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1

Lancing: Quo Vadis?  

PubMed Central

Today, lancing fingertips or alternative sites for obtaining a blood sample for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a standard procedure for most patients with diabetes. The need for frequent lancing and associated discomfort and pain can be seen as a key hurdle for patients to comply with SMBG regimens. This article provides an overview of the status quo and future of lancing, focusing on key areas for future developments driven by customer and market needs. We also review technical issues and provide a background for possible improvements. The act of puncturing the skin with a lancet to obtain a blood sample seems to remain the standard procedure for the foreseeable future, because alternate ways of providing a blood sample have not demonstrated overall superiority (e.g., with laser technology). Other methods, which avoid lancing entirely, have also not gained broad market acceptance (e.g., minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring) or not shown technical viability (e.g., noninvasive glucose monitoring). In relation to blood glucose (BG) meters and test strips, lancing has been a “stepchild” with regards to commercial attention and development efforts. Nevertheless, significant technological improvements have been made in this field to address key customer needs, including better performance (regarding pain, wound healing, and long-term sensitivity), reduced cost, and higher integration with other components of BG monitoring (e.g., integration of the lancing device with the glucose monitor). From a technical perspective, it is apparent that highly comfortable lancing can be accomplished; however, this still requires fairly advanced and complex devices. New developments are necessary to achieve this level of sophistication and performance with less intricate and costly system designs. Manufacturers' motivation to pursue these developments is compromised by the fact that they might not recoup their development cost on commercial advanced lancing systems through direct profits, but only through its positive influence on adherence and increased more profitable sensor utilization. We believe that two main driving forces will continue to push the evolution of lancing and sampling technology: (1) the need for maximum lancing comfort and (2) the advent of fully integrated systems, realizing a device in which all steps for SMBG are incorporated, thus providing a “one-step” experience. Rendering lancing a “nonissue” will eliminate a key barrier to adherence with appropriate SMBG regimens. Providing sophisticated lancing devices that allow the highest level of comfort and/or seamless blood sampling is key to improving user acceptance. This may have a greater impact on metabolic control than many of the new and expensive antidiabetic drugs.

Heinemann, Lutz; Boecker, Dirk

2011-01-01

2

Lancing: quo vadis?  

PubMed

Today, lancing fingertips or alternative sites for obtaining a blood sample for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a standard procedure for most patients with diabetes. The need for frequent lancing and associated discomfort and pain can be seen as a key hurdle for patients to comply with SMBG regimens. This article provides an overview of the status quo and future of lancing, focusing on key areas for future developments driven by customer and market needs. We also review technical issues and provide a background for possible improvements. The act of puncturing the skin with a lancet to obtain a blood sample seems to remain the standard procedure for the foreseeable future, because alternate ways of providing a blood sample have not demonstrated overall superiority (e.g., with laser technology). Other methods, which avoid lancing entirely, have also not gained broad market acceptance (e.g., minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring) or not shown technical viability (e.g., noninvasive glucose monitoring). In relation to blood glucose (BG) meters and test strips, lancing has been a "stepchild" with regards to commercial attention and development efforts. Nevertheless, significant technological improvements have been made in this field to address key customer needs, including better performance (regarding pain, wound healing, and long-term sensitivity), reduced cost, and higher integration with other components of BG monitoring (e.g., integration of the lancing device with the glucose monitor). From a technical perspective, it is apparent that highly comfortable lancing can be accomplished; however, this still requires fairly advanced and complex devices. New developments are necessary to achieve this level of sophistication and performance with less intricate and costly system designs. Manufacturers' motivation to pursue these developments is compromised by the fact that they might not recoup their development cost on commercial advanced lancing systems through direct profits, but only through its positive influence on adherence and increased more profitable sensor utilization. We believe that two main driving forces will continue to push the evolution of lancing and sampling technology: (1) the need for maximum lancing comfort and (2) the advent of fully integrated systems, realizing a device in which all steps for SMBG are incorporated, thus providing a "one-step" experience. Rendering lancing a "nonissue" will eliminate a key barrier to adherence with appropriate SMBG regimens. Providing sophisticated lancing devices that allow the highest level of comfort and/or seamless blood sampling is key to improving user acceptance. This may have a greater impact on metabolic control than many of the new and expensive antidiabetic drugs. PMID:21880240

Heinemann, Lutz; Boecker, Dirk

2011-07-01

3

Bodily awareness in the Wing Chun system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was given in conjunction with a demonstration of Wing Chun Kung Fu at the conference, ‘The Body and Comparative Spirituality’. University of Lancaster, 1983. The paper examines the psycho-physical implications of a traditional Chinese martial art. It focuses on how the art and its training methods entail a non-dualistic understanding of body and mind, and emphasises the importance

S. McFarlane

1989-01-01

4

[Mydeton: a centrally acting muscle relaxant drug from Gedeon Richter LTD].  

PubMed

Since its introduction in 1959 tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydeton) is still one of the leading products of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It has been successfully applied for treating different painful muscle spasms. The compound is successfully marketed also by several foreign, mostly Japanese, pharmaceutical companies, as a central muscle relaxant agent. The present summary overviews the pharmacology of tolperisone, with special emphasize on its still partly understood way of action. Data from the scientific literature as well as our own experimental results strongly support the hypothesis that inhibition of voltage gated sodium channels is a major component of the mechanism of action of tolperisone. The paper also summarizes the clinical results with tolperisone and the perspectives of the therapeutic use of centrally acting muscle relaxants. PMID:12426787

Kocsis, Pál; Tarnawa, István; Kovács, Gyula; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Farkas, Sándor

2002-01-01

5

Demilitarization of Lance rocket motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1992 Royal Ordnance was awarded contract by NAMSA for the demilitarization of NATO's European stock of Lance missile rocket motors. Lance is a liquid fueled surface to surface guided missile designed to give general battlefield support with either a nuclear or conventional capability at ranges of up to 130 km. The NAMSA contract required Royal Ordnance to undertake the following: (1) transportation of missiles from NATO depots in Europe to Royal Ordnance's factory at Bishopton in Scotland; (2) establishment of a dedicated demilitarization facility at Bishopton; and (3) demilitarization of live M5 and M6 training missiles by the end of 1994.

Sargent, Peter

1995-02-01

6

Plasma Injection Lance Laboratory Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remelting of ferroalloy fines by blowing the powder through a plasma lance which was immersed into molten metal at 1400C gave a yield of 98% to 99% of the injected metal as molten metal. The injection of solid particles through the plasma flame did not di...

O. Raaness J. Ovsthus S. Prytz

1984-01-01

7

A tribute to Lance Secretan.  

PubMed

Lance Secretan's philosophy in short can be summarized as "reawakening spirit and values in the workplace." "Oneness," "divinity," "spirit," "love," and "kindness"--they are words you would expect from a religious leader like Buddha or the quintessential guru, Mahatma Gandhi. They are not the words customarily used in the board room. However, Secretan believes that they are essential vocabulary for modern industry CEOs. PMID:22690432

Halamandaris, Val J

2012-04-01

8

Comparison of Lancing Devices for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Regarding Lancing Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose empowers diabetes patients to effectively control their blood glucose (BG) levels. A potential barrier to frequent BG controls is lancing pain, intrinsically linked to pricking the finger several times a day. In this study, we compared different state-of-the-art lancing devices from leading manufacturers regarding lancing pain, and we intended to identify lancing devices that are less painful. Methods First, 165 subjects compared 6 different BG monitoring systems—consisting of a lancing device and a BG meter—at home for 36 days and at least 3 BG tests per day. Second, the subjects directly compared 6 different lancing devices—independent from a BG meter—in a laboratory setting. The test results were collected in questionnaires, and lancing pain was rated on a numerical rating scale. Results One hundred fifty-seven subjects were included in the analysis. Accu-Chek BG monitoring systems were significantly (p ? .006) preferred to competitor BG monitoring systems and were rated by >50% of the subjects as “less painful” than competitor BG monitoring systems. Accu-Chek lancing devices were significantly (p < .001) preferred to competitor lancing devices and were rated by >60% of the subjects as “less painful” than competitor lancing devices. Conclusions We found significant differences in lancing pain between lancing devices. Diabetes patients clearly preferred lancing devices that cause less lancing pain. In order to improve patient compliance with respect to an adequate glycemic control, the medical staff should preferentially prescribe lancing devices that cause less lancing pain.

Kocher, Serge; Tshiananga, J. K. Tshiang; Koubek, Richard

2009-01-01

9

A New Sesquiterpene Lactone from Tsoongiodendron Odorum Chun  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sesquiterpene lactone (1) was obtained from the cytotoxic fraction of 95% ethanol extract of root barks of Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun together with two known sesquiterpene lactones, costunolide (2) and parthenolide (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated as 5?, 6?, 7?, 10?-11?, 13-dihydro-4(15)-eudesmene-12, 6-olide on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence including X-ray diffraction analysis. Costunolide showed

Xiao-Kai Song; Peng-Fei Tu; Li-Jun Wu; Yang Cai; Hui Zhu; Yang Lu; Xu-Ying Liu; Qi-Tai Zheng

2001-01-01

10

New inhibitors of ?-glucosidase in Salacia hainanensis Chun et How.  

PubMed

The methanol extract from roots of Salacia hainanensis Chun et How afforded three new compounds, 24,26-dihydroxy-25-methoxy-tirucall-9-en-3-one (1), 2?,3?,22?-trihydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene (2) and 3?-hydroxy-2-carbonyl-lupan-29-oic acid (3), along with six known triterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, in particular according to the data obtained by two-dimensional-NMR and high-resolution mass spectra experiments. Some of them showed much stronger inhibitory activity towards ?-glucosidase than the positive control (acarbose, IC?? 10.2 ?M). PMID:23361306

Guo, Zheng-hong; Huang, Jian; Wan, Guo-sheng; Huo, Xiao-ling; Gao, Hui-yuan

2013-01-30

11

Straight talk with...Miyoung Chun. Interview by Virginia Hughes.  

PubMed

It was a single tweet. In February, after US President Barack Obama made a subtle nod to a new neuroscience project in his annual State of the Union address, Francis Collins, director of the country's National Institutes of Health (NIH), posted on the @NIHDirector Twitter feed: "Obama mentions the #NIH Brain Activity Map in #SOTU." Instantly, scientists were buzzing with rumors that the Brain Activity Map could be the next moon shot, with a budget and timeline similar to the Human Genome Project. The brain map began as a brief white paper and has grown into a large--and still largely undefined--collaboration of several government agencies, nonprofit foundations and private companies. As the stakeholders describe in a commentary published last month (339, 1284-1285, 2013), the goal of the initiative is to understand how thousands of neurons work in concert to control behavior and trigger disease. Miyoung Chun, vice president for science programs at The Kavli Foundation in Oxnard, California, has been developing the project since the beginning and is the self-described "glue" between its many diverse stakeholders. Chun spoke with Virginia Hughes about the evolution of the project and what it might mean for biomedicine. PMID:23558614

Chun, Miyoung

2013-04-01

12

A New Lance Design for BOF Steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the outcome of research work carried out to improve the performance of the oxygen lance in the LD\\u000a steelmaking process. It is stated that the lack of control of the foamy slag and the augmentation of interfacial area creation\\u000a between the slag and metal are the major hindrances in running the process effectively for improved turn-down steel

R. SAMBASIVAM; S. N. LENKA; F. DURST; M. BOCK; S. CHANDRA; S. K. AJMANI

2007-01-01

13

Admixture effect of lance arrangement on pulverized coal injection  

SciTech Connect

The dye injection method is employed to visualize two-dimensional admixture and diffusion of pulverized coal injected into the blowpipe in the blast furnace. Both the single lance and the double lances are studied. Water is used as working fluid. The velocity ratio and the lance inlet are varied. The lance inlet-angle is fixed as 13{sup o}. The jet-width growth rates and the trajectories of jets are not obviously influenced by the velocity ratio in the range 0.1 {lt} v/U {lt} 0.18. For the double lances, much faster jet-width growth rates than those for the single lance under the same test conditions were disclosed, but the flows gradually move away from the center of the blowpipe after impinging. In contrast, the eccentric double lances, two lances arranged asymmetrically to avoid impingement of two coal flows and obtain excellent jet-width growth rates, are suggested in the study for pulverized coal injection.

Herchang Ay [Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Tainan (Taiwan). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2003-07-01

14

Heat transfer and lance clogging during submerged powder injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen and silica particles of 30, 130, and 450 ?m average diameters were injected at solid-to-gas loadings up to 280 kg/m3 into liquid lead at 400°C through a steel lance equipped with four thermo-couples. The lance was positioned adjacent to a transparent wall in the lead retort so that the flow patterns could be photographed. It was found that 130 and 450 ?m particle injection produced bubling in the lead and clogging at high loadings, while the 30 ?m particles produced jetting with no clogging. Analysis of the thermocouple responses permitted the determination of the heat transfer coefficients at the inner and outer lance surfaces. The inner surface heat transfer coefficient increased with loading, whereas the one at the outer surface was independent of loading. A two-phase, unsteady-state, one-dimensional model was developed for momentum and heat transfer in the lance permitting the calculation of gas and particle velocities, volume fractions, and temperatures as well as the lance temperatures. Using the experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients, it is shown that the gas and particles are heated only 20 to 40 K in the lance. Nevertheless, this is a large heat demand which chills the lance so that clogging will occur in the bubbling regime.

Irons, G. A.

1987-03-01

15

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

16

Analysis of a Lance Missile Platoon Using a Semi-Markov Chain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops a combat effectiveness model for the Lance missile system. The survivability and ability to accomplish the mission for a Lance missile launch platoon depends upon enemy capabilities, platoon configuration, missile reliability and many...

H. M. Argo

1989-01-01

17

[Incidence of tuberculosis in the hunting tribe E-Lun-Chun in Northeast China].  

PubMed

The E-Lun-Chun, or Ortochen, a national minority in North East China, consisted of 2,262 members in 1953. In the mid-17th century a Russian invasion had displaced them from their original home in southward direction over the Amur river towards the Sin An Lin mountain range. While coming into closer contact with neighbouring peoples, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases spread rapidly among the members of the tribe. Under the Japanese occupation (1932-1945) the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated at about 30% of the inhabitants. After initiation of modern measures to fight disease (case finding, drug treatment, BCG vaccination) the incidence dropped from 12.8% in 1954 to 6.5% in 1985, representing a reduction by 49.2% in 31 years. In 1963 a tuberculosis hospital was set up exclusively for E-Lung-Chun and indigenous medical personnel was suitably trained. However, the expected success of drug therapy was hampered by the tribe's abuse of alcohol and their unsteady life as hunters. To achieve a more stable state of health among the E-Lun-Chun, information work and measures to fight tuberculosis should be intensified in future. PMID:2367435

Hsu, H J

1990-02-01

18

Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the performance of Wing Chun and T'ai Chi Chuan exercise.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the continuous performance of Wing Chun and T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. No significant differences in VO2max or HRmax obtained during treadmill exercise were found between the practitioners of the two styles. Average values for oxygen uptake (VO2) were 23.3 +/- 7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1 (6.6 METS) and 16.0 +/- 3.9 ml.kg-1.min-1 (4.6 METS) for Wing Chun and T'ai Chi Chuan exercise, respectively. Mean heart rates obtained during exercise were 137 +/- 25 beats.min-1 for Wing Chun and 116 +/- 22 beats.min-1 for T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. These exercise values corresponded to 52.4% of VO2max and 70.5% of HRmax for Wing Chun and only 36.4% of VO2max and 59.8% of HRmax for T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. Thus, only the continuous performance of Wing Chun exercise elicited VO2 and HR responses that would be expected to bring about a cardiorespiratory training effect in subjects with a relatively low initial VO2max. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) obtained during T'ai Chi Chuan exercise (21.7) was significantly lower than for Wing Chun exercise (24.2), suggesting that T'ai Chi practitioners utilize efficient breathing patterns during exercise. Both Wing Chun and T'ai Chi Chuan styles may have a small static component that produces a slightly elevated heart rate relative to metabolic load when compared to traditional aerobic activities. However, the effect was not severe and these forms of exercise should not be considered dangerous for individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:1889943

Schneider, D; Leung, R

1991-06-01

19

DE LAVAUD CHARGING FROM WEST (UPHILL), TREATING LANCE WITH CALCIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DE LAVAUD CHARGING FROM WEST (UPHILL), TREATING LANCE WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN CENTER & CASTING PIPE TO THE RIGHT. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

20

An Integrated Approach for Accessing Multiple Datasets through LANCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provides imagery for approximately 40 data products from MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E and OMI to support the applications community in the study of a variety of phenomena. Thirty-six of these products are available within 2.5 hours of observation at the spacecraft. The data set includes the population density data provided by the EOSDIS Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The purpose of this paper is to describe the variety of tools that have been developed by LANCE to support user access to the imagery. The long-standing Rapid Response system has been integrated into LANCE and is a major vehicle for the distribution of the imagery to end users. There are presently approximately 10,000 anonymous users per month accessing these imagery. The products are grouped into 14 applications categories such as Smoke Plumes, Pollution, Fires, Agriculture and the selection of any category will make relevant subsets of the 40 products available as possible overlays in an interactive Web Client utilizing Web Mapping Service (WMS) to support user investigations (http://lance2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/wms/). For example, selecting Severe Storms will include 6 products for MODIS, OMI, AIRS, and AMSR-E plus the SEDAC population density data. The client and WMS were developed using open-source technologies such as OpenLayers and MapServer and provides a uniform, browser-based access to data products. All overlays are downloadable in PNG, JPEG, or GeoTiff form up to 200MB per request. The WMS was beta-tested with the user community and substantial performance improvements were made through the use of such techniques as tile-caching. LANCE established a partnership with Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO DAAC) to develop an alternative presentation for the 40 data products known as the State of the Earth (SOTE). This provides a Google Earth-based interface to the products grouped in the same fashion as the WMS. The SOTE servers stream imagery and data in the OGC KML format and these feeds can be visualized through the Google Earth browser plug-in. SOTE provides visualization through a virtual globe environment by allowing users to interact with the globe via zooming, rotating, and tilting. In addition, SOTE also allows adding custom KML feeds. LANCE also provides datacasting feeds to facilitate user access to imagery for the 40 products and the related HDF-EOS products (available in a variety of formats). These XML-based data feeds contain data attribute and geolocation information, and metadata including an identification of the related application category. Users can subscribe to any feeds through the LANCE web site and use the PO DAAC Feed Reader to filter and view the content. The WMS, SOTE, and datacasting tools can be accessed through http://lance.nasa.gov.

Murphy, K. J.; Teague, M.; Conover, H.; Regner, K.; Beaumont, B.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Theobald, M.; Durbin, P.; Michael, K.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Davies, D.; Horricks, K.; Ilavajhala, S.; Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A.

2011-12-01

21

Nanoinjection: pronuclear DNA delivery using a charged lance.  

PubMed

We present a non-fluidic pronuclear injection method using a silicon microchip "nanoinjector" composed of a microelectromechanical system with a solid, electrically conductive lance. Unlike microinjection which uses fluid delivery of DNA, nanoinjection electrically accumulates DNA on the lance, the DNA-coated lance is inserted into the pronucleus, and DNA is electrically released. We compared nanoinjection and microinjection side-by-side over the course of 4 days, injecting 1,013 eggs between the two groups. Nanoinjected zygotes had significantly higher rates of integration per injected embryo, with 6.2% integration for nanoinjected embryos compared to 1.6% integration for microinjected embryos. This advantage is explained by nanoinjected zygotes' significantly higher viability in two stages of development: zygote progress to two-cell stage, and progress from two-cell stage embryos to birth. We observed that 77.6% of nanoinjected zygotes proceeded to two-cell stage compared to 54.7% of microinjected zygotes. Of the healthy two-cell stage embryos, 52.4% from the nanoinjection group and 23.9% from the microinjected group developed into pups. Structural advantages of the nanoinjector are likely to contribute to the high viability observed. For instance, because charge is used to retain and release DNA, extracellular fluid is not injected into the pronucleus and the cross-sectional area of the nanoinjection lance (0.06 µm(2)) is smaller than that of a microinjection pipette tip (0.78 µm(2)). According to results from the comparative nanoinjection versus microinjection study, we conclude that nanoinjection is a viable method of pronuclear DNA transfer which presents viability advantages over microinjection. PMID:22415347

Aten, Quentin T; Jensen, Brian D; Tamowski, Susan; Wilson, Aubrey M; Howell, Larry L; Burnett, Sandra H

2012-03-14

22

Tectonically influenced sedimentation in the Lance Formation eastern Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facies analyses of the Maastrichtian Lance Formation in two areas of the Wind River Basin indicate deposition in fluvio-deltaic environments. The facies architecture of the fluvial deposits in the upper Lance Formation was strongly influenced by Laramide basin subsidence. The lower Lance in the basin axis contains strata deposited in a prograding delta along a low-energy shoreline. Delta-front deposits are

J. M. Gillespie; J. E. Fox

2008-01-01

23

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2013-04-01

24

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2009-04-01

25

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2010-04-01

26

First report of Lance Nematode (Hoplolaimus magnistylus) on corn, soybean and cotton in Tennessee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lance nematode, Hoplolaimus galeatus, has been reported in Tennessee on field crops, forage pastures, home gardens, woody ornamentals, turf, and commercial vegetables across the state. In May 2011, another lance nematodes, H. magnistylus, was recovered from corn, cotton and soybean fields in west Te...

27

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun — a relict cephalopod mollusc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spermiogenesis in the relict deep-sea cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun is examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the results compared with available data on other cephalopods. Early spermatids of Vampyroteuthis exhibit an ovoid nucleus (with dense irregular patches), numerous mitochondria and a pair of triplet substructure centrioles (arranged parallel to each other). Subsequently, the following morphological changes take place: (1) nuclear contents condense into a fibrous reticulum, then into thick fibres; (2) the acrosomal vesicle (presumably Golgi-derived) positions itself in a shallow depression at the nuclear apex; (3) the flagellum forms from one of the two centrioles; (4) mitochondria cluster around the flagellum at the base of the nucleus; (5) a dense, fibrous plug forms within the basal invagination of the nucleus. Microtubules surround the acrosome and condensing nucleus of spermatids. The dense plug is of special systematic importance since it also occurs in spermatids and spermatozoa of Octopus spp., but not in any investigated species of the Sepiida, Sepiolida or Teuthida. Late spermatids and mature spermatozoa of Vampyroteuthis strongly resemble developing spermatids of Octopus, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship between Vampyroteuthis (and the Vampyromorpha) and octopods.

Healy, John M.

1990-03-01

28

Failure analysis of oxygen hose of the lance equipment in LD shop of Tata steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hose of the oxygen lancing equipment in LD shop # 2 has failed at the weld–bellows interface by reverse bending fatigue. The bending stresses were resulted due to inclined fitting of the hose at the fixed flange end. No metallurgical abnormalities or weld defects or mechanical damages were responsible for the fatigue crack initiation. It is recommended that if

Sandip Bhattacharyya; Atanu Banerjee; S. K. Bhaumik

2008-01-01

29

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

30

The Use of LANCE Imagery Products to Investigate Hazards and Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) has endeavored to integrate a variety of products from the Terra, Aqua, and Aura missions to assist in meeting the needs of the applications user community. This community has a need for imagery products to support the investigation of a wide variety of phenomena including hazards and disasters. The Evjafjallajokull eruption, the tsunamis/flood in Japan, and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill are recent examples of applications benefiting from the timely and synoptic view afforded by LANCE data. Working with the instrument science teams and the applications community, LANCE has identified 14 applications categories and the LANCE products that will support their investigation. The categories are: Smoke Plumes, Ash Plumes, Dust Storms, Pollution, Severe Storms, Shipping hazards, Fishery hazards, Land Transportation, Fires, Floods, Drought, Vegetation, Agriculture, and Oil Spills. Forty products from AMSR-E, MODIS, AIRS, and OMI have been identified to support analyses and investigations of these phenomena. In each case multiple products from two or more instruments are available which gives a more complete picture of the evolving hazard or disaster. All Level 2 (L2) products are available within 2.5 hours of observation at the spacecraft and the daily L3 products are updated incrementally as new data become available. LANCE provides user access to imagery using two systems: a Web Mapping Service (WMS) and a Google Earth-based interface known as the State of the Earth (SOTE). The latter has resulted from a partnership between LANCE and the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO DAAC). When the user selects one of the 14 categories, the relevant products are established within the WMS (http://lance2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/wms/). For each application, population density data are available for densities in excess of 100 people/sqkm with user-defined opacity. These data are provided by the EOSDIS Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). Certain users may not want to be constrained by the pre-defined categories and related products and all 40 products may be added as potential overlays. The most recent 10 days of near-real time data are available through the WMS. The SOTE provides an interface to the products grouped in the same fashion as the WMS. The SOTE servers stream imagery and data in the OGC KML format and these feeds can be visualized through the Google Earth browser plug-in. SOTE provides visualization through a virtual globe environment by allowing users to interact with the globe via zooming, rotating, and tilting.

Schmaltz, J. E.; Teague, M.; Conover, H.; Regner, K.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B. E.; Durbin, P.; Murphy, K. J.; Boller, R. A.; Davies, D.; Ilavajhala, S.; Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A.; Rao, S.

2011-12-01

31

Evaluation of the TORE(R)Lance for Radioactive Waste Mobilization and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The TORE? Lance is a hand-held hydro transportation device with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The TORE? Lance head generates a precessing vortex core to mobilize solids. Solids retrieval is accomplished using an eductor. The device contains no parts and requires pressurized fluid to operate the eductor and produce mobilization. Three configurations of TORE? Lance operation were evaluated for mobilization and eduction during these tests: compressed air, water, and an air and water mixture. These tests have shown that the TORE? Lance is a tool that can be used at Hanford for mobilization and retrieval of wastes. The system is versatile and can be configured for many types of applications. These studies showed that the diverse applications require unique solutions so care is recommended for TORE? Lance equipment selection for each application. The two components of the TORE? Lance are the precessing vortex for mobilizing and the eductor for retrieval. The precessing vortex is sensitive to fluid flow rate and pressure. In the hand-held unit these parameters are controlled both internally, by changing shim spacing, and externally by controlling the flow split between the eductor and the head. For in-tank applications out-of-tank control of both these parameters are recommended.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Bates, Cameron J.; Bates, James M.; White, M.

2002-09-25

32

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Sand lance. [Ammodytes spp  

SciTech Connect

The systematic classification of the sand lances Ammodytes americanus and Ammodytes dubius is confusing because of overlapping meristic values. In this report, all sand lances in the North Atlantic area off the coast of the US are treated as a combined group (Ammodytes spp.). Sand lances occur in estuarine, open coast, dand offshore habitats. They are important prey to many commercially and recreationally valuable fish and marine mammals. Spawning occurs principally inshore between November and March. Larvae are found along the coasts to the edge of the Continental Shelf. Sand lances occur in schools of from tens to tens of thousands of individuals. They are planktivorous predators; copepods are their major prey item. To rest and to take refuge from predators, sand lances burrow into sand substrates. One to three-year-old fish dominate populations. Growth rate probably increases from the New York Bight to the Nova Scotia banks. Exploitation of sand lances off the Northeast coast of the US is presently only for baitfish.

Auster, P.J.; Stewart, L.L.

1986-06-01

33

Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. METHODS: Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0\\/7 and 31 6\\/7 weeks gestational

C Celeste Johnston; Francoise Filion; Marsha Campbell-Yeo; Celine Goulet; Linda Bell; Kathryn McNaughton; Jasmine Byron; Marilyn Aita; G Allen Finley; Claire-Dominique Walker

2008-01-01

34

Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in stratigraphic successions are interpreted as incised-valley fills produced by base-level changes. In contrast, long-timescale organization of river avulsion can generate similar stratigraphic patterns. For example, sand-dominated intervals in the fluvial Lance Formation (Maastrichtian; Bighorn Basin, WY) have been interpreted as incised-valley fills formed during sea-level lowstand. However, closely-spaced sand bodies in the Ferris Formation (Lance equivalent; Hanna Basin, WY) are interpreted as aggradational in origin, and have been compared to autogenic avulsion stratigraphy produced in experimental basins. We evaluate the Lance Formation in the southern Bighorn Basin in an effort to determine whether these sand-dominated intervals are truly incised- valley fills resulting from sea-level changes, or if they were generated by autogenic processes. The Lance Formation crops out in the western and southern margins of the basin, exposing relatively proximal and distal portions of the system. By comparing alluvial architecture between exposures, we evaluate similarities and differences from upstream to downstream and look for evidence of intrinsic and extrinsic controls on deposition. In both localities, the Lance Formation comprises multi-story sheet sandstones and smaller, single-story sandstones. Observed changes from upstream to downstream in the system include: 1) increasing paleoflow depths (from ~30-60 cm to ~70-120 cm); 2) decreasing preservation of fine-grained material within channel bodies; 3) increasing proportion of amalgamated, multi-story sand bodies; and 4) increasing lateral continuity of multi-story sand bodies. These results indicate that upstream, channel-body spacing is dominantly controlled by aggradational processes and may be the result of autogenic avulsion clustering, whereas downstream, evidence of incision and amalgamation indicate that base-level may have limited and controlled sand-body architecture.

McHarge, J. L.; Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P. L.

2007-12-01

35

Observations of a mode-2 nonlinear internal wave on the northern Heng-Chun Ridge south of Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A research cruise was carried out over the Heng-Chun Ridge during June 27-July 1, 2010, near 21° 34'N, 120° 54'E, about 35 km south of Taiwan. The goal of the cruise was to determine if the location is an active generation site for internal tides and high-frequency nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS). The method was to sample a series of across-ridge sections using an underway conductivity-temperature-depth (UCTD) profiler and to conduct a time series at a fixed point atop the ridge using a CTD with lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) instrumentation. A hull-mounted ADCP and acoustic backscatter device were also operated throughout the cruise. The site was a very high energy region, with the northward Kuroshio Current exceeding 100 cm s-1 and the primarily zonal barotropic tidal currents exceeding 140 cm s-1. The most remarkable feature observed was a convex-type mode-2 NLIW with a westward-propagating core centered near 100 m depth. The wave was clearly visible in the velocity and backscatter data and had surface expressions visible both on radar and with the naked eye. The horizontal and vertical velocity structure was a good match for theoretical mode-2 waves in the SCS. The wave generation was consistent with local lee wave dynamics, which favored mode-2 generation over mode-1 at peak ebb tide given the currents, stratification, and bottom slope at the site. The wave could not be tracked farther west, and apparently did not escape the opposing Kuroshio.

Ramp, S. R.; Yang, Y. J.; Reeder, D. B.; Bahr, F. L.

2012-03-01

36

Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance  

SciTech Connect

An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components.

Tuck, D.M.

1999-01-28

37

Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provide the information on the global and regional atmospheric state with very low latency. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to and integration of LANCE AIRS NRT data. This paper discusses the use of open-source software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data in the context of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The AIRS NRT data have also been made available through an OPeNDAP server. OPeNDAP allows several open-source netCDF-based tools such as Integrated Data Viewer, Ferret and Panoply to directly display the Level 2 data over the network. To enable users to locate swath data files in the OPeNDAP server that lie within a certain geographical area, graphical "granule maps" are being added to show the outline of each file on a map of the Earth. The metadata of AIRS NRT data and services is then explored to implement information advertisement and discovery in catalogue systems. Datacasting, an RSS-based technology for accessing Earth Science data and information to facilitate the subscriptions to AIRS NRT data availability, filtering, downloading and viewing data, is also discussed. To provide an easy entry point to AIRS NRT data and services, a Web portal designed for customized data downloading and visualization is introduced.

Zhao, P.; Lynnes, C.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Yang, W.

2011-12-01

38

Review of Matters Related to the Sexual Assault of Lance Corporal Maria Lauterbach, U.S. Marine Corps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to an August 7, 2008, request from the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (PDUSD) Personnel and Readiness (P&R). The PDUSD (P&R) requested we review command and other responses to the rape complaint of Lance Corporal (LCpl) M...

J. Perryman R. R. Stone

2011-01-01

39

Use of the Published Lance Armstrong Cancer Story to Teach Health Science Content to High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lance Armstrong (2000) authored a book titled "It's Not About the Bike -- My Journey Back to Life," regarding his battle with testicular cancer. It became a "New York Times" Bestseller and was selected by the "School Library Journal" as one of the "Best Adult Books for High School Students for 2001." The goal of the project described in this…

Burns, E. Robert

2008-01-01

40

Diversity of Latest Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian) Small Theropods and Birds: Teeth from the Lance and Hell Creek Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Late Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous) small theropod dinosaur and bird diversity has been difficult to determine because of scarcity or skeletal remains. Numerous teeth of small theropods and birds from the Hell Creek (Montana) and Lance (Wyoming) Formations were analyzed. Relative abundances are: dromaeosaurids (23%), troodontids (14%), cf. Richardoestesia isosceles (35%), cf. Paronychodon (20%), and bird (8%). This Maastrichtian

Julia T. Sankey

41

Modelling nearshore intertidal habitat use of young-of-the-year Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus ) in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) is an ecologically important prey species for many vertebrate marine predators in the Pacific Northwest. In this study,\\u000a we examined the use of intertidal habitat by young of the year (YOY) sand lance in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. We selected\\u000a 14 of the original 29 independent environmental variables for modelling based on univariate analysis

Trevor B. Haynes; Clifford K. L. Robinson; Philip Dearden

2008-01-01

42

Implementing Land and Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from sensors on board the earth observing satellites. NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) provides a wealth of data and products supporting scientific research of the atmosphere, oceans, and land. The Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments onboard Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily which are processed into higher-level “standard” products within 8 to 40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users usually need data within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. In response to this need, NASA developed the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) that provides land and atmosphere data acquired by AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and OMI instruments.

Thanvi, V.; Michael, K.; Murphy, K. J.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Tilmes, C.; Conover, H.; Teague, M.; Durbin, P.; Regner, K.

2010-12-01

43

Soviet reactions to follow-on-to-Lance (FOTL). Study project  

SciTech Connect

One of the most controversial areas of US military planning for the 1990s is Battlefield Nuclear Weapons (BNW) modernization. The current dilemma has been created in part by Soviet 'public relations' activities in the area of troop reduction and arms control at a time when NATO must decide whether to modernize nuclear weapon systems currently deployed in Western Europe. This paper focuses on the FOTL, which will modernize the soon-to-be-obsolete Lance system. It identifies why NATO needs the new system, why the Soviets want to prevent its deployment, and how the political environment in Western Europe and the US will impact the decision for or against development. The paper also discusses the Soviet frame of reference for reacting to US/NATO initiatives ideology, insecurity, and the correlation of forces. It describes past Soviet reactions to nuclear weapons modernizations (Pershing IIs, Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, and Enhanced Radiation Weapons), and then postulates how the Soviets may respond politically and militarily to a FOTL deployment.

Wightman, R.O.

1989-03-26

44

Reuse of shallow sediment patches by Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus ) in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined whether, during the summers of 2002–2004, young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) re-used patches of sediment in intertidal and shallow subtidal regions of Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada. We examined\\u000a re-use weekly at a single sediment patch in 2003 and 2004 via mark-recapture methods, monthly by re-sampling 15 patches in\\u000a 2002 and interannually by re-sampling 36 patches

Trevor B. Haynes; Clifford L. K. Robinson

45

Detection of low-frequency tones and whale predator sounds by the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus.  

PubMed

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were used to measure the hearing range and auditory sensitivity of the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus. Responses to amplitude-modulated tone pips indicated that the hearing range extended from 50 to 400 Hz. Sound pressure thresholds were lowest between 200 and 400 Hz. Particle acceleration thresholds showed an improved sensitivity notch at 200 Hz but not substantial differences between frequencies and only a slight improvement in hearing abilities at lower frequencies. The hearing range was similar to Pacific sand lance Ammodytes personatus and variations between species may be due to differences in threshold evaluation methods. AEPs were also recorded in response to pulsed sounds simulating humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae foraging vocalizations termed megapclicks. Responses were generated with pulses containing significant energy below 400 Hz. No responses were recorded using pulses with peak energy above 400 Hz. These results show that A. americanus can detect the particle motion component of low-frequency tones and pulse sounds, including those similar to the low-frequency components of megapclicks. Ammodytes americanus hearing may be used to detect environmental cues and the pulsed signals of mysticete predators. PMID:23020566

Strobel, S M; Mooney, T A

2012-09-03

46

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 pd (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 in) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W. [Synder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-07-01

47

Fisheries Oceanography of the Southeast Bering Sea: Simulated Dispersal of Herring and Sand Lance Larvae in Port Moller, Alaska, Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of Pacific herring and sand lance larvae in the Port Moller estuary of the southeast Bering Sea have shown that larvae are retained within the estuary, suggesting that retention may be important for successful year-class formation. To determine th...

E. M. Buchak J. E. Edinger M. D. McGurk

1993-01-01

48

Fisheries Oceanography of the Southeast Bering Sea: Relationships of Growth, Dispersion and Mortality of Sand Lance Larvae to Environmental Conditions in the Port Moller Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to describe the early life history of Pacific sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus, in the southeastern Bering Sea so as to assess the potential impact of oil and gas development in the area of forage fishes. A fisheries oceanog...

H. D. Warburton M. D. McGurk

1992-01-01

49

EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report. Ex-situ Target Strength Measurements of Pacific Herring 'Clupea Pallasi' and Pacific Sand Lance 'Ammodytes Hexapterus.' Restoration Project 01468.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near-dorsal aspect target strengths (TS) ofindividual, live, juvenile and aidult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and juvenile Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were measured ex-situ with 120 kHz dual beam acoustics. An experimental frame was designed...

G. L. Thomas J. Kirsch R. E. Thorne

2001-01-01

50

New discoglossid and palaeobatrachid frogs from the Late Cretaceous of Wyoming and Montana, and a review of other frogs from the Lance and Hell Creek formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of North American Late Cretaceous frogs demonstrates that Paradiscoglossus americanus n. gen. et sp. (Discoglossidae) and Palaeobatrachus occidentalis n. sp. (Palaeobatrachidae) definitively establish the presence of these families in the Late Cretaceous of North America (Lance Formation, Wyoming). P. occidentalis is also represented in the Late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation in Montana. Interrelationships of palaeobatrachids are briefly discussed.

Richard Estes; Borja Sanchíz

1982-01-01

51

Assessment of the humane aspects of electric lancing of whales by measurement of current densities in the brain and heart of dead animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential physiological effects of the electric lance are assessed, as used in Japanese whaling operations. Current densities\\u000a are measured in the brains and hearts of six whales to which a controlled current of 5 A is applied by two electrodes inserted\\u000a at various sites in the carcasses. The whales vary in size from 1.8 m (200 kg) to 16

G. R. G. Barnes; P. Madie; D. K. Blackmore

1996-01-01

52

The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

2010-06-01

53

Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

Sweat, Michael J.

2013-01-01

54

Does cooperation increase helpers' later success as breeders? A test of the skills hypothesis in the cooperatively displaying lance-tailed manakin.  

PubMed

Experience improves individual performance in many tasks. Pre-breeding cooperation may provide important experience that improves later success as a breeder, offering one compelling explanation for why some individuals delay reproduction to help others breed (the 'skills hypothesis'). However, confounding effects of age, quality and alternative selective benefits have complicated rigorous tests of this hypothesis. Male lance-tailed manakins perform cooperative courtship displays involving partnerships between unrelated alpha and beta males, and alphas monopolize resulting copulations. Beta males therefore do not receive immediate direct or indirect fitness benefits, but may gain skills during cooperation that increase their later success as an alpha. To date, however, the effect of cooperative experience on later success as a breeder has never been tested in any cooperatively displaying taxon. The effects of prior cooperative experience on reproductive success of alpha lance-tailed manakins were analysed in a mixed model framework using 12 years of information on cooperative experience and annual and lifetime genetic reproductive success for 57 alpha males. Models included previously identified effects of age and alpha tenure. Individual-level random effects controlled for quality differences to test for an independent influence of beta experience on success. Males accumulated up to 5 years of beta experience before becoming alphas, but 42·1% of alphas had no prior beta experience. Betas became alphas later in life, and experienced significantly lower reproductive success in their final year as alpha than males that were never beta, but did not have higher lifetime success or longer alpha tenures. Differences in patterns of annual siring success were best explained by age-dependent patterns of reproductive improvement and senescence among alphas, not beta experience. Cooperative experience does not increase relative breeding success for male lance-tailed manakins. Importantly, beta cooperation seems to be an alternative reproductive tactic that yields fitness payoffs equivalent to a non-cooperative route to alpha status, if population growth rate is stable. PMID:23444919

Duval, Emily H

2013-02-27

55

Anatomy and Taxonomic Status of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A  

PubMed Central

Background The validity of Nedoceratops hatcheri, a chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur known from a single skull recovered in the Lance Formation of eastern Wyoming, U.S.A., has been debated for over a century. Some have argued that the taxon is an aberrant Triceratops, and most recently it was proposed that N. hatcheri represents an intermediate ontogenetic stage between “young adult” and “old adult” forms of a single taxon previously split into Triceratops and Torosaurus. Methodology/Principal Findings The holotype skull of Nedoceratops hatcheri was reexamined in order to map reconstructed areas and compare the specimen with other ceratopsids. Although squamosal fenestrae are almost certainly not of taxonomic significance, some other features are unique to N. hatcheri. These include a nasal lacking a recognizable horn, nearly vertical postorbital horncores, and relatively small parietal fenestrae. Thus, N. hatcheri is tentatively considered valid, and closely related to Triceratops spp. The holotype of N. hatcheri probably represents an “old adult,” based upon bone surface texture and the shape of the horns and epiossifications on the frill. In this study, Torosaurus is maintained as a genus distinct from Triceratops and Nedoceratops. Synonymy of the three genera as ontogenetic stages of a single taxon would require cranial changes otherwise unknown in ceratopsids, including additions of ossifications to the frill and repeated alternation of bone surface texture between juvenile and adult morphotypes. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops, Torosaurus, and likely Nedoceratops, are all distinct taxa, indicating that species richness for chasmosaurine ceratopsids in the Lance Formation just prior to the Cretaceous-Paleocene extinction was roughly equivalent to that earlier in the Cretaceous.

Farke, Andrew A.

2011-01-01

56

Variation in annual and lifetime reproductive success of lance-tailed manakins: alpha experience mitigates effects of senescence on siring success  

PubMed Central

The causes of variation in individual reproductive success over a lifetime are not well understood. In long-lived vertebrates, reproductive output usually increases during early adulthood, but it is difficult to disentangle the roles of development and learning on this gain of reproductive success. Lekking lance-tailed manakins provide an opportunity to separate these processes, as the vast majority of male reproduction occurs after a bird obtains alpha status and maintains a display area in the lek, but the age at which males achieve alpha status varies widely. Using 11 years of longitudinal data on age, social status and genetic siring success, I assessed the factors influencing variation in siring success by individuals over their lifetimes. The data show increases in annual reproductive success with both age and alpha experience. At advanced ages, these gains were offset by senescence in fecundity. Individual ontogeny, rather than compositional change of the population, generated a nonlinear relationship of breeding tenure with lifetime success; age of assuming alpha status was unrelated to tenure as a breeder, or success in the alpha role. Importantly, these findings suggest that social experience can mitigate the negative effects of senescence in older breeders.

DuVal, Emily H.

2012-01-01

57

Chun Doo Hwan's Manipulation of the Kwangju Popular Uprising.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many scholars and journalists point to the tragic events that occurred in the Kwangju Popular Uprising as a pronounced materialization of the dependent nature of the relationship between U.S. and South Korea. However, this position ignores that perception...

D. G. Sohn

1998-01-01

58

September 10, 2012 Kenneth Chun 43494 Woodward Ave. ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... products purchased from Montana Healthcare Solutions, Quality Specialty Products (QSP), A+ ... Please do not return any product(s) to the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

59

Neo-Confucian Philosophy and Genre: The Philosophical Writings of C hen Chun and Z hen Dexiu  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contemporary philosophy has become thoroughly disciplined. The volume of publications classified under philosophy during the\\u000a last century no doubt far exceeds that of previous centuries, but, as a byproduct of professionalization, the range of genres\\u000a in which philosophical inquiry is practiced, or, more precisely, the range of genres which licensed practitioners consider\\u000a as legitimate forms of philosophical writing, has shrunk.

Hilde De Weerdt

60

Family I. Pseudonocardiaceae Embley, Smida, and Stackebrandt 1989, 205vp emend. Labeda, Goodfellow, Chun, Zhi and Li 2010a  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The formal description of the actinobacterial higher taxon the family Pseudonocardiaceae is presented. The differential morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and diagnostic signature nucleotides from the 16S rRNA gene for the genera in the family is discussed. A key to the identificatio...

61

Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member.

Myers, Robert B. (Copley, OH); Yagiela, Anthony S. (North Canton, OH)

1990-12-25

62

Purification and characterization of a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-lance) snake venom.  

PubMed

Bothrops snake venoms contain metalloproteinases that contribute to the local effects seen after envenoming. In this work, a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BlaH1) was purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops lanceolatus by a combination of gel filtration, affinity (metal chelating) and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. The hemorrhagin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and had a molecular mass of 28 kDa that was unaltered by treatment with beta-mercaptoethanol. BlaH1 gave a single band in immunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting using commercial bothropic antivenom. BlaH1 had hemorrhagic, caseinolytic, fibrinogenolytic, collagenolytic and elastinolytic activities, but no phospholipase A(2) activity. The hemorrhagic and caseinolytic activities were inhibited by EDTA, indicating that they were metal ion-dependent. In contrast, aprotinin, benzamidine and PMSF did not affect these activities. The caseinolytic activity of BlaH1 had a pH optimum of 8.0 and was stable in solution at up to 40 degrees C; activity was completely lost at > or =70 degrees C. The hemorrhagic activity was neutralized by commercial bothropic antivenom. These properties suggest that this new hemorrhagin belongs to class P-I snake venom metalloproteinases. PMID:15733562

Stroka, Alessandra; Donato, José L; Bon, Cassian; Hyslop, Stephen; de Araújo, Albetiza Lôbo

2005-03-15

63

Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in

J. L. McHarge; E. A. Hajek; P. L. Heller

2007-01-01

64

Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member. 3 figs.

Myers, R.B.; Yagiela, A.S.

1990-12-25

65

Breaking lances, dying in ditches: A survival guide for the international change manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high failure rate of change management projects is well documented. One of the key reasons for this is the selection of change agents who are either temperamentally unsuited to their role or else inadequately trained for it. This paper provides practical advice on five key dimensions of the change agent's function (context, limits, role, audiences and messages) as well

Jonathan Steffen

2000-01-01

66

Enhanced kangaroo mother care for heel lance in preterm neonates: a crossover trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To test if enhancing maternal skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) by adding rocking, singing and sucking is more efficacious than simple KMC for procedural pain in preterm neonates.Study Design:Preterm neonates (n=90) between 32 0\\/7 and 36 0\\/7 weeks' gestational age participated in a single-blind randomized crossover design. The infant was held in KMC with the addition of rocking,

C C Johnston; F Filion; M Campbell-Yeo; C Goulet; L Bell; K McNaughton; J Byron

2009-01-01

67

Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening) in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called \\

Elena Uga; Manuela Candriella; Antonella Perino; Viviana Alloni; Giuseppina Angilella; Michela Trada; Anna Maria Ziliotto; Maura Barbara Rossi; Danila Tozzini; Clelia Tripaldi; Michela Vaglio; Luigina Grossi; Michaela Allen; Sandro Provera

2008-01-01

68

Soviet reactions to follow-on-to-Lance (FOTL). Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most controversial areas of US military planning for the 1990s is Battlefield Nuclear Weapons (BNW) modernization. The current dilemma has been created in part by Soviet 'public relations' activities in the area of troop reduction and arms control at a time when NATO must decide whether to modernize nuclear weapon systems currently deployed in Western Europe. This

Wightman

1989-01-01

69

[The Lance-parfum (perfume-squirter), a medical equipment which became a carnival article].  

PubMed

The perfume-squirter was a glass or metal tube. It contained parfumed ethyl chloride and was very famous as carnival article. Therefore, ethyl chloride in tubes existed before, and was used by surgeons for local anesthetics. The authors study patents to prove this relationship and analyse letters written before the First World War by the Swiss perfumer Givaudan and a French physician, Dr Besançon. PMID:19069202

Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

2008-05-01

70

ZhiChi QingChunQi NuSheng De FaZhan (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

Rothenberg, Dianne

71

LANCE: Laccase-nanoparticle conjugates for the elimination of micropollutants (endocrine disrupting chemicals) from wastewater in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elimination of recalcitrant chemicals during wastewater treatment is a difficult problem for both developing and industrialized\\u000a countries. The biological elimination of very persistent xenobiotics such as endocrine disrupting chemicals from municipal\\u000a and industrial sewage treatment plants is an ambitious challenge as existing physico-chemical methods, such as advanced oxidation\\u000a processes, are energy-intensive and consume high amounts of chemicals. Through the entry

Philippe F. X. Corvini; Patrick Shahgaldian

2010-01-01

72

Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil

Alexandre Szklo; Roberto Schaeffer

2006-01-01

73

Finding the Light: A Study on Improving Subject Vocabulary in Horticulture http:\\/\\/english.unitecnology.ac.nz\\/esolonline\\/teachers\\/prof_read\\/lance_todd\\/home_e.php  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a school wide policy on literacy, and my attendance at various literacy courses, my goals for my teaching appraisal became that of raising the achievement levels for my students in agriculture and horticulture. In particular I decided to focus on addressing the learning needs of the ESOL students in my Year 13 horticulture class. I was concerned

Lance Todd

74

PCP invitation flyer outlineMinn copy  

Cancer.gov

Member Lance Armstrong Founder Lance Armstrong Foundation Member Margaret L. Kripke, Ph.D. Executive Vice President and Chief Academic Officer The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Executive Secretary Abby B.

75

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot blowing...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot blowing...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot...

2009-07-01

76

40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot blowing...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot blowing...12 noon to 4 p.m.) atmospheric turbulence for boiler lancing and soot...

2010-07-01

77

Assessment of the PAH contamination of populations of the forage fish, sand lance (`ammodytes hexapterus`) inhabiting clean and oil-impacted sediments. Restoration project 96163p. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report  

SciTech Connect

Samples were collected from Prince William Sound and were extracted by EPA methods (3540, 3550) to produce dichloromethane (DCM) extracts, and small aliquots of these were applied to human liver cancer cells (101L), which produce a luminescent enzyme (luciferase) if dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present.

Anderson, J.W.; Jones, J.M.

1997-11-05

78

Identification and characterization of a constitutively T-loop phosphorylated and active recombinant S6K1: Expression, purification, and enzymatic studies in a high capacity non-radioactive TR-FRET Lance assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase 1 (S6K) is a substrate and effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR\\/S6K pathway is implicated in cancer and metabolic disorders. To study the molecular regulation of S6K and identify specific inhibitors, availability of active recombinant S6K and robust enzyme assays are critically needed. To date, however, expression of active recombinant

Wei-Guo Zhang; Boris Shor; Ker Yu

2006-01-01

79

A Lesson of Human Connection: 9\\/11, Film, Brotherhood, and Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brothers Gedeon and Jules Naudet were within two blocks of the World Trade Center (WTC) on the morning of September 11, 2001 when terrorists flew hijacked planes into the WTC towers. Both brothers had cameras with them, as they were engaged in shooting a documentary film about firefighters at the time. As a result, they captured unique footage from the

Deron R. Boyles

2003-01-01

80

The Penetration Behavior of an Annular Gas-Solid Jet Impinging on a Liquid Bath: The Effects of the Density and Size of Solid Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top-blow injection of a gas-solid jet through a circular lance is used in the Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting Process. One problem associated with this injection is the severe erosion of the hearth refractory below the lances. A new configuration of the lance to form an annular gas-solid jet rather than the circular jet was designed in this laboratory. With this new configuration, the solid particles fed through the center tube leave the lance at a much lower velocity than the gas, and the penetration behavior of the jet is significantly different from that with a circular lance where the solid particles leave the lance at the same high velocity as the gas. In previous cold-model investigations in this laboratory, the effects of the gas velocity, particle feed rate, lance height of the annular lance, and the cross-sectional area of the gas jet were studied and compared with the circular lance. This study examined the effect of the density and size of the solid particles on the penetration behavior of the annular gas-solid jet, which yielded some unexpected results. The variation in the penetration depth with the density of the solid particles at the same mass feed rate was opposite for the circular lance and the annular lance. In the case of the circular lance, the penetration depth became shallower as the density of the solid particles increased; on the contrary, for the annular lance, the penetration depth became deeper with the increasing density of particles. However, at the same volumetric feed rate of the particles, the density effect was small for the circular lance, but for the annular lance, the jets with higher density particles penetrated more deeply. The variation in the penetration depth with the particle diameter was also different for the circular and the annular lances. With the circular lance, the penetration depth became deeper as the particle size decreased for all the feed rates, but with the annular lance, the effect of the particle size was small. The overall results including the previous work indicated that the penetration behavior of an annular jet is much less sensitive to the variations in operating variables than that of a circular jet. Correlation equations for the penetration depth that show good agreements with the measured values have been developed.

Chang, J. S.; Sohn, H. Y.

2012-08-01

81

75 FR 9602 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants Intertrans Express (NY), Inc., 10 East Merrick Road, 203, Valley Stream, NY 11580. Officer: Chun aka Peter T. Tao, President/ Secretary, (Qualifying Individual). International Trade Brokers and Forwarders Co, 2261 NW. 66th...

2010-03-03

82

Sinyi Real Estate in China: The Challenges of Maintaining an Ethical Business Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinyi was one of the most successful real estate agent companies in Taiwan and China mainland. Sinyi's founder, Chun-chi Chou, embraced Confucian perspective in his management and successfully cultivated a \\

Terence Tsai; Michael N. Young; Bor-shiuan Cheng; Shubo Phillip Liu

2010-01-01

83

1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect

Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

2013-01-01

84

Dinosaurs, spherules, and the ``magic'' layer: A new K-T boundary clay site in Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay site has been found along Dogie Creek in Wyoming in the drainage of Lance Creek---the type area of the Lance Formation of latest Cretaceous age. The boundary clay was discovered in the uppermost part of the Lance Formation, 4 7 cm beneath the lowest lignite in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and approximately 1

Bruce F. Bohor; Don M. Triplehorn; Douglas J. Nichols; Hugh T. Millard Jr.

1987-01-01

85

Diagnostic test element and process for its production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns a process for producing a diagnostic test element for analyzing a body fluid in which a lancing member that can puncture a body part is provided with a collecting channel for body fluid obtained by the puncture, wherein the collecting channel exhibits capillary action, and wherein a sensor member for an optical or electrochemical measurement is connected to the lancing member. According to the invention, the sensor member and the lancing member can be joined together as interlocking connecting components wherein a measuring element of the sensor member is inserted into the collecting channel through an insertion opening of the lancing member.

2011-11-08

86

Collaboration with academia in the development of post ovulatory methods.  

PubMed

The 0.75-mg levonorgestrel-containing 'morning after' contraceptive tablet Postinor was developed by Gedeon Richter Ltd., Hungary. The product was first launched in 1979 and registered later in approximately 40 countries. In 1994, the World Health Organization offered the company participation in a multinational clinical trial to prove the superiority of the product over existing (Yuzpe-type) emergency contraceptive products. Based on these data the company was able to redesign the 'morning after' type Postinor into an 'emergency' pill, Postinor-2. During further clinical trials a close working relationship was formed between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University in Szeged, Hungary, and Gedeon Richter. The advantages and challenges of cooperation between public- and private-sector institutions are analyzed in the paper. PMID:10661744

Thaler, G

1999-12-01

87

The Penetration Behavior of an Annular Gas-Solid Jet Impinging on a Liquid Bath: Comparison with a Conventional Circular Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The top-blow injection technique of a gas-solid mixture through a circular lance is used in the Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting Process. One of the inherent problems associated with this injection is the severe erosion of the hearth refractory below the lances. A new configuration of the lance to form an annular gas-solid jet rather than a circular jet was designed in the laboratory scale. With this new configuration, solid particles leave the lance at a much lower velocity than the gas, and the penetration behavior of the jet is significantly different than with the circular lance in which the solid particles leave the lance at the same high velocity as the gas. The results of cold model tests using an air-sand jet issuing from a circular lance and an annular lance into a water bath showed that the penetration of the annular jet is much less sensitive to the variations in particle feed rate as well as gas velocity than that of the circular jet. Correlation equations for the penetration depth for both circular and annular jets show agreement among the experimentally obtained values.

Park, Sung Sil; Dyussekenov, Nurzhan; Sohn, H. Y.

2010-02-01

88

Ergonomische verbetering van reinigen van stallen en afdelingen = Ergonomic improvement of stable cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health risks during high pressure cleaning with a traditional cleaner are caused by muscle activity and exposure to vibrations. Exposure to vibrations during cleaning declines when a straight spraying lance is used instead of a bowed spraying lance. An accumulator and a better-balanced rotating nozzle further reduce vibrations. A broad-spraying nozzle hardly vibrates, but its cleaning capacity is insufficient for

Peter F. M. M. Roelofs; H. H. E. Oude Vrielink; A. A. J. Looije

2005-01-01

89

Monitoring invasive species using 1-mm GSD geocoded aerial surveys: a cost effective means of getting details, locations, and sample numbers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Half a century ago Aldo Leopold observed, “It is impossible fully to protect cheat country from fire...,” and chided, “We tilt windmills in behalf of conservation in convention halls... but on the back forty we disclaim even owning a lance.” “Lances” effective against cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)...

90

Free-Lancers: The Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compare the ways staff and free-lance writers handle ethical issues, several writers were interviewed for personal experiences, and several daily and weekly newspapers and regional magazines were surveyed. Results indicated that the shield laws protecting staff writers do not apply to free-lance writers. Neither do the rules governing…

Kean, Sharon L.

91

First record of Lancian (Late Cretaceous) mammals from the Hell Creek Formation of southwestern North Dakota, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

First records of fossil mammals from the Hell Creek Formation of southwestern North Dakota, USA, are described. The assemblage is similar to local faunas from the Lance Formation type area, Wyoming, and the Hell Creek Formation type area, Montana. One species absent from the Lance (Gypsonictops illuminatus), however, occurs both in the Hell Creek Formation of North Dakota and the

John P. Hunter; Dean A. Pearson

1996-01-01

92

Development of Single and Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocoolers with Commercial Linear Compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunpower, Inc. and Gedeon Associates partnered to develop single and two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers under Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) funding from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The development centered around using the high-efficiency, low-cost linear compressor that Sunpower has already taken to the manufacturing level with its M87 Stirling cryocooler. The primary goal was to demonstrate efficient cooling at

K. B. Wilson; D. R. Gedeon

93

Clinical and non-clinical investigations using positron emission tomography, near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler methods on the neuroprotective drug vinpocetine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinpocetine (Cavinton®, Gedeon Richter, Budapest) is widely used as a neuroprotective drug in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Vinpocetine is a potent inhibitor of the voltage-dependent Na+ channels and a selective inhibitor of the Ca2+\\/caldmoduline-dependent phosphodiesterase 1. The clinical efficacy has been supported by several previous studies. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful method to evaluate the

Ádám Vas; Balázs Gulyás; Zsolt Szabó; Péter Bönöczk; László Csiba; Béla Kiss; Egon Kárpáti; Gyula Pánczél; Zoltán Nagy

2002-01-01

94

Antibacterial Activities of Four Thai Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants have long been used and prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Some of them have been used for treating various diseases including infectious diseases. Pouzolzia pentandra Benn., Gelonium multiflorum A. Juss., Erycibe elliptilimba Merr.&Chun., Balanophora abbreviate Bl. are Thai medicinal plants from the Thai pharmacopoeia that have been prescribed for treating unknown fevers including some specific infectious diseases. This

Suwanna Trakulsomboon

95

Students' Dynamic Assessment via Online Chat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is ample documentation on the use of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) in the foreign language classroom for instructional purposes (Beauvois, 1994, 1998; Beauvois & Eledge, 1996; Chun, 1994; Darhower, 2002; Kelm, 1992, Kern, 1995; Warschauer, 1996), research devoted to assessment in this area is quite rare (Heather,…

Oskoz, Ana

2005-01-01

96

Semantic Contextual Cuing and Visual Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang's (1998) original study, a large body of research based on the contextual cuing paradigm has shown that the visuocognitive system is capable of capturing certain regularities in the environment in an implicit way. The present study investigated whether regularities based on the semantic category membership of the…

Goujon, Annabelle; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne

2009-01-01

97

Asymmetry in Object Substitution Masking Occurs Relative to the Direction of Spatial Attention Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sparse mask that persists beyond the duration of a target can reduce its visibility, a phenomenon called "object substitution masking". Y. Jiang and M. M. Chun (2001a) found an asymmetric pattern of substitution masking such that a mask on the peripheral side of the target caused stronger substitution masking than on the central side. Assuming…

Hirose, Nobuyuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

2010-01-01

98

Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using…

Brady, Timothy F.; Chun, Marvin M.

2007-01-01

99

The Simultaneous Type, Serial Token Model of Temporal Attention and Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A detailed description of the simultaneous type, serial token (ST[squared]) model is presented. ST[squared] is a model of temporal attention and working memory that encapsulates 5 principles: (a) M. M. Chun and M. C. Potter's (1995) 2-stage model, (b) a Stage 1 salience filter, (c) N. G. Kanwisher's (1987, 1991) types-tokens distinction, (d) a…

Bowman, Howard; Wyble, Brad

2007-01-01

100

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Advertising, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Advertising, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Made in Taiwan and the U.S.A.: A Study of Gender Roles in Two Nations' Magazine Advertisements" (Kim E. Karloff and Yi-ching Lee); "The Impact of Culture on Political Advertising: A Comparison between the U.S. and Korean Newspaper Ads" (Chun-Sik Kim and…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

101

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Akron, OH, January 6-9, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers from the proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) include: (1) "A Quantitative Examination of Teacher Self Efficacy and Knowledge of the Anture of Science" (Chun, Sajin and Oliver, J. Steve); (2) "Investigating Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Relative to Self…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; Keig, Patricia F., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.

102

Modern Foreign Languages: A Refereed International Journal of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These three issues contain the following articles written in Chinese: "On Conflated Theme in Systemic Functional Grammar" (Huang Guo-Wen); "A Cognitive Approach to the Conceptual Semantic Structures of Causation" (Cheng Qi-Long); "Falsifying the Internal Argument Hypothesis" (Zhao Yan-Chun); "Existential Sentences in English and Chinese: Towards…

Ying, Du, Ed; Zidong, Huang, Ed.

2001-01-01

103

Bodies Capture Attention When Nothing Is Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional neuroimaging research has shown that certain classes of visual stimulus selectively activate focal regions of visual cortex. Specifically, cortical areas that generally and selectively respond to faces (Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. (1997). The fusiform face area: a module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face…

Downing, Paul E.; Bray, David; Rogers, Jack; Childs, Claire

2004-01-01

104

Attentional Distractor Interference May Be Diminished by Concurrent Working Memory Load in Normal Participants and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load…

de Liano, Beatriz Gil-Gomez; Umilta, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

2010-01-01

105

Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

Chang, Chung-chien Karen

2010-01-01

106

PCA3 and PCA3-Based Nomograms Improve Diagnostic Accuracy in Patients Undergoing First Prostate Biopsy  

PubMed Central

While now recognized as an aid to predict repeat prostate biopsy outcome, the urinary PCA3 (prostate cancer gene 3) test has also been recently advocated to predict initial biopsy results. The objective is to evaluate the performance of the PCA3 test in predicting results of initial prostate biopsies and to determine whether its incorporation into specific nomograms reinforces its diagnostic value. A prospective study included 601 consecutive patients addressed for initial prostate biopsy. The PCA3 test was performed before ?12-core initial prostate biopsy, along with standard risk factor assessment. Diagnostic performance of the PCA3 test was evaluated. The three available nomograms (Hansen’s and Chun’s nomograms, as well as the updated Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator; PCPT) were applied to the cohort, and their predictive accuracies were assessed in terms of biopsy outcome: the presence of any prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa). The PCA3 score provided significant predictive accuracy. While the PCPT risk calculator appeared less accurate; both Chun’s and Hansen’s nomograms provided good calibration and high net benefit on decision curve analyses. When applying nomogram-derived PCa probability thresholds ?30%, ?6% of HGPCa would have been missed, while avoiding up to 48% of unnecessary biopsies. The urinary PCA3 test and PCA3-incorporating nomograms can be considered as reliable tools to aid in the initial biopsy decision.

Ruffion, Alain; Devonec, Marian; Champetier, Denis; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Paparel, Philippe; Perrin, Paul; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

2013-01-01

107

Spatial Constraints on Learning in Visual Search: Modeling Contextual Cuing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive visual context facilitates visual search, a benefit termed contextual cuing (M. M. Chun & Y. Jiang, 1998). In the original task, search arrays were repeated across blocks such that the spatial configuration (context) of all of the distractors in a display predicted an embedded target location. The authors modeled existing results using a connectionist architecture and then designed new

Timothy F. Brady; Marvin M. Chun

2007-01-01

108

Visual Search Is Postponed during the Attentional Blink until the System Is Suitably Reconfigured  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|J. S. Joseph, M. M. Chun, and K. Nakayama (1997) found that pop-out visual search was impaired as a function of intertarget lag in an attentional blink (AB) paradigm in which the 1st target was a letter and the 2nd target was a search display. In 4 experiments, the present authors tested the implication that search efficiency should be similarly…

Ghorashi, S. M. Shahab; Smilek, Daniel; Di Lollo, Vincent

2007-01-01

109

Closing the Chasm of Subtle Second Generation Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article draws upon insights from Edna Chun and Alvin Evans' forthcoming book "Bridging the Diversity Divide: Globalization and Reciprocal Empowerment in Higher Education." Despite apparent signs of progress in diversity within higher education, deeper cultural change must occur within academe to erode and eliminate subtle behavioral and…

Evans, Alvin; Chun, Edna

2008-01-01

110

The Simultaneous Type, Serial Token Model of Temporal Attention and Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed description of the simultaneous type, serial token (ST[squared]) model is presented. ST[squared] is a model of temporal attention and working memory that encapsulates 5 principles: (a) M. M. Chun and M. C. Potter's (1995) 2-stage model, (b) a Stage 1 salience filter, (c) N. G. Kanwisher's (1987, 1991) types-tokens distinction, (d) a…

Bowman, Howard; Wyble, Brad

2007-01-01

111

A concise stereoselective synthesis of (-)-erycibelline.  

PubMed

(-)-Erycibelline, the dihydroxynortropane alkaloid isolated from Erycibe elliptilimba Merr. et Chun., was synthesized using a cyclic nitrone as advanced intermediate, wherein the key step was the SmI(2)-induced intramolecular reductive coupling of cyclic nitrone with aldehyde which resulted in good yield and stereoselectivity. PMID:21946951

Zhang, Zhao-Lan; Nakagawa, Shinpei; Kato, Atsushi; Jia, Yue-Mei; Hu, Xiang-Guo; Yu, Chu-Yi

2011-09-23

112

Improving educational functions in botanic gardens by employing landscape narratives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape narrative, combining landscape and narrative, has been employed to create storytelling layouts and interpretive information in some famous botanic gardens. In order to assess the educational effectiveness of using “landscape narrative” in landscape design, the Heng-Chun Tropical Botanical Garden in Taiwan was chosen as research target for an empirical study. Based on cognitive theory and the affective responses of

Li-Shin Chang; Richard J. Bisgrove; Ming-Yi Liao

2008-01-01

113

76 FR 44330 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1704 Rankin Road, Suite 110, Houston, TX 77073, Officers: Sandy Lance, Secretary, (Qualifying Individual), Alain Vedrine...International Transport, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 145th Avenue & Hook Creek Blvd., Valley Stream, NY 11581, Officers:...

2011-07-25

114

78 FR 31713 - Office of the Chief of Protocol; Gifts to Federal Employees from Foreign Government Sources...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration. Lance Bailey, Regional Security Ebel men's watch (model Lieutenant...Abdulla Juma'an, cause embarrassment to Security Affairs, Joseph McMillan, cufflinks...Non-acceptance would Director, Defense Security Drive Citizen watch; Mohamed...

2013-05-24

115

Safety Aspects of Prepackaged Liquid Propellant Stages for Strategic Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the salient safety-relevant design and operational aspects of past and current small, prepackaged, storable liquid propellant missile stages such as Bullpup, Lance, Minuteman II Propulsion System Rocket Engine, and Peacekeeper Stage IV....

C. J. Meisl L. P. Combs

1984-01-01

116

Preliminary Study of Uranium Favorability of Upper Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Lower Eocene Rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural ba...

J. F. Dunagan S. L. Hesse

1978-01-01

117

Treesearch - Forest Service Research & Development  

Treesearch

... Daniel B.; Hoehn, Robert; Nowak, David J.; Mielke, Manfred; Rideout, Richard; Butalla, ... Markham, Christine; Gittleman, Joe; Denholm, Tom; McFarland, Clint. ... Keena, Melody A.; Hajek, Ann E.; Dubois, Thomas L. M.; Lance, David R. NRS.

118

Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections Directly From Throat Gargle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diagnosis of group A streptococcal disease still relies on isolation on sheep blood agar followed by presumptive identification of group A streptococcal strains by using bacitracin sensitivity or the more precise sero-grouping methods such as the Lanc...

E. A. Edwards I. A. Phillips W. C. Suiter

1981-01-01

119

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, GEOPROBE INC., PNEUMATIC BLADDER PUMP GW 1400 SERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

120

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, GROUNDWATER SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES, GEOPROBE INC, MECHANICAL BLADDER PUMP MODEL MP470  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

121

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, LEAD IN DUST WIPE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY, NITON LLC, X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTRUM ANALYZER, XLT-700  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) design efficient processes for conducting has created the Environmental Technology perfofl1lance tests of innovative technologies. Verification Program (E TV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental techn...

122

Framing Public Opinion in Competitive Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

he past quarter century of scholarship on public opinion has shown that citizens' attitudes can be influenced significantly by how elites frame their communications in the mass media. In the par- lance of this research, a speaker \\

DENNIS CHONG; JAMES N. DRUCKMAN

2007-01-01

123

10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

124

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

125

9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE AT FUME HOOD SHOWING COLLAR AND ENTRANCE FOR OXYGEN LANCES. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

126

Journal of Iron and Steel Research, Volume 18 Number 4, April 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Metallurgy and Metal Working: Development of Test Method for Measuring Sintering; Temperature of Mould Fluxes; Developmentof Intensified Technologies of Vanadium-Bearing Titan magnetite Smelting; Simulation of Flow Field of Oxygen Lance...

2011-01-01

127

12 CFR 1102.301 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...records, files, documents, reports correspondence, books, and... (j) Representative of the news media means any person primarily engaged in gathering news for, or a free-lance journalist...operated to publish or broadcast news to the public. The term...

2013-01-01

128

40 CFR 63.1653 - Opacity standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...measured as a 6-minute average. (b) Blowing taps, poling and oxygen lancing of the tap hole; burndowns associated with electrode measurements; and maintenance activities associated with submerged arc furnaces and casting operations are exempt from...

2012-07-01

129

In silico analysis highlights the frequency and diversity of type 1 lantibiotic gene clusters in genome sequenced bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are lanthionine-containing, post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides. These peptides have significant, but largely untapped, potential as preservatives and chemotherapeutic agents. Type 1 lantibiotics are those in which lanthionine residues are introduced into the structural peptide (LanA) through the activity of separate lanthionine dehydratase (LanB) and lanthionine synthetase (LanC) enzymes. Here we take advantage of the conserved nature of LanC

Alan J Marsh; Orla O'Sullivan; R Paul Ross; Paul D Cotter; Colin Hill

2010-01-01

130

Minimum Sparge Rate to Suspend Solid Particles in the 2H-Evaporator  

SciTech Connect

SRS High Level Waste (HLW) requested Savannah River Technology Center to determine the requirements for suspending insoluble solids in the 2H-evaporator pot. The evaporator pot is a cylindrical vessel with a conical bottom, an air lance, and the suction line to a transfer pump. The air lance and pump suction are located at the bottom of the pot, which will contain insoluble sodium aluminosilicate and sodium diuranate particles.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-09-21

131

Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China.  

PubMed

Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, ?-Aminolaevulinic acid (?-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 ?g/dL, 6.97 ?g/dL, and 2.78 ?g/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 ?g/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher ?-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. PMID:22542240

Wang, Xiaofeng; Miller, Greg; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun; Chu, Cordia; Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong

2012-04-25

132

Effect of 3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethylbenzhydrol (flumecinol) on lipid peroxidation in early human placenta.  

PubMed

A study was made of the lipid peroxidation in the microsomal fraction of human placenta tissue in the presence of flumecinol (Zixoryn, Gedeon Richter Pharmaceutical Works, Budapest, Hungary). The tissue samples were obtained from placenta in early pregnancy and also from placenta at term. Up to a concentration of 1 mumolar, flumecinol (3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethyl-benzhydrol), as an enzyme inductor, significantly enhanced the rate of lipid peroxidation but above 1 molar it scarcely influenced it. The in vitro study proved the enzyme-inducing effect of flumecinol on lipid peroxidation in early human placenta. PMID:3389164

Morvay, J; Török, J

1988-01-01

133

Cortical activity evoked by an acute painful tissue-damaging stimulus in healthy adult volunteers.  

PubMed

Everyday painful experiences are usually single events accompanied by tissue damage, and yet most experimental studies of cutaneous nociceptive processing in the brain use repeated laser, thermal, or electrical stimulations that do not damage the skin. In this study the nociceptive activity in the brain evoked by tissue-damaging skin lance was analyzed with electroencephalography (EEG) in 20 healthy adult volunteers (13 men and 7 women) aged 21-40 yr. Time-frequency analysis of the evoked activity revealed a distinct late event-related vertex potential (lance event-related potential, LERP) at 100-300 ms consisting of a phase-locked energy increase between 1 and 20 Hz (delta-beta bands). A pairwise comparison between lance and sham control stimulation also revealed a period of ultralate stronger desynchronization after lance in the delta band (1-5 Hz). Skin application of mustard oil before lancing, which sensitizes a subpopulation of nociceptors expressing the cation channel TRPA1, did not affect the ultralate desynchronization but reduced the phase-locked energy increase in delta and beta bands, suggesting a central interaction between different modalities of nociceptive inputs. Verbal descriptor screening of individual pain experience revealed that lance pain is predominantly due to A? fiber activation, but when individuals describe lances as C fiber mediated, an ultralate delta band event-related desynchronization occurs in the brain-evoked activity. We conclude that pain evoked by acute tissue damage is associated with distinct A? and C fiber-mediated patterns of synchronization and desynchronization of EEG oscillations in the brain. PMID:23427303

Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Slater, Rebeccah; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

2013-02-20

134

The Generation of Near-Real Time Data Products for MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GSFC Terrestrial Information Systems Branch (614.5) operate the Land and Atmospheres Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Other LANCE elements include -AIRS, -MLS, -OMI, and -AMSR-E. LANCE-MODIS incorporates the former Rapid Response system and will, in early 2011, include the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). The purpose of LANCE is to provide applications users with a variety of products on a near-real time basis. The LANCE-MODIS data products include Level 1 (L1), L2 fire, snow, sea ice, cloud mask/profiles, aerosols, clouds, land surface reflectance, land surface temperature, and L2G and L3 gridded, daily, land surface reflectance products. Data are available either by ftp access (pull) or by subscription (push) and the L1 and L2 data products are available within an average of 2.5 hours of the observation time. The use of ancillary data products input to the standard science algorithms has been modified in order to obtain these latencies. The resulting products have been approved for applications use by the MODIS Science Team. The http://lance.nasa.gov site provides registration information and extensive information concerning the MODIS data products and imagery including a comparison between the LANCE-MODIS and the standard science-quality products generated by the MODAPS system. The LANCE-MODIS system includes a variety of tools that enable users to manipulate the data products including: parameter, band, and geographic subsetting, re-projection, mosaicing, and generation of data in the GeoTIFF format. In most instances the data resulting from use of these tools has a latency of less than 3 hours. Access to these tools is available through a Web Coverage Service. A Google Earth/Web Mapping Service is available to access image products. LANCE-MODIS supports a wide variety of applications users in civilian, military, and foreign agencies as well as universities and the private sector. Examples of applications are: Flood Mapping, Famine relief, Food and Agriculture, Hazards and Disasters, and Weather.

Teague, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

2010-12-01

135

Simulation of Flow Fluid in the BOF Steelmaking Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) smelting process consists of different chemical reactions among oxygen, slag, and molten steel, which engenders a vigorous stirring process to promote slagging, dephosphorization, decarbonization, heating of molten steel, and homogenization of steel composition and temperature. Therefore, the oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness vary during the smelting process. This simulation demonstrated a three-dimensional mathematical model for a 100 t converter applying four-hole supersonic oxygen lance and simulated the effect of oxygen flow rate, lance height, and slag thickness on the flow of molten bath. It is found that as the oxygen flow rate increases, the impact area and depth increases, which increases the flow speed in the molten bath and decreases the area of dead zone. Low oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact depth and accelerates the flow speed of liquid steel on the surface of the bath, while high oxygen lance height benefits the increase of impact area, thereafter enhances the uniform distribution of radial velocity in the molten steel and increases the flow velocity of molten steel at the bottom of furnace hearth. As the slag thickness increases, the diameter of impinging cavity on the slag and steel surface decreases. The radial velocity of liquid steel in the molten bath is well distributed when the jet flow impact on the slag layer increases.

Lv, Ming; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Ya-Guang; Wang, Yong-Wei

2013-10-01

136

Effect of Extrusion Processing on Antioxidant Activities of Corn Extrudates Fortified with Various Chinese Yams ( Dioscorea sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of extrusion on antioxidant abilities of the extrudates of corn\\u000a fortified with various (Chinese) yams. The flours from three yam varieties were used, including Dioscorea alata L. var. Tai-nung No.1 (TN1), D. alata L. var. Ta-shan (TS), and Dioscorea doryophora var. Hang-chun (HC). One commercial yam flour (TJ) was also

Hsiang-Wen Chiu; Jin-Chyau Peng; Shwu-Jene Tsai; Wai-Bun Lui

137

Bad Loans to Good Friends: Money Politics and the Developmental State in South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since gaining its independence in 1948, South Korea (hereinafterreferred to as Korea) has seen a seemingly endless ow of corruptionscandals bring down scores of elites. Among those who have served timein jail or been exiled are former presidents Chun Doo-hwan and RohTae-woo; members of many presidential staffs; and a slew of military ofcers, politicians, bureaucrats, bankers, businessmen, and taxcollectors. While

David C. Kang

2002-01-01

138

Flaming in CMC: Prometheus' Fire or Inferno's?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) without exception supports its cognitive and affective benefits for foreign language (L2) learning (Beauvois, 1995, 1997; Blake 2000; Swaffar, 1998). Studies both in L1 and L2 contexts especially draw attention to its ability to promote more democratic discourse patterns than face-to- face classroom interaction (Batson, 1993; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995). Sproull and

ZSUZSANNA ITTZES ABRAMS

139

Amorphous Carbon Nanospheres  

ScienceCinema

Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource. Science: Kah Chun Lau, Larry Curtiss, Argonne National Laboratory Visualization: Aaron Knoll, Mark Hereld, Michael E. Papka, Argonne National Laboratory

140

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Advertising, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advertising, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Made in Taiwan and the U.S.A.: A Study of Gender Roles in Two Nations' Magazine Advertisements" (Kim E. Karloff and Yi-ching Lee); "The Impact of Culture on Political Advertising: A Comparison between the U.S. and Korean Newspaper Ads" (Chun-Sik Kim and Yoo-Kyoung…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

141

Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system  

DOEpatents

A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC); Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

2002-01-01

142

Physical modeling of slag splashing  

SciTech Connect

Slag splashing practices in the basic oxygen furnace have been successful in decreasing refractory consumption. During slag splashing, the oxygen lance is lowered into the furnace after tap and nitrogen is blown onto the slag. The high momentum jets splash a coating of slag onto the sidewalls of the furnace that is apparently transformed into a protective refractory coating. The main goals of this research are to provide a better theoretical understanding of slag splashing and the effects of variables such as slag viscosity and lance design.

Peaslee, K.D. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-09-01

143

Transcript Profile of the Response of Two Soybean Genotypes to Potassium Deficiency  

PubMed Central

The macronutrient potassium (K) is essential to plant growth and development. Crop yield potential is often affected by lack of soluble K. The molecular regulation mechanism of physiological and biochemical responses to K starvation in soybean roots and shoots is not fully understood. In the present study, two soybean varieties were subjected to low-K stress conditions: a low-K-tolerant variety (You06-71) and a low-K-sensitive variety (HengChun04-11). Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes ×2 tissues (roots and shoots) ×2 time periods [short term (0.5 to 12 h) and long term (3 to 12 d)]. RNA derived from the roots and shoots of these two varieties across two periods (short term and long term) were sequenced and the transcriptomes were compared using high-throughput tag-sequencing. To this end, a large number of clean tags (tags used for analysis after removal of dirty tags) corresponding to distinct tags (all types of clean tags) were identified in eight libraries (L1, You06-71-root short term; L2, HengChun04-11-root short term; L3, You06-71-shoot short term; L4, HengChun04-11-shoot short term; L5, You06-71-root long term; L6, HengChun04-11-root long term; L7, You06-71-shoot long term; L8, HengChun04-11-shoot long term). All clean tags were mapped to the available soybean (Glycine max) transcript database (http://www.soybase.org). Many genes showed substantial differences in expression across the libraries. In total, 5,440 transcripts involved in 118 KEGG pathways were either up- or down-regulated. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results provide preliminary information on the molecular mechanism of potassium absorption and transport under low-K stress conditions in different soybean tissues.

Hao, QingNan; Sha, AiHua; Shan, ZhiHui; Chen, LiMiao; Zhou, Rong; Zhi, HaiJian; Zhou, XinAn

2012-01-01

144

[New russian myorelaxant vero-pipecuronium (pipecuronium bromide) used for the anesthetic management of operations on the thorax and abdomen organs].  

PubMed

The experience of clinical use of the new Russian myorelaxant of the non-depolarizing action vero-pipecuronium (pipecuronium bromided) manufactured by "Veropharm" is described. Vero-pipecuronium was found to ensure splendid and good conditions for the intubation of the trachea and to maintain reliably myorelaxation. The recommended doses and availability of an antidote (prozerine) provide for a sufficiently controllable myorelaxation. Vero-pipecuronium does not virtually exert any effect on the parameters of hemodynamics and can be successfully used in patients with a high anesthetic risk including heart surgeries. Thus, Russian vero-pipecuronium has now an effective and safe myorelaxant manufactured inside the country, whose parameters are not inferior to those of pipecuronium bromide (arduan) manufactured by "Gedeon Richter", Hungary. Since the described drug is made in Russia, one can hope it will be highly effective both economically and pharmacologically. PMID:15573726

Buniatian, A A; Vyzhigina, M A; Mizikov, V M; Deshko, Iu V; Kozhevnikov, V A; Zhukova, S G; Batchaev, Sh S

145

The performance of a high-frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermoacoustic-Stirling engine that operates at 400 Hz with a working fluid of 1-MPa helium is constructed. For proper acoustic phasing in this engine's regenerator, an acoustic power feedback path exists in the form of an annulus surrounding the regenerator. This feedback path is obtained by suspending an insulated, stainless steel sleeve containing a wire mesh regenerator, which is flanked by two heat exchangers, a short distance from one end of the larger diameter resonator. The ambient heat exchanger is a shell and tube exchanger, while the hot heater consists of nichrome ribbon wound on an aluminum silicate frame. Gedeon streaming is prevented by a diaphragm covering the end of the stainless steel sleeve adjacent to the ambient heat exchanger. A variable acoustic load provides a convenient means of testing this engine at various hot heater temperatures, while operating at different acoustic pressure amplitudes effects the acoustic power generated by the engine. [Work supported by ONR.

Bastyr, Kevin J.; Keolian, Robert M.

2003-10-01

146

Effect of flumecinol (Zixoryn) on the cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P448 dependent hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities in male rats.  

PubMed

The effect of three-day oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw. and 100 mg/kg bw. flumecinol (Zixoryn, Gedeon Richter Chemical Works Ltd., Budapest, Hungary) and intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg bw. phenobarbital as well as the single intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg bw. 3-methylcholanthrene on various cytochrome P450 and P448 dependent hepatic microsomal enzyme activities was studied in male albino Wistar rats. 50 mg/kg bw. flumecinol had no significant effect. 100 mg/kg bw. flumecinol had an inducing effect comparable to the one of phenobarbital. The activity of the cytochrome P448 dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase was enhanced by all three substances, but flumecinol's effect was by far behind that of 3-methylcholanthrene, so the carcinogenic promoter effect of flumecinol can be questioned. PMID:1288050

Szabó, I; Vas, A; Renczes, G

1992-01-01

147

Syndromic Surveillance: a Local Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surveillance methodology that was virtually unknown just a few years ago is now poised for deployment across the nation. This is due in no small part to the World Trade Center attacks and the anthrax-laden letters that followed in October 2001. Large-scale bioterrorism now seems likely, if not inevitable, and syndromic surveil- lance, although largely untested, provides a hope

Farzad Mostashari; Jessica Hartman

2003-01-01

148

Vigilance during food handling in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging and vigilance conflict in animals that lower their head during food search and handling, but it is less clear whether these activities conflict in animals that handle food with the head raised. In these spe- cies, at least part of the foraging process is physically compatible with vigilance. Nevertheless, both vigi- lance and food handling require cognitive resources, so

I. Joanna Makowska; Donald L. Kramer

2007-01-01

149

Rb-Sr Ages of Chondrules and Carbonaceous Chondrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determinations of Rb, Sr, and K contents and isotopic compositions of Sr are reported for the carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil, Murray, Mokoia, and Lance, the hypersthene chondrite Peace River, and four chondrules from the Peace River meteorite. In accordance with previous work, the abundances of Rb and K in type I is greater than in type III; 8r is relatively constant.

V. Rama Murthy; W. Compston

1965-01-01

150

Soldiers' rights and medical risks: The protest against universal anthrax vaccinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 17, 199% in the first contested court martial concerning refusal of recently, mandated anthrax vaccinations, Lance Corporal ]ared Schwartz was sentenced to thirty days confinement and a dishonorable discharge. Later that week, four other marines at the Twenty-nine Palms base in California were also similarly charged and sentenced. Some two hundred other rnernbers of the armed forces have

Jeanne Guillemin

2000-01-01

151

Wild Washerwomen, Hired Sportsmen, and Enormous Crocodiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A free-lance cartoonist and children's book illustrator describes his process of approaching a manuscript as a whole book, rather than as individual scenes to be illustrated. Suggests that pictures in children's books can be good on their own terms and with their own intrinsic values. (AEA)

Blake, Quentin

1981-01-01

152

T PARK: AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE FOR SECURITY IN PUBLIC PARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult

Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella

153

NCI: Research Resources > Resources by Category  

Cancer.gov

With support from LIVESTRONG (Lance Armstrong Foundation), the follow-up study will provide additional information 24 months post-diagnosis. Researchers assessed questions that were not possible on the original survey (e.g. follow-up care, fertility decisions) and to examine certain domains (e.g. symptoms) over time.

154

Coal bed methane potential of the Sand Wash Basin, Green River coal region, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sand Wash Basin covers most of the Colorado portion of the Green River coal region. Significant coal beds are found in four Cretaceous formations in the basin: the Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group, the Lance Formation, and the Fort Union Formation. Individual coal beds can reach thicknesses of 36 ft in the Mesaverde, 13 ft

D. L. Boreck; C. M. Tremain; L. Sitowitz; T. D. Lorenson

1981-01-01

155

[Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].  

PubMed

The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

2003-01-01

156

Milgram's Scotch Verdict on TV: A Retrial. Paper No. 5248.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An evaluation was made of the methodology and findings presented in "Television and Antisocial Behavior. Field Experiments," by Stanley Milgram and R. Lance Shotland (New York: Academic Press, 1973). In the book, seven experiments were reported, all concerned with antisocial behavior toward a medical charity. Three episodes of Medical Story were…

Comstock, George

157

Clinical risk factors and timing of recurrent venous thromboembolism during the initial 3 months of coagulant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In patients with venous thromboembo- lism (VTE), identifying clinical risk factors for recur- rence during the initial 3 months of anticoagulant therapy and knowledge of the time course of recurrence may help clinicians decide about the frequency of clinical surveil- lance and the appropriateness of outpatient treatment. Methods: Analysis of a randomized controlled trial da- tabase involving 1021 patients

James D. Douketis; Gary A. Foster; Mark A. Crowther; Martin H. Prins; Jeffrey S. Ginsberg

2000-01-01

158

Tracking and Object Classification for Automated Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the issues that need to be resolved before fully automated outdoor surveillance systems can be developed, and present solutions to some of these problems. Any outdoor surveil- lance system must be able to track objects moving in its fleld of view, classify these objects and detect some of their activities. We have de- veloped a

Omar Javed

2002-01-01

159

Transport of marine fish larvae to Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan) in relation to the availability of zooplankton prey under the winter ice cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the importance of ice-covered Saroma-ko Lagoon as a winter nursery area for young fish spawned offshore, we monitored the recruitment of marine fish larvae from the Sea of Okhotsk to the lagoon as well as the availability of larval fish prey under the ice cover from 24 February to 23 March 1992. Sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) and walleye

Martin Fortier; Louis Fortier

1997-01-01

160

The Calming Effect of Maternal Breast Milk Odor on Premature Infants.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: To compare the effectiveness of maternal breast milk odor and formula milk odor in soothing premature infants undergoing heel lancing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty preterm infants born between 32 weeks and 37 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into two groups. During heel lancing, we used formula milk odor for the first group and breast milk odor for the second group. A filter paper (containing either formula or breast milk) was placed near the infant's nose from 3 minutes prior to and up to 9 minutes after the heel blood sampling. The pain score was measured using premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score. We also evaluated crying duration and salivary cortisol prior to and after heel lancing. RESULT: After the heel lancing, the PIPP score was found to be significantly lower in the breast milk group than the formula milk group (5.4 compared to 9 with p < 0.001).Also, the level of salivary cortisol had significantly increased in the formula milk group, but not in the breast milk group (25.3 nmol/L compared to 17.7 nmol/L (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Breast milk odor has analgesic effect in preterm newborn and can be used as a safe method for pain relief. PMID:23707040

Badiee, Zohreh; Asghari, Mohsen; Mohammadizadeh, Majid

2013-05-22

161

Assessor Cognitive Processes in an Operational Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was (a) to provide additional tests of C. E. Lance, Newbolt, et al.'s (2000) situational specificity (vs. method bias) interpretation of exercise effects on assessment center postexercise dimension ratings and (b) to provide competitive tests of salient dimension versus general impression models of assessor within-exercise evaluations of candidate performance. Results strongly support the situational specificity

Charles E. Lance; Mark R. Foster; William A. Gentry; Joseph D. Thoresen

2004-01-01

162

Feasibility of creating a new liquid surface within waste storage tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of creating a new liquid surface within Waste Storage Tank 241-SY-101. This study looked at alternatives for this, as well as providing a summary of observations regarding water lancing results relative to this task.

ANDRES, B.D.

1999-05-13

163

Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

164

Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities,…

Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

2010-01-01

165

THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: THE CASE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF MALAYA (1948-1960)- A SPECIAL BRANCH PERSPECTIVE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins of the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960) have been debated over the years in both the academic world and in the intelligence community. This paper incorporates the contemporaneous views of the Malayan Special Branch that have not been recorded previously. It also examines the role of Lawrence (Lance) Sharkey, the acting Secretary- General of the Australian Communist Party, who was

Leon Comber

2009-01-01

166

IgG-mediated allergy: A new mechanism for migraine attacks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances offered by modern neuroimag- ing and genetic techniques, the pathophysiology of migraine has not been fully clarified. As pointed out by Selby and Lance 50 years ago, a relevant proportion of patients report that their migraine attacks are usually precipitated by dietary items (1). In a survey analysing the prevalence of dietary migraine in 500 new migraine

Julio Pascual; Agustín Oterino

2010-01-01

167

Detection of Poliovirus Circulation by Environmental Surveillance in the Absence of Clinical Cases in Israel and the Palestinian Authority  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global eradication of poliomyelitis, believed to be achievable around the year 2000, relies on strategies which include high routine immunization coverage and mass vaccination campaigns, along with continuous monitoring of wild-type virus circulation by using the laboratory-based acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveil- lance. Israel and the Palestinian Authority are located in a geographical region in which poliovirus is still

Y. MANOR; R. HANDSHER; T. HALMUT; M. NEUMAN; A. BOBROV; H. RUDICH; A. VONSOVER; L. SHULMAN; O. KEW; E. MENDELSON; Chaim Sheba

168

Intelligent Highway Traffic Surveillance With Self-Diagnosis Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a self-diagnosing intelligent highway surveillance system and design effective solutions for both daytime and nighttime traffic surveillance. For daytime surveil- lance, vehicles are detected via background modeling. For night- time videos, headlights of vehicles need to be located and paired for vehicle detection. An algorithm based on likelihood compu- tation is developed to pair the

Hsu-Yung Cheng; Shih-Han Hsu

2011-01-01

169

Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Essays on varieties of English in the United States include: "Research Trends in the Study of American English" (Edgar W. Schneider); "Piney Woods Southern" (Lee Pederson); "Foundations of American English" (William A. Kretzschmar, Jr.); "The Comparability of Linguistic Atlas Records: The Case of LANCS an LAGS" (Lawrence M. Davis, Charles L.…

Schneider, Edgar W., Ed.

170

Making Space for Diverse Masculinities: Difference, Intersectionality, and Engagement in an Urban High School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Volume 50  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What's it like for Black male students who are openly gay or "gender non-conforming" to navigate the social geography of urban schools? In the tradition of critical ethnographies of schooling, Lance T. McCready mobilizes feminist theories of intersectionality to explore the voices of Black gay male students and their teachers in a Northern…

McCready, Lance T.

2010-01-01

171

'Reflections on Renaissance Politics and Art: Titian's Battle' by Regina Fritzsche (Swansea University)  

Microsoft Academic Search

armour, holding a lance in his left hand, mounted on horseback riding out of a forest. The viewer can immerse in the landscape via two ways. The way, which the viewer takes, depends on his\\/her position. The painting assumes that it is being gazed upon from two positions: The first position assumes that the viewer stands at an angle to

Regina Fritzsche

2010-01-01

172

Low NOâ premixed combustion of MBtu fuels in a research burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical part of IGCC plants is the combustor which must burn syngas. The paper reports on the development and testing of a premix research burner for MBtu fuels. The burner has a quartz glass annular mixing section and a quartz glass flame tue to allow visualization of the flame. A central lance is used to mount modules for fuel

K. Doebbeling; A. Eroglu; D. Winkler; T. Sattelmayer; W. Keppel

1997-01-01

173

Focus on the USA. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on varieties of English in the United States include: "Research Trends in the Study of American English" (Edgar W. Schneider); "Piney Woods Southern" (Lee Pederson); "Foundations of American English" (William A. Kretzschmar, Jr.); "The Comparability of Linguistic Atlas Records: The Case of LANCS an LAGS" (Lawrence M. Davis, Charles L.…

Schneider, Edgar W., Ed.

174

Surveillance for Antimicrobial Resistance in Croatia Arjana Tambic Andraševic,* Tera Tambic,† Smilja Kalenic,‡ and Vera Jankovic,§ and the Working Group of the Croatian Committee for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the activities of the Croatian Committee for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance and report surveil- lance results for 1999. Twenty-two Croatian microbiology laboratories participated in the study. Resistance rates for the organisms isolated in different centers varied widely, but certain trends were apparent. Penicillin resistance in pneumococci (38%), methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (22%), the production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases

F. Mihaljeviæ; Vlasta Gilic; Zdenka Kotarski; Blaza Krakar; Ivanka Lerotic; Biserka Matica; Danica Milanovic Marti; Marina Payerl-Pal; Mirna Petanovic; Volga Punda-Polic; Ivanka Ritterman; Antonija Sokal; Nevenka Tkalec-Makovec

175

SIGF: a family of configurable, secure routing protocols for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As sensor networks are deployed in adversarial environments and used for critical applications such as battlefield surveil- lance and medical monitoring, security weaknesses become a big concern. The severe resource constraints of WSNs give rise to the need for resource bound security solutions. In this paper we present SIGF (Secure Implicit Geographic Forwarding), a configurable secure routing protocol family for

Anthony D. Wood; Lei Fang; John A. Stankovic; Tian He

2006-01-01

176

Breastfeeding Is Analgesic in Healthy Newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. This study identifies a behav- ioral and nonpharmacologic means of preventing new- born pain. Objective. To determine whether breastfeeding is an- algesic in newborn infants undergoing heel lance—a rou- tine, painful, hospital procedure. Design. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Setting. Hospital maternity services at Boston Medi- cal Center, Boston, Massachusetts, and Beverly Hospital, Beverly, Massachusetts. Participants. A random sample

Larry Gray; Lisa W. Miller; Barbara L. Philipp; Elliott M. Blass

2008-01-01

177

Collage with Photoshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The creative processes of 14 computer graphic artists are recorded in this book. Artists represented include: Joseph Kelter; Glenn Mitsui; Diane Fenster; Steve Lyons; Jeff Brice; Thirst; Pamela Hobbs; Lance Hidy; SKOLOS/WEDELL; Marcolina Design/Dan Marcolina; John Hersey; David Carson; Bert Monroy; and Jack Davis. The narrative provides insight…

Sparkman, Russell

178

Dinosaurs, spherules, and the “magic” layer: A new K-T boundary clay site in Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay site has been found along Dogie Creek in Wyoming in the drainage of Lance Creek—the type area of the Lance Formation of latest Cretaceous age. The boundary clay was discovered in the uppermost part of the Lance Formation, 4 7 cm beneath the lowest lignite in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and approximately 1 m above a fragmented dinosaur bone. The boundary clay consists of a basal kaolinitic claystone layer as much as 3 cm thick containing hollow goyazite spherules, overlain by a 2 3 mm smectitic layer (the “magic” layer) containing both shock-metamorphosed minerals and an iridium anomaly of 21 ppb. A palynological break coincides with the base of the claystone layer; numerous Late Cretaceous palynomorph species terminate at this boundary. The paleontological significance of this new boundary site lies in its close association with the well-studied assemblage of dinosaurs and other vertebrates and flora within the type area of the Lance Formation. The spherules at the Dogie Creek site are extremely well preserved by virtue of their replacement by the mineral goyazite. This preservation should facilitate the resolution of the origin of the spherules and of their host layer.

Bohor, Bruce F.; Triplehorn, Don M.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Millard, Hugh T., Jr.

1987-10-01

179

A Special Report (I) West Germany—Paradise for Spies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Editor's Note] Mr. Robert Harnischmacher is a West German free-lance writer and lecturer in the legal sciences and police affairs, with a background in the German military and the Japanese martial arts. The author has been involved in developing unarmed combat skills for various German police forces and a number of foreign countries. His articles on self-defense, criminology and police

ROBERT HARNISCHMACHER

1988-01-01

180

Chromosome Numbers and Genome Size Variation in Indian Species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that signifi- cantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unba- lanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the

JANA LEONG-SKORNICKOVA ´; OTAKAR SIDA; VLASTA JAROLIMOVA ´; MAMYIL SABU; T. Fer; P. Travnicek; J. Suda

2007-01-01

181

Misconceptions and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to

M. Whitten; R. Mahon

182

Diversity of Latest Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian) Small Theropods and Birds: Teeth from the  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract Late Maastrichtian (latest Cretaceous) small theropod dinosaur and bird diversity has been difficult to determine because of scarcity or skeletal rem ains. Numerous teeth of small theropods and birds from the Hell Creek (Montana) and Lance (Wyoming) Formations were analyzed. Relative abundances are: dromaeosaurids (23%), troodontids (14%), cf. Richardoestesia isosceles (35%), cf. Paronychodon (20%), and bird (8%). This

Julia T. Sankey

183

Sexual selection in a lekking bird: the relative opportunity for selection by female choice and male competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leks are classic models for studies of sexual selection due to extreme variance in male reproductive success, but the relative influence of intrasexual competition and female mate choice in creating this skew is debatable. In the lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), these selective episodes are temporally separated into intrasexual competition for alpha status and female mate choice among alpha males

Emily H. DuVal; Bart Kempenaers

2008-01-01

184

Effect of perovskite phase precipitation on viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the dynamic oxidation on the viscosity of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag, on a selective enrichment, a precipitation and a growth of the Ti component were studied. The oxygen source was the air that was blown into the molten slag through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process. It was found that the oxidation of TiC, metallic Fe,

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; T. P. Lou; Z. T. Sui; J. S. Jang

2006-01-01

185

Evaluation of a Computer-based Program On the Reading Performance Of First Grade Students With Potential for Reading Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of a software-based early reading program on the early reading abilities of first grade students with disabilities or who had potential for reading failure. Ba lanced reading instruction was the instructional approach because of increasing evidence that effective reading instruction must strike a balance between opportunities to read and write connected text and instruction in

Richard D. Howell; Carol Stanger; Joe E. Wheaton

2000-01-01

186

Suspicious Behavior Detection in Public Transport by Fusion of Low-Level Video Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently great interest has been shown in the visual surveil- lance of public transportation systems. The challenge is the automated analysis of passenger's behaviors with a set of vi- sual low-level features, which can be extracted robustly. On a set of global motion features computed in different parts of the image, here the complete image, the face and skin color

Dejan Arsic; Björn Schuller; Gerhard Rigoll

2007-01-01

187

Response of pigeon guillemots to variable abundance of high-lipid and low-lipid prey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and other piscivores have been in decline for several decades in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and a decline in abundance of lipid-rich schooling fishes is hypothesized as the major cause. We tested this hypothesis by studying the breeding biology of pigeon guillemots during 1995-1999 while simultaneously measuring prey abundance with beach seines and bottom trawls. Our study area (Kachemak Bay, Alaska) comprises two oceanographically distinct areas. Populations of a lipid-rich schooling fish, Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), were higher in the warmer Inner Bay than in the colder Outer Bay, and sand lance abundance was higher during warm years. Populations of low-lipid content demersal fishes were similar between areas. Chick survival to age 15 days was 47% higher in the Inner Bay (high-lipid diet) than in the Outer Bay (low-lipid diet), and estimated reproductive success (chicks fledged nest-1) was 62% higher in the Inner Bay than in the Outer Bay. Chick provisioning rate (kJ chick-1 h-1) increased with the proportion of sand lance in the diet (r2=0.21), as did growth rate (g day-1) of younger (beta) chicks in two-chick broods (r2=0.14). Pigeon guillemots in the Inner Bay switched to demersal prey during years of below-average sand lance abundance, and these birds reacted to 38-fold interannual changes in sand lance abundance with reductions in beta chick growth rates, with no decline in beta chick survival. In contrast, the proportion of nests experiencing brood reduction in the Outer Bay (demersal diet) increased >300% during years of below-average demersal abundance, although demersal fish abundance varied only 4-fold among years. Our results support the hypothesis that recovery of pigeon guillemot populations from the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is limited by availability of lipid-rich prey.

Litzow, M. A.; Piatt, J. F.; Prichard, A. K.; Roby, D. D.

2002-01-01

188

A Comparison of Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy Alone Versus Combined Arthroscopic Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Debridement and Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy for Ulnar Impaction Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study compared the results of patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome using an ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) alone with those treated with combined arthroscopic debridement and USO. Methods The results of 27 wrists were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into three groups: group A (USO alone, 10 cases), group B (combined arthroscopic debridement and USO, 9 cases), and group C (arthroscopic triangular fibrocartilage complex [TFCC] debridement alone, 8 cases). The wrist function was evaluated using the modified Mayo wrist score, disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score and Chun and Palmer grading system. Results The modified Mayo wrist score in groups A, B, and C was 74.5 ± 8.9, 73.9 ± 11.6, and 61.3 ± 10.2, respectively (p < 0.05). The DASH score in groups A, B, and C was 15.6 ± 11.8, 19.3 ± 11.9, and 33.2 ± 8.5, respectively (p < 0.05). The average Chun and Palmer grading score in groups A and B was 85.7 ± 8.9 and 84.7 ± 6.7, respectively. The difference in the Mayo wrist score, DASH score and Chun and Palmer grading score between group A and B was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions Both USO alone and combined arthroscopic TFCC debridement with USO improved the wrist function and reduced the level of pain in the patients treated for ulnar impaction syndrome. USO alone may be the preferred method of treatment in patients if the torn flap of TFCC is not unstable.

Song, Hyun Seok

2011-01-01

189

Mapping and candidate-gene screening of the novel Turnip mosaic virus resistance gene retr02 in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).  

PubMed

The extreme resistance to Turnip mosaic virus observed in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) line, BP8407, is monogenic and recessive. Bulked segregant analysis was carried out to identify simple sequence repeat and Indel markers linked to this recessive resistance gene, termed recessive Turnip mosaic virus resistance 02 (retr02). Mapping of PCR-specific Indel markers on 239 individuals of a BP8407 × Ji Zao Chun F(2) population, located this resistance gene to a 0.9-cM interval between two Indel markers (BrID10694 and BrID101309) and in scaffold000060 or scaffold000104 on chromosome A04 of the B. rapa genome. Eleven eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and 14 eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) genes are predicted in the B. rapa genome. A candidate gene, Bra035393 on scaffold000104, was predicted within the mapped resistance locus. The gene encodes the eIF(iso)4E protein. Bra035393 was sequenced in BP8407 and Ji Zao Chun. A polymorphism (A/G) was found in exon 3 between BP8407 and Ji Zao Chun. This gene was analysed in four resistant and three susceptible lines. A correlation was observed between the amino acid substitution (Gly/Asp) in the eIF(iso)4E protein and resistance/susceptibility. eIF(iso)4E has been shown previously to interact with the TuMV genome-linked protein, VPg. PMID:22996569

Qian, Wei; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Walsh, John A; Sun, Rifei

2012-09-21

190

Ferroelectric switching induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe/BaTiO3 bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromagnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures have recently attracted significantly interest due to their potential applications in multifunctional electronic devices. We have recently predicted a magnetoelectric effect at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface induced by ferroelectric polarization reversal [1]. In this report, calculations are being carried out on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/BaTiO3 films. Preliminary results show that the ferroelectric switching of the BaTiO3 has appreciable effect on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic Fe films. This should be of interest in multiferroic device applications. [1] Chun-gang Duan, S. S. Jaswal, E. Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 047201 (2006).

Duan, Chun-Gang; Jaswal, S. S.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

2007-03-01

191

CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

2009-12-01

192

Apparatus for measuring the temperature distribution along the inside walls of narrow, shaft-shaped spaces  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for measuring the temperature distribution along the inside walls of narrow, shaft-shaped spaces such as heating flues of coking and similar ovens using a radiation pyrometer with an evaluating arrangement is described. A radiation optical system is disposed at one of the ends of the space and contains a mirror tiltable about an axis, for optical coverage of the entire length of the space and forwarding of the detected radiation into the path of rays to be evaluated, as well as a positioning arrangement for tilting the mirror over the area to be optically covered. Therewith a fixed mirror is arranged after the tilting mirror and the path of rays to be evaluated is focused to the end of a photoconductor, which, in a transportable and coolable measuring lance, is directed to an evaluating arrangement. The measuring lance can be coarsely and finely positioned by means of a carriage arrangement.

Reger, J.; Eisenhut, W.; Reger, R.; Sarangi, B.

1984-06-05

193

High-temperature burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for burning a fuel. It comprises: a burner comprising a generally cylindrical housing, the housing having a central longitudinal bore and two annular regions disposed around the bore and being concentric with the bore, one of the annular regions being connected to a supply of fuel, the other annular region being connected to a supply of combustion air, wherein the annular regions and the central bore do not communicate with each other within the housing, and means for supplying two streams of substantially pure oxygen, one stream being connected to a lance inserted within the central bore, and the other stream being connected a flow line carrying the combustion air, wherein the lance extends beyond the front face of the housing.

Brahmbhatt, S.R.; Young, C.R.

1990-06-05

194

Clostridium difficile Testing: after 20 Years, Still Challenging  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, as Clostridium difficile was being established as the cause of pseudomembranous colitis and an- tibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), many clinical laboratories were using or beginning to use cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar, a selective medium developed by Lance George and colleagues (4) as an in vitro diagnostic aid for C. difficile dis- ease. Isolates were presumptively identified by their

Tracy D. Wilkins; David M. Lyerly

2003-01-01

195

CubeSat-Based Disaster Detection and Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational assessment is a critical element for emergency response systems. Since terrestrial-based sensing and communication systems may be compromised in the event of an attack or natural disaster, a small-satellite surveil- lance and tracking network is proposed as a low-cost, readily deployable solution. The University of Hawaii's Small Satellite Program has developed a CubeSat-class picosatellite platform for performing terrestrial disaster

Justin M. Akagi; Tyler N. Tamashiro; Reece T. Iwami; Joseph M. Cardenas; Jason T. Akagi; Wayne A. Shiroma

2008-01-01

196

HOT-SPOT REMEDIATION USING IN-SITU JETTING TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jetting technology using high-pressure, low to high volume injection of liquids into the subsurface using a small-diameter wand or lance driven into the subsurface has been widely used for several decades. Jetting technology, at its most basic, uses tree root feeder systems to inject liquids into the ground. The Remediation Injection Process (RlP ®), an updated and more powerful, versatile

James A. Jacobs

197

Jet penetration and liquid splash in submerged gas injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet penetration, bubble dispersion, and liquid splash were studied in the nitrogen-water system. Among the effects evaluated were those due to lance design, nozzle dimensions, gas driving pressure, and liquid density. In side-nozzle injection, penetration is found to increase with jet force number, N, given by the product of the gas driving pressure and the nozzle diameter. In top-submerged injection,

Basil U. N. Igwe; S. Ramachandran; J. C. Fulton

1973-01-01

198

Jet penetration and liquid splash in submerged gas injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jet penetration, bubble dispersion, and liquid splash were studied in the nitrogen-water system. Among the effects evaluated\\u000a were those due to lance design, nozzle dimensions, gas driving pressure, and liquid density. In side-nozzle injection, penetration\\u000a is found to increase with jet force number,N, given by the product of the gas driving pressure and the nozzle diameter. In top-submerged injection, horizontal

Basil U. N. Igwe; S. Ramachandran; J. C. Fulton

1973-01-01

199

Controlled trial of the metabolic effects of a very-low-calorie diet: short- and long-term effects13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting energy expenditure (REE), weight, and body composition were measured up to seven times in I 3 obese women during a 24-wk study. Patients were randomly assigned to a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, 500 kcal\\/d) or a ba- lanced-deficit diet (BDD, 1200 kcal\\/d). After 8 wk of supple- mented fasting, REE of the VLCD patients decreased by 17% whereas that of

Gary D Foster; Thomas A Wadden; Irene D Feurer; Anthony S Jennings; Albert J Stunkard

200

Dynamic assembly and sustained retention of 53BP1 at the sites of DNA damage are controlled by Mdc1\\/NFBD1  

Microsoft Academic Search

3BP1 is a key component of the genome surveil- lance network activated by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Despite its known accumulation at the DSB sites, the spatiotemporal aspects of 53BP1 interac- tion with DSBs and the role of other DSB regulators in this process remain unclear. Here, we used real-time micros- copy to study the DSB-induced redistribution of 53BP1

Simon Bekker-Jensen; Claudia Lukas; Fredrik Melander; Jiri Bartek; Jiri Lukas

2005-01-01

201

Utilization of Microarrayed Compound Screening (?ARCS) to Identify Inhibitors of p56lck Tyrosine Kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein tyrosine kinases play critical roles in cell signaling and are considered attractive targets for drug discovery. The authors have applied ?ARCS (microarrayed compound screening) technology to develop a high-throughput screen for finding inhibitors of the p56lck tyrosine kinase. Initial assay development was performed in a homogeneous time-resolved (LANCE™) format in 96-well microplates and then converted into the gel-based ?ARCS

Gail Freiberg; Julie Wilkins; Caroline David; James Kofron; Yong Jia; Gavin C. Hirst; David J. Burns; Usha Warrior

2004-01-01

202

Sea Urchin Spines as a Model-System for Permeable, LightWeight Ceramics with Graceful Failure Behavior. Part I. Mechanical Behavior of Sea Urchin Spines under Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spines of pencil and lance urchins Heterocentrotus mammillatus and Phyllacanthus imperialis were studied as a model of light-weight material with high impact resistance. The complex and variable skeleton construction (“stereom”) of body and spines of sea urchins consists of highly porous Mg-bearing calcium carbonate. This basically brittle material with pronounced single-crystal cleavage does not fracture by spontaneous catastrophic device

V. Presser; S. Schultheiß; C. Berthold; K. G. Nickel

2009-01-01

203

Warmer Oceans Affect Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, students learn that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska in 1989 was not the sole cause of the decline of species in the local ecosystem. Rather, an explanation is posited for why some animal populations were already in decline when the spill occurred. Many of these animals share a common food: the sand lance, a fish whose populations have shrunk with the steady rise in ocean temperature that began in the late 1970s.

Ktoo; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

204

A design-to-manufacture case study: Automatic design of post-fabrication mechanisms for tubular components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated design-to-manufacture system and its implementation are outlined. The system is described in the context of the design of a mechanism for post-fabrication of miniature metal tubular components. Post-fabrication operations considered include dimpling, bending, slotting, lancing, punching, corseting, and notching. The system has been demonstrated to reduce design-to-manufacturing cycle time by many orders of magnitude. The method outlined encompasses

Nicholas Maropis

1998-01-01

205

Direct measurement of organic carbon content in soils by the Leco CR?12 carbon analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward procedure is described for soil organic carbon (C) measurement in soil samples that may contain carbonates by using the Leco CR?12 Carbon Analyzer. At a temperature of 840°C, a measured oxygen flow of 3.6 L min, lancing flow of 1.0 L min, soil organic C content can be directly measured on 0.20 to 0.40 g of samples, which

Dunling Wang; Darwin W. Anderson

1998-01-01

206

Suckling and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment had three goals: 1. To identify the basis of sucking-induced analgesia in healthy, term, newborn humans undergoing the painful, routine, procedure of heel lance and blood collection. 2. To evaluate how taste-induced and sucking-induced analgesias combine to combat pain. 3. To determine whether facial grimacing was an accurate index of diminished pain, or whether it was linked to

Elliott M Blass; Lisa B Watt

1999-01-01

207

Comprendre une société confrontée à la guerre civile : le Midi toulousain entre 1562 et 1596  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Entre 1560 et 1600, alors que le royaume de France est plongé dans les troubles de religion, le Midi toulousain apparaît comme un territoire original de cette forme de guerre civile. Citadelle d'un catholicisme intransigeant, Toulouse s'impose comme fer de lance de la défense de l'Église romaine au centre d'un axe s'étendant du Comminges au Rouergue en passant par

Pierre-Jean Souriac

2004-01-01

208

NMD and the Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract T heimmune,system is a surveillance mechanism,that recognizes improper substances outside host cells. Signature components of microorganisms, including their proteins and unique modifications of their nucleic acids, are recognized by immune-system cells and immune,system molecules that affect microorganism destruction. Counterpart surveil- lance mechanisms exist that recognize improper substances inside host cells. One of these is nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which

Jayanthi P. Gudikote; Miles F. Wilkinson

209

Low-temperature polymer-assisted synthesis of shape-tunable zinc oxide nanostructures dispersible in both aqueous and non-aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the shape-controlled synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by a poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME)-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of zinc acetate at low temperature (20°C). In this method, ZnO nanostructures of various morphologies including dumbbells, lances and triangles have been successfully prepared via a simple variation of different reaction parameters such as polymer concentration, pH of the reaction mixture and

Manoj Raula; Rama Ranjan Bhattacharjee; Tarun K. Mandal

2009-01-01

210

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-03-01

211

Surveillance of colonization and infection with Staphylococcus aureus susceptible or resistant to methicillin in a community skilled.nursing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosoco- mial pathogen in acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities. Few studies have been reported in private skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) not experiencing outbreaks of infections caused by MRSA. Methods: From a 149-bed SNF with no outbreaks, we report a 1-year prospective surveil- lance study of S. aureus colonization and infection,

Yee-Lean Lee; Thomas Cesario; Geeta Gupta; Leo Flionis; Chi Tran; Lauri Thrupp

212

Real-Time Video Segmentation with VGA Resolution and Memory Bandwidth Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents the implementation,of a video seg- mentation unit used for embedded,automated video surveil- lance systems. Various aspects of the underlying segmen- tation algorithm are explored and modifications are made with potential improvements,of segmentation,results and hardware efficiency. In addition, to achieve real-time per- formance with high resolution video streams, a dedicated hardware architecture with streamlined dataflow and mem-

Hongtu Jiang; Viktor Öwall; Håkan Ardö

2006-01-01

213

Expression of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lantibiotics are small peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. As ribosomally synthesized peptides, lantibiotics possess biosynthetic gene clusters which contain the structural gene (lanA) as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP), regulation (lanR, lanK), export (lanT(P)) and immunity (lanEFG). The lantibiotic mersacidin is produced by

Anna Maria Herzner; Jasmin Dischinger; Christiane Szekat; Michaele Josten; Stephanie Schmitz; Anja Yakéléba; Ricarda Reinartz; Andrea Jansen; Hans-Georg Sahl; Jörn Piel; Gabriele Bierbaum

2011-01-01

214

MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL. Lance C. Dalleck, Len Kravitz, Robert A. Robergs. JEPonline 2004;7(3):94-101. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses during incremental exercise to fatigue using the elliptical cross-trainer and treadmill running. Twenty recreationally active individuals (10 men and 10 women, mean age, height, weight, and body composition = 29.5±7.1

LANCE C. DALLECK; LEN KRAVITZ; ROBERT A. ROBERGS

215

Kinetics of non-isothermal precipitation process of perovskite phase in oxidized Ti-bearing blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of non-isothermal precipitation process and crystal growth of perovskite phase in oxidized Ti-bearing slag were investigated. The oxidized slag was obtained by blowing the air into the molten Ti-bearing blast furnace slag through a lance. The experimental results show that the cooling rate has important effect on precipitation and growth of perovskite phase in oxidized slag; the lower cooling

WANG Ming-yu; WANG Xue-wen; LOU Tai-ping

216

Precipitation selectivity of perovskite phase from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under dynamic oxidation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dynamic oxidations on the crystal morphology and the precipitation behavior of the perovskite phase from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag were investigated. Air was blown into the molten slag as an oxygen source through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process. It was found that the dispersed Ti components were selectively taken into the perovskite phase (CaTiO3), and

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; G. Q. Li; Z. T. Sui

2007-01-01

217

Recovery of titanium compounds from molten Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique to recover Titanium compounds from Ti-bearing blast furnace slag under the dynamic oxidation condition was developed and tested. Air was blown into the molten slag as oxygen resource through a lance during the dynamic oxidation process, in which six important results were found: (1) The TiC, (Ti2O3), Fe and (FeO) in the slag were oxidized; (2) The

L. Zhang; M. Y. Wang; G. Q. Li; Z. T. Sui

2007-01-01

218

AYAO PRG Report.indd  

Cancer.gov

Cherie Nichols, M.B.A. Doug Ulman National Cancer Institute Lance Armstrong Foundation Representati ve Representative Report of the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group Brad Pollock, M.P.H., Ph.D. Amelie G. Ramirez, Dr.P.H. Amelie G. Ramirez, Dr .P.H. Lynn Ries, M.S. Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. Lydia A.

219

Non-Invasive Monitoring of Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive (NI) monitoring of glucose has attracted tremendous attention in the past two decades, mainly because diabetes\\u000a is expected to be a major epidemic due to the increased overall obesity of the population. Non-Invasive monitoring of glucose\\u000a decreases the pain associated with skin lancing used to sample blood for home glucose monitors. Reduction in pain can encourage\\u000a more frequent testing

Omar S. Khalil

220

Proteomic profiling of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): insights into venom induced pathology.  

PubMed

Bothrops sp. snakebites account for the majority of envenomations in South and Central America. Bothrops jararaca accidents are characterized by edema, hemorrhage and necrosis, mainly attributed to the action of hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Interestingly, accidents involving Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-Lance) have a prothrombotic profile with necrosis and hemorrhage rarely reported. Here we describe biochemical and proteomic approaches to compare the venom composition of these snakes, focusing on the presence and activity of SVMPs. The total relative amount of SVMPs was found to be approximately the same in the venom of both species, the difference being in the distribution of SVMPs subgroups. Fer-de-Lance venom has relatively more PI SVMPs peptides identified (23-16%) while Jararaca venom has a higher amount of PIII SVMPs (54-43%). Gelatinolytic activity in the PIII mass range is also higher in Jararaca venom. Interestingly, the homologous band region in the Fer-de-Lance zymogram was only very weakly gelatinolytic. According to these findings it is feasible that the different distribution of SVMPs subgroups and their particular biochemical and pharmacological characteristics are two of the main factors contributing to these two radically different venom induced pathologies. PMID:19539639

Terra, Renata M S; Pinto, Antônio F M; Guimarães, Jorge A; Fox, Jay W

2009-06-17

221

Efficiency of safety measures applied to a manual knapsack sprayer for paraquat application to maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the safety of mixer/loaders and applicators of paraquat to maize crop by knapsack sprayers and to determine the efficacy of safety measures applied to the sprayers. Potential dermal exposure (PDE) was evaluated in 22 worker body parts. The Cu2+ cation of a copper-based fungicide was used as tracer in the spray solution. Sanitary pads and cotton gloves were used to collect the pesticide solution on the sampled body parts. It was observed that paraquat application in front of the applicator's body (0.5 and 1.0 m lance) is unsafe because PDE was 1,979.8 ml/day (for 0.5 m lance) and 1,290.4 ml/day (for 1.0 m lance) and needs 50-80% and 37-69% control of PDE respectively. Control can be achieved by the use of protective garment on the legs and feet only, which received 92-93% of the PDE. Switching the spray nozzle to the back of the operator reduced the PDE by 98% and was sufficient to make working conditions safe, while maintaining the efficiency of application and making the work lighter and more comfortable. Mixer/loaders received 86% of the PDE to the hands and the work condition was safe (MOS > 1), however impermeable gloves could be used as a further safety measure. PMID:9776789

Machado-Neto, J G; Matuo, T; Matuo, Y K

1998-11-01

222

Processing Direct Broadcast Data to Reduce Latency of Aqua AMSR-E Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard data products from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing Systems (AMSR-E) have served the climate research community well since the launch of the Aqua satellite in 2002. But the time from observation until swath products are made available to end users (approximately 12-15 hours after observation) diminishes their usefulness to such disciplines as weather prediction and nowcasting, natural hazards monitoring, disaster relief, and agricultural monitoring. To address the needs of these communities, NASA's Earth Science Division built the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing Systems), or LANCE, which generates products from several instruments, including AMSR-E, flying aboard the Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites. As for the standard products, the raw satellite data is transmitted from satellite to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS), via ground stations in Alaska and Norway, for distribution to the processing elements. The LANCE AMSR-E system generates a variety of Level-2 swath products using essentially the same science algorithms as are used for the standard science products, but with predictive rather than definitive ephemeris. The average latency for these LANCE AMSR-E swath products is approximately three hours from observation; most of this latency is due to the wait time for the on-board recorder to transmit data to the ground. One of the recommendations arising from the first meeting of the LANCE User Working Group was for the data centers to investigate the feasibility of processing direct broadcast data. Since direct broadcast data is transmitted directly from the satellite to the ground and attainable by anyone with ground receiving equipment and in direct line of sight to the satellite, the wait time associated with ground station contacts is eliminated, thereby significantly reducing latency for these datasets. However, direct broadcast data provide limited geographic coverage, in contrast to the global coverage available from the LANCE products. This presentation will describe recent efforts at the AMSR-E data processing center to reduce data latency and also provide a comparative assessment of the three types of AMSR-E products.

Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Beaumont, B.; Teague, M.; Graves, S. J.; Hardin, D. M.

2011-12-01

223

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

224

Experimental Investigation of a Traveling-wave Refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a thermally-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator without any moving parts is reported. This refrigeration system consists of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine and a thermoacoustic Stirling refrigerator. Both the subsystems are designed to operate on traveling-wave mode. In the experiment, it is found that the Gedeon DC-flow has significant negative effect on both the heat engine and the refrigerator. To suppress these DC-flows, two flexible membranes were inserted into the two subsystems. The experiment demonstrates that they have worked very well. Then extensive experiments had been made to test the influence of various parameters on refrigeration performance of the whole system. The system has so far achieved a no-load temperature of -65°C, a cooling capacity of about 270 W at -20°C and 405 W at 0°C. In summary, the thermoacoustic refrigeration technology reported here shows a good prospect in room-temperature cooling such as food refrigeration and air-conditioning.

Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ling, H.

2006-04-01

225

[Enzyme inductive effect of zixoryn (3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethyl-benzhydrol) in neonatal jaundice].  

PubMed

Zixoryn, (3-trifluoromethyl-alfa-aethyl-benzhydrole) is a new product of the Hungarian Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It induces the mixed function oxydase enzyme system of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver and has no other pharmacological effects. We have studied the effect of Zixoryn on early hyperbilirubin-aemia. 42 neonates were studied, 21 of them were randomly assigned to be treated and the others served as control group Zixoryn treatment consisted of drops containing 10 mg Zixoryn per ml in a single 20 mg/kg body weight dose through a gastric tube. Results are summarized in Fig. 2. It shows the mean se bi levels during the first six days of life. It is remarkable that the decline of se bi level was much faster in the treated than in the control group. On the third day the difference between the two groups was significant. We may conclude that after Zixoryn administration the se bi level of otherwise healthy newborns decreased significantly faster than that of untreated neonates. No side-effects what so ever were observed. The administration is easy, a single oral dose has a satisfactory effect. PMID:3982427

Korányi, G; Boross, G

1985-02-01

226

Performance of a small, low-lift regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator [Swift, Gardner, and Backhaus, ''Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(2), 711 (1999)] has been constructed. It is capable of moving about 5 W across a 40degC temperature span. The machine operates with air at atmospheric pressure and is driven by an off-the-shelf electro-dynamic loudspeaker capable of producing peak-to-mean pressure ratios up to 12%. The thermal core of this research device contains an exhaust-side shell and tube heat exchanger (with water as the secondary heat transfer fluid), a regenerator made of 88 annular stainless-steel screens, and a constantan wire electrical heater that applies a measurable heat load to the cold side of the regenerator. An annular latex diaphragm is placed over the cold side of the regenerator to stop time-averaged mass flow through the regenerator and insulate the cold side [Gedeon, ''DC Gas Flows in Stirling and Pulse Tube Cryocoolers,'' in Cryocoolers 9, edited by R. G. Ross (Plenum, New York, 1997)]. Detailed measurements of heat load, temperature span, and exhaust heat flux will be presented and compared to DeltaE. [Work supported by ONR.

Poese, Matthew E.; Garrett, Steven L.

2002-11-01

227

Dynamics of induced dipole ER fluid: a continuous energetic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied dynamics of Electrorheological (ER) fluid by continuum induced dipole fluid method [1]. We found that the velocity profile of ER fluid increases in high shear-rate region and solid particles are separated from colloid in high electric field. These findings demonstrated the breakdown of Bingham fluid model under high shear-rate and high electric field. Our continuum approach describes ER fluid's behaviors under most conditions. We also found that the shift of maximum shear stress under different electric field follows the same trend as that of the maximum static stress. This indicates that the static and dynamic stresses are both dominated by the same energetic process. A connection between micro-particles' structures and macro-dynamic properties under varying conditions is established by our continuum method. Our studies probe the physics of induced dipole ER fluid. [4pt] [1] Jianwei Zhang, Xiuqing Gong, Chun Liu, Weijia Wen, and Ping Sheng, Physical Review Letters 101, 194503, 2008.

Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Jiaxi

2011-03-01

228

Theory of BCS-BEC Crossover in Ultracold Fermi Gases: Insights into Thermodynamical and Spectroscopic Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we summarize our theoretical understanding of the atomic Fermi superfluids with an emphasis on understanding current experiments. We compare and contrast different theoretical approaches for dealing with finite temperature, and discuss their respective implications for these trapped gases. Armed with a basic picture of the thermodynamics we turn to a variety of different measurements based on radio frequency spectroscopy, including both momentum integrated and momentum resolved experiments. As recently reviewed in arXiv 0810.1940 and 0810.1938, we show how a broad range of experimental phenomena can be accomodated within our natural extension of the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature, and briefly touch on the applicability of BCS-BEC crossover theory to the high temperature superconductors. Co-authors: Qijin Chen, Yan He and Chih-Chun Chien

Levin, Kathryn

2009-05-01

229

Integration of various geophysical data with geological and geochemical data to determine additional drilling for copper exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, three data-driven methods (i.e., Bayesian, k-nearest neighbour (k-nn) and neural network classifiers) are used to generate a prospectivity map for porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. Both the Bayesian and k-nn methods showed correct classification rates (CCR) of 52.38% for 21 boreholes divided into five classes. Three types of the neural networks including multi-layer perceptron, radial based function (RBF) and probabilistic neural network are applied to evaluate the result. Among neural networks used, the RBF neural network generated the highest CCR equal to 80.95%. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

2012-08-01

230

Two (or three) is one too many: testing the flexibility of contextual cueing with multiple target locations.  

PubMed

Visual search for a target object is facilitated when the object is repeatedly presented within an invariant context of surrounding items ("contextual cueing"; Chun & Jiang, Cognitive Psychology, 36, 28-71, 1998). The present study investigated whether such invariant contexts can cue more than one target location. In a series of three experiments, we showed that contextual cueing is significantly reduced when invariant contexts are paired with two rather than one possible target location, whereas no contextual cueing occurs with three distinct target locations. Closer data inspection revealed that one "dominant" target always exhibited substantially more contextual cueing than did the other, "minor" target(s), which caused negative contextual-cueing effects. However, minor targets could benefit from the invariant context when they were spatially close to the dominant target. In sum, our experiments suggest that contextual cueing can guide visual attention to a spatially limited region of the display, only enhancing the detection of targets presented inside that region. PMID:21755420

Zellin, Martina; Conci, Markus; von Mühlenen, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J

2011-10-01

231

Three-step iterative methods with eighth-order convergence for solving nonlinear equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of eighth-order iterative methods for the solution of nonlinear equations is presented. The new family of eighth-order methods is based on King's fourth-order methods and the family of sixth-order iteration methods developed by Chun et al. Per iteration the new methods require three evaluations of the function and one evaluation of its first derivative. Therefore this family of methods has the efficiency index which equals 1.682. Kung and Traub conjectured that a multipoint iteration without memory based on n evaluations could achieve optimal convergence order 2n-1. Thus we provide a new example which agrees with the conjecture of Kung-Traub for n=4. Numerical comparisons are made to show the performance of the presented methods.

Bi, Weihong; Ren, Hongmin; Wu, Qingbiao

2009-03-01

232

Investigating cue competition in contextual cuing of visual search.  

PubMed

A fundamental principle of learning is that predictive cues or signals compete with each other to gain control over behavior. Associative and propositional reasoning theories of learning provide radically different accounts of cue competition. Propositional accounts predict that under conditions that do not afford or warrant the use of higher order reasoning processes, cue competition should not be observed. We tested this prediction in 2 contextual cuing experiments, using a visual search task in which patterns of distractor elements predict the location of a target object. Blocking designs were used in which 2 sets of predictive distractors were trained in compound, with 1 set trained independently. There was no evidence of cue competition in either experiment. In fact, in Experiment 2, we found evidence for augmentation of learning. The findings are contrasted with the predictions of an error-driven associative model of contextual cuing (Brady & Chun, 2007). PMID:21895393

Beesley, T; Shanks, David R

2011-09-05

233

Doctoral surplus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universities in the United States are producing about 25% more doctorates in science and engineering than the U.S. economy can absorb, according to a new study by the Rand Corporation and Stanford University's Institute for Higher Education Research. The study looked at 13 science and engineering fields, covering 210 doctorate-granting institutions and more than 1,000 educational institutions that employ people with doctorates. The study was done by Stanford Professor William Massy and Charles Goldman of Rand, with graduate students Marc Chun and Beryle Hsiao.The researchers found that supply and demand do not work in the usual way to regulate the employment market for doctoral candidates. In labor markets, when job opportunities decrease, fewer people usually seek to enter the field. In the case of Ph.D.s, however, the researchers found that neither departments nor prospective doctoral students take close accounting of the doctorate employment gap.

234

Carbon Isotope Effect in Rb_3C_60  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized single crystals of isotopically enriched Rb_3C_60. The very sharp superconducting transitions in single crystal superconducting fullerides allow us to determine the isotope effect on Tc very accurately. We find that the carbon isotope shift for 99% ^13C substitution is significantly smaller than other values reported in the literature. This, coupled with the near-zero rubidium isotope effect reported by B. Burk et. al.(B. Burk, V. H. Crespi, A. Zettl and M. L. Cohen, PRL 72, 3706 (1994).) , should place considerable restraints on any theoretical model of superconductivity in the alkali fullerides. Further experiments to investigate the anomalous isotope shift reported by C.-C. Chen et. al.(Chia-Chun Chen and C. M. Lieber, Science 259, 655 (1993).) for isotopically disordered systems will be discussed.

Fuhrer, M. S.; Cherrey, K.; Zettl, A.

1997-03-01

235

Availability and Distribution of Base Flow in Lower Honokohau Stream, Island of Maui  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Honokohau Stream is one of the few perennial streams in the Lahaina District of West Maui. Current Honokohau water-use practices often lead to conflicts among water users, which are most evident during periods of base flow. To better manage the resource, data are needed that describe the availability and distribution of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream and how base flow is affected by streamflow diversion and return-flow practices. Flow-duration discharges for percentiles ranging from 50 to 95 percent were estimated at 13 locations on lower Honokohau Stream using data from a variety of sources. These sources included (1) available U.S. Geological Survey discharge data, (2) published summaries of Maui Land & Pineapple Company, Inc. diversion and water development-tunnel data, (3) seepage run and low-flow partial-record discharge measurements made for this study, and (4) current (2003) water diversion and return-flow practices. These flow-duration estimates provide a detailed characterization of the distribution and availability of base flow in lower Honokohau Stream. Estimates of base-flow statistics indicate the significant effect of Honokohau Ditch diversions on flow in the stream. Eighty-six percent of the total flow upstream from the ditch is diverted from the stream. Immediately downstream from the diversion dam there is no flow in the stream 91.2 percent of the time, except for minor leakage through the dam. Flow releases at the Taro Gate, from Honokohau Ditch back into the stream, are inconsistent and were found to be less than the target release of 1.55 cubic feet per second on 9 of the 10 days on which measurements were made. Previous estimates of base-flow availability downstream from the Taro Gate release range from 2.32 to 4.6 cubic feet per second (1.5 to 3.0 million gallons per day). At the two principal sites where water is currently being diverted for agricultural use in the valley (MacDonald's and Chun's Dams), base flows of 2.32 cubic feet per second (1.5 million gallons per day) are available more than 95 percent of the time at MacDonald's Dam and 80 percent of the time at Chun's Dam. Base flows of 4.6 cubic feet per second (3.0 million gallons per day) are available 65 and 56 percent of the time, respectively. A base-flow water-accounting model was developed to estimate how flow-duration discharges for 13 sites on Honokohau Stream would change in response to a variety of flow release and diversion practices. A sample application of the model indicates that there is a 1 to 1 relation between changes in flow release rates at the Taro Gate and base flow upstream from MacDonald's Dam. At Chun's Dam the relation between Taro Gate releases and base flow varies with flow-duration percentiles. At the 95th and 60th percentiles, differences in base flow at Chun's Dam would equal about 50 and 90 percent of the change at the Taro Gate.

Fontaine, Richard A.

2003-01-01

236

The simultaneous type, serial token model of temporal attention and working memory.  

PubMed

A detailed description of the simultaneous type, serial token (ST2) model is presented. ST2 is a model of temporal attention and working memory that encapsulates 5 principles: (a) M. M. Chun and M. C. Potter's (1995) 2-stage model, (b) a Stage 1 salience filter, (c) N. G. Kanwisher's (1987, 1991) types-tokens distinction, (d) a transient attentional enhancement, and (e) a mechanism for associating types with tokens called the binding pool. The authors instantiate this theoretical position in a connectionist implementation, called neural-ST2, which they illustrate by modeling temporal attention results focused on the attentional blink (AB). They demonstrate that the ST2 model explains a spectrum of AB findings. Furthermore, they highlight a number of new temporal attention predictions arising from the ST2 theory, which are tested in a series of behavioral experiments. Finally, the authors review major AB models and theories and compare them with ST2. PMID:17227181

Bowman, Howard; Wyble, Brad

2007-01-01

237

Support vector machine for multi-classification of mineral prospectivity areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper on mineral prospectivity mapping, a supervised classification method called Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to explore porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. The SVM method, a data-driven approach to pattern recognition, had a correct-classification rate of 52.38% for twenty-one boreholes divided into five classes. The results of the study indicated the capability of SVM as a supervised learning algorithm tool for the predictive mapping of mineral prospects. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Bahroudi, Abbas

2012-09-01

238

Electroencephalographic Activity in Response to Procedural Pain in Preterm Infants Born at 28 and 33 Weeks Gestational Age.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Preterm infants undergo frequent painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit. Electroencephalography (EEG) changes in reaction to invasive procedures have been reported in preterm and full-term neonates. Frontal EEG asymmetry as an index of emotion during tactile stimulation shows inconsistent findings in full-term infants, and has not been examined in the context of pain in preterm infants. Our aim was to examine whether heel lance for blood collection induces changes in right-left frontal asymmetry, suggesting negative emotional response, in preterm neonates at different gestational age (GA) at birth and different duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Three groups of preterm infants were compared: set 1: group 1 (n=24), born and tested at 28 weeks GA; group 2 (n=22), born at 28 weeks GA and tested at 33 weeks; set 2: group 3 (n=25), born and tested at 33 weeks GA. EEG power was calculated for 30-second artifact-free periods, in standard frequency bandwidths, in 3 phases (baseline, up to 5 min after heel lance, 10 min after heel lance). RESULTS:: No significant differences were found in right-left frontal asymmetry, or in ipsilateral or contralateral somatosensory response, across phases. In contrast, the Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain scores changed across phase (P<0.0001). Infants in group 1 showed lower Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain scores (P=0.039). DISCUSSION:: There are technical challenges in recording EEG during procedures, as pain induces motor movements. More research is needed to determine the most sensitive approach to measure EEG signals within the context of pain in infancy. PMID:23446071

Maimon, Neta; Grunau, Ruth E; Cepeda, Ivan L; Friger, Michael; Selnovik, Leonel; Gilat, Shlomo; Shany, Eilon

2013-02-26

239

Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.  

PubMed

Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (<37 weeks gestation, GA) and term (?37 weeks GA) human infants, less than 14 days old, in response to tactile, punctate and clinically required skin-breaking lance stimulation of the heel. We show that all infants display a robust and long duration flexion reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits. PMID:24124564

Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

2013-10-04

240

Postnatal Temporal, Spatial and Modality Tuning of Nociceptive Cutaneous Flexion Reflexes in Human Infants  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (<37 weeks gestation, GA) and term (?37 weeks GA) human infants, less than 14 days old, in response to tactile, punctate and clinically required skin-breaking lance stimulation of the heel. We show that all infants display a robust and long duration flexion reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8–17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

2013-01-01

241

In-Situ Remediation of Mixed Radioactive Tank Waste, Via Air Sparging and Poly-Acrylate Solidification  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes remediation activities performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) on an underground storage tank (UST) from the Idaho National Laboratory's Test Area North (TAN) complex. The UST had been used to collect radioactive liquid wastes from and for the TAN evaporator. Recent analyses had found that the residual waste in Tank V-14 had contained quantities of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in excess of F001 treatment standards. In addition, the residual waste in Tank V-14 was not completely solidified. As a result, further remediation and solidification of the waste was required before the tank could be properly disposed of at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF). Remediation of the PCE-contaminated waste in Tank V-14 was performed by first adding sufficient water to fluidize the residual waste in the tank. This was followed by high-volume, in-situ air sparging of the fluidized waste, using air lances that were inserted to the bottom of V-14. The high-volume air sparging removed residual PCE from the fluidized waste, collecting it on granular activated carbon filters within the off-gas system. The sparged waste was then solidified by educting large-diameter crystals of an acrylic acrylate resin manufactured by WaterWorks America{sup TM} into the fluidized waste, via the air-sparging lances. To improve solidification, the air-sparging lances were rotated during the eduction step, while continuing to provide high-volume air flow into the waste. Eduction was continued until the waste had solidified sufficiently to not allow for further eduction of WaterWorks{sup TM} crystals into the waste. The tank was then disposed of at the ICDF, with the residual void volume in the tank filled with cement. (authors)

Farnsworth, R.K.; Edgett, S.M.; Eaton, D.L. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Cleanup Projecta, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2007-07-01

242

System and process for biomass treatment  

DOEpatents

A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

2013-08-20

243

Get smart about removing slag  

SciTech Connect

More often than not, sootblowing is literally a shot in the dark. Clyde Bergemann's solution to this problem: control sootblowing operations intelligently, based on the outputs of real-time weight and heat-flux sensors and the calculations of a computer model. The company's intelligent sootblowing system contains many pieces - SmartCannons to clean the furnace by water jets; SmartSensors to detect heat flux, SmartGuages to detect slag buildup, SmartLances aimed at the superheater and reheater, SmartModel to determine when and where cleaning is needed, and SmartControls to direct operations. 3 figs.

Wicker, K.

2005-10-01

244

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

245

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

246

[Long-term results of acetabuloplasty].  

PubMed

The results of a modified acetabuloplasty after Albee-Lance performed simultaneously with a derotation-varusosteotomy (DVO) are investigated after cessation of growth. Measurements of the acetabulum have been normal or slightly pathologic after our classification system in 82-93%, while the values of the femoral head and neck showed a higher pathologic percentage. This is due to avascular necrosis after conservative or operative treatment, insufficient open reductions in a smaller number, but in the most cases caused by increased revalgisation after DVO. We have therefore performed acetabuloplasty since several years without DVO in the most cases, so far with good results. PMID:3213162

Brüning, K; Heinecke, A; Tönnis, D

247

Evolution of lanthipeptide synthetases.  

PubMed

Lanthionine-containing peptides (lanthipeptides) are a family of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides containing (methyl)lanthionine residues. Here we present a phylogenomic study of the four currently known classes of lanthipeptide synthetases (LanB and LanC for class I, LanM for class II, LanKC for class III, and LanL for class IV). Although they possess very similar cyclase domains, class II-IV synthetases have evolved independently, and LanB and LanC enzymes appear to not always have coevolved. LanM enzymes from various phyla that have three cysteines ligated to a zinc ion (as opposed to the more common Cys-Cys-His ligand set) cluster together. Most importantly, the phylogenomic data suggest that for some scaffolds, the ring topology of the final lanthipeptides may be determined in part by the sequence of the precursor peptides and not just by the biosynthetic enzymes. This notion was supported by studies with two chimeric peptides, suggesting that the nisin and prochlorosin biosynthetic enzymes can produce the correct ring topologies of epilancin 15X and lacticin 481, respectively. These results highlight the potential of lanthipeptide synthetases for bioengineering and combinatorial biosynthesis. Our study also demonstrates unexplored areas of sequence space that may be fruitful for genome mining. PMID:23071302

Zhang, Qi; Yu, Yi; Vélasquez, Juan E; van der Donk, Wilfred A

2012-10-15

248

Seismic exploration for oil and gas traps in Wind River Basin: a Laramide example  

SciTech Connect

The Wind River Basin in central Wyoming is typical of the large sedimentary and structural basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain region during the Laramide deformation in latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary times. Northeast-southwest-oriented seismic profiles across the Wind River basin and flanking Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains illustrate the structural configuration and correspondent stratigraphic development of a typical Laramide intermontane basin. Understanding the geometry of the basin margin and the timing of structural movement aids in prospecting for mountain-front subthrust structures, like Tepee Flats field, and stratigraphic traps, like Haybarn field, in fluvial and lacustrine basin-fill sequences. The Wind River basin is structurally asymmetric with the basin axis close to the Owl Creek Mountains and Casper Arch thrusts, which form the north and east basin boundaries. Major Laramide deformation began in latest Cretaceous time (beginning of Lance Formation deposition) with pronounced downwarping of the basin trough and broad doming of parts of the peripheral areas. The intensity of movement increased through the Paleocene and culminated in early Eocene time as high mountains were uplifted along thrust faults. Clastic debris, stripped from the surrounding rising mountain arches, was shed basinward, resulting in a pronounced wedge-shaped accumulation of fluvial and lacustrine sediments now representing the Lance, Fort Union, Indian Meadows, and Wind River Formations.

Ray, R.R.; Keefer, W.R.

1985-05-01

249

Development and comparison of nonradioactive in vitro kinase assays for NIMA-related kinase 2.  

PubMed

NIMA (never in mitosis arrest)-related kinase 2 (Nek2) is a serine/threonine kinase required for centrosome splitting and bipolar spindle formation during mitosis. Currently, two in vitro kinase assays are commercially available: (i) a radioactive assay from Upstate Biotechnology and (ii) a nonradioactive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay from Invitrogen. However, due to several limitations such as radioactive waste management and lower sensitivity, a need for more robust nonradioactive assays would be ideal. Accordingly, we have developed four quantitative and sensitive nonradioactive Nek2 in vitro kinase assays: (i) a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) using peptides identified from a physiologically relevant protein substrate, (ii) DELFIA using Nek2 itself, (iii) a homogeneous time-resolved FRET assay termed LANCE, and (iv) A method of detecting phosphorylated products by HPLC. The DELFIA and LANCE assays are robust in that they generated more than 10-fold and 20-fold increases in signal-to-noise ratios, respectively, and are amenable to robotic high-throughput screening platforms. Validation of all four assays was confirmed by identifying a panel of small molecule ATP competitive inhibitors from an internal corporate library. The most potent compounds consistently demonstrated less than 100 nM activity regardless of the assay format and therefore were complementary. In summary, the Nek2 in vitro time-resolved FRET kinase assays reported are sensitive, quantitative, reproducible and amenable to high-throughput screening with improved waste management over radioactive assays. PMID:16962550

Jin, Guixian; Aulabaugh, Ann; Pocas, Jennifer; Liu, Hao; Kriz, Ron; Sampath, Deepak

2006-08-17

250

Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and ``two space'' test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow rig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this multi-D code development effort.

Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

2003-01-01

251

Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this

Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

2002-12-01

252

The Size Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosols at Kosan, Korea during ACE-Asia: Changes due to Dust Input and Scavenging by Precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of size-resolved aerosol number concentrations were made at the Kosan supersite in Korea during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. An optical particle counter (OPC) was used for measurements in the 0.3-25.0 micrometer diameter size range every ten minutes while a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS) was used for smaller particles. A comparison of size distributions between dust and non-dust input periods and times with and without precipitation has been performed. During dust events, the number and volume concentrations of large particles (>1.35 micrometer) increased by factors of 10 and 1000, respectively. Also, a dominant number mode diameter between 2.23-3.67 micrometer was observed during dust events. The number concentrations of smaller particles observed by the OPC (0.3-1 micrometer) and SEMS (0.005-0.6 micrometer) were relatively smaller during dust events, consistent with previous studies and the effect of coagulation processes (Zaizen et al., 1995; Chun et al., 2001). During precipitation events, coarse mode particles (>1 micrometer) were scavenged more efficiently than smaller particles. This result suggests that large particles are efficiently scavenged by impaction with raindrops. In contrast, relatively minor reductions in the number concentrations of small particles (0.3-1 micrometer) were observed during precipitation events. SEMS results during one precipitation event indicate factor of three reductions in total number and area concentrations for particle sizes below the detection limit of the OPC. Results from theoretical analyses of scavenging rates as a function of particle size during precipitation events will be presented and compared to values derived from observed size distributions. References Chun, Y., Kim, J., Choi, J. C., Boo, K. O., Oh, S. N., and Lee, M. (2001). Characteristic number size distribution of aerosol during Asian dust period in Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2715-2721. Zaizen, Y., Ikegami, M., Okada, K., and Makino, Y. (1995). Aerosol concentration observed at Zhangye in China, J. Meteorological Society in Japan, 73, 891-897.

Jung, C.; Kim, J.; Choi, B.; Brechtel, F. J.; Buzorius, G.; Oh, S.

2001-12-01

253

Applications of Near Real-Time Image and Fire Products from MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/) has been providing MODIS fire detections and imagery in near real-time since 2001. The Rapid Response system is part of the Land and Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Current capabilities include providing MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions. The geographically-corrected subsets images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. These data are available within a few hours of data acquisition. The images are accessed by large number of user communities to obtain a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (fires, oil spills, floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. In addition, the scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. The MODIS Rapid Response project has also been providing a near real-time data feed on fire locations and MODIS imagery subsets to the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project (http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms). FIRMS provides timely availability of fire location information, which is essential in preventing and fighting large forest/wild fires. Products are available through a WebGIS for visualizing MODIS hotspots and MCD45 Burned Area images, an email alerting tool to deliver fire data on daily/weekly/near real-time basis, active data downloads in formats such as shape, KML, CSV, WMS, etc., along with MODIS imagery subsets. FIRMS’ user base covers more than 100 countries and territories. A recent user survey showed that a majority of people use FIRMS for the purposes of conservation, fire-fighting, natural hazard monitoring, land cover change monitoring, and climate change. FIRMS has also developed a cellphone-based text (SMS) alerting of MODIS and MSG-detected fires in near real-time in South Africa, in partnership with the South African power company ESKOM and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. FIRMS was transitioned to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (UN-FAO) in Rome, Italy in Spring 2010 and is scheduled to become a part of the LANCE-MODIS data system (http://lance.nasa.gov/) in Spring 2011.

Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Teague, M.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

2010-12-01

254

Influence of ferroelectric polarization on magnetic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film heterostructures of transition metal ferromagnets (FM) and polymer ferroelectrics (FE) are investigated to look for changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer that occur on switching the FE polarization (with an ensuing change in the electric field direction).[1] Samples of [Glass/ Pd (50 nm)/Co wedge (0.9-2.6nm)/ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) (53 nm)/Al (30nm)] are deposited via sputtering or evaporation for the metallic layers and via Langmuir-Schaefer deposition for the polymer ferroelectric. [2] Magnetic and FE properties have been characterized using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) and the pyroelectric effect. Polar and longitudinal MOKE loops are measured across the Co wedge for both positive and negative FE polarization and the difference in the two MOKE loops is ascribed to the changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer. [3] These changes are most apparent in the region where the Co undergoes a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane anisotropy. This research is supported by the NSF MRSEC through Grant No. DMR- 0820521 1. Chun-Gang Duan et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 122905 (2008) 2. A. V. Bune, et al, Nature (London) 391, 874 (1998) 3. P. F. Carcia, J.Appl. Phys. 63, 5066 (1988)

Mardana, A.; Ducharme, S.; Adenwalla, S.

2010-03-01

255

Fast inversion of magnetic data using Lanczos bidiagonalization method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes application of a fast inversion method to recover a 3D susceptibility model from magnetic anomalies. For this purpose, the survey area is divided into a large number of rectangular prisms in a mesh with unknown susceptibilities. Solving the full set of equations is substantially time consuming, and applying an algorithm to solve it approximately can reduce the time significantly. It is shown that the Lanczos bidiagonalization method can be an appropriate algorithm to solve a Tikhonov cost function for this purpose. Running time of the inverse modeling significantly decreases by replacing the forward operator matrix with a matrix of lower dimension. A weighted generalized cross validation method is implemented to choose an optimum value of a regularization parameter. To avoid the natural tendency of magnetic structures to concentrate at shallow depth, a depth weighting is applied. This study assumes that there is no remanent magnetization. The method is applied on a noise-corrupted synthetic data to demonstrate its suitability for 3D inversion. A case study including ground based measurement of magnetic anomalies over a porphyry-Cu deposit located in Kerman providence of Iran, Now Chun deposit, is provided to show the performance of the new algorithm on real data. 3D distribution of Cu concentration is used to evaluate the obtained results. The intermediate susceptibility values in the constructed model coincide with the known location of copper mineralization.

Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Fathianpour, Nader

2013-03-01

256

Hyaluronan and CD44 antagonize mitogen-dependent cyclin D1 expression in mesenchymal cells.  

PubMed

High molecular weight (HMW) hyaluronan (HA) is widely distributed in the extracellular matrix, but its biological activities remain incompletely understood. We previously reported that HMW-HA binding to CD44 antagonizes mitogen-induced S-phase entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs; Cuff, C.A., D. Kothapalli, I. Azonobi, S. Chun, Y. Zhang, R. Belkin, C. Yeh, A. Secreto, R.K. Assoian, D.J. Rader, and E. Puré. 2001. J. Clin. Invest. 108:1031-1040); we now characterize the underlying molecular mechanism and document its relevance in vivo. HMW-HA inhibits the mitogen-dependent induction of cyclin D1 and down-regulation of p27(kip1) in vascular SMCs. p27(kip1) messenger RNA levels were unaffected by HMW-HA, but the expression of Skp2, the rate-limiting component of the SCF complex that degrades p27(kip1), was reduced. Rescue experiments identified cyclin D1 as the primary target of HMW-HA. Similar results were observed in fibroblasts, and these antimitogenic effects were not detected in CD44-null cells. Analysis of arteries from wild-type and CD44-null mice showed that the effects of HMW-HA/CD44 on cyclin D1 and Skp2 gene expression are detected in vivo and are associated with altered SMC proliferation after vascular injury. PMID:17296798

Kothapalli, Devashish; Zhao, Liang; Hawthorne, Elizabeth A; Cheng, Yan; Lee, Eric; Puré, Ellen; Assoian, Richard K

2007-02-12

257

Molecular-level thermodynamic switch controls chemical equilibrium in sequence-specific hydrophobic interaction of 35 dipeptide pairs.  

PubMed

Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology, the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions of 35 dipeptide pairs were examined over a temperature range of 273-333 K, based on data reported by Nemethy and Scheraga in 1962. The hydrophobic interaction in these sequence-specific dipeptide pairs is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of other biological systems. The results imply that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, , where the bound unavailable energy, TdeltaS(o) = 0, has its origin in the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions, are highly dependent on details of molecular structure. Each case confirms the existence of a thermodynamic molecular switch wherein a change of sign in deltaCp(o)(T)(reaction) (change in specific heat capacity of reaction at constant pressure) leads to true negative minimum in the Gibbs free energy change of reaction, deltaG(o)(T)(reaction), and hence a maximum in the related equilibrium constant, K(eq). Indeed, all interacting biological systems examined to date by Chun using the Planck-Benzinger methodology have shown such a thermodynamic switch at the molecular level, suggesting its existence may be universal. PMID:12547816

Chun, Paul W

2003-02-01

258

Pseudoalteromonas marina sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from tidal flats of the Yellow Sea, and reclassification of Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis as Algicola sagamiensis comb. nov.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, motile and strictly aerobic marine bacteria were isolated from a tidal flat sediment sample obtained from Dae-Chun, Chung-Nam, Korea. They were preliminarily identified as Pseudoalteromonas-like bacteria, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showing nearly identical sequences (>99.7 % sequence similarity) and the highest similarity (98.4 %) to the species Pseudoalteromonas undina. Some phenotypic features of the newly isolated strains were similar to those of members of the genus Pseudoalteromonas, but several physiological and chemo-taxonomical properties readily distinguished the new isolates from previously described species. DNA-DNA hybridization with type strains of phylogenetically closely related species demonstrated that the isolates represent a novel Pseudoalteromonas species, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas marina sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain mano4(T) (=KCTC 12242(T)=DSM 17587(T)). In addition, on the basis of this study and polyphasic data obtained from previous work, it is proposed that the species Pseudoalteromonas sagamiensis should be reclassified as Algicola sagamiensis comb. nov. and that strain B-10-31(T) (=DSM 14643(T)=JCM 11461(T)) be designated the type strain. PMID:17220433

Nam, Young-Do; Chang, Ho-Won; Park, Ja Ryeong; Kwon, Hyuk-Yong; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Park, Yong-Ha; Lee, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Woo

2007-01-01

259

Endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis receptor (ECSCR) enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) activation and promotes proteolysis of internalized KDR.  

PubMed

The endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis receptor (ECSCR) is a cell-surface protein selectively expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), with roles in EC migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Our previous study (Verma, A., Bhattacharya, R., Remadevi, I., Li, K., Pramanik, K., Samant, G. V., Horswill, M., Chun, C. Z., Zhao, B., Wang, E., Miao, R. Q., Mukhopadhyay, D., Ramchandran, R., and Wilkinson, G. A. (2010) Blood 115, 4614-4622) showed that loss of ECSCR in primary ECs reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) but not VEGF receptor 1/FLT1. Here, we show that ECSCR biochemically associates with KDR but not FLT1 and that the predicted ECSCR cytoplasmic and transmembrane regions can each confer association with KDR. Stimulation with VEGF165 rapidly and transiently increases ECSCR-KDR complex formation, a process blocked by the KDR tyrosine kinase inhibitor compound SU5416 or inhibitors of endosomal acidification. Triple labeling experiments show VEGF-stimulated KDR(+)/ECSCR(+) intracellular co-localization. Silencing of ECSCR disrupts VEGF-induced KDR activation and AKT and ERK phosphorylation and impairs VEGF-stimulated KDR degradation. In zebrafish, ecscr interacts with kdrl during intersomitic vessel sprouting. Human placenta and infantile hemangioma samples highly express ECSCR protein, suggesting a role for ECSCR-KDR interaction in these tissues. PMID:23393131

Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Remadevi, Indulekha; Zhao, Baofeng; Pan, Jing; Miao, Robert; Ramchandran, Ramani; North, Paula E; You, Ming; Rahimi, Nader; Wilkinson, George A

2013-02-07

260

Miyun metre-wave aperture synthesis radio telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miyun metre-wave aperture synthesis radiotelescope, working at frequency of 232 MHz, consists of an E-W array of 28 elements, each of 9 m aperture. 192 baselines are effected with a full coverage of the U-V plane (Fig. 2). The longest baseline is 1,164m. This instrument is designed for source survey and detection of peculiar sources in northern declinations. A set of observations completed in 2 × 12 hours gives a thermal noise limited sensititity of 0.05 Jy and a resolution of 3'8 × 3'8 csc ?. The field of view is 8° × 8°. This should enable us to complete an overall survey of the region ? >= + 30° within two years, and to carry out monitoring of selected areas. Figures 1 and 2 show the main properties and general design of the instrument and Figures 3 and 4 give some preliminary results of sky mapping. The following persons took part in the designing and making of the telescope: WANG Hong, Wang Xin-min, Wang Shou-guan, Liu Fu-you, Pu Ting-yi, Chen Hong-shen, Qiu Yu-hai, Yang Yi-pei, Pang Lei, Zhang Chun-lu, Zhang Guo-quan, Zhang Xi-zhen, Jin Tie-lin, Zheng Yi-jia, Zhao Hui-ping, Nan Ren-dong, Kang Lian-sheng, Bao Hong-qi, Wei Ming-zhi.

1986-03-01

261

Transfer of contextual cueing in full-icon display remapping.  

PubMed

Invariant spatial context can expedite visual search, an effect that is known as contextual cueing (e.g., Chun & Jiang, 1998). However, disrupting learned display configurations abolishes the effect. In current touch-based mobile devices, such as the iPad, icons are shuffled and remapped when the display mode is changed. However, such remapping also disrupts the spatial relationships between icons. This may hamper usability. In the present study, we examined the transfer of contextual cueing in four different methods of display remapping: position-order invariant, global rotation, local invariant, and central invariant. We used full-icon landscape mode for training and both landscape and portrait modes for testing, to check whether the cueing transfers to portrait mode. The results showed transfer of contextual cueing but only with the local invariant and the central invariant remapping methods. We take the results to mean that the predictability of target locations is a crucial factor for the transfer of contextual cueing and thus icon remapping design for mobile devices. PMID:23444391

Shi, Zhuanghua; Zang, Xuelian; Jia, Lina; Geyer, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J

2013-02-25

262

Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE.  

PubMed

MTBE is a volatile organic compound used as an oxygenating agent in gasoline. Inhalation from fumes while refueling automobiles is the principle route of exposure for humans, and toxicity by this route has been well studied. Oral exposures to MTBE exist as well, primarily due to groundwater contamination from leaking stationary sources, such as underground storage tanks. Assessing the potential public health impacts of oral exposures to MTBE is problematic because drinking water studies do not exist for MTBE, and the few oil-gavage studies from which a risk assessment could be derived are limited. This paper evaluates the suitability of the MTBE database for conducting an inhalation route-to-oral route extrapolation of toxicity. This includes evaluating the similarity of critical effect between these two routes, quantifiable differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and sufficiency of toxicity data by the inhalation route. We conclude that such an extrapolation is appropriate and have validated the extrapolation by finding comparable toxicity between a subchronic gavage oral bioassay and oral doses we extrapolate from a subchronic inhalation bioassay. Our results are extended to the 2-year inhalation toxicity study by Chun et al. (1992) in which rats were exposed to 0, 400, 3000, or 8000 ppm MTBE for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. We have estimated the equivalent oral doses to be 0, 130, 940, or 2700 mg/kg/d. These equivalent doses may be useful in conducting noncancer and cancer risk assessments. PMID:9463928

Dourson, M L; Felter, S P

1997-12-01

263

Comparative analysis of three Callicarpa herbs using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and electrospray ionization-trap mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Three Callicarpa species, namely Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. et Arn., Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. and Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. are astringency and hemostasis herbs in the traditional Chinese medical systems. Despite their wide use in Chinese medicine, no report on system comparison on their chemical constituents is available so far. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionization trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Trap MS) technique was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the three Callicarpa herbs. Phenylpropanoid glycosides, flavonoids and organic acids were identified by comparing with reference standards or according to their MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. A total of 33 compounds were identified identified or tentatively identified, and 23 of them were reported from these herbs for the first time. Phenylpropanoid glycosides were featured in the three species with their types and contents presenting significant differences. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was conducted by determining four marker phenylpropanoid glycosides (forsythoside B (14), acteoside (15), poliumoside (19), isoacteoside (21)) and two flavonoids (luteolin (30), apigenin (32)). Three flavonoid glucuronides (luteolin-diglucuronide-glucuronide (5), luteolin-diglucuronide (12), apigenin-7-O-?-glucuronide (24)) were semi-quantified according to their corresponding aglycones. The total contents of the nine major compounds in the three species varied significantly from 8.92 to 40.89 mg/g. PMID:23277156

Shi, Yatao; Wu, Chunyong; Chen, Yanhua; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

2012-12-07

264

Technical Posters from the 2011 LAMMPS Users Workshop and Symposium  

DOE Data Explorer

LAMMPS stands for Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator and is a code that can be used to model atoms or, as the LAMMPS website says, as a parallel particle simulator at the atomic, meso, or continuum scale. The software is made available by Sandia National Lab and is used in many projects. The LAMMPS Users’ Workshop and Symposium is held annually. The 2011 meeting took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 9 – 11. PowerPoint presentations are linked to the agenda for each session, and the titles of the poster presentations appear on the same web page. Only five of the 23 posters are linked, however. They are: 1) A Coarse-Graining Procedure for Mapping Atomistic Models, Chia-Chun Fu; 2) Implementation of the pressure profile calculation in spherical coordinates, Takenobu Nakamura; 3) Synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo: Diffusion in Heterogeneous Systems, Enrique Martinez; 4) Using simulated annealing coupled with parallel tempering in molecular dynamics simulations to create low-defect silica surfaces, Paul Norman; Combining locally optimized Interpolants with a multilevel QM/MM method for complex reactive simulations, Michael Salazar.

265

High temperature structural silicides  

SciTech Connect

Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

Petrovic, J.J.

1997-03-01

266

Numerical Simulation of SNCR Technology with Simplified Chemical Kinetics Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with numerical simulation of SNCR method. For numerical modelling was used CFD code Ansys/CFX. SNCR method was described by dominant chemical reaction, which were look up NIST Chemical database. The reactions including reduction of NOx and concentration change of pollutants, like N2O and CO in flue gas too. Proposed chemical kinetics and CFD model was applied to two boilers. Both simulations were compared with experimental measurements. First simulation was used to validation of chemical mechanism. Second simulation was based on first simulation and it was used to verification of compiled SNCR chemical mechanism. Next the new variant of the reagent penetration lance was proposed and compared with the original variants.

Blejcha?, T.; Dolní?ková, D.

2013-04-01

267

Brayton-cycle heat-recovery-system characterization program. Heat-exchanger and cleaning-system test report  

SciTech Connect

Heat exchanger and cleaning system tests of the Brayton Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program Plan are summarized. The primary objective of this test program was to characterize fouling and cleaning of heat exchangers that would be subjected to contamination in service in a Brayton cycle subatmospheric system (SAS) operating with exhaust flue gas from a glass-melting furnace. The testing was conducted using simulated effluent gas at the AiResearch facility in Torrance, California. The module heat exchanger test program was completed with the following results: The fouling characteristics of various plate-fin heat exchanger configurations have been determined; plain fins are required. An effective hot end cleaning technique (air lance) for long-term system operation has been demonstrated. Acid condensation will occur in the heat exchanger in the full-scale SAS operating with flue gas from glass-melting furnaces.

Burgmeier, L.; Leung, S.

1981-08-21

268

Optimization of the spraying equipment and technology used in ornamental crops.  

PubMed

In 2006, a research project concerning the optimization of the spraying equipment and technology used in ornamental crops was started. First, several greenhouse growers were surveyed on the spray equipment and technology they were using for their plant protection. Later on, different parts of their equipment were evaluated. It this way, we could advice the connected growers on how to improve their own techniques and equipment. Additionally, the survey showed that growers predominantly use knapsack sprayers and lances for crop protection purposes. These techniques are often proven to be less effective compared to spray booms, which could explain the high application rates (up to 6650 L ha(-1)) used by most growers. Since spray boom equipment could enhance spray distribution and minimize labour cost, operator exposure; the usability of this technique in ornamental crops was studied by means of laboratory tests, field trials and bio-efficacy experiments. PMID:21542478

Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

2010-01-01

269

Comparison of Satellite based measurements of the Tropospheric HDO/H2O ratio from TES with in situ measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Global satellite observations of water vapor and its isotopes from TES, IASI, and SCIAMACHY add a new constraint for estimating evaporation and precipitation rates and partitioning ocean versus terrestrial moisture sources. Here we show the results of a validation campaign between measurement of the HDO/H2O ratio from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and in situ measurements taken at the NOAA Mauna Loa observatory using loaned instruments from Picarro and Los Gatos Research and JPL (Lance Christensen PI). For these data we find that the TES measurements of the HDO/H2O ratio are sensitive to boundary layer and lower tropospheric concentrations. After accounting for the TES a priori bias and vertical sensitivity we find that the TES measurements agree with the in situ data to within 10 parts thousand relative to SMOW, in agreement with the expected TES random errors.

Worden, J.; Noone, D. C.; Brown, D. P.; Lee, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Galewsky, J.

2009-12-01

270

Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Annual report, June 10, 1995--June 9, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in Red River and Ratcliffe shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing three-dimensional and multi-component seismic are being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short-radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil in place will result in additional oil recovery by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

Carrell, L.A.; Sippel, M.A.

1996-09-01

271

Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in- place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in certain shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional and multi-component seismic area is being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended- reach jetting lance and other ultra-short radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacings better estimates of oil-in-place will result in additional oil production by primary and enhanced recovery processes. Technical progress is described for field demonstrations at the Ratcliffe and Buffalo fields and geophysical evaluations at Ratcliffe and Red River.

NONE

1996-07-01

272

The su(1,1) symmetry of tripartite entangled Gaussian states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-mode squeezed light has been central to theoretical and experimental studies of continuous variable quantum information processing and to quantum foundations. More recently the generalization of these states to three-mode squeezed light has been achieved in the context of quantum teleportation [1] and state sharing [2]. Theories are typically developed in Gaussian or position representations, but we have discovered that all tripartite entangled Gaussians states of these types are in fact su(1,1) coherent states with respect to an intriguing three-boson realization of su(1,1) first noticed by Sebawe Abdalla et al [3]. This symmetry provides insights into the useful properties of these states and suggests ways to generalize theories and applications of multipartite entangled Gaussian states. [1] A. Furusawa et al, Science 282, 706 (1998). [2] A. M. Lance et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 177903 (2004). [3] M. Sebawe Abdalla et al, Eur. Phys. J. D 13, 423 (2001).

Sanders, Barry; Shaterzadeh Yazdi, Zahra; Turner, Peter

2007-03-01

273

[Post-anoxic hemi-myoclonic encephalopathy: report of a case].  

PubMed

A case of a young man with myoclonus in his right side after cerebral hypoxia is reported. This patient had cerebral hypoxia caused by injury in his left common carotid artery. After a few hours he had generalized convulsive seizures of tonic-clonic type and also a septic shock. As consciousness was regained, he developed action and intention myoclonus in his right-side. The EEG showed diffuse typical myoclonus potentials. Clonazepan 8 mg daily was used with good results. This is the first reference in the medical literature of the unilateral localization in the Lance-Adams syndrome. The authors think that in this case two abnormalities contributed to the cerebral anoxia: the common carotid artery injury and the septic shock. PMID:3741185

Moreira Filho, P F; Freitas, M R

1986-03-01

274

The injection of solids using a reactive carrier gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The injection of nonwettable powders into melts in the bubbling regime was studied experimentally using a cold-model system. Polyethylene powder was injected into a cylindrical vessel containing water, through a vertical top-submerged lance, with insoluble (air) and soluble (ammonia) carrier gases. The concentration of particles in the liquid and the penetration length of the particle-liquid jet into the bath were measured, as the carrier gas composition, the gas and solids flow rates, and the particle size were varied. It was found that the concentration of particles retained in the liquid was up to 10 times higher, and the penetration length of the jet was up to three times higher when the soluble carrier gas was used instead of the insoluble carrier gas. For both carrier gases, the dispersed particle concentration increased with increasing gas flow rate and increasing particle size, whereas the penetration length of the jet increased with increasing gas and solids flow rates.

Langberg, D. E.; Nilmani, M.

1994-10-01

275

Bulk materials handling equipment roundup  

SciTech Connect

The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2007-07-15

276

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31

277

Selected upper Cretaceous and Paleocene reservoirs in Hanna basin, Carbon County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The central Hanna basin offers multiple hydrocarbon targets in the Mesaverde Group (Campanian Stage), Lewis, Medicine Bow, and Ferris formations (Upper Campanian, Maestrichtian, and Danian Stages). Reservoirs within these formations are found in siltstone, sandstone, coal, an lignitic facies. Permeability is associated with intergranular porosity, microporosity in clays, cleating in coal and lignite, and fracture fields which may be independent of stratigraphic boundaries. The quality of reservoirs, as determined by logs, is similar to known gas and condensate producing areas of the Red Desert, Washakie, and Wind River basins, in Mesaverde, Lewis, and Medicine Bow (Lance) formations. Mature oil source is indicated in Medicine Bow and Ferris transitional marine and lacustrine facies (Lance and Fort Union time equivalents). Oil source and sandstone depositional style may be similar to oil productive Fort Union strata in the Wind River and southern Powder River basins. Source rock studies and time vs. temperature relationships of the Upper Cretaceous lithologic package suggest an area of over 250 mi/sup 2/ (650 km/sup 2/) prospective for tight sands gas in Mesaverde and Lewis formations to 15,000 ft (4570 m) and deeper. Lithologic studies of clay and matrix chemistry suggest that specific drilling and treatment fluids are necessary to minimize damage and achieve commercial recovery of gas and condensate. Recent drilling and modern logging in the Seminoe Unit, T24N, R83-84W, have revealed anomalous gas saturation in Lewis and Mesaverde reservoirs. Numerous reservoirs containing hydrocarbons in the Upper Cretaceous section remain to be evaluated, and the volume of hydrocarbons to be recovered provides reason to proceed.

Pritchett, R.W.

1984-04-01

278

Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

1993-04-08

279

Ambiguity and the image of the king.  

PubMed

The following essay explores problems posed by a recently-published fresco (dated to the first century AD) that depicts Alexander the Great standing opposite an unknown female figure. The fresco is unusual in its use of conventional or codified figure types, in particular a widely-found statue type known as the "Alexander with the Lance," and for its placement of Alexander in anecdotal relation with a woman. While discussions of the picture thus far have tried to identify the scene depicted (by reference to histories of Alexander's life), the following analysis takes the difficulty of doing so itself as a motivated aspect of the image. I argue that the fresco's mode of representation is to bring together figure types whose conventional fields of meaning are in conflict with one another, and then to highlight this conflict in order to comment upon the fields (or figure types) themselves. In this case, the fresco's ambiguity in signification (the undecidability of its reference) enables a highly strategic critique of the "Alexander with the Lance" because the latter, as a prototypical "image of the king," depends upon the necessary and transparent extension of its signs. By virtue of the anecdotal relation between "Alexander" and the depicted female figure (an Aphrodite type) the fresco's critique reveals the close association between the claims for representation made by the image of the king and the patriarchal structures of power they seek to instantiate. The fresco thus offers remarkably direct data for understanding the intersection of representation and gender in the early Roman empire. I suggest in conclusion that because the image seems also to posit a specifically gendered (male) gaze, its critique is extended to the spectator and thereby provides data for understanding the intersection of the practice of representation (here, viewing) and gender. PMID:7798598

Mack, R T

1994-01-01

280

A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology  

SciTech Connect

This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 238}Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached.

Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1996-11-01

281

Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

1998-12-31

282

Condenser on-line leak-detection system development  

SciTech Connect

Condenser tube leaks have been the number one source of impurities in most utility steam cycles. The impurities lead to corrosion of feedwater systems, boilers, and turbines. EPRI recommends sodium in the condensate be less than 3 ppb, which means less than one gallon leakage per day in some cases. The location of leaks requires isolation of the condenser water box and is costly because of power reduction. On-line detection using tracer can cut down the isolation time and, therefore, offers cost advantages to utilities. The on-line leak detection technique utilizes the concepts developed by EPRI for targeted chlorination''. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), helium gases, and perfluorocarbon liquid were considered as tracers. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the practicability of injecting water with dissolved SF{sub 6} gas, SF{sub 6} bubbles, and dissolved SF{sub 6} gas in perfluorocarbon liquid. Both static and dynamic tests were conducted in a condenser model. It was determined that water entrained with SF{sub 6} bubbles offered the most practical method of injection, followed by dissolved SF{sub 6} gas in perfluorocarbon. A conceptual design was developed that utilizes a water lance, a swivel arrangement in the waterbox manhole cover, a tracer targeting and mixing system, and a tracer gas detection system at the air ejector exhaust. A successful demonstration of targeted leak detection using a waterjet lance with SF{sub 6} was conducted at Carolina Power Light Company's Asheville Steam Electric Station Unit 1. A measurable artificially created leak was detected and located using this system with the condenser on-line. 2 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01

283

Characteristics of ice drift and surface sea currents in the Western Barents Sea by the data of ice tracking buoy (May-September 2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drifting ice will influence the environmental loads of offshore structures designed for the development of Stockman hydrocarbon deposit in the Barents Sea. For the estimates of ice loads on offshore structures it is useful to have information about characteristics of sea ice drift in the Barents Sea with temporal resolution in several minutes. This time represents the duration of the interaction of ice ridges and icebergs with offshore structures. Ice drift trajectories in the Barents Sea have many corner points and loops realized with semidiurnal frequency due to the coupled influence of wind, sea currents and tides on the drifting ice. Ice drift velocities and accelerations were collected with GPS data from Iridium ice tracking buys (Oceanetic model 703). Two buoys were installed in drifting ice in Barents sea on 8th of May 2008 during the UNIS expedition by RV Lance. One of the buys was working only one day. The other buy with its GPS coordinates every twenty minutes until September 17, 2008. With the data obtained we reconstructed the trajectory of the buoy and, consequently, the trajectory of ice drift. In this work trajectories of the buoy and the expedition ship were plotted on map. The area covered by the buoy is between 75° and 77°30´ North and 18° and 31° East. On the 22d of July the buoy was gone out of ice (according to the ice maps, obtained from http://www.seaice.dk/) but was floating till 17 of September, when transmitted the last signal. Velocities and accelerations of the buoy were calculated. The wind factor was calculated using these values and wind data (obtained from http://eklima.met.no, Hopen station). We also analyzed the data about GPS positions of the ship, wind data and ADV data for sea current in ice adjacent layer collected for 8-12 May when Lance was moored in the drifting ice.

Pogorelova, E.; Marchenko, A.; Hoyland, K.; Barrault, S.

2009-04-01

284

A comparison of tectonic and eustatic control on Maastrichtian depositional sequences, south-central Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Timing and geometry of Maastrichtian third-order sequences and systems tracts of south-central Wyoming were mostly controlled by rapid basin subsidence resulting from thrust loading of foreland basin crust. The basement of the Red Desert/Washakie basin was affected by thrusting in the Sevier belt to the west and by thrusting along the edge of the Wind River Mountains and Granite Mountains. A transgressive systems tract consists of the youngest Ericson Formation above a regional unconformity, backstepping Almond Formation nearshore and nonmarine facies, and shelfal mudstones of the lower Lewis Shale. Regionally, the onset of transgression is younger from east to west, beginning at 71.5 Ma in eastern Wyoming and at 70.5-71 Ma in south-central Wyoming. The transgression culminated in a condensed shale section evident on gamma-ray logs that occurs throughout the basin. Above the gamma-ray zone, the highstand systems tract of the middle and upper Lewis Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Lance Formation consists of an aggradational/progradational interval overlain by a dominantly progradational clastic unit. Depositional environments consist of delta, slope, and submarine fan in the Lewis Shale, shoreface and shallow marine in the Fox Hills Sandstone, and nonmarine facies in the Lance Formation. Tectonic control of sequences is indicated by two lines of evidence. (1) The timing of the transgressive, regressive, and condensed section facies does not correlate with the inferred global eustatic curve. The Lewis Shale condensed section occurs at 70.5 Ma and is older than the closest global condensed section at 69.5 Ma. (2) Subsidence, estimated by the amount of delta aggradation of the Lewis, totals 700 m roughly 0.5 Ma and greatly exceeds the 40 m of eustatic rise hypothesized to have occurred at about the same time.

McMillen, K.J.; Winn, R.D. Jr. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (USA))

1990-05-01

285

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

286

Electrical Measurement of the Spin Polarization of (Ga,Mn)As  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Ga,Mn)As is one of the most thoroughly characterized diluted magnetic semiconductors. Its spin polarization has been predicted to be close to 100% [1] and all-semiconductor magnetic tunnel junctions based on it have exhibited large magnetoresistance [2], indicating a high value of spin polarization. We have performed a direct electrical measurement of its spin polarization using Andreev reflection spectroscopy. Ga_0.95Mn_0.05As was grown with low temperature MBE on a heavily doped GaAs substrate and a top superconducting layer was deposited in situ to preserve a clean interface. Junctions with a Ga top layer exhibited conductance spectra reminiscent of a clean metallic contact between a superconductor and a ferromagnet with high spin polarization. Although the conductance spectra cannot be fit straightforwardly to the BTK theory, the large gap edge (1.4 meV) and low zero-bias conductance (G(0)), together with a suppression of G(0) below GN that persists at temperatures well above the Tc for bulk crystalline Ga (1.1K), suggest a distribution of Tc and energy gap in the Ga film. Fits, taking into account this distribution, consistently yield a spin polarization value greater than 85Ga_0.95Mn_0.05As. The measured spin polarization depends sensitively on interface quality as evidenced in the study of various samples fabricated throughout this work. [1] M. Jain et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 245205 (2001); T. Dietl et al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001). [2] M. Tanaka and Y. Higo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 026602 (2001). *Work done in collaboration with J.G. Braden, J.S. Parker, S.H. Chun, and N. Samarth, and supported by DARPA SPINS program.

Xiong, Peng

2004-03-01

287

Spatial clustering of polydisperse inertial particles in turbulence: I. Comparing simulation with theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles that are heavy compared to the fluid in which they are embedded (inertial particles) tend to cluster in turbulent flow, with the degree of clustering depending on the particle Stokes number. The phenomenon is relevant to a variety of systems, including atmospheric clouds; in most realistic systems particles have a continuous distribution of sizes and therefore the clustering of ‘polydisperse’ particle populations is of special relevance. In this work a theoretical expression for the radial distribution function (RDF) for mono- and bidisperse inertial particles in the low Stokes number limit (Chun et al 2005 J. Fluid Mech. 536 219-51) is compared with the results of a direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulence. The results confirm the power-law form of the RDF for monodisperse particles with St ? 0.3. The clustering signature occurs at scales ?10-30 times the Kolmogorov scale, consistent with a dissipation-scale mechanism. The theory correctly predicts the decorrelation scale below which bidisperse particles cease to cluster because of their distinct inertial response. A ‘saturation’ effect was observed, however, in which the power-law exponent is limited by the least clustered particle population. An expression is presented with which a polydisperse RDF can be obtained from the mono- and bidisperse RDFs and the particle size distribution. The DNS data clearly show that the effect of polydispersity is to diminish clustering, and place a bound on the level of polydispersity required to approximate a monodisperse system; this result is of relevance to experimental studies and realistic systems.

Saw, Ewe-Wei; Salazar, Juan P. L. C.; Collins, Lance R.; Shaw, Raymond A.

2012-10-01

288

How should doctors approach patients? A Confucian reflection on personhood  

PubMed Central

The modern doctor-patient relationship displays a patient-centred, mutual-participation characteristic rather than the former active-passive or guidance-cooperation models in terms of medical decision making. Respecting the wishes of patients, amounting to more than mere concern for their welfare, has become the feature central to certain modern bioethics theories. A group of ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice has been proposed by bioethicists and widely adopted by many medical societies as an ethical guide to how doctors, in their daily practice, should treat their patients. However, seeing patients as persons who are rational, self-conscious beings capable of valuing their own lives, and who are consequently entitled to the liberty and rights to choose for themselves, is in general the backbone of Western bioethical principles. Since Confucian philosophy has long been a representative of the East-Asia cultural tradition and Confucian bioethics has recently been developed as a theory of applied ethics, examining Confucius's idea of "persons" may shed some light on the current bioethical debates. Confucius's concept of persons, which is best interpreted via his theories of "chun-tze", (the morally ideal person) encapsulating a two-dimensional approach, (the "autonomous person" and the "relational person"), provides a more comprehensive model regarding what a person is and how he/she should be treated. This two-dimensional approach sees a person not only as a rational, autonomous agent but also as a relational, altruistic identity whose self actualisation involves incessant participating in and promoting of the welfare of his fellow persons. Hence this may balance the current bioethical trend whereby "respect for autonomy" often triumphs. Key Words: Personhood • autonomy • Confucian ethics • physician-patient relationship • principle-oriented bioethics

Tsai, D. F.

2001-01-01

289

Timing of oil and gas generation of petroleum systems in the Southwestern Wyoming Province  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of petroleum generation were modeled for eight key source-rock horizons at seven locations throughout the Southwestern Wyoming Province. The horizons are the bases of the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Niobrara Formation, Baxter Shale (and equivalents), upper part of the Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Lance Formation, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Burial history locations include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adobe Town in the Washakie Basin, Eagles Nest in the Great Divide Basin, and Wagon Wheel in the northern Green River Basin); two at intermediate basin depths (Federal 31-1 and Currant, Creek in the central and southern parts of the Green River Basin, respectively); and two relatively shallow locations (Bear 1 on the southeastern margin of the Sand Wash Basin and Bruff 2 on the Moxa arch). An overall ranking of the burial history locations in order of decreasing thermal maturity is Adobe Town > Eagles Nest > Wagon Wheel > Currant Creek > Federal 31-1 > Bear-1 > Bruff 2. The results of the models indicate that peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous oil- and gas-prone source rocks in the deepest parts of the province occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene. At the modeled locations, peak oil generation from source rocks of the Phosphoria Formation, which contain type-IIS kerogen, occurred in the Late Cretaceous (80 to 73 million years ago (Ma)). Gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reached a peak in the late Paleocene (57 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Baxter Shale (and equivalents) contain type-IIS or a mix of type-II and type-III kerogens. Oil generation from these units, in the deepest parts of the province, reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Paleocene (66 to 61 Ma). Only at these deepest locations did these units reach peak gas generation from the cracking of oil, which occurred in the early to late Eocene (52 to 41 Ma). For the Mesaverde Group, which also contains a mix of type-II and type-III kerogen, peak oil generation occurred only in the deepest parts of the province during middle Eocene (50 to 41 Ma). Only at Adobe Town did cracking of oil occur and gas generation reach peak in the earliest Oligocene (33 Ma). Gas-prone source rocks (type-III kerogen) of the Mowry and Baxter (and equivalents) Shales reached peak gas generation in the latest Cretaceous (66 Ma) in the deepest parts of the province. At the shallower Bear 1 location, the Mancos Shale (Baxter equivalent) source rocks reached peak gas generation at about this same time. Gas generation from the gas-prone Mesaverde source rocks started at all of the modeled locations, but reached peak generation at only the deepest locations in the early Eocene (54 to 49 Ma). The Lewis Shale, Lance Formation, and Fort Union Formation all contain gas-prone source rocks with type-III kerogen. Peak generation of gas from the Lewis Shale occurred only at Eagles Nest and Adobe Town in the early Eocene (52 Ma). Source rocks of the Lance reached peak gas generation only at the deepest locations during the middle Eocene (48 to 45 Ma) and the Fort Union reached peak gas generation only at Adobe Town also in the middle Eocene (44 Ma).

Roberts, L. N. R.; Lewan, M. D.; Finn, T. M.

2004-01-01

290

Flow and Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Porous Formations: Numerical Experiments Performed Using the Analytic Element Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow and transport in porous formations are analyzed using numerical simulations. Hydraulic conductivity is treated as a spatial random function characterized by a probability density function and a two-point covariance function. Simulations are performed for a multi-indicator conductivity structure developed by Gedeon Dagan (personal communication). This conductivity structure contains inhomogeneities (inclusions) of elliptical and ellipsoidal geometry that are embedded in a homogeneous background. By varying the distribution of sizes and conductivities of inclusions, any probability density function and two-point covariance may be reproduced. The multi-indicator structure is selected since it yields simple approximate transport solutions (Aldo Fiori, personal communication) and accurate numerical solutions (based on the Analytic Element Method). The dispersion is examined for two conceptual models. Both models are based on the multi-indicator conductivity structure. The first model is designed to examine dispersion in aquifers with continuously varying conductivity. The inclusions in this model cover as much area/volume of the porous formation as possible. The second model is designed for aquifers that contain clay/sand/gravel lenses embedded in otherwise homogeneous background. The dispersion in both aquifer types is simulated numerically. Simulation results are compared to those obtained using simple approximate solutions. In order to infer transport statistics that are representative of an infinite domain using the numerical experiments, the inclusions are placed in a domain that was shaped as a large ellipse (2D) and a large spheroid (3D) that were submerged in an unbounded homogeneous medium. On a large scale, the large body of inclusions behaves like a single large inhomogeneity. The analytic solution for a uniform flow past the single inhomogeneity of such geometry yields uniform velocity inside the domain. The velocity differs from that at infinity and can be used to infer the effective conductivity of the medium. As many as 100,000 inhomogeneities are placed inside the domain for 2D simulations. Simulations in 3D were limited to 50,000 inclusions. A large number of simulations was conducted on a massively parallel supercomputer cluster at the Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo. Simulations range from mildly heterogeneous formations to highly heterogeneous formations (variance of the logarithm of conductivity equal to 10) and from sparsely populated systems to systems where inhomogeneities cover 95% of the volume. Particles are released and tracked inside the core of constant mean velocity. Following the particle tracking, various medium, flow, and transport statistics are computed. These include: spatial moments of particle positions, probability density function of hydraulic conductivity and each component of velocity, their two-point covariance function in the direction of flow and normal to it, covariance of Lagrangean velocities, and probability density function of travel times to various break-through locations. Following the analytic nature of the flow solution, all the results are presented in dimensionless forms. For example, the dispersion coefficients are made dimensionless with respect to the mean velocity and size of inhomogeneities. Detailed results will be presented and compared to well known first-order results and the results that are based on simple approximate transport solutions of Aldo Fiori.

Jankovic, I.

2002-05-01

291

Technical and economic aspects of coal injection at blast furnace tuyeres  

SciTech Connect

The basic factors in selection of an auxiliary fuel have been mentioned. These include availability and cost of the auxiliary fuel, cost of injection facilities, and coke availability. Operating factors such as coal particle size, hot blast temperature, lance location, and flame temperature were discussed as they relate to the efficiency of coal combustion, therefore the economics of a system. Safety is a must when preparing and storing pulverized coal. An unsafe system will never be economical. Based on years of experience at Bellefonte a safe system has been installed at Amanda with no problems in seven years of operation. Coal quality must be considered primarily as regards ash content. A significant penalty is paid for injected ash. Both coking and non-coking coals with the same ash content have been injected with equally successful results. A simplified economic analysis gives an indication of the possible justification of a coal injection system. Replacing 130 lbs oil per net ton of hot metal with an equivalent amount of coal will result in an annual savings of 12.3 million dollars for a 5000 TPD furnace, and a cost payback of three (3) years after start-up. 3 figures, 1 table.

Fletcher, L.N.

1981-01-01

292

A New Pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco  

PubMed Central

The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected.

Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M.; Martill, David M.; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

2010-01-01

293

Phylogeography study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene isolation, temperature and current conducted secondary contact.  

PubMed

To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus. PMID:22685527

Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

2012-05-25

294

Sexual selection in a lekking bird: the relative opportunity for selection by female choice and male competition  

PubMed Central

Leks are classic models for studies of sexual selection due to extreme variance in male reproductive success, but the relative influence of intrasexual competition and female mate choice in creating this skew is debatable. In the lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), these selective episodes are temporally separated into intrasexual competition for alpha status and female mate choice among alpha males that rarely interact. Variance in reproductive success between status classes of adult males (alpha versus non-alpha) can therefore be attributed to male–male competition whereas that within status largely reflects female mate choice. This provides an excellent opportunity for quantifying the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms of sexual selection to the overall opportunity for sexual selection on males (Imales). To calculate variance in actual reproductive success, we assigned genetic paternity to 92.3% of 447 chicks sampled in seven years. Reproduction by non-alphas was rare and apparently reflected status misclassifications or opportunistic copulations en route to attaining alpha status rather than alternative mating strategies. On average 31% (range 7–44%, n=6 years) of the total Imales was due to variance in reproductive success between alphas and non-alphas. Similarly, in a cohort of same-aged males followed for six years, 44–58% of the total Imales was attributed to variance between males of different status. Thus, both intrasexual competition for status and female mate choice among lekking alpha males contribute substantially to the potential for sexual selection in this species.

DuVal, Emily H; Kempenaers, Bart

2008-01-01

295

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-05-01

296

Clinical implications of unmanaged needle-insertion pain and distress in children.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has demonstrated that pain from venipuncture and intravenous cannulation is an important source of pediatric pain and has a lasting impact. Ascending sensory neural pain pathways are functioning in preterm and term infants, yet descending inhibitory pathways seem to mature postnatally. Consequently, infants may experience pain from the same stimulus more intensely than older children. In addition, painful perinatal procedures such as heel lancing or circumcision have been found to correlate with stronger negative responses to venipuncture and intramuscular vaccinations weeks to months later. Similarly, older children have reported greater pain during follow-up cancer-related procedures if the pain of the initial procedure was poorly controlled, despite improved analgesia during the subsequent procedures. Fortunately, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic techniques have been found to reduce children's acute pain and distress and subsequent negative behaviors during venipuncture and intravenous catheter insertion. This review summarizes the evidence for the importance of managing pediatric procedural pain and methods for reducing venous access pain. PMID:18978006

Kennedy, Robert M; Luhmann, Janet; Zempsky, William T

2008-11-01

297

Automated solar module assembly line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

Bycer, M.

1980-08-01

298

A technique to control mercury from flue gas: The Thief Process  

SciTech Connect

The Thief Process is a mercury removal process that may be applicable to a broad range of pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This is one of several sorbent injection technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy for capturing mercury from coal-fired electric utility boilers. A unique feature of the Thief Process involves the production of a thermally activated sorbent in situ at the power plant. The sorbent is obtained by inserting a lance, or thief, into the combustor, in or near the flame, and extracting a mixture of partially combusted coal and gas. The partially combusted coal or sorbent has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of vapor-phase mercury at flue gas temperatures that are typical downstream of a power plant preheater. One proposed scenario, similar to activated carbon injection (ACI), involves injecting the extracted sorbent into the downstream ductwork between the air preheater and the particulate collection device of the power plant. Initial laboratory-scale and pilot-scale testing, using an eastern bituminous coal, focused on the concept validation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing, using a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, focused on the process development and optimization. The results of the experimental studies, as well as an independent experimental assessment, are detailed. In addition, the results of a preliminary economic analysis that documents the costs and the potential economic advantages of the Thief Process for mercury control are discussed.

O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Freeman, M.C.; Granite, E.J.; Hargis, R.A.; Lacher, C.J.; Karash, A.

2006-12-01

299

Bothrops lanceolatus Bites: Guidelines for Severity Assessment and Emergent Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin Martinique each year. Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. B. lanceolatus, commonly named “Fer-de-Lance”, is endemic and only found on this Caribbean island. Envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. Severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bite and resulting in cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions. Diagnosis requires first of all identification of the snake. Coagulation tests are helpful to identify thrombocytopenia or disseminated intravascular coagulation. A clinical score based on 4 grades is helpful to assess envonimation severity. A specific monovalent equine anti-venom (Bothrofav®, Sanofi-Pasteur, France) to neutralize B. lanceolatus venom is available. Its early administration within 6h from the biting in case of progressive local injures, general signs or coagulation disturbances is effective to prevent severe thrombosis and coagulopathy. Its tolerance is considered to be good. Despite an increasing incidence of bites, no deaths have been recently attributed to B. lanceolatus in Martinique, probably due to the currently recommended strategy of early antivenom administration when required.

Resiere, Dabor; Megarbane, Bruno; Valentino, Ruddy; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Thomas, Laurent

2010-01-01

300

A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco.  

PubMed

The Kem Kem beds in South Eastern Morocco contain a rich early Upper (or possibly late Lower) Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage. Fragmentary remains, predominantly teeth and jaw tips, represent several kinds of pterosaur although only one species, the ornithocheirid Coloborhynchus moroccensis, has been named. Here, we describe a new azhdarchid pterosaur, Alanqa saharica nov. gen. nov. sp., based on an almost complete well preserved mandibular symphysis from Aferdou N'Chaft. We assign additional fragmentary jaw remains, some of which have been tentatively identified as azhdarchid and pteranodontid, to this new taxon which is distinguished from other azhdarchids by a remarkably straight, elongate, lance-shaped mandibular symphysis that bears a pronounced dorsal eminence near the posterior end of its dorsal (occlusal) surface. Most remains, including the holotype, represent individuals of approximately three to four meters in wingspan, but a fragment of a large cervical vertebra, that probably also belongs to A. saharica, suggests that wingspans of six meters were achieved in this species. The Kem Kem beds have yielded the most diverse pterosaur assemblage yet reported from Africa and provide the first clear evidence for the presence of azhdarchids in Gondwana at the start of the Late Cretaceous. This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected. PMID:20520782

Ibrahim, Nizar; Unwin, David M; Martill, David M; Baidder, Lahssen; Zouhri, Samir

2010-05-26

301

A survey of phytoparasitic nematodes on cultivated and non-cultivated plants in northwestern egypt.  

PubMed

Surveys were conducted in Alexandria, El-Behera, and Matrouh Governorates in northwestern Egypt during the 1994-1998 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host associations, and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with 35 major crops, grasses, and weeds. A total of 220 soil and root samples containing mixed populations of 26 genera and 38 species of phytoparasitic nematodes was analyzed; three known genera and 13 known species are reported for the first time in northwestern Egypt. Root-knot nematodes with 34 occurrences were the most frequently encountered group of nematodes, followed by spiral, stunt, ring, lesion, lance, and dagger nematodes with 19, 18, 15, 9, 8, and 7 occurrences, respectively. New species records are Boleodorus pakistanensis, Criconemella sphaerocephala, Discocriconemella sphaerocephaloides, Hemicriconemoides cocophilus, Hemicycliophora thienmanni, Hoplolaimus clarissimus, Irantylenchus clavidorus, Merlinius nanus, Paratylenchus projectus, Tylenchorhynchus ebriensis, Tylenchus afghanicus, T. exiguus, Xiphinema basilgoodeyi, and X. ensiculiferum. Survey results showed new host plant records for most of the identified nematode species in Egypt. PMID:19270998

Ibrahim, I K; Handoo, Z A; El-Sherbiny, A A

2000-12-01

302

Electrophysiological measurements and analysis of nociception in human infants.  

PubMed

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Since infants cannot verbally report their experiences, current methods of pain assessment are based on behavioural and physiological body reactions, such as crying, body movements or changes in facial expression. While these measures demonstrate that infants mount a response following noxious stimulation, they are limited: they are based on activation of subcortical somatic and autonomic motor pathways that may not be reliably linked to central sensory processing in the brain. Knowledge of how the central nervous system responds to noxious events could provide an insight to how nociceptive information and pain is processed in newborns. The heel lancing procedure used to extract blood from hospitalised infants offers a unique opportunity to study pain in infancy. In this video we describe how electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) time-locked to this procedure can be used to investigate nociceptive activity in the brain and spinal cord. This integrative approach to the measurement of infant pain has the potential to pave the way for an effective and sensitive clinical measurement tool. PMID:22214879

Fabrizi, L; Worley, A; Patten, D; Holdridge, S; Cornelissen, L; Meek, J; Boyd, S; Slater, R

2011-12-20

303

Electrophysiological Measurements and Analysis of Nociception in Human Infants  

PubMed Central

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. Since infants cannot verbally report their experiences, current methods of pain assessment are based on behavioural and physiological body reactions, such as crying, body movements or changes in facial expression. While these measures demonstrate that infants mount a response following noxious stimulation, they are limited: they are based on activation of subcortical somatic and autonomic motor pathways that may not be reliably linked to central sensory processing in the brain. Knowledge of how the central nervous system responds to noxious events could provide an insight to how nociceptive information and pain is processed in newborns. The heel lancing procedure used to extract blood from hospitalised infants offers a unique opportunity to study pain in infancy. In this video we describe how electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) time-locked to this procedure can be used to investigate nociceptive activity in the brain and spinal cord. This integrative approach to the measurement of infant pain has the potential to pave the way for an effective and sensitive clinical measurement tool.

Patten, D.; Holdridge, S.; Cornelissen, L.; Meek, J.; Boyd, S.; Slater, R.

2011-01-01

304

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) deterrence and defense after the INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) treaty. Final report, June 1988-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

The treaty between the Soviet Union and the United States eliminating a whole class of intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe raises a number of questions about NATO's future ability to deter Warsaw Pact aggression. Future choices on Alliance strategy and doctrine will be influenced by a variety of factors, including the image of new thinking in Soviet security policy enunciated by General Secretary Gorbachev, changing West European opinion toward the use of nuclear weapons for NATO deterrence, the complications inherent in further nuclear and conventional arms-control negotiations, assessments of the current conventional arms balance in Europe, and ongoing questions about NATO cohesion as well as the continued coupling of American security with that of her European allies. In the post-INF environment it may well be that U.S. Navy nuclear assets will assume an increasingly important role, particularly the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile/Nuclear (TLAM/N). The TLAM/N has many attractive attributes that can be supportive of NATO deterrence of the WTO, but there are also a number of unresolved questions to be addressed concerning this particular weapons system. Modernization of NATO's land-based short-range nuclear forces (SNF), such as the Lance missile, is also seen by many as critical to the maintenance of Alliance security in the aftermath of INF.

Garrett, S.A.

1989-06-21

305

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

306

Behavioral treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge about effective treatment approaches is sparse. We therefore reviewed studies involving the treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) functional assessment procedures and results, (c) intervention procedures, (d) results of the intervention, and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the 16 studies, intervention was provided to a total of 19 participants aged 6-42 years. Functional assessment procedures included direct observations, analog functional analyses, and functional assessment interviews. The most commonly identified function was automatic reinforcement. Treatment approaches included combinations of differential reinforcement, providing preferred items and activities stimuli (e.g., toys), wearing protective clothing (e.g., helmets or gloves), response interruption and redirection, punishment, and extinction. Improvements in behavior were reported in all of the reviewed studies. Suggestions for future intervention research are offered. PMID:19963341

Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

2009-12-05

307

Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

1996-09-01

308

A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

Summers, D.A.

1990-06-01

309

A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations  

SciTech Connect

A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

Summers, D.A.

1990-06-01

310

BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES  

SciTech Connect

The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

Mary Lopez

2003-04-01

311

Snakebite ethnopharmacopoeia of eastern Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Results of an ethnopharmacognostic study of snakebite treatments in eastern Nicaragua are presented. Data and specimens were collected during several years of field studies. Field work consisted of plant collecting trips and interviews of snakedoctors. The annual mortality from snakebites in eastern Nicaragua is about 25% and most bites are caused by the fer-de-lance (Bothrops asper). The vascular flora of the region is estimated at 2500 species of which 435 have medicinal application including 81 that are used in snakebite treatment. The majority of species used in snakebite cures are flowering plants, 76% dicots and 20% monocots, and 80% are obtained from the second-growth forest. About half the species are herbs. Leaves are the most frequently utilized plant part. Most herbal remedies are prepared as decoctions and are administered orally. Remedies are mostly prepared with native wild species, but some are introduced domesticates, derived from either the American or Old World Tropics. All the species used contain at least one bioactive compound, and most of these bioactives have been shown in other studies to have pharmacological effects. The use of species in snakebite treatments does not necessarily imply efficacy, but it does give a limited list of species that can be studied pharmacologically for possible bioactive effects. Studies like this one are also important because they document traditional practices and species utilized for the people of the region studied as well. PMID:15588683

Coe, Felix G; Anderson, Gregory J

2005-01-01

312

Easing the Discovery of NASA and International Near-Real-Time Data Using the Global Change Master Directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) provides an extensive directory of descriptive and spatial information about data sets and data-related services, which are relevant to Earth science research. The directory's data discovery components include controlled keywords, free-text searches, and map/date searches. The GCMD portal for NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data products leverages these discovery features by providing users a direct route to NASA's Near-Real-Time (NRT) collections. This portal offers direct access to collection entries by instrument name, informing users of the availability of data. After a relevant collection entry is found through the GCMD's search components, the "Get Data" URL within the entry directs the user to the desired data. Building on the importance of Near-Real-Time (NRT) data, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN) is targeting an effort to identify NRT data set collections from the CEOS international members. The international collections will be advertised as the "CEOS IDN NRT" portal to assist users in rapidly discovering these products, which are potentially useful for their research or public response. [This portal is expected to be released in 2012.

Ritz, S.; Olsen, L. M.; Morahan, M.; Stevens, T.; Aleman, A.; Grebas, S. K.

2011-12-01

313

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25

314

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOEpatents

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O' Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18

315

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31

316

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

317

Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Final quarterly status report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Maps collected at the MMS office in New Orleans were planimetered and measured. Measurements of estimated salt diameter and updip areas are also being derived. Production data was read from the tapes obtained in New Orleans and reformatted for use in TORIS. Conceptual work began on the development of the models required to assess unrecovered oil, continued primary recovery of existing mapped oil, updip attic oil recovery, and miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2} injection recovery. Efforts began to supplement existing TORIS data with drilling, workover and facility costs related to past enhanced oil recovery, efforts in the offshore Gulf of Mexico area. Data on CO{sub 2} sources was collected and byproduct CO{sub 2} costs were estimated for use in the economic model. LSU continued the analysis of data obtained from Taylor Energy on the South Marsh Island (SMI) Block 73 Field and the blindcoded Field 2, both in the Gulf of Mexico. The apparatus for experiments for the study of attic oil recovery techniques is being tested. Tests of the 2D adaptive finite element model continue, simulating oil/water flow through porous media. Although coning traces are being produced similar to those in the Lance Hebert thesis, oscillations are still a problem. The Master modification has been completed and currently undergoing testing.

Schenewerk, P.A.

1994-02-28

318

Lantibiotics biosynthesis genes and bacteriocinogenic activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from raw milk and cheese.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus species are usually used as starters for the production of fermented products, and some strains are capable of producing antimicrobial substances, such as bacteriocins. Because these characteristics are highly desirable, research are continually being performed for novel Lactobacillus strains with bacteriocinogenic potential for use by food industries. The aim of this study was to characterise the bacteriocinogenic potential and activity of Lactobacillus isolates. From a lactic acid bacteria culture collection obtained from raw milk and cheese, 27 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA as Lactobacillus spp. and selected for the detection of lantibiotics biosynthesis genes, bacteriocin production, antimicrobial spectra, and ideal incubation conditions for bacteriocin production. Based on the obtained results, 21 isolates presented at least one of the three lantibiotics biosynthesis genes (lanB, lanC or lamM), and 23 isolates also produced antimicrobial substances with sensitivity to at least one proteinase, indicating their bacteriocinogenic activity. In general, the isolates had broad inhibitory activity, mainly against Listeria spp. and Staphylococcus spp. strains, and the best antimicrobial performance of the isolates occurred when they were cultivated at 25 °C for 24 or 48 h or at 35 °C for 12 h. The present study identified the bacteriocinogenic potential of Lactobacillus isolates obtained from raw milk and cheese, suggesting their potential use as biopreservatives in foods. PMID:22447149

Perin, Luana Martins; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Silva, Abelardo; Nero, Luís Augusto

2012-03-24

319

Interactive Browsing, Filtering, Visualization, and Retrieval from Large Collections of Near Real-Time Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent availability of vast quantities of near real-time, global satellite observations through the NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) has provided a compelling opportunity to use that data to improve response to natural hazards and disasters. Given the sheer volume of data (40+ image-based products, 90+ total) and their associated application areas (14 currently identified), this prototype framework provides a web-based user interface to enable efficient browsing, filtering, visualization, and retrieval of the most relevant products available for a given scenario. While this large number of available products can initially be reduced by selecting an application area, the remainder of the user workflow generally follows Shneiderman's visual information seeking mantra, "overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand." In this case, "overview first" and "zoom" capabilities are provided by standard mapping tools such as Google Earth and OpenLayers. Once a region of interest is found, an overlaid custom interface displays all relevant data products for that region from the past week, facilitating a rapid visual "filtering" and selection by the user of the most suitable product and time step. That selected solution then can be further analyzed (e.g., with "before/after" comparisons) and downloaded in the subsequent "details-on-demand" phase. Once complete, the product and time step are applied to the initial global view for broader analyses, enabling a restart or refinement of the investigative process.

Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Teague, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.

2011-12-01

320

Expression of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42  

PubMed Central

Lantibiotics are small peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. As ribosomally synthesized peptides, lantibiotics possess biosynthetic gene clusters which contain the structural gene (lanA) as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP), regulation (lanR, lanK), export (lanT(P)) and immunity (lanEFG). The lantibiotic mersacidin is produced by Bacillus sp. HIL Y-85,54728, which is not naturally competent. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of these studies was to test if the production of mersacidin could be transferred to a naturally competent Bacillus strain employing genomic DNA of the producer strain. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 was chosen for these experiments because it already harbors the mersacidin immunity genes. After transfer of the biosynthetic part of the gene cluster by competence transformation, production of active mersacidin was obtained from a plasmid in trans. Furthermore, comparison of several DNA sequences and biochemical testing of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and B. sp. HIL Y-85,54728 showed that the producer strain of mersacidin is a member of the species B. amyloliquefaciens. Conclusions/Significance The lantibiotic mersacidin can be produced in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which is closely related to the wild type producer strain of mersacidin. The new mersacidin producer strain enables us to use the full potential of the biosynthetic gene cluster for genetic manipulation and downstream modification approaches.

Herzner, Anna Maria; Dischinger, Jasmin; Szekat, Christiane; Josten, Michaele; Schmitz, Stephanie; Yakeleba, Anja; Reinartz, Ricarda; Jansen, Andrea; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Piel, Jorn; Bierbaum, Gabriele

2011-01-01

321

Apparatus for making solid waste material environmentally safe using heat  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for removing harmful constituents from solid waste material, comprising: a reaction chamber having multiple zones; means for continuously feeding a particulate mix of the solid waste material into a first zone of the reaction chamber; a rotating and retractable lance assembly for introducing oxygen into the first zone of the reaction chamber, the first zone of the reaction chamber is adapted to read the mix in the chamber in the presence of oxygen until the solid waste becomes an agitated molten aggregate and the temperature within the first zone of the reaction chamber above the bath of molten aggregate is high enough to destroy substantially all of the harmful constituents of the effluvia generated by the formation of the molten aggregate; means for further mixing the agitated molten aggregate in the first zone of the reaction chamber; means for conducting excess molten aggregate from the first zone of the reaction chamber; means for conducting the effluvia generated by the formation of the molten aggregate from the first zone of the reaction chamber into a second zone of the reaction chamber, the second zone of the reaction chamber being adapted for reburning the effluvia therein to destroy substantially all organic material; means for treating the effluvia to remove substantially all of the remaining particulate and any remaining organic material to achieve acceptable environmental quality; and means for releasing the treated effluvia into the atmosphere.

Workman, J.; DellaValle, P.

1993-07-27

322

Investigation of NOx precursor compounds and other combustion by-products in the primary combustion zone of a waste-incineration plant using on-line, real-time mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR).  

PubMed

On-line analysis of trace and bulk gas compounds in the burning chamber of a waste-incineration plant has been performed, with high temporal resolution, by use of a variety of distinctly different measurement techniques. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed with simultaneous use of three ionization techniques-resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), single-photon ionization (SPI), and electron-impact ionization (EI). Chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and electrochemical methods were also used. Sampling was conducted by means of a newly developed air-cooled stainless steel lance, to cope with the high temperatures and elevated particle concentrations at the sampling location. Nitrogen species were mainly nitrogen monoxide, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), with a small amount (approximately 0.3%) of aromatic nitrogen compounds. NO, NH(3), and HCN are the main contributors to the NO(x)-formation process in the postulated fuel-NO reaction scheme dominant at this location. The NO recycling process thereby plays a major role. Changes in plant operating conditions have a noticeable impact only when the air supply is varied. For example, reduction of oxygen leads to an increase in the HCN fraction of the total nitrogen content and a decrease in the NO fraction, and vice versa. PMID:16240108

Streibel, T; Hafner, K; Mühlberger, F; Adam, T; Warnecke, R; Zimmermann, R

2005-10-21

323

Molybdenum silicide based materials and their properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) is a promising candidate material for high temperature structural applications. It is a high melting point (2030 °C) material with excellent oxidation resistance and a moderate density (6.24 g/cm3). However, low toughness at low temperatures and high creep rates at elevated temperatures have hindered its commercialization in structural applications. Much effort has been invested in MoSi2 composites as alternatives to pure molybdenum disilicide for oxidizing and aggressive environments. Molybdenum disilicide-based heating elements have been used extensively in high-temperature furnaces. The low electrical resistance of silicides in combination with high thermal stability, electronmigration resistance, and excellent diffusion-barrier characteristics is important for microelectronic applications. Projected applications of MoSi2-based materials include turbine airfoils, combustion chamber components in oxidizing environments, missile nozzles, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing. In this paper, synthesis, fabrication, and properties of the monolithic and composite molybdenum silicides are reviewed.

Yao, Z.; Stiglich, J.; Sudarshan, T. S.

1999-06-01

324

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

GRANDO, C.J.

1999-11-18

325

The effect of bubbles on developed turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-film anemometry measurements were performed in a fully developed turbulent bubbly flow. For the bubble detection in the signal, both a threshold method and a new pattern recognition algorithm were employed. The measurements were carried out with gas fractions up to 2.9% and a mean water velocity of 0.20m/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 9ot 10^4. Probability distribution functions, structure functions (with and without the extended self-similarity (ESS) method), and spectra of the water velocity time series were calculated. Both our results for the turbulent energy spectra and the second order structur e functions show qualitative agreement with our numerical results (Phys. Fluids 15, L5 (2003)), i.e., a more pronounced energy enhancement on small scales than on large scales due to the presence of bubbles, leading to a less steep slope in the spectrum as compared to the Kolmogorov -5/3 law. In contrast to Lance & Bataille, J. Fluid Mech. 222, 95 (1991), we did not find a -8/3 power law. Such a law however is obtained once a considerable fraction of the bubble signatures are not filtered out from the hot-film signal.

Lohse, Detlef; Rensen, Judith; Luther, Stefan; Mazzitelli, Irene

2003-11-01

326

Multi-modal pain measurements in infants  

PubMed Central

A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and cardiovascular activity) with electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry. The system can detect noxious heel lance and touch stimuli with precision (33 ?s and 624 ?s respectively) and accuracy (523 ?s and 256 ?s) and has 100% sensitivity and specificity for both types of stimulation. Its ability to detect response latencies accurately was demonstrated by a shift in latency of the vertex potential of 20.7 ± 15.7 ms (n = 6 infants), following touch of the heel and of the shoulder, reflecting the distance between the two sites. This integrated system has provided reliable and reproducible measurements of responses to sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants on more than 100 test occasions.

Worley, A.; Fabrizi, L.; Boyd, S.; Slater, R.

2012-01-01

327

PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

2006-01-30

328

WE'RE GOING TO NEED A BIGGER BOAT- SOFTWARE TO THERMOPHYSICALLY MODEL ASTEROIDS OBSERVED BY NEOWISE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOWISE, the NASA planetary-funded extension of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, observed over 150,000 minor planets over four infrared wavelength bands (Mainzer et al. 2011). Many of these observed asteroids have associated shapes and spin states derived by the radar community (see current list maintained by L. Benner at http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov lance/shapes/asteroid_shapes.html). Combined, these resources represent a valuable dataset for thermophysical modeling, a technique that combines shape models and infrared observations to determine the thermal inertia of an asteroid, which can indicate composition. However, the large number of objects within this dataset, as well as the detail of the radar shape models (which can be composed of thousands of surface facets), presented a computational challenge. In response, we employ advanced thermal modeling software which allows for full three-dimensional heat conduction, self-heating (via Monte Carlo ray tracing), and surfaces with variable reflective properties. We present thermophysical models using this software, and compare these results to more traditional thermophysical modeling techniques used in the asteroid community.

Nugent, Carolyn; Mainzer, A.; Lysek, M. J.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E.

2013-10-01

329

NATO substrategic nuclear forces: The case for modernization and a new strategy based upon reconstitution. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The scheduled withdrawal of the Soviet Union from Central Europe by the end of 1994 and the establishment of evolving democratic states among the former Warsaw Pact have necessitated a fundamental review of Allied substrategic nuclear forces deployment concepts, and strategy governing their possible use. Despite the fact that the U.S. Army is scheduled to become denuclearized in Europe in the mid-1990s, following the withdrawal of the Lance surface-to-surface missile system and the eventual decommissioning of artillery-fired atomic projectiles in theater, this issue has not received the attention it deserves, particularly in U.S. Army circles. The author argues that NATO needs to continue to have a modernized substrategic nuclear capability as part of the alliance's new crisis management strategy, which, in view of long-term European political conditions, would not need to be stationed in theater. This strategy would require, however, the recommencement of NATO wargaming exercises using substrategic nuclear scenarios, the development of the necessary infrastructure in Europe for nuclear weapons reception should the need arise and, most importantly, the holding of regular deployment exercises to avoid the perception of singularizing any one state and to obviate the appearance of escalation in a crisis.

Young, T.D.

1991-08-07

330

Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

Tom Leininger

2005-03-31

331

Effects of exogenous putrescine on gas-exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of NaCl-stressed cucumber seedlings.  

PubMed

The effects of 10 mM putrescine (Put) treated by spraying on leaves on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic gas-exchange characteristics, and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated by growing cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. ChangChun mici) using hydroponics with or without 65 mM NaCl as a salt stress. Salt stress caused the reduction of growth such as leaf area, root volume, plant height, and fresh and dry weights. Furthermore, net photosynthesis rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)), and transpiration rate (T(r)) were also reduced by NaCl, but water use efficiency (WUE; P(n)/T(r)) showed a tendency to be enhanced rather than reduced by NaCl. However, Put alleviated the reduction of P (n) by NaCl, and showed a further reduction of C (i) by NaCl. The reduction of g(s) and T(r) by NaCl was not alleviated at all. The enhancement of WUE by NaCl was shown to have no alleviation at day 1 after starting the treatment, but after that, the enhancement was gradually reduced till the control level. Maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) showed no effects by any conditions based on the combination of NaCl and Put, and in addition, kept constant values in plants grown in each nutrient solution during this experimental period. The efficiency of excitation energy capture by open photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)'/F(m)'), actual efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and the coefficient on photochemical quenching (qP) of plants with NaCl were reduced with time, and the reduction was alleviated till the control level by treatment with Put. The F(v)'/F(m)', Phi(PSII), and qP of plants without NaCl and/or with Put showed no variation during the experiment. Non-photochemical quenching of the singlet excited state of chlorophyll a (NPQ) showed quite different manner from the others as mentioned above, namely, continued to enhance during the experiment. PMID:19507048

Zhang, Run Hua; Li, Jun; Guo, Shi Rong; Tezuka, Takafumi

2009-06-09

332

Overview of Asian Biomass Burning and Dust Aerosols Measured during the Dongsha Experiment in the Spring of 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international campaign of Dongsha Experiment was conducted in the northern SE Asian region during March-May 2010. It is a pre-study of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7SEAS) which seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA (NASA, NRL, and NOAA). The main goals of Dongsha Experiment are (1) to develop the Dongsha Island (about 2 km2, 20°42'52" N, 116°43'51" E) in the South China Sea as an atmospheric observing platform of atmospheric chemistry, radiation and meteorological parameters, and (2) to characterize the chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosols in the northern SE Asian region. A monitoring network for ground-based measurements includes the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (2,862 m MSL) in central Taiwan, Hen-Chun (coastal) in the very southern tip of Taiwan, Dongsha Island in South China Sea, Da Nang (near coastal region) in central Vietnam, and Chiang Mai (about 1,400 m, MSL) in northern Thailand. Besides, the Mobile Air Quality Station of Taiwan EPA and NASA/COMMIT were shipped to Dongsha Island for continuous measurements of CO, SO2, NOx, O3, and PM10, and aerosol optical and vertical profiles. Two Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) for aerosol chemistry were conducted during 14-30 March and 10-20 April 2010, respectively. Ten aerosol samplers were deployed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. Sampling tubes of VOCs were also deployed. Concurrent measurements with IOP-1, Taiwanese R/V also made a mission to South China Sea during 14-19 March. Enhanced sounding at Dongsha Island was launched four times per day during the IOPs. This experiment provides a relatively complete dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of this experiment and its preliminary results, including a severe and unusual Asian dust event that was observed in Dognsha Island.

Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Wang, S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Lee, C.; Wang, J.

2010-12-01

333

Spatial clustering of polydisperse inertial particles in turbulence: II. Comparing simulation with experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles that are heavy compared to the fluid in which they are embedded (inertial particles) tend to cluster in turbulent flow, with the degree of clustering depending on the particle Stokes number. The phenomenon is relevant to a variety of multiphase flows, including atmospheric clouds; in most realistic systems, particles have a continuous distribution of sizes and therefore the clustering of ‘polydisperse’ particle populations is of special relevance. In this part of the study, measurements of spatial correlations of particles in high-Reynolds-number turbulence are compared with the results of a direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulence. The experimentally derived radial distribution functions (RDFs) exhibit a pronounced scale break at approximately 10-30 times the Kolmogorov scale, with large-scale clustering arising from ‘scalar mixing’ of the droplet field, and smaller-scale clustering depending on the particle Stokes numbers. A procedure is outlined for isolating the RDF due to inertial clustering from that resulting from large-scale mixing. Reasonable agreement between the experiment and the direct numerical simulations (DNS) is obtained for St ? 0.3 when particle Stokes number distributions in the DNS match those existing in the experiments. The experimental RDFs are consistent with the flattening or saturation scale appearing for bidisperse particles, but as in the companion paper, also support the ‘saturation’ effect in the asymmetric response of the power-law slope. The evidence for a universal scale break, as observed in both the DNS and the experiments, suggests that the pre-factor in the theoretical expression for the RDF is inherently tied to the power-law exponent, and an empirical form for this is given. Finally, no strong influence of the turbulence Reynolds number was observed for the clustering phenomenon. The consistency between the carefully analyzed DNS and experiments, in terms of St dependence, dissipation-range scale break and saturation of clustering for polydisperse particles, provides an indirect confirmation of the diffusion-drift theory of Chun et al (2005 J. Fluid Mech. 536 219-51).

Saw, Ewe-Wei; Shaw, Raymond A.; Salazar, Juan P. L. C.; Collins, Lance R.

2012-10-01

334

Organics on Mars: A Non-Biological Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McKay et al. (Science 273, 924) have discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in martian meteorite ALH84001 and propose that they may be remnants of ancient life. While these authors have established that these organics are unlikely to be terrestrial contaminants, they do not address the plausible mechanisms by which non-biological PAHs could have been introduced into this meteorite on Mars. Non-biogenic PAHs have been found in a variety of meteoritic materials (Clemett et al., LPS XXIII, 233; Science 262, 721) which must be falling onto Mars. Indeed, the Viking GCMS experimenters expected to detect meteoritic organics preserved on Mars. No organics were in fact detected by Viking; this has been explained as the result of destruction of organics by solar-UV-driven chemical reactions in the martian soil (Chun et al. Nature 274, 875). However, this mechanism would not have been operating on the more clement Mars of 3.6By ago. PAHs falling onto Mars at this time would have been incorporated into the groundwater system which formed the carbonates in ALH84001 and moved down into the fractured bedrock which later became the meteorite. At this depth the UV-driven surface reactions would not occur, even if sufficient UV penetrated the thicker martian atmosphere of that time. An additional source of PAHs on the ancient Mars may have been the impact of the population of decaying satellites which has been postulated to explain the anomalously high abundance of visibly oblique impact craters on Mars (Schultz & Lutz-Garihan, Proc. LPSC 13th, A84). The resemblance reported by McKay et al. between the PAH mass spectrum in ALH84001 and that in CM2 chondrites suggests a similar history for organics in these meteorite classes. I suggest that the PAHs observed in ALH84001 are primordial solar nebula organics from asteroids, comets and former martian satellites which underwent alteration in a groundwater system on Mars similar to that which existed on the CM parent asteroid.

Bell, Jeffrey F.

1996-09-01

335

[The scenes of doctor-patient meeting in the contemporary Korean novels: chiefly on the basis of doctor's reading on patients].  

PubMed

"Medicine as an art" implies that there is something in medicine beyond the limit of science. The practice of medicine is far more than the simple application of scientific principles to a particular biologic aberration. The communication between a doctor and a patient is the core component of medical practice, but little attention has been generally drawn to it. This study shows three types of doctor's reading on 'patient' as an alternative model to see the doctor-patient communication on the basis of the concept of 'patient as a text' and Bakhtin's narrative theory. They are monologic, dialogic, and discontinuous readings. In monologic reading, the doctor has one - sidedly the whole power in communication and it reflects only the doctor's point of view. The doctor mainly concerns for the disease and its treatment. In the dialogic reading, the power of doctor-patient is shared and their views are reflected each other The doctor should consider the patient as a human and understand his social and psychological surroundings. If the patient refuses to be treated, especially in the case of terminal cancer patient, he has nothing to do with his doctor. Therefore, the discontinuous reading can be applied and in result, no communication takes place between them. To evaluate the proposed types of the doctor's reading on patient, the three types can be applied to the scene of doctor-patient meeting in the novels. The meetings of lieutenant Sung and medical officers in Sending Back by Jung - In Suh are in accordance with the type of monologic reading. In Wan - Seo Park's Three Days in the Fall, the type of dialogic reading can be applied to that of the doctor I's lives with her patients. In Yong - Moon Chun's The Days of Dead Doctors, the type of discontinuous reading can be applied to the events between Haeng - Oh Kim and doctors in ICU. And the 3 parts of whose figure and relationship with Sorok Island have changed throughout the work. The doctors should have abundant experiences of life to make the dialogic reading possible. The dialogic reading can be realized, in its true sense, only if they see the patient not as a disease, but as a man and only if they make efforts to understand his circumstances. PMID:12197545

Lee, S G

2000-06-01

336

[JSPS Asian core program on cutting-edge organic chemistry in Asia].  

PubMed

The vision to establish this program was to establish and extend cooperative research efforts beyond the intraregional boundaries. The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) has taken an initiative to support an Asian Core Program, which aims to create world-class research hubs within the Asian region and foster the development of the next generation of leading researchers by establishing sustainable collaborative relations among research and educational institutions in Asian countries. Nagoya University strongly supports and is the Core University of this program with Minoru Isobe and Toshio Nishikawa serving as the coordinator. Representing their respective countries/regions, Guo-Qiang Lin and Zhu-Jun Yao (China, Shanghai), Sunggak Kim and Kwan-Soo Kim (Korea), Somsak Ruchirawat (Thailand), and Chun-Chen Liao and Biing-Jiun Uang (China, Taipei) share in the vision to enhance collaborative efforts. As coordinators they have invited many cooperative universities/institutes in their home countries/regions to start the network since 2005. Singapore (Tech-Peng Loh) has joined lately, and Hong Kong is represented by Henry Wong. All cooperating regions also agreed to support this program by acquiring matching funds for the duration of the program, that is, until March 2010. This program is jointly supported by the JSPS (Japan), the NNSFC (China, Beijing), the NSCT (China, Taipei), the KOSEF/CMDS (Korea), the NRCT/CRI (Thailand), and the IUPAC for an East Asian Network Task group project. Pauline Chiu takes the general secretary work. The initiation of the Asian Core Program and the Inauguration Conference (The 0th International Conference on Cutting-Edge Organic Chemistry in Asia; ICCEOCA-0) was held in Nagoya (2006. 3), which was followed by ICCEOCA-1 in Okinawa, Japan (2006. 10), ICCEOCA-2 in Busan, Korea (2007. 9), ICCEOCA-3 in Hangzhou, China (2008. 10). A post symposium of ICCEOCA-1 was held in Hsinchu, Taiwan (2006. 10), and a satellite symposium of ICCEOCA-2 was held in Bangkok, Thailand (2007. 11). Future international conferences will be held in Bangkok (2009. 11) and Taipei (2010). PMID:19336993

Isobe, Minoru; Nishikawa, Toshio

2009-04-01

337

Long-term result of endoscopic Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection for treatment of gastric varices  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of endoscopic obliteration with Histoacryl® for treatment of gastric variceal bleeding and prophylaxis. METHODS: Between January 1994 and March 2010 at SoonChunHyang University Hospital, a total of 127 patients with gastric varices received Histoacryl® injections endoscopically. One hundred patients underwent endoscopic Histoacryl® injections because of variceal bleeding, the other 27 patients received such injections as a prophylactic procedure. RESULTS: According to Sarin classification, 56 patients were GOV1, 61 patients were GOV2 and 10 patients were IGV. Most of the varices were large (F2 or F3, 111 patients). The average volume of Histoacryl® per each session was 1.7 ± 1.3 cc and mean number of sessions was 1.3 ± 0.6. (1 session-98 patients, 2 sessions-25 patients, ? 3 sessions-4 patients). Twenty-seven patients with high risk of bleeding (large or fundal or RCS+ or Child C) received Histoacryl® injection as a primary prophylactic procedure. In these patients, hepatitis B virus was the major etiology of cirrhosis, 25 patients showed GOV1 or 2 (92.6%) and F2 or F3 accounted for 88.9% (n = 24). The rate of initial hemostasis was 98.4% and recurrent bleeding within one year occurred in 18.1% of patients. Successful hemostasis during episodes of rebleeding was achieved in 73.9% of cases. Median survival was 50 mo (95% CI 30.5-69.5). Major complications occurred in 4 patients (3.1%). The rebleeding rate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or GOV2 was higher than in those with other conditions. None of the 27 subjects who were treated prophylactically experienced treatment-related complications. Cumulative survival rates of the 127 patients at 6 mo, 1, 3, and 5 years were 92.1%, 84.2%, 64.2%, and 45.3%, respectively. The 6 mo cumulative survival rate of the 27 patients treated prophylactically was 75%. CONCLUSION: Histoacryl® injection therapy is an effective treatment for gastric varices and also an effective prophylactic treatment of gastric varices which carry high risk of bleeding.

Kang, Eun Jung; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Cho, Joo Young; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gun; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Young Seok; Cheon, Young Koog; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

2011-01-01

338

Inertial particle acceleration statistics in turbulence: Effects of filtering, biased sampling, and flow topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the effect of ``biased sampling,'' i.e., the clustering of inertial particles in regions of the flow with low vorticity, and ``filtering,'' i.e., the tendency of inertial particles to attenuate the fluid velocity fluctuations, on the probability density function of inertial particle accelerations. In particular, we find that the concept of ``biased filtering'' introduced by Ayyalasomayajula et al. [``Modeling inertial particle acceleration statistics in isotropic turbulence,'' Phys. Fluids 20, 0945104 (2008)], in which particles filter stronger acceleration events more than weaker ones, is relevant to the higher order moments of acceleration. Flow topology and its connection to acceleration is explored through invariants of the velocity-gradient, strain-rate, and rotation-rate tensors. A semi-quantitative analysis is performed where we assess the contribution of specific flow topologies to acceleration moments. Our findings show that the contributions of regions of high vorticity and low strain decrease significantly with Stokes number, a non-dimensional measure of particle inertia. The contribution from regions of low vorticity and high strain exhibits a peak at a Stokes number of approximately 0.2. Following the methodology of Ooi et al. [``A study of the evolution and characteristics of the invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor in isotropic turbulence,'' J. Fluid Mech. 381, 141 (1999)], we compute mean conditional trajectories in planes formed by pairs of tensor invariants in time. Among the interesting findings is the existence of a stable focus in the plane formed by the second invariants of the strain-rate and rotation-rate tensors. Contradicting the results of Ooi et al., we find a stable focus in the plane formed by the second and third invariants of the strain-rate tensor for fluid tracers. We confirm, at an even higher Reynolds number, the conjecture of Collins and Keswani [``Reynolds number scaling of particle clustering in turbulent aerosols,'' New J. Phys. 6, 119 (2004)] that inertial particle clustering saturates at large Reynolds numbers. The result is supported by the theory presented in Chun et al. [``Clustering of aerosol particles in isotropic turbulence,'' J. Fluid Mech. 536, 219 (2005)].

Salazar, Juan P. L. C.; Collins, Lance R.

2012-08-01

339

Nuclear Structure in China 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal view on nuclear physics research / Jie Meng -- High-spin level structures in [symbol]Zr / X. P. Cao ... [et al.] -- Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes / Lie-Wen Chen ... [et al.] -- Wobbling rotation in atomic nuclei / Y. S. Chen and Zao-Chun Gao -- The mixing of scalar mesons and the possible nonstrange dibaryons / L. R. Dai ... [et al.] -- Net baryon productions and gluon saturation in the SPS, RHIC and LHC energy regions / Sheng-Qin Feng -- Production of heavy isotopes with collisions between two actinide nuclides / Z. Q. Feng ... [et al.] -- The projected configuration interaction method / Zao-Chun Gao and Yong-Shou Chen -- Applications of Nilsson mean-field plus extended pairing model to rare-earth nuclei / Xin Guan ... [et al.] -- Complex scaling method and the resonant states / Jian-You Guo ... [et al.] -- Probing the equation of state by deep sub-barrier fusion reactions / Hong-Jun Hao and Jun-Long Tian -- Doublet structure study in A[symbol]105 mass region / C. Y. He ... [et al.] -- Rotational bands in transfermium nuclei / X. T. He -- Shape coexistence and shape evolution [symbol]Yb / H. Hua ... [et al.] -- Multistep shell model method in the complex energy plane / R. J. Liotta -- The evolution of protoneutron stars with kaon condensate / Ang Li -- High spin structures in the [symbol]Lu nucleus / Li Cong-Bo ... [et al.] -- Nuclear stopping and equation of state / QingFeng Li and Ying Yuan -- Covariant description of the low-lying states in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes / Z. X. Li ... [et al.] -- Isospin corrections for superallowed [symbol] transitions / HaoZhao Liang ... [et al.] -- The positive-parity band structures in [symbol]Ag / C. Liu ... [et al.] -- New band structures in odd-odd [symbol]I and [symbol]I / Liu GongYe ... [et al.] -- The sd-pair shell model and interacting boson model / Yan-An Luo ... [et al.] -- Cross-section distributions of fragments in the calcium isotopes projectile fragmentation at the intermediate energy / C. W. Ma ... [et al.].Systematic study of spin assignment and dynamic moment of inertia of high-j intruder band in [symbol]In / K. Y. Ma ... [et al.] -- Signals of diproton emission from the three-body breakup channel of [symbol]Al and [symbol]Mg / Ma Yu-Gang ... [et al.] -- Uncertainties of Th/Eu and Th/Hf chronometers from nucleus masses / Z. M. Niu ... [et al.] -- The chiral doublet bands with [symbol] configuration in A[symbol]100 mass region / B. Qi ... [et al.] -- [symbol] formation probabilities in nuclei and pairing collectivity / Chong Qi -- A theoretical prospective on triggered gamma emission from [symbol]Hf[symbol] isomer / ShuiFa Shen ... [et al.] -- Study of nuclear giant resonances using a Fermi-liquid method / Bao-Xi Sun -- Rotational bands in doubly odd [symbol]Sb / D. P. Sun ... [et al.] -- The study of the neutron N=90 nuclei / W. X. Teng ... [et al.] -- Dynamical modes and mechanisms in ternary reaction of [symbol]Au+[symbol]Au / Jun-Long Tian ... [et al.] -- Dynamical study of X(3872) as a D[symbol] molecular state / B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Super-heavy stability island with a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula / N. Wang ... [et al.] -- Pseudospin partner bands in [symbol]Sb / S. Y. Wang ... [et al.] -- Study of elastic resonance scattering at CIAE / Y. B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Systematic study of survival probability of excited superheavy nuclei / C. J. Xia ... [et al.] -- Angular momentum projection of the Nilsson mean-field plus nearest-orbit pairing interaction model / Ming-Xia Xie ... [et al.] -- Possible shape coexistence for [symbol]Sm in a reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach / W. Zhang ... [et al.] -- Nuclear pairing reduction due to rotation and blocking / Zhen-Hua Zhang -- Nucleon pair approximation of the shell model: a review and perspective / Y. M. Zhao ... [et al.] -- Band structures in doubly odd [symbol]I / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Lifetimes of high spin states in [symbol]Ag / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Effect of tensor interaction on the shell structure of superheavy nucle

Bai, Hong-Bo; Meng, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

2011-08-01

340

Slag characterization and removal using pulse detonation for coal gasification. Quarterly research report, July 1--September 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Boiler slagging and fouling as a result of inorganic impurities in combustion gases being deposited on heat transfer tubes have caused severe problems in coal-fired power plant operation. These problems are fuel, system design, and operating condition dependent. Conventional slag and ash removal methods include the use of in situ blowing or jet-type devices such as air or steam soot blowers and water lances. Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. The detonation wave technique based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. These detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. Several tests have been performed with single shot detonation wave at University of Texas at Arlington to remove the slag deposit. To hold the slag deposit samples at the exit of detonation tube, two types of fixture was designed and fabricated. They are axial arrangement and triangular arrangement. The slag deposits from the utility boilers have been used to prepare the slag samples for the test. The experimental results show that the single shot detonation wave is capable of removing the entire slag (types of slag deposited on economizer, and air-heater, i.e., relatively softer slags) and 30% of the reheater slag (which is harder) even at a distance of 6 in. from the exit of a detonation engine tube. Wave strength and slag orientation also have different effects on the chipping off of the slag. The annual report discusses about the results obtained in effectively removing the slag.

Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O.; Zhou, J.; Ali, M.R.

1996-10-25

341

Nearshore Fish Distributions in an Alaskan Estuary in Relation to Stratification, Temperature and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish were sampled with beach seines and small-meshed beam trawls in nearshore (<1 km) and shallow (<25 m) habitats on the southern coast of Kachemak Bay, Cook Inlet, Alaska, from June to August, 1996-1998. Fish distributions among habitats were analysed for species composition, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and frequency of occurrence. Two oceanographically distinct areas of Kachemak Bay were sampled and compared: the Outer Bay and the Inner Bay. Outer Kachemak Bay is exposed and receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Inner Bay is more estuarine. Thermohaline properties of bottom water in the Outer and Inner Bay were essentially the same, whereas the Inner Bay water-column was stratified with warmer, less saline waters near the surface. Distribution and abundance of pelagic schooling fish corresponded with area differences in stratification, temperature and salinity. The Inner Bay supported more species and higher densities of schooling and demersal fish than the Outer Bay. Schooling fish communities sampled by beach seine differed between the Outer and Inner Bays. Juvenile and adult Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific herring ( Clupea harengus pallasi), osmerids (Osmeridae) and sculpins (Cottidae) were all more abundant in the Inner Bay. Gadids (Gadidae) were the only schooling fish taxa more abundant in the Outer Bay. Thermohaline characteristics of bottom water were similar throughout Kachemak Bay. Correspondingly, bottom fish communities were similar in all areas. Relative abundances (CPUE) were not significantly different between areas for any of the five demersal fish groups: flatfishes (Pleuronectidae), ronquils (Bathymasteridae), sculpins (Cottidae), gadids (Gadidae) and pricklebacks (Stichaeidae).

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.; Robards, M. D.

2000-07-01

342

PREFACE: The 7th International Seminar on Geometry, Continua and Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It gives me great pleasure to present the proceedings of the 7th International Seminar on Geometry, Continua and Microstructures (GCM 7). The conference took place on 25-27 September 2006 at Lancaster University and the local organisers were Robin Tucker, Tim Walton, myself and Jonathan Gratus of the Lancaster University Mathematical Physics Group. Modern field theories of mechanically and electrically responsive continua have a wealth of interesting applications in physics. Such theories provide effective macroscopic models of complex systems, such as living tissue and material with dynamical defects, that capture macroscopic consequences of microscopic phenomena. GCM is an interdisciplinary conference series, initiated by the Eringen medallist Gérard A Maugin, that brings together physicists and applied mathematicians who have interests in continuum mechanics and differential geometry and who aim to develop new and powerful methods for analysing the behaviour of complex mechanical systems. The earlier conferences in the series were held in Paris, Madrid, Mannheim, Turin, Sinaia and Belgrade. This volume addresses a variety of topics including the physics of saturated porous media, the relationship between growth in living tissue and molecular transport, the mechanics of polymer bonds, the macroscopic properties of damaged elastomers, the mechanics of carbon nanotubes, the geometry of balance systems in Continuum Thermodynamics and wave propagation in the material manifold. I would like to warmly thank the rest of the organising committee and the conference participants for making GCM 7 an enjoyable and rewarding occasion. Photographs may be found at http://www.lancs.ac.uk/depts/spc/conf/gcm7/wss/index.htm David A Burton Editor

Burton, David A.

2007-04-01

343

Variance in prey abundance influences time budgets of breeding seabirds: Evidence from pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use data on pigeon guillemots Cepphus columba to test the hypothesis that discretionary time in breeding seabirds is correlated with variance in prey abundance. We measured the amount of time that guillemots spent at the colony before delivering fish to chicks ("resting time") in relation to fish abundance as measured by beach seines and bottom trawls. Radio telemetry showed that resting time was inversely correlated with time spent diving for fish during foraging trips (r = -0.95). Pigeon guillemots fed their chicks either Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, a schooling midwater fish, which exhibited high interannual variance in abundance (CV = 181%), or a variety of non-schooling demersal fishes, which were less variable in abundance (average CV = 111%). Average resting times were 46% higher at colonies where schooling prey dominated the diet. Individuals at these colonies reduced resting times 32% during years of low food abundance, but did not reduce meal delivery rates. In contrast, individuals feeding on non-schooling fishes did not reduce resting times during low food years, but did reduce meal delivery rates by 27%. Interannual variance in resting times was greater for the schooling group than for the non-schooling group. We conclude from these differences that time allocation in pigeon guillemots is more flexible when variable schooling prey dominate diets. Resting times were also 27% lower for individuals feeding two-chick rather than one-chick broods. The combined effects of diet and brood size on adult time budgets may help to explain higher rates of brood reduction for pigeon guillemot chicks fed non-schooling fishes.

Litzow, M. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2003-01-01

344

Isolation and characterization of cotiaractivase, a novel low molecular weight prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara.  

PubMed

In this study, we isolated a novel prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara, a Brazilian lance-headed pit viper (Cotiara, Jararaca preta, Biocotiara), which we have designated "cotiaractivase" (prefix: cotiar- from B. cotiara; suffix: -activase, from prothrombin activating activity). Cotiaractivase was purified using a phenyl-Superose hydrophobic interaction column followed by a Mono-Q anion exchange column. It is a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 22,931 Da as measured by mass spectroscopy. Cotiaractivase generated active alpha-thrombin from purified human prothrombin in a Ca2+-dependent manner as assessed by S2238 chromogenic substrate assay and SDS-PAGE. Cotiaractivase cleaved prothrombin at positions Arg271-Thr272 and Arg320-Ile321, which are also cleaved by factor Xa. However, the rate of thrombin generation by cotiaractivase was approximately 60-fold less than factor Xa alone and 17 x 10(6)-fold less than the prothrombinase complex. The enzymatic activity of cotiaractivase was inhibited by the chelating agent EDTA, whereas the serine protease inhibitor PMSF had no effect on its activity, suggesting that it is a metalloproteinase. Interestingly, S2238 inhibited cotiaractivase activity non-competitively, suggesting that this toxin contains an exosite that allows it to bind prothrombin independently of its active site. Tandem mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing of purified cotiaractivase identified peptides that were identical to regions of the cysteine-rich and disintegrin-like domains of known snake venom metalloproteinases. Cotiaractivase is a unique low molecular weight snake venom prothrombin activator that likely belongs to the metalloproteinase family of proteins. PMID:16647309

Senis, Yotis A; Kim, Paul Y; Fuller, Gemma L J; García, Angel; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Wilkinson, Mark C; Brittan, Helen; Zitzmann, Nicole; Wait, Robin; Warrell, David A; Watson, Steve P; Kamiguti, Aura S; Theakston, R David G; Nesheim, Michael E; Laing, Gavin D

2006-04-07

345

Optimal scheduling of sootblowers in power plant boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning coal or other fossil fuels in a utility boiler fouls the surfaces of its heat exchangers with ash and soot residues. These deposits affect the performance of the power plant since they reduce heat transfer from the combustion gases to the water or steam. Fouling can be removed during the operation of the plant with the use of lances, called sootblowers, that direct high-pressure air or steam onto the fouled surfaces. Sootblowing operations are key to plant efficiency and boiler maintenance, but they also incur operating costs. A utility boiler may have a hundred or so sootblowers placed in fixed locations. Deciding which of these should be used at any moment is complicated by the lack of instrumentation that can monitor fouling levels. This dissertation studies the optimization problem of scheduling sootblowing activities at a utility plant. The objective is to develop an optimization approach to determine which sootblowers should be activated at any moment in order to maximize plant efficiency. To accomplish this, three issues are addressed. First, models are developed that can estimate fouling conditions indirectly during plant operation using commonly available data. The approach used relies on a sequential application of linear regression fits. Secondly, autoregressive exogenous (ARX) models are used to describe the dynamics of the fouling process and to estimate the consequences of fouling on plant efficiency. All the foregoing empirical models are developed using data from a power plant. Finally, using the empirical models, an optimization model is formulated for the sootblowing scheduling problem and different optimization approaches that combine nonlinear programming with heuristics methods are investigated for its solution. The applicability of dynamic programming to this optimization problem is also explored.

Vasquez-Urbano, Pedro Manuel

1997-11-01

346

A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

347

Near Real-time Operational Use of eMODIS Expedited NDVI for Monitoring Applications and Famine Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has requirements for near real-time monitoring of vegetation conditions for food security applications. Accurate and timely assessments of crop conditions are an important element of food security decision making. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center are utilizing a new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset for operational monitoring of crop and pasture conditions in parts of the world where food availability is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry. The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS, production system processes NDVI data using MODIS surface reflectance provided by the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). Benefits of this production system include customized compositing schedules, near real-time data availability, and minimized re-sampling. FEWS NET has implemented a 10-day compositing scheme every five days to accommodate the need for timely information on vegetation conditions. The data are currently being processed at 250-meter spatial resolution for Central America, Hispaniola, and Africa. Data are further enhanced by the application of a temporal smoothing filter which helps remove contamination due to clouds and other atmospheric effects. The results of this near real-time monitoring capability have been the timely provision of NDVI and NDVI anomaly maps for each of the FEWS NET monitoring regions and the availability of a consistently processed dataset to aid crop assessment missions and to facilitate customized analyses of crop production, drought, and agro-pastoral conditions.

Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.

2010-12-01

348

Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

None

1982-01-01

349

Kittiwake diets and chick production signal a 2008 regime shift in the Northeast Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examined ~2700 food samples collected from adult and nestling black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla from 1978 through 2011 on Middleton Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The kittiwake diet was composed chiefly of fish, but invertebrates were taken in appreciable quantities in April and May. Upon spring arrival at the colony, adult kittiwakes foraged regularly at night on vertically migrating mesopelagic prey—lanternfishes (Myctophidae), squids, crustaceans, and polychaetes—a behavior they largely discontinued by egg-laying. During incubation and chick-rearing, food samples contained mostly (~85% by weight) Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, capelin Mallotus villosus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, sablefish Anopoploma fimbria, krill (Euphausiidae), and juvenile salmon Onchorynchus gorboscha and O. keta. A salient finding over the longitudinal study was the emergence, twice, of capelin as a dominant forage species—once in 2000 to 2003, and again in 2008 through 2011. Kittiwakes responded to capelin availability by producing markedly higher numbers of fledged young. The 2000 to 2003 event corresponded to a previously documented shift to cooler conditions in the NE Pacific, which apparently was relatively limited in magnitude or duration. The more recent transition appears stronger and may be more lasting. I submit that 2008 was an important turning point, marking a substantive reversal of warm conditions that began with the well-documented regime shift of 1977. That interpretation is consistent with the existence of a ~60 yr cycle in ocean and atmospheric conditions in the North Pacific. All else being equal, it predicts the next 20 to 30 yr will be favorable for species such as kittiwakes and Steller sea lions, which seemed to respond negatively to the 1977 to 2007 warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

Hatch, Scott A.

2013-01-01

350

The effect of surface movements on nitrogen mass transfer in liquid iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marangoni convection due to surface tension gradients set up in a nitrogen-liquid iron system at 1873 K has been mathematically simulated and experimentally confirmed by measuring the rate of nitrogen absorption into liquid iron and by observing the free surface motion of liquid iron via zirconium oxide particles using X-ray radiography. This surface flow was created by blowing nitrogen gas through a small lance over the free surface of the liquid iron contained in an alumina boat under resistance heating. Absorption measurements indicated that the mass-transfer coefficient of nitrogen in liquid iron due to Marangoni convection ( k {m/1}>=1.5×10-4 m/s) is slightly less than that due to induction stirring ( k {m/1}=2.1×10-4 to 1.5×10-4 m/s). The free surface velocity induced by the surface tension gradient, with an initial composition difference of 425 to 10 ppm, was found to be of the order of 0.05 to 0.11 m/s. Mathematical modeling was also carried out to determine the velocity and nitrogen concentration profiles in the alumina boat. It was found that Marangoni convection creates mildly turbulent flows in liquid iron. Good agreements between the experimentally obtained data (nitrogen concentration and surface velocity) and the computed results were attained when a constant eddy viscosity which was five times the molecular value was assumed. This prescription allows both the predicted apparent mass-transfer coefficient and the predicted surface velocity to match the experimental results simultaneously. Note that the transport coefficients in the momentum and the convective-diffusive equations are correlated by the turbulent Schmidt number. The dimensionless mass-transfer correlation obtained for the present N-Fe system at 1873 K under resistance heating was found to be Sh=0.104 Re0.7·Sc0.7 with Sc=79.5 (3500

Hirashima, N.; Choo, R. T. C.; Toguri, J. M.; Mukai, K.

1995-10-01

351

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was completed at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. The product was effective as a flue gas conditioner. However, ongoing problems with in-duct deposition resulting from the flue gas conditioning were not entirely resolved. Primarily these problems were the result of difficulties encountered with retrofit of an existing spray humidification system. Eventually it proved necessary to replace all of the original injection lances and to manually bypass the PLC-based air/liquid feed control. This yielded substantial improvement in spray atomization and system reliability. However, the plant opted not to install a permanent system. Also in this quarter, preparations continued for a test of the cohesivity additives at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2002-07-01

352

Enhancing Supportive-Educative Nursing Systems to Reduce Risk of Post-Breast Cancer Lymphedema  

PubMed Central

This study describes the use of data regarding self-care agency to enhance a supportive-educative nursing system for breast cancer survivors to reduce the risk of developing lymphedema post surgery. Impetus for this study came from the analysis of participant feedback from a parent study (Lance Armstrong Foundation pilot study) that sought to plan an educational program for nurses that will improve their supportive-educative nursing system when working with breast cancer survivors. The goal is to enable these women to reduce the risk of lymphedema post surgery. The parent study examined a bundled behavioral-educative intervention, which included standard lymphedema education coupled with Modified Manual Lymph Drainage (MMLD) to reduce the risk of developing lymphedema in newly-diagnosed breast cancer survivors. Based upon the feedback received from the parent study, the research team recognized that many of the participants were not fully following the recommendations of the intervention protocol. In order for nurses to help patients develop self-care agency (SCA) (Orem, 2001) to engage in actions that addressed the self-care requisites associated with post-breast cancer surgery, these nurses needed to refine their intervention skills. Prior to the development of a program for the nurses, the research team conducted a study to explore the state of power related to SCA of the study participants. The information obtained from this was then used in the development of an educational program for bundled intervention. Both motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002) and solution-focused therapy (Berg & DeJong, 1996) were incorporated into the educational program for the research nurse team to strengthen and improve supportive-educative nursing systems. Supportive-educative systems of care that integrate self-care deficit nursing theory, motivational interviewing, and solution-focused therapy can assist patients to develop and sustain self-care agency.

Armer, Jane M.; Shook, Robin P.; Schneider, Melanie K; Brooks, Constance W.; Peterson, Julie; Stewart, Bob R

2010-01-01

353

A system architecture for decision-making support on ISR missions with stochastic needs and profit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a system architecture for decision-making support on ISR (i.e., Intelligence, Surveil­lance, Reconnaissance) missions via optimizing resource allocation. We model a mission as a graph of tasks, each of which often requires exclusive access to some resources. Our system guides users through refinement of their needs through an interactive interface. To maximize the chances of executing new missions, the system searches for pre-existent information collected on the field that best fit the needs. If this search fails, a set of new requests representing users' requirements is considered to maximize the overall benefit constrained by limited resources. If an ISR request cannot be satisfied, feedback is generated to help the commander further refine or adjust their information requests in order to still provide support to the mission. In our work, we model both demands for resources and the importance of the information retrieved realistically in that they are not fully known at the time a mission is submitted and may change overtime during execution. The amount of resources consumed by a mission may not be deterministic; e.g., a mission may last slightly longer or shorter than expected, or more of a resource may be required to complete a task. Furthermore, the benefits received from the mission, which we call profits, may also be non-deterministic; e.g., successfully localizing a vehicle might be more important than expected for accomplishing the entire operation. Therefore, when satisfying ISR requirements we take into account both constraints on the underlying resources and uncertainty of demands and profits.

Hu, Nan; Pizzocaro, Diego; La Porta, Thomas; Preece, Alun

2013-05-01

354

Sodium oxybate as a treatment for dbs-resistant, alcohol-responsive post-anoxic myoclonus.  

PubMed

Myoclonic jerks are sudden shock-like involuntary movements, either manifesting as a brief contraction of a group of muscles (positive) or cessation of muscle activity (negative), driven by aberrant activity in one of the cortex, subcortical regions, brainstem or spinal cord. Its aetiology is variable and can occur physiologically, in a primary myoclonic syndrome (myoclonus-dystonia), or as part of an epilepsy (Progressive myoclonic epilepsy) or neurodegenerative syndrome (Alzheimer's disease, multiple systems atrophy). Myoclonus can also occur secondary to hypoxic brain injury either in an acute (myoclonic status epilepticus) or a chronic form, eponymously titled Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS). LAS is characterised by a non-progressive generalised myoclonus with added seizures and ataxia. There is no curative management strategy, only symptomatic relief. A multidisciplinary approach involving medical, physiotherapy, speech and occupational therapy achieves the best holistic outcomes for patients. Case studies suggest certain antiepileptic agents may alleviate symptoms, but combinations are often required, and the most effective options have sedative side effects. A subset of cases have marked alcohol responsiveness that can lead to dependence. A number of experimental treatment options have been proposed including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and sodium oxybate, a sodium salt of gamma-Hydroxybutyrate. In what follows, a patient with an eleven year history of the LAS is presented and the experimental therapeutics explored, concluding with a recent trial of sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate was well tolerated and produced improvements in the patient's symptoms and perceived disability. This case highlights the difficulties of managing chronic myoclonic conditions and suggests sodium oxybate may be a useful treatment option in these patients. PMID:24109002

Kahan, Joshua; Kefalopoulou, Zinovia; Gratwicke, James; Aviles-Olmos, Iciar; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom

2013-11-01

355

Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.  

PubMed

Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes). PMID:12565036

Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

2003-02-01

356

RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next generation of tanks to be retrieved.

EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

2006-01-20

357

Factors Affecting Delivery of Evidence-Based Procedural Pain Care in Hospitalized Neonates  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effects of nurse, infant, and organizational factors on delivery of collaborative and evidence-based pain care by nurses. Design Cross sectional. Setting Two Level III neonatal intensive care units in 2 large tertiary care centers in Canada. Participants A convenience sample of 93 nurses completed survey data on procedures they performed on ill neonates. The 93 nurses performed a total of 170 pain producing procedures on 2 different shifts. Main Outcome Nurse use of evidence-based protocols to manage procedure related pain using a scorecard of nurses’ assessment, management, and documentation. Results Procedural pain care was more likely to meet evidence-based criteria when nurse participants rated nurse-physician collaboration higher (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence intervals 1.05–1.98), cared for higher care intensity infants (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence intervals, 1.06–1.39), and experienced unexpected increases in work assignments (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence intervals, 1.04–2.30). Nurses’ knowledge about the protocols, educational preparation and experience were not significant predictors of evidence-based care for the most common procedures: heel lance and intravenous initiation. Conclusion Nurse-physician collaboration and nurses’ work assignments were more predictive of evidence-based care than infant and nurse factors. Nurses’ knowledge regarding evidence-based care was not a predictor of implementation of protocols. In the final statistical modeling, collaboration with physicians, a variable amenable to intervention and further study, emerged as a strong predictor. The results highlight the complex issue of translating knowledge to practice, however, specific findings related to pain assessment and collaboration provide some direction for future practice and research initiatives.

Latimer, Margot A.; Johnston, Celeste C.; Ritchie, Judith A.; Clarke, Sean P.; Gilin, Debra

2009-01-01

358

Surgical treatment of congenital dislocation of the hip.  

PubMed

The results of two collective studies on congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) from a number of hospitals are reported here, including general trends in the Federal Republic of Germany and the author's personal methods and preferences. In the first collective study group, the rate of ischemic necrosis in open reductions was 8.2% for anterolateral approaches, 9.6% for inguinal, 16.7% for Ludloff's operation, and only 5.5% when shortening osteotomy was combined with open reduction. A simultaneous Salter osteotomy or acetabuloplasty increased the rate to 10.3% and a concomitant varus osteotomy to 22.2%. The author prefers an inguinal approach to the hip joint, first laterally and then medially of the iliopsoas muscle and femoral nerve, for optimal visualization of the acetabulum. Stability of the joint is increased by a girdle-like flap from the dorsolateral capsule, which is drawn anteriorly and prevents dorsal redislocation. Acetabuloplasty should also be used, even during the first year of life, in joints in which stability may only be guaranteed by extreme abduction and internal rotation. Salter's and Pemberton's osteotomies are used in Germany with good results. However, the author prefers a lateral Albee-Lance acetabuloplasty modified to a complete osteotomy for lateral levering of the acetabular roof. Long-term results show measurements between 82% and 93% of normal and slightly pathologic values. Simultaneous or single varus osteotomies lead to subcapital coxa valga and should no longer be used routinely. In adolescents and adults up to 45 years of age, as long as osteoarthritis is not too advanced and the femoral head is not too deformed, triple pelvic osteotomy with the author's type of modification has a number of advantages. PMID:2203574

Tönnis, D

1990-09-01

359

A new device for high precision in situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor provide valuable information on fluid seepage, hydrate stability, and ambient temperature of samples. In addition, it can be convenient to approximate other parameters such as concentrations of porewater constituents from temperature or temperature gradient using transfer functions if their distribution is controlled by the same processes and direct quantification involves time-consuming sampling and laboratory analyses. We present a new instrument that can be used to obtain precisely positioned sediment temperature profile measurements from the seafloor during ROV dives. Consisting of a 0.4 m-long sensor rod equipped with eight temperature sensors and a standard data logger, the new T-Stick can be operated by an ROV in a fully autonomous mode. The temperature range of the instrument is -5 °C to 35 °C and it can withstand pressures of up to 600 bar. Compared to previously used instruments, the smaller diameter of the new T-Stick reduces the thermal inertia of the lance and results in shorter equilibration times. Virtual measurements generated by a numerical model showed that the T-Stick provides highly accurate temperature profile measurements with a root mean square error of 0.0027 K for a wide range of thermal sediment properties. Modeled temperature gradients are representative of both normal deep sea settings and cold seep environments with elevated temperature gradients of up to three orders of magnitude above normal background values, which are the primary target areas for T-Stick measurements. Deviations from the true in situ temperature profiles are caused by disturbance of the temperature field by the probe itself and may lead to underestimation of gradients and curvature in the profiles. A first field test of the T-Stick was conducted at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano at 1250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, where the new instrument provided useful information about the origin and extent of freshly erupted mud.

Feseker, T.; Wetzel, G.; Heesemann, B.

2012-04-01

360

Development of a Dynamic Downscaling strategy for Ganga Basin and Investigation of the Hydrological Pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between climate and hydrology is highly complex and non-linear. In India, the synoptic scale atmospheric flow, diversity of local topography, vegetation, climatic conditions, and high population density, etc., interact with one another to give a unique weather distribution. The interaction between the large scale climate and local scale hydrologic cycle is very important in regional scale hydrological modelling. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction and atmospheric simulation system designed to resolve this interaction at regional scale. WRF has been used earlier to investigate the downscaling methodology over the United States (Lo et al., 2008). We study the impact of climatic condition on Ganga basin hydrologic cycle using WRF. A single domain with a resolution of 25 km was used to cover the whole of India and the region of interest and validation is the entire Ganga basin. We performed the downscaling for the year 2010 with five configurations: (1) one continuous time integration with single initialization, (2) time integration with monthly reinitialization, (3) single initialization but with 3-D nudging without relaxation of PBL (4) same as 3 but with relaxation of PBL and (5) same as 4 but with spectral nudging relaxation. The results are compared against the synoptic observations taken over the Ganga basin. The 5th method has the best skill, followed by 4th, 3rd , 2nd and 1st . The results show that the nudging generates realistic regional climatic pattern which cannot be achieved simply by updating the boundary conditions. To find out the Hydrological interaction, trend and pattern over the Ganga Basin, the Hydrological fields of the best model (Spectral Nudging) are analysed. The rainfall patterns are compared with TRMM 3B42 daily data. The precipitation, surface temperature, and the regional wind pattern is reasonably simulated. The study reveals the power of WRF in resolving the climatic and hydrological interactions and also shows that the WRF can be used in making an accurate forecast. The rainfall distribution shows some degree of correlation with the TRMM at the middle Indo-Gangetic plane, along the foothills of Himalaya, and over some portion of Tibetian Plateau. The seasonality index of Hydrologic variables like Rainfall, Surface runoff and Soil moisture show a level of seasonal pattern over the Indo-Gangetic plane but the degree of seasonality pattern is weak at the foothills of Himalaya. The hydrological fields like surface run off, base flow, soil moisture distribution and soil temperature show the expected regional variations and seasonal patterns. The dynamical downscaling outperforms the interpolation of climatic variables over space and time. This implies the suitability of WRF to study the hydrological cycle over a data sparse region and, probably, to study the effect of potential climate change on it. Reference: Jeff Chun-Fung Lo, Zong-Liang Yang, and Roger A. Pielke Sr., 2008, Assessment of three dynamical climate downscaling methods using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, D09112

Chaudhuri, C.; Srivastava, R.; Tripathi, S. N.

2012-04-01

361

EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A Balandin Calculation of the Raman G peak intensity in monolayer graphene: role of Ward identities D M Basko Electronic transport in bilayer graphene Mikito Koshino Magnetic Kronig-Penney model for Dirac electrons in single-layer graphene M Ramezani Masir, P Vasilopoulos and F M Peeters Electrical transport in high-quality graphene pnp junctions Jairo Velasco Jr, Gang Liu, Wenzhong Bao and Chun Ning Lau Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene N M R Peres, Ling Yang and Shan-Wen Tsai Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane B Dóra and K Ziegler Quasi-ferromagnet spintronics in the graphene nanodisc-lead system Motohiko Ezawa Range and correlation effects in edge disordered graphene nanoribbons Alessandro Cresti and Stephan Roche Remarks on the tight-binding model of graphene Cristina Bena and Gilles Montambaux

Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

2009-09-01

362

PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SSDC logo Preface The International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC' 2010) was held in Beijing, China, from 21 to 24 October 2010. The aim of the symposium was to provide an opportunity for international experts, academics, researchers, practitioners and students working in the areas of spintronic theories, spintronic materials, and spintronic devices to exchange information on the R&D and commercialization of spintronic materials and devices. New developments, concepts, future research trends and potential commercialization areas were also discussed. The topics covered by ISSDC' 2010 were: Fundmental Spintronic Theories/Experiments Spin polarization, spin-dependent scattering, spin relaxation, spin manipulation and optimization, as well as other related characterizations and applications, etc. Spintronic Materials Giant magnetoresistance materials, magnetic tunnel junction materials, magnetic semiconductor materials, molecular spintronic materials. Spintronic Devices Sensors, isolators, spin logic devices and magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), microwave devices, spin diodes, spin transistor, spin filters and detectors, spin optoelectronic devices, spin quantum devices, single chip computer, spin molecule and single electron devices. Other Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, magnetostriction materials. Applications of Spintronic Devices Magnetic position/angle/velocity/rotation velocity sensors, magnetic encoders, magnetic compasses, bio-medical magnetic devices and other applications. Future Research Trends and the Commercialization of Spintronic Devices Approximately 85 scientists from almost 10 countries participated in the conference. The conference featured 6 keynote lectures, 8 invited lectures, 12 contributed lectures and about 30 posters. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference very successful indeed. We are also grateful to the Advisory Committee, the Conference Chairs, the Excutive Chairs, the Academic Committee, the Organization Committee and the Secretariat for their fruitful work. We would especially like to thank all the organizers listed below for their support in all aspects of the conference. We would like to express our thanks to all the authors for their time and genuine efforts, and to the reviewers for their fruitful comments during the preparation of this volume. ISSDC'2010 ORGANIZATION Advisory Committee Chialing Chien, USAJunhao Chu, ChinaBernard Dieny, FranceKoichiro Inomata, Japan Liangmo Mei, ChinaJohn Sivertsen, USAMingjing Tu, ChinaDingsheng Wang, China Zhanguo Wang, ChinaQikun Xue, ChinaWenshan Zhan, China Conference Chairs Jack Judy, USAYouwei Du, China Executive Chairs Zhenghong Qian, USAJianping Wang, USA Organization Committee ChairJiyan Luo, China Vice ChairsGuilin Duan, ChinaLingling Sun, ChinaBaogen Shen, China MembersTiecheng Lu, ChinaDa Ma, ChinaYe Tian, China Jinsong Xu, ChinaQiuling XuChangmao Yang, China Guanghua Yu, ChinaYi Yan, China Academic Committee ChairsZhenghong Qian, USAYongbing Xu, UK Vice ChairsSeongtae Bae, SingaporeYong Jiang, ChinaDexin Wang, USA Huaiwu Zhang, ChinaJianhua Zhao, China MembersJianwang Cai, ChinaXiangdong Chen, ChinaHaifeng Ding, China Chunhong Hou, USAGunther Baubock, USABin Hu, USA Jungchun Huang, TaiwanDexuan Huo, ChinaYoon H Jeong, Korea Chihuang Lai, TaiwanRunwei Li, ChinaWei Liu, China Jing Shi, USAYasushi Takemura, JapanMark Tondra, USA Shan X Wang, USADi Wu, ChinaDesheng Xue, China Minglang Yan, USAShishen Yan, ChinaXiaofei Yang, China Chun Yeol You, KoreaWei Zhao, ChinaShiming Zhou, China Jianguo Zhu, China Secretariat Secretary-generalChangmao Yang, China Vice Secretary-generalJunli Wang, ChinaJinsong Xu, ChinaYe Tian, China MembersRu Bai, ChinaHongliang Zhan, China ISSDC' 2010 Organizers Department of Science and Technology, CSIC, China SpinIC Inc., China Hangzhou Dianzi University, China State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academ

Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

2011-01-01

363

Nitrate contamination of water resources in a small catchment with intensive livestock facilities in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is a small catchment developed along a stream, Hwabong-chun, running toward north, with a length of about 4 km. Because of gentle slopes of the area, land is utilized for various agricultural activities in different scales including paddy fields, grape vineyards, and intensive livestock facilities of swine, cow and poultry. In this area, groundwater is the main source of domestic and agricultural water-supply, and appears to be under severe risk of contamination from various potential sources. Therefore, this study was initiated to identify the extent and sources of groundwater contamination by nitrate. A total of 49 groundwater and surface-water samples were collected in February and April 2002, and concentrations of dissolved constituents and nitrogen-isotope ratio of nitrate were analyzed. Little change of concentrations of dissolved ions in samples of Feb. and Apr. implies that spring discharge of groundwater might not occur yet. About 77% of groundwater samples have NO3-N concentrations of greater than 3 mg/L, indicating their origins from anthropogenic sources at surface. About 37% of samples detected NO3-N levels higher than 10 mg/L, Korean Drinking Water Guidelines. Although groundwater is being used for domestic uses during the winter season, nitrate levels show no significant changes between February and April. This implies that the sources would be large enough to continuously discharge nitrate into the groundwater system. Correlation matrix shows Na, Ca, Cl, NO3-N, SO4 moving together in the groundwater system. Results of Principal Component Analysis(PCA) indicate these constituents are the most dominant factor controlling groundwater quality in the area. Seepages from a swine farm and a poultry farm were analyzed and show significantly elevated concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Cl, NH4, PO4, SO4. Considering low mobility of K and PO4 and transformation of NH4 to NO3 in the shallow subsurface environments, those water-quality controlling constituents are supposed to be originated from seepages of the livestock facilities. About 59% of total groundwater samples have (del)15N-NO3 values greater than 8 ‰, indicating the influence of seepage from manures and septic tanks. Countours of (del)15N-NO3 match well with the distribution of nitrate concentrations in groundwater. However, a part of southern area without the livestock facilities also shows high concentrations of nitrate and high values of (del)15N in groundwater. Based on the landuse history of the area, we interpreted that the elevated nitrate concentrations were due to the abondoned facilities, which had been operated until 5-years ago. This further implies two important facts: 1) records of landuse history should be examined to identify contamination sources properly, and 2) nitrate contamination from seepages of livestock facilities could last for a while even after disclosure of facilities.

Kim, Y.; Woo, N.

2003-04-01

364

SLAG CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL USING PULSE DETONATION TECHNOLOGY DURING COAL GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. Conventional slag removal methods including soot blowers and water lances have great difficulties in removing slags especially from the down stream areas of utility power plant boilers. The detonation wave technique, based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. A slight increase in the boiler efficiency, due to more effective ash/deposit removal and corresponding reduction in plant maintenance downtime and increased heat transfer efficiency, will save millions of dollars in operational costs. Reductions in toxic emissions will also be accomplished due to reduction in coal usage. Detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability, important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results describe the parametric study of the input parameters in removing the different types of slag and operating condition. The experimental results show that both the single and multi shot detonation waves have high potential in effectively removing slag deposit from boiler heat transfer surfaces. The results obtained are encouraging and satisfactory. A good indication has also been obtained from the agreement with the preliminary computational fluid dynamics analysis that the wave impacts are more effective in removing slag deposits from tube bundles rather than single tube. This report presents results obtained in effectively removing three different types of slag (economizer, reheater, and air-heater) t a distance of up to 20 cm from the exit of the detonation tube. The experimental results show that the softer slags can be removed more easily. Also closer the slag to the exit of the detonation tube, the better are their removals. Side facing slags are found to shear off without breaking. Wave strength and slag orientation also has different effects on the chipping off of the slag. One of the most important results from this study is the observation that the pressure of the waves plays a vital role in removing slag. The wave frequency is also important after a threshold pressure level is attained.

DR. DANIEL MEI; DR. JIANREN ZHOU; DR. PAUL O. BINEY; DR. ZIAUL HUQUE

1998-07-30

365

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

SciTech Connect

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-31

366

Site-specific effects on productivity of an upper trophic-level marine predator: Bottom-up, top-down, and mismatch effects on reproduction in a colonial seabird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down factors in limiting productivity of an upper trophic level marine predator. Our primary working hypothesis was that the reproductive success of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) a piscivorous, colonial-nesting seabird, was most limited by the abundance, distribution, and species composition of surface-schooling forage fishes. A secondary working hypothesis was that reproductive loss to kittiwake nest predators was greatest during years of reduced prey availability. We report on a broad-scale, integrated study of kittiwakes and their prey in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Our study spanned five breeding seasons (1995 1999) and focused on three colonies that differed in size (ranging from ca. 220 to ca. 7000 breeding pairs) and proximity to each other (50 135 km apart). Kittiwakes in PWS encountered a variety of aquatic habitats, creating a complex foraging environment for breeding birds. We measured kittiwake reproductive success and foraging activities, while simultaneously measuring the abundance of surface schooling forage fishes throughout the foraging range of breeding kittiwakes. The abundance of primary prey species for kittiwakes (Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus) varied both annually and regionally, with no one region consistently having the greatest abundance of prey. Likewise, kittiwake reproductive success varied considerably among colonies and years. We found that bottom-up, top-down, timing mismatch, and colony-specific effects were all important to kittiwake productivity. Although bottom-up effects appeared to be strongest, they were not evident in some cases until other effects, such as geographic location (proximity of colony to prey concentrations) and top-down predation, were considered. Important bottom-up effects on kittiwake reproductive success were not only total prey abundance and distribution, but also species, age composition, and chronology of prey occurrence (match/mismatch of timing with critical brood-rearing periods); these effects varied by colony. Top-down effects of predation on kittiwake nest contents (independent of prey abundance) confounded seabird-forage fish relationships. Ultimately, when confounding factors were minimized, non-linear asymptotic relationships were identified between kittiwakes and their prey, with an asymptotic threshold of fish school surface area density of ca. 5 m2/km2, beyond which top-down, physiological, or phylogenetic constraints likely restrict further reproductive output. The integrated approach of our investigations provided a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying predator prey relationships in the complex marine environment. However, such mechanistic theories can only be tested and refined through long-term research and monitoring of much greater duration than the 5-year study reported herein.

Suryan, Robert M.; Irons, David B.; Brown, Evelyn D.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.; Roby, Daniel D.

2006-02-01

367

In situ pore-pressure evolution during dynamic CPT measurements in soft sediments of the western Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present in situ strength and pore-pressure measurements from 57 dynamic cone penetration tests in sediments of Mecklenburg ( n = 51), Eckernförde ( n = 2) and Gelting ( n = 4) bays, western Baltic Sea, characterised by thick mud layers and partially free microbial gas resulting from the degradation of organic material. In Mecklenburg and Eckernförde bays, sediment sampling by nine gravity cores served sedimentological characterisation, analyses of geotechnical properties, and laboratory shear tests. At selected localities, high-resolution echo-sounder profiles were acquired. Our aim was to deploy a dynamic cone penetrometer (CPT) to infer sediment shear strength and cohesion of the sea bottom as a function of fluid saturation. The results show very variable changes in pore pressure and sediment strength during the CPT deployments. The majority of the CPT measurements ( n = 54) show initially negative pore-pressure values during penetration, and a delayed response towards positive pressures thereafter. This so-called type B pore-pressure signal was recorded in all three bays, and is typically found in soft muds with high water contents and undrained shear strengths of 1.6-6.4 kPa. The type B signal is further affected by displacement of sediment and fluid upon penetration of the lance, skin effects during dynamic profiling, enhanced consolidation and strength of individual horizons, the presence of free gas, and a dilatory response of the sediment. In Mecklenburg Bay, the remaining small number of CPT measurements ( n = 3) show a well-defined peak in both pore pressure and cone resistance during penetration, i.e. an initial marked increase which is followed by exponential pore-pressure decay during dissipation. This so-called type A pore-pressure signal is associated with normally consolidated mud, with indurated clay layers showing significantly higher undrained shear strength (up to 19 kPa). In Eckernförde and Gelting bays pore-pressure response type B is exclusively found, while in Mecklenburg Bay types A and B were detected. Despite the striking similarities in incremental density increase and shear strength behaviour with depth, gas occurrence and subtle variations in the coarse-grained fraction cause distinct pore-pressure curves. Gaseous muds interbedded with silty and sandy layers are most common in the three bays, and the potential effect of free gas (i.e. undersaturated pore space) on in situ strength has to be explored further.

Seifert, Annedore; Stegmann, Sylvia; Mörz, Tobias; Lange, Matthias; Wever, Thomas; Kopf, Achim

2008-08-01

368

Avulsion Clusters in Alluvial Systems: An Example of Large-Scale Self-Organization in Ancient and Experimental Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic record of at least some alluvial basins exhibits a spatial structure that may reflect long time- scale (103-105 yr in natural basins) autogenic organization of river avulsions. Current models of avulsion-dominated alluvial sequences emphasize the spatial and temporal distribution of coarse-grained channel-belt deposits amid fine-grained floodplain materials. These models typically assume that individual avulsions move, either randomly or deterministically, to low spots distributed throughout the model space. However, our observations of ancient deposits and experimental stratigraphy indicate a previously unrecognized pattern of channel-belt organization, where clusters of closely-spaced channel-belt deposits are separated from each other by extensive intervals of overbank deposits. We explore potential causes of and controls on avulsion clustering with outcrop and subsurface data from Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene fluvial deposits in the Rocky Mountains (including the Ferris, Lance, and Fort Union formations of Wyoming) and results of physical stratigraphy experiments from the St. Anthony Falls Lab, University of Minnesota. We use Ripley's K-function to determine the degree and scales of clustering in these basins with results that show moderate statistical clustering in experimental deposits and strong clustering in the Ferris Formation (Hanna Basin, Wyoming). External controls (base level, subsidence rate, and sediment/water supplies) were not varied during the experiment, and therefore not factors in cluster formation. Likewise, the stratigraphic context of the ancient system (including the absence of incised valleys and lack of faulting) suggests that obvious extrinsic controls, such as base level change and local tectonics, were not major influences on the development of clusters. We propose that avulsion clusters, as seen in this study, reflect a scale of self-organization in alluvial basins that is not usually recognized in stratigraphy. However cursory examination of other ancient systems suggests that such structure may be common in the rock record. Understanding mechanisms driving avulsion clustering will shed light on the dominant processes in alluvial basins over long time scales. Furthermore, characterizing autogenic avulsion clusters will be an important factor to consider when interpreting allogenic signals in ancient basin fills.

Hajek, E.; Heller, P.; Huzurbazar, S.; Sheets, B.; Paola, C.

2006-12-01

369

Rising urban community fortunes continue to spark debate among local residents and policy-makers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By now the script for the process of gentrification is fairly recognizable throughout American cities: Wealthy residents move into (or return to) inner-city neighborhoods to be close to various urban amenities and eventually displace long-time residents who are unable to pay rising property costs (such as increased taxes and so on). The process is so well known that in fact it even served as one of the themes of the recent movie, "Barbershop 2." Of course, debates continue to swirl around questions about the number of people actually displaced as a result of gentrification, with certain scholars claiming that relatively few longtime residents are priced out of their neighborhoods and still others claiming that certain aspects of gentrification are essentially a form of Âwar against low-income persons, particularly persons of color. In a recent article in a prominent urban studies journal, Professor Lance Freeman of Columbia University offered his own findings from a national study which notes that comparatively few low-income residents are forced from their home as a result of gentrification. Regardless of this important study, the topic continues to be one that has galvanized community groups, tenants rights associations, and other organizations in cities across the United States.The first link will take visitors to an insightful news piece from this TuesdayÂs USA Today that talks about the results of this recent study examining the effects of gentrification. The second link leads to a news story from the Columbia Spectator that discusses the recent request from Columbia University to expand its property holdings through the process of eminent domain. The third link leads to a news story from the South Florida Sun-Sentinel that discusses how one African-American community in Fort Lauderdale is coping with the process of gentrification. The fourth link leads to the well-developed Tenant Net website, where visitors can learn about tenant resources in New York City and other places around the United States. The fifth link leads to a fine audio feature from the Tavis Smiley show that affords some insight into the ongoing debates about gentrification in ChicagoÂs famed Bronzeville neighborhood on the cityÂs South Side. The final link leads to the website for the PBS program ÂFlag WarsÂ, which offers a multimedia portrait of gentrification in a neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio.

370

Middle Jurassic incised valley fill (eolian/estuarine) and nearshore marine petroleum reservoirs, Powder River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleovalleys incised into the Triassic Spearfish Formation (Chugwater equivalent) are filled with a vertical sequence of eolian, estuarine, and marine sandstones of the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian age) Canyon Springs Sandstone Member of the Sundance Formation. An outcrop exemplifying this is located at Red Canyon in the southern Black Hills, Fall River County, South Dakota. These paleovalleys locally have more than 300 ft of relief and are as much as several miles wide. Because they slope in a westerly direction, and Jurassic seas transgressed into the area from the west there was greater marine-influence and more stratigraphic complexity in the subsurface, to the west, as compared to the Black Hills outcrops. In the subsurface two distinctive reservoir sandstone beds within the Canyon Springs Sandstone Member fill the paleovalleys. These are the eolian lower Canyon Springs unit (LCS) and the estuarine upper Canyon Springs unit (UCS), separated by the marine "Limestone Marker" and estuarine "Brown Shale". The LCS and UCS contain significant proven hydrocarbon reservoirs in Wyoming (about 500 MMBO in-place in 9 fields, 188 MMBO produced through 1993) and are prospective in western South Dakota, western Nebraska and northern Colorado. Also prospective is the Callovian-age Hulett Sandstone Member which consists of multiple prograding shoreface to foreshore parasequences, as interpreted from the Red Canyon locality. Petrographic, outcrop and subsurface studies demonstrate the viability of both the Canyon Springs Sandstone and Hulett Sandstone members as superior hydrocarbon reservoirs in both stratigraphic and structural traps. Examples of fields with hydrocarbon production from the Canyon Springs in paleovalleys include Lance Creek field (56 MMBO produced) and the more recently discovered Red Bird field (300 MBO produced), both in Niobrara County, Wyoming. At Red Bird field the primary exploration target was the Pennsylvanian "Leo sands" of the Minnelusa Formation, and production from the Canyon Springs was not anticipated. Canyon Springs reservoirs are easily bypassed because they are relatively unconsolidated, underpressured, low-resistivity, and difficult to evaluate from petrophysics, drill-stem tests, or well cuttings.

Ahlbrandt, T. S.; Fox, J. E.

1997-01-01

371

The Asteroid 1998 QE2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This big asteroid was at 5.8 millions of kilometers from the Earth on May 31 (2013) and it has a diameter of 2.7 km. The radar images obtained by JPL showed that the period of rotation around its axis is close to five hours. Hills. K (2013) reported that the period is of 5.281 +/- 0.002 hours. On June 4 the team of Goldstone-Arecibo found a period of 4.75 +/- 0.01 hours. We also contributed with the light and phase curves to estimate the period by means of the telescope (with red filter). The radar imagery (JPL and Arecibo) revealed that 1998 QE2 has a moon, and we captured a mutual event (eclipse). From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during several days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS. The pictures of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: CGE PRO 1400 CELESTRON (f/11 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera. We obtained the light curve of the body. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.5692181, semi-major axis = 2.41104631 A.U, orbital inclination = 12.82771 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 250.16876 deg, argument of perihelion = 345.61328 deg, mean motion = 0.26326658 deg/d, perihelion distance = 1.03863508 A.U, aphelion distance = 3.78345755 A.U. The asteroid has an orbital period of 3.74 years The parameters were calculated based on 191 observations (2013 May: 17-24) with mean residual = 0.162 arcseconds. A video of the asteroid from our Observatory was published on the main page of the “SPACEWEATHER” web: http://www.spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=21&month=05&year=2013 Note: The autors would like to thank to: Dr. Alessondra Springmann (Arecibo Observatory), Dr. Petr Pravec (Czech Republic), Dr. Lance Benner (JPL), Dr. Carl Hergenrother (Target Asteroids Team), and Dr. Dolores Hill (Target Asteroids Team) for their special suggestions.

Vodniza, Alberto Q.; Pereira, M. R.; Arecibo Observatory Team; JPL Target Asteroids Team

2013-10-01

372

Analysis of temperature variability and determination of apparent thermal diffusivity in sandy intertidal sediments at the German North Sea coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature was measured at depths of 1, 10, 30, 75, and 170 cm in fine sandy intertidal sediments by means of specially-designed "temperature lances". The measurements cover a period from February to October 2007 and have a temporal resolution of 5 min. Stochastic as well as recurrent processes due to the solar cycle and due to tide induces flooding and drying of the sediment surface lead to a complex composition of the time series curves. Spectral analyses based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) reveal that temperature variability at the sediment water/air interface is widely controlled by recurrent processes with period lengths of 4.93, 6.1, 8.19, ˜12, ˜24 h, and 354 h (14.7 days). The importance of the higher frequencies decreases with increasing sediment depth. At a depth of 30 cm the 24 h and the 14.7 days cycles mainly determine the temperature development over time, while at 75 cm sediment depth contour temperature varies only along the 14.7 days cycle, as well as within the seasonal cycle. Using cross-correlation-analysis the time necessary for a temperature signal at the surface to trigger a response at a sediment depth of 10, 30, and 75 cm was calculated as 1.4, 7.0, and 73.1 h respectively. Utilizing an alternate approach, FFT derived temperature peak-to-peak amplitude values and phase angles of up to 9 different cycles were used to calculate apparent thermal diffusivity in different sediment depths. The thermal diffusivity decreases from approximately 6-9 × 10-7 m2 s-1 from the surface down to a sediment depth of 75 cm. The specially-designed instrumentation has proven to be robust and precise enough to record high resolution time series of sediment temperature in different depths. The time series analysis of the data clearly shows that the temperature variability in the intertidal sediments to a high degree can be explained by recurrent solar and/or tidal effects. So the methods and results presented in this paper can help to answer questions, which are related to sediment temperature in tidal flat environments.

Ricklefs, Klaus; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich

2012-08-01

373

Paraffinic hydrocarbons in the Orgueil, Murray, Mokoia and other meteorites.  

PubMed

Small samples of the Orgueil (Wiik Type I), Murray (Wiik Type II), Mokoia (Wiik Type III) and other meteorites (Alais, Ivuna, Al Rais, Bells, Cold Bokkeveld, Mighei, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, Grosnaja, Kaba, Lance, Ornans, Chainpur, Karoonda, Warrenton, and St. Caprais) were extracted with organic solvents, fractionated by silica gel chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography and by a new gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Only the high molecular weight hydrocarbons eluted by n-heptane were analyzed. The following observations were made: All meteorites contain paraffinic hydrocarbons in varying amounts and with a certain distribution. Normal and isomeric alkanes from Cl5 to about C25 with a maximum at C19-C21 were found in the Orgueil, Murray and Mokoia meteorites. Pristane and phytane, two saturated polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons, known to be degradation products of chlorophyll, were found in all meteorites except the Ornans, although in several (Type I and Type III, except Mokoia) the amounts were very small. No predominance of odd over even carbon-number hydrocarbons was observed except in the C22-C27 normal alkane range of some samples of the Orgueil. The concentration of alkanes in certain samples of the Orgueil was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than in others indicating a significant heterogeneity in the distribution of hydrocarbons. Practically all the meteorites of Type II and some of Type III (Mokoia) gave an essentially identical or very similar hydrocarbon chromatographic pattern, indicating a common origin for the hydrocarbons. The distribution of paraffinic hydrocarbons, including pristane and phytane, in some of these meteorites was found similar to that of microfossil-bearing pre-Cambrian rocks 2 x 10(9) years old or older. The Orguiel was similar to the Gunflint chert and Type II meteorites were similar to the Soudan rock. It remains to be seen whether these hydrocarbons were formed on the earth-moon system as suggested by Urey, on the asteroids, in the solar nebula, or whether they may be the result of a unique terrestrial contamination process. PMID:11915889

Oro, J; Nooner, D W; Zlatkis, A; Wikstrom, S A

1966-01-01

374

The impact of submarine ground water discharge on a coastal ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea: Results from the BONUS+ project AMBER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides direct surface water input of dissolved and particulate compounds (eg nutrients, metals) via rivers into coastal seas, submarine ground water discharge (SGD) is increasingly recognized to be an important factor. In spite of the recognition that many land-sea interfaces of the world are characterised by SGD, it is still unclear how important SGD via springs, seeps, or diffusive outflows is in terms of biogeochemical budgets for the Baltic Sea coastal regions. The main reason that this has not been caught up so far to a precision that is typical for other freshwater inputs is that direct discharge of groundwater into the coastal zone is often difficult to quantify. The influence of SGD is expected to be of particular socio-economic relevance as it influences eutrophication in near-coastal ecosystems and to be under pressure by anthropogenic activity and climate change. Therefore, the impact of near-shore submarine ground water discharge (SGD) on coastal ecosystems of the southern Baltic Sea is investigated as part of the AMBER project within the BONUS+ initiative. In AMBER, the quantitative importance of SGD on nutrient, metabolite, and trace metal budgets is investigated for parts of the Baltic Sea. Results will have implications to understand the role of SGD as a nutrient source and will provide data for further implementation into model environments for the prediction of scenarios of future environmental changes. Besides trace metals, nutrients, methane, DIC and metabolites species, a further focus forms the impact of SGD on biota. Stable isotopes (C-13, S-34, O-18) are planed to be used to identify sources, sinks, and abiotic and microbial conversions of dissolved and particulate compounds. Salinity and temperature profiles as well as Ra and Rn isotopes will help to identify and quantify SGD. Sediment structures potentially acting as aquifers are characterized by geochemical, sedimentological, and geophysical methods. During several sampling campaigns in 2009, seep-type SGD was investigated in the Puck Bay off the Polish coast. It is found that, as one of the potentially different ground water-derived sources, fresh ground waters escape from permeable sediments in form of localized seeps near the shore-line. The geochemical composition and vertical efflux rates of these ground waters are determined by usingpore water lances and seepage meters. Analyses revealed that the ground waters were sulfidic and the source for a number of elements in the water column including DIC and phosphate. Results will be discussed in terms of biogeochemical element transformations and consequences for the element fluxes into the water column.

Vogler, Susann; Szymczycha, Beata; Gentz, Thorben; Dellwig, Olaf; Kotwiki, Lech; Endler, Rudolf; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Marcin Weslawski, Jan; Schlüter, Michael; Böttcher, Michael E.

2010-05-01

375

Optimization of Post Combustion in Steelmaking (TRP 9925)  

SciTech Connect

In the electric arc furnace (EAF), and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) for producing steel, the major off gas is carbon monoxide (CO). If the CO can be combusted to CO{sub 2}, and the energy transferred to the metal, this reaction will reduce the energy consumed in the EAF and allow for more scrap melting in the BOF which would significantly lower the energy required to produce steel. This reaction is referred to as post combustion. In order to optimize the post combustion process, computational fluid dynamic models (CFD) of the two steelmaking processes were developed. Before the models could be fully developed information on reactions affecting post combustion had to be obtained. The role of the reaction of CO{sub 2} with scrap (iron) was measured at the temperatures relevant to post combustion in laboratory experiments. The experiments were done to separate the effects of gas phase mass transfer, chemical kinetics, and solid state mass transfer through the iron oxide formed by the reaction. The first CFD model was for the EAF using the FIDAP-CFD{trademark} code. Whereas this model gave some useful results it was incomplete due to problems with the FIDAP program. In the second EAF model, the CFX{trademark} code was used and was much more successful. The full 3-D model included all forms of heat transfer and the back reactions of CO{sub 2} with the metal and scrap. The model for the EAF was a full 3-D model and consisted of a primary oxygen lance with side wall injectors for post combustion. The model could predict the degree of post combustion and heat transfer. The BOF model was a slice of the BOF for which there was symmetry. The model could predict post combustion, heat transfer, temperature profiles and the effect of operating variables such as oxygen flow rates and distribution. The present research developed several new models such as limited combustion and depostcombustion. These were all documented by MSA Pass as a sub-contract. Instruction manuals were developed so the models could be used by industry. The work indicates considerable energy can be generated and usefully used in the BOF and EAF. The processes can be optimized for specific cases using the models developed.

Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. R. J. Matway

2004-03-31

376

The Space Density and Kinematics of Metal-Poor Blue Main Sequence Stars Near the Solar Circle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used UBV photometry to identify 172 blue (0.15 <= (B-V)_o <= 0.35), metal-poor ([Fe/H] <= -1.0) main sequence stars (hereafter BMPs) among candidates from the HK objective-prism/interference-filter survey. The BMP fractions in the principal spectral groups of the survey have been used to estimate the space density of this species within 2 kpc of the sun, nu = 600 kpc(-3) . Accordingly, the specific frequency of the field BMPs, reckoned as the number of BMPs per field horizontal-branch star, is 12, which is 12 times greater than the largest value of specific frequency found among the seven globular clusters that have been searched for blue stragglers to their centers. From radial velocities which are available for 104 of these stars we obtain a Galactic rotation of Vrot ~ 130 kms(-1) , and a velocity ellipsoid of (sigma_r ~ 85, sigma_ ? ~ 85, sigma_ ? ~ 85) kms(-1) , a quartet of values unlike those of either the halo or thick-disk populations. These results indicate that the great majority of BMPs cannot be field analogues of the blue stragglers found in halo globular clusters. Rather, we suggest that BMPs are comparatively young main sequence stars formed in one or more Milky Way satellites, similar perhaps to Fornax or Carina, that have been captured by the Galaxy during the past 3 to 10 Gyrs. Our results reinforce earlier arguments by Rodgers, Harding, & Sadler (1981, ApJ 244, 912) and by Lance (1988, ApJ 344, 927) on the basis of more limited data for less metal-deficient early-type stars. Such satellite captures may be viewed as an extension to relatively recent times of the Searle-Zinn fragment dissipation process. At earliest times satellites were both numerous and gassy, and collisions among them produced a nearly non-rotating halo of stars. As the number of satellites decreased, mergers with the disk became the dominant interaction, and the tendency for dynamical friction to select satellites with prograde orbits led to the now-observed kinematic properties of the BMPs, which are intermediate between those of the halo and the thick-disk.

Preston, G. W.; Beers, T. C.; Shectman, S. A.

1993-12-01

377

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering a wide range of instrument operating conditions (650-1020 hPa pressure, 293-303 K inlet temperature, 4-34 K m-1 temperature gradient, 0.5-1.0 L min-1 flow rate). For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff, 0.05-1.4%) was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra (dry particle activation diameters) and Köhler model calculations. High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where the relative standard deviations of Seff were as low as ±1%. During field measurements, however, the relative deviations increased to about ±5%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature. The observed dependence of Seff on temperature, pressure, and flow rate was compared to the CCNC flow model of Lance et al. (2006). At high Seff the relative deviations between flow model and experimental results were mostly less than 10%, but at Seff?0.1% they exceeded 40%. Thus, careful experimental calibration is required for high-accuracy CCN measurements - especially at low Seff. A comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies showed that the relative deviations between different approaches are as high as 25% for (NH4)2SO4 and 12% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of the two salts. To ensure comparability of results, we suggest that CCN studies should always report exactly which Köhler model equations and parameters were used. Provided that the Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM) can be regarded as an accurate source of water activity data for highly dilute solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl, only Köhler models that are based on the AIM or yield similar results should be used in CCN studies involving these salts and aiming at high accuracy. Experiments with (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols showed that the conditions of particle generation and the shape and microstructure of NaCl particles are critical for their application in CCN activation experiments (relative deviations up to 18%).

Rose, D.; Gunthe, S. S.; Mikhailov, E.; Frank, G. P.; Dusek, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2008-02-01

378

NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

2005-07-30

379

Detection of a galactic color gradient for blue horizontal-branch stars of the halo field and implications for the halo age and density distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From analysis of a large sample of field blue horizontal-branch stars we find that the mean unreddened color, w, in the color window -0.02 <(B-V)0 < +0.18 increases outward in the Galaxy by ˜0.025 on 2 kpc < R < 12 kpc. On the basis of several tests of the sample, we conclude that this result is due neither to errors in reddening estimates nor to contamination of the sample by stars of the young disk or by the population described by Lance (1988b). Calibration of the horizontal-branch (HB) parameter B/(B + R) with two theoretical, age-dependent isochrone parameters and an empirical correlation between w and B/(B + R) suggest that the mean age of the field horizontal branch decreases outward in the halo systematically by a few Gyr. HB models appropriate for standard red giant evolution lead to a similar conclusion, but HB theory also permits an interpretation of the color gradient as a consequence of a systematic outward decrease in HB core mass at constant age, for which there is no plausible reason. We calculate space densities of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars from our sample and recalculate space densities for RR Lyrae stars from published data. The RR Lyrae densities are well represented by a spheroidal power-law model in which flattening decreases outward. The power-law exponent for the RR Lyrae stars is n = -3.2±0.1. BHB stars in a more restricted distance range yield n = -3.5, as would be expected from the sign of the color gradient. Predicted densities of BHB and RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood, their ratio (6.5/1), and the abundance distribution and horizontal-branch morphologies of globular clusters are used to estimate the local density of red HB stars and the total local HB number density, 42 kpc-3. Total HB populations for 44 globular clusters, derived from published photometry and the use of King models, establish that the visual luminosity of a globular cluster is closely proportional to the number of HB stars that it contains. The ratio is Lv/NHB = 540±40 uncorrected for incompleteness of the counts that would decrease it, or possible radial stratification of HB stars in clusters that would increase it. From the local field HB number density, Lv/NHB, and an assumed M/Lv = 2.5, we estimate the local halo mass density to be 5.7 × 104 Msun kpc-3, a value within the range estimated by other methods. The local observed density of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars unaccountably exceeds the number predicted by our model by a factor of at least 2.

Preston, George W.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Beers, Timothy C.

1991-07-01

380

Mixed-mode Mechanism of Hydraulic Fracture Segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed-mode I+III loading is one of the primary causes of fracture front segmentation. Although such segmented fractures have been observed both in nature and laboratory, we are not aware of direct laboratory experiments on the mode III mechanism of segmentation of hydraulically induced fractures. In this work, we developed a laboratory technique and a theoretical model for studying not only the effect of mode III loading on the onset of hydraulic fracture segmentation, but also the effect of segmentation on the subsequent growth of hydraulic fractures. In quasi-brittle materials, even a small mode III component may cause fracture segmentation due to a tensile stress field induced near the fracture front [Rice, 1968]. Previously, this has been confirmed in experiments with non-hydraulic fractures [Knauss, 1970; Cooke and Pollard, 1996]. In one occasion, quasi-hydraulic fractures propagated in fast, uncontrollable manner [Sommer, 1969]. This is why, we focused on controlled hydraulic fractures with a rather small KIII/KI ratio (1-10 %). For mixed mode I+III experiments, we used transparent, cylindrical PMMA samples with circular internal fractures perpendicular to the sample axis. Fracture orientation was controlled by thermoelastic stresses induced in each sample by preheating it before creating a fracture. In order to apply mode III loading to the initial fracture, a constant torque was applied to the specimen while fluid was injected into the fracture at a constant rate to pressurize it and to induce mode I loading. The velocity of fracture propagation was constrained by controlling the rate of fluid injection. In spite of a small magnitude of the mode III component, we observed segmented fracture fronts in all tested samples. The segments had similar dimensions and shape elongated around the perimeter of the initial fracture. When the fractures were further pressurized by injecting additional fluid into the sample, second-order segments developed along the fronts of the first-order segments. The obtained results indicate that, similar to the case of non-hydraulic fractures, a KIII/KI ratio as small as 1 % is sufficient for fracture front segmentation, even in materials as homogeneous and fracture resistant as PMMA. In reality, a small component of mode III is always expected, for example, due to slight deviations of a fracture shape from planar or interaction with boundaries or other fractures. As a result, front segmentation (at an appropriate scale) is likely to accompany the growth of most (if not all) real, sufficiently large fractures (hydraulic or not) in quasi-brittle materials, which is consistent with many observations of hydraulic fractures and magmatic dikes. However, the described above shape of segments in stable, controllable hydraulic fractures, which appeared in our experiments, was dramatically different from narrow lance-like segments, elongated in the direction of growth, of uncontrollable, unstable, non-hydraulic fractures that were propagated in a similar setting [Sommer, 1969; Hull, 1995]. We also developed a simple theoretical model, which is based on the beam asymptotic approximation. It appears that mechanical interaction between the segments and the parent fracture can be taken into account by considering an effective single fracture of equal total size. The model has one fitting parameter and shows good agreement with the experimental observations.

Hurt, R. S.; Germanovich, L.; Wu, R.

2006-12-01

381

The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.

2012-04-01

382

Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part I - mechanical dermatoses.  

PubMed

Figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters experience a range of dermatologic conditions and tissue-related injuries on account of mechanical trauma, infectious pathogens, inflammatory processes and environmental factors related to these competitive pursuits. Sports medicine practitioners, family physicians, dermatologists and coaches should be familiar with these skin conditions to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis and management of affected athletes. This review is Part I of a subsequent companion review and provides a comprehensive review of mechanical dermatoses experienced by ice-skating athletes, including skater's nodules and its variants, pump bumps, piezogenic pedal papules, talon noir, skate/lace bite, friction bullae, corns and calluses, onychocryptosis, skater's toe and skate blade-induced lacerations. These injuries result from friction, shear forces, chronic pressure and collisions with surfaces that occur when athletes endure repetitive jump landings, accelerated starts and stops and other manoeuvres during rigorous training and competition. Ill-fitting skates, improper lacing techniques and insufficient lubrication or protective padding of the foot and ankle often contribute to the development of skin conditions that result from these physical and mechanical stresses. As we will explain, simple measures can frequently prevent the development of these conditions. The treatment of skater's nodules involves reduction in chronic stimulation of the malleoli, and the use of keratolytics and intralesional steroid injections; if malleolar bursitis develops, bursa aspirations may be required. Pump bumps, which result from repetitive friction posteriorly, can be prevented by wearing skates that fit correctly at the heel. Piezogenic pedal papules may be treated conservatively by using heel cups, compressive stockings and by reducing prolonged standing. Talon noir usually resolves without intervention within several weeks. The treatment of skate bite is centred on reducing compression by the skate tongue of the extensor tendons of the anterior ankle, which can be accomplished by use of proper lacing techniques, increasing pliability of the skate tongue and using protective padding, such as Bunga Pads™. Anti-inflammatory medications and cold compresses can also help reduce inflammation. Friction bullae are best managed by careful lancing of painful blisters and application of petrolatum or protective dressings to accelerate healing; preventative measures include the use of well fitting skates, proper lacing techniques and moisture-wicking socks. Corns and calluses are similarly best prevented by the use of well fitted skates and orthotic devices. Symptomatic, debridement reduces the irritant effect of the thick epidermis, and can be accomplished by soaking the area in warm water followed by paring. Application of creams with high concentrations of urea or salicylic acid can also soften callosities. Cases of onychocryptosis benefit from warm soaks, antibiotic ointments and topical steroids to reduce inflammation, but sometimes chemical or surgical matricectomies are required. Preventative measures of both onychocryptosis and skater's toe include cutting toenails straight across to allow for a more equal distribution of forces within the toe box. Finally, the prevention and treatment of lacerations, which constitute a potentially fatal type of mechanical injury, require special protective gear and acute surgical intervention with appropriate suturing. The subsequent companion review of skin conditions in ice skaters will discuss infectious, inflammatory and cold-induced dermatoses, with continued emphasis on clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:21846161

Tlougan, Brook E; Mancini, Anthony J; Mandell, Jenny A; Cohen, David E; Sanchez, Miguel R

2011-09-01

383

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01

384

PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to treat these wastes as transuranic waste (TRU) for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which will reduce the WTP system processing time by three years. We are also developing and testing bulk vitrification as a technology to supplement the WTP LAW vitrification facility for immobilizing the massive volume of LAW. We will conduct a full-scale demonstration of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System by immobilizing up to 1,100 m{sup 3} (300,000 gallons) of tank S-109 low-curie soluble waste from which Cs-137 had previously been removed. This past year has been marked by both progress and new challenges. The focus of our tank farm work has been retrieving waste from the old single-shell tanks (SSTs). We have completed waste retrieval from three SSTs and are conducting retrieval operations on an additional three SSTs. While most waste retrievals have gone about as expected, we have faced challenges with some recalcitrant tank heel wastes that required enhanced approaches. Those enhanced approaches ranged from oxalic acid additions to deploying a remote high-pressure water lance. As with all large, long-term projects that employ first of a kind technologies, we continue to be challenged to control costs and maintain schedule. However, it is most important to work safely and to provide facilities that will do the job they are intended to do.

HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

2006-01-23

385

Assessment of dexrazoxane as a cardioprotectant in doxorubicin-treated children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: long-term follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Doxorubicin chemotherapy is associated with cardiomyopathy. Dexrazoxane reduces cardiac damage during treatment with doxorubicin in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We aimed to establish the long-term effect of dexrazoxane on the subclinical state of cardiac health in survivors of childhood high-risk ALL 5 years after completion of doxorubicin treatment. Methods Between January, 1996, and September, 2000, children with high-risk ALL were enrolled from nine centres in the USA, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Patients were assigned by block randomisation to receive ten doses of 30 mg/m² doxorubicin alone or the same dose of doxorubicin preceded by 300 mg/m² dexrazoxane. Treatment assignment was obtained through a telephone call to a centralised registrar to conceal allocation. Investigators were masked to treatment assignment but treating physicians and patients were not; however, investigators, physicians, and patients were masked to study serum cardiac troponin-T concentrations and echocardiographic measurements. The primary endpoints were late left ventricular structure and function abnormalities as assessed by echocardiography; analyses were done including all patients with data available after treatment completion. This trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00165087. Findings 100 children were assigned to doxorubicin (66 analysed) and 105 to doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane (68 analysed). 5 years after the completion of doxorubicin chemotherapy, mean left ventricular fractional shortening and end-systolic dimension Z scores were significantly worse than normal for children who received doxorubicin alone (left ventricular fractional shortening: ?0·82, 95% CI ?1·31 to ?0·33; end-systolic dimension: 0·57, 0·21–0·93) but not for those who also received dexrazoxane (?0·41, ?0·88 to 0·06; 0·15, ?0·20 to 0·51). The protective effect of dexrazoxane, relative to doxorubicin alone, on left ventricular wall thickness (difference between groups: 0·47, 0·46–0·48) and thickness-to-dimension ratio (0·66, 0·64–0·68) were the only statistically significant characteristics at 5 years. Subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·04) for left ventricular fractional shortening at 5 years in girls (1·17, 0·24–2·11), but not in boys (?0·10, ?0·87 to 0·68). Similarly, subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·046) for the left ventricular thickness-to-dimension ratio at 5 years in girls (1·15, 0·44–1·85), but not in boys (0·19, ?0·42 to 0·81). With a median follow-up for recurrence and death of 8·7 years (range 1·3–12·1), event-free survival was 77% (95% CI 67–84) for children in the doxorubicin-alone group, and 76% (67–84) for children in the doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane group (p=0·99). Interpretation Dexrazoxane provides long-term cardioprotection without compromising oncological efficacy in doxorubicin-treated children with high-risk ALL. Dexrazoxane exerts greater long-term cardioprotective effects in girls than in boys. Funding US National Institutes of Health, Children’s Cardiomyopathy Foundation, University of Miami Women’s Cancer Association, Lance Armstrong Foundation, Roche Diagnostics, Pfizer, and Novartis.

Lipshultz, Steven E; Scully, Rebecca E; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Sallan, Stephen E; Silverman, Lewis B; Miller, Tracie L; Barry, Elly V; Asselin, Barbara L; Athale, Uma; Clavell, Luis A; Larsen, Eric; Moghrabi, Albert; Samson, Yvan; Michon, Bruno; Schorin, Marshall A; Cohen, Harvey J; Neuberg, Donna S; Orav, E John; Colan, Steven D

2013-01-01

386

Selected papers from Middleware'98: The IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the distributed systems community has witnessed a growth in the number of conferences, leading to difficulties in tracking the literature and a consequent loss of awareness of work done by others in this important research domain. In an attempt to synthesize many of the smaller workshops and conferences in the field, and to bring together research communities which were becoming fragmented, IFIP staged Middleware'98: The IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing. The conference was widely publicized and attracted over 150 technical submissions including 135 full paper submissions. The final programme consisted of 28 papers, giving an acceptance ratio of a little over one in five. More crucially, the programme accurately reflected the state of the art in middleware research, addressing issues such as ORB architectures, engineering of large-scale systems and multimedia. The traditional role of middleware as a point of integration and service provision was clearly intact, but the programme stressed the importance of emerging `must-have' features such as support for extensibility, mobility and quality of service. The Middleware'98 conference was held in the Lake District, UK in September 1998. Over 160 delegates made the journey to one of the UK's most beautiful regions and contributed to a lively series of presentations and debates. A permanent record of the conference, including transcripts of the panel discussions which took place, is available at: http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/computing/middleware98/ Based on their original reviews and the reactions of delegates to the ensuing presentations we have selected six papers from the conference for publication in this special issue of Distributed Systems Engineering. The first paper, entitled `Jonathan: an open distributed processing environment in Java', by Dumant et al describes a minimal, modular ORB framework which can be used for supporting real-time and multimedia applications. The framework provides mechanisms by which services such as CORBA ORBs can be constructed as personalities which exploit the services provided by the underlying minimal kernel. The issue of engineering ORBs is taken further in the second paper, `The implementation of a high-performance ORB over multiple network transports' by Lo and Pope. This paper is of particular interest since it presents the concrete results of running a modern ORB, i.e. omniORB2, over a range of transport mechanisms, including TCP/IP, shared memory and ATM AAL5. However, in order for middleware to progress, future platforms must tackle the issue of scalability as well as that of performance. For this reason we have included two papers, `Systems support for scalable and fault tolerant Internet services' by Chawathe and Brewer and `A scalable middleware solution for advanced wide-area Web services' by van Steen et al, which address the problems inherent in developing scalable middleware. Although the two papers focus on different problems in this area, they are both motivated by the explosion of services and information made available through the World Wide Web. Indeed, the role of the World Wide Web as a component in middleware platforms featured prominently in the conference and this is reflected in our choice of the paper by Cao et al entitled `Active Cache: caching dynamic contents on the Web'. Motivated once again by the problems of scalability, Cao et al propose a system to support the caching of dynamic documents. This is achieved by enabling small applets to be cached along with pages and run by the cache servers. The issues of security, trust and resource utilization raised by such a system are explored in detail by the authors. Finally, `Mobile Java objects' by Hayton et al considers these issues still further as part of the authors' work on adding object mobility to Java. Together, the six papers contained within this issue of Distributed Systems Engineering capture the essence of Middleware'98 and demonstrate the progress that has been made in the fi

Davies, Nigel; Raymond, Kerry; Blair, Gordon

1999-03-01

387

ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hi-res Size hi-res: 715 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MOV format Movie still in TIFF format (9761 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (715 Kb) This animation depicts three hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three chunks (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 30 000 kilometres per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. hi-res Size hi-res: 220 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MPG format Movie still in TIFF format (2553 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (220 Kb) This is a simplified illustration of two hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volt (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volt as it moves away. This is the 'Doppler effect' and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, a second blob is added, which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. The observation, made with ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory, marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and other characteristics that have long eluded them. Dr Jane Turner (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA and University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA) presents this result today at a press conference at the American Astronomical Society in San Diego together with Dr Lance Miller (University of Oxford, United Kingdom). "For years we have seen only the general commotion caused by massive black holes, that is, a terrific outpouring of light," said Turner. "We could not track the specifics. Now, with XMM-Newton, we can filter through all that light and find patterns that reveal information about black holes never seen before in such clarity." Miller noted that if this black hole were placed in our Solar System, it would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three clumps of matter detected would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 27 hours (compared to the 12 years it takes Jupiter to orbit the Sun). Black holes are regions in space in which gravity prevents all matter and light from escaping. What scientists see is not the black hole itself but rather the light emitted close to it as matter falls towards the black hole and heats to extremely high temperatures. Turner's team observed a well-known galaxy named Markarian 766, located about 170 million light years away in the constellation Coma Berenices (Bernice's Hair). The black hole in Markarian 766 is relatively small although highly active. Its mass is a few million times that of the Sun; other central black hole systems are over 100 million solar masses. Matter funnels into this black hole like water swirling down a drain, forming what scientists call an accretion disc. Flares erupt on this disc most likely when magnetic field lines emanating from the central black hole interact with regions on the disc. To measure the speed of the flares and the black hole mass, scientists used a technique that involves measuring the Doppler shift and resembles that used by the police to catch speeding motorists. As

2005-01-01

388

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650-1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5-1.0 L min-1 aerosol flow rate, 20-30°C inlet temperature, 4-34 K m-1 temperature gradient). For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff) in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations. High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5-7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature. To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05-2%), the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH4)2SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff factor models). The uncertainties related to the model parameterizations of water activity clearly exceeded the CCNC measurement precision. Relative deviations caused by different ways of calculating or approximating solution density and surface tension did not exceed 3% for (NH4)2SO4 and 1.5% for NaCl. Nevertheless, they did exceed the CCNC measurement precision under well-defined operating conditions and should not be neglected in studies aimed at high accuracy. To ensure comparability of results, we suggest that CCN studies should always report exactly which Köhler model equations and parameterizations of solution properties were used. Substantial differences between the CCNC calibration results obtained with (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols under equal experimental conditions (relative deviations of Seff up to ~10%) indicate inconsistencies between widely used activity parameterizations derived from electrodynamic balance (EDB) single particle experiments (Tang and Munkelwitz, 1994; Tang, 1996) and hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) aerosol experiments (Kreidenweis et al., 2005). Therefore, we see a need for further evaluation and experimental confirmation of preferred data sets and parameterizations for the activity of water in dilute aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl solutions. The experimental results were also used to test the CCNC flow model of Lance et al.~(2006), which describes the dependence of Seff on temperature, pressure, and flow rate in the CCN counter. This model could be applied after subtraction of a near-constant temperature offset and derivation of an instrument-specific thermal resistance parameter (RT?1.8 K W-1). At Seff>0.1% the relative deviations between the flow model and experimental results were mostly less than 5%, when the same Köhler model approach was used. At Seff?.1%, however, the deviations exceeded 20%, which can be attributed to non-idealities which also caused the near-constant temperature offset. Therefore, we suggest that the CCNC flow model can be used to extrapolate calibration results, but should generally be complemented by calibration experiments performed under the relevant operating conditions - during field campaigns as well as in laboratory studies.

Rose, D.; Frank, G. P.; Dusek, U.; Gunthe, S. S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2007-06-01

389

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15