Sample records for gel electrophoresis 2-d

  1. Informatics and Statistics for Analyzing 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Images

    PubMed Central

    Dowsey, Andrew W.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Gutstein, Howard B.; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent progress in “shotgun” peptide separation by integrated liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS), proteome coverage and reproducibility are still limited with this approach and obtaining enough replicate runs for biomarker discovery is a challenge. For these reasons, recent research demonstrates that there is a continuing need for protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). However, with traditional 2-DE informatics, the digitized images are reduced to symbolic data through spot detection and quantification before proteins are compared for differential expression by spot matching. Recently, a more robust and automated paradigm has emerged where gels are directly aligned in the image domain before spots are detected across the whole image set as a whole. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for both approaches and discuss the pitfalls present when reasoning statistically about the differential protein expression discovered. PMID:20013375

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  3. Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    In this activity, learners simulate the process of DNA fingerprinting by using electricity to separate colored dyes. Learners use simple materials to assemble a comb (electrophoresis chamber) to hold the samples, make a 0.2% sodium bicarbonate buffer and 1% gel solution, connect a high voltage power supply, and prepare 5 different samples. Then learners test their model and observe each sample.

  4. Introducing Proteomics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Simple 2D Gel Electrophoresis Exercise with Serum Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Thomas D.; Craig, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) remains an important tool in the study of biological systems by proteomics. While the use of 2DGE is commonplace in research publications, there are few instructional laboratories that address the use of 2DGE for analyzing complex protein samples. One reason for this lack is the fact that the preparation…

  5. DynaProt 2D: an advanced proteomic database for dynamic online access to proteomes and two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Oliver; Görg, Angelika

    2005-01-01

    DynaProt 2D presents an advanced online database for dynamic access to proteomes and two-dimensional (2D) gels. The database was designed to administer complete in silico proteomes and links them with experimental proteomic data in the manner of 2D electrophoresis gels (IPG-Dalt). The 2D gels serve as reference maps in 2D gel analysis as well as tools for navigation of the database to switch between experimental and predicted data. Therefore, all identified spots in the gels are clickable and linked with summarized protein information. The protein information tables contain calculated characteristics, which are often used in proteomics, such as the molecular weight, isoelectric point, codon adaptation index, grand average of hydropathicity, etc. The design of the database permits online extension of gel data and protein attributes without knowledge of any software language. Besides navigation via 2D gels, the clear graphical user interface permits quick and intuitive searching throughout complete proteomes and supports, e.g. the search for proteins with isoelectric points within pH ranges of interest or protein classes (e.g. ribosomal proteins or transporters). The first organism implemented in the database is Lactococcus lactis. The database is available at www.wzw.tum.de/proteomik/lactis. PMID:15608266

  6. Separation and identification of hen egg protein isoforms using SDS–PAGE and 2D gel electrophoresis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilios Raikos; Rasmus Hansen; Lydia Campbell; Stephen R. Euston

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of native egg white and yolk is necessary to interpret the functional and biological properties attributed to specific egg components. To date, many of the proteins located in this complex biological fluid remain uncharacterised, if not unknown. High-resolution techniques for proteome analysis, including SDS–PAGE and 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, combined with mass

  7. Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

  8. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  9. Identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast aqueous extract by 2D gel electrophoresis, nanoHPLC–ICP MS and nanoHPLC–ESI MS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Tastet; Dirk Schaumlöffel; Brice Bouyssiere; Ryszard Lobinski

    2008-01-01

    An approach based on the consecutive use of nanoHPLC–ICP collision cell MS and nanoHPLC–electrospray MS was proposed for the analysis of water-soluble selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast after their separation by 2D gel electrophoresis (GE). An ultrasonic probe was employed for fast protein extraction avoiding sample heating and thus reducing the risk of protein degradation. The efficiency of different extraction

  10. Unified Theory for Gel Electrophoresis and Gel Filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rodbard; Andreas Chrambach

    1970-01-01

    Unified theory for gel electrophoresis and gel filtration: The behavior of macromolecules in gel filtration and gel electrophoresis may be predicted from Ogston's model for a random meshwork of fibers. This model has been generalized to apply to nonspherical molecules and to several gel types. The model provides equations for inter-relationships between mobility, partition coefficient, gel concentration, and molecular radius;

  11. Comparative proteomics using 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry as tools to dissect stimulons and regulons in bacteria with sequenced or partially sequenced genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Encarnación; Magdalena Hernández; Gabriel Martínez-Batallar; Sandra Contreras; María del Carmen Vargas; Jaime Mora

    2005-01-01

    We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and\\u000a stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in progress. The basic 2-DE protocol allows\\u000a high resolution and reproducibility and enables the direct comparison of hundreds or even thousands of proteins simultaneously.\\u000a To identify proteins that comprise stimulons and regulons,

  12. Capillary HPLC–ICP MS mapping of selenocompounds in spots obtained from the 2-D gel electrophoresis of the water-soluble protein fraction of selenized yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laure Tastet; Dirk Schaumlöffel; Brice Bouyssiere; Ryszard Lobinski

    2006-01-01

    A method based on ICP collision-cell MS detection in capillary HPLC was developed to gain an insight into the purity and identity of selenium-containing proteins separated by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis. The bands and spots obtained after the separation of water-soluble proteins in selenized yeast were digested with trypsin prior to chromatography. Selenium could be detected down to the subpicogram

  13. Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

  14. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that ?-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation. PMID:24586761

  15. Capillary HPLC-ICP MS mapping of selenocompounds in spots obtained from the 2-D gel electrophoresis of the water-soluble protein fraction of selenized yeast.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Laure; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Bouyssiere, Brice; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2006-07-01

    A method based on ICP collision-cell MS detection in capillary HPLC was developed to gain an insight into the purity and identity of selenium-containing proteins separated by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis. The bands and spots obtained after the separation of water-soluble proteins in selenized yeast were digested with trypsin prior to chromatography. Selenium could be detected down to the subpicogram level. The method, assisted by information obtained by MALDI TOF MS on the 5000 Da cut-off fraction, permitted the purity of bands and spots to be estimated and the efficiency of tryptic digestion and the quantity of selenium present in individual peptides to be evaluated. Owing to the high sensitivity and the lack of matrix suppression effects, the method provided chromatograms with signal-to-noise ratios of 10-1000 in conditions where the common ES Q-TOF MS detection failed. PMID:16791577

  16. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics. PMID:17406554

  17. Identification of selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast aqueous extract by 2D gel electrophoresis, nanoHPLC-ICP MS and nanoHPLC-ESI MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tastet, Laure; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Bouyssiere, Brice; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2008-05-30

    An approach based on the consecutive use of nanoHPLC-ICP collision cell MS and nanoHPLC-electrospray MS was proposed for the analysis of water-soluble selenium-containing proteins in selenium-rich yeast after their separation by 2D gel electrophoresis (GE). An ultrasonic probe was employed for fast protein extraction avoiding sample heating and thus reducing the risk of protein degradation. The efficiency of different extraction steps were critically evaluated by total selenium analysis and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-ICP MS. Prior to electrophoresis proteins were purified by acetone precipitation. The protein-containing spots from 2D GE were excised and digested with trypsin. The digests obtained were analyzed by nanoHPLC-ICP MS in order to check for the presence of selenium-containing peptides; this allowed the detection of target proteins for further analyses (two out of five spots). The subsequent analyses of the selected digests by nanoHPLC-ES MS/MS allowed the attribution of amino acid sequences to peaks detected by ICP MS revealing the presence of two selenium-containing proteins: SIP 18 and HSP 12. PMID:18585195

  18. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  19. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  20. The Genetic Science Learning Center: Gel Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gel Electrophoresis, designed and run by the University of Utah, is an interactive program that allows the student to learn and practice basic techniques that molecular biologists use every day. This program is an interactive animated procedure that allows the user to "see" DNA strands and instructs the student or user on the basics of DNA.

  1. Protein Electrophoresis in the Biology Classroom Using "Safe" Gels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of electrophoresis in the high school utilizing two new gels that are easy to pour, do not require degassing, can be used on a horizontal gel electrophoresis, and are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic health hazards. Large diagrams and written instructions are used to present the protocol of setting up the electrophoresis. (PR)

  2. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye For

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie H. Yu

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to

  3. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  4. Denaturing Urea Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (Urea PAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Summer, Heike; Grämer, René; Dröge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Urea PAGE or denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employs 6-8 M urea, which denatures secondary DNA or RNA structures and is used for their separation in a polyacrylamide gel matrix based on the molecular weight. Fragments between 2 to 500 bases, with length differences as small as a single nucleotide, can be separated using this method1. The migration of the sample is dependent on the chosen acrylamide concentration. A higher percentage of polyacrylamide resolves lower molecular weight fragments. The combination of urea and temperatures of 45-55 °C during the gel run allows for the separation of unstructured DNA or RNA molecules. In general this method is required to analyze or purify single stranded DNA or RNA fragments, such as synthesized or labeled oligonucleotides or products from enzymatic cleavage reactions. In this video article we show how to prepare and run the denaturing urea polyacrylamide gels. Technical tips are included, in addition to the original protocol 1,2. PMID:19865070

  5. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain Advanced staining technology for 2-D gels and proteomics

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain Advanced staining technology for 2-D gels and proteomics ® Detection steps Broad linear quantitation range and consistent gel-to-gel staining allow for accurate protein especially for the analysis of proteins in 2-D polyacrylamide gels, SYPRO Ruby protein gel stain is ideal

  6. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  7. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, J.W.; Carrano, A.V.; Davidson, J.C.; Koo, J.C.

    1998-05-05

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system is described. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate. 4 figs.

  8. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis image registration using block-matching techniques and deformation models.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alvaro; Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Dorado, Julian; Rabuñal, Juan R

    2014-06-01

    Block-matching techniques have been widely used in the task of estimating displacement in medical images, and they represent the best approach in scenes with deformable structures such as tissues, fluids, and gels. In this article, a new iterative block-matching technique-based on successive deformation, search, fitting, filtering, and interpolation stages-is proposed to measure elastic displacements in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) images. The proposed technique uses different deformation models in the task of correlating proteins in real 2D electrophoresis gel images, obtaining an accuracy of 96.6% and improving the results obtained with other techniques. This technique represents a general solution, being easy to adapt to different 2D deformable cases and providing an experimental reference for block-matching algorithms. PMID:24613260

  9. Ocular Proteomics with Emphasis on Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this review is to provide an overview of current methodologies employed in the rapidly developing field of ocular proteomics with emphasis on sample preparation, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Appropriate sample preparation for the diverse range of cells and tissues of the eye is essential to ensure reliable results. Current methods of protein staining for 2D-PAGE, protein labelling for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, gel-based expression analysis and protein identification by MS are summarised. The uses of gel-free MS-based strategies (MuDPIT, iTRAQ, ICAT and SILAC) are also discussed. Proteomic technologies promise to shed new light onto ocular disease processes that could lead to the discovery of strong novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets useful in many ophthalmic conditions. PMID:21406065

  10. ELECTROPHORESIS GEL BUFFER RECIRCULATOR FOR UNDER 20 DOLLARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures requiring extended periods of electrophoresis frequently require recirculation of the get buffer in order to reduce gel artifacts. ere we describe a recirculation device which can be built inexpensively and will fit many different model get boxes....

  11. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  12. Purification of radiolabeled RNA products using denaturing gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hironori; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This unit discusses a basic method for purification of radiolabeled RNAs using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method consists of a number of experimental procedures, including total RNA preparation from yeast cells, isolation of a specific RNA from total yeast RNA, RNA 3' terminal labeling using nucleotide (5’[32P]pCp) addition (via ligation), denaturing (8 M urea) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and RNA extraction from the gel slice. Key points for achieving good electrophoretic separation of RNA are also discussed. PMID:24510465

  13. Agarose gel electrophoresis for the separation of DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Yun; Costumbrado, John; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most effective way of separating DNA fragments of varying sizes ranging from 100 bp to 25 kb(1). Agarose is isolated from the seaweed genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, and consists of repeated agarobiose (L- and D-galactose) subunits(2). During gelation, agarose polymers associate non-covalently and form a network of bundles whose pore sizes determine a gel's molecular sieving properties. The use of agarose gel electrophoresis revolutionized the separation of DNA. Prior to the adoption of agarose gels, DNA was primarily separated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation, which only provided an approximation of size. To separate DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA is loaded into pre-cast wells in the gel and a current applied. The phosphate backbone of the DNA (and RNA) molecule is negatively charged, therefore when placed in an electric field, DNA fragments will migrate to the positively charged anode. Because DNA has a uniform mass/charge ratio, DNA molecules are separated by size within an agarose gel in a pattern such that the distance traveled is inversely proportional to the log of its molecular weight(3). The leading model for DNA movement through an agarose gel is "biased reptation", whereby the leading edge moves forward and pulls the rest of the molecule along(4). The rate of migration of a DNA molecule through a gel is determined by the following: 1) size of DNA molecule; 2) agarose concentration; 3) DNA conformation(5); 4) voltage applied, 5) presence of ethidium bromide, 6) type of agarose and 7) electrophoresis buffer. After separation, the DNA molecules can be visualized under uv light after staining with an appropriate dye. By following this protocol, students should be able to: Understand the mechanism by which DNA fragments are separated within a gel matrix Understand how conformation of the DNA molecule will determine its mobility through a gel matrix Identify an agarose solution of appropriate concentration for their needs Prepare an agarose gel for electrophoresis of DNA samples Set up the gel electrophoresis apparatus and power supply Select an appropriate voltage for the separation of DNA fragments Understand the mechanism by which ethidium bromide allows for the visualization of DNA bands Determine the sizes of separated DNA fragments. PMID:22546956

  14. Inexpensive and safe DNA gel electrophoresis using household materials.

    PubMed

    Ens, S; Olson, A B; Dudley, C; Ross, N D; Siddiqi, A A; Umoh, K M; Schneegurt, M A

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic containers are fitted with aluminum foil electrodes and 9-V batteries to run food-grade agar-agar gels using aquarium pH buffers and then stained with gentian violet. This activity was tested in a high school biology classroom with significantly positive responses on postactivity reflective surveys. The electrophoresis activity addresses several Life Science Content Standard C criteria, including aspects of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. It also can be used to teach aspects of motion and force in the physical science classroom. PMID:22615228

  15. Ocular Proteomics with Emphasis on Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nakul Mandal; Steffen Heegaard; Jan Ulrik Prause; Bent Honoré; Henrik Vorum

    2010-01-01

    The intention of this review is to provide an overview of current methodologies employed in the rapidly developing field of ocular proteomics with emphasis on sample preparation, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Appropriate sample preparation for the diverse range of cells and tissues of the eye is essential to ensure reliable results. Current methods of protein

  16. Online Tool for Analysis of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Huber; Peter Peduzzi

    2004-01-01

    We present an online tool (EquiBands, http:\\/\\/www.univie.ac.at\\/IECB\\/limno\\/equibands\\/EquiBands.html) that quantifies the matching of two bands considered to be the same in different samples, even when samples are applied to different denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels. With an environmental example we demon- strate the procedure for the classification of two bands of different samples with the help of EquiBands. In denaturing gradient

  17. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Gel Electrophoresis Powerpoint

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The HURI SURI project is developing a regional biotechnology workforce pipeline by expanding and supporting biotechnology research experiences for Jamestown Community College (JCC) undergraduates and disseminating these research experiences and materials to area high school teachers and students. This 15 slide presentation provides an introduction to DNA and explains polymerase chain reactions and gel electrophoresis. Many diagrams are included to help explain the concepts.

  19. Lights, Camera, Action! Systematic Variation in Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Lights, Camera, Action! ­ Systematic Variation in Difference Gel Electrophoresis Kimberly F variation, including that caused by the apparatus used for imaging proteins (location of the camera). The conventional 2DE method is attractive because of its resolving power, sensitivity, and the low equipment cost

  20. odium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    been attributed to three innovations that permit- ted the correlation of electrophoretic mobil- ity) and reducing agents to denature pro- teins (7). SDS binds strongly to proteins at an approximate ratio of 1-Cl 10 inNovations 13 Preparation of protein samples for SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  1. Agarose gel electrophoresis Solutions and reagents

    E-print Network

    Abou Elela, Sherif

    to 1L Adjust pH to 8.3 with NaOH or acetic acid Store at RT TBE (5X) Tris 54g EDTA 4.65g Boric Acid 24g ddH2O up to 1L Adjust pH to 8.3 with boric acid Store at RT - Ethidium bromide (EtBr), 10 mg/ml (20) -Electrophoresis buffer: TAE buffer (Tris, acetate, EDTA) 50X, 1L Tris 242g Acetic acid 57,1ml EDTA 100ml ddH2O up

  2. Plasma proteomics of pancreatic cancer patients by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE): Up-regulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein in pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuhiko Kakisaka; Tadashi Kondo; Tetsuya Okano; Kiyonaga Fujii; Kazufumi Honda; Mitsufumi Endo; Akihiko Tsuchida; Tatsuya Aoki; Takao Itoi; Fuminori Moriyasu; Tesshi Yamada; Harubumi Kato; Toshihide Nishimura; Satoru Todo; Setsuo Hirohashi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the aberrant expression of plasma proteins in patients with pancreatic cancer. High-abundance plasma proteins (albumin, transferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, IgG and IgA) were depleted by use of an immuno-affinity column, and low-abundance ones were separated into five fractions by anion-exchange chromatography. The fractionated plasma proteins were subjected to 2D-DIGE with highly sensitive fluorescent dyes. The quantitative protein expression profiles

  3. SDS capillary gel electrophoresis of proteins in microfabricated channels

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shao; Anex, Deon S.; Caldwell, W. Brett; Arnold, Don W.; Smith, Katherine B.; Schultz, Peter G.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of variations in the concentrations or structures of biomolecules (e.g., mRNAs, proteins, peptides, natural products) that occur either naturally or in response to environmental or genetic perturbations can provide important insight into complex biological processes. Many biological samples are mixtures that require a separation step before quantitation of variations in the individual components. Two-dimensional denaturing gel electrophoresis has been used very effectively to separate complex mixtures of proteins, but it is time consuming and requires considerable amounts of sample. Microchannel-based separations have proven very effective in rapidly separating small amounts of nucleic acids; more recently, isoelectric focusing of proteins also has been adapted to the microchannel format. Here, we describe microchannel-based SDS capillary gel electrophoresis of proteins and demonstrate the speed and high resolution it provides. This development is an important step toward the miniaturization and integration of multidimensional and array separation methods for complex protein mixtures. PMID:10318890

  4. Removal of DNA curving by DNA ligands: gel electrophoresis study.

    PubMed

    Barcelo, F; Muzard, G; Mendoza, R; Révet, B; Roques, B P; Le Pecq, J B

    1991-05-21

    The removal of inherent curving in Crithidia fasciculata kinetoplast DNA by various small DNA ligands, groove binders and mono- and bisintercalators, has been studied by gel retardation and electron microscopy. The migration of the kinetoplast DNA fragment is highly retarded during gel electrophoresis. We demonstrate that this retardation is suppressed by DNA ligands such as distamycin and ditercalinium, which have different modes of binding and sequence specificities. Observation by electron microscopy confirms that the effect of ditercalinium on gel migration of curved DNA is linked to DNA uncurving. As the drug is progressively added to DNA, a large broadening of the retarded band is observed during gel electrophoresis for distamycin and ditercalinium. In the case of distamycin, the retarded DNA band splits into two broad bands, whereas the noncurved DNA bands remain homogeneous. This indicates that the drug-DNA exchange is extremely slow in the gel and that a limited number of specific sites on DNA are critical for the removal of bending. GC-specific quinomycin, monointercalators, and bisintercalators act in a manner similar to that of AT-specific distamycin. This indicates that direct drug binding at the dAn tracts is not required for DNA uncurving. We propose that the uncurving of kinetoplast DNA by drugs is caused by a global alteration of DNA structure; subsequent increased flexibility leads to the suppression of rigid bending at the AT tract junctions. PMID:1645181

  5. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Henghang; Low, Teck Yew; Freeby, Steve; Paulus, Aran; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; Cheng, Chung-pui Paul; Leung, Hon-chiu Eastwood

    2007-01-01

    Background Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing pulsed field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE). Results Separation of model protein species and large protein complexes was compared between FIGE and constant field electrophoresis (CFE) in different percentages of PAGs. Band intensities of proteins in FIGE with appropriate ratios of forward and backward pulse times were superior to CFE despite longer running times. These results revealed an increase in band intensity per defined gel volume. A biphasic protein relative mobility shift was observed in percentages of PAGs up to 14%. However, the effect of FIGE on protein separation was stochastic at higher PAG percentage. Rat liver lysates subjected to FIGE in the second-dimension separation of two-dimensional polyarcylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) showed a 20% increase in the number of discernible spots compared with CFE. Nine common spots from both FIGE and CFE were selected for peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS), which revealed higher final ion scores of all nine protein spots from FIGE. Native protein complexes ranging from 800 kDa to larger than 2000 kDa became apparent using FIGE compared with CFE. Conclusion The present investigation suggests that FIGE under appropriate conditions improves protein separation efficiency during PAGE as a result of increased local protein concentration. FIGE can be implemented with minimal additional instrumentation in any laboratory setting. Despite the tradeoff of longer running times, FIGE can be a powerful protein separation tool. PMID:17897441

  6. Heterogeneous and anisotropic dynamics of a 2D gel

    E-print Network

    D. Orsi; L. Cristofolini; G. Baldi; A. Madsen

    2012-02-03

    We report X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) results on a bidimensional (2D) gel formed by a Langmuir monolayer of gold nanoparticles. The system allows an experimental determination of the fourth order time correlation function which is compared to the usual second order correlation functions and to the mechanical response measured on macroscopic scale. The observed dynamics is anisotropic, heterogeneous and super-diffusive on the nanoscale. Different time scales, associated with fast heterogeneous dynamics inside 2D cages and slower motion of larger parts of the film, can be identified from the correlation functions.

  7. Comparative proteomics of E. coli O157:H7: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis vs. two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE). However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography (2-D LC) separati...

  8. Resolution and identification of major peanut allergens using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, western blotting and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is triggered by several proteins known as allergens. The matching resolution and identification of major peanut allergens in 2D protein maps, was accomplished by the use of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), Western blotting and quadrupole time-of...

  9. Activity staining method of chitinase on chitin agar plate through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vipul Gohel; Pranav Vyas; H. S. Chhatpar

    2005-01-01

    A method for detection of chitinase activity on chitin agar plate after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. Different staining dyes such as calcofluor white M2R, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine B, ruthenium red and congo red were separately incorporated in chitin agar plates. After running polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the gel was transferred onto chitin agar plate containing different dyes for the activity

  10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    PFGE is a valuable tool for assessing Listeria monocytogenes strain interrelatedness. It is based on the study of total bacterial DNA restriction patterns. Cells are embedded in agarose plugs before being lysed. The released DNA is then digested into large fragments by restriction enzymes. As DNA fragments are too large to be separated by traditional electrophoresis in an agarose gel, changes in the direction of the electrical current are periodically applied in order to allow the proper migration of large DNA fragments. Strains are characterized by the obtained DNA fragment patterns or pulsotypes which vary depending on the number and size of bands. PMID:24792548

  11. The gel edge electric field gradients in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Desruisseaux, C; Slater, G W; Drouin, G

    1998-05-01

    It has previously been shown that zones of higher electric field form close to the loading end of the gel during denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Here we show that the field can reach up to three times its normal mean value a few cm in front of the loading wells when 44.5 mM Tris-44.5 mM boric acid-1 mM EDTA is used as the gel buffer. We also demonstrate that this electric field gradient is mostly due to the difference in ion transference numbers at the gel/buffer interface caused by the high viscosity of the urea solution contained in the gel. This field gradient leads to increased band widths and forces us to redefine both the electrophoretic mobility and the mean field intensity. We discuss some methods that can be used to minimize the effects of this gradient. PMID:9629888

  12. Phosphate-affinity polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for SNP genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a genotyping method which relies on the use of a 1:1 mixture of 5'-phosphate-labeled and nonlabeled allele-specific primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is based on the difference in mobility of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated PCR products (possessing the same number of base pairs) during phosphate-affinity polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The phosphate-affinity site in the gel is represented by an immobilized phosphate-binding tag molecule [i.e., a polyacrylamide-bound dizinc(II) complex], which selectively captures the 5'-phosphate-labeled allele-specific product compared with the corresponding nonlabeled one. The DNA migration bands obtained can be visualized by ethidium bromide staining. We demonstrate the genotyping of a single-nucleotide polymorphism reported in a human cardiac sodium channel gene, SCN5A, using the phosphate-affinity PAGE. PMID:19768594

  13. Characterization of Natural Inhibitors of Trypsin and Chymotrypsin by Electrophoresis in Acrylamide-Agarose Gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Uriel; Josette Berges

    1968-01-01

    WE have detected natural inhibitors of enzymes m microgram quantities. In our method, after gel electrophoresis of a sample presumed to contain inhibitory activity, the slab of gel was incubated in a solution of the appropriate enzyme which then entered the gel by diffusion and formed a thin and homogeneous layer on its surface. After several minutes the gel was

  14. Detection of Polymorphisms of Human DNA by Gel Electrophoresis as Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Orita; Hiroyuki Iwahana; Hiroshi Kanazawa; Kenshi Hayashi; Takao Sekiya

    1989-01-01

    We developed mobility shift analysis of single-stranded DNAs on neutral polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect DNA polymorphisms. This method follows digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases, denaturation in alkaline solution, and electrophoresis on a neutral polyacrylamide gel. After transfer to a nylon membrane, the mobility shift due to a nucleotide substitution of a single-stranded DNA fragment could be detected

  15. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Revazishvili, Tamara; Johnson, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a human pathogen and can cause serious disease. Biosafety level 3 (BSL3) is required when handling this microorganism and all work requires a biological safety cabinet. For pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), dedicated BSL3 PFGE equipment or a documented procedure that ensures that all viable bacteria are inactivated is required. All plasticware and glassware that comes into contact with the cultures should be disinfected/sterilized or disposed of in a safe manner, according to the guidelines of institution. This includes decontamination of pipettes, spatulas, etc. that were in contact with the cell suspensions or plugs. Disinfection of reusable plug molds should be done before they are washed; the disposable plug molds, including the tape and the tab that was used to push the plugs out of the wells, are also contaminated and should be disinfected with 10 % bleach for at least 30 min if they will be washed and reused. PMID:25862053

  16. Protein Separation by Capillary Gel Electrophoresis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zaifang; Lu, Joann J.; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has been used for protein separation for more than two decades. Due to the technology advancement, current CGE methods are becoming more and more robust and reliable for protein analysis, and some of the methods have been routinely used for the analysis of protein-based pharmaceuticals and quality controls. In light of this progress, we survey 147 papers related to CGE separations of proteins and present an overview of this technology. We first introduce briefly the early development of CGE. We then review the methodology, in which we specifically describe the matrices, coatings, and detection strategies used in CGE. CGE using microfabricated channels and incorporation of CGE with two-dimensional protein separations are also discussed in this section. We finally present a few representative applications of CGE for separating proteins in real-world samples. PMID:22122927

  17. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  18. Neighboring nucleotide interactions during DNA sequencing gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, J M; Bruner, K L; Cmarik, J L; Tibbetts, C

    1991-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gels is primarily a function of length-dependent mobility. The 3' terminal nucleotide sequence of the oligonucleotide is a significant, secondary determinant of mobility and separation. Oligomers with 3'-ddT migrate more slowly than expected on the basis of length alone, and thus are better separated from the preceding, shorter oligomers in the sequencing ladder. Oligomers with 3'-ddC are relatively faster than expected, and are therefore less separated. At the 3' penultimate position, -dC- increases and -dT- reduces separation. Purines at the 3' terminal or penultimate positions of oligonucleotides affect separation less than the pyrimidines. These results suggest specific interactions among neighboring nucleotides with important effects on the conformation of oligonucleotides during electrophoresis. These interactions are compared to compression artifacts, which represent more extreme anomalies of length-dependent separation of oligonucleotides. Knowledge of base-specific effects on electrophoretic behavior of DNA oligomers supplements the usual information available for determination of sequences; additionally it provides an avenue to thermodynamic and hydrodynamic investigations of DNA structure. PMID:2057365

  19. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    Photo-polymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are becoming increasingly important for use in micro-fabricated DNA electrophoresis systems because they allow a concentrated sieving matrix to be precisely positioned at any location within a...

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogel Pore Morphology on DNA Migration Mechanisms in Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Shi, Nan

    2014-08-20

    an improved understanding of the physics underlying separation. This dissertation majorly focuses on the DNA transport in microchip gel electrophoresis systems. We have developed a transport model that allows us to determine the interplay between the hydrogel...

  1. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    Photo-polymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are becoming increasingly important for use in micro-fabricated DNA electrophoresis systems because they allow a concentrated sieving matrix to be precisely positioned at any location within a...

  2. Detection of genomic alterations in human endometrial cancer by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Pohlod-Miller; James Fanning; Ping Gu; Keith A. Crist; Ming You

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect genomic alterations in human endometrial cancer by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Study Design: With use of a newly developed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis assay, we scanned 19 high-risk DNA fragments for alterations in human endometrial hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas. This method includes cleaving of high-molecular-weight DNA, radioactive labeling, and separating DNA fragments by two-dimensional

  3. Separation and determination of some stereoisomers by capillary gel electrophoresis with cyclodextrin incorporated in polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Lin, J M; Nakagama, T; Okazawa, H; Wu, X Z; Hobo, T

    1996-02-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was successfully applied to the separation of optically active isomers and position isomers by incorporating a suitable cyclodextrin chiral selector in polyacrylamide gel. A commercially available ss-cyclodextrin (ss-CD) was used for enantioselectivity towards o-, m- and p-nitrobenzoic acid, o-, m- and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-, m- and p-toluic acid and the optical isomers of dansyl-D,L-leucine and R,S-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2-dihydrogenphosphate. Especially the effect of organic solvents, such as acetonitrile, methanol, dimethylsulphoxide and others were examined in detail. The resolution varied to some extent with the addition of the organic solvent to the polyacrylamide gel and the running buffer solution. The possible mechanism has also been discussed. In addition, quantitative aspects of the separation of stereoisomers using CGE have been studied, showing that both the resolution and accuracy of the determinations were affected by the ratio of the enantiomers. PMID:15048432

  4. Analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum Inositol Pyrophosphate Metabolism by Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Francesca; Livermore, Thomas; Rose, Giuseppina; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Gaspari, Marco; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum was instrumental in the discovery and early characterization of inositol pyrophosphates, a class of molecules possessing highly-energetic pyrophosphate bonds. Inositol pyrophosphates regulate diverse biological processes and are attracting attention due to their ability to control energy metabolism and insulin signalling. However, inositol pyrophosphate research has been hampered by the lack of simple experimental procedures to study them. The recent development of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and simple staining to resolve and detect inositol pyrophosphate species has opened new investigative possibilities. This technology is now commonly applied to study in vitro enzymatic reactions. Here we employ PAGE technology to characterize the D. discoideum inositol pyrophosphate metabolism. Surprisingly, only three major bands are detectable after resolving acidic extract on PAGE. We have demonstrated that these three bands correspond to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6 or Phytic acid) and its derivative inositol pyrophosphates, IP7 and IP8. Biochemical analyses and genetic evidence were used to establish the genuine inositol phosphate nature of these bands. We also identified IP9 in D. discoideum cells, a molecule so far detected only from in vitro biochemical reactions. Furthermore, we discovered that this amoeba possesses three different inositol pentakisphosphates (IP5) isomers, which are largely metabolised to inositol pyrophosphates. Comparison of PAGE with traditional Sax-HPLC revealed an underestimation of the cellular abundance of inositol pyrophosphates by traditional methods. In fact our study revealed much higher levels of inositol pyrophosphates in D. discoideum in the vegetative state than previously detected. A three-fold increase in IP8 was observed during development of D. discoideum a value lower that previously reported. Analysis of inositol pyrophosphate metabolism using ip6k null amoeba revealed the absence of developmentally-induced synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates, suggesting that the alternative class of enzyme responsible for pyrophosphate synthesis, PP-IP5K, doesn’t’ play a major role in the IP8 developmental increase. PMID:24416420

  5. A versatile polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based sulfotransferase assay

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulfotransferases are a large group of enzymes that regulate the biological activity or availability of a wide spectrum of substrates through sulfation with the sulfur donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). These enzymes are known to be difficult to assay. A convenient assay is needed in order to better understand these enzymes. Results A universal sulfotransferase assay method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is described. This assay has been successfully applied to substrates as small as ?-naphthol and as big as proteoglycans. As examples, we present the assays for recombinant human CHST4, TPST1, CHST3 and HS6ST1. In order to assess whether a small molecule can be applicable to this type of assay, a method to estimate the relative mobility of a molecule to PAPS is also presented. The estimated relative mobilities of various sulfated small molecules generated by SULT1A1, SULT1E1, SULT2A1 and CHST4 are in the range of ± 0.2 of the actual relative mobilities. Conclusion The versatility of the current method comes from the ability that SDS-PAGE can separate proteins and small molecules according to different parameters. While mobilities of proteins during SDS-PAGE are inversely related to their sizes, mobilities of small molecules are positively related to their charge/mass ratios. The predicted relative mobility of a product to PAPS is a good indicator of whether a sulfotransferase can be assayed with SDS-PAGE. Because phosphorylation is most similar to sulfation in chemistry, the method is likely to be applicable to kinases as well. PMID:20146816

  6. In-gel screening of phosphorus and copper, zinc and iron in proteins of yeast mitochondria by LA-ICP-MS and identification of phosphorylated protein structures by MALDI-FT-ICR-MS after separation with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sabine Becker; Miroslav Zoriy; Udo Krause-Buchholz; J. Susanne Becker; Carola Pickhardt; Michael Przybylski; Gerhard Rodelb

    2004-01-01

    A new screening technique using two-dimensional gels was developed in order to rapidly identify various elements in well-separated protein spots. Yeast mitochondrial proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (blue native\\/SDS 2D-PAGE) and marked by silver staining. The 2D gels were systematically analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using a double-focusing sector field instrument. From more

  7. The use of preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroelution for purification of mucus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz-Gadek, A; Gindzie?ski, A; Porowska, H

    1995-04-10

    This paper describes a novel technique for purifying glycoproteins from porcine gastric mucus by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroelution. The method is based on the observation that the high-molecular-weight buffer/SDS-soluble mucins do not penetrate through the polyacrylamide gel, but remain on the gel surface. Mucus solution extracted with 6 M urea was fractionated on Sepharose CL-2B column and Vo peak mucin was submitted to purification by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (22 h). Nonpenetrated mucin layer was electroeluted from the gel after the reversing of electrode polarity (3 h). A comparison of mucin preparations purified by our method and by CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that the GalNAc/protein and GalNAc/DNA ratios were three times higher than those of the first method. The method is a relatively short and efficient procedure and yields pure mucin preparation free of contaminating proteins and nucleic acids. PMID:7540808

  8. Combination of gel electrophoresis and ICP-mass spectrometry-novel strategies for phosphoprotein measurement.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Victoria L; McLeod, Cameron W; Marshall, Peter S

    2005-10-01

    The potential for developing improved procedures for phosphate measurement through combinations of gel electrophoresis and quadrupole-based ICP mass spectrometry utilising (47)PO(+) is investigated. Laser ablation of gels offers a rapid and direct quantitation route, but is subject to high blanks due to P impurities in gels and associated reagents; nevertheless optimisation of laser sampling afforded improved method sensitivity (limit of detection 0.09 microg g(-1)). Implementation of whole gel elution (WGE) with FI-ICP-MS (conventional solution nebulisation) following gel electrophoresis permitted quantitation at the sub microg l(-1) level, and microcolumn processing (activated alumina) was effective at rejecting phosphate contamination. The potential for S-induced molecular ion interference at mass 47 was demonstrated. PMID:15997373

  9. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  10. Proteomic analysis of plasma proteins in diabetic rats by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Karthik, D; Ilavenil, S; Kaleeswaran, B; Sunil, S; Ravikumar, S

    2012-03-01

    Despite tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of diabetes mellitus, substantial gaps still remain in our understanding of disease pathogenesis and in the development of effective strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. The proteomic approach has offered many opportunities and challenges in identifying new marker proteins and therapeutic targets, i.e., using 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The differential protein expressions were analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cynodon dactylon leaf extract. The plant extract was administered for 15 days that resulted in a significant increase in plasma insulin and C-peptide levels. We have also identified four differentially expressed proteins from rat plasma. These four diabetes-associated proteins were broadly classified into three groups as per their function: (1) lipid metabolism-associated protein (Apo A-IV), (2) antioxidant activity-related proteins [preprohaptoglobin and heat shock proteins B8 (HspB8)], and (3) muscle function-related protein (TPM3). Apo A-IV, HspB8, and preprohaptoglobin may play a key role in the recovery of diabetes mellitus and also prevent the diabetes-associated complications such as prevention of oxidative stress due to free radical and free hemoglobin. These results show the value of proteomic approach in identifying the potential markers that may eventually serve as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. PMID:22258647

  11. Optimized Protocol for Protein Extraction from the Breast Tissue that is Compatible with Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zakharchenko, Olena; Greenwood, Christina; Alldridge, Louise; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics is a highly informative approach to analyze cancer-associated transformation in tissues. The main challenge to use a tissue for proteomics studies is the small sample size and difficulties to extract and preserve proteins. The choice of a buffer compatible with proteomics applications is also a challenge. Here we describe a protocol optimized for the most efficient extraction of proteins from the human breast tissue in a buffer compatible with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). This protocol is based on mechanically assisted disintegration of tissues directly in the 2D-GE buffer. Our method is simple, robust and easy to apply in clinical practice. We demonstrate high quality of separation of proteins prepared according to the reported here protocol. PMID:21494400

  12. Studies on middle silkgland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited silkworm ( Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Xiang Jin; Yu-Yin Chen; Meng-Kui Xu; Yong-Huang Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins expressed in the middle silkglands of male and female silkworm larvae\\u000a that differ in silk colour were investigated by high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE),\\u000a followed by computer assisted image analysis. About 1000 protein spots were resolved in both the sexes and most proteins were\\u000a shown to be distributed in the area

  13. Resolving Acetylated and Phosphorylated Proteins by Neutral Urea Triton-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, NUT-PAGE

    PubMed Central

    Buehl, Christopher J.; Deng, Xiexiong; Liu, Mengyu; Hovde, Stacy; Xu, Xinjing; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Protein acetylation and phosphorylation can be key modifications that regulate both normal and pathological protein functions. Current gel systems used to analyze modified proteins require either expensive reagents or time–consuming second dimension electrophoresis. In this manuscript, we present a neutral pH gel system that allows the analysis of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. This neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, or NUT-PAGE, separates proteins based on their charge at pH 7 and generates discrete bands from each acetylated and phosphorylated species. In addition, the gel is composed of common and inexpensive laboratory reagents, and requires only a single dimension of electrophoresis. We are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this system by analyzing phosphorylated species of an acidic protein, ?-synuclein, and both acetylated and phosphorylated species of a basic protein, histone H3. NUT-PAGE thus provides a cost-effective alternative to resolving acetylated and phosphorylated proteins, and potentially proteins with other post-translational modifications that alter net charge. Method Summary Here we present a single-dimension neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NUT-PAGE) system affording high-resolution separation of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. PMID:25109292

  14. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) increases resolution and informativity of Alu -directed inter-repeat PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. van Orsouw; D. Li; J. Vijg

    1997-01-01

    By inter-repeat PCR, multiple polymorphic loci can be targeted in parallel. To improve resolution and extend the number of detectable polymorphisms,Alu-directed inter-repeat PCR products from two large pedigrees of the Centre d»Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) were electrophoretically resolved in non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels and, separately, on the basis of sequence content by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The resolution in

  15. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device 

    E-print Network

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    and encourage- ment, and my wife and daughter for their patience and love. vii NOMENCLATURE %T Monomer concentration %C Crosslinker concentration bp base pairs BRM Biased reptation model BRF Biased reptation with fluctuations DNA..., such as DNA sequencing, detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and Southern blotting. Crosslinked polyacrylamide and agarose gels are generaly used as the sieving matrices in these sys- tems [47]. A slab gel is cast by loading liquid...

  16. Proteomic expression analysis of colorectal cancer by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Patricia; Núñez, Antonio; Madoz-Gurpide, Juan; Lombardia, Luis; Sánchez, Lydia; Casal, J Ignacio

    2005-07-01

    The identification of specific protein markers for colorectal cancer would provide the basis for early diagnosis and detection, as well as clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing cancer progression. In this report, we describe the proteomic analysis of the samples of colorectal cancer corresponding to seven patients. We have used the highly sensitive two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of proteins differentially expressed in tumoral and neighboring normal mucosa. We have detected differences in abundance of 52 proteins with statistical variance of the tumor versus normal spot volume ratio within the 95th confidence level (Student's t-test; p < 0.05). Forty-one out of 52 analyzed proteins were unambiguously identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight MS coupled with database interrogation as being differentially expressed in colorectal cancer. An ontology analysis of these proteins revealed that they were mainly involved in regulation of transcription (synovial sarcoma X5 protein, metastasis-associated protein 1), cellular reorganization and cytoskeleton (cytokeratins, vimentin, beta actin), cell communication and signal transduction (annexins IV and V, relaxin, APC), and protein synthesis and folding (heat shock protein 60, calreticulin, cathepsin D, RSP4) among others. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the differentially expressed proteins found by 2-D DIGE could be confirmed and validated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry analyses in those few cases where antibodies were available. We believe that the incorporation of more samples and new datasets will permit the definition of a collection of proteins with a potential interest as biomarkers for colorectal cancer. PMID:15924290

  17. Further analysis of nucleic acids in purified scrapie prion preparations by improved return refocusing gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kellings; Norbert Meyer; Carol Mirenda; Detlev Riesner

    1992-01-01

    Although increasingly unlikely, the possibility of a scrapie-specific nucleic acid carried by infectious prion particles is still unresolved. Return refocusing gel electrophoresis was developed to detect homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleic acids extracted from highly purified scrapie prion preparations. This method was improved with respect to the size range from 13 to 1100 nucleotides (nt) over which analyses could be per-

  18. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Species of the Family Bacteriodaceae by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Strom; J. K. Dyer; Connell Marsh; Jack L. Tribble

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for identifying and characterizing microorganisms of the family Bacteroidaceae by their protein profiles. Protein profiles of six species and several strains of this family were compared using gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the slab form. The protein profiles were sufficiently distinct and reproducible to allow identification of species, subspecies, and even minor strain differences. This technique

  20. Diversity of Hepatitis C Virus Quasispecies Evaluated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Harris; C. G. Teo

    2001-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to study the diversity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies. Optimized DGGE running conditions were applied to screen for variations in sequences cloned from amplicons originating from the nonstructural 5b (NS5b) gene of HCV in blood of hemophilia patients, intra- venous drug users, and blood donors (five specimens from each study group, ca.

  1. Comparison of Restriction Enzymes for Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI. PMID:23678064

  2. Characterization of Carbohydrates Using Highly Fluorescent 2-Aminobenzoic Acid Tag Following Gel Electrophoresis of Glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalyan R. Anumula; Ping Du

    1999-01-01

    Application of the most sensitive fluorescent label 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) for characterization of carbohydrates from the glycoproteins (?15 pmol) separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. AA label is used for the determination of both monosaccharide composition and oligosaccharide map. For the monosaccharide determination, bands containing the glycoprotein of interest are excised from the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane

  3. The use of the 2-aminobenzoic acid tag for oligosaccharide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zebo Huang; Todd Prickett; Malcolm Potts; Richard F. Helm

    2000-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis of fluorophore labeled saccharides provides a rapid and reliable method to screen enzymatic and\\/or chemical treatments of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, as well as a sensitive and efficient microscale method to separate and purify oligosaccharides for further analysis. A simple and inexpensive method of derivatization and analysis using 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) is described and applied to the

  4. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for isolation of full-length phytoplasma chromosomes from plants.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Carmine

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful technique for genomic studies of unculturable plant-pathogenic phytoplasmas, which enables separation of full-length phytoplasma chromosomes from contaminating host plant nucleic acids. The PFGE method described here involves isolation of phytoplasmal DNA from high-titer phytoplasma-infected herbaceous plants using a phytoplasma enrichment procedure, embedding of phytoplasma chromosomes in agarose blocks, and separation of entire phytoplasma chromosomes from contaminating host plant nucleic acids by electrophoresis. Full-length phytoplasma chromosomes are resolved as single, discrete bands in the gel. The identity of these bands can be confirmed by Southern blot hybridization using a ribosomal DNA fragment as a probe. The method does not utilize gamma-irradiation to linearize phytoplasma chromosomes prior to electrophoresis. PMID:22987433

  5. Gel electrophoresis of linear and star-branched DNA.

    PubMed

    Lau, Henry W; Archer, Lynden A

    2011-12-01

    The electrophoretic mobility of double-stranded DNA in polyacrylamide gel is investigated using an activated hopping model for the transport of a charged object within a heterogeneous medium. The model is premised upon a representation of the DNA path through the gel matrix as a series of traps with alternating large and small cross sections. Calculations of the trap dimensions from gel data show that the path imposes varying degrees of confinement upon migrating analytes, which retard their forward motion in a size-dependent manner. An expression derived for DNA mobility is shown to provide accurate predictions for the dynamics of linear DNA (67-622 bp) in gels of multiple concentrations. For star-branched DNA, the incorporation within the model of a length scale previously proposed to account for analyte architecture [Yuan et al., Anal. Chem. 78, 6179 (2006)] leads to mobility predictions that compare well with experimental results for a wide range of DNA shapes and molecular weights. PMID:22304125

  6. Speciation of iodine-containing proteins in Nori seaweed by gel electrophoresis laser ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, V; Bianga, J; Moreda-Piñeiro, A; Bermejo-Barrera, P; Szpunar, J

    2014-09-01

    An analytical approach providing an insight into speciation of iodine in water insoluble fraction of edible seaweed (Nori) was developed. The seaweed, harvested in the Galician coast (Northwestern Spain), contained 67.7±1.3 ?g g(-1) iodine of which 25% was water soluble and could be identifies as iodide. Extraction conditions of water insoluble residue using urea, NaOH, SDS and Triton X-100 were investigated. The protein pellets obtained in optimized conditions (after precipitation of urea extracts with acetone), were digested with trypsin and protease XIV. Size exclusion chromatography-ICP-MS of both enzymatic digests demonstrated the occurrence of iodoaminoacids putatively present in proteins. Intact proteins could be separated by gel electrophoresis after an additional extraction of the protein extract with phenol. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) with laser ablation ICP-MS detection of (127)I indicated the presence of iodine in protein bands corresponding to molecular masses of 110 kDa, 40 kDa, 27 kDa, 20 kDa and 10 kDa. 2D IEF-SDS PAGE with laser ablation ICP-MS (127)I imaging allowed the detection of 5 iodine containing protein spots in the alkaline pI range. PMID:24913873

  7. Identification of Frankia Strains by Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, David R.; Buchholz, S. E.; Hanna, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen Frankia strains from five different plant species were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis to determine their relatedness by comparing the polypeptide patterns obtained. Three major subgroups (A, C, and D) were found in the Alnus-Comptonia-Myrica cross-inoculation group. An isolate from Purshia tridentata had a unique protein pattern and represents a distinct group of frankiae. Members of group A were isolated from root nodules of Alnus incana subsp. rugosa and Alnus viridis subsp. crispa. Group C organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa and Comptonia peregrina nodules, and group D organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa, A. viridis subsp. cripsa, and Myrica pensylvanica root nodules. Isolates from each gel group were obtained at several widely separated geographical locations. The results indicate that two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is useful for identifying Frankia isolates. Images PMID:16346488

  8. Identification of frankia strains by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Benson, D R; Buchholz, S E; Hanna, D G

    1984-03-01

    Fifteen Frankia strains from five different plant species were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis to determine their relatedness by comparing the polypeptide patterns obtained. Three major subgroups (A, C, and D) were found in the Alnus-Comptonia-Myrica cross-inoculation group. An isolate from Purshia tridentata had a unique protein pattern and represents a distinct group of frankiae. Members of group A were isolated from root nodules of Alnus incana subsp. rugosa and Alnus viridis subsp. crispa. Group C organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa and Comptonia peregrina nodules, and group D organisms were from A. incana subsp. rugosa, A. viridis subsp. cripsa, and Myrica pensylvanica root nodules. Isolates from each gel group were obtained at several widely separated geographical locations. The results indicate that two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is useful for identifying Frankia isolates. PMID:16346488

  9. Topological Patterns in Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Knots

    E-print Network

    Michieletto, Davide; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is a powerful experimental method to probe the topology of DNA and other biopolymers. While there is a large body of experimental work which allows us to accurately separate different topoisomers of a molecule, a full theoretical understanding of these experiments has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the mobility of DNA knots depends crucially and subtly on the physical properties of the gel, and in particular on the presence of dangling ends. The topological interactions between these and DNA molecules can be described in terms of an "entanglement number", and yield a non-monotonic mobility at moderate fields. Consequently, in two-dimensional electrophoresis, gel bands display a characteristic arc pattern; this turns into a straight line when the density of dangling ends vanishes. We also provide a novel framework to accurately predict the shape of such arcs as a function of molecule length and topological complexity, which may be used to inform future experiments.

  10. Topological Patterns in Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Knots

    E-print Network

    Davide Michieletto; Davide Marenduzzo; Enzo Orlandini

    2015-04-09

    Gel electrophoresis is a powerful experimental method to probe the topology of DNA and other biopolymers. While there is a large body of experimental work which allows us to accurately separate different topoisomers of a molecule, a full theoretical understanding of these experiments has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the mobility of DNA knots depends crucially and subtly on the physical properties of the gel, and in particular on the presence of dangling ends. The topological interactions between these and DNA molecules can be described in terms of an "entanglement number", and yield a non-monotonic mobility at moderate fields. Consequently, in two-dimensional electrophoresis, gel bands display a characteristic arc pattern; this turns into a straight line when the density of dangling ends vanishes. We also provide a novel framework to accurately predict the shape of such arcs as a function of molecule length and topological complexity, which may be used to inform future experiments.

  11. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device

    E-print Network

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    and encourage- ment, and my wife and daughter for their patience and love. vii NOMENCLATURE %T Monomer concentration %C Crosslinker concentration bp base pairs BRM Biased reptation model BRF Biased reptation with fluctuations DNA... in Long Ranger ? poly- acrylamide sequencing gels. ................................................................ 109 V-2 Mobility fits for dsDNA. (a) Finish line mode. Run conditions: 0.5X TBE, L = 0.5 cm, E = 15 V/cm, and T = 22 ?C. (b...

  12. Gel versus capillary electrophoresis genotyping for categorizing treatment outcomes in two anti-malarial trials in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genotyping is performed in anti-malarial trials to determine whether recurrent parasitaemia after therapy represents a recrudescence (treatment failure) or new infection. The use of capillary instead of agarose gel electrophoresis for genotyping offers technical advantages, but it is unclear whether capillary electrophoresis will result in improved classification of anti-malarial treatment outcomes. Methods Samples were genotyped using both gel and capillary electrophoresis from randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) vs. dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) performed in two areas of Uganda: Kanungu, where transmission is moderate, and Apac, where transmission is very high. Both gel and capillary methods evaluated polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 and glutamine rich protein genes. Results Capillary electrophoresis detected more alleles and provided higher discriminatory power than agarose gel electrophoresis at both study sites. There was only moderate agreement between classification of outcomes with the two methods in Kanungu (kappa = 0.66) and poor agreement in Apac (kappa = 0.24). Overall efficacy results were similar when using gel vs. capillary methods in Kanungu (42-day risk of treatment failure for AL: 6.9% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.4; DP 2.4% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.5). However, the measured risk of recrudescence was significantly higher when using gel vs. capillary electrophoresis in Apac (risk of treatment failure for AL: 17.0% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.02; DP: 8.5% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.03). Risk differences between AL and DP were not significantly different whether gel or capillary methods were used. Conclusions Genotyping with gel electrophoresis overestimates the risk of recrudescence in anti-malarial trials performed in areas of high transmission intensity. Capillary electrophoresis provides more accurate outcomes for such trials and should be performed when possible. In areas of moderate transmission, gel electrophoresis appears adequate to estimate comparative risks of treatment failure. PMID:20074380

  13. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Gel Electrophoresis Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The HURI SURI project is developing a regional biotechnology workforce pipeline by expanding and supporting biotechnology research experiences for Jamestown Community College (JCC) undergraduates and disseminating these research experiences and materials to area high school teachers and students. This lab teaches students to "use PCR to amplify a plasmid form of DNA called pCDNA3.1(+)/GFP Plasmid DNA" and "run the DNA products formed during PCR on an agarose gel." The materials and procedure for this lab are described in detail.

  14. Direct detection of beta-1,3-glucanase in plant extracts by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kalix, S; Buchenauer, H

    1995-06-01

    By using carboxymethyl (CM)-curdlan, a polysaccharide linked with the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue (RBB) as a substrate in polyacrylamide gels, the beta-1,3-glucanase in plant extracts can be detected directly by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In contrast to the usually used procedures for the detection of glucanases, e.g., colorimetric assay, overlay technique, enzyme activity staining using laminarin as a substrate, this method is rapid and allows both the determination of the activity and the location of the relative position of the multiple forms of beta-1,3-glucanases. PMID:7498122

  15. Detection of metals in proteins by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: application to selenium.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Cyrille C; Günther, Detlef; Cornelis, Rita; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc

    2003-10-01

    The capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in a gel after gel electrophoresis were systematically studied. Figures of merit, such as limit of detection, linearity, and repeatability, were evaluated for various elements (Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Pt, Tl, Pb). Two ablation strategies were followed: single hole drilling, relevant for ablation of spots after two-dimensional (2-D) separations, and ablation with translation, i.e., on a line, relevant for one-dimensional (1-D) separations. This technique was applied to the detection of selenoproteins in red blood cells extracts after a 1-D separation (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and the detection of selenium-containing proteins in yeast after 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). The detection procedure was further improved by using the dynamic reaction cell technology, which allowed the removal of the Ar_2(+) interference and hence the use of the most abundant Se isotope, (80)Se. Reaction gases were compared (methane, carbon monoxide, ammonia, oxygen and the combination of argon (collision gas) and hydrogen (reaction gas)). In each instance, the reaction cell parameters were optimized in order to obtain the lowest detection limit for Se (as (80)Se(+), (82)Se(+) or (77)Se(+); and as (80)Se(16)O(+), (82)Se(16)O(+) or (77)Se(16)O(+) with O(2) as the reaction gas). Carbon monoxide was found to offer the best performance. The detection limit with the use of DRC and He as transport gas was 0.07 microg Se g(-1) gel with single hole drilling and 0.15 microg Se g(-1) gel for ablation with translation. PMID:14595676

  16. Survey of Oral Microbial Diversity using PCR-based Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li; C. Y. S. Ku; J. Xu; D. Saxena; P. W. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    Polymicrobial biofilms in the human oral cavity exhibit marked diversity. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) surveys microbial diversity by displaying PCR-generated 16S rDNA fragments that migrate at different distances, reflecting the differences in the base-pair (i.e., % G+C) composition of the fragment. This study examined DGGE-generated diversity profiles of cultivable bacteria from individuals with different caries status. Initially, we

  17. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis by Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis?

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenwan; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M.; Marrone, Babetta L.

    2007-01-01

    A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was developed for discriminating Bacillus anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. A worldwide collection of 25 B. anthracis isolates showed high-profile homology, and these isolates were unambiguously distinguished from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates by cluster analysis of the whole-genome macrorestriction enzyme digestion patterns generated by NotI. PMID:17400781

  18. Strain differentiation of isolates of streptococci from bovine mastitis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Baseggio; Peter D. Mansell; Jeff W. Browning; Glenn F. Browning

    1997-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was examined as a tool to differentiate strains of streptococci isolated from clinical and sub-clinical cases of bovine mastitis. Analysis ofSmaI chromosomal digests ofStreptococcus agalactiae,S. dysgalactiaesubsp.dysgalactiaeandS. uberisisolates revealed intraherd and interherd strain relationships within each species. Comparison ofS. agalactiaeisolates from the same herd revealed little variability in theirSmaI restriction patterns indicating a single strain originating from

  19. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis of urinary proteins: application to multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Le Bricon; Danielle Erlich; Djaouida Bengoufa; Michelle Dussaucy; Jean-Pierre Garnier; Bernard Bousquet

    We evaluated a new sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) for urinary protein analysis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM; n 5 47; ages, 62 6 2 years, mean 6 SE). Abnormal proteinuria (mean 5 1872 6 360 mg\\/24 h) was present in 95% of the samples; 75% of the patients had some sign of renal dysfunction (glomerular and\\/or tubular)

  20. Analysis of Salmonella typhi isolates from Southeast Asia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Puthucheary, S; Yassin, R M; Sudarmono, P; Padmidewi, M; Soewandojo, E; Handojo, I; Sarasombath, S; Pang, T

    1995-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that multiple genetic variants of Salmonella typhi are simultaneously present in Southeast Asia and are associated with sporadic cases of typhoid fever and occasional outbreaks. Comparative analysis of PFGE patterns also suggested that considerable genetic diversity exists among S. typhi strains and that some PFGE patterns are shared between isolates obtained from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, implying movement of these strains within these regions of Southeast Asia, where they are endemic. PMID:7665677

  1. Diversity of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Strains, Determined by a Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Nevas; Miia Lindstrom; Sebastian Hielm; K. Johanna Bjorkroth; Michael W. Peck; Hannu Korkeala

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was applied to the study of the similarity of 55 strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum group I) types A, AB, B, and F. Rare-cutting restriction enzymes ApaI, AscI, MluI, NruI, PmeI, RsrII, SacII, SmaI, and XhoI were tested for their suitability for the cleavage of DNA of five proteolytic C. botulinum strains. Of these

  2. SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette and casting stand

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Marius

    SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette (10 ml) using following reagents except 10% APS10 and TEMED15 . 2.4ml dH2O 5.0ml Acrylamide/Bis20 2 following reagents except 10% APS10 and TEMED15 . 5.7ml dH2O 1.7ml Acrylamide/Bis20 2.5ml stacking buffer40

  3. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to genotypically characterize salmonellae grouped by serotype

    E-print Network

    Drinnon, Damon L. J.

    2005-08-29

    of antisera representative of all of the heat stable antigens possessed by members of the genus (38, 41). Use of specific antisera permits determination of the serogroup to which an isolate belongs. The flagellar-H antigens are determined by selective... use of antisera representative of the flagellar antigens possessed by members of the genus. Unlike somatic-O antisera, flagellar-H antisera are used in tube agglutination tests (38). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PFGE characterizes bacteria...

  4. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenwan; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L

    2007-05-01

    A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was developed for discriminating Bacillus anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. A worldwide collection of 25 B. anthracis isolates showed high-profile homology, and these isolates were unambiguously distinguished from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates by cluster analysis of the whole-genome macrorestriction enzyme digestion patterns generated by NotI. PMID:17400781

  5. Diversity of methanogenic archaeal communities in Japanese paddy field ecosystem, estimated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Watanabe; Makoto Kimura; Susumu Asakawa

    2010-01-01

    Diversity of methanogenic archaeal communities in Japanese paddy field ecosystem was evaluated by the denaturing gradient\\u000a gel electrophoresis (DGGE) after PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs), sequencing analysis and data evaluation\\u000a by principal component analysis. Data were obtained from samples collected from the plowed soil layer, rice roots, rice straws\\u000a incorporated in soil, plant residues (mixture of

  6. High-pressure gel loader for capillary array electrophoresis microchannel plates.

    PubMed

    Scherer, J R; Paegel, B M; Wedemayer, G J; Emrich, C A; Lo, J; Medintz, I L; Mathies, R A

    2001-11-01

    Microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (microCAE) microchannel plates are the next generation of bioanalytical separation devices. To fully exploit the capabilities of microCAE devices, supporting technology such as robotic sample loading, gel loading, microplate washing, and data analysis must be developed. Here, we describe a device for loading gel into radial capillary array electrophoresis microplates and for plate washing and drying. The microplates are locked into a loading module, and high-pressure helium is used to drive aqueous separation media or wash solutions into the microchannels through fixtures connected to the central anode reservoir. Microplates are rapidly (30 s to 5 min) loaded with separation media, such as 3%-4.8% linear polyacrylamide or 0.7%-3.0% hydroxyethyl cellulose, for electrophoresis. The effective and rapid gel-filling and plate-cleaning methods together with short electrophoretic analysis times (2-30 min) make microCAE systems versatile and powerful nucleic acid analysis platforms. PMID:11730021

  7. Internal amino acid sequence analysis of proteins separated by gel electrophoresis after tryptic digestion in polyacrylamide matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Eckerskorn; F. Lottspeich

    1989-01-01

    Summary  A method is described for obtaining peptide fragments for sequence analysis from microquantities of proteins separated by 1- or 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After separation by electrophoresis, the proteins were stained with Coomassie Blue and excised. Proteolytic digestion with trypsin was performed directly in the polyacrylamide matrix. The resulting peptide fragments were eluted, separated by reversed phase HPLC, collected and

  8. Optimization of separation and detection schemes for DNA with pulsed field slab gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the Human Genome Project is outlined followed by a discussion of electrophoresis in slab gels and capillaries and its application to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Techniques used to modify electroosmotic flow in capillaries are addressed. Several separation and detection schemes for DNA via gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of DNA fragment size in real time and shortening separation times to approximate real time monitoring. The migration of DNA fragment bands through a slab gel can be monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm and imaged by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Background correction and immediate viewing of band positions to interactively change the field program in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are possible throughout the separation. The use of absorption removes the need for staining or radioisotope labeling thereby simplifying sample preparation and reducing hazardous waste generation. This leaves the DNA in its native state and further analysis can be performed without de-staining. The optimization of several parameters considerably reduces total analysis time. DNA from 2 kb to 850 kb can be separated in 3 hours on a 7 cm gel with interactive control of the pulse time, which is 10 times faster than the use of a constant field program. The separation of {Phi}X174RF DNA-HaeIII fragments is studied in a 0.5% methyl cellulose polymer solution as a function of temperature and applied voltage. The migration times decreased with both increasing temperature and increasing field strength, as expected. The relative migration rates of the fragments do not change with temperature but are affected by the applied field. Conditions were established for the separation of the 271/281 bp fragments, even without the addition of intercalating agents. At 700 V/cm and 20{degrees}C, all fragments are separated in less than 4 minutes with an average plate number of 2.5 million per meter.

  9. Characterisation of soil-bound residue fractions of the fungicide dithianon by gel permeation chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wanner, U; Burauel, P; Führ, F

    2000-04-01

    The degradation of the (14)C-labelled fungicide dithianon in an orthic luvisol was investigated under standardized conditions in comparison to stimulated microbial activity by an amendment of maize straw. The compound is characterized by mineralization losses of approximately 33% and the formation of non-extractable bound residues of approximately 63% in 64 days. Despite the major role of microorganisms in mineralizing this compound, the formation of bound residues is not biotically induced. Gel permeation chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as different size separation techniques of the humic acids fractions, showed differences in the distribution patterns of non-extractable residues depending on the addition of straw material. The results presented support the existence of humic substances in soil as a micellar system rather than as a biopolymer. PMID:15092966

  10. Development of an integrated approach for evaluation of 2-D gel image analysis: Impact of multiple proteins in single spots on comparative proteomics in conventional 2-D gel/MALDI workflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With 2-D gel mapping, it is often observed that essentially identical proteins migrate to different positions in the gel, while some seemingly well-resolved protein spots consist of multiple proteins. These observations can undermine the validity of gel-based comparative proteomic studies. Through...

  11. A spot-matching method using cumulative frequency matrix in 2D gel images

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chan-Myeong; Park, Joon-Ho; Chang, Chu-Seok; Ryoo, Myung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A new method for spot matching in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images using a cumulative frequency matrix is proposed. The method improves on the weak points of the previous method called ‘spot matching by topological patterns of neighbour spots’. It accumulates the frequencies of neighbour spot pairs produced through the entire matching process and determines spot pairs one by one in order of higher frequency. Spot matching by frequencies of neighbour spot pairs shows a fairly better performance. However, it can give researchers a hint for whether the matching results can be trustworthy or not, which can save researchers a lot of effort for verification of the results. PMID:26019609

  12. Mutations and a polymorphism in the factor VIII gene discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, S; Gitschier, J

    1990-01-01

    Hemophilia A results from mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the region of the factor VIII gene coding for the first acidic domain. Amplification primers were designed employing the MELTMAP computer program to optimize the ability to detect mutations. Screening of amplified DNA from 228 unselected hemophilia A patients revealed two mutations and one polymorphism. Rescreening the same population by making heteroduplexes between amplified patient and control samples prior to electrophoresis revealed one additional mutation. The mutations include two missense and one 4-base-pair deletion, and each mutation was found in patients with severe hemophilia. The polymorphism, located adjacent to the adenine branch site in intron 7, is useful for genetic prediction in some cases where the Bcl I and Xba I polymorphisms are uninformative. These results suggest that DNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis should be an excellent strategy for identifying mutations and polymorphisms in defined regions of the factor VIII gene and other large genes. Images PMID:2107542

  13. Mutations and a polymorphism in the factor VIII gene discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, S.; Gitschier, J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Hemophilia A results from mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII. The authors gradient gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the region of the factor VIII gene coding for the first acidic domain. Amplification primers were designed employing the MELTMAP computer program to optimize the ability to detect mutations. Screening of amplified DNA from 228 unselected hemophilia A patients revealed two mutations and one polymorphism. Rescreening the same population by making heteroduplexes between amplified patient and control samples prior to electrophoresis revealed one additional mutation. The mutations include two missense and one 4-base-pair deletion, and each mutation was found in patients with severe hemophilia. The polymorphism, located adjacent to the adenine branch site in intron 7, is useful for genetic prediction in some cases where the Bcl I and Xba I polymorphisms are uninformative. These results suggest that DNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis should be an excellent strategy for identifying mutations and polymorphisms in defined regions of the factor VIII gene and other large genes.

  14. Detection of genotoxic insult as DNA strand breaks in fish blood cells by agarose gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, C.W. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); D'Surney, S.J. (Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Biology); Shugart, L.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division)

    1994-07-01

    DNA, isolated from the blood cells of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed in the lab to bedded sediment collected from a site contaminated with genotoxic compounds (i.e., PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals), was examined for strand breakage by agarose gel electrophoresis. Before electrophoresis the blood cells were embedded in agarose plugs and incubated with proteinase. After electrophoresis under both neutral (pH 7) or alkaline (pH 12) conditions, the median molecular length (MML) of the DNA distributed in the gel was determined. These quantitative measures were used to estimate the difference in the number of double- and single-strand breaks between DNA preparations. Both types of strand breakage were found to be greater in fish exposed to sediment contaminated with genotoxic compounds as compared to nonexposed fish. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the MML value obtained by the electrophoretic assay reported here and the F value (measure of DNA double-strandedness) obtained by the alkaline unwinding assay.

  15. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Luciana; Rotini, Alice; Randazzo, Davide; Albanese, Nadia N; Giallongo, Agata

    2007-01-01

    Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state. PMID:17663776

  16. Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes active complexes with or without dyskerin

    PubMed Central

    Gardano, Laura; Holland, Linda; Oulton, Rena; Le Bihan, Thierry; Harrington, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safeguard against genome instability. The enzyme responsible for extension of the telomere 3? terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas telomerase activity can be reconstituted in vitro with only the telomerase RNA (hTR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), additional components are required in vivo for enzyme assembly, stability and telomere extension activity. One such associated protein, dyskerin, promotes hTR stability in vivo and is the only component to co-purify with active, endogenous human telomerase. We used oligonucleotide-based affinity purification of hTR followed by native gel electrophoresis and in-gel telomerase activity detection to query the composition of telomerase at different purification stringencies. At low salt concentrations (0.1?M NaCl), affinity-purified telomerase was ‘supershifted’ with an anti-dyskerin antibody, however the association with dyskerin was lost after purification at 0.6?M NaCl, despite the retention of telomerase activity and a comparable yield of hTR. The interaction of purified hTR and dyskerin in vitro displayed a similar salt-sensitive interaction. These results demonstrate that endogenous human telomerase, once assembled and active, does not require dyskerin for catalytic activity. Native gel electrophoresis may prove useful in the characterization of telomerase complexes under various physiological conditions. PMID:22187156

  17. DNA electrophoresis in tri-block copolymer gels--experiments and Brownian dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ling; van Winkle, David H.

    2015-03-01

    The mobility of double-stranded DNA ladders in Pluronics®P105, P123 and F127, was measured by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pluronics®are triblock copolymers which form gel-like phases of micelles arranged with cubic order at room temperature. A 10 base pair and a 25 base pair DNA ladder were used as samples in gel electrophoresis. The monotonically decreasing mobility with increasing length observed in the agarose separations is not observed in separations in Pluronics®. Rather, a complicated dependence of mobility on DNA length is observed, where mobility vs. length increases for short DNA molecules then decreases for longer molecules. There is also a variation of mobility with length correlated to the micelle diameter. Brownian dynamics simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model were performed to simulate short DNA molecules migrating in free solution and in a face-centered cubic matrix. By incorporating hydrodynamic interactions, the trend of simulated length-dependent mobility qualitatively agrees with experimental measurements.

  18. Dispersion functions and factors that determine resolution for DNA sequencing by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Reynolds, K.J.; Fisk, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The number of bases that can be read in a single run by a DNA sequencing instrument that detects fluorophore labeled DNA arriving at a ``finish-line`` located a fixed distance from the starting wells is influenced by numerous parameters. Strategies for improving the length-of-read of a DNA sequencer can be based on quantitative models of the separation of DNA by gel electrophoresis. The dispersion function of the electrophoretic system--the relationship between molecular contour length and time of arrival at the detector--is useful in characterizing the performance of a DNA sequencer. We adapted analytical representations of dispersion functions, originally developed for snapshot imaging of DNA gels, (samples electrophoresed for constant time), to finish-line imaging, and demonstrated that a logistic-type function with non-integral exponent is required to describe the experimental data. We use this dispersion function to determine the resolution length and resolving power of a LI-COR DNA sequencing system and a custom built capillary gel electrophoresis system, and discuss the factors that presently limit the number of bases that can be determined reliably in a single sequencing run.

  19. Performing Isoelectric Focusing and Simultaneous Fractionation of Proteins on A Rotary Valve Followed by Sodium Dodecyl – Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Joann J.; Gu, Congying; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Shaorong

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, we design and fabricate a novel rotary valve and demonstrate its feasibility for performing isoelectric focusing and simultaneous fractionation of proteins, followed by sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The valve has two positions. In one position, the valve routes a series of capillary loops together into a single capillary tube where capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is performed. By switching the valve to another position, the CIEF-resolved proteins in all capillary loops are isolated simultaneously, and samples in the loops are removed and collected in vials. After the collected samples are briefly processed, they are separated via sodium dodecyl – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, the 2nd-D separation) on either a capillary gel electrophoresis instrument or a slab-gel system. The detailed valve configuration is illustrated, and the experimental conditions and operation protocols are discussed. PMID:23819755

  20. A wavelet relational fuzzy C-means algorithm for 2D gel image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Shaheera; Faheem, Mohamed Talaat; Sarhan, Amany; Youssef, Bayumy A B

    2013-01-01

    One of the most famous algorithms that appeared in the area of image segmentation is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm. This algorithm has been used in many applications such as data analysis, pattern recognition, and image segmentation. It has the advantages of producing high quality segmentation compared to the other available algorithms. Many modifications have been made to the algorithm to improve its segmentation quality. The proposed segmentation algorithm in this paper is based on the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm adding the relational fuzzy notion and the wavelet transform to it so as to enhance its performance especially in the area of 2D gel images. Both proposed modifications aim to minimize the oversegmentation error incurred by previous algorithms. The experimental results of comparing both the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and the Wavelet Fuzzy C-Means (WFCM) to the proposed algorithm on real 2D gel images acquired from human leukemias, HL-60 cell lines, and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) demonstrate the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in overcoming the segmentation error. In addition, we investigate the effect of denoising on the three algorithms. This investigation proves that denoising the 2D gel image before segmentation can improve (in most of the cases) the quality of the segmentation. PMID:24174990

  1. A Wavelet Relational Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for 2D Gel Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rashwan, Shaheera; Faheem, Mohamed Talaat; Sarhan, Amany; Youssef, Bayumy A. B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most famous algorithms that appeared in the area of image segmentation is the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm. This algorithm has been used in many applications such as data analysis, pattern recognition, and image segmentation. It has the advantages of producing high quality segmentation compared to the other available algorithms. Many modifications have been made to the algorithm to improve its segmentation quality. The proposed segmentation algorithm in this paper is based on the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm adding the relational fuzzy notion and the wavelet transform to it so as to enhance its performance especially in the area of 2D gel images. Both proposed modifications aim to minimize the oversegmentation error incurred by previous algorithms. The experimental results of comparing both the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and the Wavelet Fuzzy C-Means (WFCM) to the proposed algorithm on real 2D gel images acquired from human leukemias, HL-60 cell lines, and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) demonstrate the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in overcoming the segmentation error. In addition, we investigate the effect of denoising on the three algorithms. This investigation proves that denoising the 2D gel image before segmentation can improve (in most of the cases) the quality of the segmentation. PMID:24174990

  2. Ultrasensitive staining-free protein detection after PAA gel electrophoresis using deep UV fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Riaplov, Eugene; Li, Qiang; Seeger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We present the observation of separated protein bands after polyacrylamide (PAA) gel electrophoresis based on the staining-free detection of their ultra violet (UV)-induced fluorescence employing deep UV confocal fluorescence microscopy. Mixtures of the three biological compounds beta-Galactosidase (from Escherichia coli), apo-Transferrin (bovine) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been separated and a staining free detection limit below 80 pg (7.0 x 10(8) molecules) per band has been achieved. This corresponds to approximately 270 molecules in the detection volume for confocal microscopy. PMID:17897099

  3. Simple, time saving pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Shueh, Chong Seng; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Hussin, Salasawati; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-08-01

    We developed a time-saving and cost-efficient Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by modifying the conventional procedures. Our modifications related to the cell suspension preparation, lysis of bacterial cells in plugs, washing steps, and consumption of restriction enzyme. Although few rapid PFGE protocols on Gram-negative bacteria are available, the use of comparatively large amounts of costly reagents prompted us to look for other alternative. Hence, by considering the speed, simplicity, and relatively low cost, the modified protocol may be of more practical value than other established protocols in investigating S. maltophilia nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:23756145

  4. Developmental appearance of proteins identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in mouse gonadal tissue.

    PubMed

    Durbin, E J; Erickson, R P; Van Keuren, M L; Iacob, R A; Kurnit, D M

    1991-03-01

    Gonadal protein patterns of the mouse were studied during fetal development by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Fetal mice at days 8.5, 10.5, 12.5, and 14.5 post-coitum were analyzed for male or female specific proteins. Although no sex specific proteins were found, several proteins were found which were expressed in significantly different amounts in the two sexes at about the time of gonadal differentiation. Hence, quantitative differences, rather than qualitative ones, could be related to the initiation of testis or ovary development. PMID:2015082

  5. Analysis of the microflora in Tibetan kefir grains using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hanhu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2009-12-01

    The microflora of Tibetan kefir grains was investigated by culture- independent methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of partially amplified 16S rRNA for bacteria and 26S rRNA for yeasts, followed by sequencing of the most intense bands, showed that the dominant microorganisms were Pseudomonas sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus casei, Kazachstania unispora, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kazachstania exigua. The bacterial communities between three kinds of Tibetan kefir grains showed 78-84% similarity, and yeasts 80-92%. The microflora is held together in the matrix of fibrillar material composed largely of a water-insoluble polysaccharide. PMID:19835760

  6. Contour Area Filtering of 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis Images

    E-print Network

    Wenger, Rephael

    1 Contour Area Filtering of 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis Images PRamakrishnan Kazhiyur-Mannar,1 was designed specifically for image analysis of 2D electrophoresis gels, although it can be applied to other results which show that Contour Area Filtering is a quick, efficient method for separating electrophoresis

  7. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Laugesen, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2004-03-01

    A protocol was established for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of barley seed and malt proteins in the pH range of 6-11. Proteins extracted from flour in a low-salt buffer were focused after cup-loading onto IPG strips. Successful separation in the second dimension was achieved using gradient gels in a horizontal SDS-PAGE system. Silver staining of gels visualized around 380 (seed) and 500 (malt) spots. Thirty-seven different proteins from seeds were identified in 60 spots, among these 46 were visualized also in the malt 2-D pattern. Proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and by tandem MS sequencing after in-gel digestion by trypsin. In addition, the N-terminal sequence of 10 different proteins from 11 spots was determined after electroblotting to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. Five identified proteins (in 9 spots) are involved in glycolysis, 12 in defence against pathogens (21 spots), 4 in storage, folding, and synthesis of proteins, and in nitrogen metabolism (5 spots), 6 in carbohydrate metabolism (11 spots), and 4 in stress and detoxification (9 spots). Six proteins (7 spots) were not grouped in these categories, and 3 were not ascribed a function. The presented 2-D patterns and identifications will be used to describe proteome differences between cultivars and changes during malting. PMID:14997495

  8. Human liver alkaline phosphatase purified by affinity chromatography, ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Latner, A L; Hodson, A W

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of human liver alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.1). The method gives a purification factor of 12.5 X 10(3) over the initial aq. butan-1-ol extract, a recovery of 6.0% and a specific activity for the preparation of 1450-1550 units/mg of protein, 1 unit being defined as the amount of enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of 1mumol of p-nitrophenyl phosphate/min at 35 degrees C in 0.1 M-2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol/HCl buffer, pH 10.5, containing 10mM-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Homogeneity was studied by ultracentrifugation, by immunoelectrophoresis and by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A single contaminating protein was present which was less than 5% of the total. Ultracentrifugation and equilibrium-gradient-pore electrophoresis techniques indicated a mol.wt. of 156000 and 160000 respectively. Equilibrium-gradient-pore electrophoresis indicated that the alkaline phosphatase molecule is possibly a dimer, comprising two subunits of about 80000 mol.wt. Amino acid analysis proved remarkably similar to that for alkaline phosphatase from other sources, regardless of species. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1008827

  9. Composition of the fractions separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the lipopolysaccharide of a marine bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, J M; MacLeod, R A

    1978-01-01

    The sugar composition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from whole cells of Alteromonas haloplanktis 214 (previously referred to as marine pseudomonas B-16, ATCC 19855), variant 3, of the lipid A, core, and side-chain fractions derived from it, and of the LPS fractions (LPS I, II, and III) obtained by subjecting it to preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been determined. Conditions optimum for the release of constituent monosaccharides by hydrolysis were established. Sugars were quantitated by gas-liquid chromatography of their alditol acetate derivatives. Lipid A was detected by gel electrophoresis and by the spectral shift obtained with a carbocyanin dye. A comparison of the molar ratios of the various fractions suggest that LPS III is an LPS molecule lacking an O-antigenic side chain, whereas LPS I and II are LPS molecules differing in side-chain composition. LPS I may be a mixture of two LPS species. In double immunodiffusion experiments using anti-whole-cell serum, LPS I and II showed a homologous cross-reaction with isolated whole-cell LPS. LPS III as well as lipid A, core, and side-chain fractions failed to give rise to precipitin lines. Images PMID:101510

  10. Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Orita, M; Iwahana, H; Kanazawa, H; Hayashi, K; Sekiya, T

    1989-01-01

    We developed mobility shift analysis of single-stranded DNAs on neutral polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect DNA polymorphisms. This method follows digestion of genomic DNA with restriction endonucleases, denaturation in alkaline solution, and electrophoresis on a neutral polyacrylamide gel. After transfer to a nylon membrane, the mobility shift due to a nucleotide substitution of a single-stranded DNA fragment could be detected by hybridization with a nick-translated DNA fragment or more clearly with RNA copies synthesized on each strand of the DNA fragment as probes. As the mobility shift caused by nucleotide substitutions might be due to a conformational change of single-stranded DNAs, we designate the features of single-stranded DNAs as single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs). Like restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), SSCPs were found to be allelic variants of true Mendelian traits, and therefore they should be useful genetic markers. Moreover, SSCP analysis has the advantage over RFLP analysis that it can detect DNA polymorphisms and point mutations at a variety of positions in DNA fragments. Since DNA polymorphisms have been estimated to occur every few hundred nucleotides in the human genome, SSCPs may provide many genetic markers. Images PMID:2565038

  11. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and Alcian Blue staining of sulphated glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, M K; Slahetka, M F; Hittner, D M; Kim, J; Forino, M; Gadelrab, G

    1984-01-01

    Oligosaccharide fragments of glycosaminoglycans may be separated for rapid analysis by electrophoresis through a 10% polyacrylamide matrix. An extensive ladder-like set of bands is observed for partial testicular hyaluronidase digests of chondroitin 4- or 6-sulphate, and for dermatan sulphate. Co-electrophoresis of purified oligosaccharides has established that the major bands of these patterns represent fragments differing in chain length by one disaccharide unit, with the smallest fragments having the greatest mobility. Additional minor bands, representing heterogeneity in the repeating unit structure, are also observed. There are slight differences in the mobilities of oligosaccharides derived from the three major types of sulphated glycosaminoglycans. Alcian Blue is employed for visualization of the digest fragments. Sample loads of 5-10 micrograms per band appear optimum. The smallest oligosaccharide which may be stained by this method is the hexasaccharide. After consideration of this effect, a good correlation is found to exist between densitometric scans of the gel-electrophoretic patterns and gel-filtration chromatographic profiles based on uronic acid concentration. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6433889

  12. Comparison of field inversion gel electrophoresis with contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis as a typing method for Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed Central

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Donabedian, S; Zervos, M J

    1995-01-01

    Direct comparisons between contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) electrophoresis and field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) to determine the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant enterococci have not been previously published. Fifty non-beta-lactamase-producing, ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates and 10 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains collected from multiple centers were analyzed in a blinded fashion by CHEF electrophoresis and FIGE after digestion with SmaI. Isolates were considered clonally related if there was a difference of three of fewer bands between electrophoretic patterns. Agreement between CHEF electrophoresis and FIGE was seen for 12 of 13 identified groups of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium and 7 of 7 groups of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The lone discordance was accounted for by a fourth band difference between two strains recognized near 350 kb by CHEF electrophoresis but not by FIGE, placing them into different clonal groups. Better band separation was noted in the 50- to 200-kb range for FIGE, while CHEF electrophoresis revealed better resolution over 250 kb more reliably, including detection of some bands not seen on FIGE. Molecular epidemiologic investigations of E. faecium by either technique should provide comparable results. PMID:7650185

  13. The impact of two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques for the consistent and complete mapping of bacterial genomes: refined physical map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Tümmler, B

    1991-01-01

    The SpeI/DpnI map of the 5.9 Mb Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO (DSM 1707) genome was refined by two-dimensional (2D) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques (PFGE) which allow the complete and consistent physical mapping of any bacterial genome of interest. Single restriction digests were repetitively separated by PFGE employing different pulse times and ramps in order to detect all bands with optimum resolution. Fragment order was evaluated from the pattern of 2D PFGE gels: 1. Partial-complete digestion. A partial restriction digest was separated in the first dimension, redigested to completion, and subsequently perpendicularly resolved in the second dimension. 2D-gel comparisons of the ethidium bromide stain of all fragments and of the autoradiogram of end-labeled partial digestion fragments was nearly sufficient for the construction of the macrorestriction map. 2. Reciprocal gels. A complete restriction digest with enzyme A was run in the first dimension, redigested with enzyme B, and separated in the second orthogonal direction. The order of restriction digests was reverse on the second gel. In case of two rare-cutters, fragments were visualized by ethidium bromide staining or hybridization with genomic DNA. If a frequent and a rare cutter were employed, linking fragments were identified by end-labeling of the first digest. 3. A few small fragments were isolated by preparative PFGE and used as a probe for Southern analysis.--38 SpeI and 15 DpnI fragments were positioned on the map. The zero point was relocated to the 'origin of replication'. The anonymous mapping techniques described herein are unbiased by repetitive DNA, unclonable genomic regions, unfavourable location of restriction sites, or cloning artifacts as frequently encountered in other top-down or bottom-up approaches. Images PMID:1905802

  14. Colorful Electrophoresis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners follow step-by-step instructions to build a gel electrophoresis chamber using inexpensive materials from local hardware and electronic stores. Then, learners follow instructions to simulate DNA electrophoresis using food colors from the kitchen pantry.

  15. Measurement of Protein Sulfhydryls in Response to Cellular Oxidative Stress Using Gel Electrophoresis and Multiplexed Fluorescent Imaging Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Page C.; Morin, Dexter; Jewell, William T.; Buckpitt, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The significance of free radicals in biology has been established by numerous investigations spanning a period of over 40 years. Whereas there are many intracellular targets for these radical species, the importance of cysteine thiol posttranslational modification has received considerable attention. The current studies present a highly sensitive method for measurement of the posttranslational modification of protein thiols. This method is based on labeling of proteins with monofunctional maleimide dyes followed by 2D gel electrophoresis to separate proteins and multiplexed fluorescent imaging analysis. The method correctly interrogates the thiol/disulfide ratio present in commercially available proteins. Exposure of pulmonary airway epithelial cells to high concentrations of menadione or t-butyl hydroperoxide resulted in the modification of cysteines in more than 141 proteins of which 60 were subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Although some proteins were modified similarly by these two oxidants, several showed detectably different maleimide ratios in response to these two agents. Proteins that were modified by one or both oxidants include those involved in transcription, protein synthesis and folding, and cell death/growth. In conclusion, these studies provide a novel procedure for measuring the redox status of cysteine thiols on individual proteins with a clearly demonstrated applicability to interactions of chemicals with pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:18416539

  16. Identification of cellular proteome using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis in ST cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea in pigs, which is correlated with high morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression of host cells in response to TGEV infection. In this study, cellular protein response to TGEV infection in swine testes (ST) cells was analyzed, using the proteomic method of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS identification. Results 33 differentially expressed protein spots, of which 23 were up-regulated and 10 were down-regulated were identified. All the protein spots were successfully identified. The identified proteins were involved in the regulation of essential processes such as cellular structure and integrity, RNA processing, protein biosynthesis and modification, vesicle transport, signal transduction, and the mitochondrial pathway. Western blot analysis was used to validate the changes of alpha tubulin, keratin 19, and prohibitin during TGEV infection. Conclusions To our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in host cell during TGEV infection. 17 altered cellular proteins that differentially expressed in TGEV infection were identified. The present study provides protein-related information that should be useful for understanding the host cell response to TGEV infection and the underlying mechanism of TGEV replication and pathogenicity. PMID:23855489

  17. Phylogenetic Compositions of Bacterioplankton from Two California Estuaries Compared by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of 16S rDNA Fragments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALISON E. MURRAY; JAMES T. HOLLIBAUGH; ANDCRISTIAN ORREGO

    1996-01-01

    The phylogenetic compositions of bacterioplankton assemblages from San Francisco Bay and Tomales Bay, Calif., differed substantially when analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; these differences are consistent with the results of previous studies demonstrating differences in their metabolic capabilities. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of complex microbial assemblages was sensitive and reliable, and the results were reproducible as shown by

  18. [Quantitative study of multimolecular forms of serum gamma glutamyl transferase by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Staeffen, J; Ballan, P; Ferrer, J; Beylot, J; Series, C; Terme, R

    1975-10-01

    The quantitative distribution of the multimolecular forms of serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase is studied in 286 sera by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, incubation, coloration in situ, photography, slide reading and integration. In 43 normal sera, the fast fraction represents 66% of the total activity; the ratio of the mean fast fraction to the medium and slow fraction was 2. During pregnancy (53 cases), in cord blood (54 cases), in hepatic cytolysis or cholestasis (55 cases), and in secondary liver carcinoma (21 cases), this ratio is considerably lower, demonstrating the predominance of medium and slow fractions. A similar decrease in the ratio, with predominance of the medium and slow fractions was seen in 22 cases of advanced cancer without metastases in the liver. PMID:241044

  19. Numerical simulation of gel electrophoresis of DNA knots in weak and strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Stasiak, A; De Los Rios, P; Dietler, G

    2006-05-01

    Gel electrophoresis allows one to separate knotted DNA (nicked circular) of equal length according to the knot type. At low electric fields, complex knots, being more compact, drift faster than simpler knots. Recent experiments have shown that the drift velocity dependence on the knot type is inverted when changing from low to high electric fields. We present a computer simulation on a lattice of a closed, knotted, charged DNA chain drifting in an external electric field in a topologically restricted medium. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm, the dependence of the electrophoretic migration of the DNA molecules on the knot type and on the electric field intensity is investigated. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with electrophoretic experiments done under conditions of low and high electric fields. PMID:16473912

  20. Analysis of single-cell gel electrophoresis using laser-scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, K L; Fairbairn, D W; Standing, M D

    1993-10-01

    The single-cell gel (SCG) assay has been shown to be a valuable technique to measure DNA-strand breaks in individual cells. Imaging of the assay is enhanced by laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) technology. Cells embedded in low melt point agarose were treated with 12.5 mM H2O2 to induce DNA-strand breaks. Following cell lysis and electrophoresis under alkaline conditions to allow single-stranded break detection, analysis of the resulting comets can provide an accurate method of comparing DNA-damage levels. The migration patterns of stained DNA were quantitated by LSM analysis. A statistically significant time-dependent dose-response relationship was clearly observed. LSM analysis of the SCG technique allows rapid, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation of single-stranded breaks and alkali-labile sites in the DNA of single cells. PMID:7692288

  1. Derivation of clones close to met by preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, F.; Burmeister, M.; Lehrach, H.

    1987-06-05

    The molecular analysis of genes identified by mutations is a major problems in mammalian genetics. As a step toward this goal, preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) was used to selectively isolate clones from the environment of genetically linked markers, and to select a subset of these clones containing sequences next to specific restriction sites rare in mammalian DNA. This approach has been used to generate a library highly enriched in sequences closely linked to the cystic fibrosis marker met. One clone derived from the end of a Not I restriction fragment containing the met sequence was analyzed in detail and localized within a long range map to a position of 300 kilobase pairs 5' of the metD sequence.

  2. Application of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis in taxonomy of coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Felske, A; Vancanneyt, M; Kersters, K; Akkermans, A D

    1999-01-01

    Strains belonging to the Gram-positive coryneform soil bacteria were screened genotypically by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). This method allows the sequence-specific separation of amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. A total of 115 reference strains representing the majority of the species of the genera Aeromicrobium, Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas, Curtobacterium, Nocardioides and Terrabacter were characterized. Depending on the genus investigated, the resolution limit of the technique appeared to be at the species or genus level or intermediate between the two. Aberrant TGGE profiles of strains within particular taxa revealed genomic heterogeneity and generic misclassification of nine strains studied. Beyond that, indications of 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity were found within the genomes of three Curtobacterium strains. The misclassifications revealed by TGGE were confirmed using whole-cell fatty acid methyl ester analysis and subsequent comparison with a database. TGGE has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in bacterial taxonomy. PMID:10028252

  3. Genetic diversity of cry gene sequences of Bacillus thuringiensis strains analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Domínguez, María E; Perez-Cenci, Macarena; Salerno, Graciela L; Berón, Corina M

    2011-03-01

    PCR has been widely used to identify cry-type genes, to determine their distribution, to detect new such genes and to predict insecticidal activities. We describe here a molecular approach to analyze the genetic diversity of B. thuringiensis cry-like genes based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis demonstrated that different B. thuringiensis isolates can be distinguished according to its PCR-DGGE profile of cry-like genes. Identification of the resolvable DNA fragments was easy to accomplish by DNA sequencing, which was confirmed in this work. Importantly, the strategy allowed the identification of unknown B. thuringiensis cry-like sequences present in a single strain that remained cryptic after PCR analysis using degenerate primers. The method developed in this work contributes to the availability of molecular techniques for both B. thuringiensis strains and cry-like genes identification and discovery. PMID:21046400

  4. Monitoring the Bacterial Population Dynamics in Sourdough Fermentation Processes by Using PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane B. Meroth; Jens Walter; Christian Hertel; Markus J. Brandt; Walter P. Hammes

    2003-01-01

    Four sourdoughs (A to D) were produced under practical conditions by using a starter mixture of three commercially available sourdough starters and a baker's yeast constitutively containing various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The sourdoughs were continuously propagated until the composition of the LAB flora remained stable. Two LAB-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems were established and used

  5. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Can Rapidly Display the Bacterial Diversity Contained in 16S rDNA Clone Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Burr; S. J. Clark; C. R. Spear; A. K. Camper

    2006-01-01

    Two different strategies for molecular analysis of bacterial diversity, 16S rDNA cloning and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), were combined into a single protocol that took advantage of the best attributes of each: the ability of cloning to package DNA sequence information and the ability of DGGE to display a community profile. In this combined protocol, polymerase chain reaction products

  6. Use of capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to detect the prion protein extracted from scrapie-infected sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jo Schmerr; Allen Jenny; Randall C. Cutlip

    1997-01-01

    Scrapie in sheep and in goats is the prototype of a group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). A feature of these diseases is the accumulation in the brain of rod shaped fibrils that form from an aggregated protein that is a protease-resistant form of a modified normal host cell protein. In this study, we compared SDS gel capillary electrophoresis to

  7. Compositions of maple sap microflora and collection system biofilms evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lagacé; M. Jacques; A. A. Mafu; D. Roy

    2006-01-01

    The bacterial microflora of maple sap and biofilms in collection system tubing were studied through the use of bacterial counts, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of surfaces and the analysis of 16S rRNA gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Samples were taken at five times during the 2002 and 2003 seasons in order to follow the changes in the microflora

  8. Changes in Bacterial Species Composition in Enrichment Cultures with Various Dilutions of Inoculum as Monitored by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin R.; Roden, Eric E.; Churchill, Perry F.

    1998-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed changes in the bacterial species obtained from enrichment cultures with different inoculum dilutions. This inoculum dilution enrichment approach may facilitate the detection and isolation of a greater number of bacterial species than traditional enrichment techniques. PMID:9835607

  9. Combination of Multiplex PCR and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis for Monitoring Common Sourdough-Associated Lactobacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Settanni, Luca; Valmorri, Sara; van Sinderen, Douwe; Suzzi, Giovanna; Paparella, Antonello; Corsetti, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and a previously described multiplex PCR approach was employed to detect sourdough lactobacilli. Primers specific for certain groups of Lactobacillus spp. were used to amplify fragments, which were analyzed by DGGE. DGGE profiles obtained from Lactobacillus type strains acted as standards to analyze lactobacilli from four regional Abruzzo (central Italy) sourdoughs. PMID:16672538

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CLOSTRIDIAL SPECIFIC DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSMENT OF SWINE INTESTINAL, FECAL AND MANURE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has been accepted as a method to assess bacterial community profiles in environmental samples. Recently, it has been adapted to examine a specific bacterial group. In swine intestinal, fecal and manure samples, members of clostridial groups predominat...

  11. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  12. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis along with Antimicrobial Resistance pattern of Salmonella serotypes isolated from broiler whole carcass rinses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiogram patterns have been used to evaluate the diversity within and between individual Salmonella serotypes. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the PFGE along with antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates originating from br...

  13. Electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans of polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels and their visualization by fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, S.L.; Bayliss, M.T.; Collier, J.M.; Muir, H.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques for the electrophoresis of /sup 35/S-labeled proteoglycans on polyacrylamide-agarose gel slabs and subsequent fixation, impregnation, and fluorography of such electrophoretograms have been developed. The procedure permits the examination of newly synthesized proteoglycan subspecies using a rapid technique, previously unavailable for these labeled molecules.

  14. Evaluation of repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis in identifying Salmonella serotypes isolated from processed turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella has been reported as the leading foodborne pathogen in the US. A study was conducted to compare the use of automated repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as diagnostic tools for identifying Salmonella serotypes. The interspersed ...

  15. Molecular Fingerprinting of Dairy Microbial Ecosystems by Use of Temporal Temperature and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ogier, J.-C.; Lafarge, V.; Girard, V.; Rault, A.; Maladen, V.; Gruss, A.; Leveau, J.-Y.; Delacroix-Buchet, A.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts, and molds, constitute the complex ecosystem present in milk and fermented dairy products. Our aim was to describe the bacterial ecosystem of various cheeses that differ by production technology and therefore by their bacterial content. For this purpose, we developed a rapid, semisystematic approach based on genetic profiling by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) for bacteria with low-G+C-content genomes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for those with medium- and high-G+C-content genomes. Bacteria in the unknown ecosystems were assigned an identity by comparison with a comprehensive bacterial reference database of ?150 species that included useful dairy microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria), spoilage bacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae), and pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). Our analyses provide a high resolution of bacteria comprising the ecosystems of different commercial cheeses and identify species that could not be discerned by conventional methods; at least two species, belonging to the Halomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genera, are identified for the first time in a dairy ecosystem. Our analyses also reveal a surprising difference in ecosystems of the cheese surface versus those of the interior; the aerobic surface bacteria are generally G+C rich and represent diverse species, while the cheese interior comprises fewer species that are generally low in G+C content. TTGE and DGGE have proven here to be powerful methods to rapidly identify a broad range of bacterial species within dairy products. PMID:15345452

  16. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D N; Khambaty, F M; Wachsmuth, I K; Tauxe, R V; Barrett, T J

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on 180 isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 representing 6 different multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) types and 27 rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism types (ribotypes). Isolates were digested with the restriction enzyme NotI and were separated into 63 patterns on the basis of differences in band arrangements. In general, strains which were different by MEE or ribotyping also had different PGFE patterns. PFGE identified individual strains within a single MEE type or ribotype; isolates with one PFGE pattern were less frequently distinguished by ribotyping. All V. cholerae O1 isolates tested from the Latin American epidemic were indistinguishable by their MEE, ribotype, or PFGE patterns. PFGE could further distinguish strains of this same ribotype isolated in Africa, Europe, the South Pacific, or Southeast Asia. Although both MEE and PFGE could identify the strain from the Latin American epidemic, PFGE was more rapid and less labor intensive. PFGE also distinguished nontoxigenic isolates endemic to the U.S. Gulf Coast from unrelated nontoxigenic isolates. In the present study PFGE was more discriminating than other previously described subtyping assays for V. cholerae O1 and appears to be a useful epidemiologic tool. Images PMID:7929758

  17. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  18. Culture-Independent Analysis of Probiotic Products by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Temmerman, R.; Scheirlinck, I.; Huys, G.; Swings, J.

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain functional and safe probiotic products for human consumption, fast and reliable quality control of these products is crucial. Currently, analysis of most probiotics is still based on culture-dependent methods involving the use of specific isolation media and identification of a limited number of isolates, which makes this approach relatively insensitive, laborious, and time-consuming. In this study, a collection of 10 probiotic products, including four dairy products, one fruit drink, and five freeze-dried products, were subjected to microbial analysis by using a culture-independent approach, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional culture-dependent analysis. The culture-independent approach involved extraction of total bacterial DNA directly from the product, PCR amplification of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA, and separation of the amplicons on a denaturing gradient gel. Digital capturing and processing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns allowed direct identification of the amplicons at the species level. This whole culture-independent approach can be performed in less than 30 h. Compared with culture-dependent analysis, the DGGE approach was found to have a much higher sensitivity for detection of microbial strains in probiotic products in a fast, reliable, and reproducible manner. Unfortunately, as reported in previous studies in which the culture-dependent approach was used, a rather high percentage of probiotic products suffered from incorrect labeling and yielded low bacterial counts, which may decrease their probiotic potential. PMID:12513998

  19. The sieving of spheres during agarose gel electrophoresis: quantitation and modeling.

    PubMed

    Griess, G A; Moreno, E T; Easom, R A; Serwer, P

    1989-08-01

    By use of agarose gel electrophoresis, the sieving of spherical particles in agarose gels has been quantitated and modeled for spheres with a radius (R) between 13.3 and 149 nm. For quantitation, the electrophoretic mobility has been determined as a function of agarose percentage (A). Because a previously used model of sieving [D. Rodbard and A. Chrambach (1970) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 65, 970-977] was found incompatible with some of these data, alternative models have been tested. By use of an underivatized agarose, two models, both based on the assumption of a single effective pore radius (PE) for each A, were found to yield PE values that were independent of R and that were in agreement with values of PE obtained independently (PE = 118 nm X A-0.74): sieving by altered hydrodynamics in a cylindrical tube of radius, PE, and sieving by steric exclusion from a circular hole of radius, PE. The same analysis applied to a 6.5% hydroxyethylated commercial agarose yielded a steeper PE vs A plot and also agreement of the above two models with the data. The PE vs A plot was significantly altered by both further hydroxyethylation and factors that cause variation in the electro-osmosis found in commercial agarose. PMID:2752101

  20. Urine Proteins Identified by Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis Facilitate the Differential Diagnoses of Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Lise; Simon, Sharon L. R.; Plews, Margot; Ruddat, Viola; Brunet, Simone; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Knox, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty in developing a diagnostic assay for Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) stems in part from the fact that the infectious agent is an aberrantly folded form of an endogenous cellular protein. This precludes the use of the powerful gene based technologies currently applied to the direct detection of other infectious agents. To circumvent this problem our research objective has been to identify a set of proteins exhibiting characteristic differential abundance in response to TSE infection. The objective of the present study was to assess the disease specificity of differentially abundant urine proteins able to identify scrapie infected mice. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was used to analyze longitudinal collections of urine samples from both prion-infected mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The introduction of fluorescent dyes, that allow multiple samples to be co-resolved and visualized on one two dimensional gel, have increased the accuracy of this methodology for the discovery of robust protein biomarkers for disease. The accuracy of a small panel of differentially abundant proteins to correctly classify an independent naïve sample set was determined. The results demonstrated that at the time of clinical presentation the differential abundance of urine proteins were capable of identifying the prion infected mice with 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The identity of the diagnostic differentially abundant proteins was investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:23704971

  1. Disease proteomics of high-molecular-mass proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with agarose gels in the first dimension (Agarose 2-DE).

    PubMed

    Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Maeda, Tadakazu

    2007-04-15

    Agarose gel is the preferred electrophoretic medium currently used for separating high molecular mass (HMM) proteins (MW>100 kDa). Agarose gels are widely used for both SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis and agarose isoelectric focusing (IEF). A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method employing agarose gels in the first dimension (agarose 2-DE) that is sufficiently good at separating up to 1.5mg of HMM proteins with molecular masses as large as 500 kDa has been used to separate proteins from various diseased tissues and cells. Although resolution of the agarose 2-DE pattern always depends on the tissue being analyzed, sample preparation procedures including (i) protein extraction with an SDS sample buffer; (ii) ultracentrifugation of a tissue homogenate; and (iii) 1% SDS in both stacking and separation gels of the second-dimension SDS-PAGE gel, are generally effective for HMM protein detection. In a comprehensive prostate cancer proteome study using agarose 2-DE, the HMM region of the gel was rich in proteins of particular gene/protein expression groups (39.1% of the HMM proteins but only 28.4% of the LMM ones were classified as transcription/translation-related proteins). Examples include transcription factors, DNA or RNA binding proteins, and ribosomal proteins. To understand oxidative stress-induced cellular damage at the protein level, a novel proteomic method, in which protein carbonyls were derivatized with biotin hydrazide followed by agarose 2-DE, was useful for detecting HMM protein carbonyls in tissues of both a diabetes model Ostuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and a control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rat. In this paper, we review the use of agarose gels for separation of HMM proteins and disease proteomics of HMM proteins in general, with particular attention paid to our proteome analyzes based on the use of agarose 2-DE for protein separation followed by the use of mass spectrometry for protein identification. PMID:17141588

  2. Enzymatic assessment of cholesterol on electrophoresis gels for estimating HDL size distribution and plasma concentrations of HDL subclasses[S

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ibelles, Paola; García-Sánchez, Cynthia; Ávila-Vazzini, Nydia; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an enzymatic cholesterol staining method to determine HDL subclasses in a polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, which further allows staining by protein in the same electrophoresis lane. HDLs from 120 healthy individuals were separated through nondenaturing PAGE. HDLs were stained for cholesterol using an enzymatic semisolid mixture. Once the gels were unstained, they were stained again for proteins with Coomassie blue. The proportions of HDL subclasses were determined by densitometry. HDL subclasses were transformed to concentrations using as reference HDL-cholesterol plasma levels. This method is comparable in linearity and reproducibility to Coomassie blue staining, although it provides quantitative data. As expected, HDL size distribution shifted toward larger particles when determined by cholesterol as compared with protein. With this method, we observed different proportions of HDL subclasses between men and women as compared with Coomassie blue staining. We described a method to determine HDL size distribution by enzymatic cholesterol staining on polyacrylamide gels. The method allows the quantification of the cholesterol plasma concentration of each HDL subclass with the possibility to further stain the protein in the same sample. The combination of HDL staining by cholesterol and protein on electrophoresis gels provides information that may have clinical relevance. PMID:20097938

  3. A multi-channel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high throughput protein separation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D.; Jin, Jian

    2009-10-02

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A Counter Free-Flow elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50percent or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 L/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 g per channel and reduced resolution.

  4. Cationic electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Engelbert

    2012-01-01

    Denaturing, discontinuous electrophoresis in the presence of SDS has become a standard method for the protein scientist. However, there are situations where this method produces suboptimal results. In these cases, electrophoresis in the presence of positively charged detergents such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) may work considerably better. Methods for electrophoresis and staining of such gels are presented. PMID:22585477

  5. Thermal denaturation of double-stranded nucleic acids: prediction of temperatures critical for gradient gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G

    1994-01-01

    A program is described which calculates the thermal stability and the denaturation behaviour of double-stranded DNAs and RNAs up to a length of 1000 base pairs. The algorithm is based on recursive generation of conditional and a priori probabilities for base stacking. Output of the program may be compared directly to experimental results; thus the program may be used to optimize the nucleic acid fragments, the primers and the experimental conditions prior to experiments like polymerase chain reactions, temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis, denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and hybridizations. The program is available in three versions; the first version runs interactively on VAXstations producing graphics output directly, the second is implemented as part of the HUSAR package at GENIUSnet, the third runs on any computer producing text output which serves as input to available graphics programs. Images PMID:8052531

  6. Use of an acid-labile surfactant as an SDS substitute for gel electrophoresis and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Martin; Brown, Elizabeth K; Bouvier, Edouard S P; König, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Modern protein identification and analysis relies largely on proteolytic in-gel digestion of proteins separated during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by mass spectrometric (MS) measurement of the extracted peptides. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is routinely used in nonnative PAGE. However, SDS can interfere with MS. We report the use of an acid-labile surfactant (ALS-I) in place of SDS. ALSI is a long chain derivative of 1,3-dioxolane sodium propyloxy sulfate and has similar denaturing and electrophoretic properties as SDS, but it decomposes at low pH and enhances MS detection of proteins. PMID:19498958

  7. Microscopic agglutination and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of oral anaerobic spirochetes.

    PubMed Central

    Tall, B D; Nauman, R K

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic agglutination (MA) analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to determine strain and species similarities and dissimilarities among three species of oral anaerobic spirochetes, Treponema denticola, Treponema pectinovorum, and Treponema vincentii. The MA analysis revealed a diversity of serologic reactivity or sharing of common antigens within each species. However, there was no cross-reactivity or sharing of common antigens among the three species. Distinct SDS-PAGE whole-cell electrophoretograms for each species were obtained. The banding patterns for 16 T. denticola strains revealed 30 distinct proteins, while the banding patterns for 5 strains of T. pectinovorum and 2 strains of T. vincentii revealed 26 and 35 distinct proteins, respectively. Analysis of the electrophoretograms showed that their respective banding patterns could be used to distinguish the three species from one another. In addition, strain differences within each species could be detected. There was a correlation between MA analysis and SDS-PAGE analysis. It is thus suggested that both MA and SDS-PAGE analysis be included in classification schemes for the identification of oral spirochetes. Images PMID:3745424

  8. Difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) identifies differentially expressed proteins in endoscopically-collected pancreatic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Banks, Peter A.; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in the pancreatic fluid proteome of individuals with chronic pancreatitis may offer insights into the development and progression of the disease. The endoscopic pancreas function test (ePFT) can safely collect large volumes of pancreatic fluid that are potentially amenable to proteomic analyses using difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pancreatic fluid was collected endoscopically using the ePFT method following secretin stimulation from three individuals with severe chronic pancreatitis and three chronic abdominal pain controls. The fluid was processed to minimize protein degradation and the protein profiles of each cohort, as determined by DiGE and LC-MS/MS, were compared. This DiGE-LC-MS/MS analysis reveals proteins that are differentially expressed in chronic pancreatitis compared to chronic abdominal pain controls. Proteins with higher abundance in pancreatic fluid from chronic pancreatitis individuals include: actin, desmoplankin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, SNC73, and serotransferrin. Those of relatively lower abundance include carboxypeptidase B, lipase, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, Arp2/3 subunit 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and protein disulfide isomerase. Endoscopic collection (ePFT) in tandem with DiGE-LC-MS/MS is a suitable approach for pancreatic fluid proteome analysis, however, further optimization of our protocol, as outlined herein, may improve proteome coverage in future analyses. PMID:21792986

  9. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25ng/?l in serum samples and 126pg/?l in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ=75ng/?l, R(2)=0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  10. Oenococcus oeni strain typification by combination of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Arenzana, Lucía; Santamaría, Pilar; López, Rosa; López-Alfaro, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Oenococcus oeni is usually the main lactic acid bacteria (LAB) responsible for conducting malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wines. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is one of the most common methods used to identify different genotypes among the wine LAB populations. Although PFGE is a powerful typing tool, it is time-consuming and its results are not easily exchangeable between laboratories so typing methods such as Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) have been developed. In this study, thirty O. oeni isolates from Rioja Tempranillo wines were characterized performing SfiI and ApaI PFGE and MLST with eight housekeeping genes. Using the latter technique, six new alleles have been described for five genes. PFGE was slightly more efficient than MLST because of the number of genotypes and of the index of diversity (ID) that each technique discriminated. This has been the first time that PFGE and MLST results have been combined to shape a unique dendrogram. Thus, the combination of results from both typing methods allowed the discrimination of twenty-two PFGE-ST genotypes showing the highest ID of these research (0.947). According to these results, the future application of the combination of PFGE and MLST results could be successful for reliable O. oeni strain typification. PMID:24290654

  11. Bacterial community dynamics of salted and fermented shrimp based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Han, Kook-Il; Kim, Yong Hyun; Hwang, Seon Gu; Jung, Eui-Gil; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Han, Yeon Soo; Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Wan-Jong; Han, Man-Deuk

    2014-12-01

    The Korean traditional seafood jeotgal is consumed directly or as an additive in other foods to improve flavor or fermentation efficiency. Saeujot, made from salted and fermented tiny shrimp (SFS; Acetes japonicus), is the best-selling jeotgal in Korea. In this study, we reveal the microbial diversity and dynamics in naturally fermented shrimp by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The population fingerprints of the predominant microbiota and its succession were generated by DGGE analysis of universal V3 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons. Overall, 17 strains were identified from sequencing of 30 DGGE bands. The DGGE profiles showed diverse bacterial populations in the sample, throughout the fermentation of SFS. Staphylococcus equorum, Halanaerobium saccharolyticum, Salimicrobium luteum, and Halomonas jeotgali were the dominant bacteria, and their levels steadily increased during the fermentation process. Certain other bacteria, such as Psychrobacter jeotgali and Halomonas alimentaria appeared during the early-fermentation process, while Alkalibacterium putridalgicola, Tetragenococcus muriaticus, and Salinicoccus jeotgali appeared during the late-fermentation process. The members of the order Bacillales were found to be predominant during the fermentation of SFS. Furthermore, S. equorum was identified as the dominant bacterial isolate by the traditional method of culturing under aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions. We expect that this information will facilitate the design of autochthonous starter cultures for the production of SFS with desired characteristic sensory profiles and shorter ripening times. PMID:25393163

  12. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates from an epidemic by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Beall, B; Cassiday, P K; Sanden, G N

    1995-01-01

    We examined genetic variation among 78 clinical isolates of Bordetella pertussis, including 54 strains recovered during a 1986 pertussis epidemic. A total of 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles, generated with each of three different enzymes (XbaI, SpeI, and DraI), were obtained from the epidemic and sporadic isolates included in the study. Indistinguishable profiles were seen among strains unrelated temporally or geographically, as well as among strains isolated sporadically from the same geographic areas. All isolates from the epidemic had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. The PFGE pattern of the epidemic strains was shared with only 1 of 25 strains isolated independently of the outbreak. This isolate was cultured from a specimen from a laboratory scientist who had been working with the epidemic strains, further implicating the usefulness of PFGE for the epidemiologic study of clinical strains of B. pertussis. Differences in PFGE profiles for single epidemic strains occurred occasionally upon repeated passage on agar medium, suggesting that subculturing of initial isolates should be minimized before pulsed-field analysis. PMID:8586677

  13. Thermal gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bioprotection from pollutant shocks in the activated sludge microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Eichner, C.A.; Erb, R.W.; Timmis, K.N.; Wagner-Doebler, I. [National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany). Div. of Microbiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors used a culture-independent approach, namely, thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of ribosomal sequences amplified directly from community DNA, to determine changes in the structure of the microbial community following phenol shocks in the highly complex activated sludge ecosystem. Parallel experimental model sewage plants were given shock loads of chlorinated and methylated phenols and simultaneously were inoculated (i) with a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) able to degrade the added substituted phenols or (ii) with the nonengineered parental strain. The sludge community DNA was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified and analyzed by TGGE. To allow quantitative analysis of TGGE banding patterns, they were normalized to an external standard. The samples were then compared with each other for similarity by using the coefficient of Dice. The Shannon index of diversity, H, was calculated for each sludge sample, which made it possible to determine changes in community diversity. The authors observed a breakdown in community structure following shock loads of phenols by a decrease in the Shannon index of diversity from 1.13 to 0.22 in the noninoculated system. Inoculation with the GEM (Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 SN45RE) effectively protected the microbial community, as indicated by the maintenance of a high diversity throughout the shock load experiment. Inoculation with the nonengineered parental strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, did not protect the microbial community from being severely disturbed.

  14. Prediction System for Rapid Identification of Salmonella Serotypes Based on Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Jiun; Hise, Kelley B.; Chen, Hung-Chia; Keys, Christine; Chen, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A classification model is presented for rapid identification of Salmonella serotypes based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprints. The classification model was developed using random forest and support vector machine algorithms and was then applied to a database of 45,923 PFGE patterns, randomly selected from all submissions to CDC PulseNet from 2005 to 2010. The patterns selected included the top 20 most frequent serotypes and 12 less frequent serotypes from various sources. The prediction accuracies for the 32 serotypes ranged from 68.8% to 99.9%, with an overall accuracy of 96.0% for the random forest classification, and ranged from 67.8% to 100.0%, with an overall accuracy of 96.1% for the support vector machine classification. The prediction system improves reliability and accuracy and provides a new tool for early and fast screening and source tracking of outbreak isolates. It is especially useful to get serotype information before the conventional methods are done. Additionally, this system also works well for isolates that are serotyped as “unknown” by conventional methods, and it is useful for a laboratory where standard serotyping is not available. PMID:22378901

  15. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Cheong, Y M; Kan, S; Yassin, R M; Vadivelu, J; Pang, T

    1994-01-01

    Isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor from two well-defined cholera outbreaks in Malaysia were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates from sporadic cases occurring during the same time period were also studied. Digestion of chromosomal DNA from these isolates of V. cholerae O1 with restriction endonucleases NotI (5'-GCGGCCGC-3') and SfiI (5'-GGCCNNNN-3'), followed by PFGE, produced restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) patterns consisting of 13 to 24 bands (ranging in size from 46 to 398 kbp). Analysis of the REA patterns generated by PFGE after digestion with NotI and SfiI suggested the clonal nature and close genetic identity of the isolates obtained during each of the two outbreaks (Dice coefficient, 0.93 to 1.0). Although they had very similar REA patterns, the two outbreak clones were not identical. Isolates of V. cholerae O1 from sporadic cases, on the other hand, appeared to be much more heterogeneous (five different REA patterns detected in the five isolates tested; Dice coefficient, 0.31 to 0.81) than those obtained during the two outbreaks. We conclude that PFGE of V. cholerae O1 chromosomal DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases is a useful method for molecular typing of V. cholerae isolates for epidemiological purposes. Images PMID:7883885

  16. The many applications of acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to studies of tRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Köhrer, Caroline; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe the many applications of acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (acid urea PAGE) followed by Northern blot analysis to studies of tRNAs. Acid urea PAGE allows the electrophoretic separation of different forms of a tRNA, discriminated by changes in bulk, charge, and/or conformation that are brought about by aminoacylation, formylation, or modification of a tRNA. Among the examples described are (i) analysis of the effect of mutations in the Escherichia coli initiator tRNA on its aminoacylation and formylation; (ii) evidence of orthogonality of suppressor tRNAs in mammalian cells and yeast; (iii) analysis of aminoacylation specificity of an archaeal prolyl-tRNA synthetase that can aminoacylate archaeal tRNAPro with cysteine, but does not aminoacylate archaeal tRNACys with cysteine; (iv) identification and characterization of the AUA-decoding minor tRNAIle in archaea; and (v) evidence that the archaeal minor tRNAIle contains a modified base in the wobble position different from lysidine found in the corresponding eubacterial tRNA. PMID:18241794

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method using phosphate-affinity polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2007-02-15

    To date, various methods have been developed to facilitate the genotyping of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for aiding in the diagnosis and treatment of inherited diseases. The most commonly used method for SNP genotyping is an allele-specific hybridization procedure using an expensive fluorochrome-labeled oligonucleotide probe and a specialized fluorescence analyzer. Here, we introduce a simple and reliable genotyping method using a 1:1 mixture of 5'-phosphate-labeled and nonlabeled allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. The method is based on the difference in mobility of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated PCR products (in the same number of basepairs) on phosphate-affinity polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The phosphate-affinity site is a polyacrylamide-bound dinuclear zinc(II) complex, which preferentially captures the 5'-phosphate-labeled allele-specific product compared with the corresponding nonlabeled product. The obtained DNA migration bands can be visualized by ethidium bromide staining. We demonstrate the genotyping of a SNP reported in a human cardiac sodium channel gene, SCN5A, using this novel procedure. PMID:17196923

  18. Rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Samy; El Kholy, Iman; Hagagy, Nashwa; El Alfay, Sahar; Aziz, Mohamed Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Twenty clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients admitted to The General Hospital in Ismailia Governorate (Egypt) were examined in this study. We analysed P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (as a control strain) and 19 of the isolates after digestion with SpeI restriction endonuclease. After this we conducted a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typed the obtained 10 unique patterns, designated as A, A1, B, B1, C, C1, D, D1, E and F. We evaluated the genetic relatedness between all strains, based on ?87% band identity. As a result, the isolates were grouped in the 10 clusters as follows: patterns A, A1, B, B1, C contained two strains each and patterns C1, D, D1, E contained a single strain each; the five remaining strains were closely related (genomic pattern F). One isolate belonged to antibiotype ‘b’. The genotype patterns of the P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 control strain and isolate no. 11 were closely related and had two different antibiotypes ‘d’ and ‘c’, respectively. PMID:26019629

  19. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  20. Stoichiometry of the MexA-OprM binding, as investigated by blue native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ferrandez, Yann; Monlezun, Laura; Phan, Gilles; Benabdelhak, Houssain; Benas, Philippe; Ulryck, Nathalie; Falson, Pierre; Ducruix, Arnaud; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    Multidrug resistance has become a serious concern in the treatment of bacterial infections. A prominent role is ascribed to the active efflux of xenobiotics out of the bacteria by a tripartite protein machinery. The mechanism of drug extrusion is rather well understood, thanks to the X-ray structures obtained for the Escherichia coli TolC/AcrA/AcrB model system and the related Pseudomonas aeruginosa OprM/MexA/MexB. However, many questions remain unresolved, in particular the stoichiometry of the efflux pump assembly. On the basis of blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) (Wittig et al., Nat. Protoc. 2006, 1, 418-428), we analyzed the binding stoichiometry of both palmitylated and non-palmitylated MexA with the cognate partner OprM trimer at different ratios and detergent conditions. We found that ?-octyl glucopyranoside (?-OG) detergent was not suitable for this technique. Then we proved that MexA has to be palmitylated in order to stabilized the complex formation with OprM. Finally, we provided evidence for a two by two (2, 4, 6, or upper) binding of palmitylated MexA per trimer of OprM. PMID:22589107

  1. Investigation of endogenous soybean food allergens by using a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach.

    PubMed

    Rouquié, David; Capt, Annabelle; Eby, William H; Sekar, Vaithilingam; Hérouet-Guicheney, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    As part of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) soybean, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses were performed with the isoxaflutole and glyphosate tolerant soybean FG72, its non-GM near-isogenic counterpart (Jack) and three commercial non-GM soybean lines. The objective was to compare the known endogenous human food allergens in seeds in the five different soybean lines in order to evaluate any potential unintended effect(s) of the genetic modification. In total, 37 protein spots representing five well known soybean food allergen groups were quantified in each genotype. Qualitatively, all the allergenic proteins were detected in the different genetic backgrounds. Quantitatively, among 37 protein spots, the levels of accumulation of three allergens were slightly lower in the GM soybean than in the non-GM counterparts. Specifically, while the levels of two of these three allergens fell within the normal range of variation observed in the four non-GM varieties, the level of the third allergen was slightly below the normal range. Overall, there was no significant increase in the level of allergens in FG72 soybean seeds. Therefore, the FG72 soybean can be considered as safe as its non-GM counterpart with regards to endogenous allergenicity. Additional research is needed to evaluate the biological variability in the levels of endogenous soybean allergens and the correlation between level of allergens and allergenic potential in order to improve the interpretation of these data in the safety assessment of GM soybean context. PMID:20932868

  2. Characterization of Trichuris skrjabini by isoenzyme gel electrophoresis: comparative study with Trichuris ovis.

    PubMed

    Cutillas, C; German, P; Arias, P; Guevara, D

    1996-10-01

    Morphological and biometric studies were performed in Trichuris skrjabini (Baskakov, 1924) collected from the caecum of Capra hircus. The LDH (EC 1.1.1.27.), G6PD (EC 1.1.1.49.), GPI (EC 5.3.1.9.), MDH (EC 1.1.1.37) and malic enzyme (ME) (EC 1.1.1.40) isoenzymatic patterns of T. skrjabini were determined by starch gel electrophoresis. The G6PD and GPI isoenzymatic patterns of T. skrjabini displayed two anodic bands for both enzymes: one fast migration band and one band near the origin. This isoenzymatic pattern was interpreted as two gene loci encoding both enzymes. The LDH isoenzymatic pattern of T. skrjabini was characterized by the presence of a cathodically migrating band, while the MDH isoenzymatic pattern showed a very slow cathodic band. These two phenotypes were interpreted as the expression of a homozygous state of a gene locus for LDH and MDH in T. skrjabini. The ME isoenzymatic pattern was characterized by the presence of a single anodic band. Further, comparative isoenzymatic studies were carried out between T. skrjabini and T. ovis. The different G6PD, GPI, LDH, MDH and ME isoenzymatic patterns observed for both species allowed us to distinguish them and therefore to use isoenzymatic patterns as a diagnostic tool to differentiate species of Trichuris. PMID:8988307

  3. Changes in the actinomycetal communities during continuous thermophilic composting as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Xiao; Guang-Ming Zeng; Zhao-Hui Yang; Yan-He Ma; Cui Huang; Zheng-Yong Xu; Jing Huang; Chang-Zheng Fan

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycetes degrade cellulose and solubilize lignin during composting. Changes in the diversity of the actinomycetal communities and the 16S rDNA copy numbers of actinomycetes were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively, during continuous thermophilic composting (CTC) and traditional composting (TC). qPCR indicated that the copy numbers from the CTC samples were 25–80% higher than

  4. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes contamination sources in two fresh sauce production plants by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Pourshaban; M Gianfranceschi; A Gattuso; F Menconi; P Aureli

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from two food-processing plants, which produce fresh sauces, were serologically characterized and tested by the mouse biological assay and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The use of PFGE for the characterization of these L. monocytogenes strains provided, in plant A, valuable information about potential sites of cross-contamination and in plant B, a valuable

  5. Genomic DNA Fingerprinting of Oenococcus oeni Strains by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Zapparoli; Cristina Reguant; Albert Bordons; Sandra Torriani; Franco Dellaglio

    2000-01-01

    .   Genetic diversity of 60 Oenococcus oeni strains from different wines was evaluated by numerical analysis of (i) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns\\u000a with endonuclease ApaI and (ii) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprints with four oligonucleotide primers. Sixty-two percent\\u000a of the strains could be distinguished by PFGE, whereas most strains were identified by distinct RAPD-PCR profiles and associated\\u000a according

  6. Genotypic Characterization of Salmonella enteritidis Phage Types by Plasmid Analysis, Ribotyping, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. RIDLEY; E. J. THRELFALL; B. ROWE

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to resolve XbaI and SpeI macrorestriction fragments from 60 defined phage type (PT) reference strains of Salmonella enteritidis. The level of discrimination was compared to that afforded by plasmid profile analysis and ribotyping. Twenty-eight distinct XbaI pulsed-field profiles (PFPs) were observed, although a single type, PFP X1, predominated. Absence of the 57-kb spv-associated fragment

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Monitoring of Fecal Bifidobacterium Populations in a Prebiotic and Probiotic Feeding Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reetta M. Satokari; Elaine E. Vaughan; Antoon D. L. Akkermans; Maria Saarela; Willem M. de Vos

    2001-01-01

    A culture-independent approach based on genus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to monitor qualitative changes in fecal bifidobacterial communities in a human feeding trial. DNA was extracted directly from feces and bifidobacterial 16S rDNA sequences were amplified using genus-specific PCR. The PCR fragments were subsequently separated in a sequence-specific manner by DGGE in order to obtain

  8. Detection and Identification of Gastrointestinal Lactobacillus Species by Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Species-Specific PCR Primers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Walter; G. W. Tannock; A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi; S. Rodtong; D. M. Loach; K. Munro; T. Alatossava

    2000-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments obtained by PCR amplification of the V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to detect the presence of Lactobacillus species in the stomach contents of mice. Lactobacillus isolates cultured from human and porcine gastrointestinal samples were identified to the species level by using a combination of DGGE and species-specific PCR

  9. Genetic Relationship between Blood and Nonblood Isolates from Bacteremic Patients Determined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUNICHI MATSUDA; YOICHI HIRAKATA; FUMIAKI IORI; CHIKAKO MOCHIDA; YUMI OZAKI; MICHIKO NAKANO; KOHICHI IZUMIKAWA; TOSHIYUKI YAMAGUCHI; RYOJI YOSHIDA; YOSHITSUGU MIYAZAKI; SHIGEFUMI MAESAKI; KAZUNORI TOMONO; YASUAKI YAMADA; SHIGERU KOHNO; SHIMERU KAMIHIRA

    A total of 148 isolates from 55 bacteremic patients were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genetically different nonblood strains were isolated from 13.9% of patients with bacteremia caused by gram- positive cocci and 42.1% with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia, indicating that antibiograms of a single nonblood P. aeruginosa isolate are not always informative for treatment of bacteremia. Bacteremia arises from preexisting

  10. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis method for investigation of human plasma proteins: detection of subtle changes during filtration leukapheresis.

    PubMed

    Lonberg-Holm, K; Bagley, E A; Nusbacher, J; Heal, J M

    1982-04-01

    Special problems are associated with analysis of human plasma proteins by standard "high-resolution" two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methods in which isoelectric focusing is followed by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Individual plasma proteins are often separated into overlapping groups of multiple spots, and identification of individual spots is further confounded by genetic variation. Analytical recovery of components of high molecular mass is also low or variable. These problems may be reduced or overcome by use of a "low-resolution" method consisting of electrophoresis of native proteins at pH 8.6 in an agarose gel followed by SDS-PAGE without added reducing agent. About 60 proteins can be resolved, most as single spots. About 25 of these proteins have been "mapped," and tentatively identified. We have examined 119 plasma samples taken from six donors who were undergoing filtration leukapheresis and 10 donors who were undergoing centrifugation leukapheresis or plateletpheresis. In all cases, passage of blood through a nylon filter induced a significant increase in a doublet of spots tentatively identified as complement component C3c. This was detected in the effluent from the filter throughout the first 30 min of filtration, and to a lesser extent in the venous blood. These spots were not induced by the centrifugation procedures. One filtration donor also showed increased acute-phase proteins 24 h after the procedure. PMID:7074886

  11. Detection and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Eiler, Alexander; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria affiliated with the genus Vibrio are endemic in marine and estuarine ecosystems and are also found in many freshwater environments. Vibrios can enter viable but non-culturable states and since many species are pathogenic, there is a great need for culture-independent methods that identify and quantify multiple Vibrio populations. We adopted Vibrio-specific 16S rRNA-directed primers and a competitive PCR protocol (QC-PCR; [Thompson, J.R., Randa, M.A., Marcelino, L.A., Tomita-Mitchell, A., Lim, E., Polz, M.F., 2004b. Diversity and dynamics of a North Atlantic coastal Vibrio community. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 4103-4110]) for separation and quantification of Vibrio populations using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sixteen Vibrio isolates and eight environmental samples were used to assess the precision and resolution of the method. A 45-70% gradient of Urea and formamide enabled separation of Vibrio populations with single nucleotide differences in the amplified fragment. A titration curve for the QC-PCR-DGGE, verified by amending surface water bacterioplankton samples with up to 3 x 10(5)Vibrio cholerae cells, could be approximated by a linear regression of log-transformed values (R(2)=0.96). The limit of detection for single populations was 180 cells per extracted sample or about 4 cells per PCR reaction. Environmental samples from the southern Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea and the more saline coastal waters of Skagerrak each carried between 2 and 6 Vibrio populations, and there were major differences between the locations. Notably, multiple Vibrio populations could be detected and quantified against a background of native bacterioplankton exceeding Vibrio population abundance by more than 6 orders of magnitude. Putative identification based on migration in the DGGE gel was verified by parallel cloning and sequencing of PCR products, and representative clones were also characterized by DGGE. This general approach could also be useful for targeting other phylogenetically constrained bacterial groups and assess their abundance and distribution in complex environmental settings. PMID:16730823

  12. Population Dynamics of Chesapeake Bay Virioplankton: Total-Community Analysis by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Ravel, Jacques; Hill, Russell T.; Chun, Jongsik; Colwell, Rita R.

    1999-01-01

    Recognition of viruses as the most abundant component of aquatic microbial communities has stimulated investigations of the impact of viruses on bacterio- and phytoplankton host communities. From results of field studies to date, it is concluded that in most aquatic environments, a reduction in the number of bacteria on a daily basis is caused by viral infection. However, the modest amount of in situ virus-mediated mortality may be less significant than viral infection serving to maintain clonal diversity in the host communities directly, through gene transmission (i.e., transduction), and indirectly, by elimination of numerically dominant host species. If the latter mechanism for controlling community diversity prevails, then the overall structure of aquatic viral communities would be expected to change as well over short seasonal and spatial scales. To determine whether this occurs, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to monitor the population dynamics of Chesapeake Bay virioplankton for an annual cycle (1 year). Virioplankton in water samples collected at six stations along a transect running the length of the bay were concentrated 100-fold by ultrafiltration. Viruses were further concentrated by ultracentrifugation, and the concentrated samples were embedded in agarose. PFGE analysis of virus DNA in the agarose plugs yielded several distinct bands, ranging from 50 to 300 kb. Principal-component and cluster analyses of the virus PFGE fingerprints indicated that changes in virioplankton community structure were correlated with time, geographical location, and extent of water column stratification. From the results of this study, it is concluded that, based on the dynamic nature of the Chesapeake Bay virioplankton community structure, the clonal diversity of bacterio- and phytoplankton host communities is an important component of the virus community. PMID:9872784

  13. Assessment of bacterial community structure in soil by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gelsomino, A; Keijzer-Wolters, A C; Cacco, G; van Elsas, J D

    1999-10-01

    Bacterial community structure was studied in a Flevo silt loam (FSL) soil microplot, as well as in 15 other soils, by using DNA extraction followed by molecular fingerprinting. Total community DNA was extracted and purified by a direct method, which yielded amplifiable DNA of high molecular weight for all soils. A variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was then amplified by PCR with bacterial primers, resulting in a mixture of amplicons separable via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of FSL soil were indicative of dominant soil bacterial types, as evidenced by assessing the amplification of Enterobacter cloacae and Arthrobacter sp. targets in a soil DNA background. These targets produced barely detectable bands when present in soil DNA at roughly 5 x 10(6) genome equivalents per g dry soil, and strong bands at 27-fold higher levels. The PCR-DGGE analysis of the FSL soil was highly reproducible. Furthermore, different single versus composite topsoil samples yielded similar DGGE profiles with respect to major bands. In addition, samples taken along vertical soil cores (0-45 cm depth) revealed relative stability of the DGGE profiles. The profiles produced with DNA obtained from different aggregate size fractions of this soil were also similar with respect to the main bands. Moreover, FSL topsoil samples taken over a 1-year period (fallow soil) yielded stable profiles. These data suggested that the soil bacterial communities thus determined were dominated by a limited number of stable and ubiquitous types. The 16 soils, representing varying types and geographical locations, were assessed for differences in their bacterial DGGE profiles. There were striking differences between the profiles obtained for these soils. Evidence was found for the hypothesis that similar soil types tend to contain similar structures of the dominating bacterial types as revealed by the DGGE profiles. PMID:10520580

  14. Multilocus sequence typing scheme versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing Mycobacterium abscessus isolates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. PMID:24899019

  15. A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to assess Fusarium diversity in asparagus.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, E; Filion, M; Vujanovic, V; St-Arnaud, M

    2005-02-01

    In North America, asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) production suffers from a crown and root rot disease mainly caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum. Many other Fusarium species are also found in asparagus fields, whereas accurate detection and identification of these organisms, especially when processing numerous samples, is usually difficult and time consuming. In this study, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was developed to assess Fusarium species diversity in asparagus plant samples. Fusarium-specific PCR primers targeting a partial region of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene were designed, and their specificity was tested against genomic DNA extracted from a large collection of closely and distantly related organisms isolated from multiple environments. Amplicons of 450 bp were obtained from all Fusarium isolates, while no PCR product was obtained from non-Fusarium organisms. The ability of DGGE to discriminate between Fusarium taxa was tested over 19 different Fusarium species represented by 39 isolates, including most species previously reported from asparagus fields worldwide. The technique was effective to visually discriminate between the majority of Fusarium species and/or isolates tested in pure culture, while a further sequencing step permitted to distinguish between the few species showing similar migration patterns. Total genomic DNA was extracted from field-grown asparagus plants naturally infested with different Fusarium species, submitted to PCR amplification, DGGE analysis and sequencing. The two to four bands observed for each plant sample were all affiliated with F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum or F. solani, clearly supporting the reliability, sensitivity and specificity of this approach for the study of Fusarium diversity from asparagus plants samples. PMID:15590089

  16. COMPARISON OF PROTEIN IDENTIFICATION BY MALDI-TOF/TOF AND LC ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MS FOR 2D GEL SEPARATED CAULIFLOWER SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2D-gel mapping, it is well-known that essentially identical proteins migrate to different positions in the gel (due to PTMs etc.) while some, seemingly, well resolved spots consist of multiple proteins. Clearly, this observation can have dire consequences for the validity of gel-based comparativ...

  17. Identification of 2D-gel proteins : a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to {mu} LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Hays, L. G.; Eng, J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Giometti, C. S.; Holden, J. F.; Adams, M. W. W.; Reich, C. I.; Olsen, G. J.; Yates, J. R.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Georgia; Univ. of Illinois

    2003-09-01

    A comparative analysis of protein identification for a total of 162 protein spots separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from two fully sequenced archaea, Methanococcus jannaschii and Pyrococcus furiosus, using MALDI-TOF peptide mass mapping (PMM) and mu LC-MS/MS is presented. 100% of the gel spots analyzed were successfully matched to the predicted proteins in the two corresponding open reading frame databases by mu LC-MS/MS while 97% of them were identified by MALDI-TOF PMM. The high success rate from the PMM resulted from sample desalting/concentrating with ZipTip(C18) and optimization of several PMM search parameters including a 25 ppm average mass tolerance and the application of two different protein molecular weight search windows. By using this strategy, low-molecular weight (<23 kDa) proteins could be identified unambiguously with less than 5 peptide matches. Nine percent of spots were identified as containing multiple proteins. By using mu LC-MS/MS, 50% of the spots analyzed were identified as containing multiple proteins. mu LC-MS/MS demonstrated better protein sequence coverage than MALDI-TOF PMM over the entire mass range of proteins identified. MALDI-TOF and PMM produced unique peptide molecular weight matches that were not identified by mu LC-MS/MS. By incorporating amino acid sequence modifications into database searches, combined sequence coverage obtained from these two complimentary ionization methods exceeded 50% for approximately 70% of the 162 spots analyzed. This improved sequence coverage in combination with enzymatic digestions of different specificity is proposed as a method for analysis of post-translational modification from 2D-gel separated proteins.

  18. Investigating the formation of "molybdenum blues" with gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ippei; Miras, Haralampos N; Fujiwara, Aya; Fujibayashi, Masaru; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy; Tsunashima, Ryo

    2015-05-27

    The reduction of solutions of acidified molybdate leads to the formation of a family of nanostructured molybdenum blue (MB) wheels which are linked together in a series of complex reaction networks. These networks are complex because the species which define the nodes are extremely labile, unstable, and common to many different networks. Herein, we combine gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to investigate the effect of the pH and the ratio of reactants and reducing agents, R (R = [S2O4(2-)]/[MoO4(2-)]), on the complex underlying set of equilibria that make up MBs. By mapping the reaction parameter space given by experimental variables such as pH, R, solvent medium, and type of counterion, we show that the species present range from nanostructured MB wheels (comprising ca. 154 Mo atoms) to smaller molecular capsules, [(SO3)2Mo(V)2Mo(VI)16O54](6-) ({S2Mo18}), and templated hexameric [(?6-SO3)Mo(V)6O15(?2-SO3)3](8-)({S4Mo6}) anions. The parallel effects of templation and reduction on the self-assembly process are discussed, taking into consideration the Lewis basicity of the template, the oxidation state of the Mo centers, and the polarity of the reaction medium. Finally, we report a new type of molecular cage (TBA)5[Na(SO3)2(PhPO3)4Mo(V)4Mo(VI)14O49]·nMeCN (1), templated by SO3(2-) anions and decorated by organic ligands. This discovery results from the exploration of the cooperative effect of two anions possessing comparable Lewis basicity, and we believe this constitutes a new synthetic approach for the design of new nanostructured molecular metal oxides and will lead to a greater understanding of the complex reaction networks underpinning the assembly of this family of nanoclusters. PMID:25897816

  19. Molecular Typing of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolates from Thailand by Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Na-Ubol, Mathukorn; Tiyasuttipan, Watcharee; Chaiyaroj, Sansanee C.; Yamasaki, Shinji; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Hayashi, Hideo; Nair, G. Balakrish; Chongsa-Nguan, Manas; Kurazono, Hisao; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera patients in various provinces of Thailand. Two hundred and forty V. cholerae O1 strains, isolated from patients with cholera during two outbreaks, i.e. March 1999–April 2000 and December 2001–February 2002, in Thailand, were genotypically characterized by NotI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 17 PFGE banding patterns were found and grouped into four Dice-coefficient clusters (PF-I to PF-IV). The patterns of V. cholerae O1, El Tor reference strains from Australia, Peru, Romania, and the United States were different from the patterns of reference isolates from Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and Thailand, indicating a close genetic relationship or clonal origin of the isolates in the same geographical region. The Asian reference strains, regardless of their biotypes and serogroups (classical O1, El Tor O1, O139, or O151), showed a genetic resemblance, but had different patterns from the strains collected during the two outbreaks in Thailand. Of 200 Ogawa strains collected during the first outbreak in Thailand, two patterns (clones)—PF-I and PF-II—predominated, while other isolates caused sporadic cases and were grouped together as pattern PF-III. PF-II also predominated during the second outbreak, but none of the 40 isolates (39 Inaba and 1 Ogawa) of the second outbreak had the pattern PF-I; a minority showed a new pattern—PF-IV, and others caused single cases, but were not groupable. In summary, this study documented the sustained appearance of the pathogenic V. cholerae O1 clone PF-II, the disappearance of clones PF-I and PF-III, and the emergence of new pathogenic clones during the two outbreaks of cholera. Data of the study on molecular characteristics of indigenous V. cholerae clinical isolates have public-health implications, not only for epidemic tracing of existing strains but also for the recognition of strains with new genotypes that may emerge in the future. PMID:18637531

  20. [Investigation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis isolates by plasmid profile analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Us, Ebru; Erdem, Birsel; Tekeli, Alper; Gerçeker, Devran; Saran, Begüm; Bayramova, Mehseti; Sahin, Fikret

    2011-04-01

    In this study a total of 122 Salmonella serotype Enteritidis stock strains selected from the culture collection of Enterobacteriaceae Laboratory of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, were investigated by plasmid profile analysis with the method defined by Kado and Liu and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) according to World Health Organization protocols using SpeI and XbaI macrorestriction enzymes, for better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of S. Enteritidis. The study strains were selected from a collection of previously isolated epidemic (n= 13) and sporadic (n= 109) strains (103 stool, 16 blood and one each bile, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) obtained from 10 different cities after the year 2000. PFGE patterns were analyzed with Gene Directory software (Syngene, UK) and a similarity index was determined by using Dice coefficient and the unweighted pair group method with mathematical averaging (UPGMA). Plasmid-carrying 110 (90%) strains that harbored 1-4 plasmids with sizes ranging from 2.0 to 100 kb were separated into patterns more than 14 (p1-p14). A total of 85 (69.7%) isolates harbored the 57 kb plasmid solely or in combination with other plasmids. By PFGE, 11 distinct patterns were shown with each enzyme SpeI and XbaI. S. Enteritidis strains after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI generated 11 different PFGE patterns (A to K), whereas XbaI generated also 11 different PFGE patterns (a to k). PFGE pattern A consisted of 93 strains (76.2%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme SpeI, while PFGE pattern a consisted 53 (43.4%) and PFGE pattern b 42 strains (34.4%) after digestion with macrorestriction enzyme XbaI. Using two macrorestriction enzymes two PFGE cluster profiles Aa (50 strains, 40.9%) and Ab (42 strains, 34.4%) were found to be predominating among 17 different PFGE clusters. Our results confirmed the clonal nature of S. Enteritidis strains in Turkey. The use of two enzymes in PFGE analysis appeared to increase the discriminatory power of PFGE, leading to greater diversity among strains. PFGE analysis performed by SpeI and XbaI enzymes combined with plasmid profiling could be established as a useful tool for detection of genetic relationship between isolates. PMID:21644064

  1. Improving sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis detection of low-abundance protein samples by rapid freeze centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Virgen-Ortíz, J J; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Escalante-Minakata, P; Osuna-Castro, J A; Ornelas-Paz, J de J; Mancilla-Margalli, N A; Castañeda-Aguilar, R L

    2013-12-15

    This work presents a rapid and simple freeze centrifugation method to concentrate dilute protein solutions for detection by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Coomassie blue staining. Moreover, a simple way to assemble a cryoconcentration device is presented, and its use is discussed. Commercial purified protein standard and an enzyme with high fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity, coming from target fractions obtained by chromatographic separation, were used as an example. FTase, coming directly from the chromatographic fractions, was difficult to view through SDS-PAGE analysis; however, it was easily visualized, and its activity was enhanced, after the application of the freeze centrifugation protocol presented here. PMID:24050966

  2. Size analysis of residual host cell DNA in cell culture-produced vaccines by capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xuan; Chen, Xiaomu; Tabor, David E; Liu, Yi; Albarghouthi, Methal; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Galinski, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    Residual host cell DNA poses potential safety concerns for cell culture-derived vaccines or other biological products. In addition to the quantity of residual DNA, the size distribution is an important measure for determination of its associated risk factor. We have developed a new method for residual DNA size analysis, based on capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) technology with sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection (LIF). The performance of this method was optimized through empirical selection of appropriate testing conditions and optimized conditions are presented. Examples are given to demonstrate the successful employment of this method for residual DNA size analysis of cell culture-produced vaccine samples. PMID:23313102

  3. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. PMID:25639850

  4. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis map in the ataxia-telangiectasia region of chromosome 11q22. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrhammer, N.; Huo, Y.; Gatti, R.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Concannon, P. (Virginia Mason Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)); Nakamura, Yusuke (Cancer Institute, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-15

    The authors interest in isolating the gene(s) for ataxia-telangiectasia has prompted construction of a physical map of chromosome 11q22.3 using markers localized to this region by linkage analysis and/or hybrid cell panels. Twenty-two markers have been analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Nine of these markers form an [approximately]2-Mb long-range contiguous map. An average distance of 200 kb between probes in this map should facilitate the isolation of new cDNAs, anonymous probes, and YACs in an orderly way. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Increase in local protein concentration by field-inversion gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henghang Tsai; Teck Yew Low; Steve Freeby; Aran Paulus; Kalpana Ramnarayanan; Chung-pui Paul Cheng; Hon-chiu Eastwood Leung

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteins that migrate through cross-linked polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) under the influence of a constant electric field experience negative factors, such as diffusion and non-specific trapping in the gel matrix. These negative factors reduce protein concentrations within a defined gel volume with increasing migration distance and, therefore, decrease protein separation efficiency. Enhancement of protein separation efficiency was investigated by implementing

  6. 2D-GE IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON LEVEL-SETS E.A. Mylona a

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    of protein spots in 2D-GE images. The proposed scheme incorporates a protein spot detection stage based both software packages in terms of segmentation performance. Index Terms--2D-GE Images, Protein Spot of proteome visualization technologies. Two- dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) is the highest resolving

  7. IEF and NEPHGE 2-D PAGE Basic tube gel recipe, 5 ml volume

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    overnight with 5% Chem-Solv prior to pouring gels. Lysis buffer recipe, 1 ml volume: Urea 0.55 g (ultrapure tube gel: Mark a 10-15 cm length, depending on width of 2nd dimension. Parafilm bottom of tube. Slowly% overlay solution, and add lysis buffer. After a while, replace lysis buffer with fresh solution. Sample

  8. Estimation of circular DNA size using gamma-irradiation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Beverley, S.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-02-15

    A method is described for estimating the size of large circular DNAs found within complex chromosomal DNA preparations. DNAs are treated with low levels of gamma-irradiation, sufficient to introduce a single double-stranded break per circle, and the resulting linear DNA is sized by pulsed-field electrophoresis and blot hybridization. The method is fast, reproducible, and very conveniently applied to the agarose-enclosed chromosomal DNA preparations commonly used in pulsed field electrophoresis.

  9. Microfluidic two-dimensional separation of proteins combining temperature gradient focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shameli, Seyed Mostafa; Ren, Carolyn L

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional separation system is presented combining scanning temperature gradient focusing (TGF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in a PDMS/glass microfluidic chip. Denatured proteins are first focused and separated in a 15 mm long channel via TGF with a temperature range of 16-47 °C and a pressure scanning rate of -0.5 Pa/s and then further separated via SDS-PAGE in a 25 mm long channel. A side channel is designed at the intersection between the two dimensions to continuously inject SDS into the gel, allowing SDS molecules to be compiled within the focused bands. Separation experiments are performed using several fluorescently labeled proteins with single point detection. Experimental results show a dramatic improvement in peak capacity over one-dimensional separation techniques. PMID:25787346

  10. Quantifying clustered DNA damage induction and repair by gel electrophoresis, electronic imaging and number average length analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Betsy M.; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Bennett, Paula V.; Laval, Jacques; Sutherland, John C.; Gewirtz, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Assessing DNA damage induction, repair and consequences of such damages requires measurement of specific DNA lesions by methods that are independent of biological responses to such lesions. Lesions affecting one DNA strand (altered bases, abasic sites, single strand breaks (SSB)) as well as damages affecting both strands (clustered damages, double strand breaks) can be quantified by direct measurement of DNA using gel electrophoresis, gel imaging and number average length analysis. Damage frequencies as low as a few sites per gigabase pair (10(9)bp) can be quantified by this approach in about 50ng of non-radioactive DNA, and single molecule methods may allow such measurements in DNA from single cells. This review presents the theoretical basis, biochemical requirements and practical aspects of this approach, and shows examples of their applications in identification and quantitation of complex clustered damages.

  11. Capillary gel electrophoresis analysis of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II in human high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Goux, A; Athias, A; Persegol, L; Lagrost, L; Gambert, P; Lallemant, C

    1994-05-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis was performed on a coated capillary column filled with a replaceable low-viscosity polymer network containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (eCAP SDS-200 kit from Beckman Instruments). While apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gave an homogeneous peak in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), it appeared heterogeneous in its purified form. Apo A-II was heterogeneous in HDL as well as in purified preparations. For both proteins the relationship between peak areas and apo concentrations was linear over a large range of concentrations and, with the use of alpha-chymotrypsinogen A as an internal standard, apo A-I and apo A-II areas were measured with good precision (coefficient of variation 1.6 and 1.8%, respectively). Capillary gel electrophoresis appeared as a method of high-resolution power in the study of apo A-I and apo A-II heterogeneity and could lead to the development of an alternative method for the assay of apo HDL. PMID:8074287

  12. Lithium Dodecyl Sulfate\\/Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Thylakoid Membranes at 4 degrees C: Characterizations of Two Additional Chlorophyll A-Protein Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Delepelaire; Nam-Hai Chua

    1979-01-01

    Lithium dodecyl sulfate\\/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoid membranes at room temperature gave two chlorophyll-protein complexes, CP I and CP II, as had been reported previously. However, when the electrophoresis was performed at 4 degrees C, there was an increase in the amount of chlorophyll associated with CP I and CP II, and in addition, three other chlorophyll-protein complexes

  13. Database of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kazuyasu; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoo, Hideki; Okano, Tetsuya; Yamada, Masayo; Yamada, Tesshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-03-01

    CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye (saturation dye, GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences) enables highly sensitive 2-D PAGE. As the dye reacts with all reduced cysteine thiols, 2-D PAGE can be performed with a lower amount of protein, compared with CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dye (GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences), the sensitivity of which is equivalent to that of silver staining. We constructed a 2-D map of the saturation dye-labeled proteins of a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and identified by MS 92 proteins corresponding to 123 protein spots. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins had chaperone, protein binding, nucleotide binding, metal ion binding, isomerase activity, and motor activity. The functional distribution and the cysteine contents of the proteins were similar to those in the most comprehensive 2-D database of hepatoma cells (Seow et al.., Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1787-1813), where silver staining was used for protein visualization. Hierarchical clustering on the basis of the quantitative expression profiles of the 123 characterized spots labeled with two charge- and mass-matched saturation dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) discriminated between nine hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and primary cultured hepatocytes from five individuals, suggesting the utility of saturation dye and our database for proteomic studies of liver cancer. PMID:16429455

  14. Size-selected genomic libraries: the distribution and size-fractionation of restricted genomic DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Y

    1995-02-01

    By using one-dimensional genome scanning, it is possible to directly identify the restricted genomic DNA fragment that reflects the site of genetic change. The subsequent strategies to obtain the molecular clones of the corresponding restriction fragment are usually as follows: (i) the restriction of a mass quantity of an appropriate genomic DNA, (ii) the size-fractionation of the restricted DNA on a preparative electrophoresis gel in order to enrich the corresponding restriction fragment, (iii) the construction of the size-selected libraries from the fractionated genomic DNA, and (iv) the screening of the library to obtain an objective clone which is identified on the analytical genome scanning gel. A knowledge of the size distribution pattern of restriction fragments of the genomic DNA makes it possible to calculate the heterogeneity or complexity of the restriction fragment in each size-fraction. This manuscript first describes the distribution of the restriction fragments with respect to their length. Some examples of the practical application of this theory to genome scanning is then discussed using presumptive genome scanning gels. The way to calculate such DNA complexities in the prepared size-fractionated samples is also demonstrated. Such information should greatly facilitate the design of experimental strategies for the cloning of a certain size of genomic DNA after digestion with restriction enzyme(s) as is the case with genome scanning. PMID:7774556

  15. Proteins pattern alteration in AZT-treated K562 cells detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele D'Andrea; Anna R Lizzi; Sara Venditti; Laura Di Francesco; Alessandra Giorgi; Giuseppina Mignogna; Arduino Oratore; Argante Bozzi

    2006-01-01

    In this study we report the effect of AZT on the whole protein expression profile both in the control and the AZT-treated K562 cells, evidenced by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. Two-dimensional gels computer digital image analysis showed two spots that appeared up-regulated in AZT-treated cells and one spot present only in the drug exposed samples. Upon

  16. Sequence analyses of rat liver cytosolic proteins separated by gel electrophoresis using MALDI mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Ens, Werner

    of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2,Canada Cytosolic proteins are normally separated was performed by in-gel tryptic digestion, MALDI mass spectrometry, and database search with peptide mass

  17. Development of a chip-based capillary gel electrophoresis method for quantification of a half-antibody in immunoglobulin G4 samples.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Elena; Woodard, James; Taylor, Frederick R; Kretschmer, Matthias; Fajardo, Hans; Lyubarskaya, Yelena; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Dingley, Amy; Mhatre, Rohin

    2004-11-01

    A method based on microfluidic technology was developed to support quantitative analysis of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibody samples. The assay was performed on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 200 Plus LabChip Kit and the Protein 200 Plus assay software. Capillary electrophoresis principles have been transferred to a chip format that integrates all separation, staining, virtual destaining, and detection steps. The method is referred to in this paper as chip-based capillary gel electrophoresis (GelChip-CE method). The GelChip-CE method under nonreducing conditions proved to be a quantitative test for half-antibody determination in IgG4 samples. Similar to the traditional nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method, the GelChip-CE method includes a denaturing step prior to separation. We showed that denaturing the sample by heating resulted in an artificial increase in the amount of half-antibody detected, which could be prevented by addition of N-ethylmaleimide to the sample buffer. The GelChip-CE method allowed for analysis of IgG4 samples with more accuracy, higher precision, and a faster turnaround time than SDS-PAGE and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). PMID:15565674

  18. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of NotI digests of leptospiral DNA: a new rapid method of serovar identification.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, J L; Bellenger, E; Perolat, P; Baranton, G; Saint Girons, I

    1992-01-01

    Fingerprints for 72 reference serovar strains of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following NotI restriction digests of the chromosome. These strains included the serovar reference strains of serogroups Australis, Ballum, Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Pomona, and Pyrogenes. Sixty-four serovars could be identified by a unique NotI restriction profile. The remaining serovars were differentiated by chromosomal digestion with SgrAI. These included four serovars from serogroup Australis, two serovars from serogroup Ballum, and two serovars from serogroup Bataviae. Thirteen of 18 recent clinical isolates identified by microagglutination test and cross-adsorption procedure were correctly typed by PFGE. The results indicate that PFGE, which is considerably more rapid than serology, should be useful for identification and epidemiological studies. Images PMID:1629323

  19. Use of denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis to study chromium-induced point mutations in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Thilly, W G

    1994-01-01

    A large number of hprt-mutants were obtained by treating human lymphoblast cells (TK6) with 5 microM K2Cr2O7 for 5 hr and selecting by growth in 6-thioguanine. A combination of high fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) allowed us to measure mutant frequencies as a function of DNA sequence. Chromium(VI) induced four hotspots in a 104 bp domain of hprt exon 3. Substitutions at G:C base pairs were the predominant mutations. One of the chromium-induced hotspots was located at the same position as previously determined hydrogen peroxide and benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide hotspots. Images Figure 1. PMID:7843103

  20. Epidemiologic application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni in an Austrian youth centre.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, A.; Schneck, C.; Feierl, G.; Pless, P.; Deutz, A.; Brandl, E.; Wagner, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first documented Campylobacter jejuni outbreak in an Austrian youth centre. Sixty-four children were involved of which 38 showed classical signs of campylobacter gastroenteritis. Since unpasteurized milk distributed by a local dairy was suspected to be the source of infection, stool samples were collected from 20 cows providing the milk. Five of the cows tested positive for C. jejuni. These isolates together with 37 clinical samples were compared by pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE patterns, using the restriction endonucleases SmaI and SalI, were identical for the human and bovine isolates.This finding confirmed that the outbreak was caused by the consumption of unpasteurized milk contaminated with C. jejuni. PMID:11057954

  1. Transfer ribonucleic acid synthesis during sporulation and spore outgrowth in Bacillus subtilis studied by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Henner, D J; Steinberg, W

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) was examined during spore formation and spore outgrowth in Bacillus subtilis by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vivo 32P-labeled RNA. The two-dimensional gel system separated the B. subtilis tRNA's into 32 well-resolved spots, with the relative abundances ranging from 0.9 to 17% of the total. There were several spots (five to six) resolved which were not quantitated due to their low abundance. All of the tRNA species resolved by this gel system were synthesized at every stage examined, including vegetative growth, different stages of sporulation, and different stages of outgrowth. Quantitation of the separated tRNA's showed that in general the tRNA species were present in approximately the same relative abundances at the different developmental periods. tRNA turnover and compartmentation occurring during sporulation were examined by labeling during vegetative growth followed by the addition of excess phosphate to block further 32P incorporation. The two-dimensional gels of these samples showed the same tRNA's seen during vegetative growth, and they were in approximately the same relative abundances, indicating minimal differences in the rates of turnover of individual tRNA's. Vegetatively labeled samples, chased with excess phosphate into mature spores, also showed all of the tRNA species seen during vegetative growth, but an additional five to six minor spots were also observed. These are hypothesized to arise from the loss of 3'-terminal residues from preexisting tRNA's. Images PMID:115846

  2. Genomic fingerprinting of 80 strains from the WHO multicenter international typing study of Listeria monocytogenes via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Brosch; Maggie Brett; Benedicte Catimel; John B. Luchansky; Bente Ojeniyi; Jocelyne Rocourt

    1996-01-01

    An international multicenter typing study of Listeria monocytogenes was initiated by the World Health Organization (Food Safety Unit, Geneva) in order to evaluate the usefulness of various phenotypic and genotypic typing methods for L. monocytogenes, to select and standardize the most appropriate methods, to define common nomenclature of varieties and to select specific reference strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used

  3. A comparison of extracted proteins of isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Makinde; C. L Gyles

    1999-01-01

    Antigenic diversity within a collection of 18 isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis from different Continents was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by Western blotting with sera from cattle with clinical dermatophilosis using whole cell extracts obtained by three methods and one extract of extracellular products of D. congolensis. One of the methods involving the release of a

  4. Characterization of Renal Damage in Canine Leptospirosis by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate–Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) and Western Blotting of the Urinary Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zaragoza; R. Barrera; F. Centeno; J. A. Tapia; M. C. Mañé

    2003-01-01

    Canine leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that can cause interstitial nephritis. As a consequence of the renal damage, proteinuria may occur. To determine the urine protein pattern in the disease we performed sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) on the urine from 10 dogs with leptospirosis and 20 healthy dogs. Western blotting analysis of the urine samples with antibodies against

  5. Use of single cell gel electrophoresis assays for the detection of DNA-protective effects of dietary factors in humans: Recent results and trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Hoelzl; Siegfried Knasmüller; Miroslav Mišík; Andrew Collins; Maria Dušinská; Armen Nersesyan

    2009-01-01

    This article summarises the results of human dietary intervention trials employing the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis, SCGE), which have been published in the last few years (i.e., between 2005 and 2008) and describes new trends and developments as well as current problems concerning the design of intervention trials and the interpretation of the results. Most new studies were

  6. Proteomics analysis in mature seed of four peanut cultivars using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reveals distinct differential expression of storage, anti-nutritive, and allergenic proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein profiles of total seed proteins isolated from mature seeds of four peanut cultivars, New Mexico Valencia C (NM Valencia C), Tamspan 90, Georgia Green, and NC-7, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass ...

  7. DNA REPAIR OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DAMAGE IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES IN THE PRESENCE OF FOUR ANTIMUTAGENS. A STUDY WITH ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (COMET ASSAY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZIMIERZ GA SIOROWSKI; BARBARA BROKOS

    We assessed four antimutagenic compoundsµ influences on DNA repair in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to hydrogen peroxide (20 óM, 5 min, at 4 oC). DNA damage and repair were estimated by means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). It was noticed that the enhancement of DNA repair was relatively strongest when fluphenazine was present in the cell

  8. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Culture Filtrate Proteins by Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, N-Terminal Amino Acid Sequencing, and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL G. SONNENBERG; JOHN T. BELISLE

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were

  9. Genotyping Campylobacter jejuni by comparative genome indexing: an evaluation with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA SVR sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Comparative genome indexing (CGI) using whole-genome DNA microarrays was evaluated as a means of genotying Campylobacter jejuni relative to two standard methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA short variable region sequencing (flaA SVR typing). Methods and Results: Thirty-six...

  10. Detection and Identification of Lactobacillus Species in Crops of Broilers of Different Ages by Using PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luo Guan; Karen E. Hagen; Gerald W. Tannock; Doug R. Korver; Gaylene M. Fasenko; Gwen E. Allison

    2003-01-01

    The microflora of the crop was investigated throughout the broiler production period (0 to 42 days) using PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and selective bacteriological culture of lactobacilli followed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The birds were raised under conditions similar to those used in commercial broiler production. Lactobacilli predominated and attained populations of 108

  11. Quantitation of radiation-, chemical-, or enzyme-induced single strand breaks in nonradioactive DNA by alkaline gel electrophoresis: application to pyrimidine dimers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Freeman; A. D. Blackett; D. C. Monteleone; R. B. Setlow; B. M. Sutherland; J. C. Sutherland

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed an alkaline agarose gel method for quantitating single strand breaks in nanogram quantities of nonradioactive DNA. After electrophoresis together with molecular length standards, the DNA is neutralized, stained with ethidium bromide, photographed, and the density profiles recorded with a computer controller scanner. The medium lengths, number average molecular lengths, and length average molecular lengths of the

  12. The Optimization of a Rapid Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Protocol for the Typing of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riza Durmaz; Baris Otlu; Fatih Koksal; Salih Hosoglu; Recep Ozturk; Yasemin Ersoy; Elif Aktas; Nafia Canan Gursoy; Ahmet Caliskan

    SUMMARY: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most common genotyping method used for the typing of a number of bacterial species. Generally, investigators use their own custom-developed protocol, but a standardized PFGE protocol would allow the comparison of typing results between laboratories and the tracing of strains around the country. In the present study, we optimized a PFGE protocol for

  13. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa. PMID:24473146

  14. Genotoxicity of select herbicides in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles using the alkaline single-cell gel DNA electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Clements, C; Ralph, S; Petras, M

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides are broadly used for pest control in agriculture despite possible negative impacts they may pose to the environment. Thus, we examined the DNA damage caused by five herbicides commonly used in southern Ontario (Canada). Erythrocytes from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) tadpoles were evaluated for DNA damage following exposure to selected herbicides, using the alkaline single-cell gel DNA electrophoresis (SCG) or "comet" assay [Singh et al. (1988): Exp Cell Res 175:184-191; Ralph et al. (1996): Eviron Mol Mutagen 28:112-120]. This approach involves detection, under alkaline conditions, of DNA fragments that upon electrophoresis migrate from the nuclear care, resulting in a comet formation. The herbicides tested, along with their active ingredients, were AAtrex Nine-O (atrazine), Dual-960E (metalochlor), Roundup (glyphosate), Sencor-500F (metribuzin), and Amsol (2,4-D amine). Tadpoles were exposed in the laboratory for a 24-hr period to several concentrations of the herbicides dissolved in dechlorinated water. Methyl methanesulphonate was used as a positive control. The herbicides AAtrex Nine-O-, Dual-960E-, Roundup-, and Sencor-500F-treated tadpoles showed significant DNA damage when compared with unexposed control animals, whereas, Amsol-treated tadpoles did not. Unlike the other responding herbicides, Sencor-500F did not show a relationship between dosage and DNA damage. In summary, the results indicate that at least some of the herbicides currently used in southern Ontario are capable of inducing DNA damage in tadpoles. PMID:9142171

  15. Analysis of Genomic Diversity among Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Iranian Children by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Sotoudeh, Nazli; Feizabadi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Mahjoub, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Presence of genomic diversity among Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains have been suggested by numerous investigators. Little is known about diversity of H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian children and their association with virulence of the strains. Our purpose was to assess the degree of genomic diversity among H. pylori strains isolated from Iranian-children, on the basis of vacA genotype, cagA status of the strains, sex, age as well as the pathological status of the patients. Methods: Genomic DNA from 44 unrelated H. pylori strains isolated during 1997–2009, was examined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Pathological status of the patients was performed according to the modified Sydney-system and genotype/status of vacA/cagA genes was determined by PCR. PFGE was performed using XbaI restriction-endonuclease and the field inversion-gel electrophoresis system. Findings: No significant relationship was observed between the patterns of PFGE and the cagA/vacA status/genotype. Also no relationship was observed between age, sex, and pathological status of the children and the PFGE patterns of their isolates. Similar conclusion was obtained by Total Lab software. However, more relationship was observed between the strains isolated in the close period (1997–2009, 2001–2003, 2005–2007, and 2007–2009) and more difference was observed among those obtained in the distant periods (1997 and 2009). Conclusion: H. pylori strains isolated from children in Iran are extremely diverse and this diversity is not related to their virulence characteristics. Occurrence of this extreme diversity may be related to adaptation of H. pylori strains to variable living conditions during transmission between various host individuals. PMID:26019775

  16. Turning a PAGE: the overnight sensation of SDS-polycrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thoru Pederson

    2007-01-01

    The zonal separation of proteins on the basis of net charge was initially conducted on paper, then in columns of sucrose and later in gels of starch and polyacrylamide, with appropriate electric fields. Then, in 1964, a graduate student at MIT discovered the power of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to dissoci- ate the envelope proteins of Escherichia coli and to

  17. Analysis of Mutant SOD1 Electrophoretic Mobility by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis; Evidence for Soluble Multimeric Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Hilda H.; Borchelt, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Disease causing mutations have diverse consequences on the activity and half-life of the protein, ranging from complete inactivity and short half-life to full activity and long-half-life. Uniformly, disease causing mutations induce the protein to misfold and aggregate and such aggregation tendencies are readily visualized by over-expression of the proteins in cultured cells. In the present study we have investigated the potential of using immunoblotting of proteins separated by Blue-Native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) as a means to identify soluble multimeric forms of mutant protein. We find that over-expressed wild-type human SOD1 (hSOD1) is generally not prone to form soluble high molecular weight entities that can be separated by BNGE. For ALS mutant SOD1, we observe that for all mutants examined (A4V, G37R, G85R, G93A, and L126Z), immunoblots of BN-gels separating protein solubilized by digitonin demonstrated varied amounts of high molecular weight immunoreactive entities. These entities lacked reactivity to ubiquitin and were partially dissociated by reducing agents. With the exception of the G93A mutant, these entities were not reactive to the C4F6 conformational antibody. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BNGE can be used to assess the formation of soluble multimeric assemblies of mutant SOD1. PMID:25121776

  18. Ternary complex formation by vaccinia virus RNA polymerase at an early viral promoter: analysis by native gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Hagler, J; Shuman, S

    1992-01-01

    We have resolved, by native gel electrophoresis, two intermediates in the transcription of a vaccinia virus early gene by the virus-encoded RNA polymerase. Polymerase holoenzyme containing the vaccinia virus early transcription factor (VETF) forms a complex of VETF bound to the promoter as the first step in a pathway leading to establishment of a committed ternary elongation complex. Formation of the VETF-DNA complex is stimulated by magnesium but is uninfluenced by nucleoside triphosphates. A stable binary complex of RNA polymerase bound to DNA is not detected. Assembly of a gel-stable polymerase-DNA complex depends on conditions permissive for RNA synthesis. Nucleotide omission experiments suggest that at least a tetrameric RNA must be made before a ternary complex is stabilized. RNA analysis indicates that complexes containing nascent transcripts 20 nucleotides long are stable and active. Ternary complex formation requires hydrolyzable ATP. This is consistent with an essential role for the ATPase activity of VETF at a step subsequent to DNA binding, as proposed by Broyles (S. S. Broyles, J. Biol. Chem. 266:15545-15548, 1991). The ternary complex, once formed, is resistant to dissociation by competitor DNA, as well as by salt, Sarkosyl, and heparin. The effects of these inhibitory agents on transcription complex formation suggest that they target different steps in the assembly pathway. Images PMID:1373199

  19. Evaluation of mutation screening by heteroduplex analysis in acute intermittent porphyria: comparison with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tchernitchko, D; Lamoril, J; Puy, H; Robreau, A M; Bogard, C; Rosipal, R; Gouya, L; Deybach, J C; Nordmann, Y

    1999-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria is the major autosomal dominant form of acute hepatic porphyrias. The disease is due to mutations in the gene encoding for porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). Many different strategies have been developed to screen for mutations. However the high prevalence (0.6 per thousand) of PBGD gene defect, the large allelic heterogeneity of mutations (n = 130), and the limitations of the PBGD enzymatic assay for asymptomatic patients' detection, require for diagnosis an efficient and easy to handle strategy for locating mutations within the PBGD gene. In a recent study the sensitivity of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique was 100%. However DGGE requires the preparation of gradient gels and the use of primers with long GC-clamps; thus alternative methods should be preferable in the clinical laboratory. We have compared the detection rate of DGGE with heteroduplex analysis (HA) using 16 characterized PBGD gene mutations. Six different HA conditions were used to determine the efficiency of the method, including: (1) MDE (mutation detection enhancement) gel concentration; (2) addition of urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); (3) radioactive labelling. The sensitivity of each HA condition varied from 31 to 81% vs. 100% in DGGE analysis. HA using 1 x MDE with 15% urea with or without 0.55% SDS was the most sensitive condition. This first comparative study of DGGE and HA mutation screening methods suggests that DGGE is a more sensitive screening assay than optimized HA. However, because of its simplicity HA should be considered as an efficient alternative mutation screening method. PMID:10064125

  20. REVEALING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF EUKARYOTIC MICROORGANISMS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS BY DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik J. van Hannen; Miranda P. van Agterveld; Herman J. Gons; Hendrikus J. Laanbroek

    A new Eucarya-specific 18S rDNA primer set was con- structed and tested using denaturing gradient gel electro- phoresis to analyze the genetic diversity of eukaryotic mi- croorganisms in aquatic environments. All eukaryal lines of descent exhibited four or fewer nucleotide mismatches in the forward primer sequence, except for the Microspora line of descent. The reverse primer annealed to a more

  1. Quantification of Isotope Encoded Proteins in 2-D Gels Using Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Giselle M.; Davis, Brandon M.; Deb, Shirshendu K.; Loethen, Yvette; Gudihal, Ravindra; Perera, Pradeep; Ben-Amotz, Dor; Davisson, V. Jo

    2009-01-01

    A strategy for quantification of multiple protein isoforms from a complex sample background is demonstrated, combining isotopomeric rhodamine 6G (R6G) labels and surface enhanced Raman in polyacrylamide matrix. The procedure involves isotope-encoding by lysine-labeling with (R6G) active ester reagents, isoform separation by 2-DGE, fluorescence quantification using internal standardization to water, and silver nanoparticle deposition followed by surface enhanced Raman detection. R6G sample encoding and standardization enabled the determination of total protein concentration and the distribution of specific isoforms using the combined detection approach of water-referenced fluorescence spectral imaging and ratiometric quantification. A detection limit of approximately 13.5 picomolar R6G-labeled protein was determined for the surface-enhanced Raman in a gel matrix (15-fold lower than fluorescence). High quantification accuracies for small differences in protein populations at low nanogram abundance were demonstrated for human GMP synthetase (hGMPS) either as purified protein samples in a single-point determination mode (3% relative standard deviation, RSD%) or HCT116 human cancer cellular lysate in an imaging application (with 16% RSD%). These results represent a prototype for future applications of isotopic surface enhanced resonance Raman scatter to quantification of protein distributions. PMID:18925772

  2. Exogenous expression of human SGLT1 exhibits aggregations in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Chien; Hsu, Sheng-Chie; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Chen, Yun-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Weihua; Fidler, Isaiah J; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1), which actively and energy-dependently uptakes glucose, plays critical roles in the development of various diseases including diabetes mellitus and cancer, and has been viewed as a promising therapeutic target for these diseases. Protein-protein interaction with EGFR has been shown to regulate the expression and activity of SGLT1. Exogenous expression of SGLT1 is one of the essential approaches to characterize its functions; however, exogenously expressed SGLT1 is not firmly detectable by Western blot at its calculated molecular weight, which creates a hurdle for further understanding the molecular events by which SGLT1 is regulated. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous SGLT1 functions in glucose-uptake normally but is consistently detected near the interface between stacking gel and running gel rather than at the calculated molecular weight in Western blot analysis, suggesting that the overexpressed SGLT1 forms SDS-resistant aggregates, which cannot be denatured and effectively separated on SDS-PAGE. Co-expression of EGFR enhances both the glucose-uptake activity and protein level of the SGLT1. However, fusion with Flag or HA tag at its carboxy- but not its amino-terminus abolished the glucose-uptake activity of exogenous SGLT1 without affecting its protein level. Furthermore, the solubility of SGLT1 aggregates was not affected by other detergents but was partially improved by inhibition of o-link glycosylation. These findings suggested exogenous overexpression of SGLT1 can function normally but may not be consistently detectable at its formula weight due to its gel-shift behavior by forming the SDS-resistant aggregates. PMID:23724167

  3. Exogenous expression of human SGLT1 exhibits aggregations in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Chien; Hsu, Sheng-Chie; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Chen, Yun-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Weihua; Fidler, Isaiah J; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1), which actively and energy-dependently uptakes glucose, plays critical roles in the development of various diseases including diabetes mellitus and cancer, and has been viewed as a promising therapeutic target for these diseases. Protein-protein interaction with EGFR has been shown to regulate the expression and activity of SGLT1. Exogenous expression of SGLT1 is one of the essential approaches to characterize its functions; however, exogenously expressed SGLT1 is not firmly detectable by Western blot at its calculated molecular weight, which creates a hurdle for further understanding the molecular events by which SGLT1 is regulated. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous SGLT1 functions in glucose-uptake normally but is consistently detected near the interface between stacking gel and running gel rather than at the calculated molecular weight in Western blot analysis, suggesting that the overexpressed SGLT1 forms SDS-resistant aggregates, which cannot be denatured and effectively separated on SDS-PAGE. Co-expression of EGFR enhances both the glucose-uptake activity and protein level of the SGLT1. However, fusion with Flag or HA tag at its carboxy- but not its amino-terminus abolished the glucose-uptake activity of exogenous SGLT1 without affecting its protein level. Furthermore, the solubility of SGLT1 aggregates was not affected by other detergents but was partially improved by inhibition of o-link glycosylation. These findings suggested exogenous overexpression of SGLT1 can function normally but may not be consistently detectable at its formula weight due to its gel-shift behavior by forming the SDS-resistant aggregates. PMID:23724167

  4. Direct In-Gel Fluorescence Detection and Cellular Imaging of O-GlcNAc-Modified Proteins

    E-print Network

    Hsieh-Wilson, Linda

    Direct In-Gel Fluorescence Detection and Cellular Imaging of O-GlcNAc-Modified Proteins Peter M fluorescence detection of O-GlcNAc proteins in gels would facilitate proteomic studies and greatly extend an anti-TAMRA antibody to remove nonglycosylated proteins, resolved by 1D or 2D gel electrophoresis

  5. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies. PMID:24057758

  6. A multifaceted analysis of viperid snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: an approach to understanding venom proteomics.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Solange M T; Shannon, John D; Wang, Deyu; Camargo, Antonio C M; Fox, Jay W

    2005-02-01

    The complexity of Viperid venoms has long been appreciated by investigators in the fields of toxinology and medicine. However, it is only recently that the depth of that complexity has become somewhat quantitatively and qualitatively appreciated. With the resurgence of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and the advances in mass spectrometry virtually all venom components can be visualized and identified given sufficient effort and resources. Here we present the use of 2-DE for examining venom complexity as well as demonstrating interesting approaches to selectively delineate subpopulations of venom proteins based on particular characteristics of the proteins such as antibody cross-reactivity or enzymatic activities. 2-DE comparisons between venoms from different species of the same genus (Bothrops) of snake clearly demonstrated both the similarity as well as the apparent diversity among these venoms. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry we were able to identify regions of the two-dimensional gels from each venom in which certain classes of proteins were found. 2-DE was also used to compare venoms from Crotalus atrox and Bothrops jararaca. For these venoms a variety of staining/detection protocols was utilized to compare and contrast the venoms. Specifically, we used various stains to visualize subpopulations of the venom proteomes of these snakes, including Coomassie, Silver, Sypro Ruby and Pro-Q-Emerald. Using specific antibodies in Western blot analyses of 2-DE of the venoms we have examined subpopulations of proteins in these venoms including the serine proteinase proteome, the metalloproteinase proteome, and the phospholipases A2 proteome. A functional assessment of the gelatinolytic activity of these venoms was also performed by zymography. These approaches have given rise to a more thorough understanding of venom complexity and the toxins comprising these venoms and provide insights to investigators who wish to focus on these venom subpopulations of proteins in future studies. PMID:15627971

  7. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  8. Western Blotting For Protein Analysis Part 1: Laemmli Gel Electrophoresis Using Mini-PROTEAN II

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    persulfate 50 µL TEMED 10 µL Total 10 mL Resolving Gel Preparation - 0.375 M Tris, pH 8.8 5 % 7.5% 1 2 % 1 5L 4.0 mL 5.0 mL 6.67 mL 10% Ammonium persulfate 50 µL 50 µL 50 µL 50 µL 50 µL TEMED 5 µL 5 µL 5 µL 5 µL centrifuge tubes combine all the solutions except the ammonium persulfate (APS) and the TEMED. #12;2. Place

  9. Analysis of human HPRT deletion mutations with X-linked probes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklas, J.A.; Lippert, M.J.; Hunter, T.C.; O'Neil, J.P.; Albertini, R.J. (Univ. of Vermont, Burlington (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Because the human hprt gene is used in numerous mutation studies, it is important to fully characterize this gene. Therefore, the authors laboratory has undertaken to map the region around the hprt gene at band q26 of the human X chromosome. Utilizing hprt mutant T-cell clones isolated using the hprt clonal assay, which have deletions of all of part of the hprt gene, the authors have ordered 5 anonymous probes previously known to map in Xq26. Results suggest that this region include between 460 kb and 18 Mb of DNA, which is at least 10 times the size of the hprt gene itself (43 kb). Pulsed field gel analysis of the region is underway to determine the exact distances between each of the anonymous probes and hprt and to determine deletion sizes in the mutant T-cell clones.

  10. A simple and accurate method for generating co-dominant markers: an application of conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis to linkage analysis in the silkworm.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y

    1999-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method for linkage analysis is described, which is based on conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE). Using urea-containing agarose gels or a commercially available polyacrylamide-derived matrix, 13 polymorphic markers were newly identified for known genes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which had been scored as monomorphic by PCR-RFLP analysis. This method for detecting polymorphisms is quite sensitive, and can be performed with inexpensive reagents and apparatus that is available in most molecular biology laboratories. PMID:10394917

  11. Non-denaturating isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis for uranium-protein complexes quantitative analysis with LA-ICP MS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    A non-denaturating isoelectric focusing (ND-IEF) gel electrophoresis protocol has been developed to study and identify uranium (U)-protein complexes with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ND-IEF-LA-ICP MS methodology set-up was initiated using in vitro U-protein complex standards (i.e., U-bovine serum albumin and U-transferrin) allowing the assessment of U recovery to 64.4?±?0.4 %. This methodology enabled the quantification of U-protein complexes at 9.03?±?0.23, 15.27?±?0.36, and 177.31?±?25.51 nmol U L(-1) in digestive gland cytosols of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed respectively to 0, 0.12, and 2.5 ?mol of waterborne depleted U L(-1) during 10 days. ND-IEF-LA-ICP MS limit of detection was 19.3 pmol U L(-1). Elemental ICP MS signals obtained both in ND-IEF electropherograms and in size exclusion chromatograms of in vivo U-protein complexes revealed interactions between U- and Fe- and Cu-proteins. Moreover, three proteins (hemocyanin, pseudohemocyanin-2, and arginine kinase) out of 42 were identified as potential uranium targets in waterborne-exposed crayfish cytosols by microbore reversed phase chromatography coupled to molecular mass spectrometry (µRPC-ESI-MS/MS) after ND-IEF separation. PMID:23665639

  12. The protective role of curcumin on perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced genotoxicity: single cell gel electrophoresis and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ayla; Eke, Dilek; Ekinci, Seda Yaprak; Y?ld?r?m, Seda

    2013-03-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant. PFOS a persistent and bioaccumulative compound, is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Therefore, it was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May 2009. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in the rhizome of the perennial herb turmeric. It is commonly used as a dietary spice and coloring agent in cooking and anecdotally as an herb in traditional Asian medicine. In this study, male rats were treated with three different PFOS doses (0.6, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg) and one dose of curcumin, from Curcuma longa (80 mg/kg) and combined three doses of PFOS with 80 mg/kg dose of curcumin by gavage for 30 days at 48 h intervals. Here, we evaluated the DNA damage via single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay and micronucleus test in bone marrow in vivo. PFOS induced micronucleus frequency and decreased the ratio of polychromatic erythrocyte to normochromatic erythrocyte in bone marrow. Using the alkaline comet assay, we showed that all doses of the PFOS strongly induced DNA damage in rat bone marrow and curcumin prevented the formation of DNA damage induced by PFOS. PMID:23246701

  13. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Analysis of the Subunit Structure of Protochlorophyllide Holochrome by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis 1

    PubMed Central

    Canaani, Ora D.; Sauer, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    The subunit structures of protochlorophyllide holochrome (PCH) and chlorophyllide holochrome (CH) were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PCH from leaves of dark-grown (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red kidney) is a polymeric pigment-protein complex of approximately 600,000 daltons. It is composed of 12 to 14 polypeptides of 45,000 daltons, when examined prior to and immediately following photoconversion. The protochlorophyllide or chlorophyllide pigment molecules are associated with these polypeptides. Subsequent to photoconversion, the absorption maximum of newly formed chlorophyllide shifts from 678 nm to 674 nm upon standing in darkness. Following the 678 to 674 spectral shift, the chlorophyllide is associated with a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 16,000 daltons. In addition, sucrose gradient centrifugation of PCH and CH under nondenaturing conditions indicates that during the course of the dark spectroscopic shift, the 600,000 dalton CH undergoes dissociation into a small chlorophyllide protein. The dissociation of CH, the change in the molecular weight of the chlorophyllide polypeptide from 45,000 to 16,000 daltons, as well as the dark spectroscopic shift are temperature-dependent and blocked below 0 C. It was also found that each holochrome molecule of 600,000 daltons contains at least four protochlorophyllide pigment molecules. PMID:16660106

  15. Survey of rotavirus infection in a dairy herd: comparison between polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two commercial tests.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, J; Corral, C; Halaihel, N G; Simon, M C; Alonso, J L; Muzquiz, J L; Ortega, C; Girones, O

    1993-04-01

    A survey of rotavirus infection in a dairy herd with a history of neonatal diarrhoea was carried out. Faecal samples taken from 15 cows before and after calving as well as faeces taken from their calves daily from birth to two weeks of life were tested for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and compared with an ELISA and a latex agglutination commercial test. Rotavirus excretion was not detected in faeces from cows around parturition by any of the three tests. However, all of their calves shed rotaviruses during the observation period. The onset of rotavirus excretion determined by PAGE ranged from day 2 to day 8 of life (day 4.8 +/- 1.8 on average) and lasted for 4 to 7 days (5.3 +/- 1.1 days on average). Chi-square test showed a significant association (P = 0.0001) between the presence of rotavirus and the altered consistency of calves faeces. All the three tests showed similar results (overall agreement 92.5%) but discrepancies were detected mainly at the beginning or at the end of the rotavirus excretion period. Results obtained with both commercial kits closely paralleled each other and parameters other than sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy or predictive values have to be considered as selection criteria. PMID:8389499

  16. Correlation of particular bacterial PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns with bovine ruminal fermentation parameters and feed efficiency traits.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Guan, Le Luo; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Li, Meiju; Mujibi, Denis F; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S; Leon-Quintero, Monica C

    2010-10-01

    The influence of rumen microbial structure and functions on host physiology remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between the ruminal microflora and the host by correlating bacterial diversity with fermentation measurements and feed efficiency traits, including dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and residual feed intake, using culture-independent methods. Universal bacterial partial 16S rRNA gene products were amplified from ruminal fluid collected from 58 steers raised under a low-energy diet and were subjected to PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to relate specific PCR-DGGE bands to various feed efficiency traits and metabolites. Analysis of volatile fatty acid profiles showed that butyrate was positively correlated with daily dry matter intake (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher concentration in inefficient animals (P = 0.10), while isovalerate was associated with residual feed intake (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that particular bacteria and their metabolism in the rumen may contribute to differences in host feed efficiency under a low-energy diet. This is the first study correlating PCR-DGGE bands representing specific bacteria to metabolites in the bovine rumen and to host feed efficiency traits. PMID:20709849

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:19245339

  18. Proteins of the Inner Membrane of Escherichia coli: Identification of Succinate Dehydrogenase by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis with sdh Amber Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Margaret E.; Guest, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The inner or cytoplasmic membrane fraction of the cell envelope of Escherichia coli was isolated by isopycnic centrifugation on sucrose gradients. The membrane proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (8.5%), and up to 56 bands were resolved. Different preparations gave very similar patterns of proteins. Succinate dehydrogenase mutants (sdh) were isolated which could not grow on succinate minimal medium, although growth on fumarate was unimpaired. The protein patterns of inner membrane preparations from sdh amber mutants were compared with the wild type, and one major band was greatly reduced in the mutants. This component, which represented approximately 5% of the inner membrane protein, was restored by introducing an amber suppressor gene (supU), which also restored the Sdh+ phenotype. The band corresponded to a protein with a molecular weight of 67,000 daltons, which is close to that for the large subunits of the succinate dehydrogenases of Rhodospirillum rubrum and beef heart mitochondria. Images PMID:4591960

  19. Characterization of proteins in latex of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and microsequencing.

    PubMed

    Decker, G; Wanner, G; Zenk, M H; Lottspeich, F

    2000-10-01

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) belongs to the group of latex-containing plants. Latex is the milky-like fluid within laticifer cells. In this study, poppy latex was analyzed with respect to ultrastructure, alkaloid, and protein content. The main goal of this project was the examination of the proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In a proteomics approach, we investigated two main fractions of the latex, namely the cytosolic serum and the sedimented fraction containing the alkaloid-accumulating vesicles. Of the serum, representing the protein-rich part of the latex, 75 spots were analyzed by internal peptide microsequencing, followed by a database searching. For 69 proteins a function could be assigned due to homology to known proteins, whereas six spots could not be identified. Furthermore, codeinone reductase, a representative of the specific enzyme system in morphine biosynthesis, could be detected within the cytosolic serum fraction. In the vesicle-containing pellet, 23 protein spots were analyzed. An attempt was also made to separate the vesicle pellet by density centrifugation, followed by investigation of the alkaloid content, ultrastructure, and protein pattern. This study describes the first database of soluble proteins present in the latex of P. somniferum PMID:11079569

  20. Preparation of protein extracts from recalcitrant plant tissues: an evaluation of different methods for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Sebastien Christian; Witters, Erwin; Laukens, Kris; Deckers, Peter; Swennen, Rony; Panis, Bart

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on the specific problems of protein extraction from recalcitrant plant tissues and evaluates several methods to bypass them. Sample preparation is a critical step in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome approach and is absolutely essential for good results. We evaluated four methods: the classical trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation, TCA/acetone precipitation and fractionation, an alternative based on fractionation and without precipitation, and phenol extraction methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. We optimized the phenol extraction protocol for small amounts of tissue, which is essential when the study material is limited. The protocol was optimized for banana (Musa spp.) and was subsequently applied to two other plant species: apple (Malus domestica L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Banana (Musa spp.) is a good representative of a "difficult" plant species since it contains many interfering metabolites. Only classical TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction methods proved useful as standard methods. Both methods are associated with a minor but reproducible loss of proteins. Every extraction method and the subsequent analytical procedure have their physicochemical limitations; both methods should be investigated before selecting an appropriate protocol. The study, which is presented in this paper, is useful for guiding the experimental setup of many other nonmodel species, containing various interfering elements. PMID:15912556

  1. Monitoring the Bacterial Population Dynamics in Sourdough Fermentation Processes by Using PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Meroth, Christiane B.; Walter, Jens; Hertel, Christian; Brandt, Markus J.; Hammes, Walter P.

    2003-01-01

    Four sourdoughs (A to D) were produced under practical conditions by using a starter mixture of three commercially available sourdough starters and a baker's yeast constitutively containing various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The sourdoughs were continuously propagated until the composition of the LAB flora remained stable. Two LAB-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems were established and used to monitor the development of the microflora. Depending on the prevailing ecological conditions in the different sourdough fermentations, only a few Lactobacillus species were found to be competitive and became dominant. In sourdough A (traditional process with rye flour), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and a new species, L. mindensis, were detected. In rye flour sourdoughs B and C, which differed in the process temperature, exclusively L. crispatus and L. pontis became the predominant species in sourdough B and L. crispatus, L. panis, and L. frumenti became the predominant species in sourdough C. On the other hand, in sourdough D (corresponding to sourdough C but produced with rye bran), L. johnsonii and L. reuteri were found. The results of PCR-DGGE were consistent with those obtained by culturing, except for sourdough B, in which L. fermentum was also detected. Isolates of the species L. sanfranciscensis and L. fermentum were shown by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to originate from the commercial starters and the baker's yeast, respectively. PMID:12514030

  2. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine and Human Skin, Milking Equipment, and Bovine Milk by Phage Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Binary Typing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Zadoks; W. B. van Leeuwen; D. Kreft; L. K. Fox; H. W. Barkema; Y. H. Schukken; A. van Belkum

    2002-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n 225) from bovine teat skin, human skin, milking equipment, and bovine milk were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains were compared to assess the role of skin and milking equipment as sources of S. aureus mastitis. PFGE of SmaI-digested genomic DNA identified 24 main types and 17 subtypes among isolates from 43 herds and discriminated

  3. Protein\\/RNA coextraction and small two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for proteomic\\/gene expression analysis of renal cancer biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Barbero; Franco Carta; Giuliana Giribaldi; Giorgia Mandili; Salvatore Crobu; Carlo Ceruti; Dario Fontana; Paolo Destefanis; Francesco Turrini

    2006-01-01

    A small amount of bioptic tissue (?5–10mg of fresh tissue) usually does not contain enough material to extract protein and RNA separately, to obtain preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and to identify a large number of separated proteins by MS. We tested a method, on small renal cancer specimens, for the coextraction of protein and RNA coupled with 2-DE

  4. Comparison of pulsed field gel electrophoresis and repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction as genotyping methods for detection of genetic diversity and inferring transmission of Salmonella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald M. Weigel; Baozhen Qiao; Belete Teferedegne; Dong Kyun Suh; David A. Barber; Richard E. Isaacson; Bryan A. White

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction enzymes AvrII, SpeI, and XbaI, and repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) using BOX, ERIC, and REP primers, were compared with respect to their ability to detect genetic differences among 68 Salmonella isolates from nine Illinois swine farms. Both genotyping methods had high reproducibility of fragment numbers (reliability>0.9) and sizes (reliability>0.85), and produced

  5. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing of Oxacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from the United States: Establishing a National Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda K. McDougal; Christine D. Steward; George E. Killgore; Jasmine M. Chaitram; Sigrid K. McAllister; Fred C. Tenover

    2003-01-01

    Received 2 June 2003\\/Returned for modification 10 July 2003\\/Accepted 22 August 2003 Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) is a virulent pathogen responsible for both health care- associated and community onset disease. We used SmaI-digested genomic DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize 957 S. aureus isolates and establish a database of PFGE patterns. In addition to PFGE patterns of

  6. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA from human fecal samples reveals stable and host-specific communities of active bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERWIN G. ZOETENDAL; ANTOON D. L. AKKERMANS; Vos de W. M

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of the predominant bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract was studied by using 16S rRNA-based approaches. PCR amplicons of the V6 to V8 regions of fecal 16S rRNA and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were analyzed by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). TGGE of fecal 16S rDNA ampli- cons from 16 individuals showed different profiles, with some bands in common.

  7. Processing of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate in human lymphocytes: analysis by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis and cytogenetic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Andreoli; Paola Leopardi; Sabrina Rossi; Riccardo Crebelli

    1999-01-01

    The persistence of induced DNA damage in human lympho- cytes after mitogen stimulation and its relationship to subsequent cytogenetic alterations were investigated. The analysis of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) showed the almost complete repair of damage induced in resting lymphocytes by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 140-210 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 25-100 mM) during

  8. Detection of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella Species in Human Feces by Using Group-Specific PCR Primers and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENS WALTER; CHRISTIAN HERTEL; GERALD W. TANNOCK; CLAUDIA M. LIS; KAREN MUNRO; WALTER P. HAMMES

    2001-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of DNA fragments generated by PCR with 16S ribosomal DNA-targeted group-specific primers was used to detect lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella in human feces. Analysis of fecal samples of four subjects revealed individual profiles of DNA fragments originating not only from species that have been described as intestinal

  9. A comparison of three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlomydia psittici infections in pet birds 

    E-print Network

    Hofle, Michael David

    1999-01-01

    revealed that therapeutic levels are not always achieved when administered intramuscularly. Adding the antibiotic to the drinking water or seed proved the most effective. Elevated liver enzymes and uric acid values were also reported in treated birds... Studies of Texas A82M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology A COMPARISON OF THREE SEROLOGICAL ASSAYS, PROTEIN GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND THE POLYMERASE...

  10. Comparison of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Coagulase Gene Restriction Profile Analysis Techniques in the Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHIEN-SHUN CHIOU; HSIAO-LUN WEI; LI-CHU YANG

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and coagulase gene restriction profile (CRP) analysis techniques were used to analyze 71 Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from nine food-borne disease outbreaks. Twenty-two PFGE profiles and 11 CRPs were identified, with discrimination indices of 0.86 and 0.72, respec- tively. In addition, the variable regions of the coagulase genes of 39 isolates were sequenced and showed extensive

  11. Acid and Base-Induced Proteins during Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth of Escherichia coli Revealed by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DARCY BLANKENHORN; JUDITH PHILLIPS; JOAN L. SLONCZEWSKI

    1999-01-01

    Proteins induced by acid or base, during long-term aerobic or anaerobic growth in complex medium, were identified in Escherichia coli. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed pH-dependent induction of 18 pro- teins, nine of which were identified by N-terminal sequencing. At pH 9, tryptophan deaminase (TnaA) was induced to a high level, becoming one of the most abundant proteins observed. TnaA may

  12. Comparison of Ribotyping, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis in Typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOILE TYNKKYNEN; REETTA SATOKARI; MARIA SAARELA; TIINA MATTILA-SANDHOLM; MAIJA SAXELIN

    1999-01-01

    A total of 24 strains, biochemically identified as members of the Lactobacillus casei group, were identified by PCR with species-specific primers. The same set of strains was typed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to compare the discrimi- natory power of the methods. Species-specific primers for L. rhamnosus and L. casei

  13. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of Acid-extractable Nuclear Proteins of Regenerating and Thioacetamide-treated Rat Liver, Morris 9618A Hepatoma, and Walker 256 Carcinosarcoma1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn C. Yeoman; Charles W. Taylor; Harris Busch

    SUMMARY The acid-soluble nuclear proteins of regenerating and thi- oacetamide-treated rat livers as well as the Morris 9618A hepatoma and the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma were ex tracted from citric acid-isolated nuclei with 0.4 N H2SO4. The nuclear extracts were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Although most of the protein spots were common to the livers and tumors stud ied,

  14. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Binary Typing as Tools in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Bovine and Human Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH ZADOKS; WILLEM VAN LEEUWEN; HERMAN BARKEMA; OTLIS SAMPIMON; HENRI VERBRUGH; YNTE HEIN SCHUKKEN; ALEX VAN BELKUM

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geograph- ical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both

  15. Analysis of ß-subgroup proteobacterial ammonia oxidizer populations in soil by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and hierarchical phylogenetic probing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; MARY-ANN V. BRUNS; ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

    1998-01-01

    A combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and oligonucleotide probing was used to investigate the influence of soil pH on the compositions of natural populations of autotrophic beta-subgromp proteobacterial ammonia oxidizers. PCR primers specific to this group were used to amplify 16S ribosomal DIVA (rDNA) from soils maintained for 36 years at a range of pH values, and PCR

  16. Species identification of smoked and gravad fish products by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, urea isoelectric focusing and native isoelectric focusing: a collaborative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Mackie; A. Craig; M. Etienne; M. Jerome; J. Fleurence; F. Jessen; A. Smelt; A. Kruijt; I Malmheden Yman; M Ferm; I Martinez; R Pérez-Mart??n; C Piñeiro; H Rehbein; R Kündiger

    2000-01-01

    A collaborative study on the use of sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea-isoelectric focusing (urea-IEF) and native isoelectric focusing for the identification of species of smoked salmonids, gravad salmonids and smoked eels was carried out by eight laboratories. With SDS-PAGE, minor changes took place in the profiles of the processed salmonid species making it impossible or very difficult to

  17. Resolution of Fusarium sporotrichioides proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identification by sequence homology comparison in protein data base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu-Ping Chow; Nobuhito Fukaya; Norifumi Miyatake; Katsuhisa Horimoto; Yoshitsugu Sugiura; Kiyoshi Tabuchi; Yoshio Ueno; Akira Tsugita

    1995-01-01

    Proteins fromFusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1, a T2-toxin-producing strain, were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One thousand two hundred and forty-four protein spots were resolved and 103 protein spots were subjected to N-terminal sequencing. Fifty-eight protein spots were sequenced and 48 proteins were observed to have blocked N termini. Forty out of 58 sequenced proteins were identified by homology search against

  18. Characterization of Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Hong Kong by Phage Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ip; D. J. Lyon; F. Chio; M. C. Enright; A. F. Cheng

    2003-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of 127 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, belonging to five major types as identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiotic resistance profiles, was examined further using phage typing and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP). The MRSA isolates were recovered from patients at the Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH), Hong Kong, over a 13-year period, 1988

  19. Protein identification from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae by combined use of mass spectrometry data and raw genome sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Jibin Sun; Manfred Nimtz; Wolf-Dieter Deckwer; An-Ping Zeng

    2003-01-01

    Separation of proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with identification of proteins through peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is the widely used technique for proteomic analysis. This approach relies, however, on the presence of the proteins studied in public-accessible protein databases or the availability of annotated genome sequences of an

  20. The Influence of Antioxidants on Cigarette Smoke-Induced DNA Single-Strand Breaks in Mouse Organs: A Preliminary Study with the Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Tsuda; Naonori Matsusaka; Shunji Ueno; Nobuyuki Sus; Yu F. Sasaki

    2000-01-01

    (stomach and liver), and non-target organs (kidney, brain, and bone marrow) of the mouse using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCG, or comet) assay, as modified by us. We also tested the effect of free radical scavengers on the genotoxicity of the smoke. Male ICR mice were exposed to cigarette smoke. DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) were measured by the SCG

  1. Seasonal Distributions of Dominant 16S rRNA-Defined Populations in a Hot Spring Microbial Mat Examined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. FERRIS; ANDD. M. WARD

    1997-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments was used to examine the distributions of bacterial populations within a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park). Populations at sites along the thermal gradient of the spring's effluent channel weresurveyedatseasonalintervals.Noshiftinthethermalgradientwasdetected,andpopulationsatspatially or temperature-defined sites exhibited only slight changes over the annual sampling period. A new cyanobac- terial

  2. Genome fingerprinting of Salmonella typhi by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for subtyping common phage types.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S.; Poh, C. L.; Lim, Y. S.; Tay, L.; Goh, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The genomic DNA of 39 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from local residents and patients who had visited countries in the Asian region was analysed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic (PFGE) analysis of Xba I- and Spe I-generated genomic restriction fragments established 22 PFGE types whereas phage typing differentiated the 39 isolates into 9 distinct phage types. This study showed that PFGE is more discriminatory than phage typing as it is capable of subtyping S. typhi strains of the same phage types. Genetic relatedness among the isolates was determined. Seven major clusters were identified at SABs of > 0.80 and the remaining 13 isolates were distributed into minor clusters which were related at SABs of less than 0.80. In conclusion, PFGE analysis in conjunction with distance matrix analysis served as a useful tool for delineating common S. typhi phage types of diverse origins from different geographical locales and separated in time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7995349

  3. Disease proteomics of endocrine disorders revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Kodera, Yoshio; Furudate, Sen-Ichi; Maeda, Tadakazu

    2008-03-01

    Endocrine disorders such as dwarfism and diabetes show abnormalities in many different organs even if a certain hormone is the primary cause of the disease. One of the aims of proteomics is to elucidate an abnormal hormone network underlying dysfunction in the disease through quantitative and qualitative proteome analyses of various organs. In a comprehensive study of the rdw rat with hereditary dwarfism, we found the accumulation of ER proteins in the rdw thyroid. Contrary to the initial notion that the dwarfism of the rat was caused by genetic mutations related to pituitary hormones, the primary cause is a missense mutation in the thyroglobulin gene. To understand at the protein level cellular damage caused by oxidative stress, we developed a proteomic method and applied to detecting protein carbonyls in various organs of a diabetes model OLETF rat. The method would provide a means toward clarifying a comprehensive view of oxidative modifications of proteins in diabetes. We review 2-DE-based disease proteomics of endocrine disorders in general, with particular attention paid to our proteome projects by a 2-DE method with an agarose IEF gel in the first dimension (agarose 2-DE) and LC-MS/MS. PMID:21136837

  4. Capillary and microchip gel electrophoresis for simultaneous detection of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum by rfbS allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seonsook; Eo, Seong Kug; Kim, Yongseong; Yoo, Dong Jin; Kang, Seong Ho

    2007-09-30

    We report the use of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) based on a rfbS allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the analysis and simultaneous detection of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum, which are the major bacterial pathogens in poultry. rfbS allele-specific PCR was used to concurrently amplify two specific 147- and 187-bp DNA fragments for the simultaneous detection of S. pullorum and S. gallinarum at an annealing temperature of 54+/-1 degrees C and an MgCl(2) concentration of 2.8-5.6mM. Under an electric field of 333.3V/cm and a sieving matrix of 1.0% poly(ethyleneoxide) (M(r) 600000), the amplified PCR products were analyzed within 6min by CGE separation. This CGE assay could be translated to microchip format using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG). In the microchip gel electrophoresis with PFSG, both of the Salmonella analyses were completed within 30s, without decreasing the resolution efficiency. rfbS allele-specific PCR-microchip gel electrophoresis with the PFSG technique might be a new tool for the simultaneous detection of both S. pullorum and S. gallinarum, due to its ultra-speed and high efficiency. PMID:19073049

  5. Coupling sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry via a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membrane.

    PubMed

    Lu, Joann J; Zhu, Zaifang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shaorong

    2011-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a fundamental analytical technique for proteomic research, and SDS-capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) is its miniaturized version. Compared to conventional slab-gel electrophoresis, SDS-CGE has many advantages such as increased separation efficiency, reduced separation time, and automated operation. SDS-CGE is not widely accepted in proteomic research primarily due to the difficulties in identifying the well-resolved proteins. MALDI-TOF-MS is an outstanding platform for protein identifications. Coupling the two would solve the problem but is extremely challenging because the MS detector has no access to the SDS-CGE-resolved proteins and the SDS interferes with MS detection. In this work we introduce an approach to address these issues. We discover that poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membranes are excellent materials for collecting SDS-CGE-separated proteins. We demonstrate that we can wash off the SDS bound to the collected proteins and identify these proteins on-membrane with MALDI-TOF-MS. We also show that we can immunoblot and Coomassie-stain the proteins collected on these membranes. PMID:21309548

  6. In vitro cytotoxcity and interaction of new steroidal oxadiazinanones with calf thymus DNA using molecular docking, gel electrophoresis and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ayaz Mahmood; Ishrat, Urfi; Yaseen, Zahid; Shamsuzzaman; Gatoo, Manzoor Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Herein we report synthesis of new steroidal oxadiazinanones from steroidal ketones. After characterization by spectral and analytical data, the interaction studies of compounds (4-6) with DNA were carried out by UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis. The compounds bind to DNA preferentially through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with Kb; 1.8×10(4)M(-1), 2.2×10(4)M(-1) and 2.6×10(4)M(-1), respectively, indicating the higher binding affinity of compound 6 towards DNA. Gel electrophoresis showed the concentration dependent cleavage activity of compound 6 alone or in presence of Cu (II) causes the nicking of supercoiled pBR322 and it seems to follow the mechanistic pathway involving generation of hydroxyl radicals that are responsible for initiating DNA strand scission. Molecular simulations suggest that compounds binds through minor groove of DNA. MTT assay depicted promising anticancer activity of compound 5 and 6 particularly against HL-60 and MCF-7. The apoptotic degradation of DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized by ethidium bromide staining (comet assay). The results revealed that compound 6 has better prospectus to act as cancer chemotherapeutic candidate which warrants further in vivo anticancer investigations. PMID:26005047

  7. Pollen proteins after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and pollen morphology of the amphiploids Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. variabilis with Secale cereale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kalinowski; K. Winiarczyk; B. Wojciechowska

    2001-01-01

    Proteins from pollen of parent forms and amphiploids Aegilops\\u000a variabilis ×Secale cereale and Ae. kotschyi×S. cereale, obtained by in vitro propagation or colchicine treatment of F1 hybrids, were subjected to a study by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Qualitative and quantitative diversities of\\u000a protein patterns were revealed for the amphiploid pollen. The majority of peptides found in the parent forms were also

  8. Polyethylene glycol derivatives of base and sequence specific DNA ligands: DNA interaction and application for base specific separation of DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, W; Hattesohl, I; Schuetz, H J; Meyer, G

    1981-01-01

    Various base pair specific DNA ligands comprising a phenyl phenazinium dye, a triphenylmethan dye and Hoechst 33258 were covalently bound to polyethylene glycol (PEG) via ester or ether bonds. The DNA interactions of the PEG derivatives formed were shown to exhibit the same base pair specificity as the parent compounds. Since the PEG chains thus bound to the DNA could be expected to increase drastically the frictional coefficient of the DNA, the PEG derivatives were used for base specific DNA separations in agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The procedures, which do not require any special techniques, are described in detail. The resolution observed in agarose gels allows one to separate equally sized DNA fragments differing as little as 1% in base composition at mean travel distances of about 10 cm. Examples of gels showing the base compositional heterogeneity of restriction fragments obtained from lambda DNA, E. coli DNA and calf thymus DNA are given. Images PMID:6259622

  9. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  10. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products. PMID:24412413

  11. Performance assessment of DNA fragment sizing by high-sensitivity flow cytometry and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Matthew M; Yan, Xiaomei; Habbersett, Robbert C; Shou, Yulin; Lemanski, Cheryl L; Jett, James H; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L

    2004-05-01

    The sizing of restriction fragments is the chief analytical technique utilized in the production of DNA fingerprints. Few techniques have been able to compete with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is capable of discriminating among bacteria at species and strain levels by resolving restriction fragments. However, an ultrasensitive flow cytometer (FCM) developed in our lab has also demonstrated the ability to discriminate bacteria at species and strain levels. The abilities of FCM warrant a quantitative parallel comparison with PFGE to assess and evaluate the accuracy and precision of DNA fragment sizing by both techniques. Replicate samples of Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 were analyzed along with two clinical S. aureus isolates. The absolute fragment sizing accuracy was determined for PFGE (5% +/- 2%) and FCM (4% +/- 4%), with sequence-predicted Mu50 SmaI fragment sizes used as a reference. Precision was determined by simple arithmetic methods (relative standard deviation for PFGE [RSD(PFGE) ] = 3% +/- 2% and RSD(FCM) = 1.2% +/- 0.8%) as well as by the use of dendrograms derived from Dice coefficient-unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Pearson-UPGMA analyses. All quantitative measures of PFGE and FCM precision were equivalent, within error. The precision of both methods was not limited by any single sample preparation or analysis step that was tracked in this study. Additionally, we determined that the curve-based clustering of fingerprint data provided a more informative and useful assessment than did traditional band-based methods. PMID:15131156

  12. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Dogs by Use of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis ?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, B. N.; Cody, A. J.; Porter, C. J.; Stavisky, J. H.; Smith, J. L.; Williams, N. J.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Hart, C. A.; Gaskell, R. M.; Dingle, K. E.; Dawson, S.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Risk of Campylobacter infection in humans has been associated with many sources, including dogs. This study aimed to investigate whether C. jejuni carried by dogs could potentially be a zoonotic risk for humans and if there were common sources of C. jejuni infection for both humans and dogs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA using SmaI and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were both used to analyze 33 C. jejuni isolates obtained from various dog populations, including those visiting veterinary practices and from different types of kennels. MLST data suggested that there was a large amount of genetic diversity between dog isolates and that the majority of sequence types found in isolates from these dogs were the same as those found in isolates from humans. The main exception was ST-2772, which was isolated from four samples and could not be assigned to a clonal complex. The most commonly identified clonal complex was ST-45 (11 isolates), followed by ST-21 (4 isolates), ST-508 (4 isolates), and ST-403 (3 isolates). The profiles obtained by macrorestriction PFGE were largely in concordance with the MLST results, with a similar amount of genetic diversity found. The diversity of sequence types found within dogs suggests they are exposed to various sources of C. jejuni infection. The similarity of these sequence types to C. jejuni isolates from humans suggests there may be common sources of infection for both dogs and humans. Although only a small number of household dogs may carry C. jejuni, infected dogs should still be considered a potential zoonotic risk to humans, particularly if the dogs originate from kennelled or hunt kennel dog populations, where the prevalence may be higher. PMID:19794053

  13. Association of Streptomyces community composition determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with indoor mold status.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Meller, Jarek; Vesper, Stephen; Yadav, Jagjit

    2014-12-01

    Both Streptomyces species and mold species have previously been isolated from moisture-damaged building materials; however, an association between these two groups of microorganisms in indoor environments is not clear. In this study, we used a culture-independent method, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), to investigate the composition of the Streptomyces community in house dust. Twenty-three dust samples each from two sets of homes categorized as high-mold and low-mold based on mold-specific quantitative PCR analysis were used in the study. Taxonomic identification of prominent bands was performed by cloning and sequencing. Associations between DGGE amplicon band intensities and home mold status were assessed using univariate analyses as well as multivariate recursive partitioning (decision trees) to test the predictive value of combinations of bands intensities. In the final classification tree, a combination of two bands was significantly associated with mold status of the home (p?=?0.001). The sequence corresponding to one of the bands in the final decision tree matched a group of Streptomyces species that included Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces sampsonii, both of which have been isolated from moisture-damaged buildings previously. The closest match for the majority of sequences corresponding to a second band consisted of a group of Streptomyces species that included Streptomyces hygroscopicus, an important producer of antibiotics and immunosuppressors. Taken together, the study showed that DGGE can be a useful tool for identifying bacterial species that may be more prevalent in mold-damaged buildings. PMID:25331035

  14. PhosphorImager enhancement of sedimentation equilibrium-quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: a highly sensitive technique for quantitation of equilibrium gradients of individual components in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Darawshe, S; Merezhinskaya, N; Minton, A P

    1995-07-20

    The technique called sedimentation equilibrium-quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Darawshe et al. (1993) Anal. Biochem. 215, 236-242) has been extended to permit the quantitation and analysis of gradients of individual radiolabeled components in a mixture of radiolabeled solutes centrifuged to sedimentation equilibrium. Immediately following centrifugation, the contents of a sample tube are fractionated into aliquots corresponding to laminae of solution at different radial positions in the centrifuge. Following treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing buffer, a portion of each fraction is subjected to electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel. The gel is then incubated with a strong phosphor plate and subsequently scanned with a Molecular Dynamics PhosphorImage. The concentration of an individual radiolabeled component at a particular radial distance is proportional to the integrated intensity of the image of the radiolabeled band of that component in the fraction corresponding to that radial distance. Concentration gradients reconstructed in this fashion are interpreted in the context of conventional sedimentation equilibrium theory. The results of control experiments carried out with purified proteins of known molar mass and the measurement of the molar mass of a new, partially purified protein are reported. PMID:8533898

  15. Gel Electrophoresis and Photography

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    is the molecular biology of trypanosomes, which are flagellated protozoa that cause several important human on the basis of sedimentation coefficients Or buoyant densities, and scintillation counters were required of restriction enzymes and cloning in bacterial plasmids or phages to obtain large quantities of pure fragments

  16. The single cell gel electrophoresis: a potential tool for DNA analysis of the patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bacová, G; Gábelová, A; Babusíková, O; Slamenová, D

    1998-01-01

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to evaluate the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM), and lymphatic node (LN) cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The level of DNA damage was compared with the level of basal DNA damage in control group, represented by healthy donors. Statistically significant increase of basal DNA damage was found in leukemia/lymphoma cells of patients suffered from AML, CML, ALL of T-cell subtype (T-ALL), and NHL, however, no difference in basal DNA damage was found in patients with ALL of early B-cell subtype (B-ALL) and CLL in comparison to control group. The mean basal DNA damage increased in the order CLL

  17. Sol-gel deposition of PZT thick film on Pt\\/Ti\\/SOI substrate and application to 2D micro scanning mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Kobayashi; Jiunnjye Tsaur; Masaaki Ichiki; Ryutaro Maeda

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports the sol-gel deposition of PZT thick films on Pt\\/Ti\\/SOI substrate and its application to the micro cantilevers and 2D micro optical scanning mirrors. Crack-free PZT thick films (2.7 µm) have fabricated on Pt\\/Ti\\/SOI substrate. Thin SiO2 layer on the top of the SOI substrate was found to play important role as a burrier layer to avoid

  18. Sequence dependence of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adduct conformer distribution: A study by laser-induced fluorescence\\/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Marsch; R. Jankowiak; M. Suh; G. J. Small

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature laser-induced fluorescence techniques in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LIF\\/PAGE) were used to study the binding of ([minus])-anti- and (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) to several sequence-defined duplex oligomers. Two of the oligomers contain central 5'-RAGGAR-3' sequences (R = purine) which appear to be frequently mutated by racemic ([+-])-anti-BPDE in endogenous genes of cells cultured in vitro. Two contain a

  19. Emergence of a mutL Mutation Causing Multilocus Sequence Typing–Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Discrepancy among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    García-Castillo, María; Máiz, Luis; Morosini, María-Isabel; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Suarez, Lucrecia; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A multilocus sequence type (MLST) shift (from ST242 to ST996) was detected in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a uniform pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern obtained from a chronically colonized patient. MLST mutational change involved the mutL gene with the consequent emergence of a hypermutable phenotype. This observation challenges the required neutrality of mutL as an appropriate marker in MLST and alerts researchers to the limitations of MLST-only-based population studies in chronic infections under constant antibiotic selective pressure. PMID:22322352

  20. Rapid Separation and Quantification of Major Caseins and Whey Proteins of Bovine Milk by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Ng-Kwai-Hang; E. M. Kroeker

    1984-01-01

    A rapid polyacrylamide gel electro- phoretic method was developed for separating and quantifying major pro- teins in casein and whey protein fractions of bovine milk. For casein separation, best results were achieved by an 8% poly- acrylamide gel containing 4 M urea and a top layer of large pore sample gel; for whey protein the most_ satisfactory separation was with

  1. Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

  2. A comparative study of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa by delayed-type skin reactions on guinea pigs and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hyman, I S; Chaparas, S D

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts prepared by ultrasonic disruption of 17 strains of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and for immunologic relatedness, by skin test reactions. Two organisms, Jensenia canicruria and Nocardia calcarea, gave similar gel patterns and skin test reactions, and are considered to be identical. Extracts of nocardia rubra showed a strong antigenic relationship with those of three Nocardia pellegrino organisms (N325, N324 and N420) previously assigned to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Two Gordona organisms appeared to be less antigenically related to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Extracts of three of four organisms designated Lspi (Rhodococcus coprophilus Rowbotham & Cross 1976) elicited skin test reactions similar to those of the 'rhodochrous' strains. One Lspi strain, N650, showed striking similarities to the 'rhodochrous' complex strain N420 (Nocardia pellegrino). PMID:70505

  3. Introducing basic molecular biology to Turkish rural and urban primary school children via hands-on PCR and gel electrophoresis activities.

    PubMed

    Selli, Cigdem; Y?ld?r?m, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gel electrophoresis. The participants were 13-year-old eighth-graders attending primary schools affiliated with Ministry of National Education in urban and rural areas of Izmir, Turkey. The purpose of this study was to introduce basic molecular biology concepts through individually performed experiments such as PCR and gel electrophoresis integrated with creative drama. The students were assessed at the beginning and the end of each project day via mini-tests, experimental and presentation skills evaluation forms. Data showed that students' knowledge about DNA structure and basic molecular biology techniques significantly increased. On the basis of experimental and presentational skills, there was no significant difference between kids from urban and rural schools or between public and boarding public schools, whereas the average score of girls was significantly higher than that of boys. In conclusion, individually performed experiments integrated with creative drama significantly increased students' perception of complex experimental procedures on basic molecular biology concepts. Data suggests that integration of these concepts into the science and technology curriculum of Turkish primary education may support the recruitment of future scientists who can handle rapidly developing genomic techniques that will affect our everyday life. PMID:24474053

  4. Fast molecular diagnostics of canine T-cell lymphoma by PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detector.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seonsook; Lee, Mi-Jin; Park, Jinho; Kang, Seong Ho

    2007-07-01

    Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic tumor in dogs and manifests as a proliferation of malignant lymphoid cells primarily affecting the lymph nodes or solid visceral organs. We describe the use of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly detect a disorder of the canine T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene. After the PCR amplification of the specific TCR( gene in dogs, the 90-bp DNA fragment amplified was separated in a fused-silica capillary by CGE-LIF. Under an electric field of 375 V/cm and with a sieving matrix of 1.5% poly (ethyleneoxide) (M(r) 600,000), the amplified PCR products were analyzed within 4 min by CGE separation. When the CGE-LIF method was applied to real clinical samples of the specific DNA fragment of the TCR( gene, the migration time and the corrected peak area showed relative standard deviations (n=5) of 0.29% and 0.58%, respectively. Both methods of CGE-LIF and slab gel electrophoresis showed same results for nine clinical samples. This PCR/CGE-LIF technique may prove to be a new fast and simple tool for the rapid diagnosis of the PCR-amplified DNA of canine T-cell lymphoma. PMID:17543593

  5. Microchip gel electrophoresis with programmed field strength gradients for ultra-fast detection of canine T-cell lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kumar K; Lee, Mi-Jin; Park, Jinho; Kang, Seong Ho

    2008-03-15

    This paper describes the applicability of microchip gel electrophoresis using a programmed field strength gradients (MGE-PFSG) method coupled with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the ultra-fast diagnosis of canine T-cell lymphoma. The variable region in the T-cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene from a T-cell lymphoma was used in PCR amplification. The contributions of the various parameters, including the effects of the molecular weight, concentration of the sieving matrix and field strength in MGE, were examined. 0.5% poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO, M(r) 8000000) was used as the sieving matrix for the ultra-rapid separation of the amplified-PCR products (90 and 130-bp DNA fragments) from the PFSG at an effective length of 20mm in a glass microchip. The PCR products (90 and 130-bp DNA) of the T-cell lymphoma were analyzed within 41.7+/-0.1s, 15.5+/-0.2s and only 7.0+/-0.1s using a low-constant field strength, high-constant field strength and the PFSG, respectively. When 11 clinical samples were analyzed using the MGE-PFSG method, there was a 100% correlation with those obtained using conventional slab gel electrophoresis. The ultra-fast detection and rapid separation capabilities of MGE-PFSG make it an efficient tool for diagnosing T-cell lymphoma in clinical samples with high sensitivity. PMID:18371846

  6. Comparison of the In Vitro Mutagenicity of Artemisia draconculus L. With Sodium Dichromate by Performing Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) or the Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Galehdari, Hamid; Zaree, Zahra; Kalantar, Hadi; Varnasary, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity tests to analyze their toxicity and safety. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro mutagenicity of Artemisia draconculus L., a herbal drug, by performing single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Materials and Methods In this study, we obtained a herbal drug with A. draconculus at a density of 0.94; doses of 100 ?l, 200 ?l, 400 ?l, and 800 ?l equivalent to 94 mg, 188 mg, 376 mg, and 752 mg of A. draconculus, respectively, were used. Sodium dichromate at a dose of 262 mg was considered to be the positive control, and blood was considered to be the negative control. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 5 min, and the lower portion of the residue was isolated and mixed with low melting point agarose. Results A cell suspension was prepared and applied on pre-coated agarose gel slides. Lysis, electrophoresis under alkaline conditions, staining of DNA, comet visualization, and comet scoring were carried out. The statistical analysis of the obtained results showed that with an increase in the dosage of A. draconculus, DNA damage also increased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings provide valuable information regarding the safety and toxicity of this herbal drug, and this information will be helpful in ensuring rational use of this drug. PMID:24624149

  7. Strain discrimination among B. anthracis and related organisms by characterization of bclA polymorphisms using PCR coupled with agarose gel or microchannel fluidics electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Elisangela R; Swiger, Roy R; Senior, Ben; Fox, Alvin; Waller, Lashanda N; Fox, Karen F

    2006-01-01

    The bclA gene codes for the protein backbone of the exosporium glycoprotein BclA of B. anthracis. BclA has a central collagen-like region formed by polymorphic GXX repeats and conserved amino- and carboxy-termini. It is noted here that the bclA gene is also present in the genome of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. There is considerable size heterogeneity among the BclA proteins, both for species and strains, due to different numbers of GPT repeats and [GPT]5GDTGTT repeats (BclA repeats). PCR products that included the entire variable region were analyzed by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and by micro-channel fluidics (MCF) LabChip to assess differences in molecular weight (MW). Both methods provided discrimination at the strain level for B. cereus group organisms. Results obtained by MCF electrophoresis were superior to conventional agarose gel analysis demonstrating improved reproducibility and much faster analysis time. The expression of a carbohydrate-rich exosporium (corresponding to BclA) in other members of the B. cereus group, in addition to B. anthracis, was also demonstrated ultra-structurally. Analysis of sequence variability within the bclA gene CLR revealed even greater potential for strain and species identification. PMID:15992950

  8. Cationic electrophoresis and eastern blotting.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Engelbert

    2015-01-01

    Denaturing, discontinuous electrophoresis in the presence of SDS has become a standard method for the protein scientist. However, there are situations where this method produces suboptimal results. In these cases electrophoresis in the presence of positively charged detergents like cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) may work considerably better. Methods for electrophoresis, staining, and blotting of such gels are presented. PMID:26044000

  9. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis sequencing with the new CEQ 2000 DNA Analysis System to conventional gel based systems for HIV drug resistance analysis 1 1 The two first authors contributed equally to this study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Merel; Isabelle Pellegrin; Isabele Garrigue; Anne Caumont; Marie-Hélène Schrive; Valérie Birac; Pascal Bonot; Hervé Fleury

    2001-01-01

    To date the majority of sequencing technologies have been based on use of gel plates. In this study sequencing by capillary electrophoresis for HIV-1 genotyping on the CEQ 2000 sequencer (Beckman Coulter Inc.) has been investigated and compared to an ‘in house’ protocol on the Prism-377 sequencer (Applied Biosystems) and to the HIV-1 TruGene kit (Visible Genetics Inc.), two gel

  10. Differential proteomic analysis of a highly metastatic variant of human breast cancer cells using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Guang Xu; Pei-Jun Yan; Zhi-Ming Shao

    2010-01-01

    Distant metastasis represents the major lethal cause of breast cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of breast cancer\\u000a metastasis and identify markers with metastatic potential, we established a highly metastatic variant of parental MDA-MB-231\\u000a cells (MDA-MB-231HM). Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), we performed a proteomic comparison of the two kinds of\\u000a cells. As much as 51 protein spots were differentially expressed

  11. Physical linkage of mouse lambda genes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggests that the rearrangement process favors proximate target sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Storb, U; Haasch, D; Arp, B; Sanchez, P; Cazenave, P A; Miller, J

    1989-01-01

    The first complete map of a mammalian immunoglobulin gene locus is presented. Mouse lambda genes were mapped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The gene order is V2-Vx-C2-C4-V1-C3-C1. The distance between V2 or Vx and the C2-C4 cluster is 74 or 55 kilobases (kb), respectively, whereas that between V1 and C3-C1 is only 19 kb; V2 and C3-C1 are at least 190 kb apart. Thus, the distances between the lambda subloci are inversely proportional to their frequencies of rearrangement. The related gene lambda 5 is not within the 500 kb of the lambda locus mapped here. Images PMID:2710121

  12. Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a range cattle herd in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives –(1) Identify the seasonal pattern and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in range cattle in California, (2) Determine strain diversity and transition over time using Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Samp...

  13. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20?l using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  14. Application of a label-free, gel-free quantitative proteomics method for ecotoxicological studies of small fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-GE) remains the basis for many ecotoxicoproteomic analyses, new, non gel-based methods are beginning to be applied to overcome throughput and coverage limitations of 2D-GE. The overall objective of our research was to apply a comprehe...

  15. 16S Ribosomal DNA-Based Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Purified Water Used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes by PCR and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Mako; Matsutera, Eiichi; Kanda, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tani, Katsuji; Nasu, Masao

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial community in partially purified water, which is prepared by ion exchange from tap water and is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). 16S ribosomal DNA fragments, including V6, -7, and -8 regions, were amplified with universal primers and analyzed by DGGE. The bacterial diversity in purified water determined by PCR-DGGE banding patterns was significantly lower than that of other aquatic environments. The bacterial populations with esterase activity sorted by flow cytometry and isolated on soybean casein digest (SCD) and R2A media were also analyzed by DGGE. The dominant bacterium in purified water possessed esterase activity but could not be detected on SCD or R2A media. DNA sequence analysis of the main bands on the DGGE gel revealed that culturable bacteria on these media were Bradyrhizobium sp., Xanthomonas sp., and Stenotrophomonas sp., while the dominant bacterium was not closely related to previously characterized bacteria. These data suggest the importance of culture-independent methods of quality control for pharmaceutical water. PMID:11823209

  16. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruijie; Adoligbe, Camus; Jiang, Bijie; Zhao, Xianlin; Gui, Linsheng; Qu, Kaixing; Wu, Sen; Zan, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W) in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method. PMID:25893432

  17. Detection of phosphorylated forms of Moloney murine leukemia virus major capsid protein p30 by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, K; Luftig, R B

    1988-01-01

    We detected phosphorylation of the major Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) capsid polypeptide, p30, by using 32Pi-labeled virions. This was observed both on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels directly or on one-dimensional gels of viral lysates that had been immunoprecipitated with monospecific goat anti-p30 serum. The phosphorylation event had been difficult to detect because pp12 the major virion phosphoprotein incorporates almost all of the 32P label added to infected cells (Y. Yoshinaka and R. B. Luftig, Virology 116:181-195, 1982). When immunoprecipitates from M-MuLV lysates labeled with 32Pi were compared with those labeled with [35S]methionine, it was calculated that the degree of phosphorylation at the p30 domain of Pr65gag was only 0.22 to 0.54% relative to phosphorylation at the p12 domain. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the 32P-labeled p30 immunoprecipitates showed that there were three phosphorylated p30 forms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 5.7, 5.8, and 6.0. These forms were generally more acidic than the [35S]methionine-labeled p30 forms, which had pIs of 6.0, 6.1, 6.3 (the major constituent with greater than 80% of the label), and 6.6. The predominant phosphoamino acid of the major phosphorylated p30 form (pI 5.8) was phosphoserine. Further, tryptic peptide analysis of this p30 form showed that only one peptide was predominantly phosphorylated. Based on a comparison of specific labeling of p30 tryptic peptides with [14C]serine, [35S]methionine, and 32Pi, we tentatively assigned the phosphorylation site to a 2.4-kilodalton NH2-terminal peptide containing triple tandem serines spanning the region from amino acids 4 to 24. Images PMID:3334749

  18. Comparison of JC and BK Human Papovaviruses with Simian Virus 40: Restriction Endonuclease Digestion and Gel Electrophoresis of Resultant Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, June E.; Robertson, Sylvia M.; Padgett, Billie L.; Zu Rhein, Gabrielle M.; Walker, Duard L.; Weisblum, Bernard

    1974-01-01

    JC virus was found to have a buoyant density of 1.20 g/cm3 in linear sucrose-D2O and 1.35 g/cm3 in cesium chloride isopycnic gradients. DNA extracted either from JC-infected cultures or from gradient-purified virions occupied a dense position relative to linear DNA in cesium chloride/ethidium bromide gradients, and the circular configuration of the extracted DNA was confirmed by electron microscopy, with a measured molecular weight of 2.93 × 106. DNA from BK virus was similarly prepared and compared to JC and to an SV40 DNA standard by digestion with restriction endonuclease preparations from Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Escherichia coli. Digests were electrophoretically analyzed on gradient polyacrylamide slab gels or agarose gels, and the three viruses were found to have distinctly different cleavage patterns by this form of analysis: JC and BK viruses were almost entirely different from SV40 and significantly different from each other. Thus, JC and BK human papovaviruses appear to be discrete new members of the papovavirus group, rather than SV40 variants. Images PMID:4362864

  19. Separation of intron 22 inversion type 1 and 2 of hemophilia A by modified inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tzu-Yu; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2014-12-01

    An inverse-shifting polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) combined with short-end capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was developed for genotyping of intron 22 inversion Type 1 (Inv22-1) and Type 2 (Inv22-2) of hemophilia A (HA). Severe HA cases are affected by intron 22 inversion around 45-50%. Inv22-1 has higher frequency than Inv22-2. The aim of this study is to distinguish them by genotyping. In order to improve Inv22 genotyping efficiency, five primers were designed and applied to differentiate the wild type, Inv22-1, Inv22-2 and carrier. Three amplicons of 405, 457 and 512 bp were recognized for wild type; 333, 457 and 584 bp for Inv22-1; 385, 405 and 584 bp for Inv22-2. The Inv22-1 carrier has 5 amplicons including 333, 405, 457, 512, 584 bp and Inv22-2 carrier is differentiated by 385, 405, 457, 512 and 584 bp. The amplicons between Inv22-1 and Inv22-2 carriers are only different in 333 bp for Inv22-1 carrier and 385 bp for Inv22-2 carrier. Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) was used for separation within 5 min. The separation voltage was set at 8 kV (cathode at detector), and the temperature was kept at 25°C. The sieving matrix was 89 mM Tris, 89 mM boric acid, 2mM EDTA containing 0.4% (w/v) HPMC and 1 ?M of YO-PRO(®)-1 Iodide. Total of 50 HA patients (including 35 non-Inv22, 14 Inv22-1, and one Inv22-2 patients) and 7 HA carriers were diagnosed in the application. Seven random samples (5 patients and 2 carriers) were subjected to comparison and gave identical results of DNA sequencing and this modified IS-PCR. PMID:25159417

  20. Development and Validation of an Internationally-Standardized, High-Resolution Capillary Gel-Based Electrophoresis PCR-Ribotyping Protocol for Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Fawley, Warren N.; Knetsch, C. W.; MacCannell, Duncan R.; Harmanus, Celine; Du, Tim; Mulvey, Michael R.; Paulick, Ashley; Anderson, Lydia; Kuijper, E. J.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping has been adopted in many laboratories as the method of choice for C. difficile typing and surveillance. However, issues with the conventional agarose gel-based technique, including inter-laboratory variation and interpretation of banding patterns have impeded progress. The method has recently been adapted to incorporate high-resolution capillary gel-based electrophoresis (CE-ribotyping), so improving discrimination, accuracy and reproducibility. However, reports to date have all represented single-centre studies and inter-laboratory variability has not been formally measured or assessed. Here, we achieved in a multi-centre setting a high level of reproducibility, accuracy and portability associated with a consensus CE-ribotyping protocol. Local databases were built at four participating laboratories using a distributed set of 70 known PCR-ribotypes. A panel of 50 isolates and 60 electronic profiles (blinded and randomized) were distributed to each testing centre for PCR-ribotype identification based on local databases generated using the standard set of 70 PCR-ribotypes, and the performance of the consensus protocol assessed. A maximum standard deviation of only ±3.8bp was recorded in individual fragment sizes, and PCR-ribotypes from 98.2% of anonymised strains were successfully discriminated across four ribotyping centres spanning Europe and North America (98.8% after analysing discrepancies). Consensus CE-ribotyping increases comparability of typing data between centres and thereby facilitates the rapid and accurate transfer of standardized typing data to support future national and international C. difficile surveillance programs. PMID:25679978

  1. Analysis of interspecies adherence of oral bacteria using a membrane binding assay coupled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren-ke; He, Xue-song; Hu, Wei; Lux, Renate; Li, Ji-yao; Zhou, Xue-dong; Shi, Wen-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Information on co-adherence of different oral bacterial species is important for understanding interspecies interactions within oral microbial community. Current knowledge on this topic is heavily based on pariwise coaggregation of known, cultivable species. In this study, we employed a membrane binding assay coupled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to systematically analyze the co-adherence profiles of oral bacterial species, and achieved a more profound knowledge beyond pairwise coaggregation. Two oral bacterial species were selected to serve as “bait”: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) whose ability to adhere to a multitude of oral bacterial species has been extensively studied for pairwise interactions and Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) whose interacting partners are largely unknown. To enable screening of interacting partner species within bacterial mixtures, cells of the “bait” oral bacterium were immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes which were washed and blocked to prevent unspecific binding. The “prey” bacterial mixtures (including known species or natural saliva samples) were added, unbound cells were washed off after the incubation period and the remaining cells were eluted using 0.2 mol·L?1 glycine. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to 16S rRNAPCR amplification and separation of the resulting PCR products by DGGE. Selected bands were recovered from the gel, sequenced and identified via Nucleotide BLAST searches against different databases. While few bacterial species bound to S. mutans, consistent with previous findings F.nucleatum adhered to a variety of bacterial species including uncultivable and uncharacterized ones. This new approach can more effectively analyze the co-adherence profiles of oral bacteria, and could facilitate the systematic study of interbacterial binding of oral microbial species. PMID:21485313

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielesz, A.

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  3. Comparative typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by random amplification of polymorphic DNA or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA macrorestriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Renders, N; Römling, Y; Verbrugh, H; van Belkum, A

    1996-01-01

    Eighty-seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments. Stains were clustered on the basis of interpretative criteria as presented previously for the PFGE analysis. Clusters of strains were also defined on the basis of epidemiological data and subsequently reanalyzed by RAPD. It was found that in an RAPD assay employing the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence ERIC2 as a primer, single band differences can be ignored; in this case, clonally related strains could be grouped as effectively and reliably as with PFGE. These data could be corroborated by the use of other primer species. However, some primers either showed reduced resolution or, in contrast, identified DNA polymorphisms beyond epidemiologically and PFGE-defined limits. Apparently, different primers define different windows of genetic variation. It is suggested that criteria for interpretation of the ERIC2 PCR fingerprints can be simple and straightforward: when single band differences are ignored, RAPD-determined grouping of P. aeruginosa is congruent with that obtained by PFGE. Consequently, this implies that RAPD can be used with trust as a first screen in epidemiological characterization of P. aeruginosa. The ability to measure the rate of molecular evolution of the P. aeruginosa genome clearly depends on the choice of restriction enzyme or primer when RAPD or PFGE, respectively, is applied for the detection of DNA polymorphisms. PMID:8940470

  4. Native agarose gel electrophoresis and electroelution: A fast and cost-effective method to separate the small and large hepatitis B capsids.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kam Yee; Tan, Wen Siang; Tey, Beng Ti; Lee, Khai Wooi; Ho, Kok Lian

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expressed in Escherichia coli is able to self-assemble into large and small capsids comprising 240 (triangulation number T = 4) and 180 (triangulation number T = 3) subunits, respectively. Conventionally, sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and SEC have been used to separate these capsids. However, good separation of the large and small particles with these methods is never achieved. In the present study, we employed a simple, fast, and cost-effective method to separate the T = 3 and T = 4 HBcAg capsids by using native agarose gel electrophoresis followed by an electroelution method (NAGE-EE). This is a direct, fast, and economic method for isolating the large and small HBcAg particles homogenously based on the hydrodynamic radius of the spherical particles. Dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the T = 3 and T = 4 HBcAg capsids prepared using the NAGE-EE method are monodisperse with polydispersity values of ?15% and ?13%, respectively. ELISA proved that the antigenicity of the capsids was not affected in the purification process. Overall, NAGE-EE produced T = 3 and T = 4 capsids with a purity above 90%, and the recovery was 34% and 50%, respectively (total recovery of HBcAg is ?84%), and the operation time is 15 and 4 times lesser than that of the sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and SEC, respectively. PMID:23161478

  5. Detection and identification of Lactobacillus species in crops of broilers of different ages by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Le Luo; Hagen, Karen E; Tannock, Gerald W; Korver, Doug R; Fasenko, Gaylene M; Allison, Gwen E

    2003-11-01

    The microflora of the crop was investigated throughout the broiler production period (0 to 42 days) using PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and selective bacteriological culture of lactobacilli followed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The birds were raised under conditions similar to those used in commercial broiler production. Lactobacilli predominated and attained populations of 10(8) to 10(9) CFU per gram of crop contents. Many of the lactobacilli present in the crop (61.9% of isolates) belonged to species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group and could not be differentiated by PCR-DGGE. A rapid and simple ARDRA method was developed to distinguish between the members of the L. acidophilus group. HaeIII-ARDRA was used for preliminary identification of isolates in the L. acidophilus group and to identify Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius. MseI-ARDRA generated unique patterns for all species of the L. acidophilus group, identifying Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gallinarum among crop isolates. The results of our study provide comprehensive knowledge of the Lactobacillus microflora in the crops of birds of different ages using nucleic acid-based methods of detection and identification based on current taxonomic criteria. PMID:14602636

  6. Approach to Analyze the Diversity of Myxobacteria in Soil by Semi-Nested PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Based on Taxon-Specific Gene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baiyuan; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Honghui

    2014-01-01

    The genotypic diversity of insoluble macromolecules degraded myxobacteria, provided an opportunity to discover new bacterial resources and find new ecological functions. In this study, we developed a semi-nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to determine the presence and genotypic diversity of myxobacteria in soil. After two rounds of PCR with myxobacteria-specific primers, an 194 bp fragment of mglA, a key gene involved in gliding motility, suitable for DGGE was obtained. A large number of bands were observed in DGGE patterns, indicating diverse myxobacteria inhabiting in soils. Furthermore, sequencing and BLAST revealed that most of the bands belonged to the myxobacteria-group, and only three of the twenty-eight bands belonged to other group, i.e., Deinococcus maricopensis. The results verified that myxobacterial strains with discrepant sequence compositions of gene mglA could be discriminated by DGGE with myxobacteria-specific primers. Collectively, the developed semi-nested-PCR-DGGE strategy is a useful tool for studying the diversity of myxobacteria. PMID:25280065

  7. Proteome Profile of Functional Mitochondria from Human Skeletal Muscle Using One-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Natalie; Yi, Zhengping; Bowen, Benjamin; Glancy, Brian; De Filippis, Eleanna A.; Mapes, Rebekka; Hwang, Hyonson; Flynn, Charles R.; Willis, Wayne T.; Civitarese, Anthony; Højlund, Kurt; Mandarino, Lawrence J.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria can be isolated from skeletal muscle in a manner that preserves tightly coupled bioenergetic function in vitro. The purpose of this study was to characterize the composition of such preparations using a proteomics approach. Mitochondria isolated from human vastus lateralis biopsies were functional as evidenced by their response to carbohydrate and fat-derived fuels. Using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, 823 unique proteins were detected, and 487 of these were assigned to the mitochondrion, including the newly characterized SIRT5, MitoNEET and RDH13. Proteins detected included 9 of the 13 mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins and 86 of 104 electron transport chain (ETC) and ETC-related proteins. In addition, 59 of 78 proteins of the 55S mitoribosome, several TIM and TOM proteins and cell death proteins were present. This study presents an efficient method for future qualitative assessments of proteins from functional isolated mitochondria from small samples of healthy and diseased skeletal muscle. PMID:19567276

  8. Development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method on SU-8 microchips for protein separation with LIF detection: Application to the analysis of whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Barrios-Romero, Maria; Crevillén, Agustín G; Diez-Masa, José Carlos

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method for the analysis of major whey proteins (?-lactalbumin, ?-lactoglobulin, and BSA) carried out in SU-8 microchips. The method uses a low-viscosity solution of dextran as a sieving polymer. A commercial coating agent (EOTrol LN) was added to the separation buffer to control the EOF of the chips. The potential of this coating agent to prevent protein adsorption on the walls of the SU-8 channels was also evaluated. Additionally, the fluorescence background of the SU-8 material was studied to improve the sensitivity of the method. By selecting an excitation wavelength of 532 nm at which the background fluorescence remains low and by replacing the mercury arc lamp by a laser in the detection system, an LOD in the nanomolar range was achieved for proteins derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P540. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of milk samples, demonstrating the potential of SU-8 microchips for the analysis of proteins in complex food samples. PMID:23720160

  9. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  10. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing to study an outbreak of infection due to Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, G; Kelly, C; Solorzano, F; Leanos, B; Coria, R; Patterson, J E

    1996-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a well-known cause of nosocomial infections and outbreaks, particularly in critically ill neonates and immunocompromised patients. Numerous methods have been proposed for typing. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to analyze an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We included 23 patient isolates from an outbreak (March to July 1995), and 10 patient isolates from different wards during the same time period. PFGE of whole-cell DNA digested by SpeI was used as a marker of strain identity. The most common presentation of the infection was sepsis in 18 of 23 (78%) neonates. Only four different biotypes were identified; biotype A8d accounted for 84% of the strains. PFGE typing revealed two clones responsible for two different clonal strain dissemination outbreaks from March to July, with 24 patient isolates being pattern A and 4 patient isolates being pattern E. PFGE typing suggests cross transmission between patients in the NICU and other wards. The isolates from 5 other patients showed distinct PFGE patterns. Extensive investigation and cultures failed to identify any environmental or staff reservoir of S. marcescens. This is one of the first reports applying PFGE to the study of S. marcescens, and this method was a useful marker of strain identity. PFGE typing distinguished strains which appeared to be the same by biotyping. PMID:8940460

  11. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting of soil bacteria in the vicinity of the Chinese Great Wall Station, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qi; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yang; Cai, Minghong; He, Jianfeng; Yang, Haizhen

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial diversity was investigated in soil samples collected from 13 sites around the Great Wall Station, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. The classes alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, as well as the phylum Actinobacteria, were found to be the dominant bacteria in the soils around the Great Wall Station. Although the selected samples were not contaminated by oil, a relationship between soil parameters, microbial biodiversity, and human impact was still seen. Sample sites in human impacted areas showed lower bacterial biodiversity (average H' = 2.65) when compared to non-impacted sites (average H' = 3.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between soil bacterial diversity and total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, or total phosphorus contents of the soil. Canonical correlation analysis showed that TOC content was the most important factor determining bacterial community profiles among the measured soil parameters. In conclusion, microbial biodiversity and community characteristics within relatively small scales (1.5 km) were determined as a function of local environment parameters and anthropogenic impact. PMID:24520704

  12. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis Isolates from Humans and Broiler Chickens in Thailand by Phage Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Boonmar, Sumalee; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pornrunangwong, Srirat; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    To determine the phage types (PT) of Salmonella enteritidis found in Thailand and to clarify the potential for human infection by S. enteritidis in broiler chicken meat, human and poultry isolates taken from Thailand between 1990 and 1997 were phage typed and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different PT were found among the 302 isolates phage typed, with PT 4 being the most frequent in human (73.9%) and poultry (76.2%) isolates, followed by PT 1 (8.0%), 8 (3.6%), and 7a (2.2%) in human isolates and by PT 7a (4.9%), 1 (3.7%), and 12 (2.4%) in poultry isolates. Of the 53 isolates analyzed by PFGE, 45 showed an indistinguishable pattern (pattern A) by BlnI-digested PFGE and the other 8 isolates showed a very similar pattern that differed by only a few bands. These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. PMID:9542918

  13. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid mucus and its potential for other bacterial fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Stevenson, Roselynn M W

    2012-05-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA was used to nonlethally detect Aeromonas salmonicida and other bacteria in salmonid skin mucus. Mucus samples from wild spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with endemic A. salmonicida and from cultured lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were tested by PCR-DGGE and were compared with mucus culture on Coomassie brilliant blue agar and internal organ culture. PCR-DGGE gave a highly reproducible 4-band pattern for 9 strains of typical A. salmonicida, which was different from other Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas salmonicida presence in mucus was evident as a band that comigrated with the bottom band of the A. salmonicida 4-band pattern and was verified by sequencing. PCR-DGGE found 36 of 52 coho salmon positive for A. salmonicida, compared with 31 positive by mucus culture and 16 by organ culture. Numerous other bacteria were detected in salmonid mucus, including Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila and other aeromonads. However, Yersinia ruckeri was not detected in mucus from 27 lake trout, but 1 fish had a sorbitol-positive Y. ruckeri isolated from organ culture. Yersinia ruckeri seeded into a mucus sample suggested that PCR-DGGE detection of this bacterium from mucus was possible. PCR-DGGE allows nonlethal detection of A. salmonicida in mucus and differentiation of some Aeromonas spp. and has the potential to allow simultaneous detection of other pathogens present in fish mucus. PMID:22506865

  14. Molecular characterization of mild-to-moderate hemophilia A: Detection of the mutation in 25 of 29 patients by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Miyoko; Antonarakis, S.E.; Kasch, L. Economou-Petersen, E.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Oldenburg, J.; Olek, K. (Univ. of Bonn (West Germany)); Arai, Morio; Inaba, Hiroshi (Tokyo Medical College (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    To date it has been difficult to characterize completely a genetic disorder, such as hemophilia A, in which the involved gene is large and unrelated affected individuals have different mutations, most of which are point mutations. Toward this end, the authors analyzed the DNA of 29 patients with mild-to-moderate hemophilia A in which the causative mutation is likely to be a missense mutation. Using computer analysis, they determined the melting properties of factor VIII gene sequences to design primer sets for PCR amplification and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 45 primer sets was chosen to amplify 99% of the coding region of the gene and 41 of 50 splice junctions. To facilitate detection of point mutations, they mixed DNA from two male patients, and both homoduplexes and heteroduplexes were analyzed. With these 45 primer sets, 26 DNAs containing previously identified point mutations were easily distinguishable from normal. After analyzing the 29 patient with unknown mutations, they identified the disease-producing mutation in 25 (86%). Two polymorphisms and two rare normal variants were also found. Therefore, DGGE after computer analysis is a powerful method for nearly complete characterization of disease-producing mutations and polymorphisms in large genes such as that for factor VIII.

  15. Laboratory investigation of a multistate food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, T J; Lior, H; Green, J H; Khakhria, R; Wells, J G; Bell, B P; Greene, K D; Lewis, J; Griffin, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-three isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage typing. All 26 isolates from persons whose illness was associated with a recent multistate outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infections linked to the consumption of undercooked hamburgers and all 27 isolates from incriminated lots of hamburger meat had the same phage type and the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-five of 74 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from Washington State and 10 of 27 isolates from other states obtained during the 6 months before the outbreak had the same phage type as the outbreak strain, but only 1 isolate had the same PFGE pattern. PFGE thus appeared to be a more sensitive method than bacteriophage typing for distinguishing outbreak and non-outbreak-related strains. The PFGE patterns of seven preoutbreak sporadic isolates and five sporadic isolates from the outbreak period differed from that of the outbreak strain by a single band, making it difficult to identify these isolates as outbreak or non-outbreak related. Phage typing and PFGE with additional enzymes were helpful in resolving this problem. While not as sensitive as PFGE, phage typing was helpful in interpreting PFGE data and could have been used as a simple, rapid screen to eliminate the need for performing PFGE on unrelated isolates. Images PMID:7883892

  16. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary gel electrophoresis: a promising tool for GMO screening--assay for simultaneous detection of five genetically modified cotton events and species.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Anna; Esteve, Teresa; Pla, Maria

    2009-01-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay coupled to capillary gel electrophoresis for amplicon identification by size and color (multiplex PCR-CGE-SC) was developed for simultaneous detection of cotton species and 5 events of genetically modified (GM) cotton. Validated real-time-PCR reactions targeting Bollgard, Bollgard II, Roundup Ready, 3006-210-23, and 281-24-236 junction sequences, and the cotton reference gene acp1 were adapted to detect more than half of the European Union-approved individual or stacked GM cotton events in one reaction. The assay was fully specific (<1.7% of false classification rate), with limit of detection values of 0.1% for each event, which were also achieved with simulated mixtures at different relative percentages of targets. The assay was further combined with a second multiplex PCR-CGE-SC assay to allow simultaneous detection of 6 cotton and 5 maize targets (two endogenous genes and 9 GM events) in two multiplex PCRs and a single CGE, making the approach more economic. Besides allowing simultaneous detection of many targets with adequate specificity and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR-CGE-SC approach has high throughput and automation capabilities, while keeping a very simple protocol, e.g., amplification and labeling in one step. Thus, it is an easy and inexpensive tool for initial screening, to be complemented with quantitative assays if necessary. PMID:19610365

  17. Detection of in vivo DNA damage induced by ethanol in multiple organs of pregnant mice using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Kido, Ryoko; Sato, Itaru; Tsuda, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is principal ingredient of alcohol beverage, but considered as human carcinogen, and has neurotoxicity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy often causes fetal alcohol syndrome. The DNA damage is one of the important factors in carcinogenicity or teratogenicity. To detect the DNA damage induced by ethanol, we used an in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in pregnant mice organs and embryos. Pregnant ICR mice on Day 7 of gestation were treated with 2, 4 or 8 g/kg ethanol, and maternal organs/tissues and embryos were subjected to the Comet assay at 4, 8, 12 and 24 hr after ethanol treatment. Four and 8 g/kg ethanol induced DNA damage in brain, lung and embryos at 4 or 8 hr after the treatment. Two g/kg ethanol did not cause any DNA damage, and 8 g/kg ethanol only increased the duration of DNA damage without distinct increase in the degree of the damage. No significant DNA damage was observed in the liver. To detect the effect of acetaldehyde, disulfiram, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, was administered before 4 g/kg ethanol treatment. No significant increase of DNA damage was observed in the disulfiram pre-treated group. These data indicate that ethanol induces DNA damage, which might be related to ethanol toxicity. Since pre-treatment of disulfiram did not increase DNA damage, DNA damage observed in this study might not be the effect of acetaldehyde. PMID:16462115

  18. A comparative proteomic study of plasma in feline pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify diagnostic biomarkers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meachem, Melissa D; Snead, Elisabeth R; Kidney, Beverly A; Jackson, Marion L; Dickinson, Ryan; Larson, Victoria; Simko, Elemir

    2015-07-01

    While pancreatitis is now recognized as a common ailment in cats, the diagnosis remains challenging due to discordant results and suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and specific feline pancreatic lipase (Spec fPL) assay. Pancreatitis also shares similar clinical features with pancreatic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive disease with a grave prognosis. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the plasma proteomes of normal healthy cats (n = 6), cats with pancreatitis (n = 6), and cats with pancreatic carcinoma (n = 6) in order to identify potential new biomarkers of feline pancreatic disease. After plasma protein separation by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein spots were detected by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining and identified by mass spectrometry. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein-A1 precursor (Pre Apo-A1) appeared to be differentially expressed, which suggests the presence of a systemic acute-phase response and alteration of lipid metabolism in cats with pancreatic disease. Future studies involving greater case numbers are needed in order to assess the utility of these proteins as potential biomarkers. More sensitive proteomic techniques may also be helpful in detecting significant but low-abundance proteins. PMID:26130850

  19. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole?Acetic acid, HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  20. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  1. Identification of multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in neonates of a secondary care hospital using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and quantitative antibiogram typing.

    PubMed Central

    Sloos, J H; Horrevorts, A M; Van Boven, C P; Dijkshoorn, L

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the diversity of types of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a neonatal care unit of a secondary care hospital in the Netherlands. METHODS: In a prospective study, specimens from nose, ear, axilla, umbilicus, and groin were taken from patients twice a week during a period of up to two weeks. All isolates were typed by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiogram analysis. RESULTS: Fifty three S epidermidis isolates from 15 of 24 patients were obtained in one to four surveys. Fourteen isolates from six patients had a common PFGE pattern and were of one multiresistant antibiogram type. The remaining 39 isolates were allocated to 24 sporadic PFGE types and were more susceptible to antibiotics. Colonisation with the multiresistant strain correlated with a long period of stay and with the use of specific antibiotics. The multiresistant isolates were related closely to isolates of S epidermidis found in a recent study in a teaching hospital in the vicinity of the secondary care hospital. CONCLUSION: Repeated sampling and the use of two typing methods allowed the identification of two closely related multiresistant S epidermidis strains in two hospitals in the same area. Images PMID:9577375

  2. Seasonal distributions of dominant 16S rRNA-defined populations in a hot spring microbial mat examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, M J; Ward, D M

    1997-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene segments was used to examine the distributions of bacterial populations within a hot spring microbial mat (Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park). Populations at sites along the thermal gradient of the spring's effluent channel were surveyed at seasonal intervals. No shift in the thermal gradient was detected, and populations at spatially or temperature-defined sites exhibited only slight changes over the annual sampling period. A new cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequence type was detected at temperatures from 63 to 75 degrees C. A new green nonsulfur bacterium-like sequence type was also detected at temperatures from 53 to 62 degrees C. Genetically unique though closely related cyanobacterial and green nonsulfur bacterium-like populations were successively distributed along the thermal gradient of the Octopus Spring effluent channel. At least two cyanobacterial populations were detected at each site; however, a limited ability to detect some cyanobacterial populations suggests that only dominant populations were observed. PMID:9097434

  3. Effects of garden and water cress juices and their constituents, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates, towards benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single cell gel electrophoresis\\/Hep G2 assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fekadu Kassie; Brenda Laky; Richard Gminski; Volker Mersch-Sundermann; Gerlinde Scharf; Evelyn Lhoste; Siegfried Kansmüller

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of water and garden cress juices towards benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)\\/Hep G2 test system. This experimental model combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of human derived cells possessing inducible phase I and phase II enzymes. Treatment of Hep G2

  4. Establishment of a Universal Size Standard Strain for Use with the PulseNet Standardized Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Protocols: Converting the National Databases to the New Size Standard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan B. Hunter; Paul Vauterin; Mary Ann Lambert-Fair; M. Susan Van Duyne; Kristy Kubota; Lewis Graves; Donna Wrigley; Timothy Barrett; Efrain Ribot

    The PulseNet National Database, established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996, consists of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns obtained from isolates of food-borne pathogens (currently Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, and Listeria) and textual information about the isolates. Electronic images and accompanying text are submitted from over 60 U.S. public health and food regulatory agency laboratories.

  5. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces pastorianus after exposure to x-rays (30–50 keV) and neutrons (14 MeV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Pötter; Wolfgang Köhnlein

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomes of budding yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus were used to determine the extent of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by x-rays (30–50 keV) and 14 MeV neutrons. The\\u000a yeast chromosomes were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the proportion of unbroken molecules corresponding\\u000a to the largest chromosome no. IV (1500 kbp) was used to calculate the DSB frequency assuming a

  6. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for subspecies identification of mycobacteria in the Mycobacterium avium complex and for isolation of DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, J W; Condon, C; Compston, C A; Potter, K N; Lamontagne, L R; Shafiq, J; Kunimoto, D Y

    1992-01-01

    Mycobacterial strains from the Mycobacterium avium complex were compared with each other and with Mycobacterium phlei isolates by restriction endonuclease digestion of chromosomal DNA with SspI and analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Characteristic profiles were observed for known typed strains, and five groups were identified. Primary bovine isolates identified as Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by classical methods were shown to fall into both the M. paratuberculosis- and M. avium-like groups. M. paratuberculosis 18 was in the latter category. Two Mycobacterium intracellulare strains of different Schaefer serotypes had different digestion profiles. In addition, this system was exploited for the preparation of DNA probes by the isolation, digestion, and subcloning of DNA fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Probe JC12 hybridized only to M. avium complex strains, but not to M. phlei, showing characteristic hybridization profiles for each of the groups previously identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The approach taken in the study lends itself to the comparative analysis of members of the M. avium complex and to the isolation and characterization of DNA probes with specificity for these mycobacteria. Images PMID:1352787

  7. Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprints and post source decay: a tool for the identification and analysis of phloem proteins from Cucurbita maxima Duch. separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Haebel; Julia Kehr

    2001-01-01

    A combination of gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to analyze the soluble proteins from phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima Duch. Phloem proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Coomassie-stained spots were cut out and subjected to tryptic digestion. To identify proteins, peptide mass fingerprints were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition,

  8. Solution-state 2D NMR of ball-milled plant cell wall gels in DMSO-d6/pyridine-d5†

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, John

    2014-01-01

    NMR fingerprinting of the components of finely divided plant cell walls swelled in DMSO has been recently described. Cell wall gels, produced directly in the NMR tube with perdeutero-dimethylsulfoxide, allowed the acquisition of well resolved/dispersed 2D 13C–1H correlated solution-state NMR spectra of the entire array of wall polymers, without the need for component fractionation. That is, without actual solubilization, and without apparent structural modification beyond that inflicted by the ball milling and ultrasonication steps, satisfactorily interpretable spectra can be acquired that reveal compositional and structural details regarding the polysaccharide and lignin components in the wall. Here, the profiling method has been improved by using a mixture of perdeuterated DMSO and pyridine (4:1, v/v). Adding pyridine provided not only easier sample handling because of the better mobility compared to the DMSO-d6-only system but also considerably elevated intensities and improved resolution of the NMR spectra due to the enhanced swelling of the cell walls. This modification therefore provides a more rapid method for comparative structural evaluation of plant cell walls than is currently available. We examined loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, a gymnosperm), aspen (Populus tremuloides, an angiosperm), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, an herbaceous plant), and corn (Zea mays L., a grass, i.e., from the Poaceae family). In principle, lignin composition (notably, the syringyl : guaiacyl : p-hydroxyphenyl ratio) can be quantified without the need for lignin isolation. Correlations for p-coumarate units in the corn sample are readily seen, and a variety of the ferulate correlations are also well resolved; ferulates are important components responsible for cell wall cross-linking in grasses. Polysaccharide anomeric correlations were tentatively assigned for each plant sample based on standard samples and various literature data. With the new potential for chemometric analysis using the 2D NMR fingerprint, this gel-state method may provide the basis for an attractive approach to providing a secondary screen for selecting biomass lines and for optimizing biomass processing and conversion efficiencies. PMID:20090974

  9. Determination of optimal protein quantity required to identify abundant and less abundant soybean seed proteins by 2D-PAGE and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing the amounts of proteins required to separate and characterize both abundant and less abundant proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) is critical for conducting proteomic research. In this study, we tested five different levels of soybean seed proteins (7...

  10. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion

    PubMed Central

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb2+ promotes H3BO3-dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured ‘Paul's Scarlet’ rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3BO3 to 3.3 ?m triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [3H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur. PMID:24320597

  11. Suitability of the molecular subtyping methods intergenic spacer region, direct genome restriction analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    PubMed

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Fischer, Markus; LaFon, Patti; Cooper, Kara; Jones, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of infectious illness associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Molecular fingerprinting of strains has become a valuable research tool for understanding this pathogen. However, there are many subtyping methods available and little information on how they compare to one another. For this study, a collection of 67 oyster and 77 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by three subtyping methods--intergenic spacer region (ISR-1), direct genome restriction analysis (DGREA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--to determine the utility of these methods for discriminatory subtyping. ISR-1 analysis, run as previously described, provided the lowest discrimination of all the methods (discriminatory index [DI]=0.8665). However, using a broader analytical range than previously reported, ISR-1 clustered isolates based on origin (oyster versus clinical) and had a DI=0.9986. DGREA provided a DI=0.9993-0.9995, but did not consistently cluster the isolates by any identifiable characteristics (origin, serotype, or virulence genotype) and ? 15% of isolates were untypeable by this method. PFGE provided a DI=0.9998 when using the combined pattern analysis of both restriction enzymes, SfiI and NotI. This analysis was more discriminatory than using either enzyme pattern alone and primarily grouped isolates by serotype, regardless of strain origin (clinical or oyster) or presence of currently accepted virulence markers. These results indicate that PFGE and ISR-1 are more reliable methods for subtyping V. parahemolyticus, rather than DGREA. Additionally, ISR-1 may provide an indication of pathogenic potential; however, more detailed studies are needed. These data highlight the diversity within V. parahaemolyticus and the need for appropriate selection of subtyping methods depending on the study objectives. PMID:24799175

  12. Epidemiologic typing and delineation of genetic relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Struelens, M J; Deplano, A; Godard, C; Maes, N; Serruys, E

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of phenotypic and genotypic analyses for the epidemiologic typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we characterized 64 epidemic MRSA isolates and 10 sporadic methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from a university hospital and 18 MRSA isolates from hospitals in different geographical areas. Chromosomal DNA macrorestriction analysis with SstII was resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared with antibiotype analysis, phage type analysis, and standard genomic DNA restriction analysis with BglII. Indices of the discriminatory ability of these methods were 0.982, 0.959, 0.947, and 0.959, respectively. Macrorestriction patterns of 94% of MRSA isolates from patients, personnel, and the environment associated with a nosocomial outbreak were closely related (similarity coefficient, 85 to 100%). In contrast, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates showed a marked diversity of macrorestriction patterns (median similarity, 41%). MRSA isolates from other geographical areas showed diverse macrorestriction patterns, with the exception of four isolates displaying identical or closely related patterns; these isolates were associated with concurrent outbreaks in four other Belgian hospitals. A concordance of genomic DNA macrorestriction typing with phenotypic methods was observed for 60 to 65% of MRSA isolates, and a concordance with standard DNA restriction analysis was found for 79 to 98% of these isolates. In conclusion, genomic DNA macrorestriction analysis was a useful complement to phenotypic methods for delineating epidemic isolates of MRSA, for identifying their nosocomial reservoirs, and for tracing their intra- and interhospital spread. The genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates, as estimated by this technique, appeared to correlate with their space-time clustering. Images PMID:1328279

  13. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence-associated genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from piglets with diarrhea in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Choi, Yoon Young; Park, Jong Ho; Jeon, Byung Woo; Lee, Hee Soo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from diarrheic piglets in 2 periods, 2000-2001 (n = 25) and 2005-2006 (n = 17). To compare the characteristics of the isolates collected during the 2 periods, all isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All 42 isolates were resistant to at least 1 of the 20 antimicrobials tested, and 39 (93%) were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials. One isolate was resistant to 12 antimicrobials. Profiles of antimicrobial resistance revealed 20 resistance types. Several isolates were also resistant to quinolones and expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Ten isolates (24%) were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline (ACSSuT); only one isolate had been isolated in 2000-2001, indicating that this type of resistance has rapidly disseminated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays revealed that all the isolates carried invA. Among the 25 strains isolated in 2000-2001, all carried the sipA, sopA, sopD, sopE2, and ssaR genes, and 96% carried sopB and sifA. Among the 17 strains isolated in 2005-2006, all carried sifA, and approximately 90% carried sipA, sopA, sopB, sopD, sopE2, and ssaR. However, only 6 (14%) of the 42 isolates carried spvC. By PFGE analysis, all 42 strains were classified into 4 major clusters, basically by collection period. The genetic similarity according to PFGE suggests that the strains isolated from diarrheic piglets of this region within the same period may be closely related. PMID:21461195

  14. Proteinases secreted by Fasciola hepatica: time course of the inhibitory effect of serum from experimentally infected rabbits demonstrated by gelatin-substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, L; Acosta, D; Dowd, A; McGonicle, S; Dalton, J; Carmona, C

    1997-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica secretes proteolytic enzymes to aid it to penetrate and migrate through the host tissues. Two of these proteinases have been purified and shown to be cathepsin L-like, and are termed, CL1 (27.5 kD) and CL2 (29 kD). The immunogenicity of these proteinases was investigated over the course of an experimental infection and following drug treatment. Four groups of rabbits were studied: group 1: orally infected with 50 metacercariae; group 2: infected and treated 8 weeks after infection; group 3: infected, treated at week 8 and reinfected at week 13 and group 4: non-infected control group. Sera were collected weekly from each group until week 20 postinfection. CL1 and CL2 were incubated with the different sera and then analysed by gelatin substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GS-PAGE). Analysis of groups 1, 2 and 3 showed that CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies appear at week 5 post-infection. In group 1, these remained throughout the 20 weeks of infection. In group 2, neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13, that is, 5 weeks after anti-Fasciola treatment. In group 3, CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13 but reappeared by week 15, that is 2 weeks after reinfection. Pooled sera from group 4, showed no inhibitory capacity. ELISA results using CL1 and CL2 as antigen, correlate very well with the inhibitiory time course observed by GS-PAGE. These results suggest that purified cathepsin Ls are antigenic molecules recognized early in the infective process and capable of inducing a specific humoral response, strong enough to neutralize, at least partially, their enzymatic activity. PMID:9443952

  15. Detection and characterization of fungal infections of Ammophila arenaria (marram grass) roots by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of specifically amplified 18s rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalchuk, G A; Gerards, S; Woldendorp, J W

    1997-01-01

    Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria L.), a sand-stabilizing plant species in coastal dune areas, is affected by a specific pathosystem thought to include both plant-pathogenic fungi and nematodes. To study the fungal component of this pathosystem, we developed a method for the cultivation-independent detection and characterization of fungi infecting plant roots based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of specifically amplified DNA fragments coding for 18S rRNA (rDNA). A nested PCR strategy was employed to amplify a 569-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene, with the addition of a 36-bp GC clamp, from fungal isolates, from roots of test plants infected in the laboratory, and from field samples of marram grass roots from both healthy and degenerating stands from coastal dunes in The Netherlands. PCR products from fungal isolates were subjected to DGGE to examine the variation seen both between different fungal taxa and within a single species. DGGE of the 18S rDNA fragments could resolve species differences from fungi used in this study yet was unable to discriminate between strains of a single species. The 18S rRNA genes from 20 isolates of fungal species previously recovered from A. arenaria roots were cloned and partially sequenced to aid in the interpretation of DGGE data. DGGE patterns recovered from laboratory plants showed that this technique could reliably identify known plant-infecting fungi. Amplification products from field A. arenaria roots also were analyzed by DGGE, and the major bands were excised, reamplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Some recovered 18S rDNA sequences allowed for phylogenetic placement to the genus level, whereas other sequences were not closely related to known fungal 18S rDNA sequences. The molecular data presented here reveal fungal diversity not detected in previous culture-based surveys. PMID:9327549

  16. Application of PCR-Denaturing-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Method to Examine Microbial Community Structure in Asparagus Fields with Growth Inhibition due to Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE. PMID:22200640

  17. Comparison of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis as Tools for Typing Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in a Microepidemiological Setting

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, S. J.; de Silva, G. D. I.; Justice, A.; Cowland, A.; Moore, C. E.; Winearls, C. G.; Day, N. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus is well suited to the study of global or long-term epidemiology, but its role in local epidemiology has not been defined. The present study has compared MLST with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) by using S. aureus isolates associated with carriage and disease in a busy regional renal unit. One hundred forty-four patients were prospectively recruited, of whom 103 were receiving hemodialysis and 41 were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Three nasal swab specimens were obtained 1 month apart on entering the study. A nasal swab was positive for S. aureus on at least one occasion in 50 patients (35%). Typing of the 104 carriage isolates demonstrated 21 PFGE types and 21 sequence types (STs). Thirty-one carriers had two or more positive nasal swabs; of these, the isolates in all swabs from a given carrier had identical PFGE types for 29 carriers; the isolates in all of the same 29 swabs had identical STs. The carriage strain in two patients changed both PFGE type and STs during the period of swabbing. Eight patients (6%) had an episode of S. aureus bacteremia during the 12-month study period, and two of these were nasal carriers. One of these invasive isolates had the same PFGE type and ST as the carriage isolate. There were no differences between Simpson's index of diversity for PFGE and Simpson's index of diversity for MLST for both invasive and carriage isolates, suggesting that the two methods have very similar discriminatory abilities. We conclude that PFGE and MLST performed equally in this study. PMID:12354878

  18. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb(2+) promotes H3 BO3 -dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3 BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured 'Paul's Scarlet' rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3 BO3 to 3.3 ?m triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [(3) H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur. PMID:24320597

  19. Comparison of Typing Results Obtained for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with the DiversiLab System and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis?

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, Fred C.; Gay, Emily A.; Frye, Stacie; Eells, Samantha J.; Healy, Mimi; McGowan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the results of typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates using the DiversiLab system (DL) to the results obtained using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). One hundred five MRSA isolates of PFGE types USA100 to USA1100 and the Brazilian clone, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Project ICARE strain collections, were typed using DL. In addition, four unique sets of MRSA isolates from purported MRSA outbreaks that had been previously typed by DL, each consisting of six isolates (where five isolates were classified as indistinguishable by DL and one was an unrelated DL type) were typed by PFGE. DL separated the 105 MRSA isolates of known USA types into 11 clusters and six unique banding patterns. DL grouped most of the USA100, USA200, and USA1100 isolates into unique clusters. Multilocus sequence type 8 isolates (i.e., USA300 and USA500) often clustered together at >95% similarity in DL dendrograms. Nevertheless, USA300 and USA500 DL patterns could be distinguished using the pattern overlay function of the DL software. Among the hospital outbreak clusters, PFGE and DL identified the same “unrelated” organism in three of four sets. However, PFGE showed more pattern diversity than did DL, suggesting that two of the sets were less likely to represent true outbreaks. In summary, DL is useful for screening MRSA isolates to rule out potential outbreaks of MRSA in hospitals, but PFGE provides better discrimination of potential outbreak strains and is more useful for confirming strain relatedness and specific USA types. PMID:19553588

  20. A comparison of BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Charlene R; Furtula, Vesna; Farrell, Erin G; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the Lower Fraser Valley regions of British Columbia, Canada was determined. A new automated BOX-PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to subtype enterococcal isolates from broiler and layer litter and surface and groundwater. All surface water samples (n = 12) were positive for enterococci, as were 11% (3/28) of groundwater samples. Enterococcus faecium (n = 90) was isolated from all sources, while Enterococcus faecalis (n = 59) was isolated from all sources except layer litter. The majority of E. faecalis originated from broiler litter (28/59; 47.5%) while the majority of E. faecium were isolated from layer litter (29/90; 32.2%). E. faecalis grouped primarily by source using BOX-PCR. Isolates from water samples were dispersed more frequently among PFGE groups containing isolates from poultry litter. E. faecium strains were genetically diverse as overall clustering was independent of source by both molecular methods. Subgroups of E. faecium isolates based upon source (layer litter) were present in BOX-PCR groups. Three individual E. faecalis groups and two individual E. faecium groups were 100% similar using BOX-PCR; only one instance of 100% similarity among isolates using PFGE was observed. Although enterococci from litter and water sources were grouped together using BOX-PCR and PFGE, isolates originating from water could not be definitively identified as originating from poultry litter. Automation of BOX-PCR amplicon separation and visualization increased the reproducibility and standardization of subtyping using this procedure. PMID:22383122

  1. Rapid Identification of Staphylococcal Strains from Positive-Testing Blood Culture Bottles by Internal Transcribed Spacer PCR Followed by Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shin-Ichi; Senda, Yasuko; Iwagami, Thikako; Hashimoto, Takuma

    2005-01-01

    PCR analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) followed by microchip gel electrophoresis (MGE) was evaluated for its usefulness in identification of staphylococci. Forty ITS PCR patterns were demonstrated among 228 isolated colonies of Staphylococcus aureus: 26 patterns for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA; 91 strains), 11 patterns for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 99 strains), and 3 patterns for both MSSA and MRSA (38 strains). Thirty-seven control strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) representing 16 species showed unique ITS PCR patterns (24 patterns) at the species and subspecies levels: two patterns for S. caprae, S. cohnii, S. haemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus; three patterns for S. lugdunensis; four patterns for S. capitis; and one pattern for each of the other CNS species. The combined PCR-MGE method was prospectively adapted to the positive blood culture bottles, and this method correctly identified MSSA and MRSA in 102 (89%) of 114 blood cultures positive for S. aureus on the basis of the ITS PCR patterns. Eight ITS PCR patterns were demonstrated from 166 blood culture bottles positive for CNS. The most frequent CNS species isolated from blood cultures were S. epidermidis (76%), S. capitis (11%), and S. hominis (8%). Overall, all 280 blood culture bottles shown to contain a single Staphylococcus species by routine phenotypic methods were correctly identified by the PCR-MGE method at the species level, whereas the organism failed to be identified in 8 culture bottles (3%) with mixed flora. The PCR-MGE method is useful not only for rapid identification (?1.5 h) of staphylococci in positive blood culture bottles, but also for strain delineation of S. aureus. PMID:15750076

  2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing for characterizing genotype variability of Yersinia ruckeri isolated from farmed fish in France.

    PubMed

    Calvez, Ségolène; Fournel, Catherine; Douet, Diane-Gaëlle; Daniel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is a pathogen that has an impact on aquaculture worldwide. The disease caused by this bacterial species, yersiniosis or redmouth disease, generates substantial economic losses due to the associated mortality and veterinary costs. For predicting outbreaks and improving control strategies, it is important to characterize the population structure of the bacteria. The phenotypic and genetic homogeneities described previously indicate a clonal population structure as observed in other fish bacteria. In this study, the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST) methods were used to describe a population of isolates from outbreaks on French fish farms. For the PFGE analysis, two enzymes (NotI and AscI) were used separately and together. Results from combining the enzymes showed the great homogeneity of the outbreak population with a similarity?>?80.0% but a high variability within the cluster (cut-off value?=?80.0%) with a total of 43 pulsotypes described and an index of diversity?=?0.93. The dominant pulsotypes described with NotI (PtN4 and PtN7) have already been described in other European countries (Finland, Germany, Denmark, Spain and Italy). The MLST approach showed two dominant sequence types (ST31 and ST36), an epidemic structure of the French Y. ruckeri population and a preferentially clonal evolution for rainbow trout isolates. Our results point to multiple types of selection pressure on the Y. ruckeri population attributable to geographical origin, ecological niche specialization and movements of farmed fish. PMID:26104532

  3. Transmission of endemic ST22-MRSA-IV on four acute hospital wards investigated using a combination of spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing.

    PubMed

    Creamer, E; Shore, A C; Rossney, A S; Dolan, A; Sherlock, O; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Sullivan, D J; Kinnevey, P M; O'Lorcain, P; Cunney, R; Coleman, D C; Humphreys, H

    2012-11-01

    The transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between individual patients is difficult to track in institutions where MRSA is endemic. We investigated the transmission of MRSA where ST22-MRSA-IV is endemic on four wards using demographic data, patient and environmental screening, and molecular typing of isolates. A total of 939 patients were screened, 636 within 72 h of admission (on admission) and 303 >72 h after admission, and 1,252 environmental samples were obtained. Isolates were typed by spa, dru and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. A composite dendrogram generated from the three sets of typing data was used to divide isolates into 'dendrogram groups' (DGs). Ten percent of patients (92/939) were MRSA-positive; 7 % (44/636) on admission and 16 % (48/303) >72 h after admission (p?=?0.0007). MRSA was recovered from 5 % of environmental specimens (65/1,252). Most isolates from patients (97 %, 85/88) and the environment (97 %, 63/65) exhibited the ST22-MRSA-IV genotype. Four DGs (DG1, DG4, DG16 and DG17) accounted for 58 % of ST22-MRSA-IV isolates from patients. Epidemiological evidence suggested cross-transmission among 44/92 patients (48 %) but molecular typing confirmed probable cross-transmission in only 11 instances (13 %, 11/88), with the majority of cross-transmission (64 %; 7/11) occurring on one ward. In the setting of highly clonal endemic MRSA, the combination of local epidemiology, PFGE, spa and dru typing provided valuable insights into MRSA transmission. PMID:22814876

  4. Bacterial Community Composition in Central European Running Waters Examined by Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes? †

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Marxsen, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community composition in small streams and a river in central Germany was examined by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with PCR products of 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequence analysis. Complex TGGE band patterns suggested high levels of diversity of bacterial species in all habitats of these environments. Cluster analyses demonstrated distinct differences among the communities in stream and spring water, sandy sediments, biofilms on stones, degrading leaves, and soil. The differences between stream water and sediment were more significant than those between sites within the same habitat along the stretch from the stream source to the mouth. TGGE data from an entire stream course suggest that, in the upper reach of the stream, a special suspended bacterial community is already established and changes only slightly downstream. The bacterial communities in water and sediment in an acidic headwater with a pH below 5 were highly similar to each other but deviated distinctly from the communities at the other sites. As ascertained by nucleotide sequence analysis, stream water communities were dominated by Betaproteobacteria (one-third of the total bacteria), whereas sediment communities were composed mainly of Betaproteobacteria and members of the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group (each accounting for about 25% of bacteria). Sequences obtained from bacteria from water samples indicated the presence of typical cosmopolitan freshwater organisms. TGGE bands shared between stream and soil samples, as well as sequences found in bacteria from stream samples that were related to those of soil bacteria, demonstrated the occurrence of some species in both stream and soil habitats. Changes in bacterial community composition were correlated with geographic distance along a stream, but in comparisons of different streams and rivers, community composition was correlated only with environmental conditions. PMID:18024682

  5. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and binary typing as tools in veterinary clinical microbiology and molecular epidemiologic analysis of bovine and human Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Zadoks, R; van Leeuwen, W; Barkema, H; Sampimon, O; Verbrugh, H; Schukken, Y H; van Belkum, A

    2000-05-01

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both techniques, yet based on practical and epidemiological considerations, binary typing was the preferable method. Genotypes of bovine isolates were compared to 55 previously characterized human S. aureus isolates through cluster analysis of binary types. Genetic clusters containing strains of both human and bovine origin were found, but bacterial genotypes were predominantly associated with a single host species. Binary typing proved an excellent tool for comparison of S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, derived from different host species and from different databases. For 28 bovine S. aureus isolates, detailed clinical observations in vivo were compared to strain typing results in vitro. Associations were found between distinct genotypes and severity of disease, suggesting strain-specific bacterial virulence. Circumstantial evidence furthermore supports strain-specific routes of bacterial dissemination. We conclude that PFGE and binary typing can be successfully applied for genetic analysis of S. aureus isolates from bovine mammary secretions. Binary typing in particular is a robust and simple method and promises to become a powerful tool for strain characterization, for resolution of clonal relationships of bacteria within and between host species, and for identification of sources and transmission routes of bovine S. aureus. PMID:10790124

  6. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Binary Typing as Tools in Veterinary Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Bovine and Human Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Zadoks, Ruth; van Leeuwen, Willem; Barkema, Herman; Sampimon, Otlis; Verbrugh, Henri; Schukken, Ynte Hein; van Belkum, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-eight bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal, and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and four subtypes were identified, as were 16 binary types. Concordant delineation of genetic relatedness was documented by both techniques, yet based on practical and epidemiological considerations, binary typing was the preferable method. Genotypes of bovine isolates were compared to 55 previously characterized human S. aureus isolates through cluster analysis of binary types. Genetic clusters containing strains of both human and bovine origin were found, but bacterial genotypes were predominantly associated with a single host species. Binary typing proved an excellent tool for comparison of S. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, derived from different host species and from different databases. For 28 bovine S. aureus isolates, detailed clinical observations in vivo were compared to strain typing results in vitro. Associations were found between distinct genotypes and severity of disease, suggesting strain-specific bacterial virulence. Circumstantial evidence furthermore supports strain-specific routes of bacterial dissemination. We conclude that PFGE and binary typing can be successfully applied for genetic analysis of S. aureus isolates from bovine mammary secretions. Binary typing in particular is a robust and simple method and promises to become a powerful tool for strain characterization, for resolution of clonal relationships of bacteria within and between host species, and for identification of sources and transmission routes of bovine S. aureus. PMID:10790124

  7. Analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia infection route by genome macrorestriction-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and its prevention with combined nursing strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Junping; Li, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the infection route of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and assess the effectiveness of a combined nursing strategy to prevent VAP in intensive care units. Bacteria from the gastric juice and drainage from the hypolarynx and lower respiratory tracts of patients with VAP were analyzed using genome macrorestriction-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (GM-PFGE). A total of 124 patients with tracheal intubation were placed in the intervention group and were treated with a combined nursing strategy, comprising mosapride (gastric motility stimulant) administration and semi-reclining positioning. A total of 112 intubated patients were placed in the control group and received routine nursing care. The incidence rate of VAP, days of ventilation and mortality rate of patients were compared between the two groups. The GM-PFGE fingerprinting results of three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the gastric juice, subglottic secretion drainage and drainage of the lower respiratory tract in patients with VAP were similar across groups. The number of days spent on a ventilator by patients in the intervention group (7.37±5.32 days) was lower compared with that by patients in the control group (12.34±4.98 days) (P<0.05). The incidence rate of VAP was reduced from 40.81 to 21.25% following intervention with the combined nursing strategy (P<0.05); furthermore, the mortality rate of intubated patients in the intervention group was 29.46%, a significant reduction compared with the 41.94% mortality rate observed in the control group (P<0.05). Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) was confirmed as one of the infection routes for VAP. The combined nursing strategy of gastric motility stimulant administration and the adoption of a semi-reclining position was effective in preventing VAP by reducing the occurrence of GER. PMID:25371757

  8. Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Paenibacillus azotofixans Strains and Soil Samples Analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Alexandre S.; Duarte, Gabriela F.; Seldin, Lucy; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of dinitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) fragments in Paenibacillus azotofixans strains was investigated by using molecular methods. The partial nifH gene sequences of eight P. azotofixans strains, as well as one strain each of the close relatives Paenibacillus durum, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus macerans, were amplified by PCR by using degenerate primers and were characterized by DNA sequencing. We found that there are two nifH sequence clusters, designated clusters I and II, in P. azotofixans. The data further indicated that there was sequence divergence among the nifH genes of P. azotofixans strains at the DNA level. However, the gene products were more conserved at the protein level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all nifH cluster II sequences were similar to the alternative (anf) nitrogenase sequence. A nested PCR assay for the detection of nifH (cluster I) of P. azotofixans was developed by using the degenerate primers as outer primers and two specific primers, designed on the basis of the sequence information obtained, as inner primers. The specificity of the inner primers was tested with several diazotrophic bacteria, and PCR revealed that these primers are specific for the P. azotofixans nifH gene. A GC clamp was attached to one inner primer, and a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol was developed to study the genetic diversity of this region of nifH in P. azotofixans strains, as well as in soil and rhizosphere samples. The results revealed sequence heterogeneity among different nifH genes. Moreover, nifH is probably a multicopy gene in P. azotofixans. Both similarities and differences were detected in the P. azotofixans nifH DGGE profiles generated with soil and rhizosphere DNAs. The DGGE assay developed here is reproducible and provides a rapid way to assess the intraspecific genetic diversity of an important functional gene in pure cultures, as well as in environmental samples. PMID:9687429

  9. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis used to investigate genetic diversity of Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates in Australia shows differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal isolates.

    PubMed

    Moor, P E; Collignon, P C; Gilbert, G L

    1999-05-01

    We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to study the epidemiology and population structure of Haemophilus influenzae type b. DNAs from 187 isolates recovered between 1985 and 1993 from Aboriginal children (n = 76), non-Aboriginal children (n = 106), and non-Aboriginal adults (n = 5) in urban and rural regions across Australia were digested with the SmaI restriction endonuclease. Patterns of 13 to 17 well-resolved fragments (size range, approximately 8 to 500 kb) defining 67 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types were found. Two types predominated. One type (n = 37) accounted for 35 (46%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 2 (2%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals, and the other type (n = 41) accounted for 2 (3%) of the isolates from Aboriginals and 39 (35%) of the isolates from non-Aboriginals. Clustering revealed seven groups at a genetic distance of approximately 50% similarity in a tree-like dendrogram. They included two highly divergent groups representing 50 (66%) isolates from Aboriginals and 6 (5%) isolates from non-Aboriginals and another genetically distinct group representing 7 (9%) isolates from Aboriginals and 81 (73%) isolates from non-Aboriginals. The results showed a heterogeneous clonal population structure, with the isolates of two types accounting for 42% of the sample. There was no association between RFLP type and the diagnosis of meningitis or epiglottitis, age, sex, date of collection, or geographic location, but there was a strong association between the origin of isolates from Aboriginal children and RFLP type F2a and the origin of isolates from non-Aboriginal children and RFLP type A8b. The methodology discriminated well among the isolates (D = 0.91) and will be useful for the monitoring of postvaccine isolates of H. influenzae type b. PMID:10203516

  10. Region-based Statistical Analysis of 2D PAGE Images

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Seillier-Moiseiwitsch, Françoise; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R.

    2011-01-01

    A new comprehensive procedure for statistical analysis of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) images is proposed, including protein region quantification, normalization and statistical analysis. Protein regions are defined by the master watershed map that is obtained from the mean gel. By working with these protein regions, the approach bypasses the current bottleneck in the analysis of 2D PAGE images: it does not require spot matching. Background correction is implemented in each protein region by local segmentation. Two-dimensional locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) is proposed to remove any systematic bias after quantification of protein regions. Proteins are separated into mutually independent sets based on detected correlations, and a multivariate analysis is used on each set to detect the group effect. A strategy for multiple hypothesis testing based on this multivariate approach combined with the usual Benjamini-Hochberg FDR procedure is formulated and applied to the differential analysis of 2D PAGE images. Each step in the analytical protocol is shown by using an actual dataset. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is shown using simulated gels in comparison with the commercial software packages PDQuest and Dymension. We also introduce a new procedure for simulating gel images. PMID:21850152

  11. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from humans by antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a major serovar associated with human salmonellosis. A total of 425 clinical S. Enteritidis isolates of human origin were collected between June 2009 and September 2010 from North Carolina. The isolates were further characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance coding determinants, virulence genes, and fingerprint profiles to determine whether they were similar or different to the S. Enteritidis strain responsible for the human outbreak due to consumption of contaminated eggs. Ten different antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were observed with the highest frequency of resistance exhibited to ampicillin (n=10; 2.35%). The isolates were predominantly pansusceptible (n=409; 96.23%); however, seven isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) coding genes (bla(TEM) and bla(PSE)) were detected in the ampicillin-resistant isolates, whereas a single MDR isolate tested positive for class 1 integron (1 kb). The majority of the isolates (n=422; 99.3%) carried the invA, mgtC, stn, sopB, sopE1, and sefA virulence genes. However, 37 (8.7%) and 46 (10.82%) S. Enteritidis isolates tested negative for the plasmid encoded genes spvC and rck, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 118 S. Enteritidis isolates by restriction enzymes XbaI and BlnI resulted in seven clusters, each with a discriminatory index (DI) of 0.715 and 0.785, respectively. The combination of XbaI-BlnI patterns generated a dendrogram with 14 clusters and a higher DI of 0.914. The PFGE profile of 80 isolates matched 100% with the S. Enteritidis strain that has been cited for the recent outbreak in the United States due to consumption of contaminated eggs. In conclusion, we identified a genotypic similar S. Enteritidis population in our study based on antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and PFGE fingerprint profiles. PMID:22283616

  12. Demonstration of physical linkage between the promoter region and the polymorphic kringle IV domain in the Apo(a) gene by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, H.G.; Koechl, S.; Utermann, G. (Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria)); Malgaretti, N.; Acquati, F.; Taramelli, R. (Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy))

    1993-07-01

    Apolipoprotein(a) is a large glycoprotein that together with a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle forms lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) is a quantitative genetic trait in human plasma. High concentrations of Lp(a) are a genetic risk factor for premature CHD and stroke. Knowledge of apo(a) gene structure and understanding the regulation of Lp(a) plasma levels may therefore be of practical importance. To demonstrate physical linkage of the 5[prime] apo(a) promoter region with the kringle IV repeat region in genomic DNA, the authors have capitalized from the size variation in the apo(a) gene. Here they demonstrate that the 5[prime] promoter-linked sequence is on a polymorphic DNA fragment that also contains the variable number of kringle IV repeats. Apo(a) protein phenotypes were determined by immunoblotting and the corresponding apo(a) KpnI DNA phenotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in a total of 235, subjects as described. PFGE Southern blotting was performed using a panel of rare-cutting enzymes and mixtures thereof (BssHII, FspI, NruI, KspI, NotI, and SfiI). The blots were probed with a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled apo(a) kringle IV cDNA probe and then with a radioactively labeled probe for the 5[prime] region. The results allowed the construction of a long-range restriction map of the apo(a) gene region. From this map it can be seen that the smallest fragments containing physically linked apo(a) promoter an the apo(a) kringle IV region resulted from double digests with NruI + KspI or NruI + FspI. The size of the KspI-NruI fragments ([approx]100 kb in the case of a KpnI allele of 66 kb) demonstrates close physical linkage and suggests that the investigated promoter indeed belongs to the apo(a) structural gene.

  13. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile homogeneity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from cattle and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats

    PubMed Central

    Sevilla, Iker; Garrido, Joseba M; Geijo, Marivi; Juste, Ramon A

    2007-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis in animals and is suspected of causing Crohn's Disease in humans. Characterization of strains led to classify paratuberculosis isolates in two main types, cattle type strains, found affecting all host species, and sheep type strains, reported affecting mainly sheep. In order to get a better understanding of the epidemiology of paratuberculosis a large set of Map isolates obtained from different species over the last 25 years have been characterized. Five-hundred and twenty isolates from different hosts (cattle, sheep, goats, bison, deer and wild boar) and origins had been cultured and typed by IS1311 restriction-endonuclease-analysis. Two-hundred and sixty-nine isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SnaBI and SpeI endonucleases. Differences in strain isolation upon various media conditions were also studied. Results All bovines, 4 and 26% of Spanish sheep and goats, respectively, and the deer and wild boar studied, carried IS1311-Cattle type strains. IS1311-Sheep type encompassed 96% and 74% of Spanish sheep and goats, and all three Portuguese sheep. Thirty-seven distinct multiplex PFGE profiles were found, giving 32 novel profiles. Profiles 2-1 and 1-1 accounted for the 85% of cattle isolates. Ten distinct profiles were detected in Spanish sheep, none of them with an incidence higher than 25%. Profile 16-11 (43%) and another three profiles were identified in Spanish caprine cultures. The hierarchical analysis, clustered all profiles found in cattle, "wild" hosts and some small ruminants within the same group. The other group included 11 profiles only found in Spanish sheep and goats, including Spanish pigmented profiles. Differences in growth requirements associated with isolate genotype were observed. Conclusion Cattle in Spain are infected with cattle type strains, while sheep and goats are mainly infected with sheep type strains. Although 7H9 broth based culture media seem to broadly cover the growth requirements of most Map strains, the use of various solid media is recommended to reduce any recovery biases. High genetic homogeneity of isolates from cattle, and heterogeneity of those from sheep and goats have been detected. PMID:17352818

  14. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, M G; Belisle, J T

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were generated. In total, 205 protein spots were observed. The coupling of this electrophoretic technique with Western blot analysis allowed the identification and mapping of 32 proteins. Further molecular characterization of abundant proteins within this fraction was achieved by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were subjected to N-group analysis; of these, only 10 could be sequenced by Edman degradation. Among the most interesting were a novel 52-kDa protein demonstrating significant homology to an alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, a 25-kDa protein corresponding to open reading frame 28 of the M. tuberculosis cosmid MTCY1A11, and a 31-kDa protein exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to that of antigen 85A and 85B. This latter product migrated with an isoelectric point between those of antigen 85A and 85C but did not react with the antibody specific for this complex, suggesting that there is a fourth member of the antigen 85 complex. Novel N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for three additional culture filtrate proteins; however, these did not yield significant homology to known protein sequences. A protein cluster of 85 to 88 kDa, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies IT-57 and IT-42 and known to react with sera from a large proportion of tuberculosis patients, was refractory to N-group analysis. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from one member of this complex identified it as the M. tuberculosis KatG catalase/peroxidase. Thus, the detailed mapping of M. tuberculosis proteins, combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, provides a basis for further analysis and rapid identification of biologically relevant molecules. PMID:9353028

  15. S-glutathionyl quantification in the attomole range using glutaredoxin-3-catalyzed cysteine derivatization and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng; Rodriguez, Cynthia; Circu, Magdalena L.; Aw, Tak Yee

    2014-01-01

    S-glutathionylation (Pr–SSG) is a specific post-translational modification of cysteine residues by the addition of glutathione. S-Glutathionylated proteins induced by oxidative or nitrosative stress play an essential role in understanding the pathogenesis of the aging and age-related disorder, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this research is to develop a novel and ultrasensitive method to accurately and rapidly quantify the Pr–SSG by using capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). The derivatization method is based on the specific reduction of protein-bound S-glutathionylation with glutaredoxin (Grx) and labeling with thiol-reactive fluorescent dye (Dylight 488 maleimide). The experiments were performed by coupling the derivatization method with CGE-LIF to study electrophoretic profiling in in vitro oxidative stress model–S-glutathionylated bovine serum albumin (BSA-SSG), oxidant-induced human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, brain tissues, and whole blood samples from an AD transgenic (Tg) mouse model. The results showed almost an eightfold increase in S-glutathionyl abundance when subjecting HT-29 cells in an oxidant environment, resulting in Pr–SSG at 232±10.64 (average ±SD; n=3) nmol/mg. In the AD–Tg mouse model, an initial quantitative measurement demonstrated the extent of protein S-glutathionylation in three brain regions (hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebrum), ranging from 1 to 10 nmol/mg. Additionally, we described our developed method to potentially serve as a highly desirable diagnostic tool for monitoring S-glutathionylated protein profile in minuscule amount of whole blood. The whole blood samples for S-glutathionyl expression of 5-month-old AD–Tg mice are quantified as 16.3 ?mol/L (=7.2 nmol/mg protein). Altogether, this is a fast, easy, and accurate method, reaching the lowest limit of Pr–SSG detection at 1.8 attomole (amol) level, reported to date. PMID:21842197

  16. Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Wheat Rhizosphere by Sequencing of Cloned PCR-Amplified Genes Encoding 18S rRNA and Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Glandorf, Boet; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Wernars, Karel

    1999-01-01

    Like bacteria, fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem. As only a small fraction of the fungi present in soil can be cultured, conventional microbiological techniques yield only limited information on the composition and dynamics of fungal communities in soil. DNA-based methods do not depend on the culturability of microorganisms, and therefore they offer an attractive alternative for the study of complex fungal community structures. For this purpose, we designed various PCR primers that allow the specific amplification of fungal 18S-ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) sequences, even in the presence of nonfungal 18S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the wheat rhizosphere, and 18S rDNA gene banks were constructed in Escherichia coli by cloning PCR products generated with primer pairs EF4-EF3 (1.4 kb) and EF4-fung5 (0.5 kb). Fragments of 0.5 kb from the cloned inserts were sequenced and compared to known rDNA sequences. Sequences from all major fungal taxa were amplified by using both primer pairs. As predicted by computer analysis, primer pair EF4-EF3 appeared slightly biased to amplify Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, whereas EF4-fung5 amplified mainly Ascomycota. The 61 clones that were sequenced matched the sequences of 24 different species in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. Similarity values ranged from 0.676 to 1. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of the fungal community in the wheat rhizosphere of a microcosm experiment was carried out after amplification of total DNA with both primer pairs. This resulted in reproducible, distinctive fingerprints, confirming the difference in amplification specificity. Clear banding patterns were obtained with soil and rhizosphere samples by using both primer sets in combination. By comparing the electrophoretic mobility of community fingerprint bands to that of the bands obtained with separate clones, some could be tentatively identified. While 18S-rDNA sequences do not always provide the taxonomic resolution to identify fungal species and strains, they do provide information on the diversity and dynamics of groups of related species in environmental samples with sufficient resolution to produce discrete bands which can be separated by TGGE. This combination of 18S-rDNA PCR amplification and TGGE community analysis should allow study of the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the fungal community in bulk soil and in the rhizosphere. PMID:10347051

  17. Isoforms of a cuticular protein from larvae of the meal beetle, Tenebrio molitor, studied by mass spectrometry in combination with Edman degradation and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Haebel, S; Jensen, C; Andersen, S O; Roepstorff, P

    1995-03-01

    Simultaneous sequencing, using a combination of mass spectrometry and Edman degradation, of three approximately 15-kDa variants of a cuticular protein extracted from the meal beetle Tenebrio molitor larva is demonstrated. The information obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) time-course monitoring of enzymatic digests was found essential to identify the differences among the three variants and for alignment of the peptides in the sequence. To determine whether each individual insect larva contains all three protein variants, proteins extracted from single animals were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, electroeluted from the gel spots, and analyzed by MALDI MS. Molecular weights of the proteins present in each sample could be obtained, and mass spectrometric mapping of the peptides after digestion with trypsin gave additional information. The protein isoforms were found to be allelic variants. PMID:7795523

  18. The DNA repair inhibitors hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside enhance the sensitivity of the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay in metabolically-competent MCL-5 cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, F L; Cole, K J; Orme, M H; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H; Venitt, S

    1999-09-15

    We have found previously that the metabolically-competent human MCL-5 cell line did not appear to be usefully sensitive to the DNA-damaging effects of several carcinogens, as measured by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. We therefore sought to increase its sensitivity by inhibiting DNA repair during exposure to test compounds, using 10 mM hydroxyurea (HU) and 1.8 mM cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), which inhibit DNA resynthesis during nucleotide excision repair. The following compounds were tested, using a 30-min exposure, in the absence or presence of HU/ara-C: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4, 8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A[alpha]C), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeA[alpha]C), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), aniline, o-toluidine, benzene, lindane, bleomycin, cisplatin, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), sodium chromate, chromic chloride, and diethylstilboestrol (DES). We made the following observations. The background level of comet formation was reasonably constant over several months and was increased only slightly, but significantly, in the presence of the DNA-repair inhibitors. All compounds that induced comet formation did so without appreciable cytotoxicity as assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Of the compounds tested, the heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (with the exceptions of PhIP and B[a]P) failed to induce convincing levels of comet formation in the absence of repair inhibitors. In their presence the heterocyclic amines tested induced comet formation (with the exception of 8-MeIQx), with widely differing potencies. 1-NP failed to elicit marked comet formation even in the presence of HU/ara-C. Aniline and o-toluidine produced significant levels of comet formation in the absence of HU/ara-C, but in their presence comet formation was markedly increased. Benzene, lindane, bleomycin, cisplatin, MNNG, sodium chromate and chromic chloride induced comet formation in the absence of HU/ara-C, but, with the exception of cisplatin, their presence enhanced comet formation. Neither sucrose nor DES elicited comet formation under the conditions used in this study. Many more agents need to be tested in order to determine how well the comet assay using MCL-5 cells (or modified versions of it) can distinguish genotoxins from non-genotoxins. PMID:10521689

  19. Fully automated two-dimensional electrophoresis system for high-throughput protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Kinoshita, Hideki; Maruo, Yuji; Takahashi, Katsuyoshi; Akutsu, Satonari; Hayashida, Chie; Sakairi, Koji; Usui, Keisuke; Shiseki, Kisho; Inamochi, Hajime; Nakada, Yoshiko; Yodoya, Kouhei; Namatame, Ichiji; Unuma, Yutaka; Nakamura, Makoto; Ueyama, Kosuke; Ishii, Yoshinori; Yano, Kazuyoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    We developed a fully automated electrophoresis system for rapid and highly reproducible protein analysis. All the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis procedures including isoelectric focusing (IEF), on-part protein staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and in situ protein detection were automatically completed. The system comprised Peltiert devices, high-voltage generating devices, electrodes, and three disposable polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) parts for IEF, reaction chambers, and SDS-PAGE. Because of miniaturization of the IEF part, rapid IEF was achieved in 30 min. A gel with a tapered edge gel on the SDS-PAGE part realized a connection between the parts without use of a gluing material. A biaxial conveyer was employed for the part relocation, sample introduction, and washing processes to realize a low-maintenance and cost-effective automation system. Performances of the system and a commercial minigel system were compared in terms of detected number, resolution, and reproducibility of the protein spots. The system achieved high-resolution comparable to the minigel system despite shorter focusing time and smaller part dimensions. The resulting reproducibility was better or comparable to the performance of the minigel system. Complete 2D separation was achieved within 1.5 h. The system is practical, portable, and has automation capabilities. PMID:17602572

  20. Establishment of a universal size standard strain for use with the PulseNet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols: converting the national databases to the new size standard.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Susan B; Vauterin, Paul; Lambert-Fair, Mary Ann; Van Duyne, M Susan; Kubota, Kristy; Graves, Lewis; Wrigley, Donna; Barrett, Timothy; Ribot, Efrain

    2005-03-01

    The PulseNet National Database, established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996, consists of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns obtained from isolates of food-borne pathogens (currently Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, and Listeria) and textual information about the isolates. Electronic images and accompanying text are submitted from over 60 U.S. public health and food regulatory agency laboratories. The PFGE patterns are generated according to highly standardized PFGE protocols. Normalization and accurate comparison of gel images require the use of a well-characterized size standard in at least three lanes of each gel. Originally, a well-characterized strain of each organism was chosen as the reference standard for that particular database. The increasing number of databases, difficulty in identifying an organism-specific standard for each database, the increased range of band sizes generated by the use of additional restriction endonucleases, and the maintenance of many different organism-specific strains encouraged us to search for a more versatile and universal DNA size marker. A Salmonella serotype Braenderup strain (H9812) was chosen as the universal size standard. This strain was subjected to rigorous testing in our laboratories to ensure that it met the desired criteria, including coverage of a wide range of DNA fragment sizes, even distribution of bands, and stability of the PFGE pattern. The strategy used to convert and compare data generated by the new and old reference standards is described. PMID:15750058

  1. Elution electrophoresis as a clinical tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Wilkes; R. J. Bertolami; W. M. Choi; P. D. Terpandjian

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation of an elution electrophoresis system with a particulate gel packed column was performed. The operating parameters of the apparatus were determined with elution flow studies and electrophoresis migration studies. Flow study results indicated that sample dispersion is dependent on packing type, packing size, elution flow rate, and outlet geometry. Migration studies revealed that sample migration is dependent

  2. DNA Electrophoresis on patterned Surfaces The separation of DNA molecules based on their size and mass has many applications in

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jayant K.

    DNA Electrophoresis on patterned Surfaces The separation of DNA molecules based on their size and mass has many applications in biotechnology. Traditionally gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis techniques are used to separate the DNA molecules based on their molecular weight

  3. One-dimensional and two-dimensional immobilized metal affinity electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Shiang; Lasanthi, G D; Jayathilaka, P; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Gupta, Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity electrophoresis (IMAEP) is a straightforward method in which metal ions are embedded in a polyacrylamide gel strip with a negligible electrophoretic migration. Due to the preferential binding between metal ions and the phosphate group, this method uses immobilized metal ions like iron, manganese, aluminum, or titanium to capture phosphoproteins from a mixture of phosphoprotein and nonphosphoproteins. IMAEP has also been incorporated into a traditional two-dimensional (2D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) system (isoelectric focusing-PAGE) to increase its resolving power. In 2D IMAEP, the metal ions in polyacrylamide gel strip are overlaid on top of the second dimensional polyacrylamide gel to stop electrophoretic migration of phosphoproteins. Data shows that there is no detrimental effect of SDS in IMAEP on the extraction of phosphoproteins from a mixture of proteins. In addition, SDS exposes phosphate groups by unfolding the phosphoproteins to facilitate metal ion-phosphate binding while supplying the protein with negative charges. PMID:22585494

  4. Boronate affinity saccharide electrophoresis: A novel carbohydrate analysis tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. H. van den Elsen; T. R. Jackson; J. S. Springall; D. Rogalle; N. Masurnoto; H. C. Li; F. D'Hooge; S. P. Perera; A. T. A. Jenkins; T. D. James; J. S. Fossey

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of specialised carbohydrate affinity ligand methacrylamido phenylboronic acid in polyacrylamide gels for fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis greatly improved the effective separation of saccharides that show similar mobilities in standard electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using methacrylamido phenylboronic acid in low loading (typically 0.5-1% dry weight) was unequivocally shown to alter retention of labelled saccharides depending on their boronate affinity. While

  5. Capillary electrophoresis for capture and concentrating of target nucleic acids by affinity gels modified to contain single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Chan; Ulrich J. Krull

    2006-01-01

    Selective capture and pre-concentration of target nucleic acids from relatively complicated samples may provide a method to facilitate introduction to a microfluidic-based detection system to improve detection limits. An acrylamide polymer gel modified with Acrydite™ that contained 20mer oligonucleotide probe was prepared and loaded into a capillary column. The results indicated that the amount of probe DNA that was captured

  6. Molecular Characterization of MT3 Antigens by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis, NH2-terminal Amino Acid Sequence Analysis, and Southern Blot Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Sorrentino; James Lillie; Jack L. Strominger

    1985-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody 109d6, which recognizes major histocompatibility antigen MT3-like serologic determinants, has been used to characterize the molecules bearing this determinant in HLA-DR4 and -DR7 homozygous cell lines by two-dimensional gel and sequencing analyses. By these two criteria, these molecules are identical to each other. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from HLA-DR1 through -DR7 homozygous cell lines with

  7. Studies of muscle proteins in embryonic myocardial cells of cardiac lethal mutant mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by use of heavy meromyosin binding and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    In the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum recessive mutant gene c, by way of abnormal inductive processes from surrounding tissues, results in an absence of embryonic heart function. The lack of contractions in mutant heart cells apparently results from their inability to form normally organized myofibrils, even though a few actin-like (60-A) and myosin-like (150-A) filaments are present. Amorphous "proteinaceous" collections are often visible. In the present study, heavy meromyosin (HMM) treatment of mutant heart tissue greatly increases the number of thin filaments and decorates them in the usual fashion, confirming that they are actin. The amorphous collections disappear with the addition of HMM. In addition, an analysis of the constituent proteins of normal and mutant embryonic hearts and other tissues is made by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. These experiments are in full agreement with the morphological and HMM binding studies. The gels show distinct 42,000-dalton bands for both normal and mutant hearts, supporting the presence of normal actin. During early developmental stages (Harrison's stage 34) the cardiac tissues in normal and mutant siblings have indistinguishable banding patterns, but with increasing development several differences appear. Myosin heavy chain (200,000 daltons) increases substantially in normal hearts during development but very little in mutants. Even so the quantity of 200,000-dalton protein in mutant hearts is significantly more than in any of the nonmuscle tissues studied (i.e. gut, liver, brain). Unlike normal hearts, the mutant hearts lack a prominent 34,000-dalton band, indicating that if mutants contain muscle tropomyosin at all, it is present in drastically reduced amounts. Also, mutant hearts retain large amounts of yolk proteins at stages when the platelets have virtually disappeared from normal hearts. The morphologies and electrophoresis patterns of skeletal muscle from normal and mutant siblings are identical, confirming that gene c affects only heart muscle differentiation and not skeletal muscle. The results of the study suggest that the precardiac mesoderm in cardiac lethal mutant axolotl embryos initiates but then fails to complete its differentiation into functional muscle tissue. It appears that this single gene mutation, by way of abnormal inductive processes, affects the accumulation and organization of several different muscle proteins, including actin, myosin, and tropomyosin. PMID:1107335

  8. Prestaining of glycoproteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels by dansylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Xuan; Yu, Qing; Duan, Yuanmeng; Huang, Binbin; Hong, Guoying; Zhou, Ayi; Jin, Litai

    2014-06-01

    A new fluorescent prestaining method for gel-separated glycoproteins in 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE was developed by using dansylhydrazine in this study. The prestained gels could be easily imaged after electrophoresis without any time-consuming steps needed for poststains. As low as 4-8 ng glycoproteins (transferrin, ?1-acid glycoprotein) could be selectively detected, which is comparable to that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, one of the most commonly used glycoprotein stain. In addition, a subsequent study of deglycosylation, glycoprotein affinity isolation, and LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to confirm the specificity of the newly developed method. PMID:24668852

  9. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of the 16S rRNA Gene V1 Region To Monitor Dynamic Changes in the Bacterial Population during Fermentation of Italian Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Manzano, Marisa; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol was used to monitor the dynamic changes in the microbial population during ripening of natural fermented sausages. The method was first optimized by using control strains from international collections, and a natural sausage fermentation was studied by PCR-DGGE and traditional methods. Total microbial DNA and RNA were extracted directly from the sausages and subjected to PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, and the amplicons obtained were analyzed by DGGE. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were present together with other organisms, mainly members of the family Micrococcaceae and meat contaminants, such as Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterococcus sp., during the first 3 days of fermentation. After 3 days, LAB represented the main population, which was responsible for the acidification and proteolysis that determined the characteristic organoleptic profile of the Friuli Venezia Giulia fermented sausages. The PCR-DGGE protocol for studying sausage fermentation proved to be a good tool for monitoring the process in real time, and it makes technological adjustments possible when they are required. PMID:11679334

  10. Improved Identification of Epidemiologically Related Strains of Salmonella enterica by use of a Fusion Algorithm Based on Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis? †

    PubMed Central

    Broschat, S. L.; Call, D. R.; Davis, M. A.; Meng, D.; Lockwood, S.; Ahmed, R.; Besser, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) are used to assess genetic similarity between bacterial strains. There are cases, however, when neither of these methods quantifies genetic variation at a level of resolution that is well suited for studying the molecular epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. To improve estimates based on these methods, we propose a fusion algorithm that combines the information obtained from both PFGE and MLVA assays to assess epidemiological relationships. This involves generating distance matrices for PFGE data (Dice coefficients) and MLVA data (single-step stepwise-mutation model) and modifying the relative distances using the two different data types. We applied the algorithm to a set of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates collected from a wide range of sampling dates, locations, and host species. All three classification methods (PFGE only, MLVA only, and fusion) produced a similar pattern of clustering relative to groupings of common phage types, with the fusion results being slightly better. We then examined a group of serovar Newport isolates collected over a limited geographic and temporal scale and showed that the fusion of PFGE and MLVA data produced the best discrimination of isolates relative to a collection site (farm). Our analysis shows that the fusion of PFGE and MLVA data provides an improved ability to discriminate epidemiologically related isolates but provides only minor improvement in the discrimination of less related isolates. PMID:20739482

  11. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the D4F104S1 locus reveals the size and the parental origin of the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD)-associated deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmenga, C.; Deutekom, J.C.T. van; Padberg, G.W.; Van Ommen, G.J.B.; Hofker, M.H.; Frants, R.R. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)); Hewitt, J.E. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    Recently, probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1) was shown to identify de novo DNA rearrangements, which are associated with the development of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). These rearrangements are likely to become instrumental in cloning the FSHD gene itself. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrates that p13E-11 recognizes two highly polymorphic loci, with HindIII restriction fragments ranging in size from about 30 to 320 kb. Haplotype analysis unambiguously assigned one of the two loci to chromosome 4q35. The detection of identical NotI or NruI fragments with both CEB8 (D4F35S1) and p13E-11 demonstrated that the DNA rearrangements are deletions that are restricted to the HindIII fragments detectable by p13E-11. In two cases, the sizes of the deletion could be established and were found to be 25 and 85 kb in length, respectively. So far, the authors have been able to define the parental origin of the mutation in seven different patients and have found that in five cases the maternal allele was involved. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.M. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Comparison of Danish isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis PT9a and PT11 from hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) and humans by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nauerby, B; Pedersen, K; Dietz, H H; Madsen, M

    2000-10-01

    During the years 1994 to 1998, 10 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 11 (PT11) and 6 PT9a strains were isolated from Danish hedgehogs, together with 7 strains that did not yield phage susceptibility patterns conforming with any known phage type (routine dilution no conformity [RDNC]). From 1995 to 1998, five Danish patients were reported infected with serovar Enteritidis PT11 and two with PT9a. All serovar Enteritidis PT11, PT9a, and RDNC isolates from hedgehogs and humans were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid profiling, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of plasmids. By use of S1 nuclease and HindIII, the PT11 and PT9a isolates had identical plasmid profiles and RFLP patterns, which differed from the RDNC profiles. The PFGE profiles were identical for all serovar Enteritidis PT11 and PT9a strains from hedgehogs, four of five human strains of serovar Enteritidis PT11, and two human strains of serovar Enteritidis PT9a, irrespective of restriction enzyme, whereas the last human strain deviated slightly when NotI was used but not when XbaI or SpeI was used. The results indicate that serovar Enteritidis PT9a and PT11 are closely related and that PT11 and PT9a from Danish hedgehogs and humans belong to the same clonal lineage. PMID:11015375

  14. A fourth example suggests that premature termination codons in the COL2A1 gene are a common cause of the Stickler syndrome: Analysis of the COL2A1 gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritvaniemi, P.; Hyland, J.; Kivirikko, K.I. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland)); Ignatius, J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Prockop, D.J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Ala-Kokko, L. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland) Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    A series of oligonucleotide primers was designed to generate polymerase chain reaction products that contained exons 6 to 49 of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1) and that could be used to detect sequence variations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To improve the sensitivity of the analysis, GC clamps were introduced into one primer of each pair. The procedure successfully detected 10 neutral single-base variations in the gene. In addition, the procedure detected a single-base deletion in exon 43 that introduced a premature termination codon in exon 44 and caused the Stickler syndrome (arthro-ophthalmopathy) in one family. The mutation is the fourth mutation in the COL2A1 gene shown to cause the Stickler syndrome. The mutation is similar to the first three mutations causing the disease in that they also introduced premature termination signals. Since only one mutation introducing a premature termination codon was found in the course of defining 120 or more mutations in type I and III procollagens, the results suggest that such mutations may have a special relationship to the Stickler syndrome. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Gene expression in the pulp of ripening bananas. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products and cDNA cloning of 25 different ripening-related mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Suárez, R; Manning, K; Fletcher, J; Aked, J; Bird, C R; Seymour, G B

    1997-01-01

    mRNA was extracted from the pulp and peel of preclimacteric (d 0) bananas (Musa AAA group, cv Grand Nain) and those exposed to ethylene gas for 24 h and stored in air alone for a further 1 (d 2) and 4 d (d 5). Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products from the pulp and peel of these fruits revealed significant up-regulation of numerous transcripts during ripening. The majority of the changes were initiated by d 2, with the level of these messages increasing during the remainder of the ripening period. Pulp tissue from d 2 was used for the construction of a cDNA library. This library was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using cDNA from d-0 and d-2 pulp by a novel microtiter plate method. In the primary screen 250 up- and down-regulated clones were isolated. Of these, 59 differentially expressed clones were obtained from the secondary screen. All of these cDNAs were partially sequenced and grouped into families after database searches. Twenty-five nonredundant groups of pulp clones were identified. These encoded enzymes were involved in ethylene biosynthesis, respiration, starch metabolism, cell wall degradation, and several other key metabolic events. We describe the analysis of these clones and their possible involvement in ripening. PMID:9342865

  16. Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

  17. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from humans, animals and river water in Japan by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    IDO, Noriko; IWABUCHI, Kaori; SATO’O, Yusuke; SATO, Yasuo; SUGAWARA, Masaru; YAEGASHI, Gakuji; KONNO, Masaru; AKIBA, Masato; TANAKA, Kiyoshi; OMOE, Katsuhiko; UCHIDA, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-one Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4, [5],12:i:-) isolates (14 human strains, 34 animal strains and 3 river water strains) which are assumed to be monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) in order to investigate their genetic diversities and relationships. PFGE, MLVA and combination of them identified 28, 27 and 34 profiles (Simpson’s diversity indices [DI]=0.94, 0.96 and 0.97), respectively. No correlations were detected between MLVA clustering and PFGE clustering or phage typing. These results suggested that S. 4,[5],12:i:- originated from multiple S. Typhimurium ancestors. Two cattle and one pig isolates showing identical phage types as well as PFGE and MLVA profiles to human isolates S. 4,[5],12:i:- suggested the existence of the links between human infections and animal reservoirs. PMID:25649169

  18. Absence of a Putative Mannose-Specific Phosphotransferase System Enzyme IIAB Component in a Leucocin A-Resistant Strain of Listeria monocytogenes, as Shown by Two-Dimensional Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, M.; Beukes, M.; Tamura, K.; Hastings, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Leucocin A is a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc spp. that has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. A spontaneous resistant mutant of L. monocytogenes was isolated and found to be resistant to leucocin A at levels in excess of 2 mg/ml. The mutant showed no significant cross-resistance to nontype IIa bacteriocins including nisaplin and ESF1-7GR. However, there were no inhibition zones found on a lawn of the mutant when challenged with an extract containing 51,200 AU of pediocin PA-2 per ml as determined by a simultaneous assay on the sensitive wild-type strain. DNA and protein analysis of the resistant and susceptible strains were carried out using silver-stained amplified fragment length polymorphism (ssAFLP) and one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE clearly showed a 35-kDa protein which was present in the sensitive but absent from the resistant strain. The N-terminal end of the 35-kDa protein was sequenced and found to have an 83% homology to the mannose-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIAB of Streptococcus salivarius. PMID:10877813

  19. Absence of a putative mannose-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIAB component in a leucocin A-resistant strain of Listeria monocytogenes, as shown by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, M; Beukes, M; Tamura, K; Hastings, J W

    2000-07-01

    Leucocin A is a class IIa bacteriocin produced by Leuconostoc spp. that has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. A spontaneous resistant mutant of L. monocytogenes was isolated and found to be resistant to leucocin A at levels in excess of 2 mg/ml. The mutant showed no significant cross-resistance to nontype IIa bacteriocins including nisaplin and ESF1-7GR. However, there were no inhibition zones found on a lawn of the mutant when challenged with an extract containing 51,200 AU of pediocin PA-2 per ml as determined by a simultaneous assay on the sensitive wild-type strain. DNA and protein analysis of the resistant and susceptible strains were carried out using silver-stained amplified fragment length polymorphism (ssAFLP) and one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE clearly showed a 35-kDa protein which was present in the sensitive but absent from the resistant strain. The N-terminal end of the 35-kDa protein was sequenced and found to have an 83% homology to the mannose-specific phosphotransferase system enzyme IIAB of Streptococcus salivarius. PMID:10877813

  20. Fluorescent staining of gels.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Engelbert

    2012-01-01

    Certain transition metal complexes show intensive fluorescence when bound to proteins. They can be used to stain gels after electrophoresis with a sensitivity approaching that of silver staining, but in a much simpler and more reproducible procedure. Stains can be prepared easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available reagents.Hydrophobic dyes can be used to stain gels without fixing; they do not interfere with later blotting or electro-elution. PMID:22585519

  1. Characterization and detection of cellular and proteomic alterations in stable stathmin-overexpressing, taxol-resistant BT549 breast cancer cells using offgel IEF/PAGE difference gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Manimalha; Nakao, Chitose; Uechi, Guy T.; Cardamone, John; Kamath, Kathy; Leslie, Kristen L.; Balachandran, Raghavan; Wilson, Leslie; Day, Billy W.; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Stathmin/oncoprotein 18, a protein that regulates microtubule dynamics, is highly expressed in a number of tumors including leukemia, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. High stathmin levels have been associated with the development of resistance to the widely-used anticancer drug taxol (®Taxol, paclitaxel). The mechanisms of stathmin-mediated taxol resistance are not well-understood at the molecular level. To better understand the role of stathmin in taxol resistance, we stably overexpressed stathmin two-fold in BT549 human breast cancer cells and characterized several cell processes involved in the mechanism of action of taxol. After stable overexpression of stathmin, neither the cell doubling time nor the mitotic index was altered and the microtubule polymer mass was reduced only modestly (by 18%). Unexpectedly, microtubule dynamicity was reduced by 29% after stathmin overexpression, resulting primarily from reduction in the catastrophe frequency. Sensitivity to taxol was reduced significantly (by 44%) in a clonogenic assay, and stathmin appeared to protect the cells from the spindle-damaging effects of taxol. The results suggest that in the stably-stathmin overexpressing clones, compensatory gene expression occurred that resulted in normal rates of cell proliferation and prevented the increase in catastrophe frequency expected in response to stathmin. Stathmin overexpression protected the cells from taxol-induced abnormal mitoses, and thus induced taxol resistance. Using offgel IEF/PAGE difference gel electrophoresis, we identified a number of proteins whose expression is reduced in the taxol-resistant stathmin-overexpressing cell lines, including proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and cell structure, the stress response, protein folding, glycolysis, and catalysis. PMID:20816848

  2. Effects of mustard sprouts and allylisothiocyanate on benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage in human-derived cells: a model study with the single cell gel electrophoresis/Hep G2 assay.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Maria; Laky, Brenda; Lhoste, Evelyn; Kassie, Fekadu; Kundi, Michael; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of mustard sprouts on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced DNA damage in the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 assay. This model combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of human-derived cells that possess inducible phase I and phase II enzymes. Treatment of the cells with small amounts of mustard juice (0.1-1.25 microl/ml) and B(a)P reduced the genotoxic effect of the carcinogen in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the results with the juice, unexpected synergistic effects were observed with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 0.3 microM), a breakdown product of sinigrin, which is contained in black mustard and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although these concentrations of AITC did not cause DNA damage per se, pronounced dose-dependent DNA damage was seen with higher concentrations of AITC (>or= 25 microM). In parallel with the comet assays, also enzyme measurements were carried out which showed that exposure of the cells to mustard juice (2.0 microl/ml) causes a moderate induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, and more pronounced (approximately 2-fold) increase of the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. In conclusion, our findings indicate that i) mustard juice is highly protective against B(a)P-induced DNA damage in human derived cells and ii) that induction of detoxifying enzymes may account for its chemoprotective properties. iii) Furthermore, our findings show that the effects of crude juice can not be explained by its allyl isothiocyanate contents. PMID:12616618

  3. Protective effects of Brussels sprouts towards B[a]P-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 assay.

    PubMed

    Laky, B; Knasmüller, S; Gminski, R; Mersch-Sundermann, V; Scharf, G; Verkerk, R; Freywald, C; Uhl, M; Kassie, F

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of Brussels sprouts juice towards benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test system. This assay combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of the use of human-derived cells possessing inducible phase I and phase II enzymes. Co-treatment of Hep G2 cells with small amounts of Brussels sprouts juice (0.25-2.0 microl/ml) and B(a)P reduced the genotoxic effect of the latter in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the results with the crude juice, unexpected synergistic effects were observed with allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, 1.0-6.0 microM), a breakdown product of sinigrin, which is the most abundant glucosinolate in Brussels sprouts. Although these concentrations of AITC did not cause DNA damage per se, at higher concentrations (> or =25 microM), the compound caused a pronounced dose-dependent DNA damage by itself. Mechanistic studies showed that Brussels sprouts juice causes induction of activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) at dose levels which were protective towards B(a)P. In combined treatment experiments with (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, 5.0 microM), the main genotoxic metabolite of B(a)P, and Brussels sprouts juice, only weak protection was found indicating that the mechanism of chemoprotection of Brussels sprouts is not mediated through inactivation of this metabolite. In conclusion, our findings show that Brussels sprouts are highly protective against B(a)P-induced DNA damage in human-derived cells. PMID:12067567

  4. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA Amplicons To Monitor Changes in Fecal Bacterial Populations of Weaning Pigs after Introduction of Lactobacillus reuteri Strain MM53

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Joyce M.; McCracken, Vance J.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2000-01-01

    The diversity and stability of the fecal bacterial microbiota in weaning pigs was studied after introduction of an exogenous Lactobacillus reuteri strain, MM53, using a combination of cultivation and techniques based on genes encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). Piglets (n = 9) were assigned to three treatment groups (control, daily dosed, and 4th-day dosed), and fresh fecal samples were collected daily. Dosed animals received 2.5 × 1010 CFU of antibiotic-resistant L. reuteri MM53 daily or every 4th day. Mean Lactobacillus counts for the three groups ranged from 1 × 109 to 4 × 109 CFU/g of feces. Enumeration of strain L. reuteri MM53 on MRS agar (Difco) plates containing streptomycin and rifampin showed that the introduced strain fluctuated between 8 × 103 and 5 × 106 CFU/g of feces in the two dosed groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments, with primers specific for variable regions 1 and 3 (V1 and V3), was used to profile complexity of fecal bacterial populations. Analysis of DGGE banding profiles indicated that each individual maintained a unique fecal bacterial population that was stable over time, suggesting a strong host influence. In addition, individual DGGE patterns could be separated into distinct time-dependent clusters. Primers designed specifically to restrict DGGE analysis to a select group of lactobacilli allowed examination of interspecies relationships and abundance. Based on relative band migration distance and sequence determination, L. reuteri was distinguishable within the V1 region 16S rDNA gene patterns. Daily fluctuations in specific bands within these profiles were observed, which revealed an antagonistic relationship between L. reuteri MM53 (band V1-3) and another indigenous Lactobacillus assemblage (band V1-6). PMID:11055913

  5. High-performance capillary electrophoresis for in-process control in the production of antithrombin III and human clotting factor IX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Buchacher; Petra Schulz; Jacek Choromanski; Horst Schwinn; Djuro Josic

    1998-01-01

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) and factor IX (FIX), two proteins from the clotting cascade, were investigated in parallel experiments, using capillary gel electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. The results from these experiments were compared with the results obtained from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and slab gel isoelectric focusing. In the case of ATIII, capillary gel sieving showed comparable results

  6. Electrokinetic motion of heterogeneous particles Electrophoresis, induced-charge electrophoresis, transverse electrophoresis.

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Electrokinetic motion of heterogeneous particles Synonyms Electrophoresis, induced-charge electrophoresis, transverse electrophoresis. Definition The electrokinetic motion of heterogeneous particles due to the combined effects of electrophoresis, induced-charge electrophoresis, and dielectrophoresis

  7. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Effect of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage in mouse organs: an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2007-12-01

    The influence of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus L. stigmas, on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage was examined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), or comet, assay in multiple organs of mice (liver, lung, kidney, and spleen). NMRI mice were divided into five groups, each of which contained five mice. The animals in different groups were received the following chemicals: physiological saline (10 mL/kg, ip), safranal (363.75 mg/kg, ip), MMS (120 mg/kg, ip), safranal (72.75 mg/kg, ip) 45 min prior to MMS administration, and safranal (363.75 mg/kg, ip) 45 min prior to MMS administration. Mice were sacrificed about 3 h after the administration of direct mutagen MMS, safranal, or saline, and the alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate the influence of safranal on DNA damage in different mouse organs. Increase in DNA migration was varied between 9.08 times (for spleen) and 22.12 times (for liver) in nuclei of different organs of MMS-treated mice, as compared with those of saline-treated animals (p < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was found in the DNA migration between safranal- and saline-pretreated mice. The MMS-induced DNA migration in safranal-pretreated mice (363.75 mg/kg) was reduced between 4.54-fold (kidney) and 7.31-fold (liver) as compared with those of MMS-treated animals alone (p < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by safranal was found to be depended on the dose, and pretreatment with safranal (72.75 mg/kg) only reduced DNA damage by 25.29%, 21.58%, 31.32%, and 25.88% in liver, lung, kidney, and spleen, respectively (p < 0.001 as compared with saline-treated group). The results of the present study showed that safranal clearly repressed the genotoxic potency of MMS, as measured by the comet assay, in different mouse organs, but the mechanism of this protection needs to be more investigated using different in vitro system assays and different experimental designs. PMID:17854266

  9. Characterization of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from four continents by use of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Evans, Benjamin A; Towner, Kevin J; Amyes, Sebastian G B

    2010-07-01

    This study used a diverse collection of epidemiologically unrelated Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to compare the robustness of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, based on conserved regions of seven housekeeping genes, gltA, gdhB, recA, cpn60, rpoD, gyrB, and gpi, with that of sequence-based typing of bla(OXA-51-like) genes (SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes). The data obtained by analysis of MLST and SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) genes were compared to the data generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The topologies of the phylogenetic trees generated for the gyrB and gpi genes showed evidence of recombination and were inconsistent with those of the trees generated for the other five genes. MLST identified 24 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel, and 5 novel alleles. Clonality was demonstrated by eBURST analysis and standardized index of association values of >1 (P < 0.001). MLST data revealed that all isolates harboring the major bla(OXA-51-like) alleles OXA-66, OXA-69, and OXA-71 fell within the three major European clonal lineages. However, the MLST data were not always in concordance with the PFGE data, and some isolates containing the same bla(OXA-51-like) allele demonstrated <50% relatedness by PFGE. It was concluded that the gyrB and gpi genes are not good candidates for use in MLST analysis and that a SBT-bla(OXA-51-like) gene scheme produced results comparable to those produced by MLST for the identification of the major epidemic lineages, with the advantage of having a significantly reduced sequencing cost and time. It is proposed that studies of A. baumannii epidemiology could involve initial screening of bla(OXA-51-like) alleles to identify isolates belonging to major epidemic lineages, followed by MLST analysis to categorize isolates from common lineages, with PFGE being reserved for fine-scale typing. PMID:20421437

  10. In-Gel Stable-Isotope Labeling (ISIL): a strategy for mass spectrometry-based relative quantification.

    PubMed

    Asara, John M; Zhang, Xiang; Zheng, Bin; Christofk, Heather H; Wu, Ning; Cantley, Lewis C

    2006-01-01

    Most proteomics approaches for relative quantification of protein expression use a combination of stable-isotope labeling and mass spectrometry. Traditionally, researchers have used difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) from stained 1D and 2D gels for relative quantification. While differences in protein staining intensity can often be visualized, abundant proteins can obscure less abundant proteins, and quantification of post-translational modifications is difficult. A method is presented for quantifying changes in the abundance of a specific protein or changes in specific modifications of a protein using In-gel Stable-Isotope Labeling (ISIL). Proteins extracted from any source (tissue, cell line, immunoprecipitate, etc.), treated under two experimental conditions, are resolved in separate lanes by gel electrophoresis. The regions of interest (visualized by staining) are reacted separately with light versus heavy isotope-labeled reagents, and the gel slices are then mixed and digested with proteases. The resulting peptides are then analyzed by LC-MS to determine relative abundance of light/heavy isotope pairs and analyzed by LC-MS/MS for identification of sequence and modifications. The strategy compares well with other relative quantification strategies, and in silico calculations reveal its effectiveness as a global relative quantification strategy. An advantage of ISIL is that visualization of gel differences can be used as a first quantification step followed by accurate and sensitive protein level stable-isotope labeling and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification. PMID:16396506

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Colorectal Cancer: Prefractionation Strategies Using two-Dimensional Free-Flow Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Robert L.; Skandarajah, Anita R.; Ji, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This review deals with the application of a new prefractionation tool, free-flow electrophoresis (FFE), for proteomic analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is a leading cause of cancer death in the Western world. Early detection is the single most important factor influencing outcome of CRC patients. If identified while the disease is still localized, CRC is treatable. To improve outcomes for CRC patients there is a pressing need to identify biomarkers for early detection (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic indicators), tumour responses (predictive markers) and disease recurrence (monitoring markers). Despite recent advances in the use of genomic analysis for risk assessment, in the area of biomarker identification genomic methods alone have yet to produce reliable candidate markers for CRC. For this reason, attention is being directed towards proteomics as a complementary analytical tool for biomarker identification. Here we describe a proteomics separation tool, which uses a combination of continuous FFE, a liquid-based isoelectric focusing technique, in the first dimension, followed by rapid reversed-phase HPLC (1–6 min/analysis) in the second dimension. We have optimized imaging software to present the FFE/RP-HPLC data in a virtual 2D gel-like format. The advantage of this liquid based fractionation system over traditional gel-based fractionation systems is the ability to fractionate large quantity protein samples. Unlike 2D gels, the method is applicable to both high-Mr proteins and small peptides, which are difficult to separate, and in the case of peptides, are not retained in standard 2D gels. PMID:18629191

  12. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  13. Identification, purification, and characterization of subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in human testis. Reverse mobilities of human RII alpha and RII beta on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis compared with rat and bovine RIIs.

    PubMed

    Skålhegg, B S; Landmark, B; Foss, K B; Lohmann, S M; Hansson, V; Lea, T; Jahnsen, T

    1992-03-15

    We have previously identified and characterized regulatory (R) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, particularly the RII subunits in rat tissues (Jahnsen, T., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Hedin, L., and Richards, J. S. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 15980-15987; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 6637-6639; Jahnsen, T., Hedin, L., Kidd, V. J., Beattie, W. G., Lohmann, S. M., Walter, U., Durica, J., Schulz, T. Z., Schiltz, E., Browner, M., Lawrence, C. B., Goldman, D., Ratoosh, S. L., and Richards, J. S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12352-12361). These studies showed that rat RII alpha and RII beta had apparent molecular masses of 54 and 52 kDa, respectively. The aim of the present study was to purify and characterize cAMP-dependent protein kinase R subunits in human testis and to examine which of the subunits (mRNAs and proteins) are present in this tissue. Our results show that human testis contains mRNAs for five out of the seven known subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. We observed strong expression of mRNAs for RI alpha (1.5 and 3.2 kilobases (kb)), RII alpha (2.2, 2.4, and 7.0 kb), and RII beta (3.3 kb). We also demonstrated mRNAs for two of the three catalytic subunits, C alpha (2.7 kb) and C gamma (1.7 kb). Purification of R subunits by DEAE-cellulose and cAMP affinity chromatography revealed three distinct forms with apparent molecular masses of 49, 51, and 53 kDa, respectively. Characterization of these R subunits by their 8-azido-cAMP photoaffinity labeling and immunoreactivity, as well as by a phosphorylation-dependent mobility shift on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), indicated subunit sizes of RII beta (53 kDa) greater than RII alpha dephosphoform (51 kDa) greater than RI alpha (49 kDa). This conclusion was verified by the analysis of RII subunits produced by in vitro transcription/translation of full-length cDNAs for both human RII alpha and RII beta in wheat germ lysates. The in vitro translated products were the same size as the purified human testis subunits, and only the smallest RII subunit (RII alpha) revealed a distinct mobility shift on SDS-PAGE after phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. This study supports the conclusion that the mobilities of human RII subunits (RII alpha, RII beta) on SDS-PAGE are reversed in contrast with those of other species such as rat and bovine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1544918

  14. University of California, Irvine Environmental Health and Safety www.ehs.uci.edu Questions Call: (949) 824-6200 Version 2.1 Ethidium bromide is a commonly used stain for identifying nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. It is

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    for removing ethidium bromide from electrophoresis buffers through a bed of activated charcoal. Prior to drain waste and disposed of through EH&S. Charcoal filtration treatment is a simple and effective method is saturated, the charcoal must be managed as a hazardous chemical waste and disposed of through EH&S. Charcoal

  15. Electrokinetic Flow and Dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2006-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care, and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis (which has evolved from its predecessor, slab-gel electrophoresis), the sample migrates through a single microcapillary instead of through the network of pores in a gel. A fundamental design problem is to minimize dispersion in the separation direction. Molecular diffusion is inevitable and sets a theoretical limit on the best separation that can be achieved. But in practice, there are a number of effects arising out of the interplay between fluid flow, chemistry, thermal effects, and electric fields that result in enhanced dispersion. This paper reviews the subject of fluid flow in such capillary microchannels and examines the various causes of enhanced dispersion that limit the efficiency of separation.

  16. Application of capillary electrophoresis in glycoprotein analysis.

    PubMed

    Rustandi, Richard R; Anderson, Carrie; Hamm, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a versatile analytical method used to characterize glycoproteins. We have used several modes of CE separation such as CE-SDS gel, imaged capillary isoelectric focusing (icIEF), and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to study therapeutic glycoprotein products. CE-SDS gel is applied to characterize the glycan occupancy and number of glycosylation sites, and icIEF is used to study the charge heterogeneities due to sialic acids in glycoproteins. To further characterize the glycoprotein, removal of N-linked glycans is necessary and a CZE technique is employed to analyze each glycan moiety. Examples from a monoclonal antibody, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor are presented here to demonstrate the utility of these CE modes. The details of sample preparation and separation conditions for each CE mode are described in this chapter. PMID:23475720

  17. [14] DIRECT TRANSFER ELECTROPHORESIS 187 which usually takes less than an hour. The database should be monitored

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    [14] DIRECT TRANSFER ELECTROPHORESIS 187 which usually takes less than an hour. The database should Electrophoresis and Nonradioactive Detection By PETER RICHTERICH and GEORGE M. CHURCH Introduction In DNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the subsequent visualization of the sequencing patterns. Increasing

  18. Identification of the major membrane and core proteins of vaccinia virus by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, O N; Houthaeve, T; Shevchenko, A; Cudmore, S; Ashford, T; Mann, M; Griffiths, G; Krijnse Locker, J

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus assembly has been well studied at the ultrastructural level, but little is known about the molecular events that occur during that process. Towards this goal, we have identified the major membrane and core proteins of the intracellular mature virus (IMV). Pure IMV preparations were subjected to Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) and dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment to separate the core proteins from the membrane proteins. These proteins were subsequently separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and the major polypeptide spots, as detected by silver staining and 35S labeling, were identified by either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, or immunoprecipitation with defined antibodies. Sixteen major spots that partitioned into the NP-40-DTT-soluble fraction were identified; 11 of these were previously described virally encoded proteins and 5 were cellular proteins, mostly of mitochondrial origin. The core fraction revealed four major spots of previously described core proteins, two of which were also detected in the membrane fraction. Subsequently, the NP-40-DTT-soluble and -insoluble fractions from purified virus preparations, separated by 2D gels, were compared with postnuclear supernatants of infected cells that had been metabolically labeled at late times (6 to 8 h) postinfection. This relatively short labeling period as well as the apparent shutoff of host protein synthesis allowed the selective detection in such postnuclear supernatants of virus-encoded proteins. These postnuclear supernatants were subsequently treated with Triton X-114 or with sodium carbonate to distinguish the membrane proteins from the soluble proteins. We have identified the major late membrane and nonmembrane proteins of the IMV as they occur in the virus as well as in infected cells. This 2D gel map should provide an important reference for future molecular studies of vaccinia virus morphogenesis. PMID:8892867

  19. Application of electrophoresis and related methods, such as western blotting and zymography to the study of some proteins and enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Pagano

    1999-01-01

    Electrophoresis and related methods are currently used by laboratories working on proteins. This review focuses on four different applications of acrylamide electrophoresis related to protein study:1.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with or without SDS (PAGE or SDS-PAGE).2.Polyacrylamide gels electrofocusing, western blotting and zymography.Basic principles and usual applications to proteins are discussed, then examples selected in different areas of biochemistry and cell biology

  20. Electronic imaging systems for quantitative electrophoresis of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful and widely used methods for the separation of DNA. During the last decade, instruments have been developed that accurately quantitate in digital form the distribution of materials in a gel or on a blot prepared from a gel. In this paper, I review the various physical properties that can be used to quantitate the distribution of DNA on gels or blots and the instrumentation that has been developed to perform these tasks. The emphasis here is on DNA, but much of what is said also applies to RNA, proteins and other molecules. 36 refs.

  1. Allergenicity study of EGFP-transgenic chicken meat by serological and 2D-DIGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakano, Mikiharu; Arisawa, Kenjiro; Ezaki, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods must be tested for safety, including by allergenicity tests to ensure that they do not contain new allergens or higher concentrations of known allergens than the same non-GM foods. In this study experimentally developed EGFP-transgenic chickens were used and evaluated the allergenicity of meat from the chicken based on a serological and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis. For the serological analysis, a Western blotting with allergen-specific antibodies and a proteomic analysis of chicken meat allergens with patients' sera, a so-called allergenome analysis, were used. The allergenome analysis allowed us to identify five IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat, including a known allergen, chicken serum albumin, and no qualitative difference in their expressions between the GM and non-GM chicken meat was found. Results of the 2D-DIGE analysis showed that none of the IgE-binding proteins in chicken meat were significantly changed in expression levels between non-GM and GM chicken, and only 3 of the 1500 soluble protein spots including green fluorescence protein were markedly different as a result of gene transfer. These above results showed that the combination of serological and 2D-DIGE analysis is a valid method of evaluating quality and quantity of allergens in GM foods. PMID:20188780

  2. 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis identifies new potential therapeutic targets for adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Armignacco, Roberta; Ercolino, Tonino; Canu, Letizia; Baroni, Gianna; Nesi, Gabriella; Galli, Andrea; Mannelli, Massimo; Luconi, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive tumor with poor prognosis when metastatic at diagnosis. The tumor biology is still mostly unclear, justifying the limited specificity and efficacy of the anti-cancer drugs currently available. This study reports the first proteomic analysis of ACC by using two-dimensional-differential-in-gel-electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to evaluate a differential protein expression profile between adrenocortical carcinoma and normal adrenal. Mass spectrometry, associated with 2D-DIGE analysis of carcinomas and normal adrenals, identified 22 proteins in 27 differentially expressed 2D spots, mostly overexpressed in ACC. Gene ontology analysis revealed that most of the proteins concurs towards a metabolic shift, called the Warburg effect, in adrenocortical cancer. The differential expression was validated by Western blot for Aldehyde-dehydrogenase-6-A1,Transferrin, Fascin-1,Lamin A/C,Adenylate-cyclase-associated-protein-1 and Ferredoxin-reductase. Moreover, immunohistochemistry performed on paraffin-embedded ACC and normal adrenal specimens confirmed marked positive staining for all 6 proteins diffusely expressed by neoplastic cells, compared with normal adrenal cortex. In conclusion, our preliminary findings reveal a different proteomic profile in adrenocortical carcinoma compared with normal adrenal cortex characterized by overexpression of mainly metabolic enzymes, thus suggesting the Warburg effect also occurs in ACC. These proteins may represent promising novel ACC biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets if validated in larger cohorts of patients. PMID:25691058

  3. Automatic multiple-sample applicator and electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for performing electrophoresis and a multiple-sample applicator is described. Electrophoresis is a physical process in which electrically charged molecules and colloidal particles, upon the application of a dc current, migrate along a gel or a membrane that is wetted with an electrolyte. A multiple-sample applicator is provided which coacts with a novel tank cover to permit an operator either to depress a single button, thus causing multiple samples to be deposited on the gel or on the membrane simultaneously, or to depress one or more sample applicators separately by means of a separate button for each applicator.

  4. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  5. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  6. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ~1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot. PMID:21265514

  7. Design and Assembly of DNA Nano-Objects and 2D DNA Origami Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyan

    DNA, which plays a central role in biology as the carrier of genetic information, is also an excellent candidate for structural nanotechnology. Researches have proven that a variety of complicated DNA assemblies, such as objects, 2D & 3D crystals, and nanomechanical devices, can be fabricated through the combination of robust branched DNA motifs and sticky ends. This dissertation focuses on the design and construction of DNA nano--objects and 2D DNA origami arrays. In this dissertation, we first describe the formation of a triangular species that has four strands per edge, held together by PX interactions. We demonstrate by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that we can combine a partial triangle with other strands to form a robust four--stranded molecule. By combining them with a novel three--domain molecule, we also demonstrate by AFM that these triangles can be self--assembled into a linear array. Second, we demonstrate our attempts to design and self--assemble 2D DNA origami arrays using several different strategies. Specifically, we introduce the self--assembly of 2D DNA origami lattices using a symmetric cross--like design. This design strategy resulted in a well--ordered woven latticework array with edge dimensions of 2--3 mum. This size is likely to be large enough to connect bottom-up methods of patterning with top--down approaches. Third, we illustrate the design and construction of DNA nano--objects for exploring the substrate preferences of topoisomerase (topo) II. We designed and fabricated four double rhombus--like DNA molecules, each of which contains a different conformation of crossover in the middle, as possible substrates to establish the structural preferences for topo II. We characterized the formation of each substrate molecule by gel electrophoresis. Finally, we study the effect of M13 DNA knotting on the formation of the DNA origami tiles. We demonstrate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that knotted M13 DNA can cause the formation efficiencies of DNA origami tiles two to three times lower than those of origami tiles folded by normal single--stranded circular M13 DNA.

  8. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting Comparisons of Purified Myofibrils and Whole Muscle Preparations for Evaluating Titin and Nebulin in Postmortem Bovine Muscle1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan; Tomiko Mitsuhashi; F. C. Parrish; Richard M. Robson

    Purified myofibril (MF) and homogenized whole muscle (WM) samples were prepared from A maturity market steers. Samples were removed at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem. The MF and WM samples from all steers were analyzed by SDS-PAGE (5% gels) and by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies to titin and nebulin. The rates of degradation of

  9. DNA walks one step at a time in electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Guan; Bo Wang; Steve Granick

    2011-01-01

    Testing the classical view that in DNA gel electrophoresis, long polymer chains navigate through their gel environment via reptation, we reach a different conclusion: this driven motion proceeds by stick-slip. Our single-molecule experiments visualize fluorescent-labeled lambda-DNA, whose intramolecular conformations are resolved with 30 ms resolution using home-written software. Combining hundreds to thousands of trajectories under amplitudes of electric field ranging

  10. Profiling signatures of ovarian cancer tumour suppression using 2D-DIGE and 2D-LC-MS/MS with tandem mass tagging.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, John; Metodieva, Gergana; Dafou, Dimitra; Gayther, Simon A; Timms, John F

    2011-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common form of gynaecological malignancy in the developed world and has a poor prognosis due to its late detection. Identifying molecular markers of the disease may provide novel approaches to screening and could enable targeted treatment and the design of novel therapies. Although blood is recognized as a highly important source of disease-related biomarkers, the complexity and dynamic range of protein abundance in body fluids has hampered proteomic biomarker discovery and alternative approaches using cell models may be more successful. Herein, we have utilized two cellular models of EOC, where transfer of normal chromosome 18 material into the EOC cell lines TOV-112D and TOV-21G induced in vitro and in vivo suppression of their tumourigenic phenotype. A combination of quantitative two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and two-dimensional-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) with tandem mass tagging (TMT) was employed to examine the whole cell, secreted and crude membrane proteomes of the parental and hybrid cell models to identify differentially expressed proteins as potential markers of tumour suppression. Protein changes of interest were confirmed by immunoblotting in additional hybrid and revertant cell lines where incorporated chromosome 18 material was lost. One candidate marker was also tested in sera from a set of ovarian cancer cases and controls. We have identified a list of promising candidate biomarkers for further testing and functional characterization. PMID:21237297

  11. Two-dimensional gel protein database of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (update 1999).

    PubMed

    Perrot, M; Sagliocco, F; Mini, T; Monribot, C; Schneider, U; Shevchenko, A; Mann, M; Jenö, P; Boucherie, H

    1999-08-01

    By proving the opportunity to visualize several hundred proteins at a time, two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is an important tool for proteome research. In order to take advantage of the full potential of this technique for yeast studies, we have undertaken a systematic identification of yeast proteins resolved by this technique. We report here the identification of 92 novel protein spots on the yeast 2-D protein map. These identifications extend the number of protein spots identified on our yeast reference map to 401. These spots correspond to the products of 279 different genes. They have been essentially identified by three methods: gene overexpression, amino acid composition and mass spectrometry. These data can be accessed on the Yeast Protein Map server (htpp://www.ibgc.u-bordeaux2.fr/YPM). PMID:10493132

  12. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  13. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other application papers of sequencing up to this level were also published in the mid 1990's. A major interest of the sequencing community has always been read length. The longer the sequence read per run the more efficient the process as well as the ability to read repeat sequences. We therefore devoted a great deal of time to studying the factors influencing read length in capillary electrophoresis, including polymer type and molecule weight, capillary column temperature, applied electric field, etc. In our initial optimization, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the sequencing of over 1000 bases with 90% accuracy. The run required 80 minutes for separation. Sequencing of 1000 bases per column was next demonstrated on a multiple capillary instrument. Our studies revealed that linear polyacrylamide produced the longest read lengths because the hydrophilic single strand DNA had minimal interaction with the very hydrophilic linear polyacrylamide. Any interaction of the DNA with the polymer would lead to broader peaks and lower read length. Another important parameter was the molecular weight of the linear chains. High molecular weight (> 1 MDA) was important to allow the long single strand DNA to reptate through the entangled polymer matrix. In an important paper, we showed an inverse emulsion method to prepare reproducibility linear polyacrylamide polymer with an average MWT of 9MDa. This approach was used in the polymer for sequencing the human genome. Another critical factor in the successful use of capillary electrophoresis for sequencing was the sample preparation method. In the Sanger sequencing reaction, high concentration of salts and dideoxynucleotide remained. Since the sample was introduced to the capillary column by electrokinetic injection, these salt ions would be favorably injected into the column over the sequencing fragments, thus reducing the signal for longer fragments and hence reading read length. In two papers, we examined the role of individual components from the sequencing reaction and then developed a protocol to reduce the deleterio

  14. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  15. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. PMID:25980765

  16. Electrophoresis operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis in space processing is described. Spaceborne experiments in areas such as biological products and FDA approved drugs are discussed. These experiments will be carried on shuttle payloads.

  17. PROCESSING, PRODUCTS, AND FOOD SAFETY Change in the Ileal Bacterial Population of Turkeys Fed Different Diets and After Infection with Salmonella as Determined with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of Amplified 16S Ribosomal DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Santos; P. R. Ferket; F. B. O. Santos; N. Nakamura; C. Collier

    Changes in ileal bacterial populations of Salmonella-infected turkeys fed different diets were ana- lyzed by using 16S-V3 PCR denaturing gradient gel elec- trophoresis. Turkeys raised on litter flooring were fed wheat- and corn-based diets with and without enzyme preparations (XY1 and XY2, respectively) from 0 to 126 d. Preparation XY1 contained exclusively endoxylanase, whereas preparation XY2 contained endoxylanase, prote- ase,

  18. Running DNA Mini-Gels in 20 Minutes or Less Using Sodium Boric Acid Buffer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristin P.; Bielec, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Providing a biotechnology experience for students can be challenging on several levels, and time is a real constraint for many experiments. Many DNA based methods require a gel electrophoresis step, and although some biotechnology procedures have convenient break points, gel electrophoresis does not. In addition to the time required for loading…

  19. Induction of circles of heterogeneous sizes in carcinogen-treated cells: two-dimensional gel analysis of circular DNA molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S; Lavi, S

    1996-01-01

    Extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules are associated with genomic instability, and circles containing inverted repeats were suggested to be the early amplification products. Here we present for the first time the use of neutral-neutral two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis as a technique for the identification, isolation, and characterization of heterogeneous populations of circular molecules. Using this technique, we demonstrated that in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-treated simian virus 40-transformed Chinese hamster cells (CO60 cells), the viral sequences are amplified as circular molecules of various sizes. The supercoiled circular fraction was isolated and was shown to contain molecules with inverted repeats. 2D gel analysis of extrachromosomal DNA from CHO cells revealed circular molecules containing highly repetitive DNA which are similar in size to the simian virus 40-amplified molecules. Moreover, enhancement of the amount of circular DNA was observed upon N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment of CHO cells. The implications of these findings regarding the processes of gene amplification and genomic instability and the possible use of the 2D gel technique to study these phenomena are discussed. PMID:8628266

  20. Identification of novel biomarkers of abdominal aortic aneurysms by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-MS from AAA-thrombus-conditioned media.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Ramos-Mozo, Priscila; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Camafeita, Emilio; Calvo, Enrique; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Egido, Jesús; Martin-Ventura, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    In the search for novel biomarkers, noncandidate-based proteomic strategies open up new opportunities to gain a deeper insight into disease processes regarding their molecular mechanisms, the risk factors involved, and the monitoring of disease progression. To carry out these complex analyses, the combined use of gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) represents a powerful choice. In addition, the introduction of protein dye labeling has notably improved the reliability of differential expression studies by increasing the statistical significance of the protein candidates. Here, we describe a strategy where different layers (luminal/abluminal) from the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients were incubated in protein-free medium. Then, the levels of the proteins released were compared by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and the proteins of interest identified by MS. We consider that the use of tissue-conditioned media could offer a substantial advantage in the analytical study of biological fluids, as they provide a source of proteins to be released to the bloodstream, which could serve as potential circulating biomarkers. PMID:23585087

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis of DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Sanchez-Vega

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations are carried out inside a capillary tube, which usually has a diameter of 50 µm to facilitate temperature control. The length of the capillary differs in different applications, but it is typically in the region of 20–50 cm. The capillaries most widely used are fused silica covered with an external protective coating. A small portion of

  2. "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97)

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    98 "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97) Samples to be digested in the gel are run in as few lanes as possible and alkylated prior to electrophoresis. Note that an alternate buffer system is also provided for LysC digestion

  3. Electrophoresis of positioned nucleosomes

    E-print Network

    Castelnovo, M; Castelnovo, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We present in this paper an original approach to compute the electrophoretic mobility of rigid nucleo-protein complexes like nucleosomes. This model allows to address theoretically the influence of complex position along DNA, as well as wrapped length of DNA on the electrophoretic mobility of the complex. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with experimental results on mononucleosomes assembled on short DNA fragments (electrophoresis.

  4. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  5. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  6. Recent advances in gel-based proteome profiling techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Hu; Xuan Huang; Grace Y. J. Chen; Shao Q. Yao

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on recent developments in gel-based proteomics techniques. By combining traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic techniques with recent advances in protein labeling\\u000a using different classes of molecules (i.e., fluorescent dyes, chemical probes, radioisotopes), new technologies have been\\u000a developed that allow for high-throughput studies of proteins at the whole-proteome scale.

  7. Embedded ceria nanoparticles in gel improve electrophoretic separation: a preliminary demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Goharshadi, Elaheh K

    2015-06-15

    Slab gel electrophoresis is still the gold standard method for the separation of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA with advantages such as simplicity, affordability, and high throughput, but it suffers from inadequate separation speed and resolution. Single capillary gel electrophoresis, on the other hand, offers faster separation time and improved resolution at the expense of higher cost and loss of high throughput capability. The high surface to volume ratio of the capillary causes improved heat dissipation leading to a reduced Joule heating and a higher resolution. Here, for the first time, we show the use of dispersed ceria nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the resolution and speed of protein separation in slab gel electrophoresis. We measured the rheological parameters of separation medium in order to find a meaningful relationship between viscosity changes, Joule heating, and band broadening. The results showed that ceria NPs decrease the viscosity of polyacrylamide gel. By loading 0.03% (w/v) ceria NPs into polyacrylamide gel at 25 °C, the viscosity decreased 22% and the thermal conductivity increased to 81%, which resulted in 35% reduction in Joule heating and 47% increase in resolution. This work is a cross disciplinary of theoretical physical chemistry for thermal conductivity and rheological measurements of PA and ceria suspensions and application in slab gel electrophoresis. We report here, for the first time, that embedded NPs in PA gel could potentially interface high throughput capability of slab gel electrophoresis with high separation speed of single capillary electrophoresis. PMID:25948088

  8. A versatile electrophoresis system for the analysis of high and low molecular weight proteins Christophe Tastet1, Pierre Lescuyer1, Hlne Diemer2, Sylvie Luche1, Alain van Dorsselaer2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A versatile electrophoresis system for the analysis of high and low molecular weight proteins sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins in the relative molecular weight electrophoresis, allows complete stacking and destacking of proteins in the above Mw range. The buffer system uses

  9. Comparison of Seven Techniques for Typing International Epidemic Strains of Clostridium difficile: Restriction Endonuclease Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PCR-Ribotyping, Multilocus Sequence Typing, Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, and Surface Layer Protein A Gene Sequence Typing?

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, George; Thompson, Angela; Johnson, Stuart; Brazier, Jon; Kuijper, Ed; Pepin, Jacques; Frost, Eric H.; Savelkoul, Paul; Nicholson, Brad; van den Berg, Renate J.; Kato, Haru; Sambol, Susan P.; Zukowski, Walter; Woods, Christopher; Limbago, Brandi; Gerding, Dale N.; McDonald, L. Clifford

    2008-01-01

    Using 42 isolates contributed by laboratories in Canada, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), surface layer protein A gene sequence typing (slpAST), PCR-ribotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed the discriminating ability and typeability of each technique as well as the agreement among techniques in grouping isolates by allele profile A (AP-A) through AP-F, which are defined by toxinotype, the presence of the binary toxin gene, and deletion in the tcdC gene. We found that all isolates were typeable by all techniques and that discrimination index scores for the techniques tested ranged from 0.964 to 0.631 in the following order: MLVA, REA, PFGE, slpAST, PCR-ribotyping, MLST, and AFLP. All the techniques were able to distinguish the current epidemic strain of C. difficile (BI/027/NAP1) from other strains. All of the techniques showed multiple types for AP-A (toxinotype 0, binary toxin negative, and no tcdC gene deletion). REA, slpAST, MLST, and PCR-ribotyping all included AP-B (toxinotype III, binary toxin positive, and an 18-bp deletion in tcdC) in a single group that excluded other APs. PFGE, AFLP, and MLVA grouped two, one, and two different non-AP-B isolates, respectively, with their AP-B isolates. All techniques appear to be capable of detecting outbreak strains, but only REA and MLVA showed sufficient discrimination to distinguish strains from different outbreaks. PMID:18039796

  10. A combination of metabolic labeling and 2D-DIGE analysis in response to a farnesyltransferase inhibitor facilitates the discovery of new prenylated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palsuledesai, Charuta C.; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Markowski, Todd W.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification required for proper cellular localization and activity of many important eukaryotic proteins. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have been explored extensively for their antitumor activity. To assist in identifying potentially new and more useful markers for therapeutic applications, we developed a strategy that uses a combination of metabolic labeling and 2D DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) to discover new prenylated proteins whose cellular levels are influenced by FTIs. In this approach, metabolic labeling of prenylated proteins was first carried out with an alkyne-modified isoprenoid analog, C15Alk, in the presence or absence of the FTI L-744,832. The resulting alkyne-tagged proteins were then labeled with Cy3-N3 and Cy5-N3 and subjected to 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Multiple spots having altered levels of labeling in presence of the FTI were observed. Mass spectrometric analysis of some of the differentially labeled spots identified several known prenylated proteins, along with HisRS, PACN-3, GNAI-1 and GNAI-2, which are not known to be prenylated. In vitro farnesylation of a C-terminal peptide sequence derived from GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 produced a farnesylated product, suggesting GNAI-1 and GNAI-2 are potential novel farnesylated proteins. These results suggest that this new strategy could be useful for the identification of prenylated proteins whose level of post-translational modification has been modulated by the presence of an FTI. Additionally, this approach, which decreases sample complexity and thereby facilitates analysis, should be applicable to studies of other post-translational modifications as well. PMID:24577581

  11. High current-density electrodes suitable for laser doppler electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Uzgiris

    1980-01-01

    The principal electrode problems associated with laser Doppler electrophoresis in high salt conditions and at high current densities (pH drift, colloidal particle ejection, and gas bubbling) have been solved through the use of hybrid electrodes that are platinized Ag\\/AgCl or by the use of platinized Ag. For salt conditions well below physiological saline an agarose gel overcoating on either of

  12. GCA in 2d

    E-print Network

    Bagchi, Arjun; Mandal, Ipsita; Miwa, Akitsugu

    2009-01-01

    We make a detailed study of the infinite dimensional Galilean Conformal Algebra (GCA) in the case of two spacetime dimensions. Classically, this algebra is precisely obtained from a contraction of the generators of the relativistic conformal symmetry in 2d. Here we find quantum mechanical realisations of the (centrally extended) GCA by considering scaling limits of certain 2d CFTs. These parent CFTs are non-unitary and have their left and right central charges become large in magnitude and opposite in sign. We therefore develop, in parallel to the usual machinery for 2d CFT, many of the tools for the analysis of the quantum mechanical GCA. These include the representation theory based on GCA primaries, Ward identities for their correlation functions and a nonrelativistic Kac table. In particular, the null vectors of the GCA lead to differential equations for the four point function. The solution to these equations in the simplest case is explicitly obtained and checked to be consistent with various requiremen...

  13. Application of fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis to analysis of disaccharides and oligosaccharides derived from glycosaminoglycans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoji Oonuki; Yuko Yoshida; Yasuo Uchiyama; Akira Asari

    2005-01-01

    Various combinations of fluorescent dyes, polyacrylamide gels, and electrophoresis buffers were tested by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) for the purpose of analyzing sulfated and nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides in which disaccharides and low-molecular weight oligosaccharides were included. A nonionic fluorescent dye was found to be suitable for analyzing sulfated disaccharides derived from sulfated GAGs (e.g., chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate) because

  14. On-line nanoliter cycle sequencing reaction with capillary zone electrophoresis purification for DNA sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Xue; Ho-Ming Pang; Edward S. Yeung

    2001-01-01

    An integrated system for DNA sequencing based on a nanoreactor for cycle-sequencing reaction coupled with on-line capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) for purification and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for separation is presented. Less than 100 nl of premixed reagent solution, which includes dye-labeled terminator pre-mix, bovine serum albumin and template, was hydrodynamically injected into a fused-silica capillary (75 ?m I.D.) inside

  15. Multiwavelength fluorescence detection for DNA sequencing using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Karger, A E; Harris, J M; Gesteland, R F

    1991-01-01

    Multiwavelength detection of laser induced fluorescence for dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing with four different fluorophores and separation by capillary gel electrophoresis is described. A cryogenically cooled, low readout noise, 2-dimensional charge-coupled device is used as a detector for the on-line, on-column recording of emission spectra. The detection system has no moving parts and provides wavelength selectivity on a single detector device. The detection limit of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides meets the high sensitivity requirements for capillary DNA sequencing largely due to the efficient operation of the CCD detector with a 94% duty cycle. Using the condition number as a selectivity criterion, multiwavelength detection provides better analytical selectivity than detection with four bandpass filters. Monte Carlo studies and analytical estimates show that base assignment errors are reduced with peak identification based on entire emission spectra. High-speed separation of sequencing samples and the treatment of the 2-dimensional electropherogram data is presented. Comparing the DNA sequence of a sample separated by slab gel electrophoresis with sequence from capillary gel electrophoresis and multiwavelength detection we find no significant difference in the amount of error attributable to the instrumentation. Images PMID:1923763

  16. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, N.

    1998-03-27

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  17. HYBRID REGISTRATION FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEL PROTEIN XIUYING WANG

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    HYBRID REGISTRATION FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEL PROTEIN IMAGES XIUYING WANG Biomedical and Multimedia of protein sequence data. But due to the elastic deformations of two-dimensional gel protein eletrophoresis images, their registration still remains a challenge. In this paper, a hybrid 2D gel protein image

  18. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  19. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chang, Huan-Tsang (Silver Spring, MD); Fung, Eliza N. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  20. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  1. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  2. 2D-DIGE proteome analysis on the platelet proteins of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet activation is related to the psychopathology of major depression. We attempted to search and identify protein biomarkers from the platelets of patients with major depression. High resolution two-dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), Western blot, and bioinformatic tools were applied to examine the platelet proteins of 10 patients with major depression and 10 healthy controls. Results The levels of 8 proteins were significantly different between the patients with major depression in the acute phase and healthy controls. The levels of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) and F-actin-capping protein subunit beta (CAPZB) were higher in patients with major depression than in healthy controls. The levels of fibrinogen beta chain (FIBB), fibrinogen gamma chain (FIBG), retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), SH3 domain-containing protein 19 (SH319), and T-complex protein 1 subunit beta (TCPB) were lower in patients with major depression than in healthy controls. Conclusions Platelet provided valuable information about the pathways and processes of inflammation/immunity, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis, related to major depression. PMID:24383611

  3. Tissue proteomics for cancer biomarker development: laser microdissection and 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tadashi

    2008-09-30

    Novel cancer biomarkers are required to achieve early diagnosis and optimized therapy for individual patients. Cancer is a disease of the genome, and tumor tissues are a rich source of cancer biomarkers as they contain the functional translation of the genome, namely the proteome. Investigation of the tumor tissue proteome allows the identification of proteomic signatures corresponding to clinico-pathological parameters, and individual proteins in such signatures will be good biomarker candidates. Tumor tissues are also a rich source for plasma biomarkers, because proteins released from tumor tissues may be more cancer specific than those from non-tumor cells. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with novel ultra high sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor satulation dye) enables the efficient protein expression profiling of laser-microdissected tissue samples. The combined use of laser microdissection allows accurate proteomic profiling of specific cells in tumor tissues. To develop clinical applications using the identified biomarkers, collaboration between research scientists, clinicians and diagnostic companies is essential, particularly in the early phases of the biomarker development projects. The proteomics modalities currently available have the potential to lead to the development of clinical applications, and channeling the wealth of produced information towards concrete and specific clinical purposes is urgent. PMID:18823585

  4. Comparative studies on the analysis of glycoproteins and lipopolysaccharides by the gel-based microchip and SDS-PAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Feng Hsieh; Shui-Tein Chen

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine time efficiency between the gel-based microchip (LabChip) and traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), glycoproteins and lipopolysaccharides were analyzed in this study. After 90 min of gel electrophoresis, glycoproteins (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, and apo-transferrin) and fluorescent lipopolysaccharides (LPS-O and LPS-S) under reducing conditions could be analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and it would take (including

  5. Fully denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis of membrane proteins: a critical update. Thierry Rabilloud 1,2, Mireille Chevallet 1,2, Sylvie Luche 1,2, Ccile Lelong 1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fully denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis of membrane proteins: a critical update. Thierry-dimensional electrophoresis separating only denatured proteins. Traditional 2D methods, i.e.methods using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension are compared to methods using only zone electrophoresis in both dimensions, i

  6. Capillary electrophoresis in clinical chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Lehmann; Wolfgang Voelter; Hartmut M. Liebich

    1997-01-01

    Since its introduction, capillary electrophoresis has diversified, spreading out into different specialized fields covering solutions for almost any analytical questions arising in research laboratories. In the context of clinical chemistry, results must be provided at low costs and in a clinically relevent time frame; however, the attributes which have made capillary electrophoresis such a successful tool in basic research are

  7. 2D Thin-Film Flow of a Non-Newtonian Fluid Between Elastic Boundaries

    E-print Network

    Karri, Sunil

    2011-09-08

    delivery vehicle, this thesis primarily focuses on the combined effect of gravity, tissue elasticity, and rheological properties and their influence on the gel distribution. A 2D numerical model for the flow a non-Newtonian fluid between elastic boundaries...

  8. Static continuous electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for carrying out a moving wall type electrophoresis process for separation of cellular particles. The apparatus includes a water-tight housing containing an electrolytic buffer solution. A separation chamber in the housing is defined by spaced opposed moving walls and spaced opposed side walls. Substrate assemblies, which support the moving wall include vacuum ports for positively sealing the moving walls against the substrate walls. Several suction conduits communicate with the suction ports and are arranged in the form of valleys in a grid plate. The raised land portion of the grid plat supports the substrate walls against deformation inwardly under suction. A cooling chamber is carried on the back side of plate. The apparatus also has tensioner means including roller and adjustment screws for maintaining the belts in position and a drive arrangement including an electric motor with a gear affixed to its output shaft. Electrode assemblies are disposed to provide the required electric field.

  9. Genetic distances in the tribe Bovini studied by gel electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Butts, Kelley Elaine McRae

    1990-01-01

    flasks or 10 T75 (75cm2) flasks (Lux) reached confluency. The cells were then subcultured into approximately 20 tissue culture dishes (150 x 15 mm) (Lux), and were grown to confluency. All fibroblast cultures were propagated in McCoy's 5A Medium... GOTI GOT2 GLO1 GPI G6PD GUKI IDH1 LDHA LDHB MDHI MDH2 ME1 MPI NP PGM1 PGM2 PGM3 PEPA PEPB PEPC PEPD PEPS PGD PP PKM2 SOD I SOD2 systems used is presented in Table 3 and a list of the staining procedures used is presented...

  10. Original article Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    — A membrane fraction was isolated from the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius globulus / Pisolithus tinctorius / ectomycorrhiza / elec- trophoresis / membrane protein / symbiosis ectomycorhiziens Pisolithus tinctorius et Cenococcum geophilum et d'ectomycorhizes d'eucalyptus. L'observation par

  11. Genetic distances in the tribe Bovini studied by gel electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Butts, Kelley Elaine McRae

    1990-01-01

    . 0 MgAc, 0. 25 M Glucose-1, 6-diphos- phate Glucose-1-phosphate G6PD NADP, 0. 026 M MTT, 0. 0084 M PMS, 0. 0078 M Phosphate buffer, pH 7. 0, Fisher certified MnC12, 0. 1 M 0-dianisidine HC1 Snake venom, Crotalus adamenteus L-valyl-1... buffer, pH 7. 0, Fisher certified 10 ml Agarose 0. 20 g 17 EnzZme TABLE 4. - Continued. Reaction Mixture PEPB Phosphate buffer, pH 7. 0, Fisher certified MnC12, 0. 1 M 0-dianisidine HC1 Snake venom, Crotalus adamenteus L...

  12. Inherited amplification of an active gene in the cytochrome P450 CYP2D locus as a cause of ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, I.; Lundqvist, E.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M. (Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bertilsson, L.; Dahl, M.L.; Sjoeqvist, F. (Huddinge Univ. Hospital, Huddinge (Sweden))

    1993-11-15

    Deficient hydroxylation of debrisoquine is an autosomal recessive trait that affects [approx]7% of the Caucasian population. These individuals (poor metabolizers) carry deficient:CYP2D6 gene variants and have an impaired metabolism of several commonly used drugs. The opposite phenomenon also exists, and certain individuals metabolize the drugs very rapidly, resulting in subtherapeutic plasma concentrations at normal doses. In the present study, the authors have investigated the molecular genetic basis for ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the CYP2D locus in two families with very rapid metabolism of debrisoquine [metabolic ratio (MR) for debrisoquine = 0.01-0.1] revealed the variant CYP2D6 gene CYP2D6L. EcoRI RFLP and Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses showed that this gene had been amplified 12-fold in three members (father and his two children) of one of the families, and two copies were present among members of the other family. The CYP2D6L gene had an open reading frame and carried two mutations causing amino acid substitutions: one in exon 6, yielding an Arg-296[yields]Cys exchange and one in exon 9 causing Ser-486[yields]Thr. The MR of subjects carrying one copy of the CYP2D6L gene did not significantly differ from that of those with the wild-type gene, indicating that the structural alterations were not of importance for the catalytic properties of the gene product. Examination of the MR among subjects carrying wild-type CYP2D6, CYP2D6L, or deficient alleles revealed a relationship between the number of active genes and MR. The data show the principle of inherited amplification of an active gene. Furthermore, the finding of a specific haplotype with two or more active CYP2D6 genes allows genotyping for ultrarapid drug metabolizers. This genotyping could be of predictive value for individualized and more efficient drug therapy.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis to characterize ricin and its subunits with matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hee Na; Cheong Kwan Cho; Yu Seok Youn; Youngju Choi; Kang Ro Lee; Sun Dong Yoo; Kang Choon Lee

    2004-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) have been employed as highly efficient methods to characterize ricin, its subunits, and the chemically deglycosylated forms. As a CE method, sodium dodecyl sulfate–capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS–CGE) was used because of its merit over the conventional slab gel techniques. SDS–CGE showed higher resolution capability over other analytical tools

  14. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  15. Electrophoresis 1994, IS, 591-615 Capillary electrophoresis of DNA in ultradilute polymer solutions 597 Annelise E. Barron

    E-print Network

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Electrophoresis 1994, IS, 591-615 Capillary electrophoresis of DNA in ultradilute polymer solutions electrophoresis in ultradilute polymer solutions Using capillary electrophoresis, large DNA molecules (2 separations in such dilute polymer solutions. Electrophoresis experiments employing solutions of both small

  16. Comparison of capillary electrophoresis with traditional methods to analyse bovine whey proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicki M. Kinghorn; Carmen S. Norris; Geoff R. Paterson; Don E. Otter

    1995-01-01

    The separation of the four major whey proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) is described. Whilst commercially purified whey proteins could be analysed using the recommended protocol, the more complex nature of an acid whey and a reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder necessitated considerable refinement of the CGE sample buffer. Individual whey proteins in the acid

  17. Charge Shift Electrophoresis: Simple Method for Distinguishing between Amphiphilic and Hydrophilic Proteins in Detergent Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ari Helenius; Kai Simons

    1977-01-01

    Seventeen hydrophilic proteins and five amphiphilic membrane proteins were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence of a nonionic detergent (Triton X-100), a mixture of a nonionic and an anionic detergent (Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate), and a mixture of a nonionic and a cationic detergent (Triton X-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide). The electrophoretic mobility of the hydrophilic proteins was

  18. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoretic Analysis of Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN M. LAMBOWITZ; ROBERT J. LAPOLLA; RICHARD A. COLLINS

    Recent results with Neurospora crassa show that one protein (S-5, mol wt 52,000) associated with the mitochondrial (mil) small ribosomal subunit is translated within the mitochondria (Lambowitz et al . 1976 . J. Mol. Biol. 107:223-253) . In the present work, Neurospora mil ribosomal proteins were analyzed by two-dimen- sional gel electrophoresis using a modification of the gel system of

  19. Studies on substantially increased proteins in follicular fluid of bovine ovarian follicular cysts using 2-D PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Maniwa, Jiro; Izumi, Shunsuke; Isobe, Naoki; Terada, Takato

    2005-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify substantially increased proteins in bovine cystic follicular fluid (FF) in order to clarify the pathology and etiology of bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC). Methods Proteins in normal and cystic FF samples were subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and were compared using silver stained gel images with PDQuest image analysis software. Peptides from these increased spots were analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and were identified based on the NCBI database by a peptide mass fingerprinting method. Results Comparative proteomic analysis showed 8 increased protein spots present in cystic FF. MS analysis and database searching revealed that the increased proteins in cystic FF were bovine mitochondrial f1-atpase (BMFA), erythroid associated factor (EAF), methionine synthase (MeS), VEGF-receptor, glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) and succinate dehydrogenase Ip subunit (SD). Conclusion Our results suggest that these proteins are overexpressed in BOFC, and that they may play important roles in the pathogenesis of BOFC. Furthermore, these proteins in the FF could be useful biomarkers for BOFC. PMID:15941490

  20. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tentori, Augusto M; Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

    2013-05-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20-?m-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a "lane" at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high-resolution (0.1 pH unit) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished by chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer-induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 h assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  1. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tentori, Augusto M.; Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20 micron-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a ‘lane’ at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high resolution (0.1 pH units) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished using chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 hr assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  2. 2D DIGE Does Not Reveal all: A Scotopic Report Suggests Differential Expression of a Single “Calponin Family Member” Protein for Tetany of Sphincters!

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a recent report by Rattan and Ali (2015) compared proteome expression between tonically contracted sphincteric smooth muscles of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), in comparison to the adjacent rectum [rectal smooth muscles (RSM)] that contracts in a phasic fashion. The study showed the differential expression of a single 23?kDa protein SM22, which was 1.87 fold, overexpressed in RSM in comparison to IAS. Earlier studies have shown differences in expression of different proteins like Rho-associated protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase, and protein kinase C between IAS and RSM. The currently employed methods, despite its high-throughput potential, failed to identify these well-characterized differences between phasic and tonic muscles. This calls into question the fidelity and validatory potential of the otherwise powerful technology of 2D DIGE/MS. These discrepancies, when redressed in future studies, will evolve this recent report as an important baseline study of “sphincter proteome.” Proteomics techniques are currently underutilized in examining pathophysiology of hypertensive/hypotensive disorders involving gastrointestinal sphincters, including achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), spastic pylorus, seen during diabetes or chronic chemotherapy, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and recto-anal incontinence. Global proteome mapping may provide instant snapshot of the complete repertoire of differential proteins, thus expediting to identify the molecular pathology of gastrointestinal motility disorders currently labeled “idiopathic” and facilitating practice of precision medicine. PMID:26151053

  3. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  4. Electrophoresis experiment, experiment MA-014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannig, K.; Wirth, H.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous, free flow electrophoresis study was conducted during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission to investigate and evaluate the increase in sample flow rate and sample resolution achievable in space. The electrophoresis equipment was designed for the separation of four mixtures of biological cells with variable sample flow rates, buffer flow rates, and electric field gradients. Separation quality was assessed by measuring the light from a quartz lamp through the electrophoresis channel and on to a photodiode system. The preliminary results indicate that all monitored systems operated correctly during the experiment. The optical system produced a light that was too bright to discern true cell distributions, but data were received that show a distribution of separated cells.

  5. Electrophoresis experiment. Experiment MA-014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannig, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuous free-flow electrophoresis study was conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Mission to investigate and evaluate the increase in sample flow rate and sample resolution achievable in space. The electrophoresis equipment was designed for the separation of four mixtures of biological cells with variable sample flow rates, buffer flow rates, and electric field gradients. Separation quality was assessed by measuring the light from a quartz lamp through the electrophoresis channel and onto a photodiode system. The data evaluation indicates that all monitored systems operated correctly during the experiment. The optical system produced a light that was too bright to discern true cell distributions, but final analysis of scientific data by computer processing shows the expected distribution of separated cells.

  6. New findings for in-gel digestion accelerated by high-intensity focused ultrasound for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Carreira; F. M. Cordeiro; A. J. Moro; M. G. Rivas; R. Rial-Otero; E. M. Gaspar; I. Moura; J. L. Capelo

    2007-01-01

    New findings in sample treatment based on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for protein digestion after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation are presented. The following variables were studied: (i) sample volume; (ii) sonotrode diameter; (iii) previous protein denaturation; (iv) cooling; (v) enzyme concentration; and (vi) protein concentration. Results showed that positive protein identification could be done after protein separation by gel electrophoresis

  7. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p?

  8. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis of leptospiral DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K A; Barbour, A G; Thomas, D D

    1991-01-01

    The genomic structures of spirochete species are not well characterized, and genetic studies on these organisms have been hampered by lack of a genetic exchange mechanism in these bacteria. In view of these observations, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to examine the genomes of Leptospira species. Live cells, prepared in agarose plugs, were lysed in situ, and the DNA was analyzed under different electrophoretic conditions. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA digested with infrequently cutting restriction enzymes showed that the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola is approximately 3.1 Mb, while that of the saprophytic L. biflexa serovar patoc I is 3.5 Mb. DNA forms of approximately 2,000 and 350 kb which were present in samples from L. interrogans serovars were not readily detected in nonpathogenic serovars. Three distinct populations, designated type alpha, beta, and gamma, of L. interrogans DNA molecules were further analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Evidence suggested that two of these DNA forms, type alpha and gamma, were linear structures. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has proven to be a valuable tool with which to size bacterial genomes and to take the first steps toward characterization of a form of leptospiral DNA which behaves as a linear molecule and which may be related to the virulence of L. interrogans. Images PMID:1987046

  9. Silver-staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels: a general overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Rabilloud; L. Vuillard; C. Gilly; J. J. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the physico-chemical principles underlying silver-staining of proteins, which are recalled in this paper, several methods of silver-staining of proteins after SDS electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels or isoelectric focusing were tested. The most valuable protocols are presented in this report, including standard methods for unsupported gels and new methods devised for thin (0.5 mm) supported gels for

  10. Effect of pH and acrylamide concentration on the separation of lipopolysaccharides in polyacrylamide gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine G. M. Duchesne; Joseph S. Lam; Leslie A. MacDonald; Christopher Whitfield; Andrew M. Kropinski

    1988-01-01

    The technique of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate the O-antigen of three strains ofPseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains, ofSalmonella typhimurium, and one strain ofEscherichia coli. No significant difference in separation and migration rate of sample was seen at the various acrylamide gel concentrations used. However, samples electrophoresed through acrylamide running gels at pH 6.8 migrated faster

  11. Insulin stacking for capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. K Shihabi; M Friedberg

    1998-01-01

    Stacking methods are very important in overcoming the poor detection limits in capillary electrophoresis. Human insulin, a polypeptide, was concentrated on the capillary (stacked) based on three different and simple treatment methods to the sample: dilute buffers, high salt content, and acetonitrile (66%) were added to the sample to induce stacking. A dilute buffer in the sample caused a limited

  12. Capillary electrophoresis in food analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiyang Dong

    1999-01-01

    Unlike other chromatographic methods such as gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography which were routinely used in almost all food labs, capillary electrophoresis is relatively a novice in food science, the detection limits and low process sample volume is the Achilles’ heel of this technique. Nevertheless, with ease of its high resolving power, rapid method development, easy sample preparation

  13. Electrokinetic motion of polarizable particles Dielectrophoresis, induced-charge electrophoresis, electrophoresis of the second kind.

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    -charge electrophoresis, electrophoresis of the second kind. Definition The electrokinetic motion of polarizable particles results from electro-osmotic flow (induced- charge electrophoresis) of the first of second kind, in addition to electrostatic forces (dielectrophoresis). Overview The classical theory of electrophoresis

  14. Optimization of Turn Geometries for Microchip Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Optimization of Turn Geometries for Microchip Electrophoresis Joshua I. Molho,* Amy E. Herr, Bruce the performance of miniaturized electrophoresis systems that utilize dispersion-introduc- ing turns-chip capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an important separation technique for microfluidic devices.1 Several

  15. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  16. DNA walks one step at a time in electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Juan; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2011-03-01

    Testing the classical view that in DNA gel electrophoresis, long polymer chains navigate through their gel environment via reptation, we reach a different conclusion: this driven motion proceeds by stick-slip. Our single-molecule experiments visualize fluorescent-labeled lambda-DNA, whose intramolecular conformations are resolved with 30 ms resolution using home-written software. Combining hundreds to thousands of trajectories under amplitudes of electric field ranging from zero to large, we quantify the full statistical distribution of motion with unprecedented statistics. Pauses are seen between steps of driven motion, probably reflecting that the chain is trapped inside the gel matrix. The pausing time is exponentially distributed and decreases with increasing electric field strength, suggesting that the jerky behavior is an activated process, facilitated by electric field. We propose a stretch-assisted mechanism: that the energy barrier to move through the gel environment is first overcome by a leading segment, the ensuing intramolecular stress from stretching causing lagging segments to recoil and follow along.

  17. Evaluation and optimisation of preparative semi-automated electrophoresis systems for Illumina library preparation.

    PubMed

    Quail, Michael A; Gu, Yong; Swerdlow, Harold; Mayho, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Size selection can be a critical step in preparation of next-generation sequencing libraries. Traditional methods employing gel electrophoresis lack reproducibility, are labour intensive, do not scale well and employ hazardous interchelating dyes. In a high-throughput setting, solid-phase reversible immobilisation beads are commonly used for size-selection, but result in quite a broad fragment size range. We have evaluated and optimised the use of two semi-automated preparative DNA electrophoresis systems, the Caliper Labchip XT and the Sage Science Pippin Prep, for size selection of Illumina sequencing libraries. PMID:23147856

  18. Preparative electrophoresis in "sieving media" of subcellular-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Chrambach, A; Chen, N

    1998-06-01

    The commercial gel electrophoresis apparatus with intermittent scanning of the migration path and preparative capacity (HPGE-1000, LabIntelligence) is applicable to polymer solutions as well as gels. Unresolved rat liver microsomes can be isolated from 11-15% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution by means of a syringe. The automated band isolation technique applied under resolving conditions in dilute polymer solutions allowed for the sequential isolation of three microsome components with 85, 76 and 75% recovery, respectively, under strict control of the dimensions of the volumetric collection module of the HPGE-1000 apparatus. Separations of unlabeled microsomes and sea urchin egg components in dilute polymer solutions have been performed, using detection by "fluorescence reduction". The unlabeled major component of a sea urchin egg homogenate has been isolated from electrophoresis in 1.5% PVP (Mr = 10(6)) solution in 25-50% yield (0.24-4 microg/8 lanes of the HPGE-1000 apparatus). However, since separations of both microsomes and sea urchin egg granules in dilute polymer solutions are restricted to a narrow range of polymer concentrations, their retardation coefficients, KR = d(log mobility)/d(polymer concentration), are not ascertained. PMID:9694265

  19. Galax2d: 2D isothermal Euler equations solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Galax2d computes the 2D stationary solution of the isothermal Euler equations of gas dynamics in a rotating galaxy with a weak bar. The gravitational potential represents a weak bar and controls the flow. A damped Newton method solves the second-order upwind discretization of the equations for a steady-state solution, using a consistent linearization and a direct solver. The code can be applied as a tool for generating flow models if used on not too fine meshes, up to 256 by 256 cells for half a disk in polar coordinates.

  20. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B Java 2D

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B ­ Java 2D 20 - Graphics2D: Introduction 21 - Graphics2D: Shapes 22 2D: General Path Curves 29 - Graphics 2D: Constructive Area Geometry Gary Hill December 2003 Java 2 Java initially through the Abstract Window Toolkit, which was extended to include swing, shortly