2 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Madore, B.; Poetrodjojo, Henry; D'Agostino, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of two supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on Aug. 30 and Sep. 1 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  15. Du Pont Classifications of 4 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of four supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on July 31 and Aug. 01 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  16. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  17. Histoire d’un itinéraire épidémiologique entre le Burkina Faso et la Côte d’Ivoire : le cas des foyers de maladie du sommeil de Koudougou

    PubMed Central

    Kiendrébéogo, D.; Kambiré, R.; Jamonneau, V.; Lingué, K.; Solano, P.; Courtin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dans la première moitié du XXème siècle, alors que la Haute-Volta (actuel Burkina Faso) subissait une terrible épidémie de maladie du sommeil, l’administration coloniale française a orchestré des déplacements massifs de populations de la Haute-Volta vers la Côte d’Ivoire, pour exploiter le territoire. Cela a conduit à la mise en place de villages de colonisation Mossi en zone forestière ivoirienne, comme ceux de Koudougou, issus de l’une des régions les plus peuplées de Haute-Volta, mais aussi l’une des plus touchées par la maladie du sommeil. Depuis 2000, au Burkina Faso, c’est dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou que sont dépistés passivement le plus grand nombre de trypanosomés en provenance de Côte d’Ivoire. Qui sont-ils ? Où habitent-ils au Burkina Faso ? D’où viennent-ils de Côte d’Ivoire ? Après avoir retracé l’histoire épidémiologique des villages de Koudougou au Burkina Faso et en Côte d’Ivoire, nous avons recherché les trypanosomés dépistés passivement depuis 2000 dans le district sanitaire de Koudougou au Burkina Faso. Au total, dix trypanosomés ont été enquêtés. Le processus de propagation de la maladie du sommeil dans l’espace ivoiro-burkinabé a été mis en évidence et des zones à risque de la maladie identifiées dans ce même espace. PMID:23193525

  18. Subduction Complex Provenance redefined: modern sands from the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar Ridge and Barbados Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, Mara; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Bandopadhyay, Pinaki C.; Najman, Yani; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Subduction complexes large enough to be exposed subaerially and to become significant sources of terrigenous detritus are formed by tectonic accretion above trenches choked with thick sections of remnant-ocean turbidites. They thus need to be connected along strike to a large Alpine-type or Andean-type orogen, where huge volumes of orogenic detritus are produced and conveyed via a major fluvio-deltaic system to the deep sea (Ingersoll et al., 2003). We investigated sediment generation and recycling in the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar subduction complex, representing the archetype of such settings in the eastern prolongation of the Himalayan collisional system. "Subduction Complex Provenance" is composite, and chiefly consists of detritus recycled from largely turbiditic parent rocks (Recycled Clastic Provenance), with local supply from ultramafic and mafic rocks of forearc lithosphere (Ophiolite Provenance) or recycled paleovolcanic to neovolcanic sources (Volcanic Arc Provenance; Garzanti et al., 2007). In order to specifically investigate the effect of recycling, we characterized the diverse detrital signatures of Cenozoic sandstones deposited during subsequent stages of "soft" and "hard" Himalayan collision and exposed from Bangladesh to the Andaman Islands, and discuss the reasons for compositional discrepancies between parent sandstones and their recycled daughter sands. A companion study was carried out with the same methodologies, rationale and goals on Barbados Island, one of the few other places where a large accretionary prism is subaerially exposed. Also modern Barbados sands are largely multicyclic, reflecting mixing in various proportions of detritus from the basal Scotland Formation (sandstones and mudrocks), their stratigraphic and tectonic cover, the Oceanic Formation (quartzose turbidites and deep-water biogenic oozes including radiolarite), and from the Pleistocene calcarenite and reefal cap, as well as from volcanic layers ultimately derived from

  19. Provenance-specific growth responses to drought and air warming in three European oak species (Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens).

    PubMed

    Arend, Matthias; Kuster, Thomas; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    Provenance-specific growth responses to experimentally applied drought and air warming were studied in saplings of three European oak species: Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens. Four provenances of each species were grown in large open-top chambers and subjected to four climates: control, periodic drought, air warming or their combination in 3 subsequent years. Overall growth responses were found among species and provenances, with drought reducing shoot height growth and stem diameter growth and air warming stimulating shoot height growth but reducing stem diameter growth and root length growth. Differential growth responses in shoots, stems and roots resulted in altered allometric growth relations. Root length growth to shoot height growth increased in response to drought but decreased in response to air warming. Stem diameter growth to shoot height growth decreased in response to air warming. The growth responses in shoots and stems were highly variable among provenances indicating provenance-specific sensitivity to drought and air warming, but this response variability did not reflect local adaptation to climate conditions of provenance origin. Shoot height growth was found to be more sensitive to drought in provenances from northern latitudes than in provenances from southern latitudes, suggesting that genetic factors related to the postglacial immigration history of European oaks might have interfered with selective pressure at provenance origins. PMID:21422189

  20. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2011 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2010-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  1. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  2. Provenance and Diagenesis of the Yellowknife Bay Formation, Gale Crater, Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J.; McLennan, S. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Milliken, R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    took place under rock-dominated conditions following deposition; accordingly, an arid, cold, and/or high relief provenance with minimal chemical weathering is indicated. Sedimentary rocks of the YBF preserve a remarkable diversity of diagenetic textural features. These features can be roughly subdivided into at least two phases of activity: (1) formation of early concretions, voids, and internally banded ridges, potentially associated with a set of redox reactions that may have produced gases of, as yet, unknown character, and (2) later precipitation of Ca-sulfate (anhydrite, bassanite, and perhaps gypsum) in veins and in early diagenetic voids that are cross-cut by veins. In summary, Curiosity has found evidence for a fluvio-lacustrine environment characterized by circum-neutral pH fluids that were conducive to the formation of clay minerals and mixed-valence Fe-oxides, and the strata also record a protracted history of post-depositional diagenetic reactions. Together, these observations indicate that Gale Crater played host to a habitable environment that could have supported chemolithoautotrophy.

  3. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    mineral dissolution during transport between Eagle and Pilot Station, a distance of over 2000 km. We estimate that approximately 3 wt% of the quartz, 15 wt% of the feldspar (1 wt% of the alkali and 25 wt% of the plagioclase), and 26 wt% of the carbonates (31 wt% of the calcite and 15 wt% of the dolomite) carried by the river dissolve in this reach. The mineralogies of the suspended sediments change with the season. For example, during the summer of 2002 the quartz content varied by 20 wt%, with a minimum in mid-summer. The calcite content varied by a similar amount, and had a maximum corresponding to the quartz minimum. These modes are related to the relative amount of sediment flowing from the White River system, which is relatively poor in quartz, but rich in carbonate minerals. Suspended total clay minerals varied by as much as 25 wt%, with maxima in mid July, and suspended feldspar varied up to 10 wt%. Suspended sediment data from the summers of 2001 and 2003 support the 2002 trends. A calculation technique was developed to determine theproportion of various sediment sources in a mixed sediment by unmixing its quantitative mineralogy. Results from this method indicate that at least three sediment sources can be identified quantitatively with good accuracy. With this technique, sediment mineralogies can be used to calculate the relative flux of sediment from different tributaries, thereby identifying sediment provenance.

  4. Towards Infusing Giovanni with a Semantic and Provenance Aware Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio, N.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Giovanni is a Web-based application developed by GES DISC that provides simple and intuitive ways to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensed data. Currently, the Giovanni visualization module is only aware of the physical links (i.e., hard-coded) between data and services and consequently cannot be easily adapted to new visualization scenarios. VisKo, a semantically enabled visualization framework, can be leveraged by Giovanni as a semantic bridge between data and visualization. VisKo relates data and visualization services at conceptual (i.e., ontological) levels and relies on reasoning systems to leverage the conceptual relationships to automatically infer physical links, facilitating an adaptable environment for new visualization scenarios. This is particularly useful for Giovanni, which has been constantly retrofitted with new visualization software packages to keep up with advancement in visualization capabilities. During our prototype integration of Giovanni with VisKo, a number of future steps were identified that if implemented could cement the integration and promote our prototype to operational status. A number of integration issues arose including the mediation of different languages used by each system to characterize datasets; VisKo relies on semantic data characterization to "match-up" data with visualization processes. It was necessary to identify mappings between Giovanni XML provenance and Proof Markup Language, which is understood by VisKo. Although a translator was implemented based on identified mappings, a more elegant solution is to develop a domain data ontology specific to Giovanni and to "align" this ontology with PML, enabling VisKo to directly ingest the semantic descriptions of Giovanni data. Additionally, the relationship between dataset components (e.g., variables and attributes) and visualization plot components (e.g., geometries, axes, titles) should also be modeled. In Giovanni, meta

  5. Geochemical proxies for weathering and provenance of Late Quaternary alluvial core-sediments from NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Amir, Mohd; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2014-05-01

    characterized by more radiogenic Sr and less radiogenic Nd. Whereas those deposited during MIS-1 and MIS-3, warm and humid Interglacial periods, are distinctly less radiogenic in Sr and more radiogenic in Nd (Higher Himalayan signature) suggesting increased contribution from the Higher Himalayan rocks. These variations can be attributed to decreased contribution from the Higher Himalaya during Glacial periods due to increased glacial cover over the Higher Himalaya which in turn are caused by lower solar insolation and vice versa. The findings of this study, consistent with those from the Ganga-Yamuna interfluve sediments (Rahaman et al., 2009), indicate a dominant control of climate on sediment provenance and source weathering. References: Sinha et al. (2013), Quaternary International, 308-309, 66-75. Singh et al. (2011), AGU Fall Meeting 5-9 December 2011. Rahaman et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 559-526.

  6. Sedimentation and provenance of the Antofagasta region of the southern Puna Plateau, central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Sobel, Edward R.; Carrapa, Barbara; Davis, Donald W.

    2014-05-01

    Stratigraphic and provenance studies of Cenozoic non-marine sedimentary basins in the Central Andean Puna Plateau provide insight into the regional development and dynamics. The southern plateau hosts several poorly exposed intramontane basins bounded by basement-involved ~N-S striking thrust faults; their origin is explained differently by contrasting geodynamic models. This study focuses on the Antofagasta region (NW Argentina). The top of the studied basin was over-thrust by basement rocks along a west-dipping thrust fault, which was likely active during exhumation of the Calalaste range to the west (25-29 Ma, Carrapa et al., 2005). We studied three sections SW of Antofagasta de la Sierra. S3 (552 m) is the lowest section and is composed of mud playa to sandflat sediments, with at least two paleosol horizons. Lower S2 (1,263 m) contains ~300 meters of proximal alluvial fan sediments. Upper S2 is composed of fluvial to shallow lacustrine sediments. The separation between the top of S2 and the bottom of S1 (1,062 m) is ~540 m. The lower ~600 m of S1 is composed of thick, distal alluvial fan and braided river sediments. In the upper S1, the depositional environment changes to fluvial-alluvial, with a paleosol developed at the top of S1. Imbricated pebbles suggest prevailing eastward paleoflow. Modal compositions of 18 sandstones plot in the mixed zone on a Qm-F-Lt plot, and the transitional continental and recycled orogenic zones on a Qt-F-L plot (Dickinson, 1985). Their compositions cluster and do not show any evolutionary trends, despite being sampled from a ~3000 m-thick sedimentary column. However, when combined with data from the Quinoas Formation (Late Eocene to Late Oligocene) and the Chacras Formation (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene), outcropped west of the study site (Carrapa et al., 2005), the Antofagasta samples mark the beginning of an evolving trend towards the dissected arc and transitional arc zones. We analyzed U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP): A Proven, Growth Technology for Fast Transit Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The "fast conjunction" long surface stay mission option was selected for NASA's recent Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study because it provided adequate time at Mars (approx. 540 days) for the crew to explore the planet's geological diversity while also reducing the "1-way" transit times to and from Mars to approx. 6 months. Short transit times are desirable in order to reduce the debilitating physiological effects on the human body that can result from prolonged exposure to the zero-gravity (0-gE) and radiation environments of space. Recent measurements from the RAD detector attached to the Curiosity rover indicate that astronauts would receive a radiation dose of approx. 0.66 Sv (approx. 66 rem)-the limiting value established by NASA-during their 1-year journey in deep space. Proven nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology, with its high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s), can cut 1-way transit times by as much as 50 percent by increasing the propellant capacity of the Mars transfer vehicle (MTV). No large technology scale-ups in engine size are required for these short transit missions either since the smallest engine tested during the Rover program-the 25 klbf "Pewee" engine is sufficient when used in a clustered arrangement of three to four engines. The "Copernicus" crewed MTV developed for DRA 5.0 is a 0-gE design consisting of three basic components: (1) the NTP stage (NTPS); (2) the crewed payload element; and (3) an integrated "saddle truss" and LH2 propellant drop tank assembly that connects the two elements. With a propellant capacity of approx. 190 t, Copernicus can support 1-way transit times ranging from approx. 150 to 220 days over the 15-year synodic cycle. The paper examines the impact on vehicle design of decreasing transit times for the 2033 mission opportunity. With a fourth "upgraded" SLS/HLV launch, an "in-line" LH2 tank element can be added to Copernicus allowing 1-way transit times of 130 days. To achieve 100

  8. Provenance of sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt: Evidences from the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioumy, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    This work reports, for the first time, the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes of the clay fractions (<2 μm) from sedimentary kaolin deposits in Egypt of different ages (Carboniferous and lower Cretaceous), localities (Sinai, Red Sea and Aswan), lithologies (flint and plastic) and clay minerals composition (pure kaolinite and mixture of kaolinite, illite and chlorite) to determine their source area compositions and examine the effect of provenance on their isotopic compositions. Measured (present day) and age-corrected Pb isotopes data (100 and 300 My for the Cretaceous and Carboniferous deposits, respectively) are more or less homogeneous in all deposits regardless of their ages, localities, and compositions. This, therefore, suggests that the Pb isotopes cannot be used as a tracer for source area compositions of these kaolin deposits. On the other hand, the studied kaolin deposits show variations in their measured and age-corrected Sr and Nd isotopes regarding to their ages and compositions. The Carboniferous illite-rich kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas, Sinai have higher measured and age-corrected 87Sr/86Sr ratios (average of 0.715742 and 0.711156 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the non-illitic Carboniferous deposit at Abu Natash area (average of 0.70772 and 0.70769 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) and the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.70827 and 0.70821 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). The Carboniferous kaolin deposits in the Khaboba and Hasbar areas also have lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios (average of 0.51206 and 0.51180 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) compared to the Carboniferous Abu Natash deposit (average of 0.51253 and 0.51231 for measured and age-corrected, respectively) as well as the lower Cretaceous deposits in all areas (average of 0.51248 and 0.51239 for measured and age-corrected, respectively). Initial εNd values are negative in the Carboniferous kaolin deposits

  9. Provenance analysis and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic sediments within the Taoudeni Basin, Northern Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Graeme; Straathof, Gijs; Tait, Jenny; Lo, Khalidou; Ousmane, N'diaye; El Moctar Dahmada, Mohamed; Berndt, Jasper; Key, Roger

    2010-05-01

    to date this Mauritanian sequence more precisely. The eroded sediments of the upper sections of the Neoproterozoic Taoudeni basin reflect a fundamental change in provenance up section. The majority of which show previously unreported ages for the West African craton particularly a large amount of post Craton stabilisation ages <1700 Ma and "Grenvillian-type" ages. Most zircons of 2000-900Ma were probably derived from sources outside the West-African craton. This new data helps to further constrain the age of the Neoproterozoic sections of the Taoudeni basin and highlights changing source regions during successive stages of the Pan African orogenic cycle from initial rifting to final collisions. Sedimentary geochemistry combined with well established palaeocurrent directions and the detailed detrital zircon study give a strong indication of what areas surrounding the Taoudeni basin were being eroded during the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian and substantially aid palaeographic reconstructions for the historically data poor West African Craton.

  10. Oxygen isotope signatures of quartz from major Asian dust sources: Implications for changes in the provenance of Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Sun, Youbin; Chen, Hongyun; Ma, Long

    2014-08-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the oxygen isotopic composition of quartz in both fine and coarse fractions (<16 and 16-63 μm) from major dust source regions in East Asia, including the Mongolian Gobi, the northern Chinese deserts, the Taklimakan desert, and the Qaidam Basin. The results demonstrate that the quartz oxygen isotope ratios of the Taklimakan desert and the Mongolian Gobi are more heterogeneous compared with the other areas. The quartz δ18O values of both the fine and coarse fractions from the various sources are overlapped to varying degrees, thus making it difficult to differentiate them. Nevertheless, the quartz δ18O values of both fractions exhibit an increasing trend from the Mongolian Gobi, to the northern Chinese deserts, and then to the Taklimakan desert. This implies that the geological settings of the source areas are different, which in turn results in differing contributions of high-temperature igneous rocks. The combination of quartz δ18O results with other quartz-based provenance tracers can clearly differentiate the three major source areas, i.e., the Taklimakan desert, the Mongolian Gobi, and the northern Chinese deserts. In addition, comparison of our results with previous δ18O measurements of fine-grained quartz from the Luochuan loess sequence suggests the likely glacial-interglacial fluctuations in dust provenance. Finally, we suggest that the combination of quartz δ18O signatures and other dust provenance tracers can potentially improve the recognition of long-term fluctuations in the provenance of Chinese loess-red clay deposits.

  11. Provenance of eastern Magallanes foreland basin sediments: Heavy mineral analysis reveals Paleogene tectonic unroofing of the Fuegian Andes hinterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, Khandaker M.; Barbeau, David L., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Documenting variations in the composition of foreland basin detrital sediments is a useful tool for reconstructing the kinematic history of associated orogenic systems. Herein we report the results of our SEM-EDS heavy mineral analysis of the Late Cretaceous to early Miocene eastern Magallanes basin of southernmost Argentina. Our data indicate that Campanian to middle Eocene sediments had a mafic/ophiolitic provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Patagonian-Fuegian magmatic arc and the mafic floor of the preceding Rocas Verdes marginal basin. Upper middle Eocene to lower Miocene heavy minerals, on the other hand, indicate a metamorphic/metasedimentary provenance, which we interpret as being derived from the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex. Together, these data indicate an abrupt shift in sediment provenance in middle to late Eocene time, thereby corroborating recent interpretations of the basin's detrital-zircon geochrononology, and providing further support for temporal and possibly genetic relationships between development of the Patagonian orocline, the opening of Drake Passage and the Oi-1 glaciation of Antarctica.

  12. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  13. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  14. Ion Beam Analysis for the provenance attribution of lapis lazuli used in glyptic art: The case of the "Collezione Medicea"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Angelici, Debora; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Corsi, Jacopo; Allegretti, Silvia; Biondi, Alessia Fabiola; Gariani, Gianluca; Calusi, Silvia; Gelli, Nicla; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Taccetti, Francesco; La Torre, Leonardo; Rigato, Valentino; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The first part of this study reports on the wide campaign for the extension of the database of both trace and minor elements concentration in diopside by means of μ-PIXE measurements and of luminescence spectra in diopside and wollastonite by means of μ-IL measurements. Diopside and wollastonite are actually two of the most common lapis lazuli-forming minerals. For this former part of the study, we analysed rocks of known provenance at the microbeam line of the LNL laboratories in Legnaro (PD) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The latter part of the paper is dedicated to the non-invasive Ion Beam Analyses (IBA) characterisation of six pieces of the "Collezione Medicea". The collection is exhibited at the Museum of Natural History (University of Firenze) and belonged to the Medici family. It includes artworks made of lapis lazuli manufactured in the 16th and 17th centuries but there is not precise information about the provenance of the used raw material. Results on the artworks show, as expected, that the Chilean provenance of the material used for the analysed artworks has to be excluded. Lapis lazuli used for five of the analysed artworks can be ascribed to the Afghan quarry district, while one object cannot be attributed only on the base of diopside and wollastonite analysis.

  15. Late Tertiary reorganizations of deformation in northeastern Tibet constrained by stratigraphy and provenance data from eastern Longzhong Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanpin; Li, Jijun; Stockli, Daniel F.; Song, Chunhui; Nie, Junsheng; Peng, Tingjiang; Wang, Xiuxi; He, Kuang; Hui, Zhengchuang; Zhang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The deformation of the Tibetan Plateau is central to unraveling the process and mechanism of continental tectonics. Although most agree that crust shortening and plateau growth were protracted throughout the Cenozoic Indo-Asian collision, particular deformation histories relating to tectonic kinematics and dynamics are still incomplete due to sparseness of diagnostic geological information from plateau margin. Here we present combined investigation of stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and provenance for the eastern margin of Longzhong Basin to show two reorganizations of basin formation and tectonic regime during the late Tertiary. First, the depocenter migrated from the dispersed Paleogene sequences to the Wushan-Tianshui foreland sequence during the earliest Miocene (circa 22 Ma), accompanied by shift of sedimentary provenance from double sources including the eastern Qilian block and eastern West Qinling terrain to single source within the West Qinling. It suggests reorganization of deformation from NW-SE extension to NE-SW contraction and initial uplift of the eastern West Qinling. Second, massive coarse-grained fluvial beds were revived in the Wushan Basin during the late Miocene (circa 10 Ma), associated by eastward depositional expansion and another shift of sedimentary provenance toward northeast. It reflects thrusting up of the northern edge of the West Qinling and Liupan Shan Mountains linked with relocation of crust shortening from NE-SW direction to ENE-WSW direction and accelerated deformation of northeastern Tibet. These transitions of deformation regimes imply variation of geodynamic mechanisms during the process of plateau growth.

  16. Analysis of Provenance of Siwalik Group in Western Nepal Himalaya Using Petrography and U-Pb Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, U.; Lin, D.; Chamlagain, D.

    2014-12-01

    The east-west trending southernmost litho-tectonic unit, Siwalik, is about 5 Km thick fluvial coarsening upward sequence, which was deposited during middle Miocene to early Pleistocene. This fluvial sediment is excellent archives of the Himalayan exhumation, tectonic events and mountain building processes. This paper deals with the possible provenance of the middle Miocene to early Pleistocene fluvial sediments along the Karnali River section as well as added some knowledge of the Himalayan orogeny by the means of petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb dating under LA-ICP-MS. The petrographic studies shows the detritus grain of sandstones from the Karnali River section falls on 'recycled orogeny' field on QFL plots. The detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological study shows that the sediments were mostly derived from entire three litho units ;Tethys, Higher, and Lesser Himalaya during the time of deposition of Siwalik whereas the erosion process of Lesser Himalayan sediment increased after ~10 Ma. Overall, the combined studies show the mixed type of provenance as seen in the western Himalaya of India. Key words: U-Pb geochronology, Provenance, Siwalik Group

  17. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  18. Variability in Chinese loess single-grain provenance data and the influence of the Quaternary East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Thomas; Zaremba, Kaja; Bird, Anna; Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Limonta, Mara; Ando, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Lu, Huayu; Adamiec, Grzegorz

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau represents one of the world's most detailed and continuous dust and climate records, stretching back into the Miocene and, to the west of the Plateau, into the late Eocene. It has long been argued that Chinese loess deposits record variations in the East Asian monsoon system, both during the summer via pedogenetic indicators, and during winter via grain-size and sedimentation rates. However, the potential influence of non-monsoonal dust transporting winds on Chinese loess deposition has been increasingly suggested, leaving question marks over whether loess deposits record winter monsoon variability. Central to resolving this is to establish the source regions of loess material. Despite a great deal of previous work, the sources and transport mechanisms of dust on the Chinese Loess Plateau are still contested, although areas to the west and northwest of the Plateau have primarily been suggested. Recent applications of single-grain U-Pb dating of zircons in loess provenance has eliminated some of the proposed sources, although possible spatial and temporal variability across the Loess Plateau and through the Plio-Quaternary still remains contentious. Here we show detailed single-grain provenance data, including zircon U-Pb ages and heavy mineral assemblage data from multiple sites and across the Quaternary to examine the key source areas and consider their variations in space and time. These show changing source characteristics both spatially and temporally, with westerly/Yellow River influence in the west of the Plateau, and probable winter monsoon influence to the east. Furthermore, although abrupt variability within individual sediment units is commonly seen in many loess climate proxy records, a high resolution approach that would reveal this has not been applied in single-grain provenance studies. Consequently the extent to which individual samples from a unit are representative of the unit's source in general has not been demonstrated

  19. Detrital zircon U-Pb provenance study in Cenozoic strata of the Pamir-Tianshan collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bufe, A.; Chen, J.; Burbank, D. W.; Li, T.; Thompson, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments in the foreland basin of the Pamir-Tianshan collision zone provide a rich record of the Cenozoic collision between the Pamir and the Tianshan. Recently, several authors studied the provenance of sediments in the foreland of the Pamir and Tian Shan using detrital zircon U-Pb dating (Bershaw et al., 2012;Sun et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2013). Statistical analysis of bedrock U-Pb ages from the Pamir and Tianshan (e.g. Schwab et al., 2004; Lukens et al., 2012) yield distinct age spectra and indicate that almost all the ages from Pamir are no more than 250 Ma, whereas almost all the ages from Tianshan are more than 250 Ma. Additional provenance studies from different sedimentary sections will allow a more detailed description of collision processes. We collected 13 sediment samples from major streams draining the Pamir and the Tianshan on the western margin of the Tarim Basin to analyze the modern detrital zircon signature of the two orogens. We also collected 35 samples for provenance analysis from the Cenozoic sediments of Bieertuokuoyi section which crops out in the hanging wall of Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT). Preliminary results from 4 modern streams draining the Tianshan show two prominent age peaks at 240-300 Ma and 400-490 Ma. Two modern samples from rivers draining the Pamir have prominent peaks at 230-270 Ma and 280-330 Ma. Each of the 10 samples from the Bieertuokuoyi section that has been analyzed yields U-Pb ages that are consistent with a mixed provenance from the Tianshan and the Pamir, but the relative contribution of two orogens changes throughout the section. In the late Paleocene a higher contribution comes from the Tianshan followed by a dominant middle Pamir signature during the early-middle Eocene. Minimum U-Pb ages constrain the depositional age of this part of the section to less than~47 Ma. We interpret contrasting provenance signatures as representing changes in the relative rate of rock uplift and denudation of these orogens. In the

  20. Leapfrogging of tree species provenances? Interaction of microclimate and genetics on upward shifts in tree species' range limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The elevation limit of tree growth (alpine treeline) is considered to be constrained by environmental (i.e., thermal) and genetic (i.e., inability to adapt to climatic conditions) limitations to growth. Warming conditions due to climate change are predicted to cause upward shifts in the elevation of alpine treelines, through relief of cold-induced physiological limitations on seedling recruitment beyond current treeline boundaries. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone at Niwot Ridge, CO. We compared differences in microclimate and seedling ecophysiology among sites and between provenances. During the first summer of growth, frequently cloudy skies resulted in similar solar radiation incidence and air and soil temperatures among sites, despite nearly a 500 m-span in elevation across all sites. Preliminary findings suggest that survival of seedlings was similar between the lowest and highest elevations, with greater survival of LO (60%) compared to HI (40%) seedlings at each of these sites. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration), and conductance increased more than 2X with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared to HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. However, in a common-garden study at low elevation, we observed no differences in carbon or water relations between two naturally-germinated mitochondrial haplotypes of P. flexilis (of narrow and wide-ranging distributions). We did observe water-related thresholds on seedling carbon balance and survival that occurred when soil volumetric water content dropped below 10% and seedling water

  1. Characterization of lapis lazuli and corresponding purified pigments for a provenance study of ultramarine pigments used in works of art.

    PubMed

    Favaro, M; Guastoni, A; Marini, F; Bianchin, S; Gambirasi, A

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids

  2. Association between Fatigue and Autistic Symptoms in Children with Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Cornish, Kim; Gruber, Reut

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the authors examined whether the fatigue level of children diagnosed with cri du chat syndrome was associated with the expression of autistic symptoms. Sixty-nine children with cri du chat syndrome were compared with 47 children with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities who did not differ on intellectual severity.…

  3. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  4. Non-destructive analysis of DU content in the NIF hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Gharibyan, Narek; Moody, Ken J.; Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2015-12-16

    The advantage of using depleted uranium (DU) hohlraums in high-yield deuterium-tritium (DT) shots at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is addressed by Döppner, et al., in great detail [1]. This DU based hohlraum incorporates a thin layer of DU, ~7 μm thick, on the inner surface along with a thin layer of a gold coating, ~0.7 μm thick, while the outer layer is ~22 μm thick gold. A thickness measurement of the DU layer can be performed using an optical microscope where the total DU weight can be computed provided a uniform DU layer. However, the uniformity of the thickness is not constant throughout the hohlraum since CAD drawing calculations of the DU weight do not agree with the computed values from optical measurements [2]. Therefore, a non-destructive method for quantifying the DU content in hohlraums has been established by utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy. The details of this method, along with results from several hohlraums, are presented in this report.

  5. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joanna F.; Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Kaur, Gurmeash; Jephcott, Lesley; Cornish, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat…

  7. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01</