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1

Investigation on Gedeon Streaming in a Traveling Wave Thermoacoustic Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing feedback path, traveling wave thermoacoustic engines realize relatively higher efficiency in thermoacoustic conversion. However, the toroidal topology allows acoustically induced streaming, which can seriously degrade performance of traveling wave thermoacoustic engines. With measurements of pressure and temperature distributions as effective approaches, four methods were applied to study the streaming in the thermoacoustic engine. The effects of Gedeon streaming on

L. M. Qiu; D. M. Sun; Y. X. Tan; X. Deng; G. B. Chen

2006-01-01

2

Lance-Adams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

It is not common for a patient who survives cardiac arrest to experience significant neurologic impairment such as acute and chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, known as Lance-Adams syndrome. This syndrome is predominantly characterized by myoclonus that starts days to weeks after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients who regained consciousness. Although several cases of LAS were reported, the decisive treatment method has not been established. We report a 43 year old man with Lance-Adams syndrome who showed long-term improvement through treatment with anti-myoclonic agents and participation in a rehabilitation program.

Shin, Jun-Hwa; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, A Ram; Shin, Hee Suk; Lee, Eun Shin; Oh, Min-Kyun

2012-01-01

3

Lance Handbook, Firing Team Leader's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This handbook is designed to assist an individual in gaining an understanding of the relationship between a lance firing team and an assembly and transport section in combat. Chapters on nuclear release, battle drill, survey and emergency destruction all assist in gaining an understanding of the lance system. It also lists the critical lance publications -- army regulations, field manuals, technical manuals etc.

1983-03-01

4

Lance-Adams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is a rare complication of successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation and is often accompanied by action myoclonus. LAS is seen in patients who have undergone a cardiorespiratory arrest, later regained consciousness, and then developed myoclonus days or weeks after the event. Less than 150 cases of LAS have been reported in the worldwide medical literature. Here, we present a 32-year-old man who suffered from myoclonus after hypoxic brain damage due to hanging himself. This case was diagnosed as Lance-Adams syndrome according to a history of hypoxic brain damage, the clinical features, and the neuroimages such as brain SPECT. Making an early diagnosis and properly managing LAS is positively related to improving the patient's functional outcome. If patients have posthypoxic myoclonus after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we should consider the diagnosis of LAS and initiate a proper rehabilitation program.

Lee, Ha Lim

2011-01-01

5

GEDEON: A joint venture between research (CEA and CNRS) and industry (EDF and FRAMATOME)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear waste partitionning and transmutation (P & T) are considered in France as an official line of research, in accordance with the Law of December 30, 1991 concerning research in the field of long lived and highly active nuclear waste. A research group called GEDEON ( GEstion des DEchets par des Options Nouvelles) has been set up between CEA, CNRS, EDF and FRAMATOME with the aim to carry out basic research related to the use of accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADS) and of thorium as an option to reduce the waste long term impacts. In the partners agreement of GEDEON, the following subjects have been identified: spallation physics, nuclear data, subcritical neutronic studies, materials, thorium, system and scenario studies. The organization as well as the scientific program and activities of GEDEON are presented.

Schapira, J. P.

1999-07-01

6

Straight talk with...Miyoung Chun. Interview by Virginia Hughes.  

PubMed

It was a single tweet. In February, after US President Barack Obama made a subtle nod to a new neuroscience project in his annual State of the Union address, Francis Collins, director of the country's National Institutes of Health (NIH), posted on the @NIHDirector Twitter feed: "Obama mentions the #NIH Brain Activity Map in #SOTU." Instantly, scientists were buzzing with rumors that the Brain Activity Map could be the next moon shot, with a budget and timeline similar to the Human Genome Project. The brain map began as a brief white paper and has grown into a large--and still largely undefined--collaboration of several government agencies, nonprofit foundations and private companies. As the stakeholders describe in a commentary published last month (339, 1284-1285, 2013), the goal of the initiative is to understand how thousands of neurons work in concert to control behavior and trigger disease. Miyoung Chun, vice president for science programs at The Kavli Foundation in Oxnard, California, has been developing the project since the beginning and is the self-described "glue" between its many diverse stakeholders. Chun spoke with Virginia Hughes about the evolution of the project and what it might mean for biomedicine. PMID:23558614

Chun, Miyoung

2013-04-01

7

A Chance to Be Like Lance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The physical demands of the Tour de France and the success of Americancyclist Lance Armstrong provide a great "hook" to teach middle schoolstudents about nutrition and physiology. This article describes how an ordinary nutrition and physiology unit was transformed into an engagingcurriculum through careful planning and by implementing an inquiry-based approach to learning.

Prouty, Anne

2004-10-01

8

Permanent synchronization of camcorders via LANC protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device, which keeps two camcorders permanently in synchronization, has been developed. The mentioned device uses LANC (CONTROL-L) camcorder's inputs for synchronization. It enables controlling of two camcorders simultaneously via built-in buttons, by using external LANC remote controller and/or by the PC via serial (RS232) communication. Since device requires LANC inputs on camcorders or ACC inputs on still cameras, it can be used on some camcorders produced by manufacturers Sony and Canon or some still cameras produced by Sony. The device initially synchronizes camcorders or still cameras by applying arbitrarily delayed power-up pulses on LANC (ACC) inputs. Then, on user demand, the camcorders can be permanently synchronized (valid only for some camcorders produced by Sony). The effectiveness of the proposed device is demonstrated by several experiments on three types of camcorders (DCR-TRV900E, HDR-HC1, HVR-Z1U) and one type of still camera (DSC-V1). The electronic schemes, PCB layouts, firmware and communication programs are freely available (under GPL licence).

Vrancic, Damir; Smith, Steven L.

2006-02-01

9

LAND USE CHANGE AND LAND DEGRADATION: A CASE STUDY IN NAM CHUN SUBWATERSHED IN THAILAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nam Chun subwatershed in Thailand was covered by dense forest some 35 years ago. After Thai government gave concession to companies to cut down the trees as a way to eliminate communist movement in the past, deforestation has led to unselective cutting down of trees. Forest was replaced by maize cultivation, the main crop in the area. Cultivation on steep

Boonruck Patanakanog; Dhruba Pikha Shrestha; Chalermchai Saengthongpinit; Amornrat Sapet; Abbas Farshad

10

Notes on the butterflies "described" in 1929 by Prof. Woon-Young Chun from Hainan Island, China (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).  

PubMed

Joicey & Talbot (1921) described 2 new species and 19 new subspecies of butterflies and one new subspecies of Zygaenidae from Hainan Island, China. The specimens studied by Joicey & Talbot from Hainan were obtained by Charles Talbot Bowring (1862-1932) between the years 1918 and 1920. Bowring, who also used the Chinese name Bao Lai-ling, was Commissioner of Customs at Hoihow (Haikou), capital of Hainan, from 1915 to 1920, and "sent many thousands of specimens" of Lepidoptera to the Hill Museum, Surrey, England (Talbot, 1921), where they were studied by James John Joicey (1871-1932), owner of the Museum, and George Talbot (1882-1952), its Curator. Joicey & Talbot (1921) also mentioned that Mr. Young Chun, a Chinese graduate of Harvard University, made a journey of three months in the Five Finger Mountains, Hainan and "managed to get together a very fine lot of Lepidoptera for Mr. Bowring". Prof. Woon-Young Chun (1890-1971) eventually became a very famous botanist in China, and his father, a Chinese diplomat, was a friend of Bowring. Prof. Chun published many botanical monographs and papers during his life time, but he also wrote one obscure entomological article dealing with new butterflies found in Hainan. In 1929, he published the paper "Description of new butterflies from the island of Hainan" in Agricultura [Zhong-da-nong-xue], which was a Chinese journal issued by the Agricultural College, National Central University (now called Nanjing University), Nanjing. Chun (1929) mentioned that "the new butterflies here described were part of a collection made on the Island of Hainan during 1920 …" and "they were determined by Messrs J. J. Joicey and George Talbot". In that paper, Chun "described" one new species and 10 new subspecies of butterflies which had already been named by Joicey & Talbot (1921). Surprisingly, Chun's descriptive text is copied almost verbatim from Joicey & Talbot (1929), with a very few changes and additions, and nowhere does he mention that the original descriptions of the taxa listed by him had been published by Joicey & Talbot in the first volume of the Bulletin of the Hill Museum in 1921. A possible intention of Chun is that he just wanted to introduce those new butterflies collected by himself in Hainan to Chinese readers. The fact is that, judging from information in Joicey & Talbot (1921), the specimens on which the "new" taxa in Chun (1929) were described, had indeed been collected by himself in 1920. Nevertheless, all the names "described" by Chun ought to be credited to Joicey & Talbot (1921) and not to Chun (1929). In a strict sense, the names published by Chun in 1929 should all be regarded as junior primary homonyms of the names first published by Joicey & Talbot in 1921. Some people who may have had access to Chun's paper may have been misled in believing he was the original author of such names. Even worse, the Zoological Record for 1932 listed Chun's 1929 paper based on a 6-page offprint of the original, without place of publication, and attributed the "new" taxa to Chun. Whereas the paper by Joicey & Talbot (1921) is nowadays easily consulted, by being available online through Internet Archive (www.archive.org/) and the Biodiversity Heritage Library (www.biodiversitylibrary.org/), Chun's 1929 paper is almost unobtainable. So, for a long time, scholars who study butterflies from Hainan and adjacent regions have often been confused with questions such as whether Stichophthalma howqua bowringi was described by Chun in 1929 or by Joicey & Talbot in 1921. After comparing the text of Chun (1929) with that of Joicey & Talbot (1921) together, we clarify this historical problem in this short note.  PMID:24870888

Lang, Song-Yun; Lamas, Gerardo; Lo, Yik Fui Philip

2014-01-01

11

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERN VIEW OF HOISTING RIG FOR OXYGEN LANCES ON THE FLUX STORAGE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

12

[Incidence of tuberculosis in the hunting tribe E-Lun-Chun in Northeast China].  

PubMed

The E-Lun-Chun, or Ortochen, a national minority in North East China, consisted of 2,262 members in 1953. In the mid-17th century a Russian invasion had displaced them from their original home in southward direction over the Amur river towards the Sin An Lin mountain range. While coming into closer contact with neighbouring peoples, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases spread rapidly among the members of the tribe. Under the Japanese occupation (1932-1945) the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated at about 30% of the inhabitants. After initiation of modern measures to fight disease (case finding, drug treatment, BCG vaccination) the incidence dropped from 12.8% in 1954 to 6.5% in 1985, representing a reduction by 49.2% in 31 years. In 1963 a tuberculosis hospital was set up exclusively for E-Lung-Chun and indigenous medical personnel was suitably trained. However, the expected success of drug therapy was hampered by the tribe's abuse of alcohol and their unsteady life as hunters. To achieve a more stable state of health among the E-Lun-Chun, information work and measures to fight tuberculosis should be intensified in future. PMID:2367435

Hsu, H J

1990-02-01

13

75 FR 36780 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2000 East Lancs Lolyne Double...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2000 East Lancs Lolyne double decker buses mounted...2000 East Lancs Lolyne double decker buses mounted...2000 East Lancs Lolyne double decker buses mounted...Control Systems, 205 Glazing Materials, 207 Seating...Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and...

2010-06-28

14

DE LAVAUD CHARGING FROM WEST (UPHILL), TREATING LANCE WITH CALCIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DE LAVAUD CHARGING FROM WEST (UPHILL), TREATING LANCE WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN CENTER & CASTING PIPE TO THE RIGHT. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

15

REFINERY PROCESS HEATER NOX CONTROL BY STAGED COMBUSTION AIR LANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of tests of a natural-draft petroleum-refinery crude-oil process heater, modified to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions by installing staged-combustion air lances. Baseline nitric oxide (NO) emissions firing refinery gas before modification were mea...

16

An Integrated Approach for Accessing Multiple Datasets through LANCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provides imagery for approximately 40 data products from MODIS, AIRS, AMSR-E and OMI to support the applications community in the study of a variety of phenomena. Thirty-six of these products are available within 2.5 hours of observation at the spacecraft. The data set includes the population density data provided by the EOSDIS Socio-Economic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). The purpose of this paper is to describe the variety of tools that have been developed by LANCE to support user access to the imagery. The long-standing Rapid Response system has been integrated into LANCE and is a major vehicle for the distribution of the imagery to end users. There are presently approximately 10,000 anonymous users per month accessing these imagery. The products are grouped into 14 applications categories such as Smoke Plumes, Pollution, Fires, Agriculture and the selection of any category will make relevant subsets of the 40 products available as possible overlays in an interactive Web Client utilizing Web Mapping Service (WMS) to support user investigations (http://lance2.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/wms/). For example, selecting Severe Storms will include 6 products for MODIS, OMI, AIRS, and AMSR-E plus the SEDAC population density data. The client and WMS were developed using open-source technologies such as OpenLayers and MapServer and provides a uniform, browser-based access to data products. All overlays are downloadable in PNG, JPEG, or GeoTiff form up to 200MB per request. The WMS was beta-tested with the user community and substantial performance improvements were made through the use of such techniques as tile-caching. LANCE established a partnership with Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO DAAC) to develop an alternative presentation for the 40 data products known as the State of the Earth (SOTE). This provides a Google Earth-based interface to the products grouped in the same fashion as the WMS. The SOTE servers stream imagery and data in the OGC KML format and these feeds can be visualized through the Google Earth browser plug-in. SOTE provides visualization through a virtual globe environment by allowing users to interact with the globe via zooming, rotating, and tilting. In addition, SOTE also allows adding custom KML feeds. LANCE also provides datacasting feeds to facilitate user access to imagery for the 40 products and the related HDF-EOS products (available in a variety of formats). These XML-based data feeds contain data attribute and geolocation information, and metadata including an identification of the related application category. Users can subscribe to any feeds through the LANCE web site and use the PO DAAC Feed Reader to filter and view the content. The WMS, SOTE, and datacasting tools can be accessed through http://lance.nasa.gov.

Murphy, K. J.; Teague, M.; Conover, H.; Regner, K.; Beaumont, B.; Masuoka, E.; Vollmer, B.; Theobald, M.; Durbin, P.; Michael, K.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Davies, D.; Horricks, K.; Ilavajhala, S.; Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A.

2011-12-01

17

LANCE Q-flex accelerometer qualification test program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the performance obtained on six Sundstrand Q-Flex accelerometers during the qualification test program for the LANCE missile. The Qualification Test Program was divided into three parts: (1) Flight Assurance Tests (FAT), (2) Storage and Transportation Tests (SATT), and (3) Reliability Overstress Tests (ROT). All testing was performed in accordance with Vought accelerometer procurement specification 704-166C dated 8 June 1978.

Hunter, J. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Hester, T.; Searcy, D.

1982-03-01

18

Singleparticle characterization of four aerosol samples collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during Asian dust storm events in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, was applied to characterize ``Asian dust'' samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian dust storm events on 21 March, 9 April, 17 April, and

HeeJin Hwang; Chul-Un Ro

2005-01-01

19

Singleparticle characterization of four aerosol samples collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during Asian dust storm events in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, was applied to characterize “Asian dust” samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian dust storm events on 21 March, 9 April, 17 April, and

HeeJin Hwang; Chul-Un Ro

2005-01-01

20

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2010-04-01

21

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2009-04-01

22

26 CFR 1.263A-5 - Exception for qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists. [Reserved] 1.263A-5...qualified creative expenses incurred by certain free-lance authors, photographers, and artists....

2013-04-01

23

Integrated reservoir description and analysis of the Lance formation at Jonah Field, Sublette County, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Log, core, and production data from the 16 wells in Jonah field have been used to characterize sandstone reservoirs in the Lance Formation (Cretaceous) in the northern Green River basin. The Lance Fm. is composed of 2500 feet of heterolithic fluvial strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain. Sandstones were deposited in east- flowing channels 10-20 feet deep

J. W. Robinson; D. L. Delozier; R. Flinch

1996-01-01

24

Levatiracetam for the management of Lance-Adams syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is a neurological complication characterized by uncontrolled myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest. In this article, clinical manifestation and symptomatic treatment options are discussed especially concerning the rationale of use of levatiracetam in patients with Lance-Adams syndrome. Clinical presentation is action myoclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia, postural imbalance, and very mild intellectual deficit. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our intensive care unit in a coma. She had a cardiorespiratory arrest after a splenectomy in a local hospital. Then, myoclonic movements were continuously observed over the entire body, including the face. On day 14 of hospitalization, we started levatiracetam 1000 mg daily. The frequency of convulsion movements was reduced. The patient level of consciousness was 15 on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 23 out of 30. She was later transferred to the rehabilitation department. Vigilance is required to ensure early diagnosis and timely intervention for the myoclonic jerks. We would like to emphasize that LAS should be considered in patients with the myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest and that levatiracetam therapy may be useful as treatment. PMID:24949053

Ilik, Faik; Kemal Ilik, Mustafa; Cöven, Ilker

2014-01-01

25

Levatiracetam for the management of Lance-Adams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is a neurological complication characterized by uncontrolled myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest. In this article, clinical manifestation and symptomatic treatment options are discussed especially concerning the rationale of use of levatiracetam in patients with Lance-Adams syndrome. Clinical presentation is action myoclonus associated with cerebellar ataxia, postural imbalance, and very mild intellectual deficit. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to our intensive care unit in a coma. She had a cardiorespiratory arrest after a splenectomy in a local hospital. Then, myoclonic movements were continuously observed over the entire body, including the face. On day 14 of hospitalization, we started levatiracetam 1000 mg daily. The frequency of convulsion movements was reduced. The patient level of consciousness was 15 on the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 23 out of 30. She was later transferred to the rehabilitation department. Vigilance is required to ensure early diagnosis and timely intervention for the myoclonic jerks. We would like to emphasize that LAS should be considered in patients with the myoclonic jerks following cardiac arrest and that levatiracetam therapy may be useful as treatment.

ILIK, Faik; Kemal ILIK, Mustafa; COVEN, Ilker

2014-01-01

26

Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteratrion, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

Keller, L. P.; Buseck, P. R.

1990-04-01

27

Simulation of three-phase flow and lance height effect on the cavity shape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate a 150-t top-blown converter. The effect of different lance heights on the cavity shape was investigated using the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Numerical simulation results can reflect the actual molten bath surface waves impinged by the supersonic oxygen jets. With increasing lance height, the cavity depth decreases, and the cavity area, varying like a parabola, increases and then decreases. The cavity area maximizes at the lance height of 1.3 m. Under the three different lance heights simulated in this study, all of the largest impact velocities at the molten bath surface are between 50 m/s and 100 m/s.

Dong, Kai; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Wei; Liu, Fu-hai

2014-06-01

28

Hospital Cluster of HBV Infection: Molecular Evidence of Patient-to-Patient Transmission through Lancing Device  

PubMed Central

Introduction In western countries the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through multi-patients lancing devices has been inferred since early ‘90s, however no study has ever provided biological evidence which directly link these device with HBV cross-infection. Here we present results of an outbreak investigation which could associate, by molecular techniques, the use of lancing device on multiple patients with HBV transmission in an Italian oncohematology unit. Methods The outbreak investigation was designed as a retrospective cohort study to identify all potential cases. All cases identified were eventually confirmed through molecular epidemiology techniques. Audit of personnel including extensive review of infection control measures and reviewing personnel's tests for HBV was done identify transmission route. Results Between 4 May 2006 and 21 February 2007, six incident cases of HBV infection were reported among 162 patients admitted in the oncohematology. The subsequent molecular instigation proved that 3 out 6 incident cases and one prevalent cases (already infected with HBV at the admission) represented a monophyletic cluster of infection. The eventual environmental investigation found that an identical HBV viral strain was present on a multi-patients lancing device in use in the unit and the inferential analysis showed a statistically significant association between undergoing lancing procedures and the infection. Discussion This investigation provide molecular evidence to link a HBV infection cluster to multi-patients lancing device and highlights that patients undergoing capillary blood sampling by non-disposable lancing device may face an unacceptable increased risk of HBV infection. Therefore we believe that multi-patients lancing devices should be banned from healthcare settings and replace with disposable safety lancets that permanently retract to prevent the use of the same device on multiple patients. The use of non-disposable lancing devices should be restricted to individual use at patients' home.

Lanini, Simone; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Puro, Vincenzo; Solmone, Mariacarmela; Martini, Lorena; Arcese, William; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Borgia, Piero; Piselli, Pierluca; Capobionchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

29

LANCE in ECHO - Merging Science and Near Real-Time Data Search and Order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) project provides expedited data products from the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites within three hours of observation. In order to satisfy latency requirements, LANCE data are produced with relaxed ancillary data resulting in a product that may have minor differences from its science quality counterpart. LANCE products are used by a number of different groups to support research and applications that require near real-time earth observations, such as disaster relief, hazard and air quality monitoring, and weather forecasting. LANCE elements process raw rate-buffered and/or session-based production datasets into higher-level products, which are freely available to registered users via LANCE FTP sites. The LANCE project also generates near real-time full resolution browse imagery from these products, which can be accessed through the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). In an effort to support applications and services that require timely access to these near real-time products, the project is currently implementing the publication of LANCE product metadata to the EOS ClearingHouse (ECHO), a centralized EOSDIS registry of EOS data. Metadata within ECHO is made available through an Application Program Interface (API), and applications can utilize the API to allow users to efficiently search and order LANCE data. Publishing near real-time data to ECHO will permit applications to access near real-time product metadata prior to the release of its science quality counterpart and to associate imagery from GIBS with its underlying data product.

Kreisler, S.; Murphy, K. J.; Vollmer, B.; Lighty, L.; Mitchell, A. E.; Devine, N.

2012-12-01

30

Lance-Adams syndrome: a report of two cases*  

PubMed Central

Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus, also known as Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS), is a rare complication of successful cardiopulmanry resuscitation often accompanied by action myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia. It is seen in patients who have undergone a cardiorespiratory arrest, regained consciousness afterwards, and then developed myoclonus days or weeks after the event. Worldwide, 122 cases have been reported in the literature so far, including 1 case of Chinese. Here we report 2 Chinese LAS patients with detailed neuroimagings. Cranial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of patient 1, a 52-year-old woman, showed a mild hypoperfusion in her left temporal lobe, whereas patient 2, a 54-year-old woman, manifested a mild bilateral decrease of glucose metabolism in the frontal lobes and a mild to moderate decrease of the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) peak in the bilateral hippocampi by cranial [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic (PET) scan and cranial magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), respectively. We also review the literature on the neuroimaging, pathogenesis, and treatment of LAS.

Zhang, Yan-xing; Liu, Jian-ren; Jiang, biao; Liu, Hui-qin; Ding, Mei-ping; Song, Shui-jiang; Zhang, Bao-rong; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Bin; Chen, Huai-hong; Wang, Zhong-jin; Huang, Jian-zheng

2007-01-01

31

Global Agricultural Monitoring (GLAM) using MODAPS and LANCE Data Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies / Global Agricultural Monitoring (GIMMS GLAM) system is a web-based geographic application that offers Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and user interface tools to data query and plot MODIS NDVI time series. The system processes near real-time and science quality Terra and Aqua MODIS 8-day composited datasets. These datasets are derived from the MOD09 and MYD09 surface reflectance products which are generated and provided by NASA/GSFC Land and Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and NASA/GSFC MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS). The GIMMS GLAM system is developed and provided by the NASA/GSFC GIMMS group for the U.S. Department of Agriculture / Foreign Agricultural Service / International Production Assessment Division (USDA/FAS/IPAD) Global Agricultural Monitoring project (GLAM). The USDA/FAS/IPAD mission is to provide objective, timely, and regular assessment of the global agricultural production outlook and conditions affecting global food security. This system was developed to improve USDA/FAS/IPAD capabilities for making operational quantitative estimates for crop production and yield estimates based on satellite-derived data. The GIMMS GLAM system offers 1) web map imagery including Terra & Aqua MODIS 8-day composited NDVI, NDVI percent anomaly, and SWIR-NIR-Red band combinations, 2) web map overlays including administrative and 0.25 degree Land Information System (LIS) shape boundaries, and crop land cover masks, and 3) user interface tools to select features, data query, plot, and download MODIS NDVI time series.

Anyamba, A.; Pak, E. E.; Majedi, A. H.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Pinzon, J. E.; Smith, M. M.

2012-12-01

32

Oxygen-Lanced Open Hearth Furnace Fume Cleaning with a Glass Fabric Baghouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This installation, the only application of a baghouse in oxygen-lanced open hearth fume cleaning in the United States, is considered a success. After the equivalent of 10 months continuous service, less than two percent of the 800 bags have been replaced because of possible wear. Operating experience, compared to the electrostatic precipitators in another open hearth shop at the Sparrows

Robert A. Herrick; Joseph W. Olsen; Francis A. Ray

1966-01-01

33

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

34

LANCE Usage and User Analysis: Creating a Better System that Meets User Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes known uses of NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data and imagery and summarizes findings from informal interviews with LANCE users, undertaken to better understand their needs. LANCE, the NRT component of EOSDIS, provides products from MODIS, AIRS, OMI and MLS within 3 hours of satellite observation. LANCE has in excess of 50,000 unique anonymous users per month using data and imagery for wildfire management, air quality measurements, shipping, agricultural forecasting as well as monitoring volcanic plumes, dust storms, smoke plumes and floods etc. Users can be categorized as end users or as brokers who may repackage the imagery and pass it on to their own end users. Interactions with a sample of end users found the following: users like MODIS Rapid Response imagery but do not want to be confined to pre-defined subsets; they want a broader selection of imagery and those with higher bandwidth want the capability to pull in imagery in to their own web-mapping or GIS applications. Users with lower bandwidth want the capability to define their own areas-of-interest for simple download of an image file. Users also expressed a desire to see historic as well as near-real time data, so they can compare the current situation to the recent past. Users want download capabilities to enable information to be shared quickly and easily. These and other findings are being fed back to EOSDIS developers who are creating tools and services to better meet user needs. The findings from users have been valuable in ensuring that developers are on track. The most recent offerings, available http://earthdata.nasa.gov/lance, are Worldview - a web-based client which provides capability to interactively browse full-resolution, global, near real-time satellite imagery from 50+ data products from LANCE, and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) which enables both users and brokers to pull the latest imagery in to their own web mapping applications.

Davies, D.; Boller, R. A.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Ilavajhala, S.; Ullah, A.; Joshi, T.

2012-12-01

35

Evaluation of the TORE(R)Lance for Radioactive Waste Mobilization and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The TORE? Lance is a hand-held hydro transportation device with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The TORE? Lance head generates a precessing vortex core to mobilize solids. Solids retrieval is accomplished using an eductor. The device contains no parts and requires pressurized fluid to operate the eductor and produce mobilization. Three configurations of TORE? Lance operation were evaluated for mobilization and eduction during these tests: compressed air, water, and an air and water mixture. These tests have shown that the TORE? Lance is a tool that can be used at Hanford for mobilization and retrieval of wastes. The system is versatile and can be configured for many types of applications. These studies showed that the diverse applications require unique solutions so care is recommended for TORE? Lance equipment selection for each application. The two components of the TORE? Lance are the precessing vortex for mobilizing and the eductor for retrieval. The precessing vortex is sensitive to fluid flow rate and pressure. In the hand-held unit these parameters are controlled both internally, by changing shim spacing, and externally by controlling the flow split between the eductor and the head. For in-tank applications out-of-tank control of both these parameters are recommended.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Bates, Cameron J.; Bates, James M.; White, M.

2002-09-25

36

Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: A crossover trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. METHODS: Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0\\/7 and 31 6\\/7 weeks gestational

C Celeste Johnston; Francoise Filion; Marsha Campbell-Yeo; Celine Goulet; Linda Bell; Kathryn McNaughton; Jasmine Byron; Marilyn Aita; G Allen Finley; Claire-Dominique Walker

2008-01-01

37

Ex Situ Target Strength Measurements of Pacific Herring and Pacific Sand Lance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-dorsal aspect target strengths (TS) of individual live juvenile and adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and juvenile Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were measured ex situ with 120-kHz dual-beam acoustics. An experimental frame was designed to support a transducer, fish cage, standard calibration target, and two video cameras. Pacific herring were measured at a variety of depths while they swam

G. L. Thomas; Jay Kirsch; Richard E. Thorne

2002-01-01

38

Introducing LANCE, NASA's Near-real Time Processing Capability for Aqua AMSR-E  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponsored by NASA’s Earth Science Division, the Land Atmosphere Near-real time Capability for EOS, or LANCE, system comprises five processing and distribution elements, collocated with select EOSDIS data centers. The LANCE systems use science algorithms that have been optimized to expedite processing and reduce latency of remotely sensed data for distribution to registered users. For Aqua’s AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System), the standard data products are generated at the SIPS (Science Investigator-led Processing System), then transferred to the NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) for archive and distribution, with an average latency of 17-20 hours after observation for swath products. Collocated with the AMSR-E Science Team Leader, the AMSR-E SIPS has generated climate research quality data products since the launch of Aqua in the spring of 2002. Now, with the implementation of LANCE in the summer of 2010 at the SIPS, AMSR-E swath and daily products, with noted limitations, are generated and available to registered users via standard FTP with an average latency of less than 3 hours after observation. While not a substitute for research quality products, near-real-time products are in high demand in fields such as numerical weather prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. This poster focuses on the AMSR-E SIPS’ implementation of LANCE, including a preview of the new brightness temperature algorithm developed specifically for near-real-time processing; characterizes the near-real-time products with respect to the standard products, thus enabling end users to select the best data set for their application; and provides information on data access and resources for both the standard products and near-real-time products.

Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Beaumont, B.; Harrison, S.; Jones, S.; Graves, S. J.; Leon, A.; Booker, L.

2010-12-01

39

Integrated reservoir description and analysis of the Lance formation at Jonah Field, Sublette County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Log, core, and production data from the 16 wells in Jonah field have been used to characterize sandstone reservoirs in the Lance Formation (Cretaceous) in the northern Green River basin. The Lance Fm. is composed of 2500 feet of heterolithic fluvial strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain. Sandstones were deposited in east- flowing channels 10-20 feet deep and 150-4000 feet wide; some amalgamated sandstone intervals are >100 feet thick and over a mile wide. Fluvial architecture varies from isolated meandering river deposits to amalgamated braided river deposits. Sandstones are dominantly composed of detrital chert and quartz grains. The Lance Fm. has been divided into several informal pay intervals that have different reservoir character and performance. Wardell interval sandstones produce gas in eight wells and are poor reservoirs due to fine grain size, high clay and cement content, and greater depth. Yellow Point interval sandstones have shown average performance in five wells. The Jonah interval produces in 10 wells and is the most prolific pay zone with up to 150 net feet of sandstone having core porosity of 8-12% and permeability of .01-0.9 mD. Upper and middle Lance sandstones have better than average performance from five wells. All pay intervals require greater than 8% porosity and less than 35% water saturation. Pre-frac pressure build-up analysis indicates in situ permeabilities of 3-20 microdarcys and suggests that fractures are a significant contributor to deliverability. Estimated reserves of 0.4-4.0 BCFG/well are based on decline curve analysis. Liquid yields vary from 6-86 BO/MMCFG and increase with depth. Pressure gradients range from .55 to .59 psi/ft. Reservoir overpressure is a result of continuous migration of hydrocarbons into available pore space via microfracture seepage.

Robinson, J.W.; Delozier, D.L. [Snyder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Flinch, R. [IPT, Golden, CO (United States)

1996-06-01

40

Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance  

SciTech Connect

An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components.

Tuck, D.M.

1999-01-28

41

Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) element at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides information on the global and regional atmospheric state, with very low temporal latency, to support climate research and improve weather forecasting. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to, and integration of, LANCE AIRS NRT data. As Web services technology has matured in recent years, a new scalable Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is emerging as the basic platform for distributed computing and large networks of interoperable applications. Following the provide-register-discover-consume SOA paradigm, this presentation discusses how to use open-source geospatial software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data, explore the metadata relevant to registering and discovering data and services in the catalogue systems, and implement a Web portal to facilitate users' consumption of the data and services.

Zhao, Peisheng; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Savtchenko, Andrey; Theobald, Michael; Yang, Wenli

2011-01-01

42

Using Open and Interoperable Ways to Publish and Access LANCE AIRS Near-Real Time Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Near-Real Time (NRT) data from the Land Atmosphere Near real time Capability for EOS (LANCE) provide the information on the global and regional atmospheric state with very low latency. An open and interoperable platform is useful to facilitate access to and integration of LANCE AIRS NRT data. This paper discusses the use of open-source software components to build Web services for publishing and accessing AIRS NRT data in the context of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The AIRS NRT data have also been made available through an OPeNDAP server. OPeNDAP allows several open-source netCDF-based tools such as Integrated Data Viewer, Ferret and Panoply to directly display the Level 2 data over the network. To enable users to locate swath data files in the OPeNDAP server that lie within a certain geographical area, graphical "granule maps" are being added to show the outline of each file on a map of the Earth. The metadata of AIRS NRT data and services is then explored to implement information advertisement and discovery in catalogue systems. Datacasting, an RSS-based technology for accessing Earth Science data and information to facilitate the subscriptions to AIRS NRT data availability, filtering, downloading and viewing data, is also discussed. To provide an easy entry point to AIRS NRT data and services, a Web portal designed for customized data downloading and visualization is introduced.

Zhao, P.; Lynnes, C.; Vollmer, B.; Savtchenko, A. K.; Yang, W.

2011-12-01

43

A Diverse Dinosaur-Bird Footprint Assemblage from the Lance Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Eastern Wyoming: Implications for Ichnotaxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse assemblage of dinosaur and bird tracks from Niobrara County, Wyoming, represents the first vertebrate ichnofauna reported from the bone-rich Lance Formation (Maastrichtian, Upper Cretaceous). The ichnofauna includes a hadrosaur track with skin impressions; three theropod track types, including the tetradactyl track Saurexallopus zerbsti (ichnosp. nov.); a tridactyl dinosaur footprint with a fusiform digit III; possible Tyrannosaurus tracks; four

Martin G. Lockley; Gregory Nadon; Philip J. Currie

2004-01-01

44

Use of the Published Lance Armstrong Cancer Story to Teach Health Science Content to High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lance Armstrong (2000) authored a book titled "It's Not About the Bike -- My Journey Back to Life," regarding his battle with testicular cancer. It became a "New York Times" Bestseller and was selected by the "School Library Journal" as one of the "Best Adult Books for High School Students for 2001." The goal of the project described in this…

Burns, E. Robert

2008-01-01

45

"Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

Bratosevich, Nicolas

1967-01-01

46

Politics of NATO Short-Range Nuclear Modernization 1983-1990: The Follow-On-to-Lance Missile Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The follow-on to Lance (FOTL) missile was born in 1983 with a consensual decision by NATO, in the face of a worsening strategic situation, to pursue short-range nuclear force (SNF) modernization. The program continued despite increasing popular and politi...

J. A. Larsen

1991-01-01

47

Informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities: Lessons learned from NASA's Land Atmosphere NRT capability for EOS (LANCE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes the architecture of the LANCE and outlines the modifications made to achieve the 3-hour latency requirement with a view to informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities. It also describes how latency is determined. LANCE is a distributed system that builds on the existing EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) capabilities. To achieve the NRT latency requirement, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems have been made more efficient without compromising the quality of science data processing. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) processes the NRT stream with higher priority than the science data stream in order to minimize latency. In addition to expediting transfer times, the key difference between the NRT Level 0 products and those for standard science processing is the data used to determine the precise location and tilt of the satellite. Standard products use definitive geo-location (attitude and ephemeris) data provided daily, whereas NRT products use predicted geo-location provided by the instrument Global Positioning System (GPS) or approximation of navigational data (depending on platform). Level 0 data are processed in to higher-level products at designated Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). The processes used by LANCE have been streamlined and adapted to work with datasets as soon as they are downlinked from satellites or transmitted from ground stations. Level 2 products that require ancillary data have modified production rules to relax the requirements for ancillary data so reducing processing times. Looking to the future, experience gained from LANCE can provide valuable lessons on satellite and ground system architectures and on how the delivery of NRT products from other NASA missions might be achieved.

Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

2013-12-01

48

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20

49

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01

50

Modelling nearshore intertidal habitat use of young-of-the-year Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus ) in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) is an ecologically important prey species for many vertebrate marine predators in the Pacific Northwest. In this study,\\u000a we examined the use of intertidal habitat by young of the year (YOY) sand lance in Barkley Sound, British Columbia. We selected\\u000a 14 of the original 29 independent environmental variables for modelling based on univariate analysis

Trevor B. Haynes; Clifford K. L. Robinson; Philip Dearden

2008-01-01

51

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their

S. L. Montgomery; J. W. Robinson

1997-01-01

52

Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from glacier ice, and emended descriptions of Nonlabens marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, orange pigmented, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain AKS622(T), was isolated from a glacier core collected from the coast of King George Island, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AKS622(T) was affiliated to the genus Nonlabens of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed highest similarity to Nonlabens marinus S1-08(T) (97.9%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain AKS622(T) and N. marinus S1-08(T) was 46%. Optimal growth of strain AKS622(T) was observed at pH 7.0, at 15 °C and with 2.0% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH, C17:0 2-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c). The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified lipid were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strain AKS622(T) represents a novel species within the genus Nonlabens, for which the name Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AKS622(T) (?=?KCCM 43019(T)?=?JCM 14068(T)). Emended descriptions of N. marinus Park et al. 2012 and Nonlabens agnitus Yi and Chun 2012 are given. PMID:24065773

Kwon, Yong Min; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Sang-Jin

2014-02-01

53

Complete Genome Sequence of Fer-de-Lance Virus Reveals a Novel Gene in Reptilian Paramyxoviruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The complete RNA genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), has been determined. The genome is 15,378 nucleotides in length and consists of seven nonoverlapping genes in the order 3??? N-U-P-M-F-HN-L 5???, coding for the nucleocapsid, unknown, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, and large polymerase proteins, respectively. The gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and tri-nucleotide intergenic regions similar to those of other Paramyxoviridae. The FDLV P gene expression strategy is like that of rubulaviruses, which express the accessory V protein from the primary transcript and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode P and I proteins. There is also an overlapping open reading frame potentially encoding a small basic protein in the P gene. The gene designated U (unknown), encodes a deduced protein of 19.4 kDa that has no counterpart in other paramyxoviruses and has no similarity with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Active transcription of the U gene in infected cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis, and bicistronic N-U mRNA was also evident. The genomes of two other snake paramyxovirus genotypes were also found to have U genes, with 11 to 16% nucleotide divergence from the FDLV U gene. Pairwise comparisons of amino acid identities and phylogenetic analyses of all deduced FDLV protein sequences with homologous sequences from other Paramyxoviridae indicate that FDLV represents a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. We suggest the name Ferlavirus for the new genus, with FDLV as the type species.

Kurath, G.; Batts, W. N.; Ahne, W.; Winton, J. R.

2004-01-01

54

Single-particle characterization of four aerosol samples collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during Asian dust storm events in 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, was applied to characterize "Asian dust" samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian dust storm events on 21 March, 9 April, 17 April, and 11 November in 2002. In this study, it is demonstrated that single-particle analysis using the low-Z particle EPMA provides detailed information on various types of chemical species in the samples. The most abundantly encountered particles, both in coarse and fine fractions, are soil-derived particles such as aluminosilicates and silicon dioxide, except for the sample collected on 11 November 2002, where reacted CaCO3 particles are the most abundantly encountered. All four samples are found to have experienced chemical modifications during long-range transport because the samples contain a significant number of particles composed of chemical species, such as nitrate and sulfate, which resulted from atmospheric reactions of CaCO3 and sea-salt particles. This finding implies that CaCO3 and sea-salt particles reacted with sulfur and nitrogen oxide species during long-range transport. The sample collected on 11 November 2002 experienced the most extensive chemical modification during its transport. For this sample, the overall relative abundances of reacted CaCO3 and reacted sea-salt particles are 29.9% and 23.2%, respectively. In addition to the observation of the reacted CaCO3 and sea-salt particles, reacted K-containing particles are also encountered in this sample. In this work, it is observed that chemical modification of sea-salt particles was more extensive than that of CaCO3 particles. By considering the relative abundances of nitrate- and sulfate-containing particles, nitrate formation from CaCO3 and sea-salt particles in the air is found to be more favorable than sulfate formation.

Hwang, Heejin; Ro, Chul-Un

2005-12-01

55

Jonah field, Sublette County, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 pd (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 in) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W. [Synder Oil Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

1997-07-01

56

Determining the Habitat Preference of Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) Using Multibeam Bathymetry in the San Juan Islands, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammodytes hexapterus (Pacific Sand Lance or PSL) is an important forage fish supporting many marine populations, ranging from salmon, harbor seals, and whales. Previous studies have shown PSL to be highly substrate specific (Robards et al., 1999). Sand lance spend time buried in the substrate and come out into the water column to feed. This is due to the lack of swim bladders. If the sand particles are too fine their gills can be clogged (Wright et al., 2000). Little is known about the species sub-tidal habitat and new information regarding habitat preferences in deep water would be beneficial in determining their distribution and abundance. Preliminary examination undertaken in this investigation was limited to three sand wave fields: one, the central San Juan Channel (a known PSL sub-tidal habitat), and two previously un-sampled fields west of Sucia Island and southwest of Lopez Island in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, Washington. Multibeam bathymetric data, subsea video, and sediment analysis show that PSL have occupied the San Juan Channel, which is composed of well-sorted medium grained (~500 ?m size) siliciclastic sand. Several sediment samples from in and around the fields were collected and analyzed to determine a grain size distribution of the sediments. The two un-sampled fields examined have an average grain size higher and lower respectively than the San Juan Channel field. The expected results of this study are to determine whether or not the two newly sampled sediment wave fields are potential sub-tidal habitats of PSL.

Davidson, E.; Greene, H.; Harmsen, F. J.

2010-12-01

57

A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women 1 1 No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the authors(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is\\/are associated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chan K, Qin L, Lau M, Woo J, Au S, Choy W, Lee K, Lee S. A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:717–22.

Kaiming Chan; Ling Qin; Mingchu Lau; Jean Woo; Szeki Au; Wingyee Choy; Kwongman Lee; Shiuhung Lee

2004-01-01

58

Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

Sweat, Michael J.

2013-01-01

59

Lancing of a boil leading to severe invasive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection in an adolescent.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chief symptoms of fever and right leg pain for 3 days. Also of note, he reported that he had a boil on his neck 2 weeks prior to admission. This lesion was lanced by his mother with a hot needle. An X-ray, CT scan and MRI of the right knee showed no evidence of osteomyelitis. He was placed on intravenous vancomycin for empiric treatment. Blood culture grew methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), susceptible to vancomycin and clindamycin. He continued to spike fever with the development of erythema, and swelling of the distal thigh. Repeat MRI of the right knee showed osteomyelitis and subperiosteal abscess in the distal femur shaft with surrounding intramuscular abscesses and pyomyositis. He was taken to the operating room where 50 mL of fluid was drained from the periosteal abscess and a bone biopsy was obtained. Bone marrow culture also grew MSSA, susceptible to clindamycin. PMID:24336580

Medows, Marsha; Sharma, Amit

2013-01-01

60

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01

61

Characterization of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry.  

PubMed

The argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry is a hazardous waste due to the presence of chromium. While its coarse fraction is usually recycled into the own industrial process, the fine fraction is normally disposed in landfills. Techniques such as briquetting or magnetic separation were found to be inadequate to treat it for reuse purposes. So, in this work, the fine fraction of the AOD-L sludge was characterized aiming to find alternative methods to treat it. This sludge consists of a fine powder (mean diameter of 1 microm) containing 34 +/- 2% (w/w) of iron, 10.2 +/- 0.9% (w/w) of chromium and 1.4 +/- 0.1% (w/w) of nickel. The main crystalline phases identified in this study were chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and calcite (CaCO(3)). In the digestion tests, the addition of HClO(4) has favored the dissolution of chromite which is a very stable oxide in aqueous media. Nickel was found in very fine particles, probably in the metallic form or associated with iron and oxygen. The sludge was classified as hazardous waste, so its disposal in landfills should be avoided. PMID:17889435

Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

2008-05-01

62

Leaching of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge for the preferential removal of iron.  

PubMed

The fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge is a hazardous waste generated by the stainless steel industry which is normally disposed in landfills. Due to the relative high content of Fe, Cr and Ni as well as its low granulometry, a hydrometallurgical route based on sequential leaching steps is being investigated to treat it. In this paper, an attempt made to remove Fe from the sludge and concentrate Cr and Ni in the solid is highlighted. Leaching was carried out at atmospheric pressure using H(2)SO(4) and HCl at varying temperature (25, 40, 55 and 70 degrees C) and acid concentration (3, 6 and 12%, v/v). For both acids, leaching rate increased with temperature and acid concentration, and higher dissolutions of Fe and Ni were obtained in comparison with that of Cr. HCl was found more selective for Fe over Ni and Cr. The content of Fe was reduced nearly 50% (w/w) at 70 degrees C and HCl 12% (v/v), while Cr remained mostly in the solid; however, around 40% (w/w) of Ni was dissolved and it may hinder such leaching step in the studied route. The study points out that total metal leaching of sludge under high temperature and pressure conditions must be considered. PMID:18579293

Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

2009-02-15

63

Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus in waters off the coast of British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Variation in the diet of the Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus was examined in three years (2009-2011) at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. There were 12 major taxa of prey in diets, eight of which were Crustacea, with copepods being by far the dominant taxon in all 12 site-years. Of the 22 copepod taxa recorded, only Calanus marshallae and Pseudocalanus spp. occurred in all collections, and these two calanoid species dominated diets in terms of frequency of occurrence and total numbers of prey (Pseudocalanus spp. in most collections), and total prey biomass (C. marshallae in all collections). Based on an index of relative importance, C. marshallae was the primary prey at the two southerly sampling sites (Pine and Triangle Islands) and Pseudocalanus spp. at the two northerly sites (Lucy Island and S'Gang Gwaay). Based on an index of dietary overlap, the species composition of the copepod component of A. hexapterus diets overlapped very strongly at the northerly and the southerly pairs of sites in both a cold-water La Niña year (2009) and a warm-water El Niño year (2010), but overall there was more homogeneity amongst all four sites in the La Niña year. PMID:24580657

Hipfner, J M; Galbraith, M

2013-11-01

64

Identification and characterization of a constitutively T-loop phosphorylated and active recombinant S6K1: expression, purification, and enzymatic studies in a high capacity non-radioactive TR-FRET Lance assay.  

PubMed

The p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase 1 (S6K) is a substrate and effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR/S6K pathway is implicated in cancer and metabolic disorders. To study the molecular regulation of S6K and identify specific inhibitors, availability of active recombinant S6K and robust enzyme assays are critically needed. To date, however, expression of active recombinant S6K has not been feasible as S6K activation requires a cascade of phosphorylation events. We have compared several engineered S6K enzymes. Expression of the Flag-S6KDeltaCT(T389E) in HEK293 cells resulted in a highly active S6K that was constitutively phosphorylated on T229 in the activation-loop (T-loop). The active enzyme was readily purified in large scale by anti-Flag affinity chromatography achieving a high purity. We developed a high capacity homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Lance assay for measurement of substrate phosphorylation and analysis of kinetic parameters. The Michaelis constant (Km) values of S6K for ATP and the Biotin-S6 substrate peptide were determined to be 21.4+/-0.29 and 0.9+/-0.48 microM, respectively. The Lance assay was further validated with a diverse panel of literature inhibitors, in which the PKC inhibitors staurosporine, Ro-318220, and the PKA inhibitor Balanol potently inhibited S6K. Dose-response and inhibition mechanism by these inhibitors were also studied. Our data provide a new simplified strategy to achieve rapid production of active S6K and demonstrate utility of the Lance assay for S6K enzyme screen in searching for specific inhibitors. PMID:16213157

Zhang, Wei-Guo; Shor, Boris; Yu, Ker

2006-04-01

65

Of Knights, Lances, and Windmills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how our "technocratic society is helping to "pollute education; based on a speech given at meeting of Oregon Association of School Librarians and Media Specialists, October 4, 1969. (Author/SW)

McLaughlin, Frank

1970-01-01

66

Spatial and Feeding Ecology of the Fer-de-Lance (Bothrops asper) in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the ways in which animals utilize space and obtain food are central themes in modern ecology. Formulating broad principles and elucidating the factors explaining such patterns are limited, however, by the availability of data from a broad range of species and systems. This problem especially true of snakes, a predator group about which even the most basic natural history

Dennis Keith Wasko

2009-01-01

67

Airfoil lance apparatus for homogeneous humidification and sorbent dispersion in a gas stream  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for spraying an atomized mixture into a gas stream comprises a stream line airfoil member having a large radius leading edge and a small radius trailing edge. A nozzle assembly pierces the trailing edge of the airfoil member and is concentrically surrounded by a nacelle which directs shielding gas from the interior of the airfoil member around the nozzle assembly. Flowable medium to be atomized and atomizing gas for atomizing the medium are supplied in concentric conduits to the nozzle. A plurality of nozzles each surrounded by a nacelle are spaced along the trailing edge of the airfoil member. 3 figs.

Myers, R.B.; Yagiela, A.S.

1990-12-25

68

[The Lance-parfum (perfume-squirter), a medical equipment which became a carnival article].  

PubMed

The perfume-squirter was a glass or metal tube. It contained parfumed ethyl chloride and was very famous as carnival article. Therefore, ethyl chloride in tubes existed before, and was used by surgeons for local anesthetics. The authors study patents to prove this relationship and analyse letters written before the First World War by the Swiss perfumer Givaudan and a French physician, Dr Besançon. PMID:19069202

Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

2008-05-01

69

Winning the Race: Lance Armstrong Shares His Struggle To Survive Cancer... and Thrive!  

MedlinePLUS

... seven consecutive victories in the Tour de France bicycle race. But, as Armstrong reveals in this exclusive ... We are doing that through research, advocacy and public health programs. It's a big job; we are ...

70

Plasma Arc and Thermal Lance Techniques for Cutting Concrete and Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plasma arc technique is used today in industrial practice for any metal, but mainly for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminium. In air the maximum thickness that was cut in the performed tests was 150 mm, both with ferritic and austenitic...

A. Bargagliotti L. Caprile F. Piana E. Tolle

1986-01-01

71

Implementation of the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from satellite sensors. Applications have demonstrated the utility of timely data in a number of areas ranging from numerical weather prediction and forecasting, to monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. As applications mature, the need to transition from prototypes to operational capabilities presents an opportunity to improve current near real-time systems and inform future capabilities. This paper presents NASA s effort to implement a near real-time capability for land and atmosphere data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites. Index Terms- Real time systems, Satellite applications

Michael, Karen; Murphy, Kevin; Lowe, Dawn; Masuoka, Edward; Vollmer, Bruce; Tilmes, Curt; Teague, Michael; Ye, Gang; Maiden, Martha; Goodman, H. Michael; Justice, Christopher

2010-01-01

72

Scientific and engineering services for the LANCE/ER accelerator production of tritium (APT) project  

SciTech Connect

The APT project office is conducting a preconceptual design study for an accelerator driven concept to produce tritium. The facility will require new technology in many areas, since the scale of this accelerator is significantly larger then any in operation to date. The facility is composed of four subsystems: accelerator, target & blanket, balance of plant, and tritium purification system (TPS). New physics realms will be entered in order for the concept to be feasible; for example, extremely high energy levels of the entering protons that induce (multiplicative) spallation of the neutrons from the high Z target will occur. These are complex and require advance codes (MCNP) to predict the physics interactions and as well as deleterious material effects in the surrounding structures. Other issues include component cooling and complex thermal-hydraulics effects within the blanket and the beam {open_quotes}window.{close_quotes} In order to support a DOE mandated fast ROD schedule, Los Alamos APT staff will be provided with senior, engineering technical support staff with direct APT technology experience and whom are {open_quotes}on site{close_quotes}. This report contains resumes of the staff.

NONE

1994-12-05

73

Heel lance in newborn during breastfeeding: an evaluation of analgesic effect of this procedure  

PubMed Central

Objectives The reduction of pain due to routine invasive procedures (capillary heel stick blood sampling for neonatal metabolic screening) in the newborn is an important objective for the so-called "Hospital with no pain". Practices such as skin to skin contact, or breastfeeding, in healthy newborn, may represent an alternative to the use of analgesic drugs. The aim of our work is to evaluate the analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture in full term healthy newborn. Methods We studied 200 healthy full term newborns (100 cases and 100 controls), proposing the puncture to mothers during breastfeeding, and explaining to them all the advantages of this practice. Pain assessment was evaluated by DAN scale (Douleur Aigue Nouveau ne scale). Results The difference in score of pain according to the DAN scale was significant in the two groups of patients (p = 0.000); the medium score was 5.15 for controls and 2.65 for cases (newborns sampled during breastfeeding). Conclusion Our results confirmed the evidence of analgesic effect of breastfeeding during heel puncture. This procedure could easily be adopted routinely in maternity wards.

Uga, Elena; Candriella, Manuela; Perino, Antonella; Alloni, Viviana; Angilella, Giuseppina; Trada, Michela; Ziliotto, Anna Maria; Rossi, Maura Barbara; Tozzini, Danila; Tripaldi, Clelia; Vaglio, Michela; Grossi, Luigina; Allen, Michaela; Provera, Sandro

2008-01-01

74

ZhiChi QingChunQi NuSheng De FaZhan (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

Rothenberg, Dianne

75

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume of the report is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a crude-oil process heater and laboratory analyses of collected samples. The process heater, burning a combination of oil and refinery gas, was tested in two operating modes: baseline...

76

Alternative energy sources or integrated alternative energy systems? Oil as a modern lance of Peleus for the energy transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this viewpoint, we discuss the importance of consorting alternative energy sources with oil, and not of opposing them. That is why we introduce the concept of alternative energy systems, which we feel is broader-ranging and more effective than alternative energy sources, as this deals with the actual transformation process of the global energy system. Alternative energy systems integrate oil

Alexandre Szklo; Roberto Schaeffer

2006-01-01

77

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This volume of the report gives emission results from field tests of a crude-oil process heater burning a combination of oil and refinery gas. The heater had been modified by adding a system for injecting secondary air to reduce NOx emissions. One test was conducted with the stag...

78

Visualization observation of onset and damping behaviors in a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine by infrared imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of Gedeon streaming on the onset and damping behaviors, infrared imaging is applied for the first time in a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine to observe the temperature evolution of the regenerator. Under conditions of with and without Gedeon streaming, the temperature distribution differences of the regenerator in the onset and damping processes are compared and analyzed. Based

Bo Wang; Limin Qiu; Daming Sun; Kai Wang; Weijuan Yang; Junhu Zhou

2011-01-01

79

64 FR 73176 - Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Cut- to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chun Doo Hwan stated that despite the stagnation plaguing steel industries in other countries, Korea intended to expand its steelmaking capacity. 4 In this speech marking the completion of POSCO's fourth phase of construction at Pohang, President Chun...

1999-12-29

80

Molecular Analysis of the Lance Nematode, Hoplolaimus spp., Using the First Internal Transcribed Spacer and the D1-D3 Expansion Segments of 28S Ribosomal DNA1  

PubMed Central

DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal ITS1 region of the ribosomal DNA and D1-D3 expansion segments of the 28S gene were conducted to characterize the genetic variation of six amphimictic Hoplolaimus species, including H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. galeatus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, and two closely related parthenogenetic species, H. columbus and H. seinhorsti. PCR amplifications of the combined D1-D3 expansion segments and the ITS1 region each yielded one distinct amplicon. In the D1-D3 region, there was no nucleotide sequence variation between populations of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 2 and Hoplolaimus sp. 3, whereas the ITS1 sequences had nucleotide variation among species. We detected conserved ITS1 regions located at the 3’ and 5’ end of ITS1 and also in the middle of the ITS1 among Hoplolaimus species. These regions were compared with sequences of distantly related Heterodera and Globedera. PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of ITS1 and 28S PCR products revealed that several haplotypes existed in the same genome of H. columbus, H. magnistylus, H. seinhorsti, H. concaudajuvencus and Hoplolaimus sp. 1. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analysis using the combined ITS1 and D1-D3 expansion segment sequences always produced trees with similar topology; H. columbus and H. seinhorsti grouped in one clade and the other six species (H. galeatus, H. concaudajuvencus, H. magnistylus, Hoplolaimus sp. 1, Hoplolaimus sp. 2, Hoplolaimus sp. 3) grouped in another. Molecular analysis supports morphological schemes for this genus to be divided into two groups based on several phenotypic traits derived from morphological evolution.

Bae, CH; Szalanski, AL; Robbins, RT

2008-01-01

81

Techniques de Demolition des Ouvrages en Beton: Inventaire des Procedes (Demolition Techniques for Concrete Construction: An Inventory of Methods).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Demolition using mechanical equipment: impact, pressure, tension, undermining, bursting; Demolition using thermal methods: oxygen lance, powder torch, powder lance, plasma torch, laser; Demolition using explosives, expansion and gas release, qui...

1982-01-01

82

Integrated dry NO(sub x)/SO(sub 2) emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO(sub 2) emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired lo...

L. J. Muzio R. A. Smith T. Hunt

1997-01-01

83

Cascade thermoacoustic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several years, Los Alamos has successfully fabricated and tested traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines having efficiencies much greater than those of traditional standing wave thermoacoustic engines. Unfortunately, Gedeon streaming effects present in these traveling wave engines has required using fluid flow ``diodes'' having greater complexity than desired. The cascade thermoacoustic engine recently fabricated and tested at Los

D. L. Gardner; G. W. Swift

2003-01-01

84

1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect

Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

2013-01-01

85

78 FR 20890 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2010, through February 29, 2012. The review covers one producer/ exporter of the subject merchandise, Chang Chun Petrochemical Co., Ltd. (CCPC). We preliminarily find that CCPC has not sold subject merchandise at less than normal value....

2013-04-08

86

PCP inviiflyer KY outlinecopy  

Cancer.gov

Chair LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr., M.D., F.A.C.S. Charles R. Drew Professor of Surgery Howard University College of Medicine Member Lance Armstrong Founder Lance Armstrong Foundation Member Margaret L. Kripke, Ph.D. Executive Vice President and Chief Academic Officer The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Executive Secretary Abby B.

87

Free-Lancers: The Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare the ways staff and free-lance writers handle ethical issues, several writers were interviewed for personal experiences, and several daily and weekly newspapers and regional magazines were surveyed. Results indicated that the shield laws protecting staff writers do not apply to free-lance writers. Neither do the rules governing conflicts…

Kean, Sharon L.

88

PCP invitation flyer KY  

Cancer.gov

Chair LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr., M.D., F.A.C.S. Charles R. Drew Professor of Surgery Howard University College of Medicine Member Lance Armstrong Founder Lance Armstrong Foundation Member Margaret L. Kripke, Ph.D. Executive Vice President and Chief Academic Officer The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Executive Secretary Abby B.

89

A parallel link scanner for inspection of bores and tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows a novel scanner to inspect hollow components such as tubes, hollow bolts or rotors with a central bore using ultrasound technology (UT). It uses a flexible lance which can be bent to get around obstacles such as tube elbows or turbine housings. A parallel link drive consisting of 2 motor-driven disks with inclined rollers drives the lance.

W. Zesch; E. Zwicker; M. Wiesendanger; J. F. Knowles

2010-01-01

90

A cascade thermoacoustic engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power

D. L. Gardner; G. W. Swift

2003-01-01

91

Experimental Investigation of a Traveling-wave Refrigerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a thermally-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator without any moving parts is reported. This refrigeration system consists of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine and a thermoacoustic Stirling refrigerator. Both the subsystems are designed to operate on traveling-wave mode. In the experiment, it is found that the Gedeon DC-flow has significant negative effect on both the heat engine and the refrigerator.

E. C. Luo; W. Dai; Y. Zhang; H. Ling

2006-01-01

92

Surviving self-employment: a personal case history.  

PubMed

In the popular perception of what determines one's success as a free-lance illustrator, issues other than natural talent or artistic ability are seldom emphasized. In addition to a firm philosophical foundation and a good work ethic, the organization and management of practical concerns play significant roles in the successful operation of any free-lance business. Presented as a personal history, this article discusses some of the most important, yet most neglected, issues that are essential to the economic security and survival of anyone considering a career as a free-lance illustrator. PMID:8482697

Kasnot, K

1993-01-01

93

Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems. Proceedings of the Lowell Wakefield Fisheries International Symposium on the Role of Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems. Held in Anchorage, Alaska on November 13-16, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Prey Resource Partitioning Among Several Species of Forage Fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska; Bioenergetics Estimation of Juvenile Pollock Food Consumption in the Gulf of Alaska; Winter Dormancy in the Pacific Sand Lance (Ammodytes ...

1996-01-01

94

Implementation of Steerable Pyramids with Hexagonal Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments I would like to thank my adviser, Professor Lance Williams, for his support and technical advice. iv Implementation of Steerable Pyramids with Hexagonal Sampling by Ron L. Hospelhorn ABSTRACT OF THESIS Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the

Ron L. Hospelhorn

2006-01-01

95

10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. LOOKING SOUTH IN BOP SHOP AT FUME HOOD AND SPARE OXYGEN LANCES ON THE SERVICE FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

96

9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. LOOKING NORTH IN BOP SHOP ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE AT FUME HOOD SHOWING COLLAR AND ENTRANCE FOR OXYGEN LANCES. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

97

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

98

78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Component (JASC) Code: 6720, tail rotor control system. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on March 6, 2013. Lance T. Gant, Acting Directorate Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2013-05876 Filed...

2013-03-14

99

75 FR 75934 - Airworthiness Directives; Apical Industries Inc. (Apical) Emergency Float Kits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are 2564: Liferaft and 3212: Emergency Flotation Section. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on November 22, 2010. Lance T. Gant, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2010-30616 Filed 12-6-10;...

2010-12-07

100

76 FR 66618 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model EC225LP Helicopters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Agency AD No. 2009-0023, dated February 20, 2009. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on September 13, 2011. Lance T. Gant, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2011-27771 Filed 10-26-11;...

2011-10-27

101

Bacteria in Semen May Affect HIV Transmission, Levels: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... team led by Lance Price of the Translational Genomics Research Institute in Phoenix. Although HIV is found ... not have HIV, the researchers said. SOURCE: Translational Genomics Research Institute, news release, July 24, 2014 HealthDay ...

102

77 FR 58971 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...attitude on the attitude display screen and the independent electromechanical...proposed rulemaking. Before acting on this proposal, we will...co-pilot's attitude display screens occurred simultaneously during...14, 2012. Lance T. Gant, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft...

2012-09-25

103

Analysis of the market for a new frozen coal release device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions that contribute to coal freezing and the costs of frozen coal handling are discussed. The various methods currently used to handle frozen coal are examined and assessed relative to costs, effectiveness, and advantages and disadvantages. A NASA designed gas detonation lance for breaking the ice bonds between frozen coal nuggets is described and illustrated. Market demand for the controlled gas detonation lance is estimated to be at least 10 units.

Taglio, S.

1981-01-01

104

Preface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Symposium on “Structural materials for Hybrid systems: A challenge in metallurgy" was held during the “Journées d'Automne 2001" of the “Société Française de Métallurgie et de Matériaux", Paris from October 29 through 31, 2001. The editors of this volume, D. Gorse and J.-L. Boutard, would like to acknowledge GDR GEDEON, CEA - Direction de l'énergie Nucléaire, CNRS - Département des Sciences Chimiques, et Centre d'études de Chimie Métallurgique for sponsoring this symposium. This symposium was divided into three sessions dealing with i) thermodynamics, intergranular penetration and liquid metal embrittlement, ii) irradiation effects in structural materials and iii) compatibility of structural materials with lead alloys in relation with R& D studies for MEGAPIE. The intent of this symposium was to provide a forum for discussing the most recent results obtained in the frame of the materials research program of the “Groupement De Recherche (GDR) GEDEON". Special emphasis was given to all factors susceptible to affect the durability of structural materials for spallation targets, like irradiation effects under proton and neutron mixed spectrum, Liquid Metal Corrosion (LMC) and Embrittlement (LME). The material research program of GEDEON is a joint CEA-CNRS venture. In 1997, the GDR GEDEON gave opportunity to metallurgists and nuclear physicists of both organizations to collaborate for validating the concept of Pb-Bi spallation targets as a key component for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). Historically, since 1995, GDR GEDEON has promoted ADS, also called Hybrid System, as an option for waste management. The starting point of the material program was the 1st GEDEON Workshop on “Materials For Hybrid Systems" held in Paris in 1997, where reference materials of the 9-12 Cr martensitic steels series were selected: EM10 (9Cr-1Mo) and the modified 9Cr-1Mo, T91 (9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb). However, besides their specific concern for ADS, our studies are also of interest for the next generation of LM spallation targets in EU, U.S.A. and Japan. These proceedings contain manuscripts from 90% of the presented papers. The organizers would like to thank all their Colleagues who presented papers, contributed with manuscripts and attended the sessions at the symposium. For sake of clarity, this volume is divided into five sections: 1) general R& D for spallation targets, 2) irradiation effects in liquid metal spallation targets, 3) oxygen control: thermodynamics and monitoring, 4) resistance to liquid metal corrosion and embrittlement of structural materials for spallation targets and 5) basic studies of intergranular penetration and liquid metal embrittlement. Section 1 begins with a description of the spallation neutron source facility SINQ and of ongoing R& D programs at PSI (Switzerland), including MEGAPIE, the joint initiative by six European research institutions and JAERI (Japan), DOE (USA) and KAERI (Korea) to design, build, operate and assess the performance of a liquid lead-bismuth spallation target for 1MW of beam power (G. Bauer et al.). The materials aspects related to the MEGAPIE target and to the LiSoR (Liquid Solid Reactions under irradiation) experiment are reviewed by T. Auger et al. The advantages and drawbacks of solid tungsten spallation targets, compared to liquid Pb-Bi eutectic spallation targets are examined by R. Enderlé et al., presenting the CEA point of view. Section 2 is dedicated to irradiation effects in Liquid Metal (LM) spallation targets structure, a crucial problem for the feasibility of ADS. P. Jung is pointing out the specificity of the irradiation conditions in LM targets by comparison with fast neutron fission and fusion reactors, and the metallurgical consequences like irradiation and helium-induced embrittlement. The author emphasizes the importance of spallation residues whose deleterious effects on in-service properties of target container and window are largely unknown. Until recently, say 1997, only predictions of spallation residues production we

Gorse, D.; Boutard, J.-L.

2002-09-01

105

Attentional Distractor Interference May Be Diminished by Concurrent Working Memory Load in Normal Participants and Traumatic Brain Injury Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reduction in congruency effects under working memory (WM) load has been previously described using different attentional paradigms (e.g., Kim, Kim, & Chun, 2005; Smilek, Enns, Eastwood, & Merikle, 2006). One hypothesis is that different types of WM load have different effects on attentional selection, depending on whether a specific memory load…

de Liano, Beatriz Gil-Gomez; Umilta, Carlo; Stablum, Franca; Tebaldi, Francesca; Cantagallo, Anna

2010-01-01

106

New Horizons in Education, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in the May 2001 issue include the following: "Utilizing the Approach of Educational Evaluation on the Methodology of Research on Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature" (Chun Kwong Wong); "An Examination of the Binet Intelligence Test and Multiple Intelligence Constructs" (Kwok Cheung Cheung); "Developmental Change on the Duration of…

Ho, Kwok Keung, Ed.

2001-01-01

107

77 FR 44310 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ANN CHAN JENNY SIU CHUN CHAN JUSTIN CHANG YI CHANG DEBBIE P. CHANG JACINTA YEUNG CHEONG CHANG MICHAEL YIO-HOW CHENG NICOLAS VINCENT CHI...O'SHEA JOHN JAMES PATALE AMEY SUNIL PENNER MARTHA LEE PROCTOR ROSEMARY HELENA PU HAI...

2012-07-27

108

The Elephant in the Room: My Battle for Tenure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Loo and Chun (2002) maintain, "Asian Americans have been taught to believe that academic achievement is the ticket to success...If you work hard, you will be duly rewarded" (pp. 96-97). This paper invites readers to consider two questions: (1) What are we to make of inconsistencies between institutional commitments "to diversity, educational…

Woo, Kimberley A.

2009-01-01

109

Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

1999

110

Measurement of Intangible Investments by Industry and Its Role in Productivity Improvement Utilizing Comparative Studies between Japan and Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Japan Industrial Productivity (JIP) database and other primary statistics, we estimate intangible investments in Japan at the industry level. Comparing our estimates with Korean ones measured by Professor Chun, intangible investment\\/gross value added (GVA) ratios in Japan are higher than those in Korea in many industries. However, in some service industries, Korean intangible investments are larger than their

Hyunbae CHUN; FUKAO Kyoji; HISA Shoichi; MIYAGAWA Tsutomu

2012-01-01

111

Providing Pedagogical Learner Training in CALL: Impact on Student Use of Language-Learning Strategies and Glosses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While recent studies have found that viewing glosses with multimedia annotations can help students learn and retain vocabulary words (Chun & Plass, 1996; Al-Seghayer, 2001), O'Bryan (2005) found that when providing pictorial glosses for select words within an online reading unit, few students took advantage of the clickable gloss function allowed…

O'Bryan, Anne

2008-01-01

112

Students' Dynamic Assessment Via Online Chat  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is ample documentation on the use of synchronous computer-medi- ated communication (SCMC) in the foreign language classroom for instructional purposes (Beauvois, 1994, 1998; Beauvois & Eledge, 1996; Chun, 1994; Dar- hower, 2002; Kelm, 1992, Kern, 1995; Warschauer, 1996), research devoted to assessment in this area is quite rare (Heather, 2003; Oscoz, 2003). One reason for this lack of

ANA OSKOZ

113

Closing the Chasm of Subtle Second Generation Discrimination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon insights from Edna Chun and Alvin Evans' forthcoming book "Bridging the Diversity Divide: Globalization and Reciprocal Empowerment in Higher Education." Despite apparent signs of progress in diversity within higher education, deeper cultural change must occur within academe to erode and eliminate subtle behavioral and…

Evans, Alvin; Chun, Edna

2008-01-01

114

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Akron, OH, January 6-9, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from the proceedings of the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) include: (1) "A Quantitative Examination of Teacher Self Efficacy and Knowledge of the Anture of Science" (Chun, Sajin and Oliver, J. Steve); (2) "Investigating Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Relative to Self…

Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; Keig, Patricia F., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.

115

Response of arterial smooth muscle to length perturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seow, Chun Y. Response of arterial smooth muscle to length perturbation. J Appl Physiol 89: 2065 -2 072, 2000.—The ability of arterial smooth muscle to generate tension is influenced by muscle length. An unsettled question is whether the length-tension relationship is a simple reflec- tion of the contractile filament overlap, as it is in skeletal muscle. There are several factors

CHUN Y. SEOW

2000-01-01

116

A concise stereoselective synthesis of (-)-erycibelline.  

PubMed

(-)-Erycibelline, the dihydroxynortropane alkaloid isolated from Erycibe elliptilimba Merr. et Chun., was synthesized using a cyclic nitrone as advanced intermediate, wherein the key step was the SmI(2)-induced intramolecular reductive coupling of cyclic nitrone with aldehyde which resulted in good yield and stereoselectivity. PMID:21946951

Zhang, Zhao-Lan; Nakagawa, Shinpei; Kato, Atsushi; Jia, Yue-Mei; Hu, Xiang-Guo; Yu, Chu-Yi

2011-10-26

117

Response to comments on "Hinfinity fuzzy control design for nonlinear singularly perturbed systems with pole placement constraints: an LMI approach".  

PubMed

This note responds to the comments published by Ni Zhao and Fu-Chun Sun in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS-PART B, vol. 34, no. 6, p. 2422, Dec. 2004. Note that Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 are correct. The errors in the proofs have been fixed. PMID:16903380

Nguang, Sing Kiong; Assawinchaichote, Wudhichai

2006-08-01

118

Effect of 3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethylbenzhydrol (flumecinol) on lipid peroxidation in early human placenta.  

PubMed

A study was made of the lipid peroxidation in the microsomal fraction of human placenta tissue in the presence of flumecinol (Zixoryn, Gedeon Richter Pharmaceutical Works, Budapest, Hungary). The tissue samples were obtained from placenta in early pregnancy and also from placenta at term. Up to a concentration of 1 mumolar, flumecinol (3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethyl-benzhydrol), as an enzyme inductor, significantly enhanced the rate of lipid peroxidation but above 1 molar it scarcely influenced it. The in vitro study proved the enzyme-inducing effect of flumecinol on lipid peroxidation in early human placenta. PMID:3389164

Morvay, J; Török, J

1988-01-01

119

Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

Chen, C.W. [Diwan College of Management, Tainan (Taiwan)

2005-09-01

120

A self-reconfiguring metamorphic nanoinjector for injection into mouse zygotes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ?90??m in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the lance into the mouse zygote without tearing the cell membranes and (2) maintain electrical connectivity between the lance and a stationary bond pad. These requirements are satisfied through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. In the first motion subphase a change-point six-bar mechanism elevates the lance to ?45??m above the substrate. In the second motion subphase, a compliant folded-beam suspension allows the lance to translate in-plane at a constant height as it penetrates the cell membranes. The viability of embryos following nanoinjection is presented as a metric for quantifying how well the nanoinjector mechanism fulfills its design requirements of penetrating the zygote without causing membrane damage. Viability studies of nearly 3000 nanoinjections resulted in 71.9% of nanoinjected zygotes progressing to the two-cell stage compared to 79.6% of untreated embryos. PMID:24880406

Aten, Quentin T; Jensen, Brian D; Burnett, Sandra H; Howell, Larry L

2014-05-01

121

A self-reconfiguring metamorphic nanoinjector for injection into mouse zygotes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ?90 ?m in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the lance into the mouse zygote without tearing the cell membranes and (2) maintain electrical connectivity between the lance and a stationary bond pad. These requirements are satisfied through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. In the first motion subphase a change-point six-bar mechanism elevates the lance to ?45 ?m above the substrate. In the second motion subphase, a compliant folded-beam suspension allows the lance to translate in-plane at a constant height as it penetrates the cell membranes. The viability of embryos following nanoinjection is presented as a metric for quantifying how well the nanoinjector mechanism fulfills its design requirements of penetrating the zygote without causing membrane damage. Viability studies of nearly 3000 nanoinjections resulted in 71.9% of nanoinjected zygotes progressing to the two-cell stage compared to 79.6% of untreated embryos.

Aten, Quentin T.; Jensen, Brian D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Howell, Larry L.

2014-05-01

122

Evaluation of the steps for implementation of electronic health records for a small chiropractic practice in Northern Michigan  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this article is to use the steps described by Genson and Chun for implementation of electronic health records to determine the plausibility of implementation in a small private practice in northern Michigan. Discussion A step by step approach was applied as described by Genson and Chun, which included discovery, planning, procurement, implementation, and support. Several challenges and obstacles were identified. Conclusion Electronic health records will eventually be a necessity, but they may not have matured enough to easily replace paper charts or to justify the expense for a single-doctor practice at this time. Each doctor should evaluate the needs of his or her practice for implementing electronic health records and weigh benefits and drawbacks prior to considering implementation.

McGregor, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

123

Method and device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system  

DOEpatents

A device for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a groundwater system includes a generally cylindrical push-rod defining an internal recess therein. The push-rod includes first and second end portions and an external liquid collection surface. A liquid collection member is detachably connected to the push-rod at one of the first and second end portions thereof. The method of the present invention for removing a non-aqueous phase liquid from a contaminated groundwater system includes providing a lance including an external hydrophobic liquid collection surface, an internal recess, and a collection chamber at the bottom end thereof. The lance is extended into the groundwater system such that the top end thereof remains above the ground surface. The liquid is then allowed to collect on the liquid collection surface, and flow downwardly by gravity into the collection chamber to be pumped upwardly through the internal recess in the lance.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC) [Aiken, SC; Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC) [Aiken, SC; Riha, Brian D. (Augusta, GA) [Augusta, GA

2002-01-01

124

Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). Advertising, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advertising, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Made in Taiwan and the U.S.A.: A Study of Gender Roles in Two Nations' Magazine Advertisements" (Kim E. Karloff and Yi-ching Lee); "The Impact of Culture on Political Advertising: A Comparison between the U.S. and Korean Newspaper Ads" (Chun-Sik Kim and Yoo-Kyoung…

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

125

Developmental Differences in Implicit Learning of Spatial Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether a form of implicit memory that has been unambiguously dissociated from conscious awareness—learning of spatial context on the contextual cuing task introduced by M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang (1998)—is mature in childhood as predicted by an evolutionary view of cognition. School-aged children did not show reliable learning relative to adults who performed the same version

Chandan J. Vaidya; Marianne Huger; Darlene V. Howard

2007-01-01

126

Amorphous Carbon Nanospheres  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous carbon nanosphere used as the anode material for Li-intercalation in Lithium-ion energy storage. This structure was obtained through a thermal annealing process at a temperature of 3000 degree Kelvin, simulated using the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code on the LCRC Fusion resource. Science: Kah Chun Lau, Larry Curtiss, Argonne National Laboratory Visualization: Aaron Knoll, Mark Hereld, Michael E. Papka, Argonne National Laboratory

None

2012-01-01

127

Danxia landform genesis of the Qiyun Mountain, Anhui Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danxia landform of Qiyun Mountain is mainly developed on the red granule conglomerates named Xiaoyan Group (K2x1) of middle Cretaceous series, which is controlled mainly by three faulted zones, namely, Jingdezhen-Qimen faulted zone, Jiangwan-Jiekou\\u000a compressional faulted zone and Kaihua-Chun’an folding faulted zone. During the Cretaceous period, this area firstly experienced\\u000a massif subsidence to become a continental faulted basin, then

Chunmei Ma; Cheng Zhu; Hua Peng; Chaogui Zheng; Fusheng Xiang; Yufei Sun; Jiyuan Hu; Guanghui Zhu; Jianjun Lu; Guanghua Cheng

2006-01-01

128

Applying ausmelt technology to recover Cu, Ni, and Co from slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technical feasibility of recovering copper, nickel, and cobalt from smelting and converting slags using Ausmelt’s top-submerged lancing process has been demonstrated at the pilot-plant scale and in several commercial applications. Process conditions may be tailored to achieve the maximum economic recovery of valuable metals and to yield a product composition that is suitable for downstream processing requirements. Strong economic justification for a slag-cleaning process exists where the contained value of metals recovered exceeds 50 per tonne of slag treated. The top-submerged lance system offers a relatively low-cost solution where this value is predominantly associated with the recovery of cobalt.

Hughes, Stephen

2000-08-01

129

Transcript profile of the response of two soybean genotypes to potassium deficiency.  

PubMed

The macronutrient potassium (K) is essential to plant growth and development. Crop yield potential is often affected by lack of soluble K. The molecular regulation mechanism of physiological and biochemical responses to K starvation in soybean roots and shoots is not fully understood. In the present study, two soybean varieties were subjected to low-K stress conditions: a low-K-tolerant variety (You06-71) and a low-K-sensitive variety (HengChun04-11). Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes ×2 tissues (roots and shoots) ×2 time periods [short term (0.5 to 12 h) and long term (3 to 12 d)]. RNA derived from the roots and shoots of these two varieties across two periods (short term and long term) were sequenced and the transcriptomes were compared using high-throughput tag-sequencing. To this end, a large number of clean tags (tags used for analysis after removal of dirty tags) corresponding to distinct tags (all types of clean tags) were identified in eight libraries (L1, You06-71-root short term; L2, HengChun04-11-root short term; L3, You06-71-shoot short term; L4, HengChun04-11-shoot short term; L5, You06-71-root long term; L6, HengChun04-11-root long term; L7, You06-71-shoot long term; L8, HengChun04-11-shoot long term). All clean tags were mapped to the available soybean (Glycine max) transcript database (http://www.soybase.org). Many genes showed substantial differences in expression across the libraries. In total, 5,440 transcripts involved in 118 KEGG pathways were either up- or down-regulated. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results provide preliminary information on the molecular mechanism of potassium absorption and transport under low-K stress conditions in different soybean tissues. PMID:22792192

Wang, Cheng; Chen, HaiFeng; Hao, QingNan; Sha, AiHua; Shan, ZhiHui; Chen, LiMiao; Zhou, Rong; Zhi, HaiJian; Zhou, XinAn

2012-01-01

130

Transcript Profile of the Response of Two Soybean Genotypes to Potassium Deficiency  

PubMed Central

The macronutrient potassium (K) is essential to plant growth and development. Crop yield potential is often affected by lack of soluble K. The molecular regulation mechanism of physiological and biochemical responses to K starvation in soybean roots and shoots is not fully understood. In the present study, two soybean varieties were subjected to low-K stress conditions: a low-K-tolerant variety (You06-71) and a low-K-sensitive variety (HengChun04-11). Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes ×2 tissues (roots and shoots) ×2 time periods [short term (0.5 to 12 h) and long term (3 to 12 d)]. RNA derived from the roots and shoots of these two varieties across two periods (short term and long term) were sequenced and the transcriptomes were compared using high-throughput tag-sequencing. To this end, a large number of clean tags (tags used for analysis after removal of dirty tags) corresponding to distinct tags (all types of clean tags) were identified in eight libraries (L1, You06-71-root short term; L2, HengChun04-11-root short term; L3, You06-71-shoot short term; L4, HengChun04-11-shoot short term; L5, You06-71-root long term; L6, HengChun04-11-root long term; L7, You06-71-shoot long term; L8, HengChun04-11-shoot long term). All clean tags were mapped to the available soybean (Glycine max) transcript database (http://www.soybase.org). Many genes showed substantial differences in expression across the libraries. In total, 5,440 transcripts involved in 118 KEGG pathways were either up- or down-regulated. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results provide preliminary information on the molecular mechanism of potassium absorption and transport under low-K stress conditions in different soybean tissues.

Hao, QingNan; Sha, AiHua; Shan, ZhiHui; Chen, LiMiao; Zhou, Rong; Zhi, HaiJian; Zhou, XinAn

2012-01-01

131

Barrel-Arbor Assembler (clock & watch) 6-72.134; Burrer (clock & watch) 6-72.274; Burrer, Machine (clock & watch) 6-72.275; Lancing Gager (clock & watch) 8-72.10; Main-Arbor-and-Hook Assembler (clock & watch) 8-72.10; Pinion Reamer (clock & watch) 8-72.10; Reamer (clock & watch) 6-78.210; Retaining-Spring Attacher (clock & watch) 8-72.10; Rocking-Bar Adjuster (clock & watch) 8-72.10; Staker (clock & watch) 6-72.111; Straightener (clock & watch) 6-72.246; Tray Leader (clock & watch) 8-72.10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

1959

132

A cascade thermoacoustic engine.  

PubMed

A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volume-velocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency. PMID:14587591

Gardner, D L; Swift, G W

2003-10-01

133

A cascade thermoacoustic engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cascade thermoacoustic engine is described, consisting of one standing-wave stage plus two traveling-wave stages in series. Most of the acoustic power is produced in the efficient traveling-wave stages. The straight-line series configuration is easy to build and allows no Gedeon streaming. The engine delivers up to 2 kW of acoustic power, with an efficiency (the ratio of acoustic power to heater power) of up to 20%. An understanding of the pressure and volumevelocity waves is very good. The agreement between measured and calculated powers and temperatures is reasonable. Some of the measured thermal power that cannot be accounted for by calculation can be attributed to Rayleigh streaming in the two thermal buffer tubes with the largest aspect ratios. A straightforward extension of this work should yield cascade thermoacoustic engines with efficiencies of around 35-40% of the Carnot efficiency.

Gardner, D. L.; Swift, G. W.

2003-10-01

134

Overview 2004 of NASA-Stirling Convertor CFD Model Development and Regenerator R and D Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

2004-01-01

135

Overview 2003 of NASA Multi-D Stirling Convertor Code Development and DOE and NASA Stirling Regenerator R and D Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper win report on continuation through the third year of a NASA grant for multi-dimensional Stirling CFD code development and validation; continuation through the third and final year of a Department of Energy, Golden Field Office (DOE), regenerator research effort and a NASA grant for continuation of the effort through two additional years; and a new NASA Research Award for design, microfabrication and testing of a "Next Generation Stirling Engine Regenerator." Cleveland State University (CSU) is the lead organization for all three efforts, with the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. The Stirling Technology Company and Sun power, Inc. acted as unfunded consultants or participants through the third years of both the NASA multi-D code development and DOE regenerator research efforts; they win both be subcontractors on the new regenerator microfabrication contract.

Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Simon, Terry; Mantell, Susan; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary

2004-01-01

136

Liquid metal penetration in metallic polycrystals: New tools for a challenging unsolved problem of materials science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The set of works performed in the framework of the GEDEON program on liquid metal embrittlement is presented. We focus on the role of wetting of grain boundaries (CBs) in the rapid penetration of a liquid metal along GB, and we point out the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters involved in this phenomenon. Since the paper of Mullins (1957) and the experimental studies performed in the 60's, new tools are available for the observation of grain boundary grooving (and wetting) at a scale below one micron. They are scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It will be shown on copper-, iron- and nickel-based alloys that accurate observations with these facilities allow to reveal the role of interface faceting in grain boundary penetration and to propose a new model which takes into account this new feature.

Bernardini, J.; Monchoux, J.-P.; Chatain, D.; Rabkin, E.

2002-09-01

137

Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte trafficking from blood into tissue is a fundamental process in immune surveil- lance and the immune response to stimuli. Experi- mental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model for posterior uveitis and is mediated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that infiltrate the posterior segment of the eye. To analyze leukocyte migration into retinal tissue during the course of EAU,

Adrian Parnaby-Price; Miles R. Stanford; John Biggerstaff; Lucy Howe; Roy A. Whiston; John Marshall; Graham R. Wallace

1998-01-01

138

Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first issue this year (volume 8, issue 1), Network profiled self-employment support programmes offered by Business Ability and East Lancs into Employment. In this, the final issue of the year, we look at another self-employment scheme, operated by West Norfolk MIND - one that demonstrates how much can be achieved by seizing local opportunities, despite quite limited resources.

Adam Pozner

2004-01-01

139

Automated Surveillance Monitoring Using Local Dominant Direction Templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In today’s world, security is a high priority and even though the numbers of surveil- lance cameras increase, the probability of actually detecting a threat as it happens, remains low. This is due to the high ratio of cameras to the number of staff to monitor them. As a result, there is a need for systems to automatically detect

M. Gryn

2004-01-01

140

Chromosome Numbers and Genome Size Variation in Indian Species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that signifi- cantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unba- lanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the

JANA LEONG-SKORNICKOVA ´; OTAKAR SIDA; VLASTA JAROLIMOVA ´; MAMYIL SABU; T. Fer; P. Travnicek; J. Suda

2007-01-01

141

HIV Surveillance: A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This article provides an overview of recommendations for HIV surveil- lance. Results of surveillance are used in practice to inform program decisions, judge the effectiveness of the national response, lobby for effective programs, and to provide accurate measures of trends and the absolute state of the epidemic. Recommended surveillance activities differ for different epidemic situations—epidemics that are con- centrated

Elizabeth Pisani; Stefano Lazzari; Neff Walker; Bernhard Schwartlander

2003-01-01

142

KEYNOTE ADDRESS: On the Binding Biases of Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lance Strate is Professor of Communication and Media Studies at Fordham University, and Executive Director of the Institute of General Semantics. He is a Past President of the New York State Communication Association, and a recipient of NYSCA's John F. Wilson Award. He is a founder and Past President of the Media Ecology Association, and author of Echoes and Reflections:

Lance A. Strate

2012-01-01

143

ISASMELT™ - 25 YEARS OF CONTINUOUS EVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ISASMELT processi emerged into the global metals industry during the 1990's and is now processing about four million tonnes of concentrates and secondary materials each year. The submerged lance smelting technology produces either lead metal, copper matte or copper metal in plants located in Australia, the USA, Belgium, India, Germany, Malaysia and China. Further plants are under construction in

P. S. Arthur; S. P. Hunt

144

Microsoft Word - 10-22-07 CA Stmt.doc  

Cancer.gov

P R E S I D E N T ’ S C A N C E R P A N E L NATIONAL CANCER PROGRAM N ATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE N ATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CHAIRMAN LASALLE D. LEFFALL, JR., M.D., F.A.C.S. MEMBER LANCE ARMSTRONG MEMBER

145

Fish Face  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Pacific sand lance is an important forage fish found in Puget Sound.  They employ a unique strategy of burrowing into sand to rest and conserve energy, and to avoid predation.  The USGS is currently studying forage fish spawning, and how human development may be affecting their habitat....

2010-08-16

146

Expendable immersion device for combining an expendable immersion sensor and molten metal sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an expendable device for holding an insertable immersion sensor and an insertable immersion sampler to a lance having a manipulator section carrying electrical leads which must be connected to the sensor when the sensor and sampler are immersed into a bath of molten metal, comprising: an immersion sensor for measuring a characteristic of the bath; an end

E. E. Kaufman; W. E. Shuttleworth; J. R. Wiese

1988-01-01

147

CFD, a design tool for a new hot metal desulfurization technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers CFD modelling of desulfurization carried out in a large vessel containing hot metal covered by a thick synthetic slag layer. During nitrogen stirring sulfur transfers to the slag. Sulfur ions in the slag have to be removed by oxidation (O2 lance) to restore slag desulfurization capability. The macroscopic metallurgical reactions occurring during hot metal desulfurization and slag

Stefan Pirker; Philipp Gittler; Hermann Pirker; Joachim Lehner

2002-01-01

148

Relationship between stream forces and parameters of the powder injection into metal bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The pneumatic method of introduction of various powders into ladle or metallurgical furnaces is use because of its many advantages. There are no problems with use of injection lances in electric arc furnaces but in inductive furnaces or ladles, especially big ones the problem of metal flowing out of it may appear. This is the reason why the authors

J. Jezierski; J. Szajnar

149

Production and dispersion of freshwater, anadromous, and marine fish larvae in and around a river plume in subarctic Hudson Bay, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1988 to 1990, fish larvae were sampled before, during, and after ice breakup within and outside the plume of the Great Whale River off Kuujjuarapik, southeastern Hudson Bay, Canada. Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and sand lance (Ammodytes spp.) were the most abundant larvae. Half of the larval fish taxa emerged before the ice broke up in the Bay. The

D. Ponton; J. A. Gagné; L. Fortier

1993-01-01

150

Development of techniques for optimizing selection and completion of western tight gas sands. Tight gas sandstone channel continuity study, Fort Union-through Mesaverde Rocks, Greater Green River and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Phase IV report, 1 August 1979-31 May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help find solutions to problems in obtaining gas production from channel sandstones in the Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, we studied outcrops of equivalent rocks in three areas: Rock Springs Uplift, Hoback Basin, and Cretaceous Mountain. Formations studied were: Paleocene (Ft. Union equivalent), Hoback, Lance, Mesaverde (Hoback Basin), Ericson, and Rock Springs. Besides a photographic survey of channels

L. T. Hodges; C. F. Knutson

1980-01-01

151

Misconceptions and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to

M. Whitten; R. Mahon

152

Feasibility of creating a new liquid surface within waste storage tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of creating a new liquid surface within Waste Storage Tank 241-SY-101. This study looked at alternatives for this, as well as providing a summary of observations regarding water lancing results relative to this task.

ANDRES, B.D.

1999-05-13

153

T PARK: AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE FOR SECURITY IN PUBLIC PARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present joint research activities in com- puter vision and sensor networks for a distributed surveil- lance of urban parks. Distributed visual surveillance of ur- ban environments is one of the most interesting scenario in Ambient Intelligence; in addition, the automated monitor- ing of public parks, often crowded by children and adults, is still a very difficult

Luca Benini; Elisabetta Farella

154

Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses in an open wound or abscess (boil). Open wounds, in ... the skin after it is lanced. Wound drainage cultures can show what type of germ is causing ...

155

A Critical Review of Standard Procedures for Studying Spanish-English Bilingualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently attention has been focused on the language problems of the Mexican American child. In order not to duplicate work done by other investigators in the field, it is necessary to study previous published material dealing with the language of these children. "A Brief Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism: Final Report" (D.M. Lance, Texas A&M…

Gingras, Rosario C.

156

Latest Cretaceous occurrence of nodosaurid ankylosaurs (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) in Western North America and the gradual extinction of the dinosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of nodosaurid ankylosaurs in the Lance, Hell Creek, and Laramie formations of western North America is confirmed, thereby extending the geochronological range of this family into the Maastrichtian (Lancian). The material includes a cervical spine and a skull referable to Edmontonia sp., and numerous teeth, plates and a basioccipital, which are questionably assigned to Edmontonia sp.Comparison of the

Kenneth Carpenter; Brent Breithaupt

1986-01-01

157

Disease Surveillance and the Academic, Clinical, and Public Health Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerging Infections Programs (EIPs), a popula- tion-based network involving 10 state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, com- plement and support local, regional, and national surveil- lance and research efforts. EIPs depend on collaboration between public health agencies and clinical and academic institutions to perform active, population-based surveillance for infectious diseases; conduct applied epidemiologic and

Robert W. Pinner; Catherine A. Rebmann; Anne Schuchat; James M. Hughes

158

Factor H Binding to Bone Sialoprotein and Osteopontin Enables Tumor Cell Evasion of Complement-mediated Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic cancer cells, like trophoblasts of the devel- oping placenta, are invasive and must escape immune surveillance to survive. Complement has long been thought to play a significant role in the tumor surveil- lance mechanism. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and os- teopontin (OPN, ETA-1) are expressed by trophoblasts and are strongly up-regulated by many tumors. Indeed, BSP has been shown to

Neal S. Fedarko; Bert Fohr; Pamela G. Robey; Marian F. Young; Larry W. Fisher

2000-01-01

159

78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...required by 14 CFR 91.417, 121.380, or 135.439. * * * * * Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on August 2, 2013. Lance T. Gant, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2013-19444 Filed 8-12-13;...

2013-08-13

160

78 FR 49115 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...required by 14 CFR 91.417, 121.380, or 135.439. * * * * * Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on August 2, 2013. Lance T. Gant, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR Doc. 2013-19447 Filed 8-12-13;...

2013-08-13

161

English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet [and] Questions Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These booklets are intended for students in Alberta, Canada, taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30. The readings booklet presents 7 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction literature. After instructions for students, the booklet presents: (1) Lance Morrow's essay "Metaphors of the World, Unite!"; (2) Carl Sandburg's poem…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

162

[Efficacy of an antiseptic dialysis of purulent wounds in the dentofacial region with hyvalix].  

PubMed

The article presents data proving the possibility of using the solutions of "Hyvalix" medication for an antiseptic preparation of septic cavities after lancing of abscesses and phlegmons of dentofacial region. It was shown the efficacy of "Hyvalix" medication in comparison with traditional solutions of antiseptic means. PMID:18416174

Panchenko, V N; Nozhenko, A A

2007-01-01

163

Making Space for Diverse Masculinities: Difference, Intersectionality, and Engagement in an Urban High School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Volume 50  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What's it like for Black male students who are openly gay or "gender non-conforming" to navigate the social geography of urban schools? In the tradition of critical ethnographies of schooling, Lance T. McCready mobilizes feminist theories of intersectionality to explore the voices of Black gay male students and their teachers in a Northern…

McCready, Lance T.

2010-01-01

164

A Maritime Picture: Nova Scotia Scene Looked At.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of current funding problems experienced by public, school, university, and special libraries in Nova Scotia indicates that cutbacks are causing staff layoffs and loss of purchasing power. Small public libraries are particularly affected, but new graduate librarians find employment, and free-lance librarians are extending service beyond…

Bone, Janet

1983-01-01

165

America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

2009-01-01

166

Research that Resonates: Influencing Stakeholders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, Keith Curry Lance and his associates completed a second school library impact study in Pennsylvania. The research conducted in Pennsylvania was the result of an Institute of Museums and Library Services (IMLS) National Leadership grant that examined students' reading and writing scores with sub-groups of students (Hispanic, Black,…

Kachel, Debra E.

2013-01-01

167

America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

2010-01-01

168

Incidence and aetiology of heart failure; a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To determine the incidence and aetiology of heart failure in the general population. Methods and Results New cases of heart failure were identified from a population of 151 000 served by 82 general practitioners in Hillingdon, West London through surveil- lance of acute hospital admissions and through a rapid access clinic to which general practitioners referred all new cases

M. R. Cowie; D. A. Wood; A. J. S. Coats; S. G. Thompson; P. A. Poole-Wilson; V. Suresh; G. C. Sutton

1999-01-01

169

An efficient algorithm for environmental coverage with multiple robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tasks such as street mapping and security surveil- lance seek a route that traverses a given space to perform a function. These task functions may involve mapping the space for accurate modeling, sensing the space for unusual activity, or searching the space for an object. In many cases, the use of multiple robots can greatly improve the performance of these

Ling Xu; Anthony Stentz

2011-01-01

170

Labor Rights in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] This study of labor rights in Haiti was conducted on behalf of the International Labor Rights Education and Research Fund by Lance Compa, Washington Representative of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE), who is the principal author of this report. It includes findings from a field investigation in Haiti in July 1988, and from interviews

Lance Compa

1989-01-01

171

Formal Verification of Cryptographic Protocol for Secure RFID System  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID technology has become one of the most hotly debated ubiquitous computing technologies, and public fears of its alleged capability for comprehensive surveil- lance have prompted a flurry of research trying to alleviate such concerns. Security mechanisms for RFID systems are therefore of utmost important. In this paper, we describe problems of previous work on RFID security protocols and specify

Hyun-Seok Kim; Jung-Hyun Oh; Ju-Bae Kim; Yeon-Oh Jeong; Jin-Young Choi

2008-01-01

172

DCTD — Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP)  

Cancer.gov

Staff from the NCI Divisions of Cancer Biology (DCB) and Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) along with the Lance Armstrong Foundation Live Strong Young Adult Alliance Science Task Force sponsored a joint workshop on cancer biology among adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients with breast, colon, and ALL.

173

The Federal Border Guard—GSG 9 Special Group 9: An Indispensable Guarantee in the Battle Against Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Editors Note: Mr. Robert Harnischmacher is a West German free-lance writer and lecturer in the Legal Sciences and Police Affairs, with a background in the German military and the Japanese martial arts. The author has been involved in developing unarmed combat skills for various German police forces and a number of foreign countries. His articles on self-defense, criminology and police

ROBERT HARNISCHMACHER

1990-01-01

174

Montague Island Marmot: A Conservation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Lance, Ellen Weintraub. 2002. Montague Island marmot: a conservation assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-541. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 12 p. The hoary marmot, from Montague Island, south-central Alaska, was classified as a distinct subspecies

Ellen Weintraub Lance

175

Tuberculosis Surveillance by Analyzing Google Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health concern, causing nearly ten million new cases and over one million deaths every year. The early detection of possible epidemic is the first and important defense line against TB. However, traditional surveil- lance approaches, e.g., U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Pre- vention (CDC), publish the TB morbidity surveillance results on a quarterly

Xichuan Zhou; Jieping Ye; Yujie Feng

2011-01-01

176

Use of microbiological alerts in surveillance programs and therapy of CVC-related bacteremia: 1-year experience of an automated laboratory-based system in a comprehensive cancer center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-related bloodstream infections are part of all nosocomial infections preven- tion and surveillance programs; in addition to periodic monitoring, continuous awareness and no- tification of sentinel events through the use of dedicated software are fundamental. In this paper we describe the impact of a software package based on microbiological alerts management on surveil- lance programs and therapy of CVC-related infections.

R. PASSERINI; M. T. SANDRI; D. RIGGIO; R. BIFFI

177

Fine Structural Study of the Cortical Reaction and Formation of the Egg Coats in a Lancelet (= Amphioxus), Branchiostomafloridae (Phylum Chordata:Subphylum Cephalochordata = Acrania)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for artificial fertilization of lance let eggs is described, and the egg coats are studied for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. Large, ovarian oocytes and spawned, unfertilized eggs (which are about 140 @tm in diameter) are surrounded by a coarsely granular vitelline layer about 1 @m thick and a jelly layer a few micrometers thick. The

NICHOLAS D. HOLLAND; LINDA Z. HOLLAND

1989-01-01

178

MEDAL: A coMpact Event Description and Analysis Language for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event detection plays an important role in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications such as battlefield surveil- lance and habitat monitoring. However, effective approaches for specifying events in a sensor network remain a challenge. In this paper we present MEDAL, a formal event description language. MEDAL is a modified Petri net which provides a more compact formal language than its predecessor

Krasimira Kapitanova

2008-01-01

179

Environmental Risk and Meningitis Epidemics in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur in areas with particular environmental characteristics. We present evidence that the relationship between the environment and the location of these epidemics is quantifiable and pro- pose a model based on environmental variables to identify regions at risk for meningitis epidemics. These findings, which have substantial implications for directing surveil- lance activities and health policy, provide

Anna M. Molesworth; Luis E. Cuevas; Stephen J. Connor; Andrew P. Morse; Madeleine C. Thomson

180

Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near-real-time data from satellite sensors. The EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) was not originally designed to provide data with sufficiently low latency to satisfy the requirements for near-real-time users. The EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments aboard the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily, which are processed into higher-level 'standard' products within 8-40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However, applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near-real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users often need data much sooner than routine science processing allows, usually within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. While Direct Broadcast provides more timely access to data, it does not provide global coverage. In 2002, a joint initiative between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and the DOD (Department of Defense) was undertaken to provide data from EOS instruments in near-real-time. The NRTPE (Near Real Time Processing Effort) provided products within 3 hours of observation on a best-effort basis. As the popularity of these near-real-time products and applications grew, multiple near-real-time systems began to spring up such as the Rapid Response System. In recognizing the dependence of customers on this data and the need for highly reliable and timely data access, NASA's Earth Science Division sponsored the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS)-led development of a new near-real-time system called LANCE (Land, Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for EOS) in 2009. LANCE consists of special processing elements, co-located with selected EOSDIS data centers and processing facilities. A primary goal of LANCE is to bring multiple near-real-time systems under one umbrella, offering commonality in data access, quality control, and latency. LANCE now processes and distributes data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments within 3 hours of satellite observation. The Rapid Response System and the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) capabilities will be incorporated into LANCE in 2011. LANCE maintains a central website to facilitate easy access to data and user services. LANCE products are extensively tested and compared with science products before being made available to users. Each element also plans to implement redundant network, power and server infrastructure to ensure high availability of data and services. Through the user registration system, users are informed of any data outages and when new products or services will be available for access. Building on a significant investment by NASA in developing science algorithms and products, LANCE creates products that have a demonstrated utility for applications requiring near-real-time data. From lower level data products such as calibrated geolocated radiances to higher-level products such as sea ice extent, snow cover, and cloud cover, users have integrated LANCE data into forecast models and decision support systems. The table above shows the current near-real-time product categories by instrument. The ESDIS Project continues to improve the LANCE system and use the experience gained through practice to seek adjustments to improve the quality and performance of the system. For example, anGC-compliant Web Map Service (WMS) will be added shortly that will allow users to download geo-re

Murphy, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

181

Response of pigeon guillemots to variable abundance of high-lipid and low-lipid prey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and other piscivores have been in decline for several decades in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and a decline in abundance of lipid-rich schooling fishes is hypothesized as the major cause. We tested this hypothesis by studying the breeding biology of pigeon guillemots during 1995-1999 while simultaneously measuring prey abundance with beach seines and bottom trawls. Our study area (Kachemak Bay, Alaska) comprises two oceanographically distinct areas. Populations of a lipid-rich schooling fish, Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), were higher in the warmer Inner Bay than in the colder Outer Bay, and sand lance abundance was higher during warm years. Populations of low-lipid content demersal fishes were similar between areas. Chick survival to age 15 days was 47% higher in the Inner Bay (high-lipid diet) than in the Outer Bay (low-lipid diet), and estimated reproductive success (chicks fledged nest-1) was 62% higher in the Inner Bay than in the Outer Bay. Chick provisioning rate (kJ chick-1 h-1) increased with the proportion of sand lance in the diet (r2=0.21), as did growth rate (g day-1) of younger (beta) chicks in two-chick broods (r2=0.14). Pigeon guillemots in the Inner Bay switched to demersal prey during years of below-average sand lance abundance, and these birds reacted to 38-fold interannual changes in sand lance abundance with reductions in beta chick growth rates, with no decline in beta chick survival. In contrast, the proportion of nests experiencing brood reduction in the Outer Bay (demersal diet) increased >300% during years of below-average demersal abundance, although demersal fish abundance varied only 4-fold among years. Our results support the hypothesis that recovery of pigeon guillemot populations from the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is limited by availability of lipid-rich prey.

Litzow, M. A.; Piatt, J. F.; Prichard, A. K.; Roby, D. D.

2002-01-01

182

Mapping and candidate-gene screening of the novel Turnip mosaic virus resistance gene retr02 in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).  

PubMed

The extreme resistance to Turnip mosaic virus observed in the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) line, BP8407, is monogenic and recessive. Bulked segregant analysis was carried out to identify simple sequence repeat and Indel markers linked to this recessive resistance gene, termed recessive Turnip mosaic virus resistance 02 (retr02). Mapping of PCR-specific Indel markers on 239 individuals of a BP8407 × Ji Zao Chun F(2) population, located this resistance gene to a 0.9-cM interval between two Indel markers (BrID10694 and BrID101309) and in scaffold000060 or scaffold000104 on chromosome A04 of the B. rapa genome. Eleven eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and 14 eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) genes are predicted in the B. rapa genome. A candidate gene, Bra035393 on scaffold000104, was predicted within the mapped resistance locus. The gene encodes the eIF(iso)4E protein. Bra035393 was sequenced in BP8407 and Ji Zao Chun. A polymorphism (A/G) was found in exon 3 between BP8407 and Ji Zao Chun. This gene was analysed in four resistant and three susceptible lines. A correlation was observed between the amino acid substitution (Gly/Asp) in the eIF(iso)4E protein and resistance/susceptibility. eIF(iso)4E has been shown previously to interact with the TuMV genome-linked protein, VPg. PMID:22996569

Qian, Wei; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Walsh, John A; Sun, Rifei

2013-01-01

183

Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy*  

PubMed Central

The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation, fast response, and non-destructiveness. We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats. Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun’an, Zhejiang, China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm. A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study. Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of loquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method. Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives, multiple scatter correction (MSC), and the standard normal variate (SNV). Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800~2500 nm), short NIR (800~1100 nm), and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options. The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats, with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21, 1.00, 0.965, and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao, Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong, Chun’an-Dahongpao, and Chun’an-Jiajiaozhong, respectively. The acidity prediction was not satisfactory, with the RMSEP of 0.382, 0.194, 0.388, and 0.361 for the above four loquats, respectively. The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

Fu, Xia-ping; Li, Jian-ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-bin; Xie, Li-juan; Niu, Xiao-ying; Yan, Zhan-ke; Yu, Hai-yan

2009-01-01

184

Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation, fast response, and non-destructiveness. We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats. Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an, Zhejiang, China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm. A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study. Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of loquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method. Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives, multiple scatter correction (MSC), and the standard normal variate (SNV). Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800approximately2500 nm), short NIR (800approximately1100 nm), and long NIR (1100approximately2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options. The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats, with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21, 1.00, 0.965, and 1.16 degrees Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao, Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong, Chun'an-Dahongpao, and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong, respectively. The acidity prediction was not satisfactory, with the RMSEP of 0.382, 0.194, 0.388, and 0.361 for the above four loquats, respectively. The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit. PMID:19235270

Fu, Xia-ping; Li, Jian-ping; Zhou, Ying; Ying, Yi-bin; Xie, Li-juan; Niu, Xiao-ying; Yan, Zhan-ke; Yu, Hai-yan

2009-02-01

185

Ferroelectric switching induced magnetic anisotropy in Fe/BaTiO3 bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromagnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures have recently attracted significantly interest due to their potential applications in multifunctional electronic devices. We have recently predicted a magnetoelectric effect at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface induced by ferroelectric polarization reversal [1]. In this report, calculations are being carried out on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/BaTiO3 films. Preliminary results show that the ferroelectric switching of the BaTiO3 has appreciable effect on the magnetic anisotropy of magnetic Fe films. This should be of interest in multiferroic device applications. [1] Chun-gang Duan, S. S. Jaswal, E. Y. Tsymbal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 047201 (2006).

Duan, Chun-Gang; Jaswal, S. S.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

2007-03-01

186

[Study on the title of Chongbian Yijingxiaoxue].  

PubMed

Chongbian Yijingxiaoxue was compiled by Jitian Zongxun in 1590 - 1610. The existing editions included a carved edition and copied edition, then came the photocopy. There was a chapter entitled 'Loujing Xuefa' which recorded 29 extrameridian points. This chapter was compiled into a verse in Volume 3 of Chongbian Yijingxiaoxue. As the book had always been confused with Yijing Xiaoxue, written by Liu Chun in the Ming Dynasty, its literature value increased and became necessary in literature research on extrameridian points. This kind of error was related to people's credulity and blindness on the authority of classical books and 'momentum of literature error'. PMID:23336312

Huang, You-Min; Huang, Long-Xiang

2012-09-01

187

Easing the Discovery of NASA and International Near-Real-Time Data Using the Global Change Master Directory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) provides an extensive directory of descriptive and spatial information about data sets and data-related services, which are relevant to Earth science research. The directory's data discovery components include controlled keywords, free-text searches, and map/date searches. The GCMD portal for NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data products leverages these discovery features by providing users a direct route to NASA's Near-Real-Time (NRT) collections. This portal offers direct access to collection entries by instrument name, informing users of the availability of data. After a relevant collection entry is found through the GCMD's search components, the "Get Data" URL within the entry directs the user to the desired data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/r/p/gcmd_lance_nrt.

Olsen, Lola; Morahan, Michael; Aleman, Alicia; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler; Ritz, Scott; Holland, Monica

2011-01-01

188

A province-based surveillance system for the risk factors of non-communicable diseases: A prototype for integration of risk factor surveillance into primary healthcare systems of developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Objectives: To establish a surveillance system for risk factors of non-communicable diseases, develop a valid tool and methodology for surveillance surveys, and build capacity in 41 provincial surveillance sites to design and conduct the surveys and provide provincially interpretable baseline data. Study design: Population-based national study. Methods: The World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to non-communicable disease surveil- lance was

S. Alikhani; A. Delavari; F. Alaedini; R. Kelishadi; S. Rohbani; A. Safaei

2009-01-01

189

Microsoft Word - Final PCP 82605 Agenda.doc  

Cancer.gov

Mr. Lance Armstrong, Member, President’s Cancer Panel Dr. Alan J. Balch, Executive Director, Friends of Cancer Research Dr. Archie Bleyer, Medical Advisor, Cancer Treatment Center, St. Charles Medical Center Dr. Brenda Edwards, Associate Director, Surveillance Research Program, NCI Dr. Ronit Elk, Program Director, CCPPB, American Cancer Society Dr. Brandon Hayes-Lattin, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University Dr. Sandra Horning, President, American Society of Clinical Oncology Dr.

190

Dynamic assembly and sustained retention of 53BP1 at the sites of DNA damage are controlled by Mdc1\\/NFBD1  

Microsoft Academic Search

3BP1 is a key component of the genome surveil- lance network activated by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Despite its known accumulation at the DSB sites, the spatiotemporal aspects of 53BP1 interac- tion with DSBs and the role of other DSB regulators in this process remain unclear. Here, we used real-time micros- copy to study the DSB-induced redistribution of 53BP1

Simon Bekker-Jensen; Claudia Lukas; Fredrik Melander; Jiri Bartek; Jiri Lukas

2005-01-01

191

Sulfide smelting using Ausmelt technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, Ausmelt has been developing the top submerged lancing process for the smelting of sulfidic ores to recover such metals as copper, lead, silver, tin, antimony, and nickel as well as for separation of minor elements such as arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Development has taken place in Ausmelt's pilot plant in Dandenong, near Melbourne, Australia. A number of projects have proceeded to commercial-scale operation. This paper reviews developments at both the pilot and commercial scales.

Mounsey, Edward N.; Robilliard, Ken R.

1994-08-01

192

Effect of moderate exercise training on T-helper cell subpopulations in elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD28 molecule expression on the surface of T cells plays a critical role in up- regulation of various cytokines synthesis and T-helper (Th) cell proliferation and differentiation. However, aging induces a decrease in CD28 expression and unba- lance of Th1\\/Th2, leading to impairment of Th-cell mediated immune function. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of moderate

Kazuhiro Shimizu; Fuminori Kimura; Takayuki Akimoto; Takao Akama; Kai Tanabe; Takahiko Nishijima; Shinya Kuno; Ichiro Kono

193

HOT-SPOT REMEDIATION USING IN-SITU JETTING TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jetting technology using high-pressure, low to high volume injection of liquids into the subsurface using a small-diameter wand or lance driven into the subsurface has been widely used for several decades. Jetting technology, at its most basic, uses tree root feeder systems to inject liquids into the ground. The Remediation Injection Process (RlP ®), an updated and more powerful, versatile

James A. Jacobs

194

AYAO PRG Report.indd  

Cancer.gov

Cherie Nichols, M.B.A. Doug Ulman National Cancer Institute Lance Armstrong Foundation Representati ve Representative Report of the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group Brad Pollock, M.P.H., Ph.D. Amelie G. Ramirez, Dr.P.H. Amelie G. Ramirez, Dr .P.H. Lynn Ries, M.S. Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, M.D., Ph.D. Lydia A.

195

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Exacerbates Posthypoxic Action Myoclonus in a Patient with Suspicion of Pneumocystis jiroveci Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 58-year-old patient with relapsing high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma who exhibited exacerbation of posthypoxic action myoclonus during high-dose intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment for highly suspicious Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). Three months previously the patient had experienced a hypoxic insult caused by respiratory arrest due to an anaphylactic reaction to antibiotic therapy. He had developed posthypoxic action myoclonus (Lance-Adams syndrome),

F. Jundt; T. Lempert; B. Dörken; A. Pezzutto

2004-01-01

196

Application of Micro Arrayed Compound Screening (pcARCS) to Identify Inhibitors of Caspase3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro Arrayed Compound Screening (pARCS) is a miniaturized ultra-high-throughput screening platform developed at Abbott Laboratories. In this format, 8640 discrete compounds are spotted and dried onto a polystyrene sheet, which has the same footprint as a 96-well plate. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay format (LANCE) was applied to identify the inhibitors of caspase-3 using a peptide substrate labeled with a

Sujatha M. Gopalakrishnan; Jarkko Karvinen; James L. Kofron; David J. Burns; Usha Warrior

2002-01-01

197

Epidemiology of Hairy Cell Leukemia in Los Angeles County1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The descriptive epidemiológica! characteristics of hairy cell leukemia (HCL), a rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, were examined by using incidence data collected from 1972 to 1987 by the Cancer Surveil lance Program, the population-based cancer registry for Los Angeles County. During the study period, 208 incident cases of historically confirmed HCL were diagnosed. HCL comprised 2% of all leukemias diagnosed in

Leslie Bernstein; Patricia Newton; Ronald K. Ross

198

Clostridium difficile Testing: after 20 Years, Still Challenging  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20 years ago, as Clostridium difficile was being established as the cause of pseudomembranous colitis and an- tibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), many clinical laboratories were using or beginning to use cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar, a selective medium developed by Lance George and colleagues (4) as an in vitro diagnostic aid for C. difficile dis- ease. Isolates were presumptively identified by their

Tracy D. Wilkins; David M. Lyerly

2003-01-01

199

Selection criteria for the best secondary water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes, for PWR plants, the approach for selecting the best chemistry—pH, amine, corrosion inhibitors—according to the secondary system characteristics, such as presence or not of copper alloys, steam generator tubing alloy, tube support plate design, sludge pile importance. The impact of condensate polisher, sludge lancing, chemical cleaning, as well as other ways of eliminating undesirable compounds or mitigating

Francis Nordmann; Jean-Marie Fiquet

1996-01-01

200

MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAXIMAL EXERCISE TESTING USING THE ELLIPTICAL CROSS-TRAINER AND TREADMILL. Lance C. Dalleck, Len Kravitz, Robert A. Robergs. JEPonline 2004;7(3):94-101. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses during incremental exercise to fatigue using the elliptical cross-trainer and treadmill running. Twenty recreationally active individuals (10 men and 10 women, mean age, height, weight, and body composition = 29.5±7.1

LANCE C. DALLECK; LEN KRAVITZ; ROBERT A. ROBERGS

201

Colorectal Cancer Surveillance: 2005 Update of an American Society of Clinical Oncology Practice Guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To update the 2000 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on colorectal cancer surveillance. Recommendations Based on results from three independently reported meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that compared low-intensity and high-intensity programs of colorectal cancer surveil- lance, and on recent analyses of data from major clinical trials in colon and rectal cancer, the Panel recommends annual computed tomography

Christopher E. Desch; Al B. Benson; Mark R. Somerfield; Patrick J. Flynn; Carol Krause; Charles L. Loprinzi; Bruce D. Minsky; David G. Pfister; Katherine S. Virgo; Nicholas J. Petrelli

202

Refining steel in a ladle by inert gas and acoustic blow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are proposed for intensifying mass transfer in blow of steel in a ladle using acoustic vibrations. Industrial tests\\u000a of blowing metal in a ladle using a lance and imposition of acoustic vibrations generated by an external acoustic radiator\\u000a are described. An acoustic blow plug (ABP) containing a resonator of jet-acoustic vibrations is proposed for argon blow of\\u000a steel in

V. G. Lisienko; A. S. Degai; I. D. Kashcheev; M. V. Zuev; A. L. Zasukhin; V. D. Osetrov; V. N. Kozlov; A. M. Gorokhovskii; V. A. Zelenin; E. M. Grishpun; G. V. Pol’shikov

2007-01-01

203

Optimization of inelastic cylindrical shells with internal supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-linear programming method is developed for optimization of inelastic cylindrical shells with internal ring supports.\\u000a The shells under consideration are subjected to internal pressure loading and axial tension. The material of shells is a composite\\u000a which is considered as an anisotropic inelastic material obeying the yield condition suggested by Lance and Robinson. Taking\\u000a geometrical non\\/linearity of the structure into

Jaan Lellep; Annika Paltsepp

2010-01-01

204

Resources for Geographers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Lance Christian and Kenneth Foote of the University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Geography, the Resources for Geographers Web site is an excellent source of information on the Internet for geographers. Links are offered for search engines, online journals, professional associations, research organizations, map collections, geo-spatial datasets, newsgroups and listservers, academic departments, jobs, educational resources, software, and miscellaneous other geography related resources.

Christian, Lance.; Foote, Kenneth E., 1955-

205

The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well. PMID:23702981

Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

2013-12-01

206

CORRIGENDUM: Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC Prospects for a new boson W+/-1 in the minimal Higgsless model at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author list originally given in the above article (Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Hong-Jian He, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Yong-Hui Qi, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen- Xia Zhang) is incorrect. The correct author list is: Ming-Shui Chen, Jian-Guo Bian, Guo-Ming Chen, Chun-Hua Jiang, Zu-Hao Li, Song Liang, Xiang-Wei Meng, Zhi-Cheng Tang, Jun-Quan Tao, Zheng Wang, Jian Wang, Jian Wang, Xian-You Wang, Jian-Xiong Wang, Hong Xiao, Min Yang, Jing-Jing Zang, Bin Zhang, Zhen Zhang and Zhen-Xia Zhang. Hong-Jian He and Yong-Hui Qi did not take part in the writing of this text and do not bear any responsibility for its contents. Also, reference [4] in the paper should be corrected to: [4] Hong-Jian He et al 2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 031701(R)

Chen, Ming-Shui; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; He, Hong-Jian; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Li, Zu-Hao; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiang-Wei; Qi, Yong-Hui; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Tao, Jun-Quan; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Min; Zang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhen-Xia

2009-12-01

207

Proteomic profiling of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): insights into venom induced pathology.  

PubMed

Bothrops sp. snakebites account for the majority of envenomations in South and Central America. Bothrops jararaca accidents are characterized by edema, hemorrhage and necrosis, mainly attributed to the action of hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Interestingly, accidents involving Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer-de-Lance) have a prothrombotic profile with necrosis and hemorrhage rarely reported. Here we describe biochemical and proteomic approaches to compare the venom composition of these snakes, focusing on the presence and activity of SVMPs. The total relative amount of SVMPs was found to be approximately the same in the venom of both species, the difference being in the distribution of SVMPs subgroups. Fer-de-Lance venom has relatively more PI SVMPs peptides identified (23-16%) while Jararaca venom has a higher amount of PIII SVMPs (54-43%). Gelatinolytic activity in the PIII mass range is also higher in Jararaca venom. Interestingly, the homologous band region in the Fer-de-Lance zymogram was only very weakly gelatinolytic. According to these findings it is feasible that the different distribution of SVMPs subgroups and their particular biochemical and pharmacological characteristics are two of the main factors contributing to these two radically different venom induced pathologies. PMID:19539639

Terra, Renata M S; Pinto, Antônio F M; Guimarães, Jorge A; Fox, Jay W

2009-11-01

208

Processing Direct Broadcast Data to Reduce Latency of Aqua AMSR-E Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard data products from NASA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing Systems (AMSR-E) have served the climate research community well since the launch of the Aqua satellite in 2002. But the time from observation until swath products are made available to end users (approximately 12-15 hours after observation) diminishes their usefulness to such disciplines as weather prediction and nowcasting, natural hazards monitoring, disaster relief, and agricultural monitoring. To address the needs of these communities, NASA's Earth Science Division built the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing Systems), or LANCE, which generates products from several instruments, including AMSR-E, flying aboard the Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites. As for the standard products, the raw satellite data is transmitted from satellite to the EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS), via ground stations in Alaska and Norway, for distribution to the processing elements. The LANCE AMSR-E system generates a variety of Level-2 swath products using essentially the same science algorithms as are used for the standard science products, but with predictive rather than definitive ephemeris. The average latency for these LANCE AMSR-E swath products is approximately three hours from observation; most of this latency is due to the wait time for the on-board recorder to transmit data to the ground. One of the recommendations arising from the first meeting of the LANCE User Working Group was for the data centers to investigate the feasibility of processing direct broadcast data. Since direct broadcast data is transmitted directly from the satellite to the ground and attainable by anyone with ground receiving equipment and in direct line of sight to the satellite, the wait time associated with ground station contacts is eliminated, thereby significantly reducing latency for these datasets. However, direct broadcast data provide limited geographic coverage, in contrast to the global coverage available from the LANCE products. This presentation will describe recent efforts at the AMSR-E data processing center to reduce data latency and also provide a comparative assessment of the three types of AMSR-E products.

Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Beaumont, B.; Teague, M.; Graves, S. J.; Hardin, D. M.

2011-12-01

209

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

Michael F. Riley

2002-10-21

210

Experimental Investigation of a Traveling-wave Refrigerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a thermally-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator without any moving parts is reported. This refrigeration system consists of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine and a thermoacoustic Stirling refrigerator. Both the subsystems are designed to operate on traveling-wave mode. In the experiment, it is found that the Gedeon DC-flow has significant negative effect on both the heat engine and the refrigerator. To suppress these DC-flows, two flexible membranes were inserted into the two subsystems. The experiment demonstrates that they have worked very well. Then extensive experiments had been made to test the influence of various parameters on refrigeration performance of the whole system. The system has so far achieved a no-load temperature of -65°C, a cooling capacity of about 270 W at -20°C and 405 W at 0°C. In summary, the thermoacoustic refrigeration technology reported here shows a good prospect in room-temperature cooling such as food refrigeration and air-conditioning.

Luo, E. C.; Dai, W.; Zhang, Y.; Ling, H.

2006-04-01

211

Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model with Enhanced Thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates' Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

2005-02-01

212

AGU elects 1989 Fellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

213

The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.

2014-01-01

214

The Development of the CryoTel™ LT and GT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the considerations, design modifications and test results for the recently-developed Sunpower CryoTel™ LT and GT. After successful market introduction of the CryoTel™ CT, it became evident that some basic design modifications would render the unit available to a wider range of application. The CryoTel™ LT is a low-temperature variant of the original design. The LT's cooling capacity is 0.5W at 23 K. The CryoTel™ GT is the enhanced performance variant. The GT's cooling capacity is 15 W at 77 K. Both LT and GT largely retain the original structure and components and therefore benefit from the low-cost manufacturing profile of the original. Sunpower's main analysis and simulation tools were in-house codes and Gedeon Associates' SAGE Stirling cycle simulation. The CryoTel™ is a Linear Free Piston Integral Stirling cryocooler that makes use of Gas Bearing technology for non-contact operation and a microprocessor based driver/controller with a closed-loop temperature control.

Unger, Reuven

2006-04-01

215

Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model With Enhanced Thermodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

2005-01-01

216

A de novo deletion in X 27-28 spans at least 3 megabases and results in fragile X syndrome  

SciTech Connect

A 2-year-old boy with Martin-Bell syndrome was referred for molecular testing and found to have a large deletion of FMRI. His mother was found to have two FMR-1 alleles in the normal range for CGG repeats. DNA probes located both proximal and distal to FRAXA were used to delineate the approximation location of the deletion endpoints. Proximal to the fragile site, DXS312 (pX135) was absent but DXS98 (4D8) was present. Distal to the fragile site, DXS296 (VK21) was absent but DXS304 (U6.2) was present. Our patient does not appear to have clinical findings other than those typically associated with fragile X syndrome suggesting that the deletion does not remove other contiguous genes, e.g., IDS. The deletion in this patient is larger than the patient reported by Gedeon et al., in whom approximately 2.5 megabases were estimated to be deleted. Using the physical map of Schlessinger et al., the physical extent of the deletion can be estimated to be at least 3 megabases. This patient may be useful in physical mapping of the chromosomal region near FMR-1. Continued long-term evaluation of this patient may uncover clinical findings suggestive that the deletion removes other genes near to FMR-1 or, alternatively, no findings atypical of the fragile X syndrome suggesting that no other genes lie in the deletion interval.

Lachiewicz, A.; Rao, K.; Aylsworth, A.; Richie, R.; Schwartz, C.; Tarleton, J. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)]|[Greenwood Genetic Center, NC (United States)

1994-07-15

217

A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations  

PubMed Central

Abstract A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana(Lecomte) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar caudata (H. T. Chang) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar chingii (Metcalf) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar gracilipes (Hemsl.) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar multinervis(Cheng) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar obovata (Merrill & Chun) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar poilanei (Tardieu) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, Liquidambar siamensis (Craib) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and Liquidambar yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson) Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.

Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M.; Wen, Jun

2013-01-01

218

[Xin'an Dispensaries and its role in medicine in the Ming-Qing dynasties].  

PubMed

The Xin'an Dispensaries were set up in the Song dynasty, completed in the Ming dynasty and reached its peak of development at the end of the Qing dynasty. The representative ones of the dispensaries include Lu's Baohetang of the Song dynasty, Xu's Baoyuantang, Zhengtian dispensary, and Baoyutang of the Ming dynasty, Hu Xian Chun, Zhongdetang of the Qing dynasty. All these dispensaries were mostly run by the physicians themselves in the Ming dynasty, while they were run by Anhui businessmen in the Qing dynasty. As a union embodying health care, production and trading of traditional handicraft, not a few of them had become famous pharmaceutical factories today, such as Hu Qing Yu Tang, Jianmin Pharmaceutical Factory of Wuhan. Rich experience on production and management were accumulated, alongside achievements on prescription, drug processing, storage, collection and ready-made drug manufacturing. PMID:11639633

Tong, G; Liu, H

1995-01-01

219

Doctoral surplus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universities in the United States are producing about 25% more doctorates in science and engineering than the U.S. economy can absorb, according to a new study by the Rand Corporation and Stanford University's Institute for Higher Education Research. The study looked at 13 science and engineering fields, covering 210 doctorate-granting institutions and more than 1,000 educational institutions that employ people with doctorates. The study was done by Stanford Professor William Massy and Charles Goldman of Rand, with graduate students Marc Chun and Beryle Hsiao.The researchers found that supply and demand do not work in the usual way to regulate the employment market for doctoral candidates. In labor markets, when job opportunities decrease, fewer people usually seek to enter the field. In the case of Ph.D.s, however, the researchers found that neither departments nor prospective doctoral students take close accounting of the doctorate employment gap.

220

The context congruency effect is face specific.  

PubMed

There is evidence that faces are processed by specialized and independent modules that treat them as global configurations, or wholes (Axelrod & Yovel, 2010; Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997). The holistic nature of face perception has been demonstrated with several experimental paradigms designed to examine whether facial parts interact, or are accessed independently. A recently introduced paradigm (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike, & Meinhardt, 2010) measures the strength of contextual interaction among internal and external facial features in congruent and incongruent target/no-target relationships. For this paradigm it is shown that the context congruency effect is indeed face specific: A strong and asymmetric contextual interaction of the inner and the outer stimulus regions exists for faces, but is absent for watches, which represent a non-facial object class with a comparable inner/outer object structure. PMID:23376137

Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

2013-02-01

221

"What" and "Where" in the Intraparietal Sulcus: An fMRI Study of Object Identity and Location in Visual Short-Term Memory  

PubMed Central

The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been closely linked to limitations of visual short-term memory capacity (VSTM; Todd and Marois 2004; Xu and Chun 2006). It is not clearly known, however, to what extent IPS activation reflects VSTM for object identity (What) versus spatial location (Where) information. The present study was designed to manipulate selectively the amount of What and Where information retained in VSTM in order to determine, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the effect of VSTM for each of these 2 dimensions on IPS activation. The results showed an increase in IPS activation only in response to increasing Where memory load, with no effect of What load suggesting that capacity-related activation in the IPS primarily reflects the amount of spatial information retained in VSTM.

Jolicoeur, Pierre; Marois, Rene

2010-01-01

222

Support vector machine for multi-classification of mineral prospectivity areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper on mineral prospectivity mapping, a supervised classification method called Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to explore porphyry-Cu deposits. Different data layers of geological, geophysical and geochemical themes are integrated to evaluate the Now Chun porphyry-Cu deposit, located in the Kerman province of Iran, and to prepare a prospectivity map for mineral exploration. The SVM method, a data-driven approach to pattern recognition, had a correct-classification rate of 52.38% for twenty-one boreholes divided into five classes. The results of the study indicated the capability of SVM as a supervised learning algorithm tool for the predictive mapping of mineral prospects. Multi-classification of the prospect for detailed study could increase the resolution of the prospectivity map and decrease the drilling risk.

Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Bahroudi, Abbas

2012-09-01

223

Theory of BCS-BEC Crossover in Ultracold Fermi Gases: Insights into Thermodynamical and Spectroscopic Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk we summarize our theoretical understanding of the atomic Fermi superfluids with an emphasis on understanding current experiments. We compare and contrast different theoretical approaches for dealing with finite temperature, and discuss their respective implications for these trapped gases. Armed with a basic picture of the thermodynamics we turn to a variety of different measurements based on radio frequency spectroscopy, including both momentum integrated and momentum resolved experiments. As recently reviewed in arXiv 0810.1940 and 0810.1938, we show how a broad range of experimental phenomena can be accomodated within our natural extension of the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature, and briefly touch on the applicability of BCS-BEC crossover theory to the high temperature superconductors. Co-authors: Qijin Chen, Yan He and Chih-Chun Chien

Levin, Kathryn

2009-05-01

224

Metamorphism of CO3 Chondrites: A Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our previous work involving carbon and nitrogen abundance and isotopic composition of Ornans group chondrites (1) has shown that these measurements have the potential for investigating parent body metamorphism, and we now expand this study. The HF/HCl residues of Colony, Kainsaz, Ornans, Lance and Acfer 094 show unimodal carbon yield profiles. The peak yields are seen to increase as a function of temperature according to known petrologic subtype (2), revealing a concordant increase in the crystallinity of the amorphous carbon with progressive metamorphism. Only the least metamorphosed Colony and Acfer 094 residues display any evidence of presolar silicon carbide. The inference here is that silicon carbide is destroyed during only mild metamorphism. Chromic and perchloric acid residues have revealed that CO3 diamonds are characterized by delta^13C minima of between -34.3o/oo and -40.3o/oo and delta^15N minima of -342+-9.2o/oo, consistent with similar work on other chondrites (3). C/N ratios of diamonds have been used as indicators of relative metamorphic grade (3,4), as nitrogen-rich diamonds are presumed to be lost progressively during metamorphism (5). On this basis, Colony has undergone a much lesser degree of metamorphism than Kainsaz or Lance which are less distinguishable on a C/N plot. An experiment on Ornans which provided only incomplete data suggests that its C/N plateau lies slightly above that of Colony, in agreement with its subtype. The diamond contents of these meteorites are 135 ppm (Colony), 61 ppm (Kainsaz) and 59 ppm (Lance), showing that diamond is present to moderate grades of metamorphism. Carbon data for silicon carbide has been acquired for Colony, Kainsaz and Lance from high temperature experiments on the diamond residues. The amount of SiC in Colony is now established as about 1 ppm of the whole-rock. Neither Kainsaz nor Lance show evidence of silicon carbide, although both show a heavy carbon component combusting around 800 degrees C. There is about 26 times as much of this component in Kainsaz as there is in Lance, and an unresolvable amount in Colony. A precombusted HF/HCl residue of Acfer 094 has demonstrated a SiC content of around 7 ppm, equivalent to values expected for CM2's and further questioning the legitimacy of assigning Acfer 094 to the CO3 group. The data acquired so far shows that these meteorites contain diamond with nitrogen concentrations which range between CV3 and CM2 averages. Only the 3.0 subtypes contain silicon carbide. There seems to be a hiatus between subtypes 3.0 and 3.1, where silicon carbide is completely destroyed, and the diamond content is halved. This is analagous to the discontinuity between ordinary chondrite subtypes 3.4 and 3.5 (4), although at a higher metamorphic grade and suggests that silicon carbide is more susceptible to metamorphic destruction under the oxidizing conditions of the CO3 group than diamond. The effect is still not yet understood, but is likely to be an important parameter in distinguishing nebular and parent body effects. The fact that Indarch, a highly reduced enstatite chondrite, shows the opposite effect, i.e. a high SiC-to-diamond ratio clearly has implications for understanding the destruction of presolar grains by metamorphism under different conditions. References 1. Newton, J. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 985-986. 2. Scott, E.R.D. & Jones, R.H. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54 2485-2502. 3. Russell, S.S. et al. (1990) Science 254 1188-1191. 4. Huss, G.R. (1990) Nature 347 159-162. 5. Russell, S.S. et al. (1992) LPSC XXIII 1187-1188.

Newton, J.; Arden, J. W.; Pillinger, C. T.

1992-07-01

225

New insights from comparing statistical theories for inertial particles in turbulence: I. Spatial distribution of particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we contrast two theoretical models for the spatial clustering of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence, one by Chun et al (2005 J. Fluid Mech. 536 219) and the other by Zaichik et al (2007 Phys. Fluids 19 113308). Although their predictions for the radial distribution function are similar in the regime St\\ll 1, they appear to describe the physical mechanism responsible for the clustering in quite different ways. We demonstrate why the theories generate such similar results in the regime St\\ll 1 by showing that the clustering mechanism in the Chun et al theory captures the leading order effects of the clustering mechanism in the Zaichik et al theory for St\\ll 1. However, outside of this regime, the similarity between the predictions of the theories breaks down, and we consider the sources of the differences as well as the physical meaning and implications of the differences. Using DNS data we then show that the clustering mechanism described by the Zaichik et al theory accurately describes the clustering up to St\\approx 1, and we identify a possible source of error for some of the slight quantitative discrepancies at larger St. We then compare these theories with others in the literature and attempt to reconcile as many of the physical explanations for clustering as we can. Finally, we consider the relationship between clustering in isotropic turbulence and the near-wall accumulation of inertial particles in a turbulent boundary layer, and how they scale with the Stokes number in the weak inertia limit.

Bragg, Andrew D.; Collins, Lance R.

2014-05-01

226

Postnatal Temporal, Spatial and Modality Tuning of Nociceptive Cutaneous Flexion Reflexes in Human Infants  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (<37 weeks gestation, GA) and term (?37 weeks GA) human infants, less than 14 days old, in response to tactile, punctate and clinically required skin-breaking lance stimulation of the heel. We show that all infants display a robust and long duration flexion reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8–17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

2013-01-01

227

A systematic review and meta-analyses of nonsucrose sweet solutions for pain relief in neonates  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Sucrose has been demonstrated to provide analgesia for minor painful procedures in infants. However, results of trials investigating other sweet solutions for neonatal pain relief have not yet been synthesized. OBJECTIVE: To establish the efficacy of nonsucrose sweet-tasting solutions for pain relief during painful procedures in neonates. METHOD: The present article is a systematic review and meta-analyses of the literature. Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Collaborative Review Group were used. Literature searches were reviewed for randomized controlled trials investigating the use of sweet solutions, except sucrose, for procedural pain management in neonates. Outcomes assessed included validated pain measures and behavioural and physiological indicators. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies (3785 neonates) were included, 35 of which investigated glucose. Heel lancing was performed in 21/38 studies and venipuncture in 11/38 studies. A 3.6-point reduction in Premature Infant Pain Profile scores during heel lances was observed in studies comparing 20% to 30% glucose with no intervention (two studies, 124 neonates; mean difference ?3.6 [95% CI ?4.6 to ?2.6]; P<0.001; I2=54%). A significant reduction in the incidence of cry after venipuncture for infants receiving 25% to 30% glucose versus water or no intervention was observed (three studies, 130 infants; risk difference ?0.18 [95% CI ?0.31 to ?0.05]; P=0.008, number needed to treat = 6 [95% CI 3 to 20]; I2=63%). CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review and meta-analyses demonstrate that glucose reduces pain scores and crying during single heel lances and venipunctures. Results indicate that 20% to 30% glucose solutions have analgesic effects and can be recommended as an alternative to sucrose for procedural pain reduction in healthy term and preterm neonates.

Bueno, Mariana; Yamada, Janet; Harrison, Denise; Khan, Sobia; Ohlsson, Arne; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Beyene, Joseph; Stevens, Bonnie

2013-01-01

228

Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 2013 Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightcurves for three asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL; Warner, 2011) were obtained at the Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2013 January 16 - July 7: 3138 Ciney, 10502 Armagahobs, and 11441 Anadiego. In addition a lightcurve for (285263) 1998 QE2 was obtained following a request for data from Lance Benner posted on the Minor Planet Mailing List (MPML) Yahoo Group on the basis that it was a radar imaging target at Arecibo and Goldstone in late 2013 May and early June.

Hills, Kevin

2014-01-01

229

Using ausmelt technology for the recovery of cobalt from smelter slags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of cobalt with copper and nickel and the propensity for this material to report mainly to the final-process discard slag has provided a substantial resource in both current arisings and stockpiles in many copper and nickel smelting operations. Ausmelt has undertaken investigations for the recovery of cobalt from smelter slags using top-submerged lancing technology. These tests, conducted at both the laboratory and pilot-plant scales, have provided good evidence of the application of this proven technology to the recovery of cobalt from these sources.

Matusewicz, Robert; Mounsey, Ed

1998-10-01

230

Foreign Currency Issues on European Security Markets (Emissions en devises sur les Bourses européennes) (Las emisiones de valores en moneda extranjera en los mercados europeos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le présent article décrit la croissance et l'évolution d'un secteur du marché international des capitaux spécialisé dans l'émission de valeurs libellées en monnaies différentes de celles des souscripteurs, et fréquemment, des émetteurs eux-mêmes. Ces émissions sont lancées sur des marchés de capitaux -- principalement Londres et New York -- qui ne fournissent virtuellement aucune des ressources d'épargne absorbées par les

David Williams

1967-01-01

231

Energy exchange processes in the marginal ice zone of the Barents Sea, Arctic Ocean, during spring 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some new results describing energy exchange processes of drifting sea ice in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Barents Sea, Arctic Ocean. All measurements and observations of meteorological parameters and ice conditions were taken on board the Norwegian research vessel Lance from 3 to 22 May 1999. Components of surface heat balance were measured and correlated with ice conditions and synoptic observations.These results can be used in atmospheric boundary layer modelling as lower boundary conditions. A relationship was found between modelled turbulent heat fluxes and observed sea-ice concentrations.

Ivanov, Boris V.; Gerland, Sebastian; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Goodwin, Harvey

232

System and process for biomass treatment  

DOEpatents

A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

2013-08-20

233

JEC Composites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JEC, "a service provider whose vocation is the international promotion of composite materials around the world, and as both an information transmitter and receiver" offers the JEC Composites website. From here, you can learn about what's new in the composites industry across the world and read about recent technological advances in various sectors such as aeronautics, automotive, and construction. For example, have you heard about the material used to make stab-resistant jackets in Japan? Or the material that was used to construct the bike Lance Armstrong used to win the Tour de France? Those in the industry can also get updates on business news, trends, and upcoming conferences.

234

Early myoclonic status and outcome after cardiorespiratory arrest  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that early myoclonic status after cardiorespiratory arrest is an agonal event.1 Here we describe three cases who developed early myoclonic status during a coma after cardiorespiratory arrest due to acute asthma. As consciousness improved, each patient developed Lance-Adams type multifocal myoclonus, but the eventual outcome was satisfactory. Only one patient needed assistance to walk, and all three were self caring. One patient had persistent dyscalculia. Early myoclonic status is not necessarily an agonal event, particularly when it follows arrest due to acute asthma or asphyxia.??

Morris, H; Howard, R; Brown, P

1998-01-01

235

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

236

Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish community dominated by Pacific sand lance (colder, more saline). Axis 3 reflected the negative spatial association of capelin Mallotus villosus and Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Correlations of year with Axes 1 and 3 indicate that from 1996 to 1999 the forage fish community significantly decreased in lipid-poor gadids (walleye pollock and Pacific cod), and significantly increased in lipid-rich species such as Pacific sand lance, Pacific herring, and capelin.

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.

2005-01-01

237

Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace  

SciTech Connect

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-01-01

238

Standardization of antituberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Surveillance of antituberculosis drug,resistance is an essential tool for evaluating,the,quality,of,tuberculosis,control,programmes.,Consensus-based recommendations,on uniform,reporting,of antituberculosis drug,resistance surveil- lance data in Europe have been developed,by a Working,Group of the World Health Organization,(WHO) and,the International Union Against Tuberculosis and,Lung Disease (IUATLD). Laboratories should use standardized,methods,for testing drug susceptibility with a quality assurance,programme,including national and international proficiency test- ing. The proportion of drug resistance,

V. Schwœbel; Ml. Moro; F. Drobniewski; S. e. Hoffner; M. c. Raviglione; H. l. Rieder; Lambregts-van Weezenbeek

239

Gluons for (almost) nothing, gravitons for free  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I describe a new method for organizing Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes that allow the definition of an entire multi-loop scattering amplitude in terms of a small number of "master" graphs. A small amount of information is required from the theory, and constraints propagate this information to the full amplitude. When organized in such away corresponding gravitational amplitudes are trivially found. This talk is based on work[1- 4] done in collaboration with Zvi Bern, Lance Dixon, Henrik Johansson, and Radu Roiban, and follows closely the presentation given in ref. [5].

Carrasco, John Joseph M.

2013-07-01

240

Modelling groundwater seepage zones in an unconfined aquifer with MODFLOW: different approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In areas where groundwater level occurs close to surface topography, the discharge of groundwater flow to the ground surface (or seepage) can be an important aspect of catchment hydrological cycle. It is also associated with valuable zones from an ecological point of view, often having a permanent shallow water table and constant lithotrophic water quality (Batelaan et al., 2003). In the present study, we try to implement a correct representation of this seepage process in a MODFLOW-HYDRUS coupled model for a small catchment (18.6 km²) of north-east Belgium. We started from an exisiting transient groundwater model of the unconfined aquifer in the study area (Gedeon and Mallants, 2009) discretized in 50x50 m cells. As the model did not account for seepage, hydraulic heads were simulated above the surface topography in certain zones. In the coupled MODFLOW-HYDRUS setup, transient boundary conditions (potential evapotranspiration and precipitation) are used to calculate the recharge with the HYDRUS package (Seo et al., 2007) for MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh et al., 2000). Coupling HYDRUS to MODFLOW involves the definition of a number of zones based on similarity in estimated groundwater depth, soil type and land cover. Concerning simulation of seepage, several existing packages are tested, including the DRAIN package (as in Reeve et al., 2006), the SPF package (from VSF Process; Thoms et al., 2006) and the PBC package (Post, 2011). Alternatively to the HYDRUS package for MODFLOW, the UZF package (Niswonger et al., 2006) for the simulation of recharge (and seepage) is also tested. When applicable, the parameterization of drain conductance in the top layer is critical and is investigated in relation to the soil hydraulic conductivity values used for the unsaturated zone (HYDRUS). Furthermore, stability issues are discussed, and where successful model runs are obtained, simulation results are compared with observed groundwater levels from a piezometric network. Spatial and temporal variability of the seepage zones is obtained and can be compared against seepage indicators such as soil maps or types of plant habitat. References Batelaan, O., De Smedt, F., Triest, L., 2003. Regional groundwater discharge: phreatophyte mapping, groundwater modelling and impact analysis of land-use change. Journal of Hydrology 275, 86-108. Gedeon, M., Mallants, D., 2009. Local-scale transient groundwater flow calculations. Project near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel, NIRAS/ONDRAF, 74 p. Harbaugh, A.W., Banta, E.R., Hill, M.C., McDonald, M.G., 2000. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model user guide to modularization concepts and the ground-water flow process. USGS, Denver, CO. Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., Regan, R.S., 2006. Documentation of the Unsaturated-Zone Flow (UZF1) package for modeling unsaturated flow between the land surface and the water table with MODFLOW-2005. Techniques and Methods 6-A19, USGS, Denver, CO. Post, V.E.A., 2011. A new package for simulating periodic boundary conditions in MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Computers & Geosciences 37, 1843-1849. Reeve, A.S., Evensen, R., Glaser, P.H., Siegel, D.I., Rosenberry, D., 2006. Flow path oscillations in transient ground-water simulations of large peatland systems. Journal of Hydrology 316, 313-324. Seo, H.S., Šim?nek, J., Poeter, E.P., 2007. Documentation of the HYDRUS Package for MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. Thoms, R.B., Johnson, R.L., Healy, R.W., 2006. User's guide to the Variably Saturated Flow (VSF) Process for MODFLOW. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A18, p. 58.

Leterme, Bertrand; Gedeon, Matej

2014-05-01

241

Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

2009-03-15

242

Data Assimilation of Near Real Time AMSR-E 12.5 km Ice Concentration into Arctic Cap Nowcast Forecast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS) is designed to provide short term (order 5 day) forecasts of Arctic ocean/ice conditions. Like many short term weather forecast system, ACNFS uses data assimilation to improve forecasts based on current observations. Regarding observations and model forecasts, the quicker the data is available after observation for assimilation the better. Advances in computing power allow forecast models to continue to increase in resolution (ACNFS is currently run at 1/12o). With an increase in resolution it is natural to seek higher resolution, near real time observational data for assimilation. Recently, 12.5 km AMSR-E gridded ice concentration has been made available in near real time via LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real time Capability for EOS, www.lance.nasa.gov). This ice concentration data is twice the resolution of SSM/I ice concentration currently assimilated into ACNFS. This study aims to investigate the difference in model output by assimilation of each ice concentration data. Results will be compared to independently determined ice edge from the National Ice Center for several Arctic regions. Finally, data that would be desirable to have in near real time will be discussed.

Hebert, D. A.; Posey, P. G.; Metzger, E.; Wallcraft, A.; Allard, R. A.; Cummings, J. A.; Smedstad, O. M.; Phelps, M.

2011-12-01

243

Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. PMID:20438855

Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

2010-08-15

244

Testing the junk-food hypothesis on marine birds: Effects of prey type on growth and development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The junk-food hypothesis attributes declines in productivity of marine birds and mammals to changes in the species of prey they consume and corresponding differences in nutritional quality of those prey. To test this hypothesis nestling Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) were raised in captivity under controlled conditions to determine whether the type and quality of fish consumed by young seabirds constrains their growth and development. Some nestlings were fed rations of Capelin (Mallotus villosus), Herring (Clupea pallasi) or Sand Lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) and their growth was compared with nestlings raised on equal biomass rations of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcograma). Nestlings fed rations of herring, sand lance, or capelin experienced higher growth increments than nestlings fed pollock. The energy density of forage fish fed to nestlings had a marked effect on growth increments and could be expected to have an effect on pre- and post-fledging survival of nestlings in the wild. These results provide empirical support for the junk-food hypothesis.

Romano, M. D.; Piatt, J. F.; Roby, D. D.

2006-01-01

245

Overview of NASA Multi-Dimensional Stirling Convertor Code Development and Validation Effort  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA grant has been awarded to Cleveland State University (CSU) to develop a multi-dimensional (multi-D) Stirling computer code with the goals of improving loss predictions and identifying component areas for improvements. The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates are teamed with CSU. Development of test rigs at UMN and CSU and validation of the code against test data are part of the effort. The one-dimensional (1-D) Stirling codes used for design and performance prediction do not rigorously model regions of the working space where abrupt changes in flow area occur (such as manifolds and other transitions between components). Certain hardware experiences have demonstrated large performance gains by varying manifolds and heat exchanger designs to improve flow distributions in the heat exchangers. 1-D codes were not able to predict these performance gains. An accurate multi-D code should improve understanding of the effects of area changes along the main flow axis, sensitivity of performance to slight changes in internal geometry, and, in general, the understanding of various internal thermodynamic losses. The commercial CFD-ACE code has been chosen for development of the multi-D code. This 2-D/3-D code has highly developed pre- and post-processors, and moving boundary capability. Preliminary attempts at validation of CFD-ACE models of MIT gas spring and "two space" test rigs were encouraging. Also, CSU's simulations of the UMN oscillating-flow fig compare well with flow visualization results from UMN. A complementary Department of Energy (DOE) Regenerator Research effort is aiding in development of regenerator matrix models that will be used in the multi-D Stirling code. This paper reports on the progress and challenges of this

Tew, Roy C.; Cairelli, James E.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Simon, Terrence W.; Gedeon, David

2002-01-01

246

A marine dynamic penetrometer for the determination of sea floor geotechnical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a seafloor lance penetration monitoring system: the Lance Insertion Retardation Meter (LIRmeter). The device can be used to infer geotechnical seafloor properties, such as bearing capacity by monitoring the deceleration of a free-fall penetrating lance. The deceleration record can be furthermore used to estimate mean grain size and mud content of the sea floor as well as total penetration depth. The LIRmeter is contained in a pressure vessel (440 x 110 mm) and equipped with accelerometers of different sensitivities to (i) determine sea floor resistance during penetration and (ii) to generate a depth axis. Typically, measurements are carried out in a pogo style fashion to allow a rapid measurement progress during field campaigns. The LIRmeter is intended to determine sea floor properties on the sole basis of deceleration measurements in order to achieve a mechanically and electronically robust system. Data is sampled at a resolution of 16 bit and at a rate of typically 500 Hz for each channel. The device can either be installed in any type of lance i.e. marine heat flow probes, gravity corers, piston corers or can be used in combination with a purpose built lance as a standalone instrument. It has a usable length of four meters, a total weight of 280 kg in air and can be operated up to full ocean depth (6000m). The bearing capacity of the sea floor is a critical factor for marine engineering projects such as burial of marine cables, pipeline laying and foundations. Knowledge of the mud content can provide constraints for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity. The identification of weak zones along a slope can moreover provide vital information for risk assessment studies. Traditionally, frame based, quasi static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) or sampling methods like gravity coring are used to conduct these types of investigation. In comparison to established but time consuming and rather costly methods, the LIRmeter is intended (i) for near surface investigations and/or (ii) to complement and connect conventional but isolated CPT measurements in a very efficient and rapid way. We show results from measurements in the North Sea, as well as results of laboratory experiments. During sea trials, the LIRmeter was equipped with an additional CPT sensor, which delivered data for cone (tip) resistance, sleeve friction and pore pressure, thus allowing a direct comparison between results of the acceleration measurements and results from conventional CPT sensors. The laboratory measurements were also carried out using both acceleration and tip resistance sensors. Resulting values show a very good agreement between tip resistance calculated from deceleration data and tip resistance from direct laboratory and field measurements. The influence of sediment type (mainly mud content) will be discussed within the context of laboratory measurements.

Stephan, S.; Kaul, N. E.; Villinger, H. W.

2013-12-01

247

The earliest-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex: characterization by MAP2 and neurotransmitter immunohistochemistry during fetal life.  

PubMed

The earliest-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex have been studied here during development using a combination of 3H-thymidine birthdating with immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 or for several neuropeptides/transmitters. These neurons are the first postmitotic cells of the cortex, with birthdates during the 1-week period preceding the genesis of cells of the adult cerebral cortex (Luskin and Shatz, 1985a; Chun et al., 1987). However, they are transient and the majority disappear by adulthood (Luskin and Shatz, 1985a; Chun and Shatz, 1989). When autoradiographic birthdating is combined with MAP2 immunostaining during fetal life, the entire population of these early-generated neurons appears to be stained, resulting in labeled bands above and below the cortical plate. The band above the cortical plate (in the marginal zone) contains early-generated neurons with horizontal morphologies, while the thicker band beneath the cortical plate (within the intermediate zone) contains the somata of early-generated neurons and their elaborate processes that are frequently directed towards the ventricular surface. In view of the correspondence between the location of the early-generated neurons and the MAP2-immunostained band beneath the cortical plate, we suggest that this combined approach can be used to define accurately the subdivision of the intermediate zone known as the subplate. The early-generated neurons are also immunoreactive for GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SRIF), and cholecystokinin (CCK) during fetal life. While GABA, NPY, and SRIF immunostaining could be detected by embryonic day 50 (E50), that for CCK was not found until E60. Moreover, there is a relationship between neuropeptide immunoreactivity and location within the cerebral wall. The marginal-zone neurons are immunoreactive only for CCK. The subplate neurons are immunoreactive for CCK, SRIF, and NPY. Most of those immunoreactive for SRIF tend to be clustered within the upper part of the subplate, while those immunoreactive for NPY tend to be located more deeply. Cells immunoreactive for GABA are more uniformly distributed throughout the cerebral wall. These observations demonstrate directly that the marginal zone and subplate contain peptide- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons that belong to the earliest-generated cell population of the cerebral cortex. The presence of these early-generated neurons, which achieve a remarkable degree of maturity during fetal life, suggests that they perform an essential, yet transient, role in the development of the cerebral cortex. PMID:2566660

Chun, J J; Shatz, C J

1989-05-01

248

Applications of Near Real-Time Image and Fire Products from MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/) has been providing MODIS fire detections and imagery in near real-time since 2001. The Rapid Response system is part of the Land and Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Current capabilities include providing MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions. The geographically-corrected subsets images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. These data are available within a few hours of data acquisition. The images are accessed by large number of user communities to obtain a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (fires, oil spills, floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. In addition, the scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. The MODIS Rapid Response project has also been providing a near real-time data feed on fire locations and MODIS imagery subsets to the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project (http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms). FIRMS provides timely availability of fire location information, which is essential in preventing and fighting large forest/wild fires. Products are available through a WebGIS for visualizing MODIS hotspots and MCD45 Burned Area images, an email alerting tool to deliver fire data on daily/weekly/near real-time basis, active data downloads in formats such as shape, KML, CSV, WMS, etc., along with MODIS imagery subsets. FIRMS’ user base covers more than 100 countries and territories. A recent user survey showed that a majority of people use FIRMS for the purposes of conservation, fire-fighting, natural hazard monitoring, land cover change monitoring, and climate change. FIRMS has also developed a cellphone-based text (SMS) alerting of MODIS and MSG-detected fires in near real-time in South Africa, in partnership with the South African power company ESKOM and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. FIRMS was transitioned to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (UN-FAO) in Rome, Italy in Spring 2010 and is scheduled to become a part of the LANCE-MODIS data system (http://lance.nasa.gov/) in Spring 2011.

Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Teague, M.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

2010-12-01

249

Improvements Realized on the NiThrow{sup TM} Solution - 13075  

SciTech Connect

Two years ago we presented the first results obtained with the highly pressurized liquid nitrogen technology (HPLN) in case of cutting, surface decontamination and concrete scabbling applications. These results, carried out in non active conditions, were really promising in term of efficiency and productivity and highlighted how this technology was interesting for D and D business (e.g. cut of depth up to 30 mm for concrete scabbling application; productivity of 4 cm.min{sup -1} in case of the cut of a 50 mm thick stainless steel ingot..). We also found some real issues which were not compatible with its use in a radioactive environment. Indeed, the reliability of some parts of the system was not efficient enough (e.g. lancing tool, intensifiers...) to run the HPLN technology in good conditions. More than two years, after a complete study of the whole system, and after the compilation of all the required troubleshooting, AREVA with its partner Air Liquide, decided to start a complete R and D work in order to improve this cryogenic technology. Our engineers started with the lancing tool and designed a new one lighter and more reliable than the original one. After that, they improved the reliability of the pressurization unit (skid) by changing seals and other parts. As mentioned above, the goal of this work was to implement this technology in a nuclear environment the best way. We also focused our efforts on the insulation of the high pressure hoses (with a maximal distance, between the 'skid - Heat exchanger' module and the lancing tool, of about 110 meters), and on the development of a quite efficient vacuum system comprising dust collection units (we can guarantee an efficiency of our system higher than 95%). Finally, the last step of our development was devoted to the design and the manufacturing of a dedicated carrier enabling the technology to move in all directions (X,Y and Z) and to reach all the positions (wall, ground, ceiling and for sure all the singularities such as corners..). In this paper, the 'step by step' strategy to achieve those ambitious developments will be presented with a special attention to the NiThrow{sup TM} carrier development. (authors)

Moggia, F.; Objois, L.; Damerval, F. [AREVA - Clean-Up BU - 1, route de la Noue - 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [AREVA - Clean-Up BU - 1, route de la Noue - 91196 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toulemonde, V. [AREVA - R and D Corporate - 1, place Jean Miller - 92084 - Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA - R and D Corporate - 1, place Jean Miller - 92084 - Paris La Defense (France); Varet, T. [AREVA - D and D BU - 1, place Jean Miller - Paris La Defense (France)] [AREVA - D and D BU - 1, place Jean Miller - Paris La Defense (France); Guillot, S. [AREVA Federal Services LLC - 2101 Horn Rapids Road Richland, WA 99354-5102 (United States)] [AREVA Federal Services LLC - 2101 Horn Rapids Road Richland, WA 99354-5102 (United States); Richard, F. [Air Liquide - Research Center - 13, rue d'Epluches - 95310 St Ouen L'Aumone (France)] [Air Liquide - Research Center - 13, rue d'Epluches - 95310 St Ouen L'Aumone (France)

2013-07-01

250

Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues, and are working to develop higher resolution flood detection using alternate sensors, including Landsat and various radar sensors. Although these provide better spatial resolution, this comes at the cost of being less timely. As of late 2011, the system expanded to fully global daily flood monitoring, with free public access to the generated products. These include GIS-ready files of flood and normal water extent (KML, shapefile, raster), and small scale graphic maps (10 degrees square) showing regional flood extent. We are now expanding product distribution channels to include live web services (WMS, etc), allowing easier access via standalone apps. We are also working to bring our product into the Pacific Disaster Center's Disaster Alert system and mobile app for wider accessibility.

Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

2012-12-01

251

Development of a [kappa]-[epsilon] model for bubbly two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the k-[epsilon] model for bubbly two-phase flow is proposed and tested against experimental data. The basic assumption made is that the shear-induced turbulence and bubble-induced turbulence may be linearly superposed. This assumption results in a model with two time constants that matches both homogeneous two-phase turbulence data (Lance and Bataille, 1991) and pipe data (Serizawa, 1986). The coefficients of the single-phase k-[epsilon] model have not been modified and only one additional coefficient is required: the virtual volume coefficient of the bubbles, which may be determined from first principles. This model not only agrees with the data trends, but it also predicts the turbulence suppression which has been measured for high Reynolds number bubbly air/water flows in pipes.

Bertodano, M.L. de; Lahey, R.T.; Jones, O.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Multiphase Research)

1994-03-01

252

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOEpatents

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22

253

The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h eat transfer coefficient. In most cases, the EER was reduced with fouling primarily due to increased fan power. However, the changes in EER were relatively small, in the range of 1%-9% (10%). For most cases, equipment having low efficiency filters had higher EER after fouling than equipment with high efficiency filters, because the high efficiency filter caused significantly higher pressure drops than the low efficiency filters. The extra filter pressure drop outweighed the reduced coil pressure drop after fouling. The impact of fan efficiency curves was also investigated in the study. The energy penalty associated with high efficiency filters was reduced considerably with higher efficiency fans. There is an energy penalty associated with the use of high efficiency filtration. However, the primary reason for selecting high efficiency filters for a particular application would be improved air quality. For HX8L, the quantity of dust passing through the coil with a MERV4 filter was approximately 30 times the dust passing the coil with a MERV14 filter. Without an upstream filter, the quantity of dust passing through the coil was approximately 60 times the value for a MERV14 filter.

Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

2004-06-30

254

Comparison of Satellite based measurements of the Tropospheric HDO/H2O ratio from TES with in situ measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Global satellite observations of water vapor and its isotopes from TES, IASI, and SCIAMACHY add a new constraint for estimating evaporation and precipitation rates and partitioning ocean versus terrestrial moisture sources. Here we show the results of a validation campaign between measurement of the HDO/H2O ratio from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and in situ measurements taken at the NOAA Mauna Loa observatory using loaned instruments from Picarro and Los Gatos Research and JPL (Lance Christensen PI). For these data we find that the TES measurements of the HDO/H2O ratio are sensitive to boundary layer and lower tropospheric concentrations. After accounting for the TES a priori bias and vertical sensitivity we find that the TES measurements agree with the in situ data to within 10 parts thousand relative to SMOW, in agreement with the expected TES random errors.

Worden, J.; Noone, D. C.; Brown, D. P.; Lee, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Galewsky, J.

2009-12-01

255

Material engineering of GexTe100-x compounds to improve phase-change memory performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we provide a detailed physical and electrical characterization of Germanium Telluride compounds (GexTe100-x) targeting phase-change memory applications. Thin films of Germanium-rich as well as Tellurium-rich phase-change materials are deposited for material analysis (XRD, resistivity and optical characterization). GexTe100-x compounds are then integrated in lance-type analytical phase-change memory devices allowing for a thorough analysis of the switching characteristics, data retention and endurance performances. Tellurium-rich GeTe alloys exhibit stable programming characteristics and can sustain endurance up to 107 cycles, while Germanium-rich compounds show an unstable RESET state during repeated write/erase cycles, probably affected by Ge segregation. Finally we demonstrate that data retention is strongly improved departing from Ge50Te50 stoichiometric composition.

Navarro, G.; Sousa, V.; Persico, A.; Pashkov, N.; Toffoli, A.; Bastien, J.-C.; Perniola, L.; Maitrejean, S.; Roule, A.; Zuliani, P.; Annunziata, R.; De Salvo, B.

2013-11-01

256

Robot arm apparatus  

DOEpatents

A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1992-01-01

257

Mind & Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mind & Machine is a weekly column provided by Ashley Dunn for the New York Times Cybertimes that discusses topics related to computing, technology, and the Internet. Recent columns have addressed the topics of the development of Internet telephony, possible futures of user interfaces, the history of technology and standards, and the Internet as a vehicle for community. Articles are well written, opinionated, and thought provoking. Mr. Dunn is a free lance writer who has written for such papers as the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, and the South China Morning Post. Note that the site is available only upon registration and is free of charge only in the US.

Dunn, Ashley.

1996-01-01

258

Isolation and characterization of histamine-producing bacteria from fermented fish products.  

PubMed

Histamine is mainly produced by microorganisms that are found in fermented foods, and is frequently involved in food poisoning. Two histamine-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented fish products, anchovy sauce, and sand lance sauce by using a histidine decarboxylating medium. The species were identified as Bacillus licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5. Multiplex PCR analysis showed the presence of the conserved histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene in the chromosome of these bacteria. B. licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5 produced the maximum amount of histamine (22.3±3.5 and 15.1±1.5 mg/L, respectively). As such, they were determined to be potential histamine-producing bacteria among the tested cultures. PMID:24385369

Moon, Jin Seok; Kim, So-Young; Cho, Kyung-Ju; Yang, Seung-Joon; Yoon, Gun-Mook; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Han, Nam Soo

2013-12-01

259

ISACONVERT™—Continuous converting of nickel/PGM matte with calcium ferrite slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISASMELT™ process is a top submerged lance (TSL) bath smelting technology which has been developed and optimized over the last 25 years. By the end of 2011, the total installed capacity of the ISASMELT technology will exceed 9,000,000 tonnes per year of feed materials in copper and lead smelters around the world. Commercial plants, operating in Belgium and Germany, are also batch converting copper materials in ISASMELT furnaces. This TSL technology is equally effective for continuous converting processes, whereupon it is called ISACONVERT™. Xstrata Technology (XT) has recently patented a new ISACONVERT process for the continuous converting of nickel/platinum group metal (PGM) mattes using the calcium ferrite slag system. This paper outlines the development of this new process and presents a conceptual flowsheet for how it can be integrated into an existing nickel/PGM smelter.

Bakker, M. L.; Nikolic, S.; Alvear, G. R. F.

2011-05-01

260

Danarc technology for electric arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Danarc electric arc furnace technology combines high-impedance technology with bottom tuyeres for oxygen and carbon injection. Together with lance injection and wall burners for both conventional operation and post-combustion, the concept provides full flexibility in the choice of energy sources. The basic philosophy of the concept is to have efficient systems for the supply of both electrical and alternative energy. Operational results from a Danarc furnace at Ferriere Nord show that it is possible to inject high specific amounts of oxygen and carbon as a substitute for electrical energy. The electrical power supply with a fixed or saturable reactor is beneficial because of the high voltage and low current operation. High-impedance operation results in low electrode consumption, reduced electrical losses and a reduction of the supply network disturbance, ie, flicker.

Samuelsson, P.; Gensini, G.; Mavridis [Danieli Centro Met, Buttrio (Italy)

1995-06-01

261

Research on Hazardous States of Awareness and Physiological Factors in Aerospace Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical memorandum describes research conducted to examine the etiologies and nature of hazardous states of awareness and the psychophysiological factors involved in their onset in aerospace operations. A considerable amount of research has been conducted at NASA that examines psychological and human factors issues that may play a role in aviation safety. The technical memorandum describes some of the research that was conducted between 1998 and 2001, both in-house and as cooperative agreements, which addressed some of these issues. The research was sponsored as part of the physiological factors subelement of the Aviation Operation Systems (AOS) program and Physiological / Psychological Stressors and Factors project. Dr. Lance Prinzel is the Level III subelement lead and can be contacted at l.j.prinzel@larc.nasa.gov.

Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

2002-01-01

262

NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

2011-01-01

263

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOEpatents

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01

264

Near Real-Time Capabilities for Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a Dutch instrument launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft in 2004. It measures various atmospheric constituents including ozone (column and profile), aerosols, clouds, surface ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, and a number of other trace gases. The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and NASA have developed a Near Real-time (NRT) capability for the processing system. That system has subsequently been integrated into NASA's Land Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system. The NRT system uses slightly modified algorithms that reduce latency while still maintaining acceptable quality. The data are already being used by a number of operational users for applications such as weather models and volcanic ash warnings for aircraft. This paper will describe some characteristics of the system and highlight differences from the standard science products.

Tilmes, C.; Durbin, P.; Duggan, B.; Das, B.

2010-12-01

265

X-ray Crystallography Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

University of Alabama engineer Lance Weiss briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

1999-01-01

266

Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

NONE

1998-07-01

267

The Jasons  

SciTech Connect

I'm a free-lance science writer, and have written a history/profile of the group, called Jason, of academic scientists who advise the government. The book starts where the Manhattan Project ends -- with physicists trying to decide, having let the genie out of the bottle, how to get it back in again. One result of their attempts was Jason. Jason is 30 to 50 scientists who meet for six weeks every summer to answer questions for the government -- usually for the defense department or the intelligence community -- about national security issues. They specialize in studies for the Department of Energy on the technical backing for treaties to ban the bomb. Jason is unique, not only in this country, but in the world. The book is about the group's attempts to hold onto their scientific souls, remain independent, and still stay in business.

Professor Ann Finkbeiner

2006-04-10

268

Integrated Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose System: Handling Step Analysis  

PubMed Central

Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) implicates a number of handling steps with the meter and the lancing device. Numerous user errors can occur during SMBG, and each step adds to the complexity of use. This report compares the required steps to perform SMBG of one fully integrated (the second generation of the Accu-Chek® Mobile), three partly integrated (Accu-Chek Compact Plus, Ascensia® Breeze®2, and Accu-Chek Aviva), and six conventional (Bayer Contour®, Bayer Contour USB, BGStar™, FreeStyle Lite®, OneTouch® Ultra® 2, and OneTouch Verio™Pro) systems. The results show that the fully integrated system reduces the number of steps to perform SMBG. The mean decrease is approximately 70% compared with the other systems. We assume that a reduction of handling steps also reduces the risk of potential user errors and improves the user-friendliness of the system.

Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Ruhland, Katharina; Baumstark, Annette; Haug, Cornelia

2012-01-01

269

Numerical Simulation of SNCR Technology with Simplified Chemical Kinetics Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with numerical simulation of SNCR method. For numerical modelling was used CFD code Ansys/CFX. SNCR method was described by dominant chemical reaction, which were look up NIST Chemical database. The reactions including reduction of NOx and concentration change of pollutants, like N2O and CO in flue gas too. Proposed chemical kinetics and CFD model was applied to two boilers. Both simulations were compared with experimental measurements. First simulation was used to validation of chemical mechanism. Second simulation was based on first simulation and it was used to verification of compiled SNCR chemical mechanism. Next the new variant of the reagent penetration lance was proposed and compared with the original variants.

Blejcha?, T.; Dolní?ková, D.

2013-04-01

270

Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

1982-04-30

271

Hispanic Reading Room: Online Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hispanic Reading Room site from the Library of Congress brings together over a dozen digital collections crafted from primary and secondary source materials related to Luso-Hispanic cultural history. The collections offered on this site include the Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake as well as a collection on Puerto Rico and the Dawn of the Modern Age. This last area contains a small gallery of cartographic items as well as a short essay on national identity. Moving on, the Exhibits and Pictorial Collections contain wonderful visual explorations of the Spanish-American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Of additional note, visitors on the hunt for a specific photograph or hard-to-find item may wish to consult the Reading Room's list of free-lance picture researchers who may be able to search for these items for a small fee.

272

Improved recovery demonstration for Williston basin carbonates. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in certain shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional and multi-component seismic area is being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil-in-place will result in additional oil production by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

NONE

1996-02-01

273

Bulk materials handling equipment roundup  

SciTech Connect

The article reports recent product developments in belt conveyors. Flexco Steel Lancing Co. (Flexco) has a range of light, portable maintenance tools and offers training modules on procedures for belt conveyor maintenance on its website www.flexcosafe.com. Siemens recently fitted a 19 km long conveyor belt drive system at a Texan aluminium plant with five 556-kW Simovent Masterdrive VC drives. Voith recently launched the TPKL-T turbo coupling for users who want an alignment-free drive solution. Belt cleaners newly on the market include the RemaClean SGB brush and ASGCO Manufacturing's Razor-Back with Spray bar. Continental Conveyor has introduced a new line of dead-shaft pulleys offering increased bearing protection. 6 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2007-07-15

274

High temperature structural silicides  

SciTech Connect

Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

Petrovic, J.J.

1997-03-01

275

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO[sub 2] increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

Schell, D.M.

1989-01-01

276

Carbon and nitrogen isotope studies in an arctic aquatic ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The Phase II studies of the R4D Program on stream and watershed ecology reflect the accomplishments and accumulation of baseline information obtained during the past studies. Although our rough estimates indicate that nitrogen inputs to the watershed ba lance losses, the carbon fluxes suggest that they are not in equilibrium and that there is a net loss of carbon from the tundra ecosystem through respiration and transport out of the watershed via the stream system. Radiocarbon profiles of soil sections coupled with mass transport calculations revealed that peat accumulation has essentially ceased in the R4D watershed and appears to be in ablative loss. Thus the carbon flux measurements provide validation tests for the PLANTGRO and GAS-HYDRO models of the PHASE II studies. These findings are also important in the context of global CO{sub 2} increases from positive feedback mechanisms in peatlands associated with climatic warming in the subarctic regions.

Schell, D.M.

1989-12-31

277

Lesions associated with a novel Mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.  

PubMed

From July 1999 to November 2001, Mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. The Mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. The most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. Other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. Infection was associated with a leukocytosis and left shift in 12 animals. Animals with abscesses improved clinically after surgical lancing, irrigation, and systemic antibiotic therapy. The mycoplasma isolates had a consistent 16S rRNA sequence dissimilar from other Mycoplasma spp. and represent a novel species, Mycoplasma zalophi proposed sp. nov. PMID:16699147

Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D; Lawrence, Judith A; Fauquier, Deborah A; Jang, Spencer; Aldridge, Brian; Spraker, Terry; Thomas, Linda C; Brown, Daniel R; Wendland, Lori; Davidson, Maureen K

2006-01-01

278

A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

1989-01-01

279

A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

1989-04-01

280

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

SciTech Connect

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The technologies being tested for concrete decontamination are targeted for alpha contamination. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

NONE

1997-07-31

281

A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology  

SciTech Connect

This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 238}Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached.

Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1996-11-01

282

The Effect of Electric Field on Multiferroic Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.08)12O22 Investigated by NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic helimagnet Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2(Fe0.92Al0.08)12O22 (Al-BSZFO) shows extremely high magnetoelectric susceptibility so that the critical field for switching electric polarization is less than 1 mT below 90 K [1]. Recently, a large macroscopic magnetization was successfully induced by the electric field (±2 ?B/f.u. by ±2 MV/m) in properly annealed Al-BSZFO [2]. To reveal the microscopic origin, a study on the magnetic domain structure is needed. In the magnetic material, NMR intensity is enhanced by the coupling between the electron magnetic susceptibility and the nuclear magnetic susceptibility. Hence if we trace out the amount of NMR intensity enhancement, we would get the information of the magnetic domain configuration. By measuring both the magnetic field and the electric field dependence of NMR intensity enhancement, we found the area of the magnetic domains is actually tuned by the electric field. [1] S. H. Chun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 037204 (2010). [2] K. H. Kim, The 19th International Conference on Magnetism (2012); Y. S. Chai et al., unpublished.

Kwon, Sangil; Lee, Soonchil; Chai, Yi Sheng; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon; Kang, Byeongki; Kim, Changsoo; Jo, Euna

2013-03-01

283

Influence of ferroelectric polarization on magnetic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film heterostructures of transition metal ferromagnets (FM) and polymer ferroelectrics (FE) are investigated to look for changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer that occur on switching the FE polarization (with an ensuing change in the electric field direction).[1] Samples of [Glass/ Pd (50 nm)/Co wedge (0.9-2.6nm)/ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) (53 nm)/Al (30nm)] are deposited via sputtering or evaporation for the metallic layers and via Langmuir-Schaefer deposition for the polymer ferroelectric. [2] Magnetic and FE properties have been characterized using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) and the pyroelectric effect. Polar and longitudinal MOKE loops are measured across the Co wedge for both positive and negative FE polarization and the difference in the two MOKE loops is ascribed to the changes in the magnetic anisotropy of the FM layer. [3] These changes are most apparent in the region where the Co undergoes a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane anisotropy. This research is supported by the NSF MRSEC through Grant No. DMR- 0820521 1. Chun-Gang Duan et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 122905 (2008) 2. A. V. Bune, et al, Nature (London) 391, 874 (1998) 3. P. F. Carcia, J.Appl. Phys. 63, 5066 (1988)

Mardana, A.; Ducharme, S.; Adenwalla, S.

2010-03-01

284

Technical Posters from the 2011 LAMMPS Users Workshop and Symposium  

DOE Data Explorer

LAMMPS stands for Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator and is a code that can be used to model atoms or, as the LAMMPS website says, as a parallel particle simulator at the atomic, meso, or continuum scale. The software is made available by Sandia National Lab and is used in many projects. The LAMMPS Users’ Workshop and Symposium is held annually. The 2011 meeting took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 9 – 11. PowerPoint presentations are linked to the agenda for each session, and the titles of the poster presentations appear on the same web page. Only five of the 23 posters are linked, however. They are: 1) A Coarse-Graining Procedure for Mapping Atomistic Models, Chia-Chun Fu; 2) Implementation of the pressure profile calculation in spherical coordinates, Takenobu Nakamura; 3) Synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo: Diffusion in Heterogeneous Systems, Enrique Martinez; 4) Using simulated annealing coupled with parallel tempering in molecular dynamics simulations to create low-defect silica surfaces, Paul Norman; Combining locally optimized Interpolants with a multilevel QM/MM method for complex reactive simulations, Michael Salazar.

285

A nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading of clinically diagnosed localized prostate cancer among Chinese patients  

PubMed Central

Although several models have been developed to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, most of these models are restricted to prostate-specific antigen screening-detected prostate cancer. This study aimed to build a nomogram for the prediction of Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer. The study cohort comprised 269 Chinese prostate cancer patients who underwent prostate biopsy with a minimum of 10 cores and were subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. Of all included patients, 220 (81.8%) were referred with clinical symptoms. The prostate-specific antigen level, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T category were used in a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading. The developed nomogram was validated internally. Gleason sum upgrading was observed in 90 (33.5%) patients. Our nomogram showed a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.789 and good calibration using 4 readily available variables. The nomogram also demonstrated satisfactory statistical performance for predicting significant upgrading. External validation of the nomogram published by Chun et al. in our cohort showed a marked discordance between the observed and predicted probabilities of Gleason sum upgrading. In summary, a new nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer was developed, and it demonstrated good statistical performance upon internal validation.

Wang, Jin-You; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Chao-Fu; Zhang, Shi-Lin; Dai, Bo; Ye, Ding-Wei

2014-01-01

286

Endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis receptor (ECSCR) enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) activation and promotes proteolysis of internalized KDR.  

PubMed

The endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis receptor (ECSCR) is a cell-surface protein selectively expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), with roles in EC migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Our previous study (Verma, A., Bhattacharya, R., Remadevi, I., Li, K., Pramanik, K., Samant, G. V., Horswill, M., Chun, C. Z., Zhao, B., Wang, E., Miao, R. Q., Mukhopadhyay, D., Ramchandran, R., and Wilkinson, G. A. (2010) Blood 115, 4614-4622) showed that loss of ECSCR in primary ECs reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) but not VEGF receptor 1/FLT1. Here, we show that ECSCR biochemically associates with KDR but not FLT1 and that the predicted ECSCR cytoplasmic and transmembrane regions can each confer association with KDR. Stimulation with VEGF165 rapidly and transiently increases ECSCR-KDR complex formation, a process blocked by the KDR tyrosine kinase inhibitor compound SU5416 or inhibitors of endosomal acidification. Triple labeling experiments show VEGF-stimulated KDR(+)/ECSCR(+) intracellular co-localization. Silencing of ECSCR disrupts VEGF-induced KDR activation and AKT and ERK phosphorylation and impairs VEGF-stimulated KDR degradation. In zebrafish, ecscr interacts with kdrl during intersomitic vessel sprouting. Human placenta and infantile hemangioma samples highly express ECSCR protein, suggesting a role for ECSCR-KDR interaction in these tissues. PMID:23393131

Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Remadevi, Indulekha; Zhao, Baofeng; Pan, Jing; Miao, Robert; Ramchandran, Ramani; North, Paula E; You, Ming; Rahimi, Nader; Wilkinson, George A

2013-04-12

287

Spatial attention and conscious perception: interactions and dissociations between and within endogenous and exogenous processes.  

PubMed

A current controversy exists about the relationship between spatial attention and conscious perception. While some authors propose that these phenomena are intimately related (Bartolomeo, 2008; Chun & Marois, 2002; O'Regan & Noë, 2001; Posner, 1994), others report dissociations between them (Kentridge et al., 1999; Koch & Tsuchiya, 2007; Wyart & Tallon-Baudry, 2008). However, spatial attention is not a unitary mechanism, and it is possible that not all forms of attention dissociate from conscious perception. In the present study we used a paradigm in which endogenous and exogenous forms of attention are orthogonally manipulated in order to investigate their relation with conscious perception within the same design. By analyzing two different cue-related components, our results demonstrated that while endogenous attention was electrophysiologically dissociated from conscious perception, exogenous attention was not, consistent with the hypothesis that exogenous attention is an important antecedent of our conscious experience. Our results support previous claims of dissociations between some forms of spatial attention and conscious perception, but also highlight the importance of exogenous orienting on the selection of information for conscious access. PMID:22266110

Chica, Ana B; Botta, Fabiano; Lupiáñez, Juan; Bartolomeo, Paolo

2012-04-01

288

Pressure-induced Polarization Reversal in Z-type Hexaferrite Single Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiferroic materials with a gigantic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at room temperature have been searched for applications to novel devices. Recently, large direct and converse ME effects were realized at room temperature in the so-called Z-type hexaferrite (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 single crystals [1,2]. To obtain a new control parameter for realizing a sensitive ME tuning, we studied ME properties of the crystals under uniaxial pressure. Upon applying a tiny uniaxial pressure of about 0.6 GPa, magnetic field-driven electric polarization reversal and anomaly in a M-H loop start to appear at 10 K and gradually disappear at higher temperature above 130 K. By comparing those results with longitudinal magnetostriction at ambient pressure, we propose the pressure-dependent variations of transverse conical spin configuration as well as its domain structure under small magnetic field bias, and point out the possibility of having two different physical origins of the ME coupling in this system. [1] Y. Kitagawa et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 797 (2010) [2] S. H. Chun et al., submitted.

Jeon, Byung-Gu; Chun, Sae Hwan; Kim, Kee Hoon

2012-02-01

289

LPA1-induced cytoskeleton reorganization drives fibrosis through CTGF-dependent fibroblast proliferation  

PubMed Central

There has been much recent interest in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through one of its receptors, LPA1, in fibrotic diseases, but the mechanisms by which LPA-LPA1 signaling promotes pathological fibrosis remain to be fully elucidated. Using a mouse peritoneal fibrosis model, we demonstrate central roles for LPA and LPA1 in fibroblast proliferation. Genetic deletion or pharmacological antagonism of LPA1 protected mice from peritoneal fibrosis, blunting the increases in peritoneal collagen by 65.4 and 52.9%, respectively, compared to control animals and demonstrated that peritoneal fibroblast proliferation was highly LPA1 dependent. Activation of LPA1 on mesothelial cells induced these cells to express connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), driving fibroblast proliferation in a paracrine fashion. Activation of mesothelial cell LPA1 induced CTGF expression by inducing cytoskeleton reorganization in these cells, causing nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A and MRTF-B. Pharmacological inhibition of MRTF-induced transcription also diminished CTGF expression and fibrosis in the peritoneal fibrosis model, mitigating the increase in peritoneal collagen content by 57.9% compared to controls. LPA1-induced cytoskeleton reorganization therefore makes a previously unrecognized but critically important contribution to the profibrotic activities of LPA by driving MRTF-dependent CTGF expression, which, in turn, drives fibroblast proliferation.—Sakai, N., Chun, J., Duffield, J. S., Wada, T., Luster, A. D., Tager, A. M. LPA1-induced cytoskeleton reorganization drives fibrosis through CTGF-dependent fibroblast proliferation.

Sakai, Norihiko; Chun, Jerold; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Wada, Takashi; Luster, Andrew D.; Tager, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

290

Microscopic mechanism of energy storage in PVDF-CTFE from ab-initio calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypropelene is most used capacitor dielectric for high energy density storage. However, exotic materials such as copolymerized Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) could potentially lead to an order of magnitude increase in the stored energy density [1,2]. In contrast to linear dielectric properties of polypropelene, several polymers in the PVDF family display nonlinear dielectric properties under electric field. The nonlinearity was postulated to be due to a phase transition from non-polar to a polar structure, whose energy is lowered by an electric field [2]. Our calculations map out the atomistic details of phase transformations for both pure PVDF and PVDF-CTFE. Interestingly, admixture of a small amount of copolymer lowers both the polarization and the energy barriers for the transformation. The barrier lowering facilitates the transformation and may result in reduced loss in the charge-discharge cycle, enabling tuning of material properties for energy storage applications. [4pt] [1] B. Chun et al, Science 313, 334 (2006).[0pt] [2] V. Ranjan et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 047801 (2007).

Ranjan, V.; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco; Bernholc, J.

2011-03-01

291

A nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading of clinically diagnosed localized prostate cancer among Chinese patients.  

PubMed

Although several models have been developed to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading between biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens, most of these models are restricted to prostate-specific antigen screening-detected prostate cancer. This study aimed to build a nomogram for the prediction of Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer. The study cohort comprised 269 Chinese prostate cancer patients who underwent prostate biopsy with a minimum of 10 cores and were subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. Of all included patients, 220 (81.8%) were referred with clinical symptoms. The prostate-specific antigen level, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason scores, and clinical T category were used in a multivariate logistic regression model to predict the probability of Gleason sum upgrading. The developed nomogram was validated internally. Gleason sum upgrading was observed in 90 (33.5%) patients. Our nomogram showed a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.789 and good calibration using 4 readily available variables. The nomogram also demonstrated satisfactory statistical performance for predicting significant upgrading. External validation of the nomogram published by Chun et al. in our cohort showed a marked discordance between the observed and predicted probabilities of Gleason sum upgrading. In summary, a new nomogram to predict Gleason sum upgrading in clinically diagnosed prostate cancer was developed, and it demonstrated good statistical performance upon internal validation. PMID:24559852

Wang, Jin-You; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Chao-Fu; Zhang, Shi-Lin; Dai, Bo; Ye, Ding-Wei

2014-05-01

292

Comparative analysis of three Callicarpa herbs using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and electrospray ionization-trap mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Three Callicarpa species, namely Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. et Arn., Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. and Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. are astringency and hemostasis herbs in the traditional Chinese medical systems. Despite their wide use in Chinese medicine, no report on system comparison on their chemical constituents is available so far. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionization trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Trap MS) technique was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the three Callicarpa herbs. Phenylpropanoid glycosides, flavonoids and organic acids were identified by comparing with reference standards or according to their MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. A total of 33 compounds were identified identified or tentatively identified, and 23 of them were reported from these herbs for the first time. Phenylpropanoid glycosides were featured in the three species with their types and contents presenting significant differences. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was conducted by determining four marker phenylpropanoid glycosides (forsythoside B (14), acteoside (15), poliumoside (19), isoacteoside (21)) and two flavonoids (luteolin (30), apigenin (32)). Three flavonoid glucuronides (luteolin-diglucuronide-glucuronide (5), luteolin-diglucuronide (12), apigenin-7-O-?-glucuronide (24)) were semi-quantified according to their corresponding aglycones. The total contents of the nine major compounds in the three species varied significantly from 8.92 to 40.89 mg/g. PMID:23277156

Shi, Yatao; Wu, Chunyong; Chen, Yanhua; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

2013-03-01

293

NMR and mass spectrometric characterization of vinblastine, vincristine and some new related impurities - part I.  

PubMed

In the course of exploring the possibilities of developing a new, improved process at Gedeon Richter for the production of the "bisindole" alkaloids vinblastine (VLB) and vincristine (VCR), some novel VLB/VCR-related trace impurities were detected by analytical HPLC. Following isolation by preparative HPLC, a combination of 1D and 2D ultra high-field NMR and high-resolution (HR) (LC-)MS/MS studies allowed the structural identification and complete spectral characterization of several hitherto unpublished VLB/VCR-analogue impurities. Since the impurities could not be isolated in entirely pure forms and were available only in minute, mass-limited quantities, accessing the spectral information needed for their ab initio structure determination was met with various practical difficulties. Successful structure determination therefore relied heavily on the availability and use of detailed and definitive spectral data for both VLB and VCR. In particular, the utilization of detailed (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR assignments as well as (1)H-(1)H, (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N spin-spin connectivities pertaining to different solvents for VLB/VCR base and sulphate salt was required. Although NMR studies on VLB base and other bisindoles were reported earlier in the literature, an NMR characterization of VLB and VCR under the above-mentioned circumstances and using ultra-high field instrumentation is either scarcely available or entirely lacking, therefore the necessary data had to be obtained in-house. Likewise, a modern tandem HR-ESI-MS/MS(n) fragmentation study of VLB and VCR has not been published yet. In the present paper we therefore give a thorough NMR and MS characterization of VLB and VCR specifically with a view to filling this void and to provide sufficiently extensive and solid reference data for the structural investigation of the aforementioned VLB/VCR impurities. Besides being scientifically relevant in its own right, the disclosed data should be useful for anyone interested in VLB/VCR-related molecules at a structural level. PMID:22985529

Dubrovay, Zsófia; Háda, Viktor; Béni, Zoltán; Szántay, Csaba

2013-10-01

294

Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the Cretaceous Cody Shale was being eroded off a rising Owl Creek Mountains in latest Cretaceous time. The Paleocene Fort Union Formation unconformably overlies older units but with only slight angular discordance around much of the margins of the Wind River Basin. Pre-Fort Union erosion was most pronounced toward the Wind River Range to the southwest, where the Fort Union ultimately overlies strata as old as the upper part of the Cretaceous Cody Shale. The unconformity appears to die out toward the basin center. Coal-forming mires developed throughout the western part of the basin near the beginning of the Paleocene. River systems entering the basin from the Wind River Range to the southwest and the Granite Mountains to the south produced areas of sandy fluvial deposition along mountain fronts. A major river system appears to have entered the basin from about the same spot along the Wind River Range throughout much of the Paleocene, probably because it became incised and could not migrate laterally. The muddy floodplain facies that developed along the deep basin trough during latest Cretaceous time, expanded during the early part of the Paleocene. Coal-forming mires that characterize part of the lower Fort Union Formation reached maximum extent near the beginning of the late Paleocene and just prior to the initial transgression of Lake Waltman. From the time of initial flooding, Lake Waltman expanded rapidly, drowning the coal-forming mires in the central part of the basin and spreading to near basin margins. Outcrop studies along the south margin of the basin document that once maximum transgression was reached, the lake was rapidly pushed basinward and replaced by fluvial environments.

Johnson, Ronald C.

2007-01-01

295

Burial history, thermal maturity, and oil and gas generation history of petroleum systems in the Wind River Basin Province, central Wyoming: Chapter 6 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for eight key source rock units at nine well locations throughout the Wind River Basin Province. Petroleum source rocks include the Permian Phosphoria Formation, the Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Cody Shale, and Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Lance Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation, including the Waltman Shale Member. Within the province boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon. Phosphoria oil produced from reservoirs in the province is thought to have migrated from the Wyoming and Idaho thrust belt. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the province (Adams OAB-17, Bighorn 1-5, and Coastal Owl Creek); three at intermediate depths (Hells Half Acre, Shell 33X-10, and West Poison Spider); and three at relatively shallow locations (Young Ranch, Amoco Unit 100, and Conoco-Coal Bank). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep northern and central parts of the province and decreases to the south and east toward the basin margins. The results of the modeling indicate that, in the deepest areas, (1) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from Late Cretaceous through middle Eocene time, and (2) onset of oil generation from the Waltman Shale Member occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Based on modeling results, gas generation from the cracking of Phosphoria oil reservoired in the Park City Formation reached a peak in the late Paleocene/early Eocene (58 to 55 Ma) only in the deepest parts of the province. The Mowry Shale and Cody Shale (in the eastern half of the basin) contain a mix of Type-II and Type-III kerogens. Oil generation from predominantly Type-II source rocks of these units in the deepest parts of the province reached peak rates during the latest Cretaceous to early Eocene (65 to 55 Ma). Only in these areas of the basin did these units reach peak gas generation from the cracking of oil, which occurred in the early to middle Eocene (55 to 42 Ma). Gas-prone source rocks of the Mowry and Cody Shales (predominantly Type-III kerogen), and the Mesaverde, Meeteetse, Lance, and Fort Union Formations (Type –III kerogen) reached peak gas generation in the latest Cretaceous to late Eocene (67 to 38 Ma) in the deepest parts of the province. Gas generation from the Mesaverde source rocks started at all of the modeled locations but reached peak generation at only the deepest locations and at the Hells Half Acre location in the middle Paleocene to early Eocene (59 to 48 Ma). Also at the deepest locations, peak gas generation occurred from the late Paleocene to the early Eocene (57 to 49 Ma) for the Meeteetse Formation, and during the Eocene for the Lance Formation (55 to 48 Ma) and the Fort Union Formation (44 to 38 Ma). The Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation contains Type-II kerogen. The base of the Waltman reached a level of thermal maturity to generate oil only at the deep-basin locations (Adams OAB-17 and Bighorn 1-5 locations) in the middle Eocene to early Miocene (36 to 20 Ma).

Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

2007-01-01

296

Test of a convectively forced gravity wave drag parameterization in a general circulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of gravity wave drag induced by cumulus convection (GWDC) on a simulated boreal summer climate was evaluated in a general circulation model. For this, the GWDC scheme developed by Chun and Baik was implemented into a version of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) global spectral model (GSM). Ensemble simulations with the two different convection schemes, the simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) scheme and Community Climate Model (CCM) convection scheme, were conducted for the boreal summer of 1996. A cloud factor to modulate the stress intensity with respect to the cloud type was introduced in this study, in order to prevent unrealistic behaviors of the GWDC scheme in GSM. The effect of gravity wave drag on the zonal mean of wind and temperature fields was focused. On the whole, the effect of GWDC in this study is positive on the simulated seasonal climate. It is evident that biases in temperature in the polar region as well as in the zonal and meridional winds in the upper atmosphere are reduced. The percentage of reduction of the bias in zonal winds is about 10-20%. Such a response of the GWDC forcing widely appears not only in tropical regions but also in mid-latitude regions. These characteristics are prominent in the case of the SAS scheme, which is due to the various convective cloud types. The magnitude of GWDC forcing is generally small, but still positive, in the case of the CCM scheme, which is due to rather homogeneous cloud types. It is also found that the role of a particular GWDC forcing depends upon the inherent systematic biases of a particular model. It is concluded that incorporation of the GWDC parameterization in GCMs should be taken into account to improve the seasonal prediction.

Jeon, Jong-Hun; Hong, Song-You; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Song, In-Sun

2010-02-01

297

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

298

The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, regulates survivin expression via an EGFR/STAT3 pathway in UVB-exposed mouse skin.  

PubMed

We previously reported that cycloogenase (COX)-2-generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had anti-apoptotic effects in UVB-exposed mouse skin that involved EP2-mediated signaling (Chun et al., Cancer Res. 2007; 67: 2015). Because survivin is a regulator of cell survival, the possible involvement of COX-2 and EP2 in survivin expression following UVB exposure of mouse skin was investigated. In wild type mice, UVB exposure time-dependently increased the levels of survivin and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), a transcription factor that regulates survivin expression; and COX-2- or EP2-deficiency significantly reduced their induction. Topical application of the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, also reduced UVB-induced survivin levels. To further investigate the roles of PGE2 and EP2 in the regulation of survivin, indomethacin was used to inhibit UVB-induced endogenous PG production. UVB-induced survivin levels were reduced by indomethacin, and PGE2 and the EP2 agonist, butaprost, partially restored survivin levels. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a downstream effector of EP2 and EGFR inhibition (AG1478) significantly reduced UVB activation of STAT3 and survivin levels. UVB-induced epidermal apoptosis in COX-2-/- mice was reduced by butaprost and EGFR inhibition blocked butaprost’s protective effects. Furthermore, butaprost in the absence of UVB exposure time-dependently increased p-EGFR, p-STAT3, and survivin levels in naïve mouse skin, whereas the EP4 agonist, PGE1 alcohol, did not significantly increase p-STAT3 or survivin levels. These data suggest that COX-2-generated PGE2 regulates survivin expression in mouse skin, in part, via an EP2-mediated EGFR/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, targeting the EP2/survivin pathway may provide a strategy for the chemoprevention/chemotherapy of skin cancer. PMID:21268125

Chun, Kyung-Soo; Langenbach, Robert

2011-06-01

299

The impact of pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination treatment on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C patients  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Lipid profile and insulin resistance (IR) are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and may predict the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment response. The aim of this study was to determine the association between CHC treatment response and lipid profile and IR change during treatment. Methods In total, 203 CHC patients were reviewed retrospectively between January 2005 and December 2011 at Soon Chun Hyang University Hospital. The lipid profile, homeostasis model for assessment (HOMA) of IR (HOMA-IR), and HOMA of ? cells (HOMA-?) were evaluated before interferon plus ribavirin therapy (BTx), at the end of treatment (DTx), and 24 weeks after the end of treatment (ATx). Results A sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved by 81% of all patients (49/60), 60% (n=36) of whom possessed genotype 1, with the remainder being non-genotype-1 (40%, n=24). Apart from age, which was significantly higher in the non-SVR group (SVR, 48.0±11.2 years, mean±SD; non-SVR, 56.6±9.9 years; P<0.01), there were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the SVR and non-SVR groups. In the SVR group, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) had significantly changed at DTx and ATx compared to BTx. In addition, HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were significantly changed at DTx in the SVR group. Among those with a high baseline insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5), HOMA-IR was significantly changed at DTx in the SVR group. Conclusions LDL-C appears to be associated with HCV treatment in SVR patients. Furthermore, eradication of HCV may improve whole-body IR and insulin hypersecretion, as well as high baseline insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5).

Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

2014-01-01

300

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

301

How should doctors approach patients? A Confucian reflection on personhood  

PubMed Central

The modern doctor-patient relationship displays a patient-centred, mutual-participation characteristic rather than the former active-passive or guidance-cooperation models in terms of medical decision making. Respecting the wishes of patients, amounting to more than mere concern for their welfare, has become the feature central to certain modern bioethics theories. A group of ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice has been proposed by bioethicists and widely adopted by many medical societies as an ethical guide to how doctors, in their daily practice, should treat their patients. However, seeing patients as persons who are rational, self-conscious beings capable of valuing their own lives, and who are consequently entitled to the liberty and rights to choose for themselves, is in general the backbone of Western bioethical principles. Since Confucian philosophy has long been a representative of the East-Asia cultural tradition and Confucian bioethics has recently been developed as a theory of applied ethics, examining Confucius's idea of "persons" may shed some light on the current bioethical debates. Confucius's concept of persons, which is best interpreted via his theories of "chun-tze", (the morally ideal person) encapsulating a two-dimensional approach, (the "autonomous person" and the "relational person"), provides a more comprehensive model regarding what a person is and how he/she should be treated. This two-dimensional approach sees a person not only as a rational, autonomous agent but also as a relational, altruistic identity whose self actualisation involves incessant participating in and promoting of the welfare of his fellow persons. Hence this may balance the current bioethical trend whereby "respect for autonomy" often triumphs. Key Words: Personhood • autonomy • Confucian ethics • physician-patient relationship • principle-oriented bioethics

Tsai, D. F.

2001-01-01

302

Hubble Reveals Structure Of Supernova 1987a Explosion Debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Hubble Space Telescope picture shows Supernova 1987A and its neighborhood. The series of four panels shows the evolution of the SN 1987A debris from February 1994 to February 1996. Material from the stellar interior was ejected into space during the supernova explosion in February 1987. The explosion debris is expanding at nearly 6 million miles per hour. Ten years now after the explosion, this cosmic fireball is large enough --- about one-sixth of a light-year in diameter --- to be resolved from the Earth's orbit with the Hubble Space Telescope. The debris is resolved into two opposing blobs and is dim in the center. The apparent direction of ejection is the same as the short axis of the bright inner ring that surrounds the supernova. This suggests that the explosion is directed out of the plane of the ring. The ring is probably composed of materials lost by the pre-supernova star in the last stages of its evolution. Supernova 1987A is located 167,000 light-years away from Earth in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The central image of the supernova and the ring system was taken in light emitted by nitrogen gas (658 nanometers) on Sept. 24, 1994. The series of debris images were taken using a visible light filter of wavelength around 550 nanometers taken (from left to right) on Feb. 4, 1994, Sept. 24, 1994, March 5, 1995, and Feb. 6, 1996. Credit: Chun Shing Jason Pun (NASA/GSFC), Robert P. Kirshner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), and NASA

2002-01-01

303

A Novel Pulse Measurement System by Using Laser Triangulation and a CMOS Image Sensor  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel, non-invasive, non-contact system to measure pulse waveforms of artery via applying laser triangulation method to detect skin surface vibration. The proposed arterial pulsation measurement (APM) system chiefly consists of a laser diode and a low cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. Laser triangulation and centroid method are combined with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in this study. The shape and frequency of the arterial pulsation can be detected rapidly by using our APM system. The relative variation of the pulse at different measurement points near wrist joint is used as a prognostic guide in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). An extensive series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed APM system. From experimental results, the pulse amplitude and frequency at the Chun point (related to the small intestine) of left hand showed an obvious increase after having food. In these cases, the peak to peak amplitudes and the frequencies of arterial pulsations range from 38 to 48 ?m and from 1.27 to 1.35 Hz, respectively. The height of arterial pulsations on the area near wrist joint can be estimated with a resolution of better than 4 ?m. This research demonstrates that applying a CMOS image sensor in designing a non-contact, portable, easy-to-use, low cost pulse measurement system is feasible. Also, the designed APM system is well suited for evaluating and pre-diagnosing the health of a human being in TCM clinical practice.

Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Rong-Seng; Jiang, Joe-Air

2007-01-01

304

Problem of mixtures with known compositions and IRONFLEA method for multivariate curve resolution.  

PubMed

A special case of gray spectral data systems [(a) F.-T. Chau, Y.-Z. Liang, J. Gao, X.-G. Shao (Eds.), Chemometrics: From Basics to Wavelet Transform, Chemical Analysis Series, vol. 164, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004; (b) Y.Z. Liang, O.M. Kvalheim, R. Manne, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 18 (1993) 235-250] is discussed here and the least-squares method for the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) named IRONFLEA is proposed. The system under consideration is the bilinear spectral data of the samples with known chemical compositions and unknown concentration matrix. If the spectra of samples (A(i)) and (Q+A(i)) (i = 1, ..., n, n > or = 2) are available, then the spectrum and the concentrations of Q could be found and the solution is unique. A practical chemical model for this problem could be mixtures, polymers, peptides, oligosaccharides, or supramolecular formations made of a limited number of monomeric components. In the cases of polymeric or oligomeric samples the spectral contributions and the concentrations of the particular monomeric units are extracted. The method is capable of extracting chemically meaningful spectra of components. The method is implemented in SAS IML code and tested for the deconvolution of spectra of polymers made of styrene derivatives with known monomeric compositions [(a) H. Fenniri, L. Ding, A.E. Ribbe, Y. Zyrianov, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 8151-8152; (b) H. Fenniri, S. Chun, L. Ding, Y. Zyrianov, K. Hallenga, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 10546-10560]. The method performs calculations fast enough to allow the incorporation of leave-one-out outlier removal procedure. PMID:17936106

Zyrianov, Yegor

2007-10-17

305

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis (?? Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis (?? Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae (??? J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa (?? Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium (??? Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis (??? B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis (???? Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix (??? Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata (??? Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata (??? Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba (??? Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.

Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N.

2014-01-01

306

In-situ geophysical measurements in marine sediments: Applications in seafloor acoustics and paleoceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for productivity, and negatively with Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs), a proxy for wind strength. These results suggest that strong amplitudes of all main MCs existed for periods of high SRs and high MAR Corg and low SSTs, indicating a positive link between wind stress, upwelling vigor, productivity and insolation patterns in this area.

Gorgas, Thomas Joerg

307

Chapter 4: The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Wind River Basin Province includes all strata from the base of the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation to the base of the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene age Fort Union Formation and, where the Waltman is absent, includes strata as young as the Eocene Wind River Formation. Locally, Cretaceous-sourced gas migrated into strata as old as the Mississippian Madison Limestone, and in these areas the TPS extends stratigraphically downward to include these reservoirs. The extensive vertical migration of gases in highly fractured areas of the Wind River Basin led to the commingling of gases from several Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sources, thus only two petroleum systems are recognized in these rocks, the Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Composite TPS, the subject of this report, and the Waltman Shale TPS described by Roberts and others (Chapter 5, this CD-ROM). The Cretaceous-lower Tertiary Composite TPS was subdivided into (1) seven continuous gas assessment units (AU): (a) Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, (b) Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, (c) Mesaverde--Meeteetse Sandstone Gas AU, (d) Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, (e) Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, (f) Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and (g) Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU; (2) one continuous oil assessement unit--- Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU; and (3) one conventional assessment Unit--- Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU. Estimates of undiscovered resources having the potential for additions to reserves were made for all but the Cody Fractured Shale Continuous Oil AU, which is considered hypothetical and was not quantitively assessed. The mean estimate of the total oil is 41.99 million barrels, mean estimate of gas is 2.39 trillion cubic feet, and mean estimate of natural gas liquids is 20.55 million barrels. For gas, 480.66 billion cubic feet (BCFG) is estimated for the Frontier-Muddy Continuous Gas AU, 115.34 BCFG for the Cody Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 383.16 BCFG for the Mesaverde-Meeteetse Sandstone Continuous Gas AU, 711.30 BCFG for the Lance-Fort Union Sandstone Gas AU, 107.18 BCFG for the Mesaverde Coalbed Gas AU, 21.29 BCFG for the Meeteetse Coalbed Gas AU, and 118.08 BCFG for the Fort Union Coalbed Gas AU. All the undiscovered oil and 98.94 BCFG of undiscovered gas is in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Conventional Oil and Gas AU.

Johnson, R. C.; Finn, Thomas M.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Roberts, Laura N. R.; Cook, Troy; Taylor, David J.

2007-01-01

308

In situ measurement of thermal diffusivity in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of marine sediments depends on the interplay between heat flow from below and bottom water temperature above. The heat flow is controlled by the regional geological history and stable over long periods of time, whereas the bottom water temperature is subject to both seasonal and long-term climatic changes. The thermal inertia of the sediment determines how rapidly and to what depth temperature changes propagate from the bottom water into the seabed. The influence of seasonal changes is usually limited to shallow depths, while long-term trends may also affect deeper sediment layers. The thermal diffusivity of sediment is its ability to conduct thermal energy relative to its ability to store thermal energy. It is a measure of thermal inertia. While the thermal conductivity can be measured using regular heat flow probes, it is difficult to measure the diffusivity in situ. Hence, empirical relationships that link conductivity to diffusivity are widely used to characterize the thermal inertia of sediments. Here, we present a new method for measuring the thermal diffusivity of marine sediments in situ, which is based on monitoring the changes in sediment temperature profiles over short periods of time. We report on a successful measurement from 400 m water depth on the western Svalbard margin, where we deployed a temperature probe by submersible. The "T-Stick" consists of a lance with 8 temperature sensors distributed equally over a length of 0.6 m and a data logger, which is attached to the upper part of the lance. Temperature profiles were recorded at a sampling interval of 10 seconds for a period of 10 days. The observations show that variations in the temperature profile were driven by changes in bottom water temperature. Inverse modeling of the recorded temperature profiles allowed us to determine the thermal diffusivity of the sediment. The new method will help to better characterize the heat exchange across the sediment-water interface and contribute to the understanding of seafloor warming as a consequence of climate change. The new data is particularly useful for modeling the response of marine gas hydrate occurrences to warming bottom waters.

Feseker, Tomas; Treude, Tina; Krastel, Sebastian

2014-05-01

309

Numerical Modeling of Enhanced Nitrogen Dissolution During Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen concentrations far in excess of Sieverts' Law calculations and as high as 0.2 wt.% have been obtained in steel welds during arc welding. Such high concentrations of nitrogen in the weld metal can originate from a variety of sources, depending on the welding operation in question. One such mechanism involves the interaction between the surrounding atmosphere, which is about 80% nitrogen, and the plasma phase above the weld pool. Impingement of the surrounding atmosphere into the arc column, which is primarily composed of an inert shielding gas, can be due, in part, to insufficient shielding of the weld metal. In other cases, nitrogen can be purposefully added to the shielding gas to enhance the microstructural evolution of the weld metal. The mechanisms responsible for enhanced nitrogen concentrations are of significant interest. In both arc melting and welding operations, a plasma phase exists above the liquid metal. This plasma phase, which is composed of a number of different species not normally observed in gas-metal systems, significantly alters the nitrogen absorption reaction in liquid iron and steel. Monatomic nitrogen (N) is considered to be the species responsible for the observed enhancements in the nitrogen concentration. This role for monatomic nitrogen is based on its significantly higher solubility in iron with partial pressures many orders of magnitude less than that for diatomic nitrogen. It has also been proposed that the total amount of nitrogen present in the liquid metal is the balance of two independent processes. Monatomic nitrogen is absorbed through the interface between the arc and the liquid metal. Once a saturation level is reached at any location on the metal surface, nitrogen is then expelled from the surface of the liquid metal. This expulsion of nitrogen from the weld pool surface occurs via a desorption reaction, in which bubbles form at the surface and other heterogeneous nucleation sites in the liquid melt. These bubbles are filled with nitrogen gas, which has been rejected from the liquid iron. Outside the arc column, the nitrogen in solution in the iron is in equilibrium with diatomic nitrogen rather than monatomic nitrogen, which dominates the arc column. Models based on the role of the plasma phase in producing these enhanced nitrogen concentrations have also been developed. For example, Gedeon and Eaga have proposed that the diatomic gas introduced into the plasma phase in the arc column partially dissociates at a temperature higher than that at the sample surface. The monatomic species is then transported to the liquid metal surface, where it is absorbed at the temperature on the liquid metal surface. Mundra and DebRoy have used this same methodology to develop a semi-quantitative model to describe the temperature at which the diatomic gas dissociates in the plasma phase. In the two-temperature model, a hypothetical temperature, T{sub d}, equal to the temperature at which the equilibrium thermal dissociation of diatomic nitrogen produces the partial pressure of monatomic nitrogen in the plasma, is defined. This dissociation temperature is in a range of 100 to 300 K higher than the temperature at the metal surface, T{sub s}, and is a measure of the partial pressure of the atomic nitrogen in the plasma. This methodology provides an order-of-magnitude agreement between the calculated and experimental nitrogen concentrations but does not strictly provide a capability for predicting the nitrogen concentration. No quantitative means for predicting the nitrogen concentration in the weld metal currently exists. In developing a quantitative model, it must be recognized that nitrogen dissolution into the weld pool is intimately tied to several simultaneously occurring physical processes. These processes include the formation of various nitrogen species in the plasma phase above the weld pool, reactions at the interface between the plasma phase and the weld pool surface, and the transport of nitrogen within the weldment by convection and diffusion. A mathematical model, which combine

Palmer, T A

2001-08-17

310

BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES  

SciTech Connect

The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

Mary Lopez

2003-04-01

311

Reconnaissance of ground-water resources in a part of the Yampa River basin between Craig and Steamboat Springs, Moffat and Routt counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parts of the Yampa River basin near the towns of Steamboat Springs and Craig, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. Aquifers in the study area include: alluvium; the Browns Park, Wasatch, Fort Union, Lance, Williams Fork, and Iles Formations; and the Lewis and Mancos Shales. Well yields are generally less than 25 gpm (gallons per minute). In the alluvium of the Yampa River, well yields may be as much as 900 gpm. Where the sandstones of the Williams Fork and Iles Formations are fractured, well yields have been reported to be as much as 100 gpm. Well yields from the Lewis and Mancos Shales are less than 5 gpm. The quality of the ground water is variable and dependent on rock type. Most of the waters are calcium and sodium bicarbonate types. Calcium sulfate type waters are found where water in the aquifer has been in contact with gypsum, organic materials, or coals. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water range from as little as 82 to as much as 4,230 milligrams per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

Brogden, R. E.; Giles, T. F.

1977-01-01

312

Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

1985-01-01

313

Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

1996-09-01

314

Letters to the Editor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are contained within a single PostScript or PDF document available at the bottom of this page. Contents On the determination of a period of oscillation P Glaister Department of Mathematics, University of Reading Finding the ratio of the specific heats of gases G Millar 75 Morningside Rd, Edinburgh EH10 4AY Moving frame and the Doppler effect in mechanical waves Murshed Hossain Department of Chemistry and Physics, Rowan College of New Jersey, Glassboro, and Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, USA . The fly and train paradox Don Koks Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Australia Easier A-levels? P C Clark Head of Physics, Oundle School Centripetal acceleration Telford Moore Depute Rector, Hawick High School Curriculum development at 16-19 Bryan R Chapman 16-19 Curriculum Development Officer, Institute of Physics, London A fly on the wall P Litchfield Rochdale, Lancs Motion revealed by a laser Frank Munley Raonoke College, Salem, VA 24153, USA

1996-01-01

315

PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

2006-01-30

316

A process model for BOF process based on bath mixing degree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process model for BOF process can be applied to predict the liquid steel composition and bath temperature during the whole steelmaking process. On the basis of the traditional three-stage decarburization theory, the concept of mixing degree was put forward, which was used to indicate the effect of oxygen jet on decarburization. Furthermore, a more practical process model for BOF steelmaking was developed by analyzing the effect of silicon, manganese, oxygen injection rate, oxygen lance height, and bath temperature on decarburization. Process verification and end-point verification for the process model have been carried out, and the verification results show that the prediction accuracy of carbon content reaches 82.6% (the range of carbon content at the end-point is less than 0.1wt%) and 85.7% (the range of carbon content at end-point is 0.1wt%-0.7wt%) when the absolute error is less than 0.02wt% and 0.05wt%, respectively.

Li, Guang-Hui; Wang, Bao; Liu, Qing; Tian, Xin-Zhong; Zhu, Rong; Hu, Li-Ning; Cheng, Guo-Guang

2010-12-01

317

The effect of bubbles on developed turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-film anemometry measurements were performed in a fully developed turbulent bubbly flow. For the bubble detection in the signal, both a threshold method and a new pattern recognition algorithm were employed. The measurements were carried out with gas fractions up to 2.9% and a mean water velocity of 0.20m/s, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 9ot 10^4. Probability distribution functions, structure functions (with and without the extended self-similarity (ESS) method), and spectra of the water velocity time series were calculated. Both our results for the turbulent energy spectra and the second order structur e functions show qualitative agreement with our numerical results (Phys. Fluids 15, L5 (2003)), i.e., a more pronounced energy enhancement on small scales than on large scales due to the presence of bubbles, leading to a less steep slope in the spectrum as compared to the Kolmogorov -5/3 law. In contrast to Lance & Bataille, J. Fluid Mech. 222, 95 (1991), we did not find a -8/3 power law. Such a law however is obtained once a considerable fraction of the bubble signatures are not filtered out from the hot-film signal.

Lohse, Detlef; Rensen, Judith; Luther, Stefan; Mazzitelli, Irene

2003-11-01

318

Multi-modal pain measurements in infants  

PubMed Central

A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and cardiovascular activity) with electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry. The system can detect noxious heel lance and touch stimuli with precision (33 ?s and 624 ?s respectively) and accuracy (523 ?s and 256 ?s) and has 100% sensitivity and specificity for both types of stimulation. Its ability to detect response latencies accurately was demonstrated by a shift in latency of the vertex potential of 20.7 ± 15.7 ms (n = 6 infants), following touch of the heel and of the shoulder, reflecting the distance between the two sites. This integrated system has provided reliable and reproducible measurements of responses to sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants on more than 100 test occasions.

Worley, A.; Fabrizi, L.; Boyd, S.; Slater, R.

2012-01-01

319

Bothrops lanceolatus Bites: Guidelines for Severity Assessment and Emergent Management  

PubMed Central

Approximately 20-30 declared snakebite cases occurin Martinique each year. Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Crotalidae family, is considered to be the only involved snake. B. lanceolatus, commonly named “Fer-de-Lance”, is endemic and only found on this Caribbean island. Envenomation local features include the presence of fang marks, swelling, pain, bleeding from punctures, and ecchymosis. Severe envenomation is associated with multiple systemic thromboses appearing within 48 h of the bite and resulting in cerebral, myocardial or pulmonary infarctions. Diagnosis requires first of all identification of the snake. Coagulation tests are helpful to identify thrombocytopenia or disseminated intravascular coagulation. A clinical score based on 4 grades is helpful to assess envonimation severity. A specific monovalent equine anti-venom (Bothrofav®, Sanofi-Pasteur, France) to neutralize B. lanceolatus venom is available. Its early administration within 6h from the biting in case of progressive local injures, general signs or coagulation disturbances is effective to prevent severe thrombosis and coagulopathy. Its tolerance is considered to be good. Despite an increasing incidence of bites, no deaths have been recently attributed to B. lanceolatus in Martinique, probably due to the currently recommended strategy of early antivenom administration when required.

Resiere, Dabor; Megarbane, Bruno; Valentino, Ruddy; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Thomas, Laurent

2010-01-01

320

Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

2007-09-01

321

Interactive Browsing, Filtering, Visualization, and Retrieval from Large Collections of Near Real-Time Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent availability of vast quantities of near real-time, global satellite observations through the NASA/GSFC Land Atmospheres Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) has provided a compelling opportunity to use that data to improve response to natural hazards and disasters. Given the sheer volume of data (40+ image-based products, 90+ total) and their associated application areas (14 currently identified), this prototype framework provides a web-based user interface to enable efficient browsing, filtering, visualization, and retrieval of the most relevant products available for a given scenario. While this large number of available products can initially be reduced by selecting an application area, the remainder of the user workflow generally follows Shneiderman's visual information seeking mantra, "overview first, zoom and filter, then details-on-demand." In this case, "overview first" and "zoom" capabilities are provided by standard mapping tools such as Google Earth and OpenLayers. Once a region of interest is found, an overlaid custom interface displays all relevant data products for that region from the past week, facilitating a rapid visual "filtering" and selection by the user of the most suitable product and time step. That selected solution then can be further analyzed (e.g., with "before/after" comparisons) and downloaded in the subsequent "details-on-demand" phase. Once complete, the product and time step are applied to the initial global view for broader analyses, enabling a restart or refinement of the investigative process.

Boller, R. A.; Murphy, K. J.; Teague, M.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.

2011-12-01

322

Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

Tom Leininger

2005-03-31

323

Phylogeography Study of Ammodytes personatus in Northwestern Pacific: Pleistocene Isolation, Temperature and Current Conducted Secondary Contact  

PubMed Central

To assess the role of historical process and contemporary factors in shaping population structures in Northwestern Pacific, mitochondrial control region sequences were analyzed to characterize the phylogeography and population structure of the Japanese sand lance Ammodytes personatus. A total of 429 individuals sampled from 17 populations through the species' range are sequenced. Two distinct lineages are detected, which might have been divergent in the Sea of Japan and Pacific costal waters of Japanese Island, during the low sea level. Significant genetic structure is revealed between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. However, significant genetic structure is also detected in the Sea of Japan, contracting expected homogenization hypothesis in Tsushima Current. The haplotype frequency of lineages in both sides of Japanese Island and significant genetic structure between north and south groups revealed that the distribution of lineage B and north group were highly limited by the annual sea temperature. The lack of lineage B in Qingdao population with low sea temperature reflects the sea temperature barrier. Lack of genetic structure in the south group and north group populations indicated that ocean currents within groups facilitated the dispersal of A. personatus.

Han, Zhiqiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Yaping; Gao, Tianxiang

2012-01-01

324

Pressure intelligent control strategy of Waste heat recovery system of converter vapors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The converter gas evaporative cooling system is mainly used for absorbing heat in the high temperature exhaust gas which produced by the oxygen blowing reaction. Vaporization cooling steam pressure control system of converter is a nonlinear, time-varying, lagging behind, close coupling of multivariable control object. This article based on the analysis of converter operation characteristics of evaporation cooling system, of vaporization in a production run of pipe pressure variation and disturbance factors.For the dynamic characteristics of the controlled objects,we have improved the conventional PID control scheme.In Oxygen blowing process, we make intelligent control by using fuzzy-PID cascade control method and adjusting the Lance,that it can realize the optimization of the boiler steam pressure control.By design simulation, results show that the design has a good control not only ensures drum steam pressure in the context of security, enabling efficient conversion of waste heat.And the converter of 1800 flue gas through pipes and cool and dust removal also can be cooled to about 800. Therefore the converter haze evaporative cooling system has achieved to the converter haze temperature decrease effect and enhanced to the coal gas returns-ratio.

Feng, Xugang; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiayan; Qian, Hong

2013-01-01

325

ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

2014-03-01

326

Heart Rate Variability in Response to Pain Stimulus in VLBW Infants Followed Longitudinally During NICU Stay  

PubMed Central

The objective of this longitudinal study, conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit, was to characterize the response to pain of high-risk very low birth weight infants (< 1500 g) from 23 through 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). Heart period data were recorded before, during, and after a heel lanced or wrist venipunctured blood draw for routine clinical evaluation. Pain response to the blood draw procedure and age-related changes of HRV in low-frequency and high-frequency bands were modeled with linear mixed-effects models. HRV in both bands decreased during pain, followed by a recovery to near-baseline levels. Venipuncture and mechanical ventilation were factors that attenuated the HRV response to pain. HRV at the baseline increased with post-menstrual age but the growth rate of high-frequency power was reduced in mechanically ventilated infants. There was some evidence that low-frequency HRV response to pain improved with advancing PMA.

Padhye, Nikhil S; Williams, Amber L; Khattak, Asif Z; Lasky, Robert E

2009-01-01

327

Automated solar module assembly line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

Bycer, M.

1980-01-01

328

ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

2014-05-01

329

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOEpatents

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18

330

Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

NORMAN, E.C.

2000-08-30

331

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED VECTOR SURVEILLANCE FOLLOWING COMMUNITY-WIDE INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ON TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTION OF DOGS AND CATS IN RURAL NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINA  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs were used as natural sentinels to assess prospectively the long-term impact of selective, community-based spraying with pyrethroid insecticides after community-wide spraying on transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in rural villages under surveillance between 1992 and 2002. In 2000 and 2002 light infestations by Triatoma infestans were recorded, and 523 dogs and cats were examined serologically or by xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs decreased from 65% at baseline to 8.9% and 4.7% at 7.5 and 10 years after sustained vector surveil-lance, respectively. The average annual force of infection dropped 260-fold from 72.7 per 100 dog-years at baseline to <0.3% in 2002, as determined prospectively and retrospectively from the age-prevalence curve of native dogs born during surveillance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prevalent cases in dogs in 2000 and 2002 were associated positively and significantly with the peak number of T. infestans caught in domestic areas at the dog's compound during its lifetime. The sustained decline in T. cruzi infections in dogs and cats is the result of selective, community-based insecticide spraying that kept the abundance of infected T. infestans at marginal levels, fast host population turnover, and low immigration rates from areas with active transmission.

CARDINAL, MARTA V.; CASTANERA, MONICA B.; LAURICELLA, MARTA A.; CECERE, MARIA C.; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO A.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, GONZALO M.; KITRON, URIEL; GURTLER, RICARDO E.

2007-01-01

332

The Effect of Degassing on Grain Refinement in Commercial Purity Aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degassing of molten aluminum is used to remove dissolved hydrogen and impurity particles prior to casting. The most common method, rotary degassing, gives a small bubble size and distributes the bubbles throughout the melt by means of vigorous stirring. Although this is an efficient method for hydrogen removal, the purge gas may also inadvertently remove grain refining particles and thus reduce refinement efficiency. During degassing, particle removal occurs by physical attachment to the degassing bubbles and flotation, by turbulent transport due to the flow field generated by stirring, or by sedimentation. The experiments reported here were undertaken using a static graphite degassing lance ( i.e., nonrotating) in order to prevent the formation of strong flow fields and to quantify the rate of grain refiner loss due to bubble attachment and floatation. By varying either (a) gas flow rate, (b) grain refiner addition level, or (c) type of grain refiner, it was found that, although grain size increased with time, the increase was predominantly due to particle sedimentation and not caused by attachment.

Schaffer, P. L.; Dahle, A. K.

2009-02-01

333

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

GRANDO, C.J.

1999-11-18

334

Endoscopically controlled laser lithotripsy of sialoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the diseases of the major salivary glands, sialolithiasis is a frequent clinical picture. Until now the condition has nearly always had to be treated surgically. In rare cases, discharge can be achieved by acid stimulation of secretion. If located distally in the excretory duct, concrements may be removed by enoral lancing. If it is close to glands, e.g., in the knee of Wharton's duct or in the ductal part of the submandibular gland, extirpation of the gland including the stone is unavoidable. Besides wound healing problems and the occurrence of salivary fistulas, the main risk of surgery is injury to the nerves around the major salivary glands, e.g., the n. facialis or one of its branches, the n. hypoglossus, or the n. lingualis with consecutive paresis. Based on the clinical results of lithotripsy by laser-induced shock waves (LIL) applied to renal stones and ureteroliths as well as bilary duct and pancreas stones, we investigated the suitability of endoscopically controlled laser therapy for sialolithiasis.

Gundlach, Peter; Hopf, Juergen U.; Linnarz, Marietta; Nils, Leege; Scherer, Hans H.; Tschepe, Johannes; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1992-08-01

335

Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75?m range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

2014-03-01

336

The banning of sportsmen and women who fail drug tests is unjustifiable.  

PubMed

The use of performance enhancing drugs among elite athletes has been in the headlines recently, particularly with Lance Armstrong's fall from grace and his admission about widespread doping. Many argue that the use of drugs confers an unfair advantage and is ultimately dangerous to the health of the athletes. Others, like Professor Shuster, argue that the use of drugs is no different from other techniques employed by athletes to boost their performance: swimmers shaving their body hair; skiers wearing sleek body armour; archers and shooters having laser eye surgery to improve their accuracy. Professor Shuster puts forward the provocative argument that since 'there is no acceptable proof (that) drugs improve competitive performance and their use is no different from accepted sports practice, banning them is wrong and immoral.' JW Devine argues the other side, that the use of performance enhancing drugs poses a 'significant risk to the health of athletes' and perhaps more importantly, 'threatens to undermine the very purpose of sport' by disrupting the 'balance of excellences'. PMID:23516691

Shuster, S; Devine, J W

2013-01-01

337

Unique Characteristics of Adolescent and Young Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Breast Cancer, and Colon Cancer  

PubMed Central

Each year in the United States, nearly 70 000 individuals between the ages of 15 and 40 years are diagnosed with cancer. Although overall cancer survival rates among pediatric and older adult patients have increased in recent decades, there has been little improvement in survival of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients since 1975 when collected data became adequate to evaluate this issue. In 2006, the AYA Oncology Progress Review Group made recommendations for addressing the needs of this population that were later implemented by the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. One of their overriding questions was whether the cancers seen in AYA patients were biologically different than the same cancers in adult and/or pediatric patients. On June 9–10, 2009, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) convened a workshop in Bethesda, MD, entitled “Unique Characteristics of AYA Cancers: Focus on Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Breast Cancer and Colon Cancer” that aimed to examine the current state of basic and translational research on these cancers and to discuss the next steps to improve their prognosis and treatment.

Seibel, Nita L.; Blair, Donald G.; Albritton, Karen; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon

2011-01-01

338

Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites  

SciTech Connect

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

D. E. Hadlock, C. D. Hooker, W. N. Herrington, R. L. Gilchrist

1983-12-01

339

Behavioral treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Skin-picking is a type of self-injurious behavior involving the pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's own body. It is associated with social impairment, and increased medical and mental health concerns. While there are several reports showing that skin-picking is common in individuals with developmental disabilities, knowledge about effective treatment approaches is sparse. We therefore reviewed studies involving the treatment of chronic skin-picking in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) functional assessment procedures and results, (c) intervention procedures, (d) results of the intervention, and (e) certainty of evidence. Across the 16 studies, intervention was provided to a total of 19 participants aged 6-42 years. Functional assessment procedures included direct observations, analog functional analyses, and functional assessment interviews. The most commonly identified function was automatic reinforcement. Treatment approaches included combinations of differential reinforcement, providing preferred items and activities stimuli (e.g., toys), wearing protective clothing (e.g., helmets or gloves), response interruption and redirection, punishment, and extinction. Improvements in behavior were reported in all of the reviewed studies. Suggestions for future intervention research are offered. PMID:19963341

Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Mulloy, Austin; Regester, April; Pierce, Nigel; Kang, Soyeon

2010-01-01

340

Easing the Discovery of NASA and International Near-Real-Time Data Using the Global Change Master Directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) provides an extensive directory of descriptive and spatial information about data sets and data-related services, which are relevant to Earth science research. The directory's data discovery components include controlled keywords, free-text searches, and map/date searches. The GCMD portal for NASA's Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) data products leverages these discovery features by providing users a direct route to NASA's Near-Real-Time (NRT) collections. This portal offers direct access to collection entries by instrument name, informing users of the availability of data. After a relevant collection entry is found through the GCMD's search components, the "Get Data" URL within the entry directs the user to the desired data. Building on the importance of Near-Real-Time (NRT) data, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN) is targeting an effort to identify NRT data set collections from the CEOS international members. The international collections will be advertised as the "CEOS IDN NRT" portal to assist users in rapidly discovering these products, which are potentially useful for their research or public response. [This portal is expected to be released in 2012.

Ritz, S.; Olsen, L. M.; Morahan, M.; Stevens, T.; Aleman, A.; Grebas, S. K.

2011-12-01

341

Comparative sequence analyses of sixteen reptilian paramyxoviruses.  

PubMed

Viral genomic RNA of Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), a paramyxovirus highly pathogenic for reptiles, was reverse transcribed and cloned. Plasmids with significant sequence similarities to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and polymerase (L) genes of mammalian paramyxoviruses were identified by BLAST search. Partial sequences of the FDLV genes were used to design primers for amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 518-bp L gene and 352-bp HN gene fragments from a collection of 15 previously uncharacterized reptilian paramyxoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial L and HN sequences produced similar trees in which there were two distinct subgroups of isolates that were supported with maximum bootstrap values, and several intermediate isolates. Within each subgroup the nucleotide divergence values were less than 2.5%, while the divergence between the two subgroups was 20-22%. This indicated that the two subgroups represent distinct virus species containing multiple virus strains. The five intermediate isolates had nucleotide divergence values of 11-20% and may represent additional distinct species. In addition to establishing diversity among reptilian paramyxoviruses, the phylogenetic groupings showed some correlation with geographic location, and clearly demonstrated a low level of host species-specificity within these viruses. PMID:10509717

Ahne, W; Batts, W N; Kurath, G; Winton, J R

1999-09-01

342

Oxidation kinetics of molten copper sulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation kinetics of molten Cu2S baths, during top lancing with oxygen/nitrogen (argon) mixtures, have been investigated as a function of oxygen partial pressure (0.2 to 0.78), bath temperature (1200 °C to 1300 °C), gas flow rate (1 to 4 L/min), and bath mixing. Surface-tension-driven flows (the Marangoni effect) were observed both visually and photographically. Thus, the oxidation of molten Cu2S was found to progress in two distinct stages, the kinetics of which are limited by the mass transfer of oxygen in the gas phase to the melt surface. During the primary stage, the melt is partially desulfurized while oxygen dissolves in the liquid sulfide. Upon saturation of the melt with oxygen, the secondary stage commences in which surface and bath reactions proceed to generate copper and SO2 electrochemically. A mathematical model of the reaction kinetics has been formulated and tested against the measurements. The results of this study shed light on the process kinetics of the copper blow in a Peirce-Smith converter or Mitsubishi reactor.

Alyaser, A. H.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1995-02-01

343

Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

NONE

1997-07-31

344

State of the Oceans: A Satellite Data Processing System for Visualizing Near Real-Time Imagery on Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State of the Oceans (SOTO) web tool was developed at NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as an interactive means for users to visually explore and assess ocean-based geophysical parameters extracted from the latest archived data products. The SOTO system consists of four extensible modules, a data polling tool, a preparation and imaging package, image server software, and the graphical user interface. Together, these components support multi-resolution visualization of swath (Level 2) and gridded Level 3/4) data products as either raster- or vector- based KML layers on Google Earth. These layers are automatically updated periodically throughout the day. Current parameters available include sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, ocean winds, sea surface height anomaly, and sea surface temperature anomaly. SOTO also supports mash-ups, allowing KML feeds from other sources to be overlaid directly onto Google Earth such as hurricane tracks and buoy data. A version of the SOTO software has also been installed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to support the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). The State of the Earth (SOTE) has similar functionality to SOTO but supports different data sets, among them the MODIS 250m data product.

Thompson, C. K.; Bingham, A. W.; Hall, J. R.; Alarcon, C.; Plesea, L.; Henderson, M. L.; Levoe, S.

2011-12-01

345

Multiple Scales in the Simulation of Ion Channels and Proteins  

PubMed Central

Computation of living processes creates great promise for the everyday life of mankind and great challenges for physical scientists. Simulations molecular dynamics have great appeal to biologists as a natural extension of structural biology. Once a biologist sees a structure, she/he wants to see it move. Molecular biology has shown that a small number of atoms, sometimes even one messenger ion, like Ca2+, can control biological function on the scale of cells, organs, tissues, and organisms. Enormously concentrated ions—at number densities of ~20 M—in protein channels and enzymes are responsible for many of the characteristics of living systems, just as highly concentrated ions near electrodes are responsible for many of the characteristics of electrochemical systems. Here we confront the reality of the scale differences of ions. We show that the scale differences needed to simulate all the atoms of biological cells are 107 in linear dimension, 1021 in three dimensions, 109 in resolution, 1011 in time, and 1013 in particle number (to deal with concentrations of Ca2+). These scales must be dealt with simultaneously if the simulation is to deal with most biological functions. Biological function extends across all of them, all at once in most cases. We suggest a computational approach using explicit multiscale analysis instead of implicit simulation of all scales. The approach is based on an energy variational principle EnVarA introduced by Chun Liu to deal with complex fluids. Variational methods deal automatically with multiple interacting components and scales. When an additional component is added to the system, the resulting Euler Lagrange field equations change form automatically—by algebra alone—without additional unknown parameters. Multifaceted interactions are solutions of the resulting equations. We suggest that ionic solutions should be viewed as complex fluids with simple components. Highly concentrated solutions—dominated by interactions of components—are easily computed by EnVarA. Successful computation of ions concentrated in special places may be a significant step to understanding the defining characteristics of biological and electrochemical systems. Indeed, computing ions near proteins and nucleic acids may prove as important to molecular biology and chemical technology as computing holes and electrons has been to our semiconductor and digital technology.

Eisenberg, Bob

2010-01-01

346

Requirement for diacylglycerol and protein kinase C in HeLa cell-substratum adhesion and their feedback amplification of arachidonic acid production for optimum cell spreading.  

PubMed Central

Release of arachidonic acid (AA) and subsequent formation of a lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolite(s) is an obligatory signal to induce spreading of HeLa cells on a gelatin substratum (Chun and Jacobson, 1992). This study characterizes signaling pathways that follow the LOX metabolite(s) formation. Levels of diacylglycerol (DG) increase upon attachment and before cell spreading on a gelatin substratum. DG production and cell spreading are insignificant when phospholipase A2 (PLA2) or LOX is blocked. In contrast, when cells in suspension where PLA2 activity is not stimulated are treated with exogenous AA, DG production is turned on, and inhibition of LOX turns it off. This indicates that the formation of a LOX metabolite(s) from AA released during cell attachment induces the production of DG. Consistent with the DG production is the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) which, as with AA and DG, occurs upon attachment and before cell spreading. Inhibition of AA release and subsequent DG production blocks both PKC activation and cell spreading. Cell spreading is also blocked by the inhibition of PKC with calphostin C or sphingosine. The inhibition of cell spreading induced by blocking AA release is reversed by the direct activation of PKC with phorbol ester. However, the inhibition of cell spreading induced by PKC inhibition is not reversed by exogenously applied AA. In addition, inhibition of PKC does not block AA release and DG production. The data indicate that there is a sequence of events triggered by HeLa cell attachment to a gelatin substratum that leads to the initiation of cell spreading: AA release, a LOX metabolite(s) formation, DG production, and PKC activation. The data also provide evidence indicating that HeLa cell spreading is a cyclic feedback amplification process centered on the production of AA, which is the first messenger produced in the sequence of messengers initiating cell spreading. Both DG and PKC activity that are increased during HeLa cell attachment to a gelatin substratum appear to be involved. DG not only activates PKC, which is essential for cell spreading, but is also hydrolyzed to AA. PKC, which is initially activated as consequence of AA production, also increases more AA production by activating PLA2.

Chun, J S; Jacobson, B S

1993-01-01

347

IUSSP activities. Committee on Historical Demography. Report: Conference on Asian Population History, Taipei, Taiwan, 4-8 January 1996.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of the Asian Population History Conference held in Taipei, Taiwan, January 4-8, 1996. 41 papers were presented on seven themes: Asian population growth, epidemiological transition and public health, mortality trends in pretransitional populations, marriage patterns and demographic systems, fertility levels and trends in pretransitional Asian populations, migration and population distribution, and family systems. Papers were presented by Anthony Reid; Chris Wilson; Bruce Fetter; Sumit Guha; Sheila Zurbrigg; Timothy Dyson and Monica Das Gupta; Cameron Campbell; Robert Shepherd; Ann Jannetta; Chai-Bin Park, Eise Yokoyama, and Sadahiko Nozaki; Peter Boomgaard; Jose Antonio Ortega Osona; Osamu Saito; Ts'ui-jung Liu and Shi-yung Liu; Wen Shang Yang; Dallas Fernando; Bruce Caldwell; A. Francis Gealogo; S. Irudaya Rajan; Kiyoshi Hamano; Guo Songyi; Wang Feng and James Lee; Christopher Langford; Terence H. Hull; Paul K.C. Liu; Xizhe Peng and Yangfang Hou; Ken'ichi Tomobe; Nokiro O. Tsuya; Peter Xenos; Daniel Doeppers; Chaonan Chen and Su-fen Liu; Jiang Tao; Akira Hayami and Emiko Ochiai; Arthur P. Wolf and Chuang Ying-chang; Myron L. Cohen; Burton Pasternak; Zhongwei Zhao; Li-shou Yang, Arland Thornton, and Tamara Hareven; Chi-chun Yi and Yu-hsia Lu; Lai Huimin; Ding Yizhuang; and John Caldwell, who chaired the concluding session. John Caldwell concluded that the conference provided an impressive collection of findings on Asian population history. There was much more research possible, particularly research based on India's rich historical data archives. Research was needed to confirm the assertion that Asian mortality transition began after the two world wars. A focus on natural family planning methods used prior to the transition was suggested. International Union for Scientific Study of Population Committee Chairman David Reher suggested multidisciplinary research on Asian differences in fertility, mortality, and migration. Hayami and Ts'ui-jung Liu were honored. There were 8 papers on Southeast Asia, 4 with a comparative analysis, 6 each on Indonesia and Japan and the Philippines, and 11 on Taiwan, mainland China, and other areas. 16 persons, who were discussants in all the sessions, focused on the quality of data, methodology, and analysis, and relevance to the conference and Asian population history. PMID:12179527

Osirike, A B

1996-05-01

348

Single-particle characterization of four "Asian Dust" samples collected in Korea, using low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

A single-particle analytical technique, named low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA), employing an ultrathin window X-ray detector and enabling the quantitative determination of even low-Z elements such as C, N, and O, is applied to characterize "Asian Dust" samples, collected in ChunCheon, Korea, during four Asian Dust storm events on March 7, 2000, April 7, 2000, March 22, 2001, and May 17, 2001. In this study, it is demonstrated that single-particle analysis using the low-Z particle EPMA provides detailed information on various types of chemical species in the samples. The most abundantly encountered particles, both in coarse and fine fractions, are aluminosilicates. The relative abundances of those particles on the basis of their size are different between the four Asian Dust samples. The sample collected on March 7, 2000 did not experience any chemical modification during its transport because the sample does not contain particles of chemical species that result from atmospheric reactions. The sample collected on April 7, 2000 contains both genuine and reacted sea-salt particles. The genuine sea-salts are in the form of a mixture of NaCl and MgCl2 entrained during their passage over the Yellow Sea. The reacted sea-salts particles are encountered very much in fine fraction. The sample collected on March 22, 2001 shows somewhat significant chemical modification both for CaCO3 and sea-salts particles. For this sample, a significant number of reacted CaCO3 and sea-salt particles, such as those containing nitrate and/or sulfate, are encountered, implying that CaCO3 and sea-salts particles have reacted with sulfur or nitrogen oxide species during their long-range transport. The sample collected on May 17, 2001 experienced the most extensive chemical modification during its transport. In addition to the observation of the extensively reacted CaCO3 and sea-salt particles, reacted K2CO3 particles are also extensively encountered in this sample, which implies that K2CO3 species should be regarded as an additional important chemical species in the study of the chemical modification of Asian Dust particles during long-range transport. PMID:15819192

Ro, Chul-Un; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyekyeong; Chun, Youngsin; Van Grieken, René

2005-03-15

349

The evaluation of heavy metal accumulation and application of a comprehensive bio-concentration index for woody species on contaminated sites in Hunan, China.  

PubMed

Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoextraction of metals. Shuikoushan mining, one of the biggest Pb and Zn production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment during the last 100 years. Over 150 km(2) of fertile soil have been contaminated by the dust, slag, and tailings from this mining. The goal of the present work has been to determine the content of Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cu in wild woody plants (18 species) naturally growing in this area. Two hundred five plant and soil samples from 11 contaminated sites were collected and analyzed. In addition, to assess the ability of multi-metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed a predictive comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI) based on fuzzy synthetic assessment. Our data suggest some adult trees could also accumulate a large amount of metals. Pb concentrations in leaves of Paulownia fortunei (Seem.) Hemsl. (1,179 mg/kg) exceeded the hyperaccumulation threshold (1,000 mg/kg). Elevated Pb concentrations (973.38 mg/kg) were also found in the leaves of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent., with a Pb bio-concentration factor of up to 0.701. Endemic species, Zenia insignis Chun exhibited huge potential for Zn and Cd phytoextraction, with the highest concentrations of Zn (1,968 mg/kg) and Cd (44.40 mg/kg), characteristic root nodules, and fast growth rates in poor soils. As for multi-metal accumulation ability, native species B. papyrifera was calculated to have the most exceptional ability to accumulate various metals simultaneously (CBCI 2.93), followed by Amorpha fruticosa L. (CBCI 2.72) and Lagerstroemia indica L. (CBCI 2.53). A trend of increasing metal from trunks to leaves (trunks?

Zhao, Xiulian; Liu, Jianfeng; Xia, Xinli; Chu, Jianmin; Wei, Yuan; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Yin, Weilun; Jiang, Zeping

2014-04-01

350

Bipolar Spintronics: From magnetic diodes to magnetic bipolar transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a theory of bipolar (electrons and holes) spin-polarized transport [1,2] in semiconductors and discuss its implications for spintronic devices [3]. In our proposal for magnetic bipolar transistors [4,5] we show how bipolar spintronics can lead to spin and magnetic field controlled active devices, not limited by the magnetoresistive effects used in all-metallic structures [3]. We focus on magnetic p-n diodes [1,2] with spatially dependent spin splitting (Zeeman or exchange) of carrier bands. An exchange splitting can be provided by ferromagnetic semiconductors [6], while a large Zeeman splitting can be realized in the presence of magnetic field in magnetically doped or narrow band gap semiconductors [3]. Our theory of magnetic diodes [1,2] can be directly applied to magnetic bipolar transistors--the three-terminal devices which consist of two magnetic p-n diodes connected in series [4,5]. Predictions of exponentially large magnetoresistance [1] and a strong coupling between the spin and charge transport leading to the spin-voltaic effect [1,7] for magnetic diodes are also relevant for magnetic bipolar transistors. In particular, in n-p-n transistors, we show the importance of considering the nonequilibrium spin leading to the spin-voltaic effect. In addition to the applied magnetic filed, the injected nonequilibrium spin can be used to dynamically control the current amplification (gain). Recent experimental progress [8,9] supports the viability of our theoretical proposals. [1] I. Zutic, J. Fabian, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 066603 (2002). [2] J. Fabian, I. Zutic, S. Das Sarma, Phys. Rev. B 66, 165301 (2002). [3] I. Zutic, J. Fabian, S. Das Sarma, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press. [4] J. Fabian, I. Zutic, S. Das Sarma, cond-mat/0211639; cond-mat/0307014, Appl. Phys. Lett., in press. [5] J. Fabian and I. Zutic, cond-mat/0311456. [6] H. Ohno, Science 281, 951 (1998). [7] I. Zutic, J. Fabian, S. Das Sarma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 221 (2003). [8] N. Samarth, S. H. Chun, K. C. Ku, S. J. Potashnik, P. Schiffer, Solid State Commun. 127, 173 (2003). [9] F. Tsui, L. Ma, L. He, Appl. Phys. 83, 954 (2003).

Zutic, Igor

2004-03-01

351

Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought in Countries at Risk: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) implementation plan emphasizes the information needs of countries at risk of food insecurity emergencies. Countries in this category are often vulnerable to disruption of agricultural production due to drought, while at the same time they lack well developed networks of in-situ observations to support early drought detection. Consequently, it is vital that Earth observations by satellites supplement those available from surface stations. The USGS, in its role as a FEWS NET implementing partner, has recently developed a number of new applications of satellite observations for this purpose. (1) In partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara, a 30+ year time series of gridded precipitation estimates (CHIRPS) has been developed by blending NOAA GridSat B1 geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2013 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution between +/- 50 degrees latitude. Validation has been recently completed, and applications for gridded crop water balance calculations and mapping the Standardized Precipitation Index are in development. (2) Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data at 1-km have been successfully demonstrated using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with 8-day composites from the LPDAAC. A new, next-day latency implementation using daily LST swath data from the NASA LANCE server is in development for all the crop growing regions of the world. This ETa processing chain follows in the footsteps of (3) the expedited production of MODIS 250-meter NDVI images every five days at USGS EROS, likewise using LANCE daily swath data as input since 2010. Coverage includes Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. (4) A surface water point monitoring method for pastoralist areas has been successfully demonstrated. It involves mapping small surface water bodies with ASTER and Landsat imagery, delineating their catchment areas with SRTM elevation data, and maintaining a continuous water balance calculation with satellite rainfall and weather model evaporation estimates to track relative fullness of these ephemeral water bodies. Piloted with NASA funds in partnership with Texas A&M University, the technique is now being implemented across the Sahel. (5) To move beyond monitoring and early warning to disaster risk management, loss exceedence probability functions are being derived for crop production shortfalls in FEWS NET countries. Drought hazard indicators, based on both ETa and crop water balance modeling forced by CHIRPS, have been used to develop regional crop drought risk models. In the case of ETa, the drought risk model provides the basis for index insurance in experiments being conducted in Senegal. A program of training events with GEO partners ensures that the data sets and applications are made available to scientists in FEWS NET countries.

Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Budde, M. E.; Husak, G. J.; Jayanthi, H.

2013-12-01

352

Le Tour Begins: Racing Globally, Biking Locally  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a publicity stunt for a French newspaper in 1903, the race was won that year by a popular rider nicknamed, The Chimney Sweep. Little did Maurice Garin know that he had sparked a one-hundred year legacy that leaves millions tuned in from around the world annually. The Tour de France bicycle race marks its centenary this year. A far cry from the original race that forced riders to go without sleep while riding through the night and left them doding nails thanks to sly spectators, the race is still no cakewalk. It includes 20 stages that take riders through beautiful, flower-lined fields and around narrow streets. And then there are the mountains, described by some as the agony of the Alps. Of course, not everyone has been bothered by them. The cyclist of the century --so far-- has been a cold-blooded Texan by the name of Lance Armstrong. Fueled by a superhuman power to climb hills faster than most people would dare go down them, Armstrong has repeatedly decimated the field while in the Alps. Looking for a record-sharing fourth title, the upcoming mountain stages will be of great interest to those of us in on our couches as well as those riders hoping to stay close to Armstrong's tail. Around the world, cycling has also seen a renaissance, with citizens commuting via bike in lieu of their cars. Whether it is a gas-saving measure, an environment preserver, or a public transit reason, the bike is gaining speed on the car. Any discussion of the world's cycling focal point, Le Tour, must include consideration for those that may not want to ride the Alps and instead want to ride to work.The first link leads to the official Tour de France Web site and is offered in eight different languages. The site includes live coverage of the race, along with detailed maps, technical descriptions of the stages, information on the centenary, a good searchable archive section, and lots more. The next two sites offer an historical look at Le Tour. The first is a Web site for a history seminar course offered at the University of Toronto and strives to analyze the "history of the worldâÂÂs toughest endurance race through the twin lenses of French culture and athletic competition." Definitely a unique course offering, and a site with very good resources and links. The next is a very comprehensive and well-organized site by the BBC which offers a great collection of historical essays for several eras of the race, from 1903 to 2000. The fourth link is a site that offers a very good history of the bicycle, from those oddly engineered, and exceptionally uncomfortable, early bikes through the several iterations to today's high tech machines. The next two sites are both focused on citizen cyclists and cycling advocacy. The first is a site by the League of American Bicyclists and not only serves as a good reference for local cycling groups, but also gives very current news on pending federal legislation related to cycling. The next is a site from the National Center for Bicycling and Walking, a program of the Bicycle Federation of America that seeks to provide "information and resources to communities and professionals working to create more activity-friendly communities." The last site takes you back to the leader of the pack, Lance Armstrong's official site. Whether you loathe him, adore him, or are simply amazed by him, Armstrong's official site offers you the chance to take a ride with him -- but probably not on a tandem bike, and hopefully not near any hills.

Morgan, John P.

353

Hydrogen Release From 800-MeV Proton-Irradiated Tungsten  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten irradiated in spallation neutron sources such as those proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, or in proposed fusion reactors, will contain large quantities of generated helium and hydrogen gas. In the APT, spallation neutrons would be generated by the interaction of high energy ({approx}1 GeV) protons with solid tungsten rods or cylinders. In fusion reactors, tungsten used in a tokamak diverter will contain hydrogen, as well as deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. The release kinetics of these gases during various off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and afterheat-induced rises in temperature is of particular interest for both applications. To determine the release kinetics of hydrogen from tungsten, tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANCE) to high exposures as part of the APT project have been examined. Hydrogen evolution from the tungsten was measured using a dedicated mass spectrometer system by subjecting the specimens to an essentially linear temperature ramp from {approx}323 K to {approx}1473 K. Release profiles are compared with predictions obtained using the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP4). Input parameters for the modeling, consisting of diffusivity, recombination rate coefficient, and trapping, are discussed. The measurements show that for high proton doses, the majority of the hydrogen is released gradually, starting at about 900 K and reaching a maximum at about 1400 K, where it drops fairly rapidly. Comparisons with TMAP show reasonable agreement at high proton dose using a trap value of 1.4 eV and a trap density of 3%. There is also a small release fraction occurring at {approx}600 K which predominates at lower proton doses, and which is relatively independent of dose. This lower-temperature release is predicted by TMAP if no traps are assumed, suggesting that this release may represent an adsorbed surface component.

Oliver, Brian M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Venhaus, Thomas J.(Los Alamos National Laboratory) [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Causey, Rion A.(Sandia National Laboratory - California) [Sandia National Laboratory - California; Garner, Francis A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Maloy, Stuart A.(Los Alamos National Laboratory) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2002-12-01

354

Hydrogen Release From 800-Mev Proton-Irradiated Tungsten Rods  

SciTech Connect

For the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project (APT), spallation neutrons will be moderated and then absorbed in 3He gas to produce tritium. The spallation neutrons will be generated by the interaction of high energy ({approx}1 GeV) protons with solid tungsten rods or cylinders. A byproduct of the spallation reactions is large amounts of helium and hydrogen gas generated in the rods and other structural materials. The release kinetics of these gases during various proposed off-normal scenarios involving loss of coolant and afterheat-induced rises in temperature is of particular interest to the APT Project. In addition, however, this data is of interest for fusion reactors where tungsten used in a tokamak divertor will also be exposed to neutrons. In this case, the generated protium will be accompanied by deuterium and tritium diffusing in from the plasma-facing surface. Tungsten rods irradiated with 800 MeV protons in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANCE) to high exposures have been sectioned to produce small specimens suitable for measurement of both hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen evolution was measured by subjecting the specimens to a simulated temperature ramp from {approx}200 to {approx}1200 and 176 C, similar to that expected due to a loss of coolant and subsequent afterheat. The release measurements were conducted using mass spectrometric techniques. Four distinct hydrogen release peaks at temperatures of approximately 550, 850, 1100 and 1200 and 176 C were observed, suggesting a variety of trapping sites with different binding energies. Subsequent analysis showed that the release curve could be duplicated using a single trap energy of 1.4 eV.

Oliver, Brian M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Garner, Francis A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Hamilton, Margaret L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB); Venhaus, Tom (Sandia National Laboratory) [Sandia National Laboratory; Causey, Rion (Sandia National Laboratory) [Sandia National Laboratory; Maloy, S A.(Los Alamos National Laboratory) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2001-12-01

355

StyletChip: a microfluidic device for recording host invasion behaviour and feeding of plant parasitic nematodes.  

PubMed

Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infest the roots of crops and cause global losses with a severe economic impact on food production. Current chemical control agents are being removed from use due to environmental and toxicity concerns and there is a need for new approaches to crop protection. A key feature of parasitic behaviour for the majority of PPNs is a hollow stomastyle or odontostyle required for interaction with the host plant and feeding. This lance-like microscopic structure, often called a stylet, protrudes from the mouth of the worm and thrusts in a rhythmic manner to stab the host root. Studying stylet activity presents technical challenges and as a consequence the underlying biology is poorly understood. We have addressed this by designing a microfluidic chip which traps the PPN Globodera pallida and permits the recording of an electrophysiological signal concomitant with stylet thrusting. The PDMS chip incorporates a precisely designed aperture to trap the nematode securely around a mid-point of its body. It is fabricated using a novel combination of conventional photolithography and two photon polymerization. The chip incorporates valves for rapid application of test compounds and integral electrodes to facilitate acquisition of electrical signals. We show that stylet thrusting can be induced by controlled application of 5-HT (serotonin) to the worm. Each thrust and retraction produces an electrical waveform that characterises the physiological activity associated with the worm's behaviour. The ability to reproducibly record the stylet activity of PPNs provides a new platform for nematicide screening that specifically focuses on a behaviour that is integral to the parasite host interaction. This is the first report of a microfluidic chip capable of electrophysiological recording from nematodes other than Caenorhabditis elegans. The unique approach is optimised for trapping and recording from smaller worms or worms with distinct anterior body shapes and may be applied to other species of economic or medical importance. PMID:24839944

Hu, Chunxiao; Kearn, James; Urwin, Peter; Lilley, Catherine; O' Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Morgan, Hywel

2014-06-17

356

Kittiwake diets and chick production signal a 2008 regime shift in the Northeast Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I examined ~2700 food samples collected from adult and nestling black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla from 1978 through 2011 on Middleton Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The kittiwake diet was composed chiefly of fish, but invertebrates were taken in appreciable quantities in April and May. Upon spring arrival at the colony, adult kittiwakes foraged regularly at night on vertically migrating mesopelagic prey—lanternfishes (Myctophidae), squids, crustaceans, and polychaetes—a behavior they largely discontinued by egg-laying. During incubation and chick-rearing, food samples contained mostly (~85% by weight) Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, capelin Mallotus villosus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, sablefish Anopoploma fimbria, krill (Euphausiidae), and juvenile salmon Onchorynchus gorboscha and O. keta. A salient finding over the longitudinal study was the emergence, twice, of capelin as a dominant forage species—once in 2000 to 2003, and again in 2008 through 2011. Kittiwakes responded to capelin availability by producing markedly higher numbers of fledged young. The 2000 to 2003 event corresponded to a previously documented shift to cooler conditions in the NE Pacific, which apparently was relatively limited in magnitude or duration. The more recent transition appears stronger and may be more lasting. I submit that 2008 was an important turning point, marking a substantive reversal of warm conditions that began with the well-documented regime shift of 1977. That interpretation is consistent with the existence of a ~60 yr cycle in ocean and atmospheric conditions in the North Pacific. All else being equal, it predicts the next 20 to 30 yr will be favorable for species such as kittiwakes and Steller sea lions, which seemed to respond negatively to the 1977 to 2007 warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

Hatch, Scott A.

2013-01-01

357

A new device for high precision in situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor provide valuable information on fluid seepage, hydrate stability, and ambient temperature of samples. In addition, it can be convenient to approximate other parameters such as concentrations of porewater constituents from temperature or temperature gradient using transfer functions if their distribution is controlled by the same processes and direct quantification involves time-consuming sampling and laboratory analyses. We present a new instrument that can be used to obtain precisely positioned sediment temperature profile measurements from the seafloor during ROV dives. Consisting of a 0.4 m-long sensor rod equipped with eight temperature sensors and a standard data logger, the new T-Stick can be operated by an ROV in a fully autonomous mode. The temperature range of the instrument is -5 °C to 35 °C and it can withstand pressures of up to 600 bar. Compared to previously used instruments, the smaller diameter of the new T-Stick reduces the thermal inertia of the lance and results in shorter equilibration times. Virtual measurements generated by a numerical model showed that the T-Stick provides highly accurate temperature profile measurements with a root mean square error of 0.0027 K for a wide range of thermal sediment properties. Modeled temperature gradients are representative of both normal deep sea settings and cold seep environments with elevated temperature gradients of up to three orders of magnitude above normal background values, which are the primary target areas for T-Stick measurements. Deviations from the true in situ temperature profiles are caused by disturbance of the temperature field by the probe itself and may lead to underestimation of gradients and curvature in the profiles. A first field test of the T-Stick was conducted at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano at 1250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, where the new instrument provided useful information about the origin and extent of freshly erupted mud.

Feseker, T.; Wetzel, G.; Heesemann, B.

2012-04-01

358

Nuclear Materials and Fuels Colloquium Presentations (Videos) from the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF)  

DOE Data Explorer

DOE designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) in April of 2007. This designation allows broader access to nuclear energy researchers, helping ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort. Researchers from universities, laboratories, and industry collaborating through the ATR NSUF will facilitate the prospect of advancements in basic and applied nuclear research and development to help meet the nation's energy security needs [Copied from http://atrnsuf.inl.gov/About/tabid/37/Default.aspx]. The ATR NSUF is located at Idaho National Laboratory. The list below contains just a sample of ATR colloquium presentations available for online viewing: • Multi-Modal Chemical Imaging at PNNL, Louis Terminello (32:39) • Using Art to Cultivate Positive Attention toward the Nuclear Energy Industry, Suzanne Hobbs (29:39) • Investigation of Mg0-Pyrochlore Composites and Spinel Compounds as Potential Inert Matrix Materials, Juan Nino, (50:20) • Graphite and Carbon Fiber Composite for High Temperature Core Application, Lance Snead (56:29) • Role of Oxidation Processes on PWSCC Initiation on Ni Base Alloys, Pierre Combrade (01: 25:14) • National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Research at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Lenka Kollar and Bryan Heim (01:35:49) • Ab Initio Modeling of Diffusion in Nuclear Materials, Dane Morgan (59:43) • Microstructural Evolution in Materials for Nuclear Applications, Megan Frary (51:45) • Hydride-induced Degradation of LWR Fuel Cladding and Assembly Components, Rob Daum (59:43) • Summary of Chinese Nuclear Power Program, Roger Staehle (59:43)

359

Science Videos from the SLAC Public Lecture Series  

DOE Data Explorer

The SLAC Public Lecture Series is sponsored several times a year by the SLAC Users Association and the SSRL. Distinguished scientists from SLAC, from SSRL, and from other arenas of High Energy Physics present lectures packed with scientific information that even laypeople can understand. A sampling of video titles includes: 1) Hunting the Elusive Higgs Boson and the Origin of Mass, Lance Dixon; 2) Dark Energy. What the…? Dr. Risa Wechsler; 3) The Dark Side of the Universe, Marusa Bradac; 4) The Large Hadron Collider: Redefining High Energy, Dr. Sarah Demers; 5) Robots: Fantasy and Reality, Dr. David Grossman; 6) Hydrogen: Fueling the Future, Jennifer Leisch; 7) Making Molecular Movies: 10,000,000,000,000 Frames per Second, Kelly Gaffney; 8) The Violent Universe, Dr. Eduardo do Couto e Silva; 9) A Comet on Earth: Results from the Stardust Mission, Sean Brennan; 10) Whispers of the Big Bang, Sarah Church; 11) Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions, Dr. JoAnne Hewett; 12) Arsenic: The Silent Killer, Andrea Foster; 13)Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text, Uwe Bergmann; 14) Neutrinos Get Under Your Skin, Boris Kayser; 15) The Physics of Super Lasers, Dr. Philip Bucksbaum; 16) Smarter Drugs: How Protein Crystallography Revolutionizes Drug Design, Clyde Smith; 17) Profiling the Invisible: Quantum Mechanics and the Unseen Universe, Dr. Michael Peskin; 18) Physical Attraction: The Mysteries of Magnetism, Dr. Joachim Stohr; 19) The Runaway Universe, Dr. Roger Blandford; 20) Metals, Molecules, Life and Death, Dr. Graham George; 21) Our Lopsided Universe: The Matter with Anti-Matter; 22) Synchrotron Radiation: The Light Fantastic, Herman Winick; 23) All About SLAC: What Goes on in the World’s Longest Building, Neil Calder.

360

A limited assessment of the ASEP human reliability analysis procedure using simulator examination results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a limited assessment of the conservatism of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure described in NUREG/CR-4772. In particular, the, ASEP post-accident, post-diagnosis, nominal HRA procedure is assessed within the context of an individual`s performance of critical tasks on the simulator portion of requalification examinations administered to nuclear power plant operators. An assessment of the degree to which operator perforn:Lance during simulator examinations is an accurate reflection of operator performance during actual accident conditions was outside the scope of work for this project; therefore, no direct inference can be made from this report about such performance. The data for this study are derived from simulator examination reports from the NRC requalification examination cycle. A total of 4071 critical tasks were identified, of which 45 had been failed. The ASEP procedure was used to estimate human error probability (HEP) values for critical tasks, and the HEP results were compared with the failure rates observed in the examinations. The ASEP procedure was applied by PNL operator license examiners who supplemented the limited information in the examination reports with expert judgment based upon their extensive simulator examination experience. ASEP analyses were performed for a sample of 162 critical tasks selected randomly from the 4071, and the results were used to characterize the entire population. ASEP analyses were also performed for all of the 45 failed critical tasks. Two tests were performed to assess the bias of the ASEP HEPs compared with the data from the requalification examinations. The first compared the average of the ASEP HEP values with the fraction of the population actually failed and it found a statistically significant factor of two bias on the average.

Gore, B.R.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Mitts, T.M.; Nicholson, W.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

361

Navigating solid medical images by pencils of sectioning planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beyond their involvement in ordinary surface rendering, the boundaries of organs in medical images have differential properties that make them quite useful for quantitative understanding. In particular, their geometry affords a framework for navigating the original solid, representing its R3 contents quite flexibility as multiple pseudovolumes R2 x T, where T is ar eal-valued parameter standing for screen time. A navigation is a smoothly parameterized series of image sections characterized by normal direction, centerpoint, scale and orientation. Such filmstrips represent a radical generalization of conventional medical image dynamics. The lances encountered in these navigations can be represented by constructs from classic differential geometry. Sequences of plane sections can be formalized as continuous pencils of planes, sets of cardinality (infinity) 1 that are sometimes explicitly characterized by a real-value parameter and sometimes defined implicitly as the intersection (curve of common elements) of a pair of bundles of (infinity) 2 planes. An example of the first type of navigation is the pencil of planes through the tangent line at one point of a curve; of the second type, the cone of planes through a point tangent to a surface. The further enhancements of centering, orienting, and rescaling in the medical context are intended to leave landmark points or boundary intersections invariant on the screen. Edgewarp, a publicly available software package, allows free play with pencils of planes like these as they section one single enormous medical data resource, the Visible Human data sets from the National Library of Medicine. This paper argues the relative merits of such visualizations over conventional surface-rendered flybys for understanding and communication of associated anatomical knowledge.

Bookstein, Fred L.; Athey, Brian D.; Green, William D.; Wetzel, Arthur W.

2000-10-01

362

Methods for Heel Retrieval for Tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site - 13064  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis. (authors)

Sams, T.L.; Kirch, N.W.; Reynolds, J.H. [Washington River protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Washington River protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

363

USAID Expands eMODIS Coverage for Famine Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food security in countries at risk is monitored by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) using many methods including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data processed by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) into eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products. Near-real time production is used comparatively with trends derived from the eMODIS archive to operationally monitor vegetation anomalies indicating threatened cropland and rangeland conditions. eMODIS production over Central America and the Caribbean (CAMCAR) began in 2009, and processes 10-day NDVI composites every 5 days from surface reflectance inputs produced using predicted spacecraft and climatology information at Land and Atmosphere Near real time Capability for Earth Observing Systems (EOS) (LANCE). These expedited eMODIS composites are backed by a parallel archive of precision-based NDVI calculated from surface reflectance data ordered through Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS). Success in the CAMCAR region led to the recent expansion of eMODIS production to include Africa in 2010, and Central Asia in 2011. Near-real time 250-meter products are available for each region on the last day of an acquisition interval (generally before midnight) from an anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) distribution site (ftp://emodisftp.cr.usgs.gov/eMODIS). The FTP site concurrently hosts the regional historical collections (2000 to present) which are also searchable using the USGS Earth Explorer (http://edcsns17.cr.usgs.gov/NewEarthExplorer). As eMODIS coverage continues to grow, these geographically gridded, georeferenced tagged image file format (GeoTIFF) NDVI composites increase their utility as effective tools for operational monitoring of near-real time vegetation data against historical trends.

Jenkerson, C.; Meyer, D. J.; Evenson, K.; Merritt, M.

2011-12-01

364

Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment -Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) on the ISS -"Kibo" Exposed Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire space environmental data related to space radiation degradation of space parts and materials and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. On several satellite of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) since the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V), Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) and Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) have been installed for obtaining the data described above. SEDA-Attached Payload (AP) was mounted on Japanese experimental module, "Kibo" , at International Space Station (ISS) to take continuous measurements of the 400 kilometres altitude space station's tra-jectory for a period of around 3 years. SEDA-AP comprises common bus equipment supporting launch, RMS handling, the power/communication interface with JEM-EF, an extendible mast that extends the neutron monitor sensor 1 m separate from the bus structure, and equipment that measures space environment data. SEDA-AP has been fitted with 8 kinds of instruments. It will continuously and simultaneously measure neutrons, heavy ions, plasma, high-energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, space debris and dusts, etc. Furthermore, by exposing electronic devices and materials directory to the space environment, it will examine how they are affected by the environment. SEDA-AP was lanced on July 16 in 2009, and attached to EF of "Kibo" on July 25 using the robot arm of "Kibo". Initial checkout was started on Au-gust 4 and successfully ended on September 17. This paper will report the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kimoto, Yugo; Obara, Takahiro; Goka, Tateo

365

Helical crack-front instability in mixed-mode fracture.  

PubMed

Planar crack propagation under pure tension loading (mode I) is generally stable. However, it becomes universally unstable with the superposition of a shear stress parallel to the crack front (mode III). Under this mixed-mode (I + III) loading configuration, an initially flat parent crack segments into an array of daughter cracks that rotate towards a direction of maximum tensile stress. This segmentation produces stepped fracture surfaces with characteristic 'lance-shaped' markings observed in a wide range of engineering and geological materials. The origin of this instability remains poorly understood and a theory with which to predict the surface roughness scale is lacking. Here we perform large-scale simulations of mixed-mode I + III brittle fracture using a continuum phase-field method that describes the complete three-dimensional crack-front evolution. The simulations reveal that planar crack propagation is linearly unstable against helical deformations of the crack front, which evolve nonlinearly into a segmented array of finger-shaped daughter cracks. Furthermore, during their evolution, facets gradually coarsen owing to the growth competition of daughter cracks in striking analogy with the coarsening of finger patterns observed in nonequilibrium growth phenomena. We show that the dynamically preferred unstable wavelength is governed by the balance of the destabilizing effect of far-field stresses and the stabilizing effect of cohesive forces on the process zone scale, and we derive a theoretical estimate for this scale using a new propagation law for curved cracks in three dimensions. The rotation angles of coarsened facets are also compared to theoretical predictions and available experimental data. PMID:20203607

Pons, Antonio J; Karma, Alain

2010-03-01

366

Effects of colony relocation on diet and productivity of Caspian terns  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the efficacy of management to reduce the impact of Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) predation on survival of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River estuary. Resource managers sought to relocate approximately 9,000 pairs of terns nesting on Rice Island (river km 34) to East Sand Island (river km 8), where terns were expected to prey on fewer juvenile salmonids. Efforts to attract terns to nest on East Sand Island included creation of nesting habitat, use of social attraction techniques, and predator control, with concurrent efforts to discourage terns from nesting on Rice Island. This approach was successful in completely relocating the tern colony from Rice Island to East Sand Island by the third breeding season. Juvenile salmonids decreased and marine forage fishes (i.e., herring, sardine, anchovy, smelt, surfperch, Pacific sand lance) increased in the diet of Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island, compared with terns nesting on Rice Island. During 1999 and 2000, the diet of terns nesting on Rice Island consisted of 77% and 90% juvenile salmonids, respectively, while during 1999, 2000, and 2001, the diet of terns nesting on East Sand Island consisted of 46%, 47%, and 33% juvenile salmonids, respectively. Nesting success of Caspian terns was consistently and substantially higher on East Sand Island than on Rice Island. These results indicate that relocating the Caspian tern colony was an effective management action for reducing predation on juvenile salmonids without harm to the population of breeding terns, at least in the short term. The success of this management approach largely was a consequence of the nesting and foraging ecology of Caspian terns: the species shifts breeding colony sites frequently in response to changing habitats, and the species is a generalist forager, preying on the most available forage fish near the colony.

Roby, D. D.; Collis, K.; Lyons, D. E.; Craig, D. P.; Adkins, J. Y.; Myers, A. M.; Suryan, R. M.

2002-01-01

367

Report on surface geology and groundwater investigations of Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas Project, Converse County, Wyoming; site evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The general region of investigation of this report is in the southern part of the Powder River Basin near the Town of Douglas, Wyoming. Two specific areas within this region were investigated to determine the groundwater potential with drilling and testing programs during the years 1973 to 1975. One area of investigation is located approximately 12 miles west of Douglas in T32 and 33N, R73 and 74W, and is known as the Green Valley Well Field. This area is situated in the foothills of the north end of the Laramie Range and encompasses approximately 25 square miles. In this area the Madison Formation limestone and the Flathead Formation sandstone are the aquifers of interest for groundwater production. The second area is located approximately 13 miles north of Douglas in T34 and 35N, R70 and 71W, and is known as the Mortons Well Field. This area encompasses about 30 square miles. In this area, the Lance Formation and Fox Hills Formation sandstones are the aquifers of interest. Contained within the body of this report are two geologic studies prepared by consulting geologists, Dr. Peter Huntoon and Henry Richter. These studies define the pertinent structural and groundwater geologic features in and in the vicinities of the Mortons and Green Valley Well Fields. A relatively complex structural geology was encountered in the Green Valley area. The study of the Mortons area suggests that the geology of this area is relatively uniform. Inventories of the water users in the vicinities of the two study areas are included at the back of this report in Appendix B. These inventories are comprised of water appropriations as recognized by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Both groundwater and surface water appropriations are inventoried within the Green Valley study area. Only groundwater appropriations are inventoried within the Mortons study area.

None

1982-01-01

368

Solubilization of the alternative oxidase of cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) mitochondria. Stimulation by high concentrations of ions and effects of specific inhibitors.  

PubMed

Selective solubilization of cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive duroquinol oxidase activity from cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) mitochondria was achieved using taurocholate. Inhibitor-sensitivities and water-forming DQH2 (tetramethyl-p-hydroquinone, reduced form): O2 stoichiometry were the same for the alternative oxidase of intact Arum mitochondria. Cyanide-insensitive oxidation of DQH2 by intact and solubilized mitochondria was stimulated by up to four-fold by high concentrations of anions high in the Hofmeister series, such as phosphate, sulphate or citrate. Optimal (0.7 M) sodium citrate increased Vmax. for DQH2 oxidation by the solubilized preparation from 450 to 2400 nmol of O2 X min-1 X mg of protein-1 and decreased the apparent Km for DQH2 from 0.53 to 0.38 mM. Inhibition of solubilized DQH2 oxidase activity by CLAM (m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid) and SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid) was mixed competitive/non-competitive, with apparent inhibition constants for CLAM of 25 microM (Ki) and 81 microM (KI) and for SHAM of 53 microM (Ki) and 490 microM (KI). Propyl gallate and UHDBT were non-competitive inhibitors with respect to DQH2 (apparent Ki = 0.3 microM and 12 nM respectively). Low concentrations of C18 fatty acids selectively inhibited cyanide-insensitive oxidation by intact and solubilized mitochondria, and inhibition was reversed by 1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin. Inhibition was competitive with DQH2, suggesting that fatty acids interfere reversably with the binding of DQH2 to the oxidase. These results tend to support the view that quinol oxidation by the alternative pathway of Arum maculatum mitochondria is catalysed by a quinol oxidase protein, rather than by a non-enzymic mechanism involving fatty acid peroxidative reaction. [Rustin, Dupont & Lance (1983) Trends Biochem. Sci. 8, 155-157; (1983) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 225, 630-639]. PMID:4015623

Kay, C J; Palmer, J M

1985-06-01

369

Solubilization of the alternative oxidase of cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) mitochondria. Stimulation by high concentrations of ions and effects of specific inhibitors.  

PubMed Central

Selective solubilization of cyanide- and antimycin-insensitive duroquinol oxidase activity from cuckoo-pint (Arum maculatum) mitochondria was achieved using taurocholate. Inhibitor-sensitivities and water-forming DQH2 (tetramethyl-p-hydroquinone, reduced form): O2 stoichiometry were the same for the alternative oxidase of intact Arum mitochondria. Cyanide-insensitive oxidation of DQH2 by intact and solubilized mitochondria was stimulated by up to four-fold by high concentrations of anions high in the Hofmeister series, such as phosphate, sulphate or citrate. Optimal (0.7 M) sodium citrate increased Vmax. for DQH2 oxidation by the solubilized preparation from 450 to 2400 nmol of O2 X min-1 X mg of protein-1 and decreased the apparent Km for DQH2 from 0.53 to 0.38 mM. Inhibition of solubilized DQH2 oxidase activity by CLAM (m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid) and SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid) was mixed competitive/non-competitive, with apparent inhibition constants for CLAM of 25 microM (Ki) and 81 microM (KI) and for SHAM of 53 microM (Ki) and 490 microM (KI). Propyl gallate and UHDBT were non-competitive inhibitors with respect to DQH2 (apparent Ki = 0.3 microM and 12 nM respectively). Low concentrations of C18 fatty acids selectively inhibited cyanide-insensitive oxidation by intact and solubilized mitochondria, and inhibition was reversed by 1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin. Inhibition was competitive with DQH2, suggesting that fatty acids interfere reversably with the binding of DQH2 to the oxidase. These results tend to support the view that quinol oxidation by the alternative pathway of Arum maculatum mitochondria is catalysed by a quinol oxidase protein, rather than by a non-enzymic mechanism involving fatty acid peroxidative reaction. [Rustin, Dupont & Lance (1983) Trends Biochem. Sci. 8, 155-157; (1983) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 225, 630-639].

Kay, C J; Palmer, J M

1985-01-01

370

An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1994-01-01

371

Female mating preferences and offspring survival: testing hypotheses on the genetic basis of mate choice in a wild lekking bird.  

PubMed

Indirect benefits of mate choice result from increased offspring genetic quality and may be important drivers of female behaviour. 'Good-genes-for-viability' models predict that females prefer mates of high additive genetic value, such that offspring survival should correlate with male attractiveness. Mate choice may also vary with genetic diversity (e.g. heterozygosity) or compatibility (e.g. relatedness), where the female's genotype influences choice. The relative importance of these nonexclusive hypotheses remains unclear. Leks offer an excellent opportunity to test their predictions, because lekking males provide no material benefits and choice is relatively unconstrained by social limitations. Using 12 years of data on lekking lance-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia lanceolata, we tested whether offspring survival correlated with patterns of mate choice. Offspring recruitment weakly increased with father attractiveness (measured as reproductive success, RS), suggesting attractive males provide, if anything, only minor benefits via offspring viability. Both male RS and offspring survival until fledging increased with male heterozygosity. However, despite parent-offspring correlation in heterozygosity, offspring survival was unrelated to its own or maternal heterozygosity or to parental relatedness, suggesting survival was not enhanced by heterozygosity per se. Instead, offspring survival benefits may reflect inheritance of specific alleles or nongenetic effects. Although inbreeding depression in male RS should select for inbreeding avoidance, mates were not less related than expected under random mating. Although mate heterozygosity and relatedness were correlated, selection on mate choice for heterozygosity appeared stronger than that for relatedness and may be the primary mechanism maintaining genetic variation in this system despite directional sexual selection. PMID:24383885

Sardell, Rebecca J; Kempenaers, Bart; Duval, Emily H

2014-02-01

372

Hydrologic data for the Obed River watershed, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Obed River watershed drains a 520-square-mile area of the Cumberland Plateau physiographic region in the Tennessee River basin. The watershed is underlain by conglomerate, sandstone, and shale of Pennsylvanian age, which overlie Mississippian-age limestone. The larger creeks and rivers of the Obed River system have eroded gorges through the conglomerate and sandstone into the deeper shale. The largest gorges are up to 400 feet deep and are protected by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act as part of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, which is managed by the National Park Service. The growing communities of Crossville and Crab Orchard, Tennessee, are located upstream of the gorge areas of the Obed River watershed. The cities used about 5.8 million gallons of water per day for drinking water in 2010 from Lake Holiday and Stone Lake in the Obed River watershed and Meadow Park Lake in the Caney Fork River watershed. The city of Crossville operates a wastewater treatment plant that releases an annual average of about 2.2 million gallons per day of treated effluent to the Obed River, representing as much as 10 to 40 percent of the monthly average streamflow of the Obed River near Lancing about 35 miles downstream, during summer and fall. During the past 50 years (1960–2010), several dozen tributary impoundments and more than 2,000 small farm ponds have been constructed in the Obed River watershed. Synoptic streamflow measurements indicate a tendency towards dampened high flows and slightly increased low flows as the percentage of basin area controlled by impoundments increases.

Knight, Rodney R.; Wolfe, William J.; Law, George S.

2014-01-01

373

A cell-based, high-throughput homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay for the screening of potential ?-opioid receptor agonists.  

PubMed

Aim:The aim of this study was to identify ?-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists from a library of 80 000 small-molecule compounds and provide the experimental basis for the development of new analgesic candidates.Methods:The cell-based, high-throughput screen for human KOR agonists was based on the LANCE(™) cAMP assay. Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was applied according to the compounds' structures. An acetic acid twisting experiment was used to verify the pharmacodynamics.Results:In total, 31 compounds were identified as KOR agonists after preliminary and secondary screening. Of these compounds, five demonstrated significant KOR-stimulating activity that was comparable to U-50,488, a selective KOR agonist. The EC50 values for I-7, I-8, I-10, II-5, and II-8 were 13.34±1.65, 14.01±1.84, 9.57±0.19, 14.94±0.64, and 8.74±0.72 nmol/L, respectively. Based on SAR studies, the stimulating activity of compounds with 5-phenyl-7-(trifluoromethyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidine (group I) and 3,4-dimethoxy-N-(2-oxoethyl)-N-p-tolylbenzenesulfonamide (group II) parent structures were higher than the compound with a 5-hydroxy-2-methylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (group III) parent structure. Pharmacodynamic experiments indicated that 20-40 ?g/kg ip of compounds I-10 and II-8 significantly decreased the number of writhes induced by acetic acid; this finding is consistent with the SAR studies. Furthermore, the analgesic effects of compounds I-10 and II-8 were significantly antagonized in the presence of the selective KOR antagonist nor-BNI.Conclusion:These findings collectively indicate that compounds I-10 and II-8 exhibit significant analgesic activities, providing evidence, at least in part, for their clinical application as new analgesic drugs. PMID:24930486

Wang, Yue; Yan, Ming; Zheng, Guang-Yao; He, Ling; Yang, Huan

2014-07-01

374

Slag characterization and removal using pulse detonation for coal gasification. Quarterly research report, July 1--September 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Boiler slagging and fouling as a result of inorganic impurities in combustion gases being deposited on heat transfer tubes have caused severe problems in coal-fired power plant operation. These problems are fuel, system design, and operating condition dependent. Conventional slag and ash removal methods include the use of in situ blowing or jet-type devices such as air or steam soot blowers and water lances. Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. The detonation wave technique based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. These detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. Several tests have been performed with single shot detonation wave at University of Texas at Arlington to remove the slag deposit. To hold the slag deposit samples at the exit of detonation tube, two types of fixture was designed and fabricated. They are axial arrangement and triangular arrangement. The slag deposits from the utility boilers have been used to prepare the slag samples for the test. The experimental results show that the single shot detonation wave is capable of removing the entire slag (types of slag deposited on economizer, and air-heater, i.e., relatively softer slags) and 30% of the reheater slag (which is harder) even at a distance of 6 in. from the exit of a detonation engine tube. Wave strength and slag orientation also have different effects on the chipping off of the slag. The annual report discusses about the results obtained in effectively removing the slag.

Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O.; Zhou, J.; Ali, M.R.

1996-10-25

375

HANFORD K BASINS SLUDGE RETREIVAL & TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the US and the UK to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, thus removing the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout encapsulation processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. The grout process to produce the final waste form is backed by BNG America's 20 years experience of grouting radioactive waste at Sellafield and elsewhere. The use of transportable and re-usable equipment is emphasized and its role noted in avoiding new plant build that itself will require cleanup. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup worldwide.

VASQUEZ, D.A.

2005-07-05

376

The SOFeX Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SOFeX Group is comprised of the following institutions and individuals, all of whose participation resulted in a successful experiment. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories: K. Coale, C. Hunter, M. Gordon, S. Tanner, W. Wang, N. Ladizinsky, D. Cooper, G. Smith, J. Brewster; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: K. Johnson, F. Chavez, S. Fitzwater, P. Strutton, G. Elrod, Z. Chase, E. Drake, J. Plant; Oregon State University: B. Hales, J. Barth, L.Bandstra, P. Covert, D. Hubbard, J. Jennings, S. Pierce, E. Scholz; Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory: T. Takahashi; Duke University: R. Barber, V. Lance, D. Stube, A. Hilting, M. Hiscock, A. Apprill, C. Van Hilst, ; Virginia Institute of Marine Science: W. Smith, H. Ducklow, L. Delizo, J. Oliver, E. Bailey, J. Peloquin, R. Daniels, J. Bauer; University Of Hawaii: M. Landry, R. Bidigare, S. Brown, N. Cassar, B. Twining, K. Selph, C. Sheridan; NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory: R. Wanninkhof, K. Sullivan, C. Neill; University of Miami: F. Millero, X. Zhu, W. Hiscock, V. Koehler, A. Cabrera; University of Calif. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: J. Bishop, T. Wood, C. Guay, P. Lam; Rutgers University: P. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, R. Nicolayson, S. Tozzi, M. Gorbunov, M. Koblizek; University of Massachusets: M. Altabet, M. McIlvan, D. Timothy; New Mexico Tech.: Oliver Wingenter; San Francisco State Univ. - Romberg Tiburon Center: W. Cochlan, J. Herndon; University of Calif. Santa Cruz: R. Kudela, A. Roberts; Univ. of Calif. Santa Barbara: M. Brezinski, J. Jones, M. Demarest; Massachusets Inst. of Technology: S. Chisolm, Z. Johnson; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: K. Buesseler, J. Andrews, G. Crossin, S. Pike, J. Tegeder, C. Herbold, K. Mahoney, M.Coggeshell ; University of East Anglia: L. Houghton, L. Goldson, A. Watson, J. Ledwell; Institute of Marine Research, Kiel: Peter Croot; University of Otago: R. Frew, E. Abraham, P. Boyd.

Coale, K. H.

2002-12-01

377

Quantitative trait locus for body weight identified on rat chromosome 4 in inbred alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring rats: potential implications for neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin releasing hormone 2.  

PubMed

The alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) rat lines were developed using bidirectional selective breeding for alcohol consumption (g/kg/day) and alcohol preference (water:ethanol ratio). During a preliminary study, we detected a difference in body weight between inbred P (iP) and inbred NP (iNP) rats that appeared to be associated with the transfer of the Chromosome 4 quantitative trait locus (QTL) seen in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains. After the initial confirmation that iP rats displayed lower body weight when compared to iNP rats (data not shown), body weight and growth rates of each chromosome 4 reciprocal congenic rat strain (P.NP and NP.P) were measured, and their body weight was consistent with their respective donor strain phenotype, confirming that a quantitative trait locus for body weight mapped to the chromosome 4 interval. Utilizing the newly developed interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS-A and ISCS-B), the QTL interval was further narrowed identifying the following candidate genes of interest: neuropeptide Y (Npy), juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (Jazf1), corticotrophin releasing factor receptor 2 (Crfr2) and LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (Lancl2). These findings indicate that a biologically active variant(s) regulates body weight on rat chromosome 4 in iP and iNP rats. This QTL for body weight was successfully captured in the P.NP and NP.P congenic strains, and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCSs) were subsequently employed to fine-map the QTL interval identifying the following candidate genes of interest: Npy, Jazf1, Crfr2 and Lancl2. Both Npy and Crfr2 have been previously identified as candidate genes of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption in iP and iNP rats. PMID:23312492

Spence, John Paul; Lai, Dongbing; Shekhar, Anantha; Carr, Lucinda G; Foroud, Tatiana; Liang, Tiebing

2013-02-01

378

Enhancing Supportive-Educative Nursing Systems to Reduce Risk of Post-Breast Cancer Lymphedema.  

PubMed

This study describes the use of data regarding self-care agency to enhance a supportive-educative nursing system for breast cancer survivors to reduce the risk of developing lymphedema post surgery. Impetus for this study came from the analysis of participant feedback from a parent study (Lance Armstrong Foundation pilot study) that sought to plan an educational program for nurses that will improve their supportive-educative nursing system when working with breast cancer survivors. The goal is to enable these women to reduce the risk of lymphedema post surgery. The parent study examined a bundled behavioral-educative intervention, which included standard lymphedema education coupled with Modified Manual Lymph Drainage (MMLD) to reduce the risk of developing lymphedema in newly-diagnosed breast cancer survivors. Based upon the feedback received from the parent study, the research team recognized that many of the participants were not fully following the recommendations of the intervention protocol. In order for nurses to help patients develop self-care agency (SCA) (Orem, 2001) to engage in actions that addressed the self-care requisites associated with post-breast cancer surgery, these nurses needed to refine their intervention skills. Prior to the development of a program for the nurses, the research team conducted a study to explore the state of power related to SCA of the study participants. The information obtained from this was then used in the development of an educational program for bundled intervention. Both motivational interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002) and solution-focused therapy (Berg & DeJong, 1996) were incorporated into the educational program for the research nurse team to strengthen and improve supportive-educative nursing systems. Supportive-educative systems of care that integrate self-care deficit nursing theory, motivational interviewing, and solution-focused therapy can assist patients to develop and sustain self-care agency. PMID:22872189

Armer, Jane M; Shook, Robin P; Schneider, Melanie K; Brooks, Constance W; Peterson, Julie; Stewart, Bob R

2009-10-01

379

Epidemiological surveillance of the HIV/AIDS complex through the analysis of trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Cali, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) incidence has markedly changed in the general population since the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the eighties and after the introduction of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in the nineties. Objective: To investigate incidence rate trends for Kaposi's sarcoma before and during the (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Cali, Colombia. Methods: Exploratory ecological study that included all Kaposi's sarcoma cases identified by the Cali Cancer Registry from 1962-2007, and 12,887 cases of HIV/AIDS recorded in the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali between 1986 and 2010. The joinpoint regression model was used to conduct the incidence rate analyses between the years 1962 and 2010. Results: A total of 349 KS cases were identified during the study period. Only 5.3% of the cases (n=20) were diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era (1963-1987), of these, 35% were women, and 90% of the tumors were located on the skin. In contrast, 94.7% of KS cases (n=329) were discovered after the emergence of HIV-AIDS. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of women (10.9%, p <0.001) and an increase in the frequency of tumors with an extra-cutaneous location (19.1%, p <0.01) compared to those cases diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era. Notification rates of HIV/AIDS have decreased since 2002 in both genders but KS incidence rates have decreased since 2004 in men only. Conclusion: The downward trend in the incidence of these diseases may be associated with factors that prevent the transmission of HIV infection or limit the spread of HIV in the community. Cancer registries represent a resource for timely, population-based surveil-lance of HIV-associated malignancies in Cali, Colombia.

Saldarriaga-Cantillo, Alejandra; Londono, Oscar; Garcia, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola

2012-01-01

380

Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

Jones, Rhian H.

1993-01-01

381

Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.

2013-01-01

382

Compact high-resolution temperature loggers for measuring the thermal gradients of marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, two major types of ship-operated underwater instruments are used for heat flow measurements including a Lister-type heat probe (LTHP) and small temperature loggers (STLs) that are attached to a solid-steel lance or a core barrel. In both operations, penetration friction heat introduces a transient disturbance to the temperature of the surrounding sediments. A pragmatic approach is to extrapolate a cylindrical temperature decay function to estimate the equilibrium ambient temperature (EAT) and equilibrium ambient temperature gradient (EATG) of the sediments from short temperature recordings. The extrapolated EAT and EATG will greatly affect the estimate of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (BGHS). In order to achieve a better extrapolation of EAT, EATG, and 1-s temperature sampling requirements, compact (22.2 cm × 2.2 cm) high-resolution temperature loggers (CHTLs) have been designed to work with a sediment core barrel. The mechanical and electronic design of the CHTL is detailed in the text. With a 24-bit, low noise A/D converter embedded in the mix-signal microprocessor, including a highly stable reference resistor based ratiometric scheme, the CHTL is capable of resolving 0.1 m°C in the range of -1 to 25°C. It has a memory capacity of 4 Mbyte which can work continually up to 16 days with a 1-s sampling interval. From a data processing efficiency consideration, field experiments indicate that adopting short support fins to attach the CHTLs to a relatively small size core barrel is better than using high support fins. A similar approach such as extrapolating the cylindrical temperature decay function to estimate EAT, EATG can be obtained from regressing a direct calculated temperature gradient of short recorded data. The resulting EATG accuracy may be significantly improved through the application of the proposed correction formula and therefore is much better than that which is directly calculated from the extrapolated EATs.

Chang, Hung-I.; Shyu, Chuen-Tien

2011-12-01

383

RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next generation of tanks to be retrieved.

EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

2006-01-20

384

Nearshore Fish Distributions in an Alaskan Estuary in Relation to Stratification, Temperature and Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish were sampled with beach seines and small-meshed beam trawls in nearshore (<1 km) and shallow (<25 m) habitats on the southern coast of Kachemak Bay, Cook Inlet, Alaska, from June to August, 1996-1998. Fish distributions among habitats were analysed for species composition, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and frequency of occurrence. Two oceanographically distinct areas of Kachemak Bay were sampled and compared: the Outer Bay and the Inner Bay. Outer Kachemak Bay is exposed and receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Inner Bay is more estuarine. Thermohaline properties of bottom water in the Outer and Inner Bay were essentially the same, whereas the Inner Bay water-column was stratified with warmer, less saline waters near the surface. Distribution and abundance of pelagic schooling fish corresponded with area differences in stratification, temperature and salinity. The Inner Bay supported more species and higher densities of schooling and demersal fish than the Outer Bay. Schooling fish communities sampled by beach seine differed between the Outer and Inner Bays. Juvenile and adult Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific herring ( Clupea harengus pallasi), osmerids (Osmeridae) and sculpins (Cottidae) were all more abundant in the Inner Bay. Gadids (Gadidae) were the only schooling fish taxa more abundant in the Outer Bay. Thermohaline characteristics of bottom water were similar throughout Kachemak Bay. Correspondingly, bottom fish communities were similar in all areas. Relative abundances (CPUE) were not significantly different between areas for any of the five demersal fish groups: flatfishes (Pleuronectidae), ronquils (Bathymasteridae), sculpins (Cottidae), gadids (Gadidae) and pricklebacks (Stichaeidae).

Abookire, A. A.; Piatt, J. F.; Robards, M. D.

2000-07-01

385

Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

Jodice, P. G. R.; Roby, D. D.; Suryan, R. M.; Irons, D. B.; Turco, K. R.; Brown, E. D.; Thedinga, J. F.; Visser, G. H.

2006-01-01

386

Nuclear Structure in China 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal view on nuclear physics research / Jie Meng -- High-spin level structures in [symbol]Zr / X. P. Cao ... [et al.] -- Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes / Lie-Wen Chen ... [et al.] -- Wobbling rotation in atomic nuclei / Y. S. Chen and Zao-Chun Gao -- The mixing of scalar mesons and the possible nonstrange dibaryons / L. R. Dai ... [et al.] -- Net baryon productions and gluon saturation in the SPS, RHIC and LHC energy regions / Sheng-Qin Feng -- Production of heavy isotopes with collisions between two actinide nuclides / Z. Q. Feng ... [et al.] -- The projected configuration interaction method / Zao-Chun Gao and Yong-Shou Chen -- Applications of Nilsson mean-field plus extended pairing model to rare-earth nuclei / Xin Guan ... [et al.] -- Complex scaling method and the resonant states / Jian-You Guo ... [et al.] -- Probing the equation of state by deep sub-barrier fusion reactions / Hong-Jun Hao and Jun-Long Tian -- Doublet structure study in A[symbol]105 mass region / C. Y. He ... [et al.] -- Rotational bands in transfermium nuclei / X. T. He -- Shape coexistence and shape evolution [symbol]Yb / H. Hua ... [et al.] -- Multistep shell model method in the complex energy plane / R. J. Liotta -- The evolution of protoneutron stars with kaon condensate / Ang Li -- High spin structures in the [symbol]Lu nucleus / Li Cong-Bo ... [et al.] -- Nuclear stopping and equation of state / QingFeng Li and Ying Yuan -- Covariant description of the low-lying states in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes / Z. X. Li ... [et al.] -- Isospin corrections for superallowed [symbol] transitions / HaoZhao Liang ... [et al.] -- The positive-parity band structures in [symbol]Ag / C. Liu ... [et al.] -- New band structures in odd-odd [symbol]I and [symbol]I / Liu GongYe ... [et al.] -- The sd-pair shell model and interacting boson model / Yan-An Luo ... [et al.] -- Cross-section distributions of fragments in the calcium isotopes projectile fragmentation at the intermediate energy / C. W. Ma ... [et al.].Systematic study of spin assignment and dynamic moment of inertia of high-j intruder band in [symbol]In / K. Y. Ma ... [et al.] -- Signals of diproton emission from the three-body breakup channel of [symbol]Al and [symbol]Mg / Ma Yu-Gang ... [et al.] -- Uncertainties of Th/Eu and Th/Hf chronometers from nucleus masses / Z. M. Niu ... [et al.] -- The chiral doublet bands with [symbol] configuration in A[symbol]100 mass region / B. Qi ... [et al.] -- [symbol] formation probabilities in nuclei and pairing collectivity / Chong Qi -- A theoretical prospective on triggered gamma emission from [symbol]Hf[symbol] isomer / ShuiFa Shen ... [et al.] -- Study of nuclear giant resonances using a Fermi-liquid method / Bao-Xi Sun -- Rotational bands in doubly odd [symbol]Sb / D. P. Sun ... [et al.] -- The study of the neutron N=90 nuclei / W. X. Teng ... [et al.] -- Dynamical modes and mechanisms in ternary reaction of [symbol]Au+[symbol]Au / Jun-Long Tian ... [et al.] -- Dynamical study of X(3872) as a D[symbol] molecular state / B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Super-heavy stability island with a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula / N. Wang ... [et al.] -- Pseudospin partner bands in [symbol]Sb / S. Y. Wang ... [et al.] -- Study of elastic resonance scattering at CIAE / Y. B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Systematic study of survival probability of excited superheavy nuclei / C. J. Xia ... [et al.] -- Angular momentum projection of the Nilsson mean-field plus nearest-orbit pairing interaction model / Ming-Xia Xie ... [et al.] -- Possible shape coexistence for [symbol]Sm in a reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach / W. Zhang ... [et al.] -- Nuclear pairing reduction due to rotation and blocking / Zhen-Hua Zhang -- Nucleon pair approximation of the shell model: a review and perspective / Y. M. Zhao ... [et al.] -- Band structures in doubly odd [symbol]I / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Lifetimes of high spin states in [symbol]Ag / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Effect of tensor interaction on the shell structure of superheavy nucle

Bai, Hong-Bo; Meng, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

2011-08-01

387

Constraints on the Moho depth beneath the Australian continent with teleseismic converted and reflected waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moho or the crust-mantle boundary is the first major discontinuity of the Earth's interior. It is generally believed to mark the changes in seismic wave speed, chemical composition, density, and rheological properties. Despite more than 100 yrs' exploration, the nature of the Moho, however, is still poorly understood. Among varies techniques used for detecting the Moho, seismic waves provide the most accurate image of the subsurface structures. Although seismic reflection and refraction with active sources provide fine structures of the crust, their cost is usually expensive and the Moho can be elusive. On the contrary, passive seismic surveys using broadband seismometers are deep penetrating and the cost is modest. Since late 1970s, receiver functions (RF) have been extensively used to image the crust as well as upper mantle structures. By deconvolving source signatures, different events can be stacked to enhance weak mode conversions (such as P-to-s) near the receiver, which provides constraints on the interface depth and crustal properties. On the other hand, the interpretation of RF is nonunique. It is most sensitive to velocity jumps across interfaces while with loose constraint on the absolute velocities. In cases of a gradual Moho, the mode conversion on RFs is weak and it is difficult to distinguish it from noise. In this study, we introduce a new method of virtual deep seismic sounding (VDSS) using teleseismic reflected phases (SsPmp) near the receiver to image the Moho (Tseng et al., 2009; Yu et al., 2012). The high amplitude of the SsPmp phase bypasses the process of deconvolution and further stacking. In most cases, one high quality event is enough to constrain the Moho depth. We combine RF and VDSS methods to study the crustal structure beneath the Australian continent. For most stations with high quality RF and VDSS, the Moho depths obtained from these two methods are in general consistent. Significant differences are observed, indicating strong lateral variations in Moho geometry. In the Northern Australia, for example, the Moho beneath the Warramunga seismic array offsets ~10 km in depth within less than 50 km laterally. Gradual Moho is detected from RF in the southeastern Australia, and the large amplitude of SsPmp phase of VDSS gives an average crustal thickness. We also show that even for stations underlain by thick sediments, such as FORT in the Eucla Basin where RF fails to detect the Moho, VDSS is still a powerful tool to estimate the Moho depth. Reference: Tseng, T.-L., Chen, W.-P., Nowack, R.L., 2009. Northward thinning of Tibetan crust revealed by virtual seismic profiles. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(24), L24304 Yu Chun-Quan, Wang-Ping Chen, Jie-Yuan Ning, Kai Tao, Tai-Lin Tseng, Xin-Ding Fang, Yong-Shun Chen, and Robert D. van der Hilst, 2012. Thick Crust beneath the Ordos Plateau: Implications for Instability of the North China Craton. (manuscript under review at Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.).

Yu, C.; van der Hilst, R.; Shang, X.

2012-12-01

388

Nitrate contamination of water resources in a small catchment with intensive livestock facilities in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is a small catchment developed along a stream, Hwabong-chun, running toward north, with a length of about 4 km. Because of gentle slopes of the area, land is utilized for various agricultural activities in different scales including paddy fields, grape vineyards, and intensive livestock facilities of swine, cow and poultry. In this area, groundwater is the main source of domestic and agricultural water-supply, and appears to be under severe risk of contamination from various potential sources. Therefore, this study was initiated to identify the extent and sources of groundwater contamination by nitrate. A total of 49 groundwater and surface-water samples were collected in February and April 2002, and concentrations of dissolved constituents and nitrogen-isotope ratio of nitrate were analyzed. Little change of concentrations of dissolved ions in samples of Feb. and Apr. implies that spring discharge of groundwater might not occur yet. About 77% of groundwater samples have NO3-N concentrations of greater than 3 mg/L, indicating their origins from anthropogenic sources at surface. About 37% of samples detected NO3-N levels higher than 10 mg/L, Korean Drinking Water Guidelines. Although groundwater is being used for domestic uses during the winter season, nitrate levels show no significant changes between February and April. This implies that the sources would be large enough to continuously discharge nitrate into the groundwater system. Correlation matrix shows Na, Ca, Cl, NO3-N, SO4 moving together in the groundwater system. Results of Principal Component Analysis(PCA) indicate these constituents are the most dominant factor controlling groundwater quality in the area. Seepages from a swine farm and a poultry farm were analyzed and show significantly elevated concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Cl, NH4, PO4, SO4. Considering low mobility of K and PO4 and transformation of NH4 to NO3 in the shallow subsurface environments, those water-quality controlling constituents are supposed to be originated from seepages of the livestock facilities. About 59% of total groundwater samples have (del)15N-NO3 values greater than 8 ‰, indicating the influence of seepage from manures and septic tanks. Countours of (del)15N-NO3 match well with the distribution of nitrate concentrations in groundwater. However, a part of southern area without the livestock facilities also shows high concentrations of nitrate and high values of (del)15N in groundwater. Based on the landuse history of the area, we interpreted that the elevated nitrate concentrations were due to the abondoned facilities, which had been operated until 5-years ago. This further implies two important facts: 1) records of landuse history should be examined to identify contamination sources properly, and 2) nitrate contamination from seepages of livestock facilities could last for a while even after disclosure of facilities.

Kim, Y.; Woo, N.

2003-04-01

389

Earthquake ground motions in eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard assessment relies on accurate knowledge of path effects, where path effects describe the changes in earthquake ground motion amplitude with distance. If the variation of amplitude with distance is well known, then it is possible to determine the spectrum of earthquake ground motion near the source from earthquake ground motions observed at much greater distances. The reverse two-station method (RTSM) of Chun et al. (1987) is explored in this study as a means of determining the coefficient of total attenuation, modelled as R-b, in northeastern North America. The Brune spectral source model is compared to two methods of deriving the apparent source spectrum; the Direct method which removes the regional values of path effects and the Empirical Green's Function method, where an Empirical Green's Function event is used to calibrate the earth's response. The modified RTSM gives values of the attenuation coefficient for the specific path between a pair of stations. These specific values may only be considered reliable within the path they describe, but average values give an approximation of the regional attenuation. Attenuation was found to be high within the Charlevoix Seismic Zone (CSZ), the most seismically active region within Eastern Canada. The average b value within the CSZ was found to be 1.36 +/- 0.01, much higher than the 1.0 found in Atkinson and Mereu (1992), but closer to the 1.3 found for all of Eastern North America in Atkinson (2004). The Brune source model was found to be a very good approximation for the source spectrum of small magnitude earthquakes. The two methods of deriving source spectra agree within uncertainties. Important parameters, such as seismic moment (M0) and stress drop (Deltasigma) are derived from the source spectrum of an earthquake. From M0, moment magnitude (M after Hanks and Kanamori, 1979) can be calculated. Nuttli magnitude (after Nuttli, 1973) is derived from the time series of the earthquake and is the preferred magnitude scale used by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Empirical relationships between these two magnitude scales are very useful. From the calculated values of this study combined with the values determined in Atkinson (1993), the relationship M = 1.03 MN - 0.61 was determined. Calculated stress drop values show a log-linear increase with increasing magnitude. This defies the concept of self-similarity, where one would expect constant stress drop for all magnitudes. Many (e.g. Sacks and Rydelek, 1995; Wu et al., 1996; etc.) have theorised that quantization of earthquakes, where earthquake size reaches an absolute minimum, leads to the breakdown of self-similarity. Calculated Brune source radii show a linear increase with increasing magnitude, even at small magnitudes (M < 3.0), leaving the cause of the apparent breakdown of self-similarity enigmatic.

Sonley, Eleanor

390

PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of Technology, and was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. On behalf of the organizing committee of FGM-2012, I express my great appreciation to their support of the symposium. Nearly 100 scholars and students from Japan, Brazil, Germany, Russia, United States of America, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, China, and so on, attended FGM-2012, and 57 of the presented papers were collected and selected for publication. The subjects of these papers cover simulation and characterization, advanced fabrication technology, novel application of FGM and layer materials. I cordially thank all of the authors and attendees for their support, and my appreciation is also given to the advisory committee, organizing committee, and the conference volunteers for their hard work. Professor Zhangjian Zhou Proceedings Editor Beijing, December 2012 Committees International Advisory Committee Professor Glaucio H Paulino, USA Professor Marek-Jerzy Pindera, USA Professor Jeong-Ho Kim, USA Professor Emer Fazil Erdogan, USA Professor Dr Monika Willert-Porada, Germany Professor Emer Wolfgang G J Bunk, Germany Professor Omer Van Der Biest, Belgium Professor Michael M Gasik, Finland Professor Evgeny Levashov, Russia Professor Lianmeng Zhang, China Professor Qingjie Zhang, China Professor Wei Pan, China Professor Chang-Chun Ge, China Professor Jing-Feng Li, China Professor Zhangjian Zhou, China Associate Professor Serkan Dag, Turkey Professor Fernando A Rochinha, Brazil Professor Emilio C N Silva, Brazil Professor Luis August Rocha, Portugal Dr Sasa Novak, Slovenia Dr Masayuki Niino, Japan Professor Akira Kawasaki, Japan Professor Ichiro Shiota, Japan Dr Akinaga Kumakawa, Japan Dr Yoshikazu Shinohara, Japan Professor Kiyotaka Matsuura, Japan Professor Yoshinari Miyamoto, Japan Professor Takashi Goto, Japan Professor Yoshimi Watanabe, Japan Professor Kazuhiro Hasezaki, Japan Professor Soshu Kirihara, Japan Professor Emer Toshio Hirai, Japan Mr Choji Endou, Japan Dr Seiichi Uemura, Japan Local Organizing Committee Professor Changchun Ge (Chairman) Professor Xuanhui

Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

2013-03-01

391

The Complementary Nature of Seismic and Infrasound Technologies in Regional Monitoring (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under current CTBTO event detection and location operating conditions, signal detection is a station-centric decision (was an event phase detected at this station?), rather than a global hypothesis test. Currently, infrasound and seismic detection use signal detectors run independently on each technology. It is only after event formation that the observations and inferences are merged. Development of this independent processing is a result of the vastly different signal and noise characteristics of these two waveform technologies. However, for specific signals there may be a utility to a joint seismic-infrasound detector. For example, noise estimates from one technology may help characterize or identify the noise on another technology (wind couples to both infrasound and seismic). Back-projection methods for both seismic and infrasound could easily be combined to produce a common seismo-acoustic detection and associated event location. The opportunity exists to integrate detection and location into a single multi-disciplinary approach. One such example is the ongoing infrasound detection and location procedure that utilizes an adaptive F-detector as input into the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL, Modrak et al. 2010) procedure that provides an estimate of source location using assigned prior probabilities based on what is known of the propagation path and on the signal detector estimates (arrival time, phase velocity and azimuth). As the atmospheric model is better defined these priors may be changed, thus linking improved location estimates directly to improvements in atmospheric models. The final step following event location is identification. Seismic and infrasound observations and their interpretation for the recent set of North Korean nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, and 2013 provide a motivation for multiple disciplinary approach to this step as well. Seismic analysis of these tests have documented that for existing parameterized source models, there are trade-offs between yield and depth (Mueller-Murphy, 1971, Koper et al., 2008, Chun et al., 2011, Murphy et al., 2013, and Park, 2013). An approach to integrating seismic and infrasound observations and models to constrain near-surface sources offers an opportunity to explore these events more fully. The procedure builds on regional and local seismic source models through moment tensors and uses these results to estimate ground motions directly above the source that can then be coupled to an atmospheric propagation code for investigating the complementary infrasound observations. The coupling from the seismic to the infrasound wavefield is done via the Rayleigh integral and the subsequent wave propagation can exercise any one of the existing atmospheric models. As documented in Arrowsmith et al., 2012, the technique has been successfully applied to the analyses and modeling of the seismic and infrasound data associated with the Circleville, Utah magnitude 4.3 earthquake on 3 January 2011. This exercise illustrates the importance of source mechanism, source depth and surface geology on strength of the subsequent infrasound signal as well as the importance of the atmospheric model at the time of the earthquake.

Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Park, J.

2013-12-01

392

EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents Electronic properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons with 'pseudo-Rashba' spin-orbit coupling Tobias Stauber and John Schliemann Strained graphene: tight-binding and density functional calculations R M Ribeiro, Vitor M Pereira, N M R Peres, P R Briddon and A H Castro Neto The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fürst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P López-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J González and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A Balandin Calculation of the Raman G peak intensity in monolayer graphene: role of Ward identities D M Basko Electronic transport in bilayer graphene Mikito Koshino Magnetic Kronig-Penney model for Dirac electrons in single-layer graphene M Ramezani Masir, P Vasilopoulos and F M Peeters Electrical transport in high-quality graphene pnp junctions Jairo Velasco Jr, Gang Liu, Wenzhong Bao and Chun Ning Lau Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene N M R Peres, Ling Yang and Shan-Wen Tsai Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane B Dóra and K Ziegler Quasi-ferromagnet spintronics in the graphene nanodisc-lead system Motohiko Ezawa Range and correlation effects in edge disordered graphene nanoribbons Alessandro Cresti and Stephan Roche Remarks on the tight-binding model of graphene Cristina Bena and Gilles Montambaux

Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

2009-09-01

393

[The study on the establishment of acupuncture].  

PubMed

In ancient china, four famous literatures, Huang Di Nei Jing, Nan Jing, Ben Cao, Shang Han Lun appeared, which made the foundation of oriental medicine. Huang Di Nei Jing, the book of acupuncture, is the most essential literature among these four litertures. So the question asking the identity of oriental medicine can be turned into the question about the identity of acupuncture. The investigation into origin will not be the only way to study of identity but one of the most attractive means. So we can answer with the study of origin to the question about identity. Acupuncture is comprised of theories like jing mai, qi xue and technical factors like moxibustion, bian which is like present operating knife. To trace the origin of acupuncture, we must investigate not only technical factors but also theories. But it will be impossible to trace every theories underlying the acupuncture in this small thesis. This is the reason that I restricted my attention to the principle of preventive medicine, regimen. Before the excavation of Mawangdui, the belief that acupuncture started long ago before Han period had been generally accepted. But there was not any proof proving the presence of acupuncture in the excavated literatures representing the Han period medicine. This fact announced that we must draw the time of establishment of acupuncture back after the Mawangdui literature buried in B.C. 168. But we can find the proof of the presence of acupuncture just before B.C. 168 in Shiji written by Si Mi Qian. Through these facts and inferences that we got until now, we can reach a conclusion that acupuncture would have appeared around 190-176 when Chun Yu Yi was practicing as a doctor. As you know, in the Mawangdui literature, what was associated with jing mai was moxibustion. But at the same time, moxibustion was being used just as the experience medicine technique without theory. So the moxibustion would has been about to be associated with jing mai theory in Mawangdui period. The word zhen jiu, the acupuncture and moxibustion, means there was a way to reconcile two techniques. It was by assuming bu and handing xie over to acupuncture that moxa can coexist with acupuncture. bian is used for infection treatment more than bloodletting tool in ancient china. but there is a bridge between acupuncture with bian. Acupuncture inherited its appearance from bian. It is generally believed that blood-letting is commonly developed in the classic east and west medicine. But the blood-letting could be harmonious with the old chinese belief that vitality must be retained in the body? No. The blood-letting is not generally practiced in ancient china. We can scarcely find the evidence of blood-letting in the ancient literature now in hand except Huang Di Nei Jing. Blood-Letting widened its territory in ancient chinese medicine with the help of the medical version of wuweierwubuwei principle which means 'not do anything, then everything does'. But soon lost its territory. Even in the Huang Di Nei Jing, We can find its disappearance. What is the reason? For its disharmony with chinese life idea, 'not lose essence'. Acupuncture replaced the blood-letting. It was the response of the ancient chinese healers to the regimen spirit and harmonious with chinese life view. Regimen spirit, the medical version of 'wuweierwubuwei' does not pursue cure after being ill but defense before disease. Acupuncture, meeting the demands of time, appeared in pre-han period as the association with jingmai theory which may be developed in regimen field, inheritence of moxa's esperience, and the shape of bian. PMID:22343703

Jung, Woojin

2011-12-31

394

Hydro-meteorological evaluation of downscaled global ensemble rainfall forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble rainfall forecasts are of high interest for decision making, as they provide an explicit and dynamic assessment of the uncertainty in the forecast (Ruiz et al. 2009). However, for hydrological forecasting, their low resolution currently limits their use to large watersheds (Maraun et al. 2010). In order to bridge this gap, various implementations of the statistic-stochastic multi-fractal downscaling technique presented by Perica and Foufoula-Georgiou (1996) were compared, bringing Environment Canada's global ensemble rainfall forecasts from a 100 by 70-km resolution down to 6 by 4-km, while increasing each pixel's rainfall variance and preserving its original mean. For comparison purposes, simpler methods were also implemented such as the bi-linear interpolation, which disaggregates global forecasts without modifying their variance. The downscaled meteorological products were evaluated using different scores and diagrams, from both a meteorological and a hydrological view points. The meteorological evaluation was conducted comparing the forecasted rainfall depths against nine days of observed values taken from Québec City rain gauge database. These 9 days present strong precipitation events occurring during the summer of 2009. For the hydrologic evaluation, the hydrological models SWMM5 and (a modified version of) GR4J were implemented on a small 6 km2 urban catchment located in the Québec City region. Ensemble hydrologic forecasts with a time step of 3 hours were then performed over a 3-months period of the summer of 2010 using the original and downscaled ensemble rainfall forecasts. The most important conclusions of this work are that the overall quality of the forecasts was preserved during the disaggregation procedure and that the disaggregated products using this variance-enhancing method were of similar quality than bi-linear interpolation products. However, variance and dispersion of the different members were, of course, much improved for the variance-enhanced products, compared to the bi-linear interpolation, which is a decisive advantage. The disaggregation technique of Perica and Foufoula-Georgiou (1996) hence represents an interesting way of bridging the gap between the meteorological models' resolution and the high degree of spatial precision sometimes required by hydrological models in their precipitation representation. References Maraun, D., Wetterhall, F., Ireson, A. M., Chandler, R. E., Kendon, E. J., Widmann, M., Brienen, S., Rust, H. W., Sauter, T., Themeßl, M., Venema, V. K. C., Chun, K. P., Goodess, C. M., Jones, R. G., Onof, C., Vrac, M., and Thiele-Eich, I. 2010. Precipitation downscaling under climate change: recent developments to bridge the gap between dynamical models and the end user. Reviews of Geophysics, 48 (3): RG3003, [np]. Doi: 10.1029/2009RG000314. Perica, S., and Foufoula-Georgiou, E. 1996. Model for multiscale disaggregation of spatial rainfall based on coupling meteorological and scaling descriptions. Journal Of Geophysical Research, 101(D21): 26347-26361. Ruiz, J., Saulo, C. and Kalnay, E. 2009. Comparison of Methods Used to Generate Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts over South America. Weather and forecasting, 24: 319-336. DOI: 10.1175/2008WAF2007098.1 This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Fortin, Vincent; Pelletier, Geneviève

2013-04-01

395

The influence of the macro-sediment from the mountainous area to the river morphology in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chen, Su-Chin scchen@nchu.edu.tw Wu, Chun-Hung* chwu@mail.nchu.edu.tw Dept. Soil & Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. The Chenyulan River was varied changed with the marco-sediment yielded source area, Shenmu watershed, with 10 debris flow events in the last decade, in Central Taiwan. Multi-term DEMs, the measurement data of the river topographic profile and aerial photos are adopted to analyze the decade influences of the marco-sediment to the river morphology in Chenyulan River. The changes of river morphology by observing the river pattern, calculating the multi-term braided index, and estimating the distribution of sediment deposition and main channel in the river. The response for the macro-sediment from the mountainous areas into the river in the primary stage is the increase in river width, the depth of sediment deposition and volume of sediment transport. The distribution of sediment deposition from upstream landslide and river bank erosion along the river dominates the change of river morphology in the primary stage. The river morphology achieves stable gradually as the river discharge gradually decreases in the later stage. Both of the braided index and the volume of sediment transport decrease, and the river flow maintains in a main channel instead of the braided pattern in this stage. The decade sediment deposition depth is estimated as > 0.5 m, especially > 3.5 m in the sections closed to the sediment-yield source areas, the mean river width increases 15%, and the sediment with a total volume of 8×107 tons has been transported in last decade in Chenyulan River. The river morphology in Chenyulan River maintains a short-term stable, i.e. 2 or 3 years, and changes again because of the flooding events with a large amount of sediment caused by frequently heavy rainfall events in Taiwan. Furthermore, the response of river morphology in Chenyulan River due to the heavy rainfall with a total precipitation of around 860 mm in 3 days in 2009 Typhoon Morakot is also discussed in the study. A extreme river discharge with the return period of 100 year transported the macro sediment with the total volume of around 3.2×107 m3 in 8 days during 2009 Typhoon Morakot, and it also resulted in 18.1% increase of the mean river width and 4 m increase of the mean scouring depth in Chenyulan River, especially the mean increase of 50 m in river width resulted from the total sediment volume of 1.9×107 m3 deposited within 8 km from the sediment-yielded area, i.e. Shenmu watershed. Furthermore, the distribution of sediment deposition in a narrow pass is also discussed in the research. Sediment deposited apparently in the upstream of a narrow pass and also results in the disordered river patterns. The high velocity flow due to the contraction of the river width in the narrow pass section also leads to the headwater erosion in the upstream of the narrow pass section. Contrarily, the unapparent sediment deposition in the downstream of the narrow pass section brings about the stable main channel and swinging flow patterns from our decade observation.

Chen, S. C.; Wu, C.; Shih, P.

2012-12-01

396

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

SciTech Connect

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-31

397

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). Safety analyses indicate that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for release of flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTs to reduce the ''time at risk'' while salt well pumping. For this reason, portable exhausters will be installed as a precautionary measure and used when flammable gas concentrations exceed 25 percent of the LFL during salt well pumping.

HOMAN, N.A.

1999-07-14

398

Near-automatic generation of lava dome DEMs from photos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acquiring accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) of growing lava domes is critical for hazard assessment. However, most techniques require expertise and time (e.g. photogrammetry) or expensive equipment (e.g. laser scanning and radar-based techniques). Here, we use a photo-based approach developed within the computer vision community that offers the potential for near-automatic DEM construction using a consumer-grade digital camera and freely available software. The technique is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS) and can generate dense 3D point clouds (millions of points) from multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/ staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit scaling or full georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or knowledge of scale within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Here we demonstrate the results of using the technique for deriving 3D models of the Volcán de Colima lava dome. 5 image sets have been collected by different people over a period of 12 months during overflights in a light aircraft. Although the resulting imagery is of variable quality for 3D reconstruction, useful data can be extracted from each set. Scaling and georeferencing is carried out using a combination of ortho-imagery (downloaded from Bing) and a few GPS points. Overall precisions are ~1 m and DEM qualities are sufficient to quantify dome loss and talus gain from small rockfall sites, as well as to highlight the structural evolution of the upper surface of the dome as it collapses.

James, M. R.; Varley, N.

2012-04-01

399

An analysis of the characteristics of extratropical cyclone Klaus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Klaus was a very destructive extratropical cyclone that affected the south-west of Europe from the 23rd to the 25th of January 2009. In particular, it impacted over northern Spain, southern France and Italy where losses totalled billions of Euros and the death toll was 31. The extreme strength of the wind gusts generated by the storm was the main reason for the damage caused. Klaus had the properties of a cyclonic "bomb", and a brief meteorological description of the windstorm will be presented based on surface and upper-air reanalysis data. The analysis procedure has been based on earlier research carried out in this field by J. R. Gyakum (1980), Lance F. Bosart (1984) and J.R. Reed (1986). Klaus was formed under very favourable growing conditions in the North Atlantic ocean: a high atmospheric baroclinicity level due to high temperature and absolute humidity horizontal gradients and strong upper-air winds. In addition, the surface low that started as a stationary front interacted with a mobile upper trough that was located at an altitude of 9000 m near the surface low on the 23rd of January. A strong polar jet stream region above the surface incipient low was also located in the same region of the storm's growth, around 40W-42.5N. After its formation and interaction with the mobile upper-trough, Klaus moved very fast eastwards until it reached land in France on the 24th. We will discuss some social and economic impacts of the storm and the intervention of governments and weather services before, during and after the windstorm. References Gyakum, J. R. and F. Sanders, 1980: Synoptic-Dynamic Climatology of the "bomb". Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1589-1606. Bosart, L. F. and S.C. Lin, 1984: A diagnostic analysis of the Presidents' Day Storm of February 1979. Monthly Weather Review, 112, 2148-2177. Reed, J. R. and M. D. Albright, 1986: A case study of explosive cyclogenesis in the eastern Pacific. Monthly Weather Review, 114, 2297-2319.

Gómara, Iñigo; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion; Yague, Carlos

2010-05-01

400

Paraffinic hydrocarbons in the Orgueil, Murray, Mokoia and other meteorites.  

PubMed

Small samples of the Orgueil (Wiik Type I), Murray (Wiik Type II), Mokoia (Wiik Type III) and other meteorites (Alais, Ivuna, Al Rais, Bells, Cold Bokkeveld, Mighei, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, Grosnaja, Kaba, Lance, Ornans, Chainpur, Karoonda, Warrenton, and St. Caprais) were extracted with organic solvents, fractionated by silica gel chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography and by a new gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique. Only the high molecular weight hydrocarbons eluted by n-heptane were analyzed. The following observations were made: All meteorites contain paraffinic hydrocarbons in varying amounts and with a certain distribution. Normal and isomeric alkanes from Cl5 to about C25 with a maximum at C19-C21 were found in the Orgueil, Murray and Mokoia meteorites. Pristane and phytane, two saturated polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons, known to be degradation products of chlorophyll, were found in all meteorites except the Ornans, although in several (Type I and Type III, except Mokoia) the amounts were very small. No predominance of odd over even carbon-number hydrocarbons was observed except in the C22-C27 normal alkane range of some samples of the Orgueil. The concentration of alkanes in certain samples of the Orgueil was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than in others indicating a significant heterogeneity in the distribution of hydrocarbons. Practically all the meteorites of Type II and some of Type III (Mokoia) gave an essentially identical or very similar hydrocarbon chromatographic pattern, indicating a common origin for the hydrocarbons. The distribution of paraffinic hydrocarbons, including pristane and phytane, in some of these meteorites was found similar to that of microfossil-bearing pre-Cambrian rocks 2 x 10(9) years old or older. The Orguiel was similar to the Gunflint chert and Type II meteorites were similar to the Soudan rock. It remains to be seen whether these hydrocarbons were formed on the earth-moon system as suggested by Urey, on the asteroids, in the solar nebula, or whether they may be the result of a unique terrestrial contamination process. PMID:11915889

Oro, J; Nooner, D W; Zlatkis, A; Wikstrom, S A

1966-01-01

401

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering a wide range of instrument operating conditions (650-1020 hPa pressure, 293-303 K inlet temperature, 4-34 K m-1 temperature gradient, 0.5-1.0 L min-1 flow rate). For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff, 0.05-1.4%) was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra (dry particle activation diameters) and Köhler model calculations. High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where the relative standard deviations of Seff were as low as ±1%. During field measurements, however, the relative deviations increased to about ±5%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature. The observed dependence of Seff on temperature, pressure, and flow rate was compared to the CCNC flow model of Lance et al. (2006). At high Seff the relative deviations between flow model and experimental results were mostly less than 10%, but at Seff?0.1% they exceeded 40%. Thus, careful experimental calibration is required for high-accuracy CCN measurements - especially at low Seff. A comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies showed that the relative deviations between different approaches are as high as 25% for (NH4)2SO4 and 12% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of the two salts. To ensure comparability of results, we suggest that CCN studies should always report exactly which Köhler model equations and parameters were used. Provided that the Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM) can be regarded as an accurate source of water activity data for highly dilute solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl, only Köhler models that are based on the AIM or yield similar results should be used in CCN studies involving these salts and aiming at high accuracy. Experiments with (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols showed that the conditions of particle generation and the shape and microstructure of NaCl particles are critical for their application in CCN activation experiments (relative deviations up to 18%).

Rose, D.; Gunthe, S. S.; Mikhailov, E.; Frank, G. P.; Dusek, U.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2008-02-01

402

Real-time optical diagnostics for the basic oxygen steelmaking process  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with the development of real-time optical diagnostic techniques for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. Results are presented of pilot-scale feasibility experiments conducted in the two-ton basic oxygen furnace (BOF) at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Homer Research Laboratories. Two line-of-sight optical techniques are being evaluated for determining the concentration and temperature of infrared-active gases in the BOF off-gas. The primary objective is to relate the concentration of these gas-phase species to the carbon content of the molten metal, and thereby provide a real-time indication of the process endpoint. Three cw lasers were used to measure the extent of beam attenuation at three different wavelengths in the particle-laden off-gas. The primary attenuation mechanism appears to be scattering by a dense, sub-micron diameter FeO fume. Initial infrared emission experiments with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at 1-cm[sup [minus]1] spectral resolution show partially resolved lines in the P-branch of the fundamental CO ground state and first hot-band transitions; CO[sub 2] bandheads are also clearly observed at 2384 and 2397 cm[sup [minus]1]. A second set of experiments was conducted to test the feasibility of oxygen-lance based fiber-optic imaging/pyrometric sensors for measurements of melt temperature and reaction zone properties. During bottom injection of nitrogen, clearly defined images of the melt/slag surface were obtained using both visible and near-infrared video systems. During oxygen blowing, optical emission from the hot spot was observed to fluctuate widely, with characteristic frequencies in the range of 3--10 Hz. Near the end of the process, the emission is characterized by periodic intensity bursts, interpreted as individual ignition events of duration 10--50 msec. Hot spot temperatures were calculated from the emission at 800 and 950 nm wavelengths using a grey-body assumption.

Ottesen, D.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Hardesty, D.R.

1993-02-01

403

Real-time optical diagnostics for the basic oxygen steelmaking process  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with the development of real-time optical diagnostic techniques for process control in basic oxygen steelmaking. Results are presented of pilot-scale feasibility experiments conducted in the two-ton basic oxygen furnace (BOF) at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Homer Research Laboratories. Two line-of-sight optical techniques are being evaluated for determining the concentration and temperature of infrared-active gases in the BOF off-gas. The primary objective is to relate the concentration of these gas-phase species to the carbon content of the molten metal, and thereby provide a real-time indication of the process endpoint. Three cw lasers were used to measure the extent of beam attenuation at three different wavelengths in the particle-laden off-gas. The primary attenuation mechanism appears to be scattering by a dense, sub-micron diameter FeO fume. Initial infrared emission experiments with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at 1-cm{sup {minus}1} spectral resolution show partially resolved lines in the P-branch of the fundamental CO ground state and first hot-band transitions; CO{sub 2} bandheads are also clearly observed at 2384 and 2397 cm{sup {minus}1}. A second set of experiments was conducted to test the feasibility of oxygen-lance based fiber-optic imaging/pyrometric sensors for measurements of melt temperature and reaction zone properties. During bottom injection of nitrogen, clearly defined images of the melt/slag surface were obtained using both visible and near-infrared video systems. During oxygen blowing, optical emission from the hot spot was observed to fluctuate widely, with characteristic frequencies in the range of 3--10 Hz. Near the end of the process, the emission is characterized by periodic intensity bursts, interpreted as individual ignition events of duration 10--50 msec. Hot spot temperatures were calculated from the emission at 800 and 950 nm wavelengths using a grey-body assumption.

Ottesen, D.K.; Hurt, R.H.; Hardesty, D.R.

1993-02-01

404

Site-specific effects on productivity of an upper trophic-level marine predator: Bottom-up, top-down, and mismatch effects on reproduction in a colonial seabird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down factors in limiting productivity of an upper trophic level marine predator. Our primary working hypothesis was that the reproductive success of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla) a piscivorous, colonial-nesting seabird, was most limited by the abundance, distribution, and species composition of surface-schooling forage fishes. A secondary working hypothesis was that reproductive loss to kittiwake nest predators was greatest during years of reduced prey availability. We report on a broad-scale, integrated study of kittiwakes and their prey in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Our study spanned five breeding seasons (1995-1999) and focused on three colonies that differed in size (ranging from ca. 220 to ca. 7000 breeding pairs) and proximity to each other (50-135 km apart). Kittiwakes in PWS encountered a variety of aquatic habitats, creating a complex foraging environment for breeding birds. We measured kittiwake reproductive success and foraging activities, while simultaneously measuring the abundance of surface schooling forage fishes throughout the foraging range of breeding kittiwakes. The abundance of primary prey species for kittiwakes (Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, and capelin Mallotus villosus) varied both annually and regionally, with no one region consistently having the greatest abundance of prey. Likewise, kittiwake reproductive success varied considerably among colonies and years. We found that bottom-up, top-down, timing mismatch, and colony-specific effects were all important to kittiwake productivity. Although bottom-up effects appeared to be strongest, they were not evident in some cases until other effects, such as geographic location (proximity of colony to prey concentrations) and top-down predation, were considered. Important bottom-up effects on kittiwake reproductive success were not only total prey abundance and distribution, but also species, age composition, and chronology of prey occurrence (match/mismatch of timing with critical brood-rearing periods); these effects varied by colony. Top-down effects of predation on kittiwake nest contents (independent of prey abundance) confounded seabird-forage fish relationships. Ultimately, when confounding factors were minimized, non-linear asymptotic relationships were identified between kittiwakes and their prey, with an asymptotic threshold of fish school surface area density of ca. 5 m 2/km 2, beyond which top-down, physiological, or phylogenetic constraints likely restrict further reproductive output. The integrated approach of our investigations provided a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying predator-prey relationships in the complex marine environment. However, such mechanistic theories can only be tested and refined through long-term research and monitoring of much greater duration than the 5-year study reported herein.

Suryan, Robert M.; Irons, David B.; Brown, Evelyn D.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.; Roby, Daniel D.

2006-02-01

405

Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).  

PubMed

Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy. For each application technique, four plants were selected as repetitions. Irrespective of the nozzle type and spray pressure, 4900 l x ha(-1) was found to be the optimal spray volume with deposition rates varying from about 50 to 70% depending on the nozzle type. The best results were found for the hollow cone, the standard flat fan and the air inclusion flat fan nozzles. Nozzle type and pressure and the corresponding droplet characteristics were closely related with the penetration and deposition results. With this automated tunnel system, it is possible to obtain a good spray result in combination with an increase in the productivity and a reduction in operator exposure. PMID:20218514

Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

2009-01-01

406

Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These analyses create both theoretical and applied implications for law. On a theoretical level suggestions for better understanding the nature of law seem to appear, while on an applied level the CSR analysis suggests avenues to make laws more effective.

Altvater, Norbert

407

The impact of submarine ground water discharge on a coastal ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea: Results from the BONUS+ project AMBER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides direct surface water input of dissolved and particulate compounds (eg nutrients, metals) via rivers into coastal seas, submarine ground water discharge (SGD) is increasingly recognized to be an important factor. In spite of the recognition that many land-sea interfaces of the world are characterised by SGD, it is still unclear how important SGD via springs, seeps, or diffusive outflows is in terms of biogeochemical budgets for the Baltic Sea coastal regions. The main reason that this has not been caught up so far to a precision that is typical for other freshwater inputs is that direct discharge of groundwater into the coastal zone is often difficult to quantify. The influence of SGD is expected to be of particular socio-economic relevance as it influences eutrophication in near-coastal ecosystems and to be under pressure by anthropogenic activity and climate change. Therefore, the impact of near-shore submarine ground water discharge (SGD) on coastal ecosystems of the southern Baltic Sea is investigated as part of the AMBER project within the BONUS+ initiative. In AMBER, the quantitative importance of SGD on nutrient, metabolite, and trace metal budgets is investigated for parts of the Baltic Sea. Results will have implications to understand the role of SGD as a nutrient source and will provide data for further implementation into model environments for the prediction of scenarios of future environmental changes. Besides trace metals, nutrients, methane, DIC and metabolites species, a further focus forms the impact of SGD on biota. Stable isotopes (C-13, S-34, O-18) are planed to be used to identify sources, sinks, and abiotic and microbial conversions of dissolved and particulate compounds. Salinity and temperature profiles as well as Ra and Rn isotopes will help to identify and quantify SGD. Sediment structures potentially acting as aquifers are characterized by geochemical, sedimentological, and geophysical methods. During several sampling campaigns in 2009, seep-type SGD was investigated in the Puck Bay off the Polish coast. It is found that, as one of the potentially different ground water-derived sources, fresh ground waters escape from permeable sediments in form of localized seeps near the shore-line. The geochemical composition and vertical efflux rates of these ground waters are determined by usingpore water lances and seepage meters. Analyses revealed that the ground waters were sulfidic and the source for a number of elements in the water column including DIC and phosphate. Results will be discussed in terms of biogeochemical element transformations and consequences for the element fluxes into the water column.

Vogler, Susann; Szymczycha, Beata; Gentz, Thorben; Dellwig, Olaf; Kotwiki, Lech; Endler, Rudolf; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Marcin Weslawski, Jan; Schlüter, Michael; Böttcher, Michael E.

2010-05-01

408

The Space Density and Kinematics of Metal-Poor Blue Main Sequence Stars Near the Solar Circle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used UBV photometry to identify 172 blue (0.15 <= (B-V)_o <= 0.35), metal-poor ([Fe/H] <= -1.0) main sequence stars (hereafter BMPs) among candidates from the HK objective-prism/interference-filter survey. The BMP fractions in the principal spectral groups of the survey have been used to estimate the space density of this species within 2 kpc of the sun, nu = 600 kpc(-3) . Accordingly, the specific frequency of the field BMPs, reckoned as the number of BMPs per field horizontal-branch star, is 12, which is 12 times greater than the largest value of specific frequency found among the seven globular clusters that have been searched for blue stragglers to their centers. From radial velocities which are available for 104 of these stars we obtain a Galactic rotation of Vrot ~ 130 kms(-1) , and a velocity ellipsoid of (sigma_r ~ 85, sigma_ ? ~ 85, sigma_ ? ~ 85) kms(-1) , a quartet of values unlike those of either the halo or thick-disk populations. These results indicate that the great majority of BMPs cannot be field analogues of the blue stragglers found in halo globular clusters. Rather, we suggest that BMPs are comparatively young main sequence stars formed in one or more Milky Way satellites, similar perhaps to Fornax or Carina, that have been captured by the Galaxy during the past 3 to 10 Gyrs. Our results reinforce earlier arguments by Rodgers, Harding, & Sadler (1981, ApJ 244, 912) and by Lance (1988, ApJ 344, 927) on the basis of more limited data for less metal-deficient early-type stars. Such satellite captures may be viewed as an extension to relatively recent times of the Searle-Zinn fragment dissipation process. At earliest times satellites were both numerous and gassy, and collisions among them produced a nearly non-rotating halo of stars. As the number of satellites decreased, mergers with the disk became the dominant interaction, and the tendency for dynamical friction to select satellites with prograde orbits led to the now-observed kinematic properties of the BMPs, which are intermediate between those of the halo and the thick-disk.

Preston, G. W.; Beers, T. C.; Shectman, S. A.

1993-12-01

409

Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes--Proceedings of a Research Symposium, September 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locally and globally, there is growing recognition of the critical roles that herring, smelt, sand lance, eulachon, and other forage fishes play in marine ecosystems. Scientific and resource management entities throughout the Salish Sea, agree that extensive information gaps exist, both in basic biological knowledge and parameters critical to fishery management. Communication and collaboration among researchers also is inadequate. Building on the interest and enthusiasm generated by recent forage fish workshops and symposia around the region, the 2012 Research Symposium on the Conservation and Ecology of Marine Forage Fishes was designed to elucidate practical recommendations for science and policy needs and actions, and spur further collaboration in support for the precautionary management of forage fish. This dynamic and productive event was a joint venture of the Northwest Straits Commission Forage Fish Program, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and The Puget Sound Partnership. The symposium was held on September 12–14, 2012, at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor Laboratories campus. Sixty scientists, graduate students, and fisheries policy experts convened; showcasing ongoing research, conservation, and management efforts targeting forage fish from regional and national perspectives. The primary objectives of this event were to: (1) review current research and management related to marine forage fish species; and (2) identify priority science and policy needs and actions for Washington, British Columbia, and the entire West Coast. Given the diversity of knowledge, interests, and disciplines surrounding forage fish on both sides of the international border, the organizing committee made a concerted effort to contact many additional experts who, although unable to attend, provided valuable insights and ideas to the symposium structure and discussions. The value of the symposium format was highlighted in the closing remarks delivered by Joseph Gaydos, SeaDoc Society and Chair of the Puget Sound Science Panel. Dr. Gaydos’ presentation referenced the 2011 paper by Murray Rudd in the journal Conservation Biology, “How research-prioritization exercises affect conservation policy.” The paper points out that policy makers and funding agencies are more likely to gain a full understanding of issues when they are presented with research findings from an aligned research program. That is, compared to unaligned research strategies, where work is not based on identified research priorities.

Liedtke, Theresa; Gibson, Caroline; Lowry, Dayv; Fagergren, Duane

2013-01-01

410

Global, Daily, Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disaster faced by modern society, and is expected to increase in frequency and damage with climate change and population growth. Some of 2013's major floods have impacted the New York City region, the Midwest, Alberta, Australia, various parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, and central Europe. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we developed and are now operating a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours of events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard within a few hours of satellite overpass. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial daily assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, and more robust assessments after accumulating cloud-free imagery over several days. Cloud cover is the primary limit