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Sample records for gel electrophoresis 2-d

  1. Total Protein Extraction and 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Burkholderia Species

    PubMed Central

    Velapatiño, Billie; Zlosnik, James E. A.; Hird, Trevor J.; Speert, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the intracellular protein levels of bacterial species is of importance to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases caused by these organisms. Here we describe a procedure for protein extraction from Burkholderia species based on mechanical lysis using glass beads in the presence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride in phosphate buffered saline. This method can be used for different Burkholderia species, for different growth conditions, and it is likely suitable for the use in proteomic studies of other bacteria. Following protein extraction, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis proteomic technique is described to study global changes in the proteomes of these organisms. This method consists of the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point by isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, followed by separation on the basis of molecular weight by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. Visualization of separated proteins is carried out by silver staining. PMID:24192802

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  4. A Novel Gaussian Extrapolation Approach for 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Saturated Protein Spots.

    PubMed

    Natale, Massimo; Caiazzo, Alfonso; Ficarra, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of images obtained from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) is a topic of utmost importance in bioinformatics research, since commercial and academic software currently available have proven to be neither completely effective nor fully automatic, often requiring manual revision and refinement of computer generated matches. In this chapter, we present an effective technique for the detection and the reconstruction of over-saturated protein spots. Firstly, the algorithm reveals overexposed areas, where spots may be truncated, and plateau regions caused by smeared and overlapping spots. Next, it reconstructs the correct distribution of pixel values in these overexposed areas and plateau regions, using a two-dimensional least-squares fitting based on a generalized Gaussian distribution.Pixel correction in saturated and smeared spots allows more accurate proteins quantification, providing more reliable image analysis results. The method is validated for processing highly exposed 2-D GE images, comparing reconstructed spots with the corresponding non-saturated image. The results demonstrate that the algorithm enables correct spot quantification. PMID:26611417

  5. Introducing Proteomics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Simple 2D Gel Electrophoresis Exercise with Serum Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Thomas D.; Craig, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) remains an important tool in the study of biological systems by proteomics. While the use of 2DGE is commonplace in research publications, there are few instructional laboratories that address the use of 2DGE for analyzing complex protein samples. One reason for this lack is the fact that the preparation…

  6. Identification of methanococcus jannaschii proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis patterns by mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, X.

    1998-06-10

    The genome of Methanococcus jannaschii has been sequenced completely and has been found to contain approximately 1,770 predicted protein-coding regions. When these coding regions are expressed and how their expression is regulated, however, remain open questions. In this work, mass spectrometry was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify which proteins the genes produce under different growth conditions, and thus investigate the regulation of genes responsible for functions characteristic of this thermophilic representative of the methanogenic Archaea.

  7. Development of an open source laboratory information management system for 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics workflow

    PubMed Central

    Morisawa, Hiraku; Hirota, Mikako; Toda, Tosifusa

    2006-01-01

    Background In the post-genome era, most research scientists working in the field of proteomics are confronted with difficulties in management of large volumes of data, which they are required to keep in formats suitable for subsequent data mining. Therefore, a well-developed open source laboratory information management system (LIMS) should be available for their proteomics research studies. Results We developed an open source LIMS appropriately customized for 2-D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics workflow. The main features of its design are compactness, flexibility and connectivity to public databases. It supports the handling of data imported from mass spectrometry software and 2-D gel image analysis software. The LIMS is equipped with the same input interface for 2-D gel information as a clickable map on public 2DPAGE databases. The LIMS allows researchers to follow their own experimental procedures by reviewing the illustrations of 2-D gel maps and well layouts on the digestion plates and MS sample plates. Conclusion Our new open source LIMS is now available as a basic model for proteome informatics, and is accessible for further improvement. We hope that many research scientists working in the field of proteomics will evaluate our LIMS and suggest ways in which it can be improved. PMID:17018156

  8. Unsupervised 2D gel electrophoresis image segmentation based on active contours

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    . In addition, it is unsupervised, providing an alternate to the laborious, error-prone process of manual as of dust particles, fingerprints and cracks on the gel surface. In addition, illumination may result

  9. Proteome analysis of round-headed and normal spermatozoa by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ting-Ting; Xiang, Zhen; Zhu, Wen-Bing; Fan, Li-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Globozoospermia is a severe form of teratozoospermia characterized by round-headed spermatozoa with an absent acrosome, an aberrant nuclear membrane and midpiece defects. Globozoospermia is diagnosed by the presence of 100% round-headed spermatozoa on semen analysis, and patients with this condition are absolutely infertile. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in protein expression between human round-headed and normal spermatozoa. Two-dimensional (2-D) fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was used in this study. Over 61 protein spots were analysed in each paired normal/round-headed comparison, using DIGE technology along with an internal standard. In total, 35 protein spots identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) exhibited significant changes (paired t-test, P < 0.05) in the expression level between normal and round-headed spermatozoa. A total of nine proteins were found to be upregulated and 26 proteins were found to be downregulated in round-headed spermatozoa compared with normal spermatozoa. The differentially expressed proteins that we identified may have important roles in a variety of cellular processes and structures, including spermatogenesis, cell skeleton, metabolism and spermatozoa motility. PMID:19823175

  10. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374

  11. Urine Collected From Diapers Can Be Used for 2-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) in Infants and Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Griffin, Angela; Su, Ruifeng; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Pediatric waste urine (2–20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2D-PAGE following application of urine (20–40 mL) to each matrix. 2D-PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2D-PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2D-PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling. PMID:21137001

  12. A comparative method for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis from different tissues of Cajanus cajan

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ram; Jain, Ajay; Singh, Nagendra K.; Rai, Vandna

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume crop with high protein content. However, it is often subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Proteomics is a state-of-the-art technique used to analyze the protein profiling of a tissue for deciphering the molecular entities that could be manipulated for developing crops resistant to these stresses. In this context, developing a comprehensive proteome profile from different vegetative and reproductive tissues has become mandatory. Although several protein extraction protocols from different tissues of diverse plant species have been reported, there is no report for pigeonpea. Here, we report tissue-specific protein extraction protocols representing vegetative (young leaves), and reproductive (flowers and seeds) organs and their subsequent analysis on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The study explicitly demonstrated that the efficacy of a particular protein extraction protocol is dependent on the different tissues, such as leaves, flowers and seeds that differ in their structure and metabolic constituents. For instance, phenol-based protocol showed an efficacy toward higher protein yield, better spot resolution and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gel for both leaves and flowers. Protein extraction from seeds was best achieved by employing phosphate-TCA-acetone protocol. PMID:26300903

  13. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  14. Proteomic profiling of macrophages by 2D electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153

  15. Fluorescence detection for gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, B.

    1992-07-21

    First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis.

  16. Comparative proteomics using 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry as tools to dissect stimulons and regulons in bacteria with sequenced or partially sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Magdalena; Martínez-Batallar, Gabriel; Contreras, Sandra; del Carmen Vargas, María; Mora, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in progress. The basic 2-DE protocol allows high resolution and reproducibility and enables the direct comparison of hundreds or even thousands of proteins simultaneously. To identify proteins that comprise stimulons and regulons, peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis is the first option and, if results from this tool are insufficient, complementary data obtained with electrospray ionization tandem-MS (ESI-MS/MS) may permit successful protein identification. ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF-MS provide complementary data sets, and so a more comprehensive coverage of a proteome can be obtained using both techniques with the same sample, especially when few sequenced proteins of a particular organism exist or genome sequencing is still in progress. PMID:16145578

  17. Improved method for identification of low abundance proteins using 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Differential protein expression studies have been routinely performed in our laboratory to determine the health effects of environmentally-important chemicals. In this abstract, improvements in the in-gel protein digestion, MALDI plate spotting and data acquisition...

  18. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  19. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  20. This work introduces a novel active contour-based scheme for unsupervised segmentation of protein spots in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) images. The proposed segmentation scheme is the first to

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    of manual editing, which is required in state-of-the-art 2D-GE image analysis software packages. It is based as of dust particles, fingerprints and cracks on the gel surface. In addition, illumination may result

  1. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis for comparative proteomics profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tannu, Nilesh S; Hemby, Scott E

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics is the workhorse of the modern proteomics initiative. The gel-based and MuDPIT approaches have facilitated vital advances in the measurement of protein expression alterations in normal and disease phenotypic states. The methodological advance in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) has been the multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). 2D-DIGE is based on direct labeling of lysine groups on proteins with cyanine CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes before isoelectric focusing, enabling the labeling of 2–3 samples with different dyes and electrophoresis of all the samples on the same 2D gel. This capability minimizes spot pattern variability and the number of gels in an experiment while providing simple, accurate and reproducible spot matching. This protocol can be completed in 3–5 weeks depending on the sample size of the experiment and the level of expertise of the investigator. PMID:17487156

  2. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  3. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-06-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  4. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  5. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pellegrino, T.; Sperling, R. A.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Parak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effectivemore »diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.« less

  6. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis for dairy propionibacteria.

    PubMed

    Chuat, Victoria; de Freitas, Rosangela; Dalmasso, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a technique using alternating electric fields to migrate high molecular weight DNA fragments with a high resolution. This method consists of the digestion of bacterial chromosomal DNA with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and in applying an alternating electrical current between spatially distinct pairs of electrodes. DNA molecules migrate at different speeds according to the size of the fragments. Among other things, this technique is considered as the "gold standard" for genotyping, genetic fingerprinting, epidemiological studies, genome size estimation, and studying radiation-induced DNA damage and repair. This chapter describes a PFGE method that can be used to differentiate dairy propionibacteria. PMID:25862063

  7. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  8. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N?-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  9. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  10. Spot volume vs. amount of protein loaded onto a gel: a detailed, statistical comparison of two gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    The long-term goal of this research program is to clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the formation of human pituitary macroadenomas. One approach to that goal is to characterize the differentially expressed proteins that are found by a comparison of the proteomes of control pituitary vs. macroadenoma tissues. In order to accurately perform a comparative proteomics study, based on the combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and PDQuest 2-D analysis software, a reproducible 2-DE separation system with a wide linear dynamic measure range is needed. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm); a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system that analyzes up to 12 gels at a time on a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1.0 mm). We have evaluated (Zhan and Desiderio, Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 1834-1846) the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two second-dimensional gel systems to separate a human pituitary proteome; that study showed a higher reproducibility for the Dodeca gel system. This present study investigated the relationship between the spot volume and the amount of protein loaded onto the gel for those two 2-D systems. The results demonstrated that the Dodeca gel system provides a wider linear dynamic range to measure the changes in the protein abundance in pituitary proteome. PMID:12783459

  11. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Balch, J.W.; Carrano, A.V.; Davidson, J.C.; Koo, J.C.

    1998-05-05

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system is described. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate. 4 figs.

  12. Plasma proteomics of pancreatic cancer patients by multi-dimensional liquid chromatography and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE): up-regulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Kondo, Tadashi; Okano, Tetsuya; Fujii, Kiyonaga; Honda, Kazufumi; Endo, Mitsufumi; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yamada, Tesshi; Kato, Harubumi; Nishimura, Toshihide; Todo, Satoru; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the aberrant expression of plasma proteins in patients with pancreatic cancer. High-abundance plasma proteins (albumin, transferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, IgG and IgA) were depleted by use of an immuno-affinity column, and low-abundance ones were separated into five fractions by anion-exchange chromatography. The fractionated plasma proteins were subjected to 2D-DIGE with highly sensitive fluorescent dyes. The quantitative protein expression profiles obtained by 2D-DIGE were compared between two plasma protein mixtures: one from five non-cancer bearing healthy donors and the other from five patients with pancreatic cancer. Among 1200 protein spots, we found that 33 protein spots were differently expressed between the two mixtures; 27 of these were up-regulated and six were down-regulated in cancer. Mass spectrometry and database searching allowed the identification of the proteins corresponding to the gel spots. Up-regulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG), which has not previously been implicated in pancreatic cancer, was observed. Western blotting with an anti-LRG antibody validated the up-regulation of LRG in an independent series of plasma samples from healthy controls, patients with chronic pancreatitis, and patients with pancreatic cancer. Our results demonstrate the application of a combination of multi-dimensional liquid chromatography with 2D-DIGE for plasma proteomics and suggest the clinical utility of LRG plasma level measurement. PMID:17303479

  13. A systematic study of field inversion gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Heller, C; Pohl, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mobilities of oligomers of phage lambda DNA and of yeast chromosomes in agarose gels during field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) were measured at different pulse times and electric fields. Also the ratios between forward and backward pulse times and/or field gradients were varied. The problem of 'band inversion' during FIGE, leading to an ambiguity in the mobility of large DNA fragments, was solved by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis with different parameters in the first and second dimension. The results are compared with those obtained with other pulsed electrophoresis systems and with a theoretical model. Images PMID:2528121

  14. One-step casting of Laemmli discontinued sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2012-02-01

    A modified Laemmli sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol is described. The new method saves 30 min for gel casting without loss of the resolution power of Laemmli gel. In this method, both the upper and lower gels can be cast at the same time because the lower gel contains 10% glycerol, which generates higher density in the lower gel than in the upper gel. PMID:22037291

  15. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to $800 for each setup, which is cost prohibitive for most classroom budgets. This article…

  16. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research

    E-print Network

    23 Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research Ángel García Summary Proteomics technology allows a comprehensive and efficient analysis of the proteome and has become electrophoresis (2-DE) in proteomics and its application to platelet research. 2-DE separates proteins according

  17. How it all began: a personal history of gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Arne Tiselius' moving boundary electrophoresis method was still in general use in 1951 when this personal history begins, although zonal electrophoresis with a variety of supporting media (e.g., filter paper or starch grains) was beginning to replace it. This chapter is an account of 10 years of experiments carried out by the author during which molecular sieving gel electrophoresis was developed and common genetic variants of two proteins, haptoglobin and transferrin, were discovered in normal individuals. Most of the figures are images of pages from the author's laboratory notebooks, which are still available, so that some of the excitement of the time and the humorous moments are perhaps apparent. Alkaline gels, acidic gels with and without denaturants, vertical gels, two-dimensional gels, and gels with differences in starch concentration are presented. The subtle details that can be discerned in these various gels played an indispensable role in determining the nature of the change in the haptoglobin gene (Hp) that leads to the polymeric series characteristic of Hp ( 2 ) /Hp ( 2 ) homozygotes. Where possible, the names of scientific friends who made this saga of gel electrophoresis so memorable and enjoyable are gratefully included. PMID:22585472

  18. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  19. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nano-Conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, T.; Sperling, R.A.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Parak, W.J.

    2006-01-10

    Single stranded DNA of different lengths and different amounts was attached to colloidal phosphine stabilized Au nanoparticles. The resulting conjugates were investigated in detail by a gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. We demonstrate how these experiments help to understand the binding of DNA to Au particles. In particular we compare specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds with nonspecific adsorption of DNA. The maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined. We also compare several methods to used gel electrophoresis for investigating the effective diameter of DNA-Au conjugates, such as using a calibration curve of particles with known diameters and Ferguson plots.

  20. A simple gel electrophoresis method for separating polyhedral gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Hye Jin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a simple approach to separate differently shaped and sized polyhedral gold nanoparticles (NPs) within colloidal solutions via gel electrophoresis is described. Gel running parameters for separating efficiently gold NPs including gel composition, added surfactant types and applied voltage were investigated. The plasmonic properties and physical structure of the separated NPs extracted from the gel matrix were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry respectively. Data analysis revealed that gel electrophoresis conditions of a 1.5 % agarose gel with 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant under an applied voltage of 100 V resulted in the selective isolation of ~ 50 nm polyhedral shaped gold nanoparticles. Further efforts are underway to apply the method to purify biomolecule-conjugated polyhedral Au NPs that can be readily used for NP-enhanced biosensing platforms.

  1. THERMAL DETECTION OF DNA AND PROTEINS DURING GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    SciTech Connect

    R. JOHNSTON

    2000-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to try to detect unstained, untagged, unlabeled DNA bands in real-time during gel electrophoresis using simple thermal measurements. The technical and ES&H advantages to this approach could potentially be quite significant, especially given the extreme importance of gel electrophoresis to a wide variety of practical and research fields. The project was unable to demonstrate sufficient thermal sensitivity to detect DNA bands. It is clear that we still do not understand the gel electrophoresis phenomenon very well. The temperature control techniques developed during the course of this project have other useful applications.

  2. Inexpensive and safe DNA gel electrophoresis using household materials.

    PubMed

    Ens, S; Olson, A B; Dudley, C; Ross, N D; Siddiqi, A A; Umoh, K M; Schneegurt, M A

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic containers are fitted with aluminum foil electrodes and 9-V batteries to run food-grade agar-agar gels using aquarium pH buffers and then stained with gentian violet. This activity was tested in a high school biology classroom with significantly positive responses on postactivity reflective surveys. The electrophoresis activity addresses several Life Science Content Standard C criteria, including aspects of cell biology, genetics, and evolution. It also can be used to teach aspects of motion and force in the physical science classroom. PMID:22615228

  3. Differences in the spatial and quantitative reproducibility between two second-dimensional gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), together with 2-D gel electrophoresis (GE) analysis software, is a common technique to analyze a complex proteome. In order to accurately locate the differentially expressed proteins in human pituitary macroadenoma tissues in our long-term research program to clarify the molecular mechanisms of macroadenoma formation, a reproducible separation system is needed. An immobilized pH-gradient dry gel-strip (IPG strip) has been extensively used for first-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF), and has achieved a high degree of reproducibility in the IEF direction. For the second dimension (SDS-PAGE), different types of gel systems are available, including horizontal vs. vertical gel systems, and gradient vs. constant-percentage gels. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm), and a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system, which analyzes up to 12 gels at a time, using usually a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1 mm). The present study evaluated the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two systems for the separation of the complex human pituitary proteome. PDQuest software was used to analyze the digitized gel-image data, and SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated a high percentage (>99%) of protein-spot matches within each electrophoretic system. The Dodeca gel system demonstrated better between-gel reproducibility for spot position, higher resolution in the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE direction, lower gel background, better spot quality, and higher reproducibility of the spot volume. PMID:12783460

  4. Topological patterns in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of DNA knots.

    PubMed

    Michieletto, Davide; Marenduzzo, Davide; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-10-01

    Gel electrophoresis is a powerful experimental method to probe the topology of DNA and other biopolymers. Although there is a large body of experimental work that allows us to accurately separate different topoisomers of a molecule, a full theoretical understanding of these experiments has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the mobility of DNA knots depends crucially and subtly on the physical properties of the gel and, in particular, on the presence of dangling ends. The topological interactions between these and DNA molecules can be described in terms of an "entanglement number" and yield a nonmonotonic mobility at moderate fields. Consequently, in 2D electrophoresis, gel bands display a characteristic arc pattern; this turns into a straight line when the density of dangling ends vanishes. We also provide a novel framework to accurately predict the shape of such arcs as a function of molecule length and topological complexity, which may be used to inform future experiments. PMID:26351668

  5. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  6. Stacking gels: A method for maximising output for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heng, See Kah; Heng, Chua Kek; Puthucheary, S D

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the gold standard of molecular typing methods, has a major disadvantage of an unusually long electrophoretic time. From the original protocol of 6 days, it was modified to 3 days and subsequently to a single day. We describe the procedure of stacking five to six gels one on top of another in order to increase and maximize the output in a shorter time without compromising the resolution and reproducibility. All the variables that affect pulsed field gels during electrophoresis were taken into consideration. We firstly optimized the parameters to be used and secondly determined whether stacking of five to six gels had any effect on the molecular separation during electrophoresis in comparison with a single gel run. DNA preparation, restriction, electrophoresis, staining and gel documentation was carried out based on previously published methods. Gels were analysed using BioNumerics and dice coefficient and unweighted pair group methods were used to generate dendrograms based on 1.5% tolerance values. Identical band profiles and band resolution-separation were seen in the PFGE patterns with single gel and multiple stacking gels. Cluster analysis further strengthened the fact that results from stacking gels were reproducible and comparable with a single gel run. This method of stacking gels saves time and maximizes the output at the same time. The run time for a single gel was about 28 hours, but with six stacked gels the run time was 54 hours compared with 28 x 6 = 168 hours if they were run separately as single gels thus saving time of 67.86%. Beside the big factor of saving time, stacking gels save resources (electricity, reagents, water, chemicals and working time) by increasing the sample throughput in a shorter time without compromising on quality of data. But optimization of working parameters is vital depending on the PFGE system used. PMID:19384038

  7. Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double-Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Sherman, Tim

    -Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified 16S rRNA Genes J.B. James1 , T.D. Sherman2 and R denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DG- DGGE) was used to generate banding patterns from

  8. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most applied and effective genetic typing method for epidemiological studies and investigation of foodborne outbreaks caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The technique relies on analysis of large DNA fragments generated by th...

  9. Procedure for Mobility Gel Electrophoresis Prepare Linearized Plasmid DNA

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Procedure for Mobility Gel Electrophoresis Prepare Linearized Plasmid DNA 1. Purified pUC18 plasmid it is recommended (Quiagen Handbook) that for long plasmids (pUC18 ~ 2600 bps) a 10 x excess be used or 10 Units Sma

  10. Solid friction in gel electrophoresis S. F. Burlatskya)

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    Solid friction in gel electrophoresis S. F. Burlatskya) and John M. Deutch Department of Chemistry 1995 We study the influence of solid frictional forces acting on polymer chains moving in a random environment. We show that the total reduction in the chain tension resulting from the small friction between

  11. An integrated proteomic workflow for two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and robotic spot picking.

    PubMed

    Mahnke, Ryan C; Corzett, Todd H; McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L; Chromy, Brett A

    2006-09-01

    New technologies have advanced the field of proteomics, and a number of companies have developed innovative platforms to drive this research. However, significant challenges are often encountered when trying to integrate complementary technologies from multiple manufacturers. We have developed a software and hardware solution to integrate the Ettan two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) system (GE Healthcare) with the Investigator ProPic spot picking robot (Genomic Solutions). We have analyzed protein sample preparations from bacterial and mammalian sources to demonstrate a new workflow with increased throughput for gel-based proteomics. PMID:16944920

  12. Agarose gel electrophoresis Solutions and reagents

    E-print Network

    Abou Elela, Sherif

    ) -Electrophoresis buffer: TAE buffer (Tris, acetate, EDTA) 50X, 1L Tris 242g Acetic acid 57,1ml EDTA 100ml ddH2O up to 1L Adjust pH to 8.3 with NaOH or acetic acid Store at RT TBE (5X) Tris 54g EDTA 4.65g Boric Acid 24g of 1M 100mM EDTA pH7.5 2ml of 0.5M 0.1% Bromophenol blue 1ml of 1% #12;0.1% xylene cyanol 200ul of 5% H

  13. Rotating Field Gel Electrophoresis (RAGE) is a variation on Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and gives similar results. We use equipment that was only briefly marketed by

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    1 RAGE Rotating Field Gel Electrophoresis (RAGE) is a variation on Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis lower cost than BioRad PFGE equipment. Plugs for RAGE/PFGE Starting material for BF: 100 ml (50 ml. Set up gel tray (drawer underneath RAGE apparatus): 4 pieces. Make sure that the rotating circular

  14. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: vertical isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is one of the most powerful tools for separating proteins based on their size and charge. 2-DE is very useful to separate two proteins with identical molecular weights but different charges, which cannot be achieved with just sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Here, a simpler and easier version of 2-DE is presented which is also faster than all the currently available techniques. In this modified version of 2-DE, isoelectric focusing is carried out in the first dimension using a vertical SDS-PAGE apparatus. Following the first-dimensional IEF, each individual lane is excised from the IEF gel and, after a 90° rotation, is inserted into a second-dimensional SDS-PAGE, which can be stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue for protein analysis or immunoblotted for further analysis. This version of IEF can be run in less than 2 h compared to the overnight run required by O'Farrell's method. Difficult tube gel casting and gel extrusion as well as tube gel distortion are eliminated in our method. This method is simpler, faster, and inexpensive. Both dimensions can be done on the same SDS-PAGE apparatus, and up to ten samples can be run simultaneously using one gel. PMID:22585490

  15. Density gradient electrophoresis of cells in a reversible gel.

    PubMed

    Plank, L D; Kunze, M E; Gaines, R A; Todd, P

    1988-10-01

    Density gradient electrophoresis permits the separation of cell types according to surface charge density with high resolution. Any source of flow compromises the resolving power of density gradient electrophoresis. Although procedures have been devised to successfully counteract electroosmotic and convective flows, the final collection of separands requires that they be pumped out of the electrophoresis column. Experiments were therefore designed to test the hypothesis that this flow could also be eliminated by trapping the separated bands in a gel, from which they could be collected by slicing the gel cylinder. Glutaraldehyde-fixed rat and rabbit erythrocytes were used as test particles in a phosphate-buffered isotonic Ficoll-sucrose density gradient in a 2.2 cm diameter, thermostated vertical glass column that could be opened at both ends. Two types of agarose were used as gel polymers: Electrophoresis grade agarose (J.T. Baker Chemical Co.) at final concentrations of 0.1 to 0.25% and SeaPrep ultralow gelling agarose (Marine Colloids Div., FMC Corp.) at a final concentration of 1.0%. Electrophoretic separability of the test particles and fluid stability were tested independently at 55 degrees C and 32 degrees C at which the two agaroses were, respectively, liquid. The experiments demonstrated that the higher temperatures required and the presence of agarose compromised neither the stability of the density gradient nor the migration properties of the cells, and cells can be separated in a sol at a temperature that is compatible with cell viability. PMID:2468483

  16. COMPARING TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARATIVE PROTEOMICS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY SEPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography separation. The tech...

  17. Thermally reversible gels in electrophoresis. I - Matrix characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Two series of thermally reversible hydrogen-bonded gels have been characterized: (5 pct) PVA-(4 pct) PEG and (5 pct) PVA-(0.04 pct) borate gels. They both have extremely low melting points (16-17 C) and could be of potential interest for recovery of proteins after preparative electrophoresis. The PVA-borate gels can be exploited in the pH range 7-11 by progressively increasing the borate content in the pH interval 8 to 7 and concomitantly decreasing the borate levels in the pH zone 8 to 11. It is hypothesized that the low melting point of these gels is due to the fact that they are sparingly and sparsely hydrogen bonded along the PVA chain: on the average, 1 OH group out of 3 or 4 OH groups in the PVA polymer should be engaged in H-bond formation.

  18. Separation of long RNA by agarose-formaldehyde gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Farrah H; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2013-10-01

    We describe a method to facilitate electrophoretic separation of high-molecular-weight RNA species, such as ribosomal RNAs and their precursors, on agarose-formaldehyde gels. Two alternative "pK-matched" buffer systems were substituted for the traditionally used Mops-based conductive medium. The key advantages include shortened run times, a 5-fold reduction in formaldehyde concentration, a significantly improved resolution of long RNAs, and consistency in separation. The new procedure has a streamlined work flow that helps to minimize errors and is broadly applicable to agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA samples and their subsequent analysis by Northern blotting. PMID:23800830

  19. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for Purification of Large Amounts of RNA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mélanie; Masquida, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) constitutes a powerful technique for the efficient purification of RNA molecules dedicated to applications that require high purity levels. PAGE allows for the fractionation of RNA obtained from cell extracts, chemical or enzymatic synthesis, or modification experiments. Native or denaturing conditions can be chosen for analytical or preparative-scale separations and the nucleotide resolution can be tuned by changing the percentage and reticulation of the gel material. In this protocol, we focus on the preparation of milligram-scale amounts of ~200 nucleotides (nt) RNA molecules that were used in subsequent crystallization experiments. PMID:26227037

  20. Detection of fluorescence dye-labeled proteins in 2-D gels using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager.

    PubMed

    Herick, K; Jackson, P; Wersch, G; Burkovski, A

    2001-07-01

    Labeling of proteins with SYPRO Orange, SYPRO Red, and SYPRO Ruby after 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using plastic-backed immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips and precast SDS polyacrylamide gels was tested. Protein spots were detected using an Arthur 1442 Multiwavelength Fluoroimager. The labeling methods described allow detection of proteins both after isoelectric focusing (IEF) and PAGE with a sensitivity higher than or comparable to standard silver staining methods. In addition to the post-labeling methods mentioned above, pre-labeling with the cysteine-specific fluorophore monobromobimane before 2-D PAGE is a sensitive, fast, and cost-effective alternative to existing staining protocols. PMID:11464508

  1. HIGH THROUGHPUT PROTEIN IDENTIFICATION USING 2-DIMENSIONAL DIFFERENCE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND ROBOTIC SPOT PICKING FOR ALUMINUM TOLERANCE-RELATED MAIZE ROOT TIP PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) is the most effective method utilized to carry out gel-based quantitative proteomics. Unfortunately, the most popular image analysis software used to process DIGE images (DeCyder) produces picking coordinates in a format that is incompatible...

  2. Analysis of Replicating Mitochondrial DNA by In Organello Labeling and Two-Dimensional Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Holt, Ian J; Kazak, Lawrence; Reyes, Aurelio; Wood, Stuart R

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms of DNA replication in a broad range of organisms and viruses has benefited from the application of two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis (2D-AGE). The method resolves DNA molecules on the basis of size and shape and is technically straightforward. 2D-AGE sparked controversy in the field of mitochondria when it revealed replicating molecules with lengthy tracts of RNA, a phenomenon never before reported in nature. More recently, radioisotope labeling of the DNA in the mitochondria has been coupled with 2D-AGE. In its first application, this procedure helped to delineate the "bootlace mechanism of mitochondrial DNA replication," in which processed mitochondrial transcripts are hybridized to the lagging strand template at the replication fork as the leading DNA strand is synthesized. This chapter provides details of the method, how it has been applied to date and concludes with some potential future applications of the technique. PMID:26530677

  3. Comparative proteomics of E. coli O157:H7: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis vs. two-dimensional liquid chromatography separation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted method for comparing bacterial proteomes has traditionally been two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE). However, in recent years, new procedures for protein separation have been introduced. One of these new procedures utilizes column-based liquid chromatography (2-D LC) separati...

  4. Resolution and identification of major peanut allergens using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, western blotting and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergy is triggered by several proteins known as allergens. The matching resolution and identification of major peanut allergens in 2D protein maps, was accomplished by the use of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), Western blotting and quadrupole time-of...

  5. Deoxyribonuclease zymography adapted to the precast PhastGel electrophoresis media.

    PubMed

    Straetkvern, K O; Raae, A J

    1990-04-01

    A set-up for casting fluorescent indicator agarose gels on ultrathin polyacrylamide microelectrophoresis gel media (Pharmacia PhastGel media) is described. The zymogram system allows a rapid and sensitive detection of deoxyribonuclease in various gel media, following isoelectric focusing, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:1692791

  6. Analysis of mutations using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Cariello, N.F.; Swenberg, J.A. Duke Univ., Durham, NC ); DeBellis, A.; Skopek, T.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) separates DNA molecules based on primary sequence. Under the appropriate conditions, all base pair (bp) substitutions, frameshifts, and deletions less than about 10 bp can be resolved from the wild type sequence using DGGE. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) permits facile amplification of a given region of the genome. The authors have combined PCR and DGGE to: (1) localize mutations in the X-linked human androgen receptor gene; (2) analyze thousands of thioguanine-resistant mutants simultaneously; (3) examine the fidelity of several DNA polymerases used in PCR.

  7. Top-down, bottom-up, and side-to-side proteomics with virtual 2-D gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Hayes, Richard; Yang, Yanan; Hung, Frank; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Kim, Nuri; Gunsalus, Robert; Loo, Joseph A.

    2005-02-01

    Intact protein masses can be measured directly from immobilized pH gradient (IPG) isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels loaded with mammalian and prokaryotic samples, as demonstrated here with murine macrophage and Methanosarcina acetivorans cell lysates. Mass accuracy and resolution is improved by employing instruments which decouple the desorption event from mass measurement; e.g., quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. MALDI in-source dissociation (ISD) is discussed as a means to pursue top-down sequencing for protein identification. Methods have been developed to enzymatically digest all proteins in an IEF gel simultaneously, leaving the polyacrylamide gel attached to its polyester support. By retaining all gel pieces and their placement relative to one another, sample handling and tracking are minimized, and comparison to 2-D gel images is facilitated. MALDI-MS and MS/MS can then be performed directly from dried, matrix-treated IPG strips following whole-gel trypsin digestion, bottom-up methodology. Side-to-side proteomics, highlighting the link between virtual and classical 2-D gel electrophoresis, is introduced to describe a method whereby intact masses are measured from one side (the IEF gel), while proteins are identified based on analyses performed from the other side (the SDS-PAGE gel).

  8. GELBANK : A database of annotated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of biological systems with completed genomes.

    SciTech Connect

    Babnigg, G.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division

    2004-01-01

    GELBANK is a publicly available database of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) gel patterns of proteomes from organisms with known genome information (available at and ftp://bioinformatics.anl.gov/gelbank/). Currently it includes 131 completed, mostly microbial proteomes available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. A web interface allows the upload of 2D gel patterns and their annotation for registered users. The images are organized by species, tissue type, separation method, sample type and staining method. The database can be queried based on protein or 2DE-pattern attributes. A web interface allows registered users to assign molecular weight and pH gradient profiles to their own 2D gel patterns as well as to link protein identifications to a given spot on the pattern. The website presents all of the submitted 2D gel patterns where the end-user can dynamically display the images or parts of images along with molecular weight, pH profile information and linked protein identification. A collection of images can be selected for the creation of animations from which the user can select sub-regions of interest and unlimited 2D gel patterns for visualization. The website currently presents 233 identifications for 81 gel patterns for Homo sapiens, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyro coccus furiosus, Shewanella oneidensis, Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans.

  9. The new horizon in 2D electrophoresis: new technology to increase resolution and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Moche, Martin; Albrecht, Dirk; Maaß, Sandra; Hecker, Michael; Westermeier, Reiner; Büttner, Knut

    2013-06-01

    A principally new type of an electrophoresis setup for the second dimension of 2DE named HPE (high performance electrophoresis) has recently become available that provides excellent reproducibility much superior to traditional 2DE. It takes up ideas from early beginnings of 2DE which could not be satisfactory realized at that time. The new HPE system is in contrast to all other established systems a horizontal electrophoresis that employs a new type of precast polyacrylamide gels on film-backing and runs on a multilevel flatbed electrophoresis apparatus. In a systematic approach we compared its features to traditional 2DE for the cytosolic proteome of Bacillus subtilis. Not only the reproducibility is enhanced, but also nearly all qualitative parameters as resolution, sensitivity, the number of protein spots (25% more), and the number of different proteins (also additional 25%) are markedly increased. More than 200 proteins were exclusively found in HPE. This new electrophoresis system does not use buffer tanks. No glass plates are needed. Therefore handling of gels is greatly facilitated and very simple to use even for personnel with low technical skills. The new HPE system is technically at the beginnings and further development with increased performance can be expected. PMID:23494680

  10. Detection of mechanically recovered chicken meat using capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Brown, H

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated the use of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) as a method for differentiating between raw mechanically recovered chicken meat (MRM) and hand deboned chicken breast meat (HDM). Twenty samples of MRM were obtained and twenty samples of HDM were prepared in the laboratory. They were extracted and analysed using Prosort™ SDS-protein analysis reagent. There were obvious differences in the relative peak areas within the profiles obtained which distinguished raw MRM from raw HDM; specifically, that of haemoglobin was higher in MRM. Using the peak area of haemoglobin and its ratio to other peaks, the technique was tested using composite MRM-HDM mixtures. The results suggest that it is possible to differentiate mixtures containing 7.5% MRM from that of 0% MRM using the CGE method. PMID:22061916

  11. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  12. Novel detection schemes and automated image analysis algorithms for planar chromatography and gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Koutney, L.B.

    1992-09-09

    After a discussion of charge coupled devices and personal computer capabilities, examples of their applications involving novel analytical techniques are presented: laser-based indirect fluorometric detection in thin-layer chromatography; on-line detection of DNA and proteins in gel electrophoresis by uv absorption; automated image analysis for distortion compensation in sequencing gel electrophoresis; and expert systems for data acquisition to achieve constant signal-to-noise, with application to DNA sequencing slab gels.

  13. Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis-Based Plant Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is one of the most important reversible protein modifications and is involved in regulating signal transduction, subcellular localization and enzyme activity of target proteins. Phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of proteins is directly reflected in changed ratios of phosphoprotein abundance and total protein abundance. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics allow quantification of both total protein abundance by Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining and phosphoprotein abundance by fluorescence-based staining. Pro-Q diamond phosphoprotein stain (Pro-Q DPS) can bind to the phosphate moiety of the phospho-amino acid directly, regardless of the nature of the phospho-amino acid. Phosphoproteins can thus be detected using proper excitation light, quantified using image analysis software and subsequently be subjected to analysis by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe a protein phosphorylation status analysis method combining both CBB and Pro-Q DPS staining based on 2-DE gel-based phosphoproteomics, which has been widely applied to plant phosphoproteomics studies. PMID:26584928

  14. Protein Mobility Shifts Contribute to Gel Electrophoresis Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Nicholas J.; Parker, Graham C.; Gratsch, Theresa; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of cellular and subcellular proteomes by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after fractionation by SDS-PAGE is referred to as GeLC (gel electrophoresis liquid chromatography)-MS. The GeLC approach decreases complexity within individual MS analyses by size fractionation with SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE is considered an excellent fractionation technique for intact proteins because of good resolution for proteins of all sizes, isoelectric points, and hydrophobicities. Additional information derived from the mobility of the intact proteins is available after an SDS-PAGE fractionation, but that information is usually not incorporated into the proteomic analysis. Any chemical or proteolytic modification of a protein that changes the mobility of that protein in the gel can be detected. The ability of SDS-PAGE to resolve proteins with chemical modifications has not been widely utilized within profiling experiments. In this work, we examined the ability of the GeLC-MS approach to help identify proteins that were modified after a small hairpin RNA-dependent knockdown in an experiment using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation. PMID:26229520

  15. Proteomic profiling of the mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock: Differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experiments show that upon traumatic injury the composition of mesenteric lymph changes such that it initiates an immune response that can ultimately result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). To identify candidate protein mediators of this process we carried out a quantitative proteomic study on mesenteric lymph from a well characterized rat shock model. We analyzed three animals using analytical 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Intra-animal variation for the majority of protein spots was minor. Functional clustering of proteins revealed changes arising from several global classes that give novel insight into fundamental mechanisms of MODS. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of proteins in mesenteric lymph can effectively be used to identify candidate mediators and loss of protective agents in shock models. PMID:21906351

  16. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    Photo-polymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels are becoming increasingly important for use in micro-fabricated DNA electrophoresis systems because they allow a concentrated sieving matrix to be precisely positioned at any location within a...

  17. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA replication in Tetrahymena pyriformis 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Yue

    1997-01-01

    Neutral/neutral two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study replication of the Tetrahymena pyriformis RDNA minichromosome. During vegetative growth RDNA is replicated exclusively from origin in the 5' nontranscribed spacer (NTS). Whereas...

  18. Investigation of the Effect of Hydrogel Pore Morphology on DNA Migration Mechanisms in Microchip Gel Electrophoresis 

    E-print Network

    Shi, Nan

    2014-08-20

    an improved understanding of the physics underlying separation. This dissertation majorly focuses on the DNA transport in microchip gel electrophoresis systems. We have developed a transport model that allows us to determine the interplay between the hydrogel...

  19. Rapid (ten-minute) pore-gradient electrophoresis of proteins and peptides in Micrograd gels.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    Precast gradient gels of short migration length (25 mm) have been developed to provide rapid electrophoretic separation without loss of resolution. These Micrograd gels have been prepared in gel ranges (conventional and unique) to match pore-gradient electrophoresis conditions to proteins/peptides ranging in size from several hundreds to millions. The Hylinx Micrograd gel combines an extreme gel range (6 to 48% polyacrylamide) with a novel crosslinker to provide sieving of polypeptides, and pore-limit electrophoresis of the smallest proteins (e.g. insulin monomer). All gel ranges (such as 3 to 30%) provide zone sharpening in routine analysis of conventional protein mixtures (e.g. serum) within 10 min electrophoresis at 200 to 300 volts. The gels are thin (1 mm) and thus stain quickly, but the gel cassette is of conventional overall width (83 mm), thus fitting many apparatus designs and accommodating 12 samples. The gels are finding valuable use in screening applications, requiring the electrophoretic analysis of many samples, and in cases where a rapid answer is needed, such as monitoring protein purification. The gels have proved particularly useful, in-house, for the latter application in developing Gradipore's new large-scale preparative electrophoresis system, the Gradiflow. PMID:1599958

  20. Analysis of variations in band positions for normalization in across-gel denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuko; Yamamura, Kohji; Morimoto, Sho; Bao, Zhihua; Kurose, Daisuke; Sato, Ikuo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsushima, Seiya

    2015-05-01

    Variation in band position between gels is a well-known problem in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). However, few reports have evaluated the degree of variation in detail. In this study, we investigated the variation in band positions of DNA samples extracted from soil, normalized using reference positions within marker lanes for DGGE in three organismal (bacterial, fungal, and nematode) conditions. For sample lanes, marker DNA (as a control) and sample DNA were used. The test for normality of distribution showed that the position data of a large percentage of bands were normally distributed but not for certain bands. For the normally-distributed data, their variations [standard deviation of marker bands (SDM) and standard deviation of sample bands (SDS), respectively] were assessed. For all organismal conditions, the degree of within-gel variation were similar between SDMs and SDSs, while between-gel variations in SDSs were larger than those in SDMs. Due to the large effect of between-gel variations, the total variations in SDSs were more varied between sample bands, and the mean variations of all sample bands were higher than those in the markers. We found that the total variation in the fungal and nematode SDSs decreased when the intervals between marker bands were narrowed, suggesting that band interval is important for reducing total variation in normalized band positions. For the non-normally distributed data, the distribution was examined in detail. This study provided detailed information on the variation of band positions, which could help to optimize markers for reducing band position variation, and could aid in the accurate identification of bands in across-gel DGGE analyses. PMID:25725304

  1. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular soybean pathogenesis-related proteins using PhastSystem.

    PubMed

    Roggero, P; Pennazio, S

    1990-01-01

    Acidic and basic pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-Ps) were extracted from the intercellular fluid (IF) of soybean leaves, locally infected with tobacco necrosis virus and showing necrotic local lesions. Proteins were detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using PhastSystem and precast commercially available gels. Extracts from healthy leaves were run as controls. PR-Ps were first run under native PAGE conditions or isoelectric focusing (IEF), the gels stained with Coomassie Blue, then run under sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-denaturing conditions and finally stained with silver. Ten major acidic PR-Ps were separated; their Mr's were close to those found by conventional PAGE. Their isoelectric points ranged from 3.5 to 5.0. Ten basic PR-Ps were separated and their Mr's estimated. None of these acidic or basic soybean PR-Ps was a glycoprotein. PAGE with PhastSystem and precast gels gives reliable results, comparable with those from conventional 2D-PAGE, with simpler experimental procedures. By electrophoresing Coomassie-stained gels with SDS in the second dimension, we were able to control the first-dimensional separation and to avoid laborious protocols generally adopted with unstained gels. PMID:2318193

  2. Separation of fluorescence-labelled terminal restriction fragment DNA on a two-dimensional gel (T-RFs-2D) - an efficient approach for microbial consortium characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanquan; He, Jianzhong

    2011-09-01

    Fingerprinting techniques provide access to understanding the ecology of uncultured microbial consortia. However, the application of current techniques such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has been hindered due to their limitations in characterizing complex microbial communities. This is due to that different populations possibly share the same terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) and DNA fragments may co-migrate on DGGE gels. To overcome these limitations, a new approach was developed to separate terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of 16S rRNA genes on a two-dimensional gel (T-RFs-2D). T-RFs-2D involves restriction digestion of terminal fluorescence-labelled PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene products and their high-resolution separation via a two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis based on the T-RF fragment size (1(st) D) and its sequence composition on the denaturing gradient gel (2(nd) D). The sequence information of interested T-RFs on 2D gels can be obtained through serial poly(A) tailing reaction, PCR amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. By employing the T-RFs-2D method, bacteria with MspI digested T-RF size of 436 (±1) bp and 514 (±1) bp were identified to be a Lysobacter sp. and a Dehalococcoides sp. in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinating culture. With the high resolution of 2D separation, T-RFs-2D separated 63 DNA fragments in a complex river-sediment microbial community, while traditional DGGE detected only 41 DNA fragments in the same sample. In all, T-RFs-2D has its advantage in obtaining sequence information of interested T-RFs and also in characterization of complex microbial communities. PMID:21824243

  3. Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Suriano, R; Griffini, G; Chiari, M; Levi, M; Turri, S

    2014-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis currently represents one of the most standard techniques for protein separation. In addition to the most commonly employed polyacrylamide crosslinked hydrogels, acrylamide-agarose copolymers have been proposed as promising systems for separation matrices in 2-D electrophoresis, because of the good resolution of both high and low molecular mass proteins made possible by careful control and optimization of the hydrogel pore structure. As a matter of fact, a thorough understanding of the nature of the hydrogel pore structure as well as of the parameters by which it is influenced is crucial for the design of hydrogel systems with optimal sieving properties. In this work, a series of acrylamide-based hydrogels covalently crosslinked with different concentrations of allyl agarose (0.2-1%) is prepared and characterized by creep-recovery measurements, dynamic rheology and tensile tests, in the attempt to gain a clearer understanding of structure-property relationships in crosslinked polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. The rheological and mechanical properties of crosslinked acrylamide-agarose hydrogels are found to be greatly affected by crosslinker concentration. Dynamic rheological tests show that hydrogels with a percentage of allyl agarose between 0.2% and 0.6% have a low density of elastically effective crosslinks, explaining the good separation of high molecular mass proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis. Over the same range of crosslinker concentration, creep-recovery measurements reveal the presence of non-permanent crosslinks in the hydrogel network that justifies the good resolution of low molecular mass proteins as well. In tensile tests, the hydrogel crosslinked with 0.4% of allyl agarose exhibits the best results in terms of mechanical strength and toughness. Our results show how the control of the viscoelastic and the mechanical properties of these materials allow the design of mechanically stable hydrogels with improved sieving ability in protein electrophoresis over a wide range of molecular masses. PMID:24368174

  4. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: Case study with two bacterial

    E-print Network

    Pal, Debnath

    Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: Case study with two, dpal@serc.iisc.in) Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can

  5. Muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteins has provided valuable new information concerning the heterogeneity of some of the major contractile proteins, alterations in the protein population of developing muscle fibers during various stages of myogenesis, and protein aberrations that correlate with muscle diseases. As with all electrophoretic techniques, careful attention must be paid to the preparation of samples and the selection of reagents to be used for the protein separations. Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the obvious method of choice when analysis of protein mixtures is required. The routine clinical application of two-dimensional electrophoresis to analysis of muscle tissue remains to be demonstrated. However, methods of sample preparation for two-dimensional electrophoresis compatible with existing clinical procedures have been described, and the equipment for multiple analyses is available. As protein abnormalities related to human myopathy are detected through the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis as a research tool, useful clinical markers of specific myopathic processes will be found. The preliminary work on muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis described in this review has begun a new approach to the enigma of human muscle disease.

  6. Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Brian A.; Araki, Naoko; Lilley, Jennifer L.; Guerrero, Gilberto; Lewis, L. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA is routinely performed using buffers containing either Tris, acetate and EDTA (TAE) or Tris, borate and EDTA (TBE). Gels are run at a low, constant voltage (~ 10 V/cm) to minimize current and asymmetric heating effects, which can induce band artifacts and poor resolution. In this study, alterations of gel structure and conductive media composition were analyzed to identify factors causing higher electrical currents during horizontal slab gel electrophoresis. Current was reduced when thinner gels and smaller chamber buffer volumes were used, but was not influenced by agarose concentration or the presence of ethidium bromide. Current was strongly dependent upon the amount and type of EDTA used and on the concentrations of the major acid-base components of each buffer. Interestingly, resolution and the mobilities of circular versus linear plasmid DNAs were also affected by the chemical form and amount of EDTA. With appropriate modifications to gel structure and buffer constituents, electrophoresis could be performed at high voltages (20–25 V/cm), reducing run times by up to 3-fold. The most striking improvements were observed with small DNAs and RNAs (10 – 100 bp): high voltages and short run times produced sharper bands and higher resolution. PMID:24637158

  7. Detection of human DNA polymorphisms with a simplified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, W.W.; Collins, M.

    1987-05-01

    Single base pair differences between otherwise identical DNA molecules can result in altered melting behavior detectable by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The authors have developed a simplified procedure for using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect base pair changes in genomic DNA. Genomic DNA is digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized in solution to labeled single-stranded probe DNA. The excess probe is then hybridized to complementary phage M13 template DNA, and the reaction mixture is electrophoresed on a denaturing gradient gel. Only the genomic DNA probe hybrids migrate into the gel. Differences in hybrid mobility on the gel indicate base pair changes in the genomic DNA. They have used this technique to identify two polymorphic sites within a 1.2-kilobase region of human chromosome 20. This approach should greatly facilitate the identification of DNA polymorphisms useful for gene linkage studies and the diagnosis of genetic diseases.

  8. The fractionation of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Loening, U. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. Gels were prepared with recrystallized acrylamide and bisacrylamide. Electrophoresis was in tris–sodium acetate–EDTA buffer for 0·5 to 3hr. Gels were scanned at 280 or 265m?. Techniques are described for slicing and radioactive counting. 2. The mobility of RNA was inversely related to the sedimentation coefficient and varied with gel concentration. Electrophoresis in 2·2–2·6% gels gives a fractionation similar to density-gradient centrifugation. It shows the two ribosomal RNA components, the 45s precursor, transfer RNA and minor components. In 5% and 7·5% gels, 4s and 5s RNA separated and ribosomal RNA was excluded. 3. The resolution is greater and more detailed than by centrifugation, and many samples can be analysed simultaneously and rapidly. PMID:5339944

  9. Electrophoresis of small proteins in highly concentrated and crosslinked polyacrylamide gradient gels.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W P; Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1983-02-15

    A high concentration (40%) of acrylamide plus N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide combined with a high level of crosslinking (12.5%) yielded clear gels capable of restricting the passage of small proteins. This gel composition was chosen in preference to other combinations, in particular those producing opaque gels which have larger pore sizes and which provide a reduced sieving effect. Gradient gels were prepared in which the gel concentration rose from 3 to 40% and the degree of crosslinking increased from 4 to 12.5%. Such gels were suitable for fractionating crude, unreduced, and uncharacterized extracts containing proteins ranging in molecular size from 10,000 to several million daltons under conditions where all proteins are retained on the gel even after prolonged electrophoresis. The gels yielded zones which were of improved sharpness and resolution compared with gels of lower concentration and degree of crosslinking, and can be used to provide an estimate of molecular size. Examples of the use of HX gradient gels included both anodic and cathodic electrophoresis at pH 8.3 and 3.1, respectively, of serum and cereal-grain proteins and a partial enzymic hydrolysate of serum albumin. PMID:6859529

  10. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  11. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an automated genotyping tool from DNA gel electrophoresis images, called GELect, which was written in Java and made available through the imageJ framework. With a novel automated image processing workflow, the tool can accurately segment lanes from a gel matrix, intelligently extract distorted and even doublet bands that are difficult to identify by existing image processing tools. Consequently, genotyping from DNA gel electrophoresis can be performed automatically allowing users to efficiently conduct large scale DNA fingerprinting via DNA gel electrophoresis. The software is freely available from http://www.biotec.or.th/gi/tools/gelect. PMID:26681167

  12. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  13. Effect of ultrasound on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, E.S. )

    1990-06-01

    Since its first use in 1966 interest in and the applications of electrophoresis of DNA fragments in agarose gel have grown rapidly. Nowadays, agarose gel electrophoresis has become a standard technique with high resolving power for the analysis of DNA structure, for example for the determination of the length of DNA fragments obtained by the action of restriction enzymes. The electrophoretic mobility ({mu}) of DNA fragments is influenced by various parameters-molecular weight, gel concentration, temperature, electric field, and DNA-agarose affinity. A comprehensive study of the influence of these main parameters has been reported. In this paper, the authors investigate a new effect on the electrophoretic mobility of DNA fragments in agarose gels, viz. the influence of ultrasound.

  14. Identification of species of fish by gradient-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Manusu, H P; Wrigley, C W

    1985-11-01

    An electrophoretic method is described for distinguishing between fish fillets according to their protein composition. Thaw fluid (4 microL) was applied to one of 14 sample positions of a precast gel, containing a gradient of polyacrylamide of either 2.5 to 27% or 3 to 40%. All reagents and gels are commercially available in ready-to-use form. Either gel provided a distinction between any of the 42 fish types, but the 3 to 40% gel gave better identification because of its superior molecular-sieving properties. Reproducible electrophoretic patterns were obtained for different samples of the same fish type, but small differences were shown for fish of widely different origin, for example Australian and New Zealand ling. PMID:3834902

  15. odium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    prior to entering the resolving gel. Second was the use of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS's partner brand, Calbiochem. Solutions must be carefully and safely pre- pared, dated, and chemical lot

  16. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device 

    E-print Network

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    and daughter for their patience and love. vii NOMENCLATURE %T Monomer concentration %C Crosslinker concentration bp base pairs BRM Biased reptation model BRF Biased reptation with fluctuations DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid dsDNA Double..., such as DNA sequencing, detection of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and Southern blotting. Crosslinked polyacrylamide and agarose gels are generaly used as the sieving matrices in these sys- tems [47]. A slab gel is cast by loading liquid...

  17. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-10-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-?-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of ?-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the pathogenesis of astrocytoma formation.

  18. Nitroproteins in Human Astrocytomas Discovered by Gel Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang; Li, Jianglin; Guo, Tianyao; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Maoyu; Sang, Shushan; Li, Xuejun; Desiderio, Dominic M; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-12-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is involved in the pathogenesis of highly fatal astrocytomas, a type of brain cancer. To understand the molecular mechanisms of astrocytomas and to discover new biomarkers/therapeutic targets, we sought to identify nitroproteins in human astrocytoma tissue. Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoreaction-positive proteins from a high-grade astrocytoma tissue were detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)-based nitrotyrosine immunoblots, and identified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fifty-seven nitrotyrosine immunopositive protein spots were detected. A total of 870 proteins (nitrated and non-nitrated) in nitrotyrosine-immunopositive 2D gel spots were identified, and 18 nitroproteins and their 20 nitrotyrosine sites were identified with MS/MS analysis. These nitroproteins participate in multiple processes, including drug-resistance, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, phenotypic dedifferentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Among those nitroproteins that might play a role in astrocytomas was nitro-sorcin, which is involved in drug resistance and metastasis and might play a role in the spread and treatment of an astrocytoma. Semiquantitative immune-based measurements of different sorcin expressions were found among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls, and a semiquantitative increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Nitro-?-tubulin functions in cytoskeleton and cell migration. Semiquantitative immunoreactivity of ?-tubulin showed increased expression among different grades of astrocytomas relative to controls and semiquantitatively increased nitration level in high-grade astrocytoma relative to control. Each nitroprotein was rationalized and related to the corresponding functional system to provide new insights into tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the pathogenesis of astrocytoma formation. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26450359

  19. Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

  20. GEL-FREE ELECTROPHORESIS OF h-AND T2-DNA IN STRUCTURED PDMS MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES

    E-print Network

    Bielefeld, Universität

    ] produced through rapid prototyping. The migration of h- and T2-DNA stained with the bisintercalator YOYO-1GEL-FREE ELECTROPHORESIS OF h- AND T2-DNA IN STRUCTURED PDMS MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES Thanh Tu Duong, Bielefeld University, Germany Abstract In this work the migration behavior of DNA in structured microfluidic

  1. Comparison of Restriction Enzymes for Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Typing of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI. PMID:23678064

  2. An Investigation on Gel Electrophoresis with Quantum Dots End-labeled DNA 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xiaojia

    2009-05-15

    base pairs to a few tens of kilo base pairs, beyond which a point is reached that DNA molecules cannot be resolved due to the size independent mobility. In this case, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was introduced to extend the range of DNA...

  3. Aligning Goals, Assessments, and Activities: An Approach to Teaching PCR and Gel Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Allison R.; Robertson, Amber L.; Batzli, Janet; Harris, Michelle; Miller, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis have become common techniques used in undergraduate molecular and cell biology labs. Although students enjoy learning these techniques, they often cannot fully comprehend and analyze the outcomes of their experiments because of a disconnect between concepts taught in lecture and experiments…

  4. Beverage-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Exercise with Virtual Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Steven C.; McNear, Brad; Pearlman, Rebecca S.; Kern, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of literature and experience has shown that teaching methods that promote active learning, such as inquiry-based approaches, are more effective than those that rely on passive learning. Gel electrophoresis, one of the most common laboratory techniques in molecular biology, has a wide range of applications in the life sciences. As…

  5. On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin

    E-print Network

    Herr, Amy E.

    On-Chip Native Gel Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays for Tetanus Antibody and Toxin Amy E. Herr was developed for detection of tetanus antibodies in buffer as well as diluted serum samples. After an off was 0.68 nM. A competitive immunoassay was also developed for tetanus toxin C-fragment by allowing un

  6. [Protein analysis of 6 crude drugs and their processed products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique].

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Sun, L; Jing, X

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, the proteins in 6 crude drugs (Prunus persica; P. armeniaca; Dolichos lablab; Strychnos nux-vomica; Mylabris phalerata; Whitmania pigra) and their processed products were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, and the effect of different processing methods on the quantity and kind of protein was explored. Protein electrophorograms of 20 samples are drawn. PMID:8679088

  7. Analysis of protein glycation using phenylboronate acrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Marta P Pereira; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification of proteins adds complexity and diversity to the proteome. However, undesired carbohydrate modifications also occur in the form of glycation, resulting in diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The analysis of glycated proteins is challenging due to their complexity and variability. Numerous analytical techniques have been developed that require expensive specialised equipment and complex data analysis. In this chapter, we describe a simple electrophoresis-based method that enables users to detect, identify, and analyze these post-translational modifications. This new cost-effective methodology will aid the detection of unwanted glycation products in processed foods and may lead to new diagnostics and therapeutics for age-related chronic diseases and glycosylation disorders. PMID:22585480

  8. A method for in-gel fluorescent visualization of proteins after native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pristov, Jelena Bogdanovi?; Opa?i?, Miloš; Dimitrijevi?, Milena; Babi?, Nikolina; Spasojevi?, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a simple one-step 30-min method for fluorescent visualization of proteins in native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The method is based on formation of strong fluorophores via potassium ferricyanide-provoked oxidation of tryptophan (Trp). Following PAGE, gels are soaked in water solution of potassium ferricyanide (100 mM) and NaOH (1 M) and are kept in the dark for 30 min. Gels are then transferred to water and scanned. The sensitivity of the method was slightly lower compared with standard Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining. The method can be useful when rapid acquisition of data is of the essence. After preview, gels can be post-stained using the CBB protocol for further analysis. The intensity of fluorescence is dependent on Trp number, so the protocol might find application in the quantification of Trp residues as illustrated here. Importantly, there is room for improvement of the method. Namely, according to excitation-emission matrix analysis of stained protein bands, maximal fluorescence intensity (at 345/460 nm) was 3.5-fold higher compared with the settings that were available on a commercial imager (395/525 nm). As a supplement, we present an upgrade of the previously described method for in-gel detection of non-heme iron-binding proteins that also employs potassium ferricyanide. PMID:25862081

  9. Wheat germ lectin affinity electrophoresis of serum alkaline phosphatase with commercially available agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Mattiazzo, M; Ramasamy, I

    1993-07-01

    We have modified a commercially available procedure involving precast agarose gels (Paragon Isopal System) to measure alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) isoenzymes. Including wheat germ lectin in the equilibration buffer improved the resolution of the bone and liver isoenzymes. Unlike previously described wheat germ lectin affinity electrophoresis methods, the procedure measures bone, liver, and biliary isoenzymes in a single step. There was good correlation between the affinity electrophoresis and the neuraminidase preincubation methods for the measurement of bone (r = 0.958) and liver (r = 0.962) alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. However, the affinity electrophoresis method also quantified minor isoenzyme fractions that were poorly resolved by the neuraminidase method. The method is technically simple, reproducible, and capable of rapid handling of large workloads. PMID:8330397

  10. Salmonella enterica Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Clusters, Minnesota, USA, 2001–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Craig W.; Meyer, Stephanie; Boxrud, David J.; Smith, Kirk E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined characteristics of Salmonella enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters that predict their being solved (i.e., that result in identification of a confirmed outbreak). Clusters were investigated by the Minnesota Department of Health by using a dynamic iterative model. During 2001–2007, a total of 43 (12.5%) of 344 clusters were solved. Clusters of >4 isolates were more likely to be solved than clusters of 2 isolates. Clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at the Minnesota Department of Health within 7 days were more likely to be solved than were clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received over a period >14 days. If resources do not permit investigation of all S. enterica pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clusters, investigation of clusters of >4 cases and clusters in which the first 3 case isolates were received at a public health laboratory within 7 days may improve outbreak investigations. PMID:21029524

  11. Confirmation of soybean plastid rRNAs by formaldehyde denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y Q; Zheng, Y; Chen, H B; Huang, L Q

    2014-01-01

    Owing to their prokaryotic origin, plastid rRNAs are mainly 23s/16s/5s rRNAs. We present a novel plant RNA isolation method in this paper. Also, not only the eukaryotic 28s (26s, 25s)/18s rRNAs but the prokaryotic 26s/23s rRNAs as well were demonstrated in a single sample for the first time by formaldehyde denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. PMID:25366753

  12. PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS ANALYSIS OF GENOME SIZE AND STRUCTURE IN PAVLOVA GYRANS AND DIACRONEMA SP. (HAPTOPHYTA)1

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    tag; LCPUFA, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; PFGE, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Haptophyte. Given this consideration, we used PFGE to study several candi- date algae and identified relatively

  13. Optimization of separation and detection schemes for DNA with pulsed field slab gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of the Human Genome Project is outlined followed by a discussion of electrophoresis in slab gels and capillaries and its application to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Techniques used to modify electroosmotic flow in capillaries are addressed. Several separation and detection schemes for DNA via gel and capillary electrophoresis are described. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of DNA fragment size in real time and shortening separation times to approximate real time monitoring. The migration of DNA fragment bands through a slab gel can be monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm and imaged by a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Background correction and immediate viewing of band positions to interactively change the field program in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis are possible throughout the separation. The use of absorption removes the need for staining or radioisotope labeling thereby simplifying sample preparation and reducing hazardous waste generation. This leaves the DNA in its native state and further analysis can be performed without de-staining. The optimization of several parameters considerably reduces total analysis time. DNA from 2 kb to 850 kb can be separated in 3 hours on a 7 cm gel with interactive control of the pulse time, which is 10 times faster than the use of a constant field program. The separation of {Phi}X174RF DNA-HaeIII fragments is studied in a 0.5% methyl cellulose polymer solution as a function of temperature and applied voltage. The migration times decreased with both increasing temperature and increasing field strength, as expected. The relative migration rates of the fragments do not change with temperature but are affected by the applied field. Conditions were established for the separation of the 271/281 bp fragments, even without the addition of intercalating agents. At 700 V/cm and 20{degrees}C, all fragments are separated in less than 4 minutes with an average plate number of 2.5 million per meter.

  14. Prototype for integrated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aoshuang; Sluszny, Chanan; Yeung, Edward S

    2005-09-16

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis practitioners have long waited for a fully automated system. This article presents an integrated platform that is capable of complete automation from sample introduction to spots detection. The strip gel for the first dimensional separation is fixed on the edge of a discrete planar stage before separation. A pair of platinum pin electrodes for isoelectric focusing (IEF) makes contact from underneath the stage. IEF is performed directly after rehydration and protein loading. After the first dimensional separation, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) equilibration is done on the same stage without moving the gel. The IEF stage is then moved horizontally to couple with a precast second dimensional gel. The <0.5 mm gap between the two gels is filled with poly (ethylene oxide) solution. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrohporesis separation, a charge-coupled device camera is used to detect spots via protein native fluorescence excited by a Hg (Xe) lamp with the gel inside the running cell. Potential for full automation is demonstrated with 0.5 microg of Escherichia coli proteins on this miniaturized platform. More than 240 spots are detected in a total experiment time of <2.5 h. PMID:16130711

  15. Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.

    PubMed

    Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

    1989-01-01

    The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

  16. Development of an integrated approach for evaluation of 2-D gel image analysis: Impact of multiple proteins in single spots on comparative proteomics in conventional 2-D gel/MALDI workflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With 2-D gel mapping, it is often observed that essentially identical proteins migrate to different positions in the gel, while some seemingly well-resolved protein spots consist of multiple proteins. These observations can undermine the validity of gel-based comparative proteomic studies. Through...

  17. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Profiles as a Tool for the Differentiation of Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Parisa; Hamidkhani, Aida; Asgarani, Ezat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are usually opportunistic organisms that cause acute to chronic infections when conditions in the host are favorable. Accurate identification of Candida species is an essential pre-requisite for improved therapeutic strategy. Identification of Candida species by conventional methods is time-consuming with low sensitivity, yet molecular approaches have provided an alternative way for early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) are polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches that are used for studying the community structure of microorganisms. By using these methods, simultaneous identification of multiple yeast species will be possible and reliable results will be obtained quickly. Objectives: In this study, DGGE and TTGE methods were set up and evaluated for the detection of different Candida species, and their results were compared. Materials and Methods: Five different Candida species were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium for 24 hours. Next, total DNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. Two sets of primers, ITS3-GC/ITS4 and NL1-GC/LS2 were applied to amplify the desired regions. The amplified fragments were then used to analyze DGGE and TTGE profiles. Results: The results showed that NL1-GC/LS2 primer set could yield species-specific amplicons, which were well distinguished and allowed better species discrimination than that generated by the ITS3-GC/ITS4 primer set, in both DGGE and TTGE profiles. All five Candida species were discriminated by DGGE and TTGE using the NL1-GC/LS2 primer set. Conclusions: Comparison of DGGE and TTGE profiles obtained from NL1-GC/LS2 amplicons exhibited the same patterns. Although both DGGE and TTGE techniques are capable of detecting Candida species, TTGE is recommended because of easier performance and lower costs. PMID:26568801

  19. Agarose gel purification of PCR products for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results in GC-clamp deletion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Lu, Man; Wang, Hongming; Chen, Xiaobing; Yu, Yongxin; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of marine archaeal samples was amplified using a nested PCR approach, and the V3 region of 16S rRNA gene of crab gut microbiota (CGM) was amplified using the V3 universal primer pair with a guanine and cytosine (GC)-clamp. Unpurified PCR products (UPPs), products purified from reaction solution (PPFSs), and products purified from gel (PPFGs) of above two DNA samples were used for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, respectively. In contrast to almost identical band patterns shared by both the UPP and PPFS, the PPFGs were barely observed on the DGGE gel for both the marine archaea and CGM samples. Both PPFS and PPFG of CGM V3 regions were subjected to cloning. A small amount of positive clones was obtained for PPFS, but no positive clones were observed for PPFG. The melt curve and direct sequencing analysis of PPFS and PPFG of E. coli V3 region indicated that the Tm value of PPFG (82.35?±?0.19 °C) was less than that of PPFS (83.81?±?0.11 °C), and the number of shorter GC-clamps was significant higher in PPFG than in PPFS. The ultraviolet exposure experiment indicated that the ultraviolet was not responsible for the deletion of the GC-clamps. We conclude that the gel purification method is not suitable for DGGE PCR products or even other GC-rich DNA samples. PMID:25300603

  20. Mutations and a polymorphism in the factor VIII gene discovered by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, S.; Gitschier, J. )

    1990-03-01

    Hemophilia A results from mutations in the gene coding for coagulation factor VIII. The authors gradient gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the region of the factor VIII gene coding for the first acidic domain. Amplification primers were designed employing the MELTMAP computer program to optimize the ability to detect mutations. Screening of amplified DNA from 228 unselected hemophilia A patients revealed two mutations and one polymorphism. Rescreening the same population by making heteroduplexes between amplified patient and control samples prior to electrophoresis revealed one additional mutation. The mutations include two missense and one 4-base-pair deletion, and each mutation was found in patients with severe hemophilia. The polymorphism, located adjacent to the adenine branch site in intron 7, is useful for genetic prediction in some cases where the Bcl I and Xba I polymorphisms are uninformative. These results suggest that DNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis should be an excellent strategy for identifying mutations and polymorphisms in defined regions of the factor VIII gene and other large genes.

  1. Dispersion functions and factors that determine resolution for DNA sequencing by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Reynolds, K.J.; Fisk, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The number of bases that can be read in a single run by a DNA sequencing instrument that detects fluorophore labeled DNA arriving at a ``finish-line`` located a fixed distance from the starting wells is influenced by numerous parameters. Strategies for improving the length-of-read of a DNA sequencer can be based on quantitative models of the separation of DNA by gel electrophoresis. The dispersion function of the electrophoretic system--the relationship between molecular contour length and time of arrival at the detector--is useful in characterizing the performance of a DNA sequencer. We adapted analytical representations of dispersion functions, originally developed for snapshot imaging of DNA gels, (samples electrophoresed for constant time), to finish-line imaging, and demonstrated that a logistic-type function with non-integral exponent is required to describe the experimental data. We use this dispersion function to determine the resolution length and resolving power of a LI-COR DNA sequencing system and a custom built capillary gel electrophoresis system, and discuss the factors that presently limit the number of bases that can be determined reliably in a single sequencing run.

  2. GelApp: Mobile gel electrophoresis analyser Jia-Zhi Sim1,*

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ://www.achartengine.org/) for the generation of logarithmic graphs; and Itseez's OpenCV (http://opencv.org/) for the Gabor filter, threshold and Gaussian blur. GelApp for iOS was developed using XCode 6, Itseez's Open CV, and Kishikawa Katsumi

  3. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Leuconostoc mesenteroides and L. pseudomesenteroides.

    PubMed

    Chuat, Victoria; Dalmasso, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a technique using alternating electric fields to help the separation of high molecular weight DNA fragments with a high resolution. This method consists of the digestion of bacterial chromosomal DNA with rare-cutting restriction enzymes and of applying an alternating electrical current between spatially distinct pairs of electrodes. DNA molecules migrate at different speeds according to the size of the fragment. This method is considered as the "gold standard" for genotyping, genetic fingerprinting, epidemiological studies, genome size estimation, and studying radiation-induced DNA damage and repair. PMID:25862061

  4. The Use of Gel Electrophoresis to Study the Reactions of Activated Amino Acids with Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zieboll, Gerhard; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used gel electrophoresis to study the primary covalent addition of amino acids to oligonu-cleotides or their analogs and the subsequent addition of further molecules of the amino acids to generate peptides covalently linked to the oligonucleotides. We have surveyed the reactions of a variety of amino acids with the phosphoramidates derived from oligonucleotide 5 inches phosphates and ethylenediamine. We find that arginine and amino acids can interact with oligonucleotidesl through stacking interactions react most efficiently. D- and L-amino acids give indistinguishable families of products.

  5. Usefulness of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles for the determination of Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Torpdahl, Mia; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Wang, You-Wun; Kuo, Jung-Che; Liu, Yen-Yi

    2015-12-01

    We created a database consisting of a large number of Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles covering a wide range of different serovars. This database was used for the prediction of the serovars based on the PFGE profiles for isolates from Taiwan and Denmark. The PFGE profiles proved very useful in the determination of a serovar although serovar prediction was more efficient for local isolates than those from a distant geographic area. To use a highly stringent band matching tolerance in the BioNumerics software is also important for the grouping of serovars. PMID:26208096

  6. Accommodating brightness and exposure levels in densitometry of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Han Yen; Ng, Tuck Wah; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-03-20

    Flatbed scanner densitometers can be operated under various illumination and recording exposure levels. In this work, we show that optical density measurement accuracy, sensitivity, and stability of stained polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel densitometry are crucially dependent on these two factors (brightness and exposure level), notwithstanding that the source is monochromatic, spatially uniform, and the measurements are made using an accurately calibrated step wedge in tandem. We further outline a method to accommodate the intensity deviations over a range of illumination and exposure levels in order to maintain sensitivity and repeatability in the computed optical densities. Comparisons were also made with results from a commercial densitometer.

  7. Characterization of the Legionella anisa population structure by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Akermi, Mongi; Doleans, Anne; Forey, Françoise; Reyrolle, Monique; Meugnier, Helene; Freney, Jean; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome; Jarraud, Sophie

    2006-05-01

    We analysed 38 French isolates of Legionella anisa by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with single or double digestion. Double digestion was more discriminatory than single digestion, and can thus be useful for epidemiological studies of L. anisa. Several isolates from different parts of France clustered together on the basis of their PFGE patterns (similarity cutoff of 80%), suggesting that the L. anisa population structure is homogenous or that a few clones of L. anisa strains have spread widely in France. PMID:16640574

  8. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect DNA sequence differences encoding apolipoprotein E isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.; Angelico, M.C.; Laffel, L.; Krolewski, A.S. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1993-04-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in plasma lipid metabolism. Three common isoforms of this protein have been identified by the isoelectric focusing method. In this report the authors describe a new method for distinguishing these isoforms. Their method employs PCR amplification of the DNA sequence of exon 4 in the apoE gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to distinguish its different melting characteristics. Identification of the ApoE isoforms through DNA melting behavior rather than protein charge differences eliminates the problems associated with isoelectric focusing and facilitates screening for additional mutations at the apoE locus. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Analysis of the microflora in Tibetan kefir grains using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hanhu; Dong, Mingsheng

    2009-12-01

    The microflora of Tibetan kefir grains was investigated by culture- independent methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of partially amplified 16S rRNA for bacteria and 26S rRNA for yeasts, followed by sequencing of the most intense bands, showed that the dominant microorganisms were Pseudomonas sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus casei, Kazachstania unispora, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kazachstania exigua. The bacterial communities between three kinds of Tibetan kefir grains showed 78-84% similarity, and yeasts 80-92%. The microflora is held together in the matrix of fibrillar material composed largely of a water-insoluble polysaccharide. PMID:19835760

  10. Analysis of mucosal mucins separated by SDS-urea agarose polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Issa, Samah M A; Schulz, Benjamin L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2011-12-01

    Efficient separation of mucins (200 kDa-2 MDa) was demonstrated using gradient SDS agarose/polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis (SDS-AgPAGE). Inclusion of urea (SDS-UAgPAGE) in the gels casting were shown to have no effect on the migration of mucins in the gel and allowed casting of gel at room temperature. This simplified the procedure for multiple casting of agarose polyacrylamide gradients and increased reproducibility of these gels. Hence, the implementation of urea makes the technique applicable for high throughput isolation and screening of mucin oligosaccharides by LC-MS after releasing the oligosaccharides from isolated, blotted mucin subpopulations. It was also shown that the urea addition had no effect on other supporting applications such as western and lectin blotting. In addition, identification of the mucin protein after tryptic digestion and LC-MS was possible and no protein carbamylation due to the presence of urea in the gel was detected. LC-MS software developed for metabolomic analysis was used for O-linked oligosaccharide detection and differential display of various mucin samples. Using this method, heterogeneous glycosylation of mucins and mucin-type molecules isolated by SDS-AgPAGE and SDS-UAgPAGE was shown to consist of more than 80 different components in a single band, and in the extreme cases, up to 300-500 components (MUC5B/AC from saliva and sputum and). Metabolomic software was also used to show that the migration of mucin isoforms within the gel is due to heterogeneous size distribution of the oligosaccharides, with the slower migrating bands enriched in high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides. PMID:22120911

  11. Genotypic analysis of strains of mutans streptococci by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mineyama, R; Yoshino, S; Fukushima, K

    2004-01-01

    The species and serotypes of various strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after the genomic DNA from the various strains had been digested with five restriction enzymes (EcoR I, Xba I, Hind III, Sfi I and BssH II) separately. Among these restriction enzymes, BssH II was very useful for the characterization of species and serotypes and, in particular, digestion discriminated between serotypes d and g. The restriction patterns obtained from the genomic DNA of isolates isolated from children's saliva were essentially identical to those from the genomic DNA of the standard laboratory strains. Patterns of BssH II digests of the genomic DNA of 10 isolates identified as S. sobrinus were characteristic of serotype g of the standard laboratory strains. Our results indicate that digestion with BssH II and subsequence analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should be useful for the characterization of species and serotypes and for epidemiological studies of mutans streptococci. PMID:15462517

  12. A Novel Universal Primer-Multiplex-PCR Method with Sequencing Gel Electrophoresis Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Yanfang; Shang, Ying; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel universal primer-multiplex-PCR (UP-M-PCR) method adding a universal primer (UP) in the multiplex PCR reaction system was described. A universal adapter was designed in the 5?-end of each specific primer pairs which matched with the specific DNA sequences for each template and also used as the universal primer (UP). PCR products were analyzed on sequencing gel electrophoresis (SGE) which had the advantage of exhibiting extraordinary resolution. This method overcame the disadvantages rooted deeply in conventional multiplex PCR such as complex manipulation, lower sensitivity, self-inhibition and amplification disparity resulting from different primers, and it got a high specificity and had a low detection limit of 0.1 ng for single kind of crops when screening the presence of genetically modified (GM) crops in mixture samples. The novel developed multiplex PCR assay with sequencing gel electrophoresis analysis will be useful in many fields, such as verifying the GM status of a sample irrespective of the crop and GM trait and so on. PMID:22272223

  13. Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to differentiate Escherichia coli populations in secondary environments.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Von; Pasutti, Lauren

    2006-10-01

    The development of methodology to differentiate mixed populations of Escherichia coli in the secondary habitat might improve monitoring of fecal pollution indicators and facilitate the development of strategies to mitigate bacterial pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to differentiate mixed assemblages of E. coli in the natural environment. After confirming the identity of 184 environmental bacterial isolates as E. coli, each was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) followed by DGGE fingerprinting. The ability of DGGE to discriminate individual isolates at the strain level was determined by comparing fingerprints to those resulting from a standard, library-dependent fingerprinting method, BOX-PCR. Computerized analysis of fingerprints indicated that DGGE and BOX-PCR identified 15 and 21 unique phylotypes respectively. Rank-abundance plots comparing the numerical distribution of unique E. coli phylotypes detected by both methods revealed no difference in resolution at the population level. In water and sediment samples from two beaches, DGGE effectively distinguished indigenous E. coli populations with an average rate of correct classification (site-based) of 83%. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of uidA genes isolated and PCR-amplified from environmental samples appears to be an effective tool to differentiate unique E. coli populations and should be useful to characterize E. coli dynamics in the secondary environment. PMID:16958751

  14. Electrophoresis of bacteriophage T7 and T7 capsids in agarose gels.

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, P; Pichler, M E

    1978-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of the following was performed in 0.05 M sodium phosphate-0.001 M MgCl2 (pH 7.4): (i) bacteriophage T7; (ii) a T7 precursor capsid (capsid I), isolated from T7-infected Escherichia coli, which has a thicker and less angular envelope than bacteriophage T7; (iii) a second capsid (capsid II), isolated from T7-infected E. coli, which has a bacteriophage-like envelope; and (iv) capsids (capsid IV) produced by temperature shock of bacteriophage T7. Bacteriophage T7 and all of the above capsids migrated towards the anode. In a 0.9% agarose gel, capsid I had an electrophoretic mobility of 9.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-5) cm2/V.s; bacteriophage T7 migrated 0.31 +/- 0.02 times as fast as capsid I. The mobilities of different preparations of capsid II varied in such gels: the fastest-migrating capsid II preparation was 0.51 +/- 0.03 times as fast as capsid I and the slowest was 0.37 +/- 0.02 times as fast as capsid I. Capsid IV with and without the phage tail migrated 0.29 +/- 0.02 and 0.42 +/- 0.02 times as fast as capsid I. The results of the extrapolation of bacteriophage and capsid mobilities to 0% agarose concentration indicated that the above differences in mobility are caused by differences in average surface charge density. To increase the accuracy of mobility comparisons and to increase the number of samples that could be simultaneously analyzed, multisample horizontal slab gels were used. Treatment with the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate converted capsid I to a capsid that migated in the capsid II region during electrophoresis through agarose gels. In the electron microscope, most of the envelopes of these latter capsids resembled the capsid II envelope, but some envelope regions were thicker than the capsid II envelope. Images PMID:731798

  15. Sizing of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome by pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J J; Smith, H O

    1988-01-01

    The four restriction enzymes ApaI (5'-GGGCCC), EagI (5'-CGGCCG), NaeI (5'-GCCGGC), and SmaI (5'-CCCGGG) were found to produce distributions of DNA fragment sizes useful for mapping of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome by pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis. ApaI produced 21 fragments (range, 1.6 to 305 kilobases [kb]), EagI yielded 30 fragments (0.6 to 339 kb), NaeI produced 32 fragments (2.3 to 290 kb), and SmaI yielded 16 fragments (6.0 to 377 kb). Summation of the fragment lengths in each digest yielded estimates for the size of the H. influenzae chromosome ranging from 1,834 kb. Images PMID:2842319

  16. Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2013-04-01

    A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

  17. Molecular analysis of chromosomal rearrangements using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Many human genetic diseases, including some cancers, are characterized by consistent chromosome abnormalities, such as deletions and translocations. Analyses of these mutations often prove crucial to the eventual cloning and characterization of the gene(s) responsible for the disease. Two methods for analyzing these chromosome abnormalities have been developed in recent years: somatic cell hybridization and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Somatic cell hybridization is a technique for segregating an aberrant chromosome from its normal homologue in a cell derived from an unrelated species, which is usually a rodent. Demonstrations of these analytic techniques are presented, using as an example chromosomal abnormalities involving human chromosome band 11p13, the locus for the Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormality, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome.

  18. Microchip capillary gel electrophoresis with electrochemical detection for the analysis of known SNPs.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Nicole E; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-11-01

    A novel microchip-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screening system has been developed. The system utilizes capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) with electrochemical detection in a chip-based format to accomplish rapid scoring of a mock SNP site. The accuracy of the thermostable polymerase and the advantages of coupling this technique to microfluidics are demonstrated. An electrochemically labeled chain terminator is used in the single base extension (SBE) reaction, in which the terminator is incorporated only when its Watson-Crick complementary base is present at the mock SNP site. The resulting electrochemically active extension product is subsequently separated from any excess terminator by CGE and detected by sinusoidal voltammetry. Although no attempts at optimization have been made, the analysis is performed in less than 4 min. The technique presented could lead to a fast, simple, and cost effective SNP scoring system. PMID:15007453

  19. Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms by PCR conformation-difference gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifeng; Deng, Yan; Jie, Kemin; Luo, Daya; Liu, Zhuoqi; Yu, Lehan; Zeng, Erming; Wan, Fusheng

    2013-04-01

    The most common genetic variations in the human genome, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are ideal biomarkers and are used extensively in disease research. Here we introduce a novel method of PCR-conformation-difference gel electrophoresis (PCR-CDGE) used for detecting SNPs. The principle of PCR-CDGE relies PCR products from different homozygous DNA samples showing dissimilar migration patterns upon PAGE due to their conformational differences. PCR products from heterozygous DNA samples may exhibit two or more bands in PAGE because of the existence of DNA homoduplexes and heteroduplexes. In this study, analysis of two SNPs showed that PCR-CDGE is an accurate, simple, rapid, low-cost, and high-throughput genotyping method that could be used in most laboratories. PMID:23250445

  20. Marek's disease virus genome separation from feather tip extracts by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Borenshtain, Rinat; Davidson, Irit

    2002-03-01

    Marek's disease virus is an oncogenic herpes virus of poultry that is highly cell associated. In the infected tissues and tumors the virus replicates in a low copy number. The propagation and dissemination of the virus takes place at the feather follicle epithelium, where the viral genome is produced in high copy number. As the viral genome is a large circular DNA molecule (200 kbp), pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used for separation of the viral genome directly from the infected chicken. DNA was extracted from tumors or feather tips by the phenol:chloroform technique or by low melting agar technique. It was found that feathers, being the site of virus productive replication, are useful for separation of free Marek's disease virus DNA from in vivo infections. PMID:11849695

  1. Microdisc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a complex arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial complexes and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk gel electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial complexes is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.

  2. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis system for the purification of membrane bound proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cavinato, A.G.; Macleod, R.M.; Ahmed, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    A new method is described for the purification of a membrane bound glycoprotein, the kappa opioid receptor from human placental tissue. The method uses preparative slab-gel electrophoresis in the presence of the non-denaturing detergent CHAPS. A linear relationship between log molecular weight and SDS PAGE electrophoretic mobility of known molecular weight markers, in the presence of CHAPS, is observed. Using this method, we were able partially to purify an /sup 3/H-etorphine binding glycoprotein, from placental villus tissue, with an apparent molecular weight range of 60-70,000. The iodinated glycoprotein migrates in SDS PAGE with an apparent molecular weight of 63,000. This method may be useful for the isolation of membrane bound proteins, especially when an affinity ligand is not available.

  3. Derivation of clones close to met by preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, F.; Burmeister, M.; Lehrach, H.

    1987-06-05

    The molecular analysis of genes identified by mutations is a major problems in mammalian genetics. As a step toward this goal, preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) was used to selectively isolate clones from the environment of genetically linked markers, and to select a subset of these clones containing sequences next to specific restriction sites rare in mammalian DNA. This approach has been used to generate a library highly enriched in sequences closely linked to the cystic fibrosis marker met. One clone derived from the end of a Not I restriction fragment containing the met sequence was analyzed in detail and localized within a long range map to a position of 300 kilobase pairs 5' of the metD sequence.

  4. Comparison of Different Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Primer Sets for the Study of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities? †

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Olga; Gasol, Josep M.; Massana, Ramon; Mas, Jordi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An annual seasonal cycle of composition of a bacterioplankton community in an oligotrophic coastal system was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using five different primer sets. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed that primer set 357fGC-907rM grouped samples according to seasons. Additionally, we used the set of 16S rRNA genes archived in the RDPII database to check the percentage of perfect matches of each primer for the most abundant bacterial groups inhabiting coastal plankton communities. Overall, primer set 357fGC-907rM was the most suitable for the routine use of PCR-DGGE analyses in this environment. PMID:17660308

  5. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from retail foods based on serotyping, pulse field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance and other phenotypic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Salmonella strains isolated from a variety of foods during 2000 and 2003, by the Florida State Department of Agriculture, were characterized by various genotypic and phenotypic tests. Among 16 isolates, 15 different serotypes were identified. Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerpr...

  6. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  7. Application of multiplex PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and BOX-PCR for molecular analysis of enterococci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to use band-based molecular methods including BOX-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine if genetically related enterococci were found among different stores, food types, or years. Enterococci were also characterized f...

  8. Evaluation of repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis in identifying Salmonella serotypes isolated from processed turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella has been reported as the leading foodborne pathogen in the US. A study was conducted to compare the use of automated repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as diagnostic tools for identifying Salmonella serotypes. The interspersed ...

  9. Improved Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Procedure for the Analysis of F. columnare Isolates Previously Affected by DNA Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a fresh water bacterium that causes columnaris diseases in over 36 fish species. Intra-species typing of F. columnare can be performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, this method is hampered by the degradation of chromosomal DNA in about 10% of strain...

  10. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis along with Antimicrobial Resistance pattern of Salmonella serotypes isolated from broiler whole carcass rinses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antibiogram patterns have been used to evaluate the diversity within and between individual Salmonella serotypes. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the PFGE along with antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates originating from br...

  11. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  12. Frequently made mistakes in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Westermeier, Reiner

    2007-09-01

    In spite of text books, instrument manuals, product instructions, and web tutorials there are a number of erroneous protocols around, which lead repeatedly to issues during electrophoresis runs and to inadequate results. The relatively low resolution and short running time of miniformat systems often conceals these issues. However, in high-resolution 2-D electrophoresis in large format gels, one of the most important separation methods in Proteomics, the consequences of these mistakes become more obvious. PMID:17893853

  13. Urine Proteins Identified by Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis Facilitate the Differential Diagnoses of Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Lise; Simon, Sharon L. R.; Plews, Margot; Ruddat, Viola; Brunet, Simone; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Knox, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty in developing a diagnostic assay for Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) stems in part from the fact that the infectious agent is an aberrantly folded form of an endogenous cellular protein. This precludes the use of the powerful gene based technologies currently applied to the direct detection of other infectious agents. To circumvent this problem our research objective has been to identify a set of proteins exhibiting characteristic differential abundance in response to TSE infection. The objective of the present study was to assess the disease specificity of differentially abundant urine proteins able to identify scrapie infected mice. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was used to analyze longitudinal collections of urine samples from both prion-infected mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The introduction of fluorescent dyes, that allow multiple samples to be co-resolved and visualized on one two dimensional gel, have increased the accuracy of this methodology for the discovery of robust protein biomarkers for disease. The accuracy of a small panel of differentially abundant proteins to correctly classify an independent naïve sample set was determined. The results demonstrated that at the time of clinical presentation the differential abundance of urine proteins were capable of identifying the prion infected mice with 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The identity of the diagnostic differentially abundant proteins was investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:23704971

  14. Immunoreactivity and two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis characterization of Egyptian cobra venom proteome.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein Abduelrahman; Adel-Sadek, Mahmoud Abass; Redwan, Elrashdy Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The first and second (two) dimensional gel electrophoresis has a broad protein resolution power. It was used to separate and identify cobra venom proteome. The importance of characterizing venom proteins contents from the Egyptian elapidae, specifically neurotoxins, is based on the need to produce effective anti-venom. About 30-55distinct protein spots were identified on silver stained two-dimensional gels. Around two-thirds of the venom proteins displayed low a molecular weight and a migration into hydrophobic side. The venoms from Naja haja and Naja nigricollus showed 45-55 spots, while Walternnesia aegyptia had less (31-37) spots. The commercial prepared polyclonal antivenom had a strong signal for anionic and cationic venom protein spots with molecular weight 20-115 kDa. However, it showed weak or non immunoreactivity toward anionic low molecular weight spots (2.5-15 kDa). These results suggest the need to change the immunization schedule to include low molecular weight toxin-proteomes as separate dose or sequester injection. PMID:25553707

  15. A novel multi-scale Hessian based spot enhancement filter for two dimensional gel electrophoresis images.

    PubMed

    Shamekhi, Sina; Miran Baygi, Mohammad Hossein; Azarian, Bahareh; Gooya, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) is a useful method for studying proteins in a wide variety of applications including identifying post-translation modification (PTM), biomarker discovery, and protein purification. Computerized segmentation and detection of the proteins are the two main processes that are carried out on the scanned image of the gel. Due to the complexities of 2DGE images and the presence of artifacts, the segmentation and detection of protein spots in these images are non-trivial, and involve supervised and time consuming processes. This paper introduces a new spot filter for enhancing, and separating the closely overlapping spots of protein in 2DGE images based on the multi-scale eigenvalue analysis of the image Hessian. Using a Gaussian spot model, we have derived closed form equations to compute the eigen components of the image Hessian of two overlapping spots in a multi-scale fashion. Based on this analysis, we have proposed a novel filter that suppresses the overlapping area and results in a better spot separation. The performance of the proposed filter has been evaluated on the synthetic and real 2DGE images. The comparison with three conventional techniques and a commercial software package reveals the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed filter. PMID:26409228

  16. Rapid fabrication of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic capillary gel electrophoresis system utilizing high precision machining.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong S; Roy, Binayak; McCormick, Matthew T; Kuhr, Werner G; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a rapid protocol to address one of the major barriers that exists in the fabrication of chip devices, creating the micron-sized structures in the substrate material. This approach makes it possible to design, produce, and fabricate a microfluidic system with channel features >10 microm in poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) in under 8 hours utilizing instrumentation common to most machine shops. The procedure involves the creation of a master template with negative features, using high precision machining. This master is then employed to create an acrylic mold that is used in the final fabrication step to cast channel structures into the PDMS substrate. The performance of the microfluidic system prepared using this fabrication procedure is evaluated by constructing a miniaturized capillary gel electrophoresis (micro-CGE) system for the analysis of DNA fragments. Agarose is utilized as the sieving medium in the micro-CGE device and is shown to give reproducible (RSD (n= 34) approximately 5.0%) results for about 34 individual separations without replenishing the gel. To demonstrate the functionality of the micro-CGE device, a DNA restriction ladder (spanning 26-700 base pairs) and DNA fragments generated by PCR are separated and detected with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The microchip is shown to achieve a separation efficiency of 2.53 x 10(5) plates m(-1). PMID:15100789

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in 100 Patients With Tuberculosis Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Pooideh, Mohammad; Jabbarzadeh, Ismail; Ranjbar, Reza; Saifi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a widespread infectious disease. Today, TB has created a public health crisis in the world. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is useful for surveying the dynamics of TB infection, identifying new outbreaks, and preventing the disease. Different molecular methods for clustering of M. tuberculosis isolates have been used. Objectives: During a one year study of genotyping, 100 M. tuberculosis isolates from patients referred to Pasteur Institute of Iran were collected and their genotyping was accomplished using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Materials and Methods: Identification of all M. tuberculosis isolates was accomplished using standard biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using proportional method. After preparing PFGE plaques for each isolate of M. tuberculosis, XbaI restriction enzyme was applied for genome digestion. Finally, the digested DNA fragments were separated on 1% agarose gel and analyzed with GelCompar II software. Results: Genotyping of the studied isolates in comparison with the molecular weight marker revealed two common types; pulsotype A with 71 isolates and one multidrug resistant mycobacterium (MDR) case, and pulsotype B including 29 isolates and three MDR cases. No correlation between the antibiotypes and pulsotypes was observed. Conclusions: Molecular epidemiology studies of infectious diseases have been useful when bacterial isolates have been clustered in a period of time and in different geographical regions with variable antibiotic resistance patterns. In spite of high geographical differences and different antibiotic resistant patterns, low genetic diversity among the studied TB isolates may refer to the low rate of mutations in XbaI restriction sites in the mycobacterial genome. We also identified three MDR isolates in low-incidence pulsotype B, which could be disseminated and is highly important to consider in TB surveillance programs to prevent the spread of MDR-TB isolates in the population. PMID:26396714

  18. Immunoreactive Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile proteins separated by 2D electrophoresis and identified by tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Deringer, James R.; Chen, Chen; Samuel, James E.; Brown, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of Q fever in humans. Q fever causes acute flu-like symptoms and may develop into a chronic disease leading to endocarditis. Its potential as a bioweapon has led to its classification as a category B select agent. An effective inactivated whole-cell vaccine (WCV) currently exists but causes severe granulomatous/necrotizing reactions in individuals with prior exposure, and is not licensed for use in most countries. Current efforts to reduce or eliminate the deleterious reactions associated with WCVs have focused on identifying potential subunit vaccine candidates. Both humoral and T cell-mediated responses are required for protection in animal models. In this study, nine novel immunogenic C. burnetii proteins were identified in extracted whole-cell lysates using 2D electrophoresis, immunoblotting with immune guinea pig sera, and tandem MS. The immunogenic C. burnetii proteins elicited antigen-specific IgG in guinea pigs vaccinated with whole-cell killed Nine Mile phase I vaccine, suggesting a T cell-dependent response. Eleven additional proteins previously shown to react with immune human sera were also antigenic in guinea pigs, showing the relevance of the guinea pig immunization model for antigen discovery. The antigens described here warrant further investigation to validate their potential use as subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:21030434

  19. A multi-channel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high throughput protein separation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D.; Jin, Jian

    2009-10-02

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A Counter Free-Flow elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50percent or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 L/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 g per channel and reduced resolution.

  20. Precast commercial polyacrylamide gels for separation of DNA amplificates by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis: application to clonality analysis of lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Suttorp, M; von Neuhoff, N; Tiemann, M; Dreger, P; Schaub, J; Löffer, H; Parwaresch, R; Schmitz, N

    1996-04-01

    The third complementary determining region (CDR-III) of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes represents a unique marker for a lymphocyte and its clonal descendants and can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. This approach has markedly enhanced the sensitivity for detection of clonal lymphocyte populations in patients with malignant B-lymphoid neoplasias. To monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in tissue specimens during or after antineoplastic treatment, the problem of detecting the presence of a few clonal (malignant) lymphocytes in coexistence with a majority of polyclonal lymphocytes has to be addressed. Semi-nested PCR amplification of CDR-III rearrangements from specimen infiltrated by tumor cells generates clonal signals in front of a polyclonal background, and therefore high resolution electrophoretic techniques for separation of DNA fragments are required. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) resolving DNA homo- and heteroduplexes according to their thermal stability has been successfully applied for this purpose using special electrophoretic equipment. We describe an adjustment to this technique by using a commercially available precast 0.5 mm thick polyacrylamide gel and by changing a standard horizontal electrophoretic device into a TGGE device. By this means we screened patients with B-cell lymphoma undergoing high-dosage radiochemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation for continuous presence of clonal (tumor-specific) CDR-III rearrangements. Specimens from blood and bone marrow were collected on diagnosis as well as before and after autologous transplantation. In addition, the autograft (bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells) was analyzed. Tumor cells were easily detected in the transplants and in specimens collected during follow-up examinations. The clinical value of these findings remains unclear as yet because the number of cases investigated was small and the follow-up time is still too short. However, we conclude that the technique of combining the sensitivity of PCR with the specificity of high resolution TGGE is easy to use, making it possible to handle, in a clinical routine, a great number of samples within a short time in order to monitor MRD in patients with B-cell neoplasias. PMID:8738325

  1. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy for dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Kanematsu, Wataru; Shinzawa, Hideyuki

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic absorption behavior of oleic acid (OA) onto silica gel was probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Once OA is injected into silica gel placed on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance prism, the silica gel starts to absorb the OA molecules due to the molecular-level interaction based on hydrogen bonding between the COOH of OA and the OH of silica gel. The substantial level of variation of spectral feature is readily observed during the absorption of OA onto silica gel. 2D correlation analysis of the time-dependent IR spectra reveals fine details of absorption dynamics of OA molecules depending on the molecular structure. The predominant absorption of the monomers occurs at the onset of the absorption, and it is then quickly followed by the decrease in the dimers. In other words, the dissociation of the liquid crystals occurs via the disuniting of the tightly packed OA dimers.

  2. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis as a Diagnostic Tool in Periodontal Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Zijnge, Vincent; Welling, Gjalt W.; Degener, John E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Abbas, Frank; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria play an important role in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases and are part of a biofilm, which can contain over 100 different species. The aim of the present study was to show the potential of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as a tool for the detection of clinically relevant species and to compare the results of detection by DGGE with those by PCR and culturing. Hybridization of the bands from the DGGE profiles with species-specific probes was developed to confirm the band positions in the marker obtained with reference strains. The sensitivities of DGGE compared to those of cultivation for the detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythensis were 100, 100, 88, and 100%, respectively; and the sensitivities of DGGE compared to those of PCR were 100, 90, 88, and 96%, respectively. DGGE as a diagnostic tool could easily be extended to other species, as shown for Treponema denticola, which could be detected in 48% of the samples. Three different groups of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes could be distinguished by DGGE (i.e., a group comprising serotypes a, d, e, and f; a group comprising serotype b; and a group comprising serotype c). Amplicons from P. gingivalis and T. denticola migrated to the same position in the gel, and P. intermedia produced multiple bands. In the present study we show that the DGGE profiles represent clinically relevant species which can be detected by hybridization with species-specific probes. With DGGE, large numbers of samples can be analyzed for different species simultaneously, and DGGE may be a good alternative in periodontal microbial diagnostics. PMID:17021091

  3. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Roudeau, Stéphane; Deves, Guillaume; Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Ortega, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  4. Mutations of the G sup s. alpha. -subunit gene in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, L.S.; Friedman, E.; Collins, R.M.; Spiegel, A.M.; Gejman, P.V.; Kadowaki, Takashi; Gershon, E.S. )

    1990-11-01

    Affected members of most kindreds with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy have a partial deficiency of functional G{sub s}, the guanine nucleotide-binding protein that stimulates adenylyl cyclase. By use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify genomic fragments with the attachment of a high-melting G+C-rich region (GC clamp) and analysis of these fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, heterozygous mutations in the G{sub s} {alpha}-subunit at the donor splice junction of intron 10 and a coding frameshift created by a single base deletion within exon 10. The findings illustrate the heterogeneity of genetic defects in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and the usefulness of the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method to search rapidly for mutations in a large candidate gene.

  5. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): application in population structure studies of bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chambel, Lélia; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) separates large DNA molecules by the use of an alternating electrical field, such that greater size resolution can be obtained when compared to normal agarose gel electrophoresis. PFGE is often employed to track pathogens and is a valuable typing scheme to detect and differentiate strains. Particularly, the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) PFGE system is considered to be the gold standard for use in epidemiological studies of many bacterial pathogens. Here we describe a PFGE protocol that was applicable to the study of bovine streptococci, namely, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (group C Streptococcus, GCS), and Streptococcus uberis-which are relevant pathogens causing mastitis, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production. PMID:25399106

  6. Macrorestriction Fingerprinting of “Streptococcus milleri” Group Bacteria by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bartie, K. L.; Wilson, M. J.; Williams, D. W.; Lewis, M. A. O.

    2000-01-01

    Although isolates of the “Streptococcus milleri” group (SMG) of bacteria are regarded as members of the commensal microflora of the body, they are frequently encountered in purulent infections from a range of body sites. The genetic diversity of 91 epidemiologically unrelated SMG isolates (including 37 commensal strains and 49 disease-associated strains) was analyzed by macrorestriction fingerprinting (MF). The genomes were digested with SmaI and ApaI independently, and fragments were resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Similarities between banding profiles were determined, and strains were clustered on this basis into dendrograms. In common with other commensal species that have been examined by MF, considerable genetic diversity was revealed. In addition, the clustering of strains tended to support the current taxonomic position of this heterogeneous group. The present study has shown that MF is a powerful tool for characterization of SMG strains and that its use is likely to be of great value in epidemiological and population genetic studies of this group of bacteria. PMID:10834967

  7. Proteomic Profiling of Aging in Glomeruli of Mice by using Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Fan, Qiuling; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lining

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomerular proteins were analyzed by proteomics to screen proteins participating in maturation of glomeruli before senescence and to find key proteins involved in the aging process. Material/Methods Glomeruli of C57BL/6 mice at 8 and 20 weeks were separated by kidney perfusion. Proteomic profiles of glomeruli were investigated by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results We identified 22 differentially expressed proteins. Among them, 3 proteins were significantly up-regulated and 19 proteins were significantly down-regulated in mature mice. Out of these 22 proteins, 18% take part in protein transport, protein targeting, and proteolysis; 5% in glycolysis; 14% in transcription; 9% in electron transport; 9% were chaperones; and 9% were hydrolases. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the glomerular differentially expressed proteins correlated with renal aging. In this study we found that aging altered the expression of ATP synthase subunit beta. Further studies on this protein might help to understand the mechanism of renal aging. PMID:25659849

  8. Thermal gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bioprotection from pollutant shocks in the activated sludge microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Eichner, C.A.; Erb, R.W.; Timmis, K.N.; Wagner-Doebler, I.

    1999-01-01

    The authors used a culture-independent approach, namely, thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of ribosomal sequences amplified directly from community DNA, to determine changes in the structure of the microbial community following phenol shocks in the highly complex activated sludge ecosystem. Parallel experimental model sewage plants were given shock loads of chlorinated and methylated phenols and simultaneously were inoculated (i) with a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) able to degrade the added substituted phenols or (ii) with the nonengineered parental strain. The sludge community DNA was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified and analyzed by TGGE. To allow quantitative analysis of TGGE banding patterns, they were normalized to an external standard. The samples were then compared with each other for similarity by using the coefficient of Dice. The Shannon index of diversity, H, was calculated for each sludge sample, which made it possible to determine changes in community diversity. The authors observed a breakdown in community structure following shock loads of phenols by a decrease in the Shannon index of diversity from 1.13 to 0.22 in the noninoculated system. Inoculation with the GEM (Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 SN45RE) effectively protected the microbial community, as indicated by the maintenance of a high diversity throughout the shock load experiment. Inoculation with the nonengineered parental strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, did not protect the microbial community from being severely disturbed.

  9. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  10. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/?l in serum samples and 126 pg/?l in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/?l, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  11. Improved single-cell gel electrophoresis assay for detecting DNA damage in Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Di Marzio, Walter D; Saenz, María E; Lemière, Sebastien; Vasseur, Paule

    2005-12-01

    The earthworm (Eisenia foetida) is an attractive sentinel species for detecting genotoxicity in soil. In this study, an improved single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was developed for detecting DNA damage in the coelomocytes (lymphocytes) of earthworms. Coelomocytes were obtained from the coelomic fluid using a modified extrusion medium that did not include the mucolytic agent guaiacol. The extruded coelomocytes contained at least three types of cells: eleocytes (75% of the total), amoebocytes, and granulocytes. The DNA migration parameters were determined for untreated cells of each type in order that the assay could be performed with minimum inter- and intra-individual variation. In addition, lysis time was reduced to 10 min, and only one neutralization step was used. DNA damage was detected in isolated eleocytes treated with hydrogen peroxide and cadmium, and in eleocytes from earthworms exposed for up to 21 days to soil containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The SCGE assay using earthworm eleocytes appears to be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating exposure to genotoxic compounds. PMID:15957191

  12. Application of preparative disk gel electrophoresis for antigen purification from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Koshino, Masanori; Okushima, Teruya; Motohashi, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Specific antibodies are a reliable tool to examine protein expression patterns and to determine the protein localizations within cells. Generally, recombinant proteins are used as antigens for specific antibody production. However, recombinant proteins from mammals and plants are often overexpressed as insoluble inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Solubilization of these inclusion bodies is desirable because soluble antigens are more suitable for injection into animals to be immunized. Furthermore, highly purified proteins are also required for specific antibody production. Plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase: EC 6.4.1.2) from Arabidopsis thaliana, which catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA in chloroplasts, formed inclusion bodies when the recombinant protein was overexpressed in E. coli. To obtain the purified protein to use as an antigen, we applied preparative disk gel electrophoresis for protein purification from inclusion bodies. This method is suitable for antigen preparation from inclusion bodies because the purified protein is recovered as a soluble fraction in electrode running buffer containing 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate that can be directly injected into immune animals, and it can be used for large-scale antigen preparation (several tens of milligrams). PMID:26494602

  13. A new method for HDL particle sizing by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis using whole plasma.

    PubMed

    Pérusse, M; Pascot, A; Després, J P; Couillard, C; Lamarche, B

    2001-08-01

    Low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. HDL particles are heterogeneous with respect to size and apolipoprotein content. The objective of the present study was to develop a method to generate lipid-stainable calibrators that would allow the assessment of HDL particle size from whole plasma, using polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (PAGGE). Lipid-stainable HDL calibrators were obtained by subjecting isolated red blood cells to hemolysis either by freezing at -20 or -80 degrees C overnight or by rapid exposure to liquid nitrogen and mixing of the hemolysis products with plasma aliquots. All three methods were highly reproducible in producing Sudan black lipid-stainable HDL calibrators ranging from 75 to 200 A. The assessment of HDL particle size with these lipid-stainable HDL calibrators was also highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation below 5.5%. These lipid-stainable HDL calibrators simplify the assessment of HDL particle size by PAGGE using whole plasma, without the need for costly, time-consuming ultracentrifugation procedures. PMID:11483636

  14. A comparison of three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlomydia psittici infections in pet birds 

    E-print Network

    Hofle, Michael David

    1999-01-01

    Three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis hics. and the polymerase chain reaction assays were evaluated in psittacine birds. Birds suspected of Chlamydia psittaci infections were identified and tested with the following assays...

  15. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping.

    PubMed Central

    Thong, K L; Ngeow, Y F; Altwegg, M; Navaratnam, P; Pang, T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 61 isolates of Salmonella enteritidis were analyzed by the techniques of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping. Twenty-three of the isolates were from Zurich, Switzerland, and 38 isolates were from the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Five of the Malaysian isolates were hospital-related outbreak strains and were shown to be indistinguishable by PFGE analysis following digestion with three different restriction endonucleases, XbaI (5'-TCTAGA-3'), SpeI (5'-ACTAGT-3'), and AvrII (5'-CCTAGG-3'). The PFGE pattern of an isolate from a suspected carrier staff nurse was found to be identical to those of the hospital outbreak isolates. These isolates were also indistinguishable by ribotyping with SmaI and SphI. The same single PFGE pattern was also detected in 29 of 32 sporadic isolates of S. enteritidis. Four closely related ribotypes were detected among these 29 isolates. Similarly, outbreak-related strains from Switzerland showed close genetic identity by PFGE and ribotyping. Strains obtained from poultry showed more variations in their PFGE patterns and ribotypes, although the patterns were still closely related. In addition, SphI ribotypes A and D among the Swiss strains correlated with phage types 4 and 8, respectively. No correlation of phage types with PFGE pattern was noted. Both PFGE and ribotyping indicate that the S. enteritidis strains circulating in Malaysia and Switzerland are very similar and may be clonally related. Comparison of the PFGE patterns with the ribotypes for 23 Swiss and 16 Malaysian isolates showed that there was a 69% concordance in the grouping of isolates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7615707

  16. Fluorescence amplified fragment length polymorphism compared to pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Listeria monocytogenes subtyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a severe infection which mainly affects pregnant women, neonates and immuno-compromised adults. ANSES’s Laboratory for Food safety has been the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for L. monocytogenes in the food chain since 2006. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is routinely used in the EURL for the surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from foods, animals and the environment. One of the main EURL activities is to evaluate alternative molecular subtyping methods to PFGE, and integrate their use within the National Reference Laboratories (NRL) network. Since 2008, the United Kingdom (UK)-NRL for L. monocytogenes at the Health Protection Agency (HPA), London, has used fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP) for the routine surveillance of L. monocytogenes isolated from human clinical cases, food and food processing environments in the UK. This study compares fAFLP with PFGE for subtyping L. monocytogenes. Results A panel of 109 L. monocytogenes isolates from either human cases of listeriosis, foods, food processing environments and animals were used for the comparative evaluation. Among these, 2 strains were tested from duplicate culture by both methods. The panel also included field isolates, isolates associated with outbreaks or sporadic cases and reference strains. The two strains tested in duplicate displayed the same fAFLP and PFGE types. Strains known to be epidemiologically associated with one another were found to have unique PFGE and fAFLP types. FAFLP and PFGE divided the strains into 76 and 82 distinct profiles, or types, respectively. The discriminatory index calculated was 0.993 and 0.996 for fAFLP and PFGE, respectively. Conclusions The discriminatory ability of fAFLP was similar to that of PFGE for the subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. As a less labour intensive technique fAFLP may be a better method to use than PFGE in investigating outbreaks of human listeriosis and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:23347599

  17. [The use of temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to reveal mutations in peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Gaziev, A I; Guliaeva, N A; Bel'skaia, I I; Muksinova, K N; Zakharova, M L; Fomenko, L A; Antipova, V N; Bezlepkin, V G

    2008-01-01

    The mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) arise at a higher frequency than in nuclear DNA, and their appearance in peripheral blood can be considered as a sensitive marker to estimate the level of genotoxic load. For revealing the presence of mutations in mtDNA of peripheral blood, we used the method of temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). The samples of whole blood DNA from four donor groups were used. Group I contained 10 young (23-26 years) donors and Group II 12 elderly (65-74 years) donors. Group III was formed from patients with breast cancer (12 women) past sessions of radio-chemotherapies (RCHT). Group IV was made of professionals of a nucleus plant occupationally exposed to chronic gamma-irradiation. PCR was carried out on four coding sequences and on one hypervariable sequence of the D-loop (DloopI) of mtDNA. PCR products were tested with TTGE. Most mutations were revealed in the DloopI. Heteroplasmy in the region of DloopI was registered in the blood of each donor of Group III 7 days after the RCHT session. Also, mutations in mtDNA Dloop1 were found in 6 of 13 individuals of Group IV. The blood of this donor group was taken 16 to 28 years after prolonged irradiations in a dose range of 250-350 cGy. In the elderly donor group, the same results were observed in 3 of 12 individuals. The results show that the method of TTGE can be used in mass analyses to assess the effects of radiation and other genotoxic agents in man by detection of unknown mutations in peripheral blood mtDNA. PMID:18666643

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of urinary protein in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Sufi M; Woo, K T; Tan, H K; Wong, K S

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na). The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04) and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF) group (P <0.002). Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003) than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM), AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively). Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN). At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF) or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05). In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome. PMID:21743220

  19. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica in beef calves via nasopharyngeal culture and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; Mosier, Derek A; Larson, Robert L; Murray, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a major bacterial component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD); unfortunately, very little is known about M. haemolytica transmission dynamics among cattle. Identifying potential variation in M. haemolytica populations over time and induction of nasopharyngeal colonization and subsequent shedding are 2 areas where knowledge is lacking. In our study, 2 separate loads of 20 mixed-origin, male calves were purchased through an order buyer on different dates. Deep nasopharyngeal cultures (NPC) were performed on all calves on arrival and, if M. haemolytica-negative, a second screening culture was obtained. Calves that were negative on 2 initial NPCs (NEG; n = 4) were subsequently challenged with a previously isolated field strain of M. haemolytica in both the upper and lower respiratory tract, individually housed, and then monitored for M. haemolytica shedding via NPCs at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days postchallenge. Naturally M. haemolytica-positive calves (2 per load) were kept for additional daily cultures (POS; n = 4). Individual calf M. haemolytica status for both the POS and NEG groups was inconsistent between study days. Additionally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis performed on isolates from the positive cultures showed that the NEG calves did not shed the M. haemolytica challenge strain, but rather 2 distinct clusters of M. haemolytica were shared among POS and NEG calves regardless of their initial status. Although sample sizes were small, these findings illustrate how variable the results of a single nasopharyngeal swab can be and the challenges of using an individual culture to truly represent animal M. haemolytica status. PMID:26330399

  20. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Diversity of Human and Bovine Clinical Salmonella Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Ye?im; Alcaine, Samuel D.; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dainna J.; Root, Timothy P.; Warnick, Lorin D.; McDonough, Patrick L.; Dumas, Nellie B.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 335 temporally and spatially matched clinical, bovine, and human Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates revealed 167 XbaI PFGE patterns. These isolates were previously classified into 51 serotypes and 73 sequence types, as determined by multilocus sequence typing. Discriminatory power of PFGE (Simpson's index, D?=?0.991) was considerably higher than that of multilocus sequence typing (D?=?0.920) or serotyping (D?=?0.913). Although 128 PFGE types each only represented a single isolate, 8 PFGE types represented >4 isolates, including (i) three serotype Enteritidis and Heidelberg patterns that were only identified among human isolates, (ii) two PFGE patterns (each representing serotypes Bardo and Newport) that were significantly more common among bovine isolates as compared with human isolates; (iii) two PFGE types that each includes two serotypes (4,5,12:i:- and Typhimurium; Thompson and 1,7:-:1,5); and (iv) one PFGE type that includes eight Typhimurium isolates from humans and cattle. Characterization of isolates collected over multiple farm visits indicated that given specific PFGE types persisted over time on 11 farms. On an additional seven farms, isolates with a given sequence type represented multiple PFGE type, which typically only differed by <3 bands, suggesting PFGE type diversification during strain persistence. Sixteen PFGE types were isolated from 2 or more farms, including two widely distributed serotype Newport-associated PFGE types each found on 10 farms. In six instances two or three human isolates collected in the same county in the same or consecutive months represented the same subtypes, suggesting small human case clusters. PFGE-based characterization and surveillance of human and animal isolates can provide improved understanding of Salmonella diversity and epidemiology, including identification of possible host-associated and common, widely distributed PFGE types. PMID:20180633

  1. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified gki Genes: a New Technique for Tracking Streptococci? †

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, M. J.; Tissing, W. J. E.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Meessen, N. E. L.; Kamps, W. A.; Harmsen, H. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are a well-known cause of infections in immunocompromised patients, accounting for severe morbidity and mortality. Streptococcus mitis group species (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis) are among the VGS most often encountered in clinical practice. Identifying the portal of entry for S. mitis group strains is crucial for interventions preventing bacterial translocation. Unfortunately, tracking the source of S. mitis group strains is dependent on a combination of extremely laborious and time-consuming cultivation and molecular techniques (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR [ERIC-PCR]). To simplify this procedure, a PCR analysis with newly designed primers targeting the household gene glucose kinase (gki) was used in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This gki-PCR-DGGE technique proved to be specific for S. mitis group strains. Moreover, these strains could be detected in samples comprised of highly diverse microbiota, without prior cultivation. To study the feasibility of this new approach, a pilot study was performed. This confirmed that the source of S. mitis group bacteremia in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia could be tracked back to the throat in five out of six episodes of bacteremia, despite the fact that throat samples are polymicrobial samples containing multiple S. mitis group strains. In contrast, using the classical combination of cultivation techniques and ERIC-PCR, we could detect these strains in only two out of six cases, showing the superiority of the newly developed technique. The new gki-PCR-DGGE technique can track the source of S. mitis group strains in polymicrobial samples without prior cultivation. Therefore, it is a valuable tool in future epidemiological studies. PMID:19458177

  2. Reproducibility of an Integrated Quantitation Method Coupling 2D GeLC-MS/MS with the emPAI for Comparative Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2D gel mapping, most protein spots consist of multiple proteins posing a significant challenge for the proper interpretation of gel-based comparative experiments. Previously we introduced an approach integrating 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS analysis with the exponentially modif...

  3. COMPARISON OF PROTEIN IDENTIFICATION BY MALDI-TOF/TOF AND LC ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MS FOR 2D GEL SEPARATED CAULIFLOWER SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2D-gel mapping, it is well-known that essentially identical proteins migrate to different positions in the gel (due to PTMs etc.) while some, seemingly, well resolved spots consist of multiple proteins. Clearly, this observation can have dire consequences for the validity of gel-based comparativ...

  4. Identification of 2D-gel proteins : a comparison of MALDI/TOF peptide mass mapping to {mu} LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, H.; Hays, L. G.; Eng, J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Giometti, C. S.; Holden, J. F.; Adams, M. W. W.; Reich, C. I.; Olsen, G. J.; Yates, J. R.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Georgia; Univ. of Illinois

    2003-09-01

    A comparative analysis of protein identification for a total of 162 protein spots separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from two fully sequenced archaea, Methanococcus jannaschii and Pyrococcus furiosus, using MALDI-TOF peptide mass mapping (PMM) and mu LC-MS/MS is presented. 100% of the gel spots analyzed were successfully matched to the predicted proteins in the two corresponding open reading frame databases by mu LC-MS/MS while 97% of them were identified by MALDI-TOF PMM. The high success rate from the PMM resulted from sample desalting/concentrating with ZipTip(C18) and optimization of several PMM search parameters including a 25 ppm average mass tolerance and the application of two different protein molecular weight search windows. By using this strategy, low-molecular weight (<23 kDa) proteins could be identified unambiguously with less than 5 peptide matches. Nine percent of spots were identified as containing multiple proteins. By using mu LC-MS/MS, 50% of the spots analyzed were identified as containing multiple proteins. mu LC-MS/MS demonstrated better protein sequence coverage than MALDI-TOF PMM over the entire mass range of proteins identified. MALDI-TOF and PMM produced unique peptide molecular weight matches that were not identified by mu LC-MS/MS. By incorporating amino acid sequence modifications into database searches, combined sequence coverage obtained from these two complimentary ionization methods exceeded 50% for approximately 70% of the 162 spots analyzed. This improved sequence coverage in combination with enzymatic digestions of different specificity is proposed as a method for analysis of post-translational modification from 2D-gel separated proteins.

  5. Purification and staining of intact yeast DNA chromosomes and real-time observation of their migration during gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Gurrieri, S; Bustamante, C

    1997-01-01

    In the past few years, fluorescence microscopy has been used successfully to characterize the motion of intermediate-size DNA molecules (50-500 kbp) during steady- and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, experimental difficulties had prevented the application of this technique to the direct observation of longer DNA chromosomes (1-2 Mbp). In the present study a particular procedure was followed for the purification and staining of chromosomal yeast DNA to protect it from shear forces. Also, a new highly fluorescent DNA-labelling dye, YOYO-1, was employed to improve brightness and contrast. Finally, the motion of such long DNA molecules (1-2 Mbp) was characterized under steady-field electrophoresis conditions. An accurate description of the molecular mechanisms of motion of such long molecules should provide the basis for a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for DNA trapping. PMID:9337860

  6. Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Molecular Mass Analysis of 5–500 kDa Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Bhilocha, Shardul; Amin, Ripal; Pandya, Monika; Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; LoBello, Jaclyn; Shytuhina, Anastasia; Wang, Wenlan; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; de la Motte, Carol; Cowman, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems for the molecular mass-dependent separation of hyaluronan (HA) in the size range of approximately 5–500 kDa have been investigated. For agarose-based systems, the suitability of different agarose types, agarose concentrations, and buffers systems were determined. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized HA standards of low polydispersity, the molecular mass range was determined for each gel composition, over which the relationship between HA mobility and logarithm of the molecular mass was linear. Excellent linear calibration was obtained for HA molecular mass as low as approximately 9 kDa in agarose gels. For higher resolution separation, and for extension to molecular masses as low as approximately 5 kDa, gradient polyacrylamide gels were superior. Densitometric scanning of stained gels allowed analysis of the range of molecular masses present in a sample, and calculation of weight-average and number-average values. The methods were validated for polydisperse HA samples with viscosity-average molecular masses of 112, 59, 37, and 22 kDa, at sample loads of 0.5 µg (for polyacrylamide) to 2.5 µg (for agarose). Use of the methods for electrophoretic mobility shift assays was demonstrated for binding of the HA-binding region of aggrecan (recombinant human aggrecan G1-IGD-G2 domains) to a 150 kDa HA standard. PMID:21684248

  7. Investigating the formation of "molybdenum blues" with gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ippei; Miras, Haralampos N; Fujiwara, Aya; Fujibayashi, Masaru; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy; Tsunashima, Ryo

    2015-05-27

    The reduction of solutions of acidified molybdate leads to the formation of a family of nanostructured molybdenum blue (MB) wheels which are linked together in a series of complex reaction networks. These networks are complex because the species which define the nodes are extremely labile, unstable, and common to many different networks. Herein, we combine gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to investigate the effect of the pH and the ratio of reactants and reducing agents, R (R = [S2O4(2-)]/[MoO4(2-)]), on the complex underlying set of equilibria that make up MBs. By mapping the reaction parameter space given by experimental variables such as pH, R, solvent medium, and type of counterion, we show that the species present range from nanostructured MB wheels (comprising ca. 154 Mo atoms) to smaller molecular capsules, [(SO3)2Mo(V)2Mo(VI)16O54](6-) ({S2Mo18}), and templated hexameric [(?6-SO3)Mo(V)6O15(?2-SO3)3](8-)({S4Mo6}) anions. The parallel effects of templation and reduction on the self-assembly process are discussed, taking into consideration the Lewis basicity of the template, the oxidation state of the Mo centers, and the polarity of the reaction medium. Finally, we report a new type of molecular cage (TBA)5[Na(SO3)2(PhPO3)4Mo(V)4Mo(VI)14O49]·nMeCN (1), templated by SO3(2-) anions and decorated by organic ligands. This discovery results from the exploration of the cooperative effect of two anions possessing comparable Lewis basicity, and we believe this constitutes a new synthetic approach for the design of new nanostructured molecular metal oxides and will lead to a greater understanding of the complex reaction networks underpinning the assembly of this family of nanoclusters. PMID:25897816

  8. Thermal Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Bioprotection from Pollutant Shocks in the Activated Sludge Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Christine A.; Erb, Rainer W.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    1999-01-01

    We used a culture-independent approach, namely, thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of ribosomal sequences amplified directly from community DNA, to determine changes in the structure of the microbial community following phenol shocks in the highly complex activated sludge ecosystem. Parallel experimental model sewage plants were given shock loads of chlorinated and methylated phenols and simultaneously were inoculated (i) with a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) able to degrade the added substituted phenols or (ii) with the nonengineered parental strain. The sludge community DNA was extracted, and 16S rDNA was amplified and analyzed by TGGE. To allow quantitative analysis of TGGE banding patterns, they were normalized to an external standard. The samples were then compared with each other for similarity by using the coefficient of Dice. The Shannon index of diversity, H, was calculated for each sludge sample, which made it possible to determine changes in community diversity. We observed a breakdown in community structure following shock loads of phenols by a decrease in the Shannon index of diversity from 1.13 to 0.22 in the noninoculated system. Inoculation with the GEM (Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 SN45RE) effectively protected the microbial community, as indicated by the maintenance of a high diversity throughout the shock load experiment (H decreased from 1.03 to only 0.82). Inoculation with the nonengineered parental strain, Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, did not protect the microbial community from being severely disturbed; H decreased from 1.22 to 0.46 for a 3-chlorophenol–4-methylphenol shock and from 1.03 to 0.70 for a 4-chlorophenol–4-methylphenol shock. The catabolic trait present in the GEM allowed for bioprotection of the activated sludge community from breakdown caused by toxic shock loading. In-depth TGGE analysis with similarity and diversity algorithms proved to be a very sensitive tool to monitor changes in the structure of the activated sludge microbial community, ranging from subtle shifts during adaptation to laboratory conditions to complete collapse following pollutant shocks. PMID:9872766

  9. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis map in the ataxia-telangiectasia region of chromosome 11q22. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrhammer, N.; Huo, Y.; Gatti, R.A. ); Concannon, P. ); Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1994-03-15

    The authors interest in isolating the gene(s) for ataxia-telangiectasia has prompted construction of a physical map of chromosome 11q22.3 using markers localized to this region by linkage analysis and/or hybrid cell panels. Twenty-two markers have been analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Nine of these markers form an [approximately]2-Mb long-range contiguous map. An average distance of 200 kb between probes in this map should facilitate the isolation of new cDNAs, anonymous probes, and YACs in an orderly way. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Fig S1. Images of Two dimensional gel electrophoresis gels. The left image is for the untreated control; the right image is for Gm treated samples. Green represents protein

    E-print Network

    Matin, A.C.

    Fig S1. Images of Two dimensional gel electrophoresis gels. The left image. #12; Fig S2. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) dampens the lethal effect of Gm in the stationary-treated cells with or without NAC. #12; Fig S3. Gm treatment

  11. Optimization of Computer Software Settings Improves Accuracy of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Macrorestriction Fragment Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duck, William M.; Steward, Christine D.; Banerjee, Shailen N.; McGowan, Jr., John E.; Tenover, Fred C.

    2003-01-01

    Computer-assisted analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) libraries can facilitate comparisons of fragment patterns present on multiple gels. We evaluated the ability of the Advanced Analysis (version 4.01) and Database (version 1.12) modules of the Phoretix gel analysis software package (Nonlinear USA, Inc., Durham, N.C.) to accurately match DNA fragment patterns. Two gels containing 38 lanes of SmaI-digested Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF DNA were analyzed to assess the impact of (i) varying the lane position of the standards, (ii) using gel plugs made at different times, and (iii) normalizing the fragment patterns by using molecular weight (MW) algorithms versus retardation factor (Rf) algorithms. Two sets of PFGE libraries (one containing SmaI restriction patterns from 62 Enterococcus faecium isolates and the other containing SmaI restriction patterns of 89 Staphylococcus aureus isolates) were analyzed to assess the impact of varying the matching tolerance algorithm (designated as the vector box setting [VBS]) in the Phoretix software. Varying the lane position of standards on a gel and using gel plugs made on different days resulted in different VBSs, although it was not possible to judge whether those differences were statistically significant. Normalization of E. faecalis OG1RF fragment patterns by Rf and MW methodology yielded no statistically significant differences in variability between the same fragment on different lanes. Suboptimal VBSs decreased the specificity with which related isolates were grouped together in dendrograms. The optimal VBS for analysis of PFGE fragment patterns from E. faecalis isolates differed from that for S. aureus isolates and sometimes was not that recommended by the manufacturer. Thus, computer-assisted analysis of PFGE patterns seemed to compensate for the intra- and intergel variation evaluated in the present study, and optimizing the software for the species to be tested was a critical preliminary step before further PFGE library analysis. PMID:12843039

  12. Estimation of circular DNA size using gamma-irradiation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Beverley, S.M. )

    1989-02-15

    A method is described for estimating the size of large circular DNAs found within complex chromosomal DNA preparations. DNAs are treated with low levels of gamma-irradiation, sufficient to introduce a single double-stranded break per circle, and the resulting linear DNA is sized by pulsed-field electrophoresis and blot hybridization. The method is fast, reproducible, and very conveniently applied to the agarose-enclosed chromosomal DNA preparations commonly used in pulsed field electrophoresis.

  13. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Image Analysis via Dedicated Software Packages.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing two-dimensional gel electrophoretic images is supported by a number of freely and commercially available software. Although the respective program is highly specific, all the programs follow certain standardized algorithms. General steps are: (1) detecting and separating individual spots, (2) subtracting background, (3) creating a reference gel and (4) matching the spots to the reference gel, (5) modifying the reference gel, (6) normalizing the gel measurements for comparison, (7) calibrating for isoelectric point and molecular weight markers, and moreover, (8) constructing a database containing the measurement results and (9) comparing data by statistical and bioinformatic methods. PMID:26611408

  14. Quantifying clustered DNA damage induction and repair by gel electrophoresis, electronic imaging and number average length analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Betsy M.; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Bennett, Paula V.; Laval, Jacques; Sutherland, John C.; Gewirtz, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Assessing DNA damage induction, repair and consequences of such damages requires measurement of specific DNA lesions by methods that are independent of biological responses to such lesions. Lesions affecting one DNA strand (altered bases, abasic sites, single strand breaks (SSB)) as well as damages affecting both strands (clustered damages, double strand breaks) can be quantified by direct measurement of DNA using gel electrophoresis, gel imaging and number average length analysis. Damage frequencies as low as a few sites per gigabase pair (10(9)bp) can be quantified by this approach in about 50ng of non-radioactive DNA, and single molecule methods may allow such measurements in DNA from single cells. This review presents the theoretical basis, biochemical requirements and practical aspects of this approach, and shows examples of their applications in identification and quantitation of complex clustered damages.

  15. Genotoxic potential of bee venom (Apis Mellifera) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro using single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2008-09-01

    Bee venom (BV) has been known to have therapeutic applications in traditional medicine to treat variety of diseases. It is also known that bee venom possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects and that it can inhibit proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells, but there is lack of information regarding genotoxicity of whole bee venom on normal human cells. In the present study, peripheral blood human lymphocytes from healthy donor were exposed in vitro to different concentration (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micro g/mL) of whole bee venom at different time periods (1, 6 and 24 hours). The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity towards human cells. Results showed statistically significant increase in DNA damage caused in BV treated human lymphocytes compared to corresponding control cells for the tail length and tail moment. These results show that the extent of DNA damage, determined by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis is time and dose dependent. Based on the results it is clear that whole bee venom induces DNA damage and has genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. PMID:18642151

  16. Phenotyping breast cancer cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis and affinity chromatography for glutathione-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transformed phenotypes are common to cell lines derived from various cancers. Proteome profiling is a valuable tool that may reveal uncharacteristic cell phenotypes in transformed cells. Changes in expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and other proteins interacting with glutathione (GSH) in model cell lines could be of particular interest. Methods We compared the phenotypes of breast cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). We further separated GSH-binding proteins from the cell lines using affinity chromatography with GSH-Sepharose 4B, performed 2-DE analysis and identified the main protein spots. Results Correlation coefficients among 2-DE gels from the cell lines were lower than 0.65, pointing to dissimilarity among the cell lines. Differences in primary constituents of the cytoskeleton were shown by the 2-D protein maps and western blots. The spot patterns in gels of GSH-binding fractions from primary carcinoma-derived cell lines HCC1937 and EM-G3 were similar to each other, and they differed from the spot patterns of cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 that were derived from pleural effusions of metastatic mammary carcinoma patients. Major differences in the expression of GST P1-1 and carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 were observed among the cell lines, indicating differential abilities of the cell lines to metabolize xenobiotics. Conclusions Our results confirmed the applicability of targeted affinity chromatography to proteome profiling and allowed us to characterize the phenotypes of four breast cancer cell lines. PMID:20731849

  17. Sources of Experimental Variation in 2-D Maps: The Importance of Experimental Design in Gel-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Valcu, Cristina-Maria; Valcu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The success of proteomic studies employing 2-D maps largely depends on the way surveys and experiments have been organized and performed. Planning gel-based proteomic experiments involves the selection of equipment, methodology, treatments, types and number of samples, experimental layout, and methods for data analysis. A good experimental design will maximize the output of the experiment while taking into account the biological and technical resources available. In this chapter we provide guidelines to assist proteomics researchers in all these choices and help them to design quantitative 2-DE experiments. PMID:26611406

  18. GEL-STATE NMR OF BALL-MILLED WHOLE CELL WALLS IN DMSO-d6 USING 2D SOLUTION-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls were used for obtaining 2D solution-state NMR spectra without actual solubilization or structural modification. Ball-milled whole cell walls were swelled directly in the NMR tube with DMSO-d6 where they formed a gel. There are relatively few gel-state NMR studies. Most have involved...

  19. Combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and metabolomic data in support of dry-season survival in the two main species of the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, K; Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Foucreau, N; Dabiré, K R; Bouchereau, A; Simard, F; Renault, D

    2015-12-01

    In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field. Protein abundances of the mosquitoes were measured using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification. These assays were conducted by Applied Biomics (http://www.appliedbiomics.com, Applied Biomics, Inc. Hayward, CA, USA), and the mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000294. The metabolomic analysis was conducted using both Acquity UPLC(®) system (for amino acid identification), and a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry platform (for sugars identification). Metabolomic fingerprintings were assessed in the University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6553 EcoBio (France). A detailed interpretation of the obtained data can be found in Hidalgo et al. (2014) [1] (Journal of Insect Physiology (2014)). PMID:26543889

  20. Combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and metabolomic data in support of dry-season survival in the two main species of the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae?

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, K.; Mouline, K.; Mamai, W.; Foucreau, N.; Dabiré, K.R.; Bouchereau, A.; Simard, F.; Renault, D.

    2015-01-01

    In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field. Protein abundances of the mosquitoes were measured using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification. These assays were conducted by Applied Biomics (http://www.appliedbiomics.com, Applied Biomics, Inc. Hayward, CA, USA), and the mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000294. The metabolomic analysis was conducted using both Acquity UPLC® system (for amino acid identification), and a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry platform (for sugars identification). Metabolomic fingerprintings were assessed in the University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6553 EcoBio (France). A detailed interpretation of the obtained data can be found in Hidalgo et al. (2014) [1] (Journal of Insect Physiology (2014)). PMID:26543889

  1. Horizontal two-dimensional electrophoresis of complex DNA samples using precast gel systems.

    PubMed

    Schickle, H; Lamb, B J; Hanash, S M

    1999-06-01

    We have developed a simplified procedure for the separation of enzyme-digested genomic DNA, or of complex mixtures of cloned DNA, into two dimensions. The procedure relies on the use of precast gels for horizontal electrophoretic separations. Precast agarose-type gels are used for the first-dimensional separation of fragments based on size. Precast polyacrylamide gels are used for the second-dimensional separation of fragments. The separated fragments are subjected to enzymatic digestion in situ prior to their transfer to the second-dimensional gel. Applications of this procedure include the analysis of DNA libraries, analysis of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as well as other similar preparations, and the screening of genomic DNA for the occurrence of multi-copy DNA fragments as in the case of genomic amplifications in cancer. PMID:10380763

  2. An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

  3. A novel approach to pseudopodia proteomics: excimer laser etching, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and confocal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mimae, Takahiro; Ito, Akihiko; Hagiyama, Man; Nakanishi, Jun; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Okada, Morihito; Murakami, Yoshinori; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Pseudopodia are actin-rich ventral cellular protrusions shown to facilitate the migration and metastasis of tumor cells. Here, we present a novel approach to perform pseudopodia proteomics. Tumor cells growing on porous membranes extend pseudopodia into the membrane pores. In our method, cell bodies are removed by horizontal ablation at the basal cell surface with the excimer laser while pseudopodia are left in the membrane pores. For protein expression profiling, whole cell and pseudopodia proteins are extracted with a lysis buffer, labeled with highly sensitive fluorescent dyes, and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins with unique expression patterns in pseudopodia are identified by mass spectrometry. The effects of the identified proteins on pseudopodia formation are evaluated by measuring the pseudopodia length in cancer cells with genetically modified expression of target proteins using confocal imaging. This protocol allows global identification of pseudopodia proteins and evaluation of their functional significance in pseudopodia formation within one month. PMID:25309719

  4. High-throughput genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants using fluorescent PCR-capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, Muhammad Khairul; Yan, Tingdong; Cheung, Alice M S; Chuah, Charles T H; Li, Shang

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the engineering of sequence-specific synthetic nucleases provide enormous opportunities for genetic manipulation of gene expression in order to study their cellular function in vivo. However, current genotyping methods to detect these programmable nuclease-induced insertion/deletion (indel) mutations in targeted human cells are not compatible for high-throughput screening of knockout clones due to inherent limitations and high cost. Here, we describe an efficient method of genotyping clonal CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants in a high-throughput manner involving the use of a direct lysis buffer to extract crude genomic DNA straight from cells in culture, and fluorescent PCR coupled with capillary gel electrophoresis. This technique also allows for genotyping of multiplexed gene targeting in a single clone. Overall, this time- and cost-saving technique is able to circumvent the limitations of current genotyping methods and support high-throughput screening of nuclease-induced mutants. PMID:26498861

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) characteristics of enterotoxin-A-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Gouloumès, C; Bes, M; Renaud, F; Lina, B; Reverdy, M E; Brun, Y; Fleurette, J

    1996-05-01

    The phenotypic (antibiotype, serotype, phagetype) and genotypic (SmaI restriction patterns using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) characters of 162 Staphylococcus aureus epidemiologically unrelated strains were studied. Eighty-two of the isolates produced enterotoxin-A (SEA+), while 80 produced none (SEA-). None of the phenotypic characters observed were characteristic of SEA+ strains. On the other hand, the electrophoretic profiles revealed a non-random distribution of the SEA+ strains (p < 0.01 in groups PI and PIII, and p < 0.03 in group PII). It can therefore reasonably be assumed that the enterotoxin-A-producing strains did not constitute a single clone, but rather, seemed to belong to strains derived from at least three clones with distinct genetic organization. PMID:8763613

  6. Investigating Freshwater Periphyton Community Response to Uranium with Phospholipid Fatty Acid and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Jack A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Peacock, A. D.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2008-04-01

    Periphyton communities can be used as monitors of ecosystem health and as indicators of contamination in lotic systems. Measures of biomass, community structure and genetic diversity were used to investigate impacts of uranium exposure on periphyton. Laboratory exposures of periphyton in river water amended with uranium were performed for 5 days, followed by 2 days of uranium depuration in unamended river water. Productivity as measured by biomass was not affected by concentrations up to 100 µg L-1 uranium. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) banding patterns found no changes in community or genetic structure related to uranium exposure. We suggest that the periphyton community as a whole is not impacted by exposures of uranium up to a dose of 100 µg L-1. These findings have significance for the assessment and prediction of uranium impacts on aquatic ecosystems.

  7. SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRILAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (SDS-PAGE) FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF DIFFERENT SCHISTOSOME AND FASCIOLID SPECIES.

    PubMed

    Elsagheir, Asmaa M A; Abd Ellah, Osama H; Sayed, Fatma G; Monib, Mohammed E M; Abdel-Kader, Mohammad S

    2015-08-01

    Fasciola and Schistosoma spp. are digenetic trematodes that have a major detrimental impact on human health worldwide. It is not unusual to find common molecules among parasites of different species, genera, or phyla. In this study Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to identify the common proteins of adult Fasciola and Schistosoma spp. Adult Fasciola spp, were collected from the bile ducts of naturally infected cattle and sheep. Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium adults surface antigens were prepared in Theodor Bilharz Research Institute were used. Results showed sharing bands between all worms, which have the same molecular weight of 36 kDa. On the other hand, band with molecular weight 41 kDa was sharing between them except F. hepatica. Bands at 48 and 170 kDa were sharing between all species of Fasciola spp and Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:26485851

  8. High-throughput genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants using fluorescent PCR-capillary gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ramlee, Muhammad Khairul; Yan, Tingdong; Cheung, Alice M. S.; Chuah, Charles T. H.; Li, Shang

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the engineering of sequence-specific synthetic nucleases provide enormous opportunities for genetic manipulation of gene expression in order to study their cellular function in vivo. However, current genotyping methods to detect these programmable nuclease-induced insertion/deletion (indel) mutations in targeted human cells are not compatible for high-throughput screening of knockout clones due to inherent limitations and high cost. Here, we describe an efficient method of genotyping clonal CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants in a high-throughput manner involving the use of a direct lysis buffer to extract crude genomic DNA straight from cells in culture, and fluorescent PCR coupled with capillary gel electrophoresis. This technique also allows for genotyping of multiplexed gene targeting in a single clone. Overall, this time- and cost-saving technique is able to circumvent the limitations of current genotyping methods and support high-throughput screening of nuclease-induced mutants. PMID:26498861

  9. A Proposal for Source Tracking of Fecal Pollution in Recreational Waters by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify specific river sources of fecal contamination by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to environmental water samples from a recreational beach in Japan. The genotypes of all Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains used as indicators of fecal pollution on the recreational beach and rivers were analyzed by PFGE, and the PFGE profiles of the strains were classified at a 0.9 similarity level using dendrogram analysis. PFGE types of E. faecium isolated from Sakai River or urban drainage were classified in the same cluster. Therefore, the probable sources of fecal pollution on the recreational beach were Sakai River and urban drainage. The approaches for microbial source tracking employed in this study used PFGE with Enterococcus species as an indicator can be a potential tool to specify the source(s) of fecal pollution and contribute to improved public health in coastal environments. PMID:24256972

  10. Structural analysis of mitochondrial DNA molecules from fungi and plants using moving pictures and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bendich, A J

    1996-02-01

    The size and structure of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules was investigated by conventional and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by analyzing moving pictures during electrophoresis of individual fluorescently labelled mtDNA molecules. Little or no mtDNA that migrated into the gel was found in circular form for fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa) or plants (Brassica hirta, tobacco, voodoo lily and maize). Most mtDNA migrated as a smear of linear DNA sizes from about 50 to 100 or 250 kilobases (kb), depending on the species, irrespective of the size of the mitochondrial genome over a range of 0.06 to 570 kb. S. cerevisiae, B. hirta and tobacco also yielded a linear mtDNA fraction containing molecules > 1000 kb in size. About half the mtDNA remained in the well of the gel after PFGE. Moving pictures revealed that this well-bound (wb) mtDNA contained molecules larger than the genome size in linear form for all species (except N. crassa) and in multi-fibered, comet-like forms for most of the wb mtDNA of N. crassa and Sc. pombe. A minor amount of the wb mtDNA with visually interpretable structure was circular: circle sizes were both larger and smaller than the 80-kb genome of S. cerevisiae, larger than the 19-kb genome of Sc. pombe and smaller than the 208-kb and 570-kb genomes of B. hirta and maize, respectively. About 25 to 75% of the wb mtDNA from cultured tobacco cells was found in circles smaller than its genome size. Partial digestion of Sc. pombe mtDNA with restriction endonucleases that cleave once per genome revealed gel bands at about 38 kb and 19 kb with a smear of sizes between the bands and below the 19-kb band, suggesting a head-to-tail genomic concatemer as the most prominent form in extracted mtDNA. A pattern of bands with smears was also found for complete digests (with multiply cleaving enzymes) of mtDNA from Sc. pombe, S. cerevisiae and N. crassa, but bands without smears were found for digests of DNA from phage lambda and several plasmids. PMID:8568898

  11. Identification of velvet antler by random amplified polymorphism DNA combined with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guangxin; Sun, Jiyan; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Guilian; Xu, Guangyu; Li, Mingcheng; Zhang, Lihua; Fan, Xintian

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of velvet antler was amplified with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and the PCR products were detected with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis to establish a RAPD-HPCE method used for identifying the authenticity of velvet antler or it counterfeits. Factors that could affect the PCR amplification and capillary electrophoresis were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, namely, 20?mmol?L(-1) NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4-2?mmolL(-1) EDTA buffer solution [0.8% (W/V) HPMC, 15?mmol?L(-1) TBAP and pH 7.3], -10?kV injection voltage and -8?kV separation voltage, Cervus nippon Temminck antler, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus antler, Rangifer tarandus antler, Cervus canadensis antler and Elaphurus davidianus antler were analyzed. The analysis on the similarity of obtained elctrophoretograms showed that there were significant differences in similarities of different velvet antlers, which could be used for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples. It can be found that the technique of RAPD combined with HPCE is advantageous in rich polymorphism, high detection rate, simple and convenient performance, high efficiency, rapidness and sensitivity, indicating that it should be suitable for the quick identification of the authenticity of velvet antler samples. PMID:25103424

  12. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa. PMID:24473146

  13. A comparison of BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the Lower Fraser Valley regions of British Columbia, Canada was determined. Methods and Results: BOX-PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to subtype en...

  14. Proteomics analysis in mature seed of four peanut cultivars using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reveals distinct differential expression of storage, anti-nutritive, and allergenic proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein profiles of total seed proteins isolated from mature seeds of four peanut cultivars, New Mexico Valencia C (NM Valencia C), Tamspan 90, Georgia Green, and NC-7, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass ...

  15. USE OF PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS TO CHARACTERIZE THE HETEROGENEITY AND CLONALITY OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM THE CARCASS AND FECES OF SWINE AT SLAUGHTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, Salmonella were recovered from swine at a collaborating processing plant over a two month period in the spring of 2000. In the present study, molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the 581 confirmed Salmonella isolates from the 84 Salmon...

  16. Genotyping Campylobacter jejuni by comparative genome indexing: an evaluation with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA SVR sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Comparative genome indexing (CGI) using whole-genome DNA microarrays was evaluated as a means of genotying Campylobacter jejuni relative to two standard methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA short variable region sequencing (flaA SVR typing). Methods and Results: Thirty-six...

  17. Quantification of DNA by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Analysis of the Topoisomers of Plasmid and M13 DNA Following Treatment with a Restriction Endonuclease or DNA Topoisomerase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, John W.; Stowell, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    A two-session laboratory exercise for advanced undergraduate students in biochemistry and molecular biology is described. The first session introduces students to DNA quantification by ultraviolet absorbance and agarose gel electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. The second session involves treatment of various topological forms of…

  18. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  19. A comparison of non-typhoidal Salmonella from humans and food animals using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoida...

  20. Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Analysis of yeast and archaeal population dynamics in kimchi using denaturing gradient gel Korean food that is fermented from vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and radish. Many bacteria archaea and yeasts, their molecular diversity within this process has not been studied. Here, we use PCR-denaturing

  1. Detection of tetracysteine-tagged proteins using a biarsenical fluorescein derivative through dry microplate array gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Galia; Bogoev, Roumen; Shevirov, Julia; Sartiel, Adam; Margalit, Ilana

    2004-08-01

    The design of an extended-run 96-well sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) system and the development of protein detection technology based upon fluorescein derivatives that bind to peptide epitope tags, allows the creation of a truly high-throughput analysis of protein expression, where less than 20 min are needed to separate proteins and analyze results. We demonstrate the overall capabilities of such a method combination in a complex cell lysate background, while comparing the specific results obtained using a biarsenical fluorescein-derivative and tetracysteine epitope-tagged proteins with total protein staining using a fluorescent gel stain and with Western blotting where an anti-oligohistidine (His) tag antibody has been employed. When applied on purified target proteins without extraneous protein background, the demonstrated sensitivity of the assay on the extended-run 96-array precast SDS-PAGE system allows detection of quantities of tagged protein as low as 1 pmol per band. PMID:15300761

  2. Production of multiple forms during purification of Streptomyces aureofaciens DNA polymerase: a study using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kosovský, J; Subr, Z; Popovnáková, K; Zelinka, J

    1992-02-11

    A modified method for the detection of DNA polymerases in cell extracts and purified enzyme preparations after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gradient cylindrical gels is described. The technique, which is based on direct assay of activity in a reaction mixture during elution of DNA polymerases from gel slices, was applied to the pursuit of enzyme forms of Streptomyces aureofaciens DNA polymerase during purification procedure. In a crude extract of S. aureofaciens mycelium many catalytically active forms of DNA polymerase ranging from 35 to 860 kDa were detected. After purification, that included mycelium homogenization, precipitation of nucleic acids by polyethylene glycol, DEAE-Sephadex, QAE-Sephadex and DNA-Sepharose chromatography, higher molecular mass forms of more than 172 kDa have not been found. The lower molecular mass forms were separated into two groups by DNA-Sepharose chromatography. On the basis of their characterization, it is assumed that the lower molecular mass forms are produced by proteolysis and the major form found after purification of S. aureofaciens DNA polymerase in the presence of suitable proteinase inhibitors should be a protein of 172 kDa. PMID:1536880

  3. Analytical and micropreparative peptide mapping by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry of proteins purified by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, D.; Covey, T. C.; Winz, R.; Brownsey, R. W.; Aebersold, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report the use of microbore reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography connected on-line to an electrospray mass spectrometer for the separation/detection of peptides derived by proteolytic digestion of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A small fraction (typically 10% of the total) of the peptides eluting from the column was diverted through a flow-splitting device into the ion source of the mass spectrometer, whereas the majority of the peptide samples was collected for further analyses. We demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining reproducible peptide maps from submicrogram amounts of protein applied to the gel and good correlation of the signal detected by the mass spectrometer with peptide detection by UV absorbance. Furthermore, independently verifiable peptide masses were determined from subpicomole amounts of peptides directed into the mass spectrometer. The method was used to analyze the 265-kDa and the 280-kDa isoforms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase isolated from rat liver. The results provide compelling evidence that the two enzyme isoforms are translation products of different genes and suggest that these approaches may be of general utility in the definitive comparison of protein isoforms. We furthermore illustrate that knowledge of peptide masses as determined by this technique provides a major advantage for error-free data interpretation in chemical high-sensitivity peptide sequence analysis. PMID:8104612

  4. Electrophoresis. [in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based techniques for electrophoresis take account of the need either to circumvent the effects of gravity to prevent convection, or to use gravity for fluid stabilization through artificial density gradients. The microgravity environments of orbiting spacecraft provides a new alternative for electrophoresis by avoiding the need for either of these two approaches. The paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning electrophoresis, examines certain experimental techniques (zone and high density gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and isotachophoresis), and examines the electrophoresis of living cells.

  5. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots. PMID:25062492

  6. Diffusive transfer to membranes as an effective interface between gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Mitchell, Charles; Stevenson, Tracy I.; Loo, Joseph A.; Andrews, Philip C.

    1997-12-01

    Diffusive transfer was examined as a blotting method to transfer proteins from polyacrylamide gels to membranes for ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The method is well-suited for transfers from isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels. Spectra have been obtained for 11 pmol of 66 kDa albumin loaded onto an IEF gel and subsequently blotted to polyethylene. Similarly, masses of intact carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin were obtained from 14 and 20 pmol loadings. This methodology is also compatible with blotting high molecular weight proteins, as seen for 6 pmol of the 150 kDa monoclonal antibody anti-[beta]-galactosidase transferred to Goretex. Polypropylene, Teflon, Nafion and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) also produced good spectra following diffusive transfer. Only analysis from PVDF required that the membrane be kept wet prior to application of matrix. Considerations in mass accuracy for analysis from large-area membranes with continuous extraction and delayed extraction were explored, as were remedies for surface charging. Vapor phase CNBr cleavage was applied to membrane-bound samples for peptide mapping.

  7. Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A on the proteome of colonocytes studied by differential 2D electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zeiser, Johannes J; Klodmann, Jennifer; Braun, Hans-Peter; Gerhard, Ralf; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas

    2011-12-21

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic pathogen, commonly associated with severe diarrhea or life-threatening pseudomembraneous colitis. Its main virulence factors are the single-chain, multi-domain toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). Their glucosyltransferase domain selectively inactivates Rho proteins leading to a reorganization of the cytoskeleton. To study exclusively glucosyltransferase-dependent molecular effects of TcdA, human colonic cells (Caco-2) were treated with recombinant wild type TcdA and the glucosyltransferase deficient variant of the toxin, TcdA(gd) for 24h. Changes in the protein pattern of the colonic cells were investigated by 2-D DIGE and LCMS/MS methodology combined with detailed proteome mapping. gdTcdA did not induce any detectable significant changes in the protein pattern. Comparing TcdA-treated cells with a control group revealed seven spots of higher and two of lower intensity (p<0.05). Three proteins are involved in the assembly of the cytoskeleton (?-actin, ezrin, and DPYL2) and four are involved in metabolism and/or oxidative stress response (ubiquitin, DHE3, MCCB, FABPL) and two in regulatory processes (FUBP1, AL1A1). These findings correlate well to known effects of TcdA like the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and stress the importance of Rho protein glucosylation for the pathogenic effects of TcdA. PMID:21890007

  8. Separation of chromosomal DNA molecules from yeast by orthogonal-field-alternation gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Carle, G F; Olson, M V

    1984-01-01

    A simple agarose-gel apparatus has been developed that allows the separation of DNA molecules in the size range from 50 kb to well over 750 kb, the largest size for which size standards were available. The apparatus is based on the recent discovery that large DNA molecules are readily fractionated on agarose gels if they are alternately subjected to two approximately orthogonal electric fields. The switching time, which was on the order of 20-50 sec in our experiments, can be adjusted to optimize fractionation in a given size range. The resolution of the technique is sufficient to allow the fractionation of a sample of self-ligated lambda DNA into a ladder of approximately 15 bands, spaced at 50 kb intervals. We have applied the technique to the fractionation of yeast DNA into 11 distinct bands, several of which have been shown by DNA-DNA hybridization to hybridize uniquely to different chromosome-specific hybridization probes. In this paper, we describe the design of the apparatus, the electrophoretic protocol, and the sample-handling procedures that we have employed. Images PMID:6379602

  9. DNA double-strand breaks measured in individual cells subjected to gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, P.L.; Wlodek, D.; Banath, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Microscopic examination of individual mammalian cells embedded in agarose, subjected to electrophoresis, and stained with a fluorescent DNA-binding dye provides a novel way of measuring DNA damage and more importantly, of assessing heterogeneity in DNA damage within a mixed population of cells. With this method, DNA double-strand breaks can be detected in populations of cells exposed to X-ray doses as low as 5 Gy. The radiation dose-response relationship for initial formation of double-strand breaks was identical for cell lines irradiated in G1, regardless of their sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation. However, for cells irradiated in S phase, DNA migration was significantly reduced. For Chinese hamster V79 cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, WiDr human colon carcinoma cells, and L5178Y-R mouse lymphoblastoid cells, S-phase DNA appeared to be about 3 times less sensitive to X-ray damage than DNA from other phases of the cell cycle. However, for the very radiosensitive L5178Y-S cells, the migration of replicating DNA was reduced only slightly. For Chinese hamster V79 and Chinese hamster ovary cells, damage was repaired at a similar rate in all cells of the population, and 85% of the breaks were rejoined within 2 h after irradiation. The radiosensitive L5178Y-S cells repaired damage more slowly than V79 or Chinese hamster ovary cells; 2 h after exposure to 50 Gy, approximately 50% of the damage was still present.

  10. Simulating Electrophoresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moertel, Cheryl; Frutiger, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes a DNA fingerprinting simulation that uses vegetable food coloring and plastic food containers instead of DNA and expensive gel electrophoresis chambers. Allows students to decipher unknown combinations of dyes in a method similar to that used to decipher samples of DNA in DNA fingerprint techniques. (JRH)

  11. Nanorods of Various Oxides and Hierarchically Structured Mesoporous Silica by Sol-Gel Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Limmer, Steven J.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Cao, Guozhong

    2003-01-02

    In this paper, we report the template-based growth of nanorods of oxides and hierarchically structured mesoporous silica, formed by means of a combination of sol-gel processing and elecrophoretic deposition. Both single metal oxides (TiO2) and complex oxides (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3) have been grown by this method. This method has also been applied to the growth of nanorods of mesoporous silica having an ordered pore structure, where the pores are aligned parallel to the long axis of the nanorod. Uniformly sized nanorods of about 125-200 nm in diameter and 10 um in length were grown over large areas with near unidirectional alignment. Appropriate sol preparation yielded the desired stoichiometric chemical composition and crystal structure of the oxide nanorods, with a heat treatment (500-700 C for 15-30 min) for crystallization, densification and any necessary pyrolysis.

  12. Analysis of human HPRT deletion mutations with X-linked probes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklas, J.A.; Lippert, M.J.; Hunter, T.C.; O'Neil, J.P.; Albertini, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Because the human hprt gene is used in numerous mutation studies, it is important to fully characterize this gene. Therefore, the authors laboratory has undertaken to map the region around the hprt gene at band q26 of the human X chromosome. Utilizing hprt mutant T-cell clones isolated using the hprt clonal assay, which have deletions of all of part of the hprt gene, the authors have ordered 5 anonymous probes previously known to map in Xq26. Results suggest that this region include between 460 kb and 18 Mb of DNA, which is at least 10 times the size of the hprt gene itself (43 kb). Pulsed field gel analysis of the region is underway to determine the exact distances between each of the anonymous probes and hprt and to determine deletion sizes in the mutant T-cell clones.

  13. New capillary gel electrophoresis method for fast and accurate identification and quantification of multiple viral proteins in influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    van Tricht, Ewoud; Geurink, Lars; Pajic, Bojana; Nijenhuis, Johan; Backus, Harold; Germano, Marta; Somsen, Govert W; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari E

    2015-11-01

    Current methods for the identification and/or quantification of viral proteins in influenza virus and virosome samples suffer from long analysis times, limited protein coverage and/or low accuracy and precision. We studied and optimized capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) in order to achieve faster and enhanced characterization and quantification of viral proteins. Sample preparation as well the composition of the gel buffer was investigated in order to achieve adequate protein separation in relatively short times. The total sample preparation (reduction and deglycosylation) could be carried out efficiently within two hours. Hydrodynamic injection, separation voltage, and capillary temperature were optimized in full factorial design. The final method was validated and showed good performance for hemagglutinin fragment 1 (HA1), hemagglutinin fragment 2 (HA2), matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein (NP). The CGE method allowed identification of different virus strains based on their specific protein profile. B/Brisbane inactivated virus and virosome samples could be analyzed within one day. The CGE results (titers) were comparable to single radial immune-diffusion (SRID), but the method has the advantage of a much faster time to results. CGE analysis of A/Christchurch from upstream process demonstrated the applicability of the method to samples of high complexity. The CGE method could be used in the same analyte concentration range as the RP-HPLC method, but showed better precision and accuracy. Overall, the total analysis time for the CGE method was much shorter, allowing analysis of 100 samples in 4 days instead of 10 days for SRID. PMID:26452923

  14. Utilization of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for diagnosis of {beta}-thalassemia and ascertainment of new mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, K.Y.; Liu, D.; Lee, J.

    1994-09-01

    During the past two years we have tested 2,300 Southeast Asians for alpha- and beta-thaleassemia mutations. We found the incidence of hemoglobin E ({beta}{sup 26}) to be 47% among Laotians and 38% among Cambodians. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait is 9% for Laotians and 6% for Cambodians. Thus, the risk for hemoglobin E/{beta}{sup 26} thalassemia, a transfusion-dependent disorder, is increased in these two population groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be useful in testing for beta-thalassemia carriers and identifying new mutations in the beta globin gene. DNA was extracted from venous blood obtained from patients with elevated Hgb A2 (>4%). Five DNA fragments, encompassing the beta globin gene cluster, were amplified by PCR and analyzed, along with known beta gene mutations as controls, by DGGE using different denaturing gradient concentrations. Different mutations at the same nucleotide position can be distinguished by migration pattern on the DGGE (e.g., in IVS-I-1, G{r_arrow}A and T). Compound heterozygotes for {beta}-thalassemia can be detected on the same gel (e.g., HbE/mutation codon 17). New mutations are identified by their migration pattern compared with controls and determined by subsequent sequencing. We have identified three new mutations: codon 82 CAA{r_arrow}AAA in one Cambodian patient; IVS-II-667, T{r_arrow}C and IVS-II-672, A{r_arrow}C in two Laotian patients. When the parent`s genotypes are known, prenatal diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours. Thus, PCR/DGGE combination is a rapid and reliable diagnostic approach to clinically significant {beta}-thalassemia. The most important steps are carefully designed primers and predetermined gradient concentrations for DGGE.

  15. Agarose gel electrophoresis of joint fluid using Hyrys-Hydrasys SEBIA system as a new prognostic tool for periprosthetic osteolysisin revision arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chiva, A

    2013-01-01

    Rationale. Prevention of wear-mediated osteolysis, the most common complication in total joint arthroplasty, is a great challenge for orthopedic surgery. Despite the diversity of current biomarkers of periprosthetic osteolysis (products of wear, bone turnover and inflammatory biomarkers), the major interferences and the great amount of sample necessary for analysis limit their use in clinical practice. Objective. The aim of this paper is to present three new electrophoretic methods using Hyrys-Hydrasys SEBIA system that have been used for the first time in Electrophoresis Laboratory of our hospital in the analysis of joint fluid for the prevention of periprosthetic osteolysis in revision arthroplasty. Methods and results. Analytical aspects of agarose gel electrophoresis of joint fluid proteins and lipoproteins as well as SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis of joint fluid proteins, their performances and clinical value are presented. The decreased level of albumin and increased level of alpha1 and alpha2 globulins were frequent changes detected on SEBIA electropherograms and good indicator for the presence of an inflammatory reaction generated by particle debris. In addition, a slightly increase of LDL mobility could provide good information about a high oxidative stress. Moreover, the Ig G assessed by using SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis could be a potential biomarker for an immunological reaction towards orthopedic implants. Discussion. Electrophoresis of joint fluid using Hyrys-Hydrasys SEBIA France system is a new analytical technique able to remove the most of current biomarkers disadvantages due to the determination of particular proteins (acute phase proteins, albumin, lipoproteins, and immunoglobulins) by using minimal amounts of joint fluid with minor interferences, minimal cost and rapid results. Abbreviations CTX, crosslinked C-telopeptide; IL- interleukins; Ig G, immunoglobulin G; LDL, low density lipoprotein; NTX, crosslinked N-telopeptide; PICP, procollagen I C – terminal extension peptide; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate PMID:24146682

  16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis characterization of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in Turkey in 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Nar Otgun, S; Durmaz, R; Karagoz, A; Esen, B; Ertek, M

    2011-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the natural epidemiological history of circulating Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates in Turkey, comparing isolates by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles according to years, geographic regions, vaccination status, and demographic characteristics. We analyzed genotypically a collection of 92 clinical isolates recovered during the period 2001-2009 at the National Pertussis Reference Laboratory by PFGE. A total of 61 genotypes were identified among the 92 isolates. Fifteen of 61 genotypes were a cluster including 46 isolates, and the remaining 46 genotypes were unique. The clustering rate was 50% (46/92). The size of the cluster varied from 2 to 14 clinical isolates. There was no association between clustering rates and age, gender, or quarterly season. The clustering rate was significantly higher in 2006. When the isolates were grouped according to similarity coefficient higher than 85%, 89 (96.7%) of the 92 isolates were clonally related. There was one major group including 65.2% of the isolates mainly observed. This is the first study on the molecular characterization of B. pertussis isolates in Turkey. We consider that this study lays a good foundation for further monitoring of the circulating B. pertussis clinical isolates in Turkey. PMID:21461658

  17. Analysis of HLA-DR from alveolar macrophages and blood monocytes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, T.J.; Monos, D.S.; Spear, B.T.; Rossman, M.D.; Zmijewski, C.M.; Kamoun, M.; Daniele, R.P.

    1986-03-01

    Human blood monocytes (BM) are more effective than alveolar macrophages (AM) in promoting lymphocyte proliferation to antigen. To further understand these differences, the HLA-DR molecules synthesized by these two cell types were compared. AM were prepared by adherence of cells obtained by bronchoscopic lavage; BM were prepared by adherence of blood mononuclear cells from the same normal volunteer. Cells were cultured for 7 hours with /sup 3/H-leucine and HLA-DR was immunoprecipitated with the murine monoclonal antibody L243. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In three experiments, protein synthetic rate was greater and more HLA-DR was immunoprecipitated per cell in BM than in AM. Isoelectric focusing showed identical charge variation for BM and AM. However, molecular weight analysis of AM HLA-DR revealed multiple bands of slightly different molecular weight for each beta-chain peptide, whereas only a single band occurred with BM HLA-DR. Neuraminidase treatment reduced the charge heterogeneity but did not affect the molecular weight differences. These findings may relate to the differential ability of AM and BM to promote lymphocyte proliferation to antigen.

  18. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for analysing the gut microflora of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister under different feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Knapp, B A; Seeber, J; Podmirseg, S M; Meyer, E; Insam, H

    2008-06-01

    The earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, plays an essential role in soil ecosystems as it affects organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. By ingesting a mixture of organic and mineral material, a variety of bacteria and fungi are carried to the intestinal tract of the earthworm. To get a better understanding of the interactions between L. rubellus and the microorganisms ingested, this study tried to reveal if the diet affects the composition of the gut microflora of L. rubellus or if its intestinal tract hosts an indigenous, species-specific microbiota. A feeding experiment with L. rubellus was set up; individuals were collected in the field, transferred to a climate chamber and fed with food sources of different quality (dwarf shrub litter, grass litter or horse dung) for six weeks. DNA was extracted from the guts of the earthworms, as well as from the food sources and the surrounding soil, and further analysed by a molecular fingerprinting method, PCR-DGGE (Polymerase Chain Reaction -- Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). We were able to demonstrate that the gut microbiota was strongly influenced by the food source ingested and was considerably different to that of the surrounding soil. Sequencing of dominant bands of the bacterial DGGE fingerprints revealed a strong occurrence of y-Proteobacteria in all gut samples, independent of the food source. A specific microflora in the intestinal tract of L. rubellus, robust against diet changes, could not be found. PMID:18439343

  19. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) map of twelve loci on chromosome 11q11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, E.M.; Bale, A.E. ); Arnold, A. ); Marx, S.J. )

    1993-02-01

    We report a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis map of 12 loci on proximal human chromosome 11q. Linkage studies have shown that this region of chromosome 11 contains the genes for familial atopic disease (APY) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) (4). A physical map containing polymorphic loci will aid in the isolation of these disease genes. The map reported here has two noncontiguous groups of loci accounting for 8 of the 12 loci evaluated. One group spans a maximum distance of 1600 kb and included D11S146, BCL1, PRAD1, INT2, and HSTF1. The other group includes FTY1, C1NH, and COX8. TCN1, PGA, and PYGM did not yield any comigrating fragments and could not be physically linked on this PFGE map. These data enhance previously published physical maps of proximal 11q by refining the localization of and distances between markers in the BCL1 region. Additionally, new information about the locations and physical relationships between FTH1, C1NH, and COX 8 is presented. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure along the Changjiang River Determined by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Clone Library Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masataka; Nakahara, Tadaatsu; Xu, Baohua; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River (which is more than 2,500 km long) was studied by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with universal bacterial primer sets. DGGE profiles and principal-component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the bacterial community gradually changed from upstream to downstream in both 1998 and 1999. Bacterial diversity, as determined by the Shannon index (H?), gradually decreased from upstream to downstream. The PCA plots revealed that the differences in the bacterial communities among riverine stations were not appreciable compared with the differences in two adjacent lakes, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. The relative stability of the bacterial communities at the riverine stations was probably due to the buffering action of the large amount of water flowing down the river. Clone library analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that the dominant bacterial groups changed from ?-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group upstream to high-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria downstream and also that the bacterial community structure differed among the stations in the river and the lakes. The results obtained in this study should provide a reference for future changes caused by construction of the Three Gorges Dam. PMID:12324365

  1. Tracing flock-related Campylobacter clones from broiler farms through slaughter to retail products by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lienau, Jan-Alexander; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Klein, Günter

    2007-03-01

    A total of 237 Campylobacter isolates from broiler flocks at farm (45 isolates) and slaughter (192 isolates) were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for epidemiological tracing studies. For PFGE, a modification of the Campynet method was used, which was standardized in a European Union project. The goal of the study was to trace flock-related Campylobacter clones through the whole production chain, from farm through slaughter to retail products, to investigate the introduction of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on incoming contaminated carcasses during processing to the final products. The results of this study showed that identical clones of this pathogen, which had previously been found within the flocks during primary production, were also detected at individual stages of processing, including final products, which were packed and ready for sale. Most of the detected clones dominated during primary production and at slaughter. This study found PFGE to be suitable for examining epidemiological field data in the same region and time contexts. The discriminatory power of SmaI restriction enzyme digestion was sufficient. Relationships of the isolated Campylobacter strains could be confirmed by use of a second restriction enzyme, KpnI. PMID:17388039

  2. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2004-12-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities. PMID:15556087

  3. Frequencies of virulence genes and pulse field gel electrophoresis fingerprints in Escherichia coli isolates from canine pyometra.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato P; Borges, Clarissa A; Beraldo, Lívia G; Cardozo, Marita V; Voorwald, Fabiana A; Santana, André M; Rigobelo, Everlon C; Toniollo, Gilson H; Avila, Fernando A

    2014-11-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial agent isolated from canine pyometra. The frequencies of 24 virulence genes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were determined for 23 E. coli isolates from cases of canine pyometra in Brazil. The frequencies of virulence genes were 91.3% fimH, 91.3% irp-2, 82.6% fyuA, 56.5% iroN, 47.8% traT, 39.1% usp, 34.8% sfaD/E, 34.8% tsh, 30.4% papC, 30.4% hlyA, 26.1% papGIII, 26.1% cnf-1, 21.7% papE/F, 21.7% iss, 17.4% iutA, 17.4% ompT, 17.4% cvaC, 17.4% hlyF, 17.4% iucD, 13.0% iucC, 13.0% astA, 4.3% papGII, 0% afaB/C and 0% papGI. The high frequency of yersiniabactin (fyuA and irp2) and salmochelin (iroN) genes suggests that iron uptake systems might be important in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. PFGE profiles of 19 isolates were heterogeneous, confirming that E. coli isolates from canine pyometra are unlikely to be epidemic clones. PMID:25201253

  4. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. PMID:22475947

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    PubMed

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. PMID:26653984

  6. Thermodynamic stability of the P4-P6 domain RNA tertiary structure measured by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, A A; Podell, E R; Bevilacqua, P C; Cech, T R

    1998-08-11

    The P4-P6 domain RNA from the Tetrahymena self-splicing group I intron is an independent unit of tertiary structure that, in the kinetic folding pathway, folds before the rest of the intron and then stabilizes the remainder of the intron's tertiary structure. We have employed temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to examine the unfolding of the tertiary structure of P4-P6. In 0.9 mM Mg2+, the global tertiary fold of the molecule has a melting temperature of approximately 40 degreesC and is completely unfolded by 60 degreesC. Calculated thermodynamic parameters for folding of P4-P6 are DeltaH degrees' = -28 +/- 3 kcal/mol and DeltaS degrees' = -91 +/- 8 eu under these conditions. Chemical probing of the P4-P6 tertiary structure using dimethyl sulfate and CMCT confirms that these TGGE experiments monitor the unfolding of the global tertiary fold of the domain and that the secondary structure is largely unaffected over this temperature range. Thus, unlike the entropically driven P1 docking and guanosine binding steps of Tetrahymenagroup I intron self-splicing, which have positive or zero DeltaH terms, P4-P6 tertiary structure formation is stabilized by a negative DeltaH term. This implies that enthalpically favorable hydrogen bond formation, nucleotide base stacking, and/or binding of Mg2+ within the folded structure are responsible for stabilizing the P4-P6 domain. PMID:9698362

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:19245339

  8. Fate of a metal-resistant inoculum in contaminated and pristine soils assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, J.R.; Chang, Y.J.; MacNaughton, S.J.; Leung, K.T.; Flemming, C.A. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology); Whitaker, S.L.; Hicks, C.L. ); White, D.C. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology Oak Ridge National Lab., TN . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1999-06-01

    Cesium, cadmium, cobalt, and strontium are four contaminants frequently found in soils at biotoxic levels. Introduction of certain nongenetically modified bacteria has been frequently suggested as a method for the immobilization of heavy metal contaminants in soil, thereby reducing runoff and bioavailability. In this study, the authors have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to track the survival of the five bacterial species added to soil microcosms with and without the addition of a mixture of these metals. The PCR primers targeted conserved regions of the 165 rDNA molecular present in all bacteria. The reaction products were shown to reflect the relative abundance of the bacteria both in mixtures of pure cultures and against a background of all the eubacterial species present in the soil following inoculation. Three of the species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD-1, Shewanella putrifaciens 200, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough) decreased rapidly following inoculation into both soils. The proportion of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 remained at a constant level throughout the 8-week experiment in both soil treatments. Sphingomonas aromaticivorans B0695 showed toxic metal-dependent survival in that its relative abundance dropped rapidly in pristine soil but remained at approximately inoculation levels throughout the experiment in contaminated microcosms.

  9. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko )

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Seven new mutations in hMSH2, an HNPCC Gene, identified by denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Wijnen, J.; Vasen, H.; Khan, P.M.; Klift, H. van der; Leeuwen, C. van; Broek, M. van den; Leeuwen-Cornelisse, I. van; Fodde, R.; Menko, F.H.; Nagengast, F.

    1995-05-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a relatively common autosomal dominant cancer-susceptibility condition. The recent isolation of the DNA mismatch repair genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, and hPMS2) responsible for HNPCC has allowed the search for germ-line mutations in affected individuals. In this study we used denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis to screen for mutations in the hMSH2 gene. Analysis of all the 16 exons of HMSH2, in 34 unrelated HNPCC kindreds, has revealed seven novel pathogenic germ-line mutations resulting in stop codons either directly or through frameshifts. Additionally, nucleotide substitutions giving rise to one missense, two silent, and one useful polymorphism have been identified. The proportion of families in which hMSH2 mutations were found is 21%. Although the spectrum of mutations spread at the hMSH2 gene among HNPCC patients appears extremely heterogeneous, we were not able to establish any correlation between the site of the individual mutations and the corresponding tumor spectrum. Our results indicate that, given the genomic size and organization of the hMSH2 gene and the heterogeneity of its mutation spectrum, a rapid and efficient mutation detection procedure is necessary for routine molecular diagnosis and presymptomatic detection of the disease in a clinical setup. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-09-15

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400 ?l of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical variation. Identification of about 60 spots, representing only 22 proteins, revealed that several proteins in the obtained subfraction were present in more isoforms or modifications. Among these were apolipoproteins (A-1, D, E, L1, and M), haptoglobin-related protein, phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins and their isoforms or modifications. PMID:26080275

  12. Molecular characterization of sheep ruminal enrichments that detoxify pyrrolizidine alkaloids by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning.

    PubMed

    Rattray, Rogan M; Craig, A Morrie

    2007-08-01

    An enrichment of strictly anaerobic bacteria from ovine rumen fluid, which has previously been named L4M2, is known to detoxify animal hepatotoxins from the pyrrolizidine alkaloid family. These toxins are present in the tansy ragwort plant (Senecio jacobaea). These plants have been described in livestock animals' range forages in regions of the world such as the Northwest United States and South Africa. The bacterial enrichment was characterized by molecular cloning techniques and by the molecular fingerprinting technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment revealed that the consortium is composed of no more than five putative bacterial species which associated to the Anaerovibrio, Desulfovibrio, Megasphaera, Prevotella, and Synergistes generas. These are all known to exist in the upper gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals. This work improved upon previous attempts to characterize the consortium by obtaining nearly full-length ribosomal 16S rDNA sequences through cloning. The DGGE results were directly compared to the cloning data by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying eight phylogenetically representative clones and analyzing them by DGGE. Direct DGGE analysis of the enrichment displayed greater 16S diversity than the clone library used in this study, suggesting that at least one of the organisms present in the enrichment comprises less than 1% of the total cell population. These data will be used to further refine the enrichment in hopes of future use as a probiotic, which could be administered to animals challenged by the presence of tansy ragwort in their forage. PMID:17345134

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  14. GelScape: a web-based server for interactively annotating, manipulating, comparing and archiving 1D and 2D gel images.

    PubMed

    Young, Nelson; Chang, Zhan; Wishart, David S

    2004-04-12

    GelScape is a web-based tool that permits facile, interactive annotation, comparison, manipulation and storage of protein gel images. It uses Java applet-servlet technology to allow rapid, remote image handling and image processing in a platform-independent manner. It supports many of the features found in commercial, stand-alone gel analysis software including spot annotation, spot integration, gel warping, image resizing, HTML image mapping, image overlaying as well as the storage of gel image and gel annotation data in compliance with Federated Gel Database requirements. PMID:14764570

  15. Disease proteomics of endocrine disorders revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oh-Ishi, Masamichi; Kodera, Yoshio; Furudate, Sen-Ichi; Maeda, Tadakazu

    2008-03-01

    Endocrine disorders such as dwarfism and diabetes show abnormalities in many different organs even if a certain hormone is the primary cause of the disease. One of the aims of proteomics is to elucidate an abnormal hormone network underlying dysfunction in the disease through quantitative and qualitative proteome analyses of various organs. In a comprehensive study of the rdw rat with hereditary dwarfism, we found the accumulation of ER proteins in the rdw thyroid. Contrary to the initial notion that the dwarfism of the rat was caused by genetic mutations related to pituitary hormones, the primary cause is a missense mutation in the thyroglobulin gene. To understand at the protein level cellular damage caused by oxidative stress, we developed a proteomic method and applied to detecting protein carbonyls in various organs of a diabetes model OLETF rat. The method would provide a means toward clarifying a comprehensive view of oxidative modifications of proteins in diabetes. We review 2-DE-based disease proteomics of endocrine disorders in general, with particular attention paid to our proteome projects by a 2-DE method with an agarose IEF gel in the first dimension (agarose 2-DE) and LC-MS/MS. PMID:21136837

  16. The laboratory technology of discrete molecular separation: the historical development of gel electrophoresis and the material epistemology of biomolecular science, 1945-1970.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Howard Hsueh-hao

    2009-01-01

    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between modern laboratory practice and the production of scientific knowledge. It traces the historical development of gel electrophoresis from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s, with careful attention to the interplay between technical developments and disciplinary shifts, especially the rise of molecular biology in this time-frame. Claiming that the early 1950s marked a decisive shift in the evolution of electrophoretic methods from moving boundary to zone electrophoresis, I reconstruct various trajectories in which scientists such as Oliver Smithies sought out the most desirable solid supporting medium for electrophoretic instrumentation. Biomolecular knowledge, I argue, emerged in part from this process of seeking the most appropriate supporting medium that allowed for discrete molecular separation and visualization. The early 1950s, therefore, marked not only an important turning point in the history of separation science, but also a transformative moment in the history of the life sciences as the growth of molecular biology depended in part on the epistemological access to the molecular realm available through these evolving technologies. PMID:20027785

  17. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Europe from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Advani, Abdolreza; Hallander, Hans O; Dalby, Tine; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Guiso, Nicole; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; von Könnig, Carl Heinz Wirsing; Riffelmann, Marion; Mooi, Frits R; Sandven, Per; Lutynska, Anna; Fry, Norman K; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2013-02-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates were collected during three periods, i.e., 1998 to 2001 (n = 102), 2004 to 2005 (n = 154), and 2007 to 2009 (n = 140), from nine countries with distinct vaccination programs, i.e., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed according to standardized recommendations for epidemiological typing of B. pertussis. There were 81 different PFGE profiles, five of which (BpSR3, BpSR5, BpSR10, BpSR11, and BpSR12) were observed in 61% of the 396 isolates and shown to be predominant in almost all countries. The major profile, BpSR11, showed a decreasing trend from 25% to 30% in 1998 to 2005 to 13% in 2007 to 2009, and there were increases in BpSR3 and BpSR10 from 0% and 8% to 21% and 22%, respectively. One difference between these profiles is that BpSR11 contains isolates harboring the fim3-2 allele and BpSR3 and BpSR10 contain isolates harboring the fim3-1 allele. The total proportion of the five predominant profiles increased from 44% in 1998 to 2001 to 63% in 2004 to 2005 to 70% in 2007 to 2009. In conclusion, common PFGE profiles were identified in B. pertussis populations circulating in European countries with different vaccination programs and different vaccine coverages. These prevalent isolates contain the novel pertussis toxin promoter ptxP3 allele. However, there is evidence for diversifying selection between ptxP3 strains characterized by distinct PFGE profiles. This work shows that, even within a relatively short time span of 10 years, successful isolates which spread through Europe and cause large shifts in B. pertussis populations may emerge. PMID:23175253

  18. Association of Streptomyces community composition determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with indoor mold status

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Meller, Jarek; Vesper, Stephen; Yadav, Jagjit

    2014-01-01

    Both Streptomyces species and mold species have previously been isolated from moisture-damaged building materials; however, an association between these two groups of microorganisms in indoor environments is not clear. In this study we used a culture-independent method, PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the composition of the Streptomyces community in house dust. Twenty-three dust samples each from two sets of homes categorized as high-mold and low-mold based on mold specific quantitative PCR-analysis were used in the study. Taxonomic identification of prominent bands was performed by cloning and sequencing. Associations between DGGE amplicon band intensities and home mold status were assessed using univariate analyses, as well as multivariate recursive partitioning (decision trees) to test the predictive value of combinations of bands intensities. In the final classification tree, a combination of two bands was significantly associated with mold status of the home (p = 0.001). The sequence corresponding to one of the bands in the final decision tree matched a group of Streptomyces species that included S. coelicolor and S. sampsonii, both of which have been isolated from moisture-damaged buildings previously. The closest match for the majority of sequences corresponding to a second band consisted of a group of Streptomyces species that included S. hygroscopicus, an important producer of antibiotics and immunosuppressors. Taken together, the study showed that DGGE can be a useful tool for identifying bacterial species that may be more prevalent in mold-damaged buildings. PMID:25331035

  19. Application of single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay for assessing levels of DNA damage in canine and feline leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Paul R; Ransley, Raymond; Charlton, Chris J; Mann, Sarah J; Stevenson, Joy; Smith, Brigitte H E; Rawlings, John M; Harper, E Jean

    2002-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests involvement of free-radical species in the development of oxidative DNA damage, the consequences of which have been implicated in a number of degenerative disorders associated with the aging process. Here we report the application of a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay for assessing levels of DNA damage in canine and feline leukocytes. Leukocytes were collected from 24 healthy adult cats and dogs and subjected to DNA damage ex vivo by exposure to a range of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) concentrations (0-250 micromol/L). The optimal concentration of H(2)O(2) to induce a significant increase in DNA damage was 100 micromol/L for both canine and feline leukocyte samples. Levels of DNA damage were assessed and quantified by visual and computer image analysis. The results obtained showed high correlations between visual scoring and computer image analysis for feline samples (percentage DNA in tail, R(2) > 0.99; tail moment, R(2) > 0.95; tail length, R(2) > 0.90) and canine samples (percentage DNA in tail, R(2) > 0.97; tail moment, R(2) > 0.95; tail length, R(2) > 0.91). In conclusion, this method provides a way of assessing levels of DNA damage utilizing visual and/or computer image analysis in the feline and canine systems. With the capacity of the comet assay to be able to measure end products of free-radical reactions, it is a useful tool for determining the optimal effects of dietary antioxidants on a reliable biomarker of oxidative stress such as cellular DNA status in cats and dogs. PMID:12042468

  20. Monitoring of microbial community structure and succession in the biohydrogen production reactor by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Gong, Manli; Li, Jianzheng; Li, Qiubo

    2005-04-01

    To study the structure of microbial communities in the biological hydrogen production reactor and determine the ecological function of hydrogen producing bacteria, anaerobic sludge was obtained from the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in different periods of time, and the diversity and dynamics of microbial communities were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results of DGGE demonstrated that an obvious shift of microbial population happened from the beginning of star-up to the 28th day, and the ethanol type fermentation was established. After 28 days the structure of microbial community became stable, and the climax community was formed. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from reamplifying and sequencing the prominent bands indicated that the dominant population belonged to low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium sp. and Ethanologenbacterium sp.), beta-proteobacteria (Acidovorax sp.), gamma-proteobacteria (Kluyvera sp.), Bacteroides (uncultured bacterium SJA-168), and Spirochaetes (uncultured eubacterium E1-K13), respectively. The hydrogen production rate increased obviously with the increase of Ethanologenbacterium sp., Clostridium sp. and uncultured Spirochaetes after 21 days, meanwhile the succession of ethanol type fermentation was formed. Throughout the succession the microbial diversity increased however it decreased after 21 days. Some types of Clostridium sp. Acidovorax sp., Kluyvera sp., and Bacteroides were dominant populations during all periods of time. These special populations were essential for the construction of climax community. Hydrogen production efficiency was dependent on both hydrogen producing bacteria and other populations. It implied that the co-metabolism of microbial community played a great role of biohydrogen production in the reactors. PMID:15986888

  1. Association of Streptomyces community composition determined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with indoor mold status.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Meller, Jarek; Vesper, Stephen; Yadav, Jagjit

    2014-12-01

    Both Streptomyces species and mold species have previously been isolated from moisture-damaged building materials; however, an association between these two groups of microorganisms in indoor environments is not clear. In this study, we used a culture-independent method, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), to investigate the composition of the Streptomyces community in house dust. Twenty-three dust samples each from two sets of homes categorized as high-mold and low-mold based on mold-specific quantitative PCR analysis were used in the study. Taxonomic identification of prominent bands was performed by cloning and sequencing. Associations between DGGE amplicon band intensities and home mold status were assessed using univariate analyses as well as multivariate recursive partitioning (decision trees) to test the predictive value of combinations of bands intensities. In the final classification tree, a combination of two bands was significantly associated with mold status of the home (p?=?0.001). The sequence corresponding to one of the bands in the final decision tree matched a group of Streptomyces species that included Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces sampsonii, both of which have been isolated from moisture-damaged buildings previously. The closest match for the majority of sequences corresponding to a second band consisted of a group of Streptomyces species that included Streptomyces hygroscopicus, an important producer of antibiotics and immunosuppressors. Taken together, the study showed that DGGE can be a useful tool for identifying bacterial species that may be more prevalent in mold-damaged buildings. PMID:25331035

  2. Diversity and dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in cheese as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Ana Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-12-01

    This work reports the composition and succession of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacterial communities in a model cheese, monitored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were examined using this technique to detect structural changes in the cheese microbiota over manufacturing and ripening. Total bacterial genomic DNA, used as a template, was extracted from cultivable bacteria grown without and with tetracycline or erythromycin (both at 25?gml(-1)) on a non-selective medium used for enumeration of total and viable cells (Plate Count agar with Milk; PCA-M), and from those grown on selective and/or differential agar media used for counting various bacterial groups; i.e., lactic acid bacteria (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar; MRSA), micrococci and staphylococci (Baird-Parker agar; BPA), and enterobacteria (Violet Red Bile Glucose agar; VRBGA). Large numbers of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria were detected in cheese samples at all stages of ripening. Counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria varied widely depending on the microbial group and the point of sampling. In general, resistant bacteria were 0.5-1.0Log10 units fewer in number than the corresponding susceptible bacteria. The PCR-DGGE profiles obtained with DNA isolated from the plates for total bacteria and the different bacterial groups suggested Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. as the microbial types resistant to both antibiotics tested. This study shows the suitability of the PCR-DGGE technique for rapidly identifying and tracking antibiotic resistant populations in cheese and, by extension, in other foods. PMID:26241491

  3. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cheese manufacturing plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barancelli, Giovana V; Camargo, Tarsila M; Gagliardi, Natália G; Porto, Ernani; Souza, Roberto A; Campioni, Fabio; Falcão, Juliana P; Hofer, Ernesto; Cruz, Adriano G; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese and in the environment of three small-scale dairy plants (A, B, C) located in the Northern region state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to characterize the isolates using conventional serotyping and PFGE. A total of 393 samples were collected and analyzed from October 2008 to September 2009. From these, 136 came from dairy plant A, where only L. seeligeri was isolated. In dairy plant B, 136 samples were analyzed, and L. innocua, L. seeligeri and L. welshimeri were isolated together with L. monocytogenes. In dairy plant C, 121 samples were analyzed, and L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated. Cheese from dairy plants B and C were contaminated with Listeria spp, with L. innocua being found in Minas frescal cheese from both dairy plants, and L. innocua and L. monocytogenes in Prato cheese from dairy plant C. A total of 85 L. monocytogenes isolates were classified in 3 serotypes: 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, with predominance of serotype 4b in both dairy plants. The 85 isolates found in the dairy plants were characterized by genomic macrorestriction using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Macrorestriction yielded 30 different pulsotypes. The presence of indistinguishable profiles repeatedly isolated during a 12-month period indicated the persistence of L. monocytogenes in dairy plants B and C, which were more than 100 km away from each other. Brine used in dairy plant C contained more than one L. monocytogenes lineage. The routes of contamination were identified in plants B and C, and highlighted the importance of using molecular techniques and serotyping to track L. monocytogenes sources of contamination, distribution, and routes of contamination in dairy plants, and to develop improved control strategies for L. monocytogenes in dairy plants and dairy products. PMID:24412413

  4. Bulk and rhizosphere soil bacterial communities studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis: plant-dependent enrichment and seasonal shifts revealed.

    PubMed

    Smalla, K; Wieland, G; Buchner, A; Zock, A; Parzy, J; Kaiser, S; Roskot, N; Heuer, H; Berg, G

    2001-10-01

    The bacterial rhizosphere communities of three host plants of the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae, field-grown strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), were analyzed. We aimed to determine the degree to which the rhizosphere effect is plant dependent and whether this effect would be increased by growing the same crops in two consecutive years. Rhizosphere or soil samples were taken five times over the vegetation periods. To allow a cultivation-independent analysis, total community DNA was extracted from the microbial pellet recovered from root or soil samples. 16S rDNA fragments amplified by PCR from soil or rhizosphere bacterium DNA were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE fingerprints showed plant-dependent shifts in the relative abundance of bacterial populations in the rhizosphere which became more pronounced in the second year. DGGE patterns of oilseed rape and potato rhizosphere communities were more similar to each other than to the strawberry patterns. In both years seasonal shifts in the abundance and composition of the bacterial rhizosphere populations were observed. Independent of the plant species, the patterns of the first sampling times for both years were characterized by the absence of some of the bands which became dominant at the following sampling times. Bacillus megaterium and Arthrobacter sp. were found as predominant populations in bulk soils. Sequencing of dominant bands excised from the rhizosphere patterns revealed that 6 out of 10 bands resembled gram-positive bacteria. Nocardia populations were identified as strawberry-specific bands. PMID:11571180

  5. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  6. Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the salivary proteome of children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Charette, Laci; Ryan, Jeanne P; Woods, Alisa G; Darie, Costel C

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been on the rise. However, clear aetiology is still elusive and improvements in early diagnosis are needed. To uncover possible biomarkers present in ASD, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), to compare salivary proteome profiling of children with ASD and controls. A total of 889 spots were compared and only those spots with a fold change ?1.7 and a P-value <0.05 or a fold change of ?3.0 between ASD cases and controls were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Alpha-amylase, CREB-binding protein, p532, Transferrin, Zn alpha2 glycoprotein, Zymogen granule protein 16, cystatin D and plasminogen were down-regulated in ASD. Increased expression of proto-oncogene Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRAT1), Kinesin family member 14, Integrin alpha6 subunit, growth hormone regulated TBC protein 1, parotid secretory protein, Prolactin-inducible protein precursor, Mucin-16, Ca binding protein migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) was observed in individuals with ASD. Many of the identified proteins have previously been linked to ASD or were proposed as risk factors of ASD at the genetic level. Some others are involved in pathological pathways implicated in ASD causality such as oxidative stress, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, immune system disturbances and inflammation. These data could contribute to protein signatures for ASD presence, risk and subtypes, and advance understanding of ASD cause as well as provide novel treatment targets for ASD. PMID:26290361

  7. Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the salivary proteome of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ngounou Wetie, Armand G; Wormwood, Kelly L; Charette, Laci; Ryan, Jeanne P; Woods, Alisa G; Darie, Costel C

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been on the rise. However, clear aetiology is still elusive and improvements in early diagnosis are needed. To uncover possible biomarkers present in ASD, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), to compare salivary proteome profiling of children with ASD and controls. A total of 889 spots were compared and only those spots with a fold change ?1.7 and a P-value <0.05 or a fold change of ?3.0 between ASD cases and controls were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Alpha-amylase, CREB-binding protein, p532, Transferrin, Zn alpha2 glycoprotein, Zymogen granule protein 16, cystatin D and plasminogen were down-regulated in ASD. Increased expression of proto-oncogene Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRAT1), Kinesin family member 14, Integrin alpha6 subunit, growth hormone regulated TBC protein 1, parotid secretory protein, Prolactin-inducible protein precursor, Mucin-16, Ca binding protein migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) was observed in individuals with ASD. Many of the identified proteins have previously been linked to ASD or were proposed as risk factors of ASD at the genetic level. Some others are involved in pathological pathways implicated in ASD causality such as oxidative stress, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, immune system disturbances and inflammation. These data could contribute to protein signatures for ASD presence, risk and subtypes, and advance understanding of ASD cause as well as provide novel treatment targets for ASD. PMID:26290361

  8. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  9. Polyethylene glycol derivatives of base and sequence specific DNA ligands: DNA interaction and application for base specific separation of DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, W; Hattesohl, I; Schuetz, H J; Meyer, G

    1981-01-01

    Various base pair specific DNA ligands comprising a phenyl phenazinium dye, a triphenylmethan dye and Hoechst 33258 were covalently bound to polyethylene glycol (PEG) via ester or ether bonds. The DNA interactions of the PEG derivatives formed were shown to exhibit the same base pair specificity as the parent compounds. Since the PEG chains thus bound to the DNA could be expected to increase drastically the frictional coefficient of the DNA, the PEG derivatives were used for base specific DNA separations in agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The procedures, which do not require any special techniques, are described in detail. The resolution observed in agarose gels allows one to separate equally sized DNA fragments differing as little as 1% in base composition at mean travel distances of about 10 cm. Examples of gels showing the base compositional heterogeneity of restriction fragments obtained from lambda DNA, E. coli DNA and calf thymus DNA are given. Images PMID:6259622

  10. Two Electrophoresis Experiments for Freshmen in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabson, G. Dana; Waugh, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures involved with paper electrophoresis separation of amino acids, gel electrophoresis separation of DNA, and design of an electrophoresis tank. Describes experiments using paper (amino acids) and gel (deoxyribonucleic acid fragments). Provides material lists, procedures, and discussion. (JM)

  11. Proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode that infects humans and other mammals. Its surface proteins are recognized as antigenic in many infected hosts, being directly exposed to the host’s immune system and are the main target antigens that induce the immune responses. The larval surface proteins may also interact with intestinal epithelial cells and may play an important role in the invasion and development process of T. spiralis. The purpose of this study was to analyze and characterize the surface proteins of T. spiralis muscle larvae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Methods The surface proteins of T. spiralis muscle larvae were stripped from the cuticle of live larvae by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium deoxycholate. The surface protein stripping was examined by an immunofluorescent test (IFT). The surface proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and then identified by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Results The IFT results showed that the surface proteins-stripped larvae were not recognized by sera of mice immunized with surface antigens. Western blotting showed 7 of 12 protein bands of the surface proteins were recognized by mouse infection sera at 18 dpi and at 42 dpi. The 2-DE results showed that a total of approximately 33 proteins spots were detected with molecular weights varying from 10 to 66 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. Twenty-seven of 33 protein spots were identified and characterized to correlate with 15 different proteins. Out of the 14 proteins identified as T. spiralis proteins, 5 proteins (partial P49 antigen, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, two serine proteases, and serine proteinase) had catalytic and hydrolase activity. All of these 5 proteins were also associated with metabolic processes and 2 of the five proteins were associated with cellular processes. Conclusions In this study, T. spiralis muscle larval surface proteins have been identified, which will provide useful information to elucidate the host-parasite interaction, identify the invasion-related proteins, early diagnostic antigens and the targets for a vaccine. PMID:24330777

  12. Metabolic activation of herbicide products by Vicia faba detected in human peripheral lymphocytes using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Molina-Alvarez, Bertha; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Ezquerro, Carmen; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Valencia-Quintana, Pedro Rafael; López-González, Lucina; Zúñiga-Reyes, Rubén; Sánchez-Rincón, José

    2007-09-01

    Ametryn and metribuzin S-triazines derivatives and EPTC thiocarbamate are herbicides used extensively in Mexican agriculture, for example in crops such as corn, sugar cane, tomato, wheat, and beans. The present study evaluated the DNA damage and cytotoxic effects of three herbicides after metabolism by Vicia faba roots in human peripheral lymphocytes using akaline single cell gel electrophoresis. Three parameters were scored as indicators of DNA damage: tail length, percentage of cells with DNA damage (with comet), and level DNA damage. The lymphocytes were treated for 2 h with 0.5-5.0 microg/ml ametryn or metribuzin and 1.5-10 microg/ml EPTC. Lymphocytes also were coincubated for 2 h with 20 microl V. faba roots extracts that had been treated for 4 h with 50-500 mg/l of the two triazines or with the thiocarbamate herbicide or with ethanol (3600 mg/l), as positive control. The lymphocytes treated with three pesticides without in vivo metabolic activation by V. faba root did not show significant differences in the mean values between genotoxic parameters compared with negative control. But when human cells were exposed to three herbicides after they had been metabolized the frequency of cell comet, tail length and level DNA damage all increased. At highest concentrations of the three herbicides produced severe DNA damage compared with S10 fraction and negative control. The linear regression analysis of the tail length values of three herbicides indicated that there was genotoxic effect concentration-response relationship with ametryn and ametribuzin but no EPTC. The ethanol induced major increase DNA damage compared with S10 fraction and the three pesticides. There were not effects in cell viability with treatment EPTC and metribuzin whether or not it had been metabolized. High concentrations of ametryn alone and after it had been metabolized decreased cell viability compared with the negative control. The results demonstrated that the three herbicides needed to be activated by the V. faba root metabolism to produce DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocyte. The alkaline comet technique is a rapid and sensitive assay, to quickly evaluate DNA damage the metabolic activation of herbicide products by V. faba root in human cells in vitro. PMID:17482794

  13. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks by restriction enzymes in X-ray-sensitive mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinashi, Yuko; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Little, J.B.; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Iliakis, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether the cytotoxic effects of different restriction endonucleases are related to the number and type of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) they produce. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 and xrs-5 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of CHO K1, were exposed to restriction endonucleases HaeIII, HinfI, PvuII and BamHI by electroporation. These enzymes represent both blunt and sticky end cutters with differing recognition sequence lengths. The number of DSBs was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Two forms of PFGE were employed: asymmetric field-inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE) for measuring the kinetics of DNA breaks by enzyme digestion and clamped homogeneous gel electrophoresis (CHEF) for examining the size distributions of damaged DNA. The amount of DNA damage induced by exposure to all four restriction enzymes was significantly greater in xrs-5 compared to CHO K1 cells, consistent with the reported DSB repair deficiency in these cells. Since restriction endonucleases produce DSBs alone as opposed to the various types of DNA damage induced by X rays, these results confirm that the repair defect in this mutant involves the rejoining of DSBs. Although the cutting frequency was directly related to the length of the recognition sequence for four restriction enzymes, there was no simple correlation between the cytotoxic effect and the amount of DNA damage produced by each enzyme in either cell line. This finding suggests that the type or nature of the cutting sequence itself may play a role in restriction enzyme-induced cell killing. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2005-11-30

    The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

  15. Introducing basic molecular biology to Turkish rural and urban primary school children via hands-on PCR and gel electrophoresis activities.

    PubMed

    Selli, Cigdem; Y?ld?r?m, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gel electrophoresis. The participants were 13-year-old eighth-graders attending primary schools affiliated with Ministry of National Education in urban and rural areas of Izmir, Turkey. The purpose of this study was to introduce basic molecular biology concepts through individually performed experiments such as PCR and gel electrophoresis integrated with creative drama. The students were assessed at the beginning and the end of each project day via mini-tests, experimental and presentation skills evaluation forms. Data showed that students' knowledge about DNA structure and basic molecular biology techniques significantly increased. On the basis of experimental and presentational skills, there was no significant difference between kids from urban and rural schools or between public and boarding public schools, whereas the average score of girls was significantly higher than that of boys. In conclusion, individually performed experiments integrated with creative drama significantly increased students' perception of complex experimental procedures on basic molecular biology concepts. Data suggests that integration of these concepts into the science and technology curriculum of Turkish primary education may support the recruitment of future scientists who can handle rapidly developing genomic techniques that will affect our everyday life. PMID:24474053

  16. Identification of column edges of DNA fragments by using K-means clustering and mean algorithm on lane histograms of DNA agarose gel electrophoresis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turan, Muhammed K.; Sehirli, Eftal; Elen, Abdullah; Karas, Ismail R.

    2015-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis (GE) is one of the most used method to separate DNA, RNA, protein molecules according to size, weight and quantity parameters in many areas such as genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology. The main way to separate each molecule is to find borders of each molecule fragment. This paper presents a software application that show columns edges of DNA fragments in 3 steps. In the first step the application obtains lane histograms of agarose gel electrophoresis images by doing projection based on x-axis. In the second step, it utilizes k-means clustering algorithm to classify point values of lane histogram such as left side values, right side values and undesired values. In the third step, column edges of DNA fragments is shown by using mean algorithm and mathematical processes to separate DNA fragments from the background in a fully automated way. In addition to this, the application presents locations of DNA fragments and how many DNA fragments exist on images captured by a scientific camera.

  17. Assessment of the yeast species composition of cocoa bean fermentations in different cocoa-producing regions using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    The yeast species composition of 12 cocoa bean fermentations carried out in Brazil, Ecuador, Ivory Coast and Malaysia was investigated culture-independently. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 26S rRNA gene fragments, obtained through polymerase chain reaction with universal eukaryotic primers, was carried out with two different commercial apparatus (the DCode and CBS systems). In general, this molecular method allowed a rapid monitoring of the yeast species prevailing during fermentation. Under similar and optimal denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis conditions, the CBS system allowed a better separated band pattern than the DCode system and an unambiguous detection of the prevailing species present in the fermentation samples. The most frequent yeast species were Hanseniaspora sp., followed by Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, independent of the origin of the cocoa. This indicates a restricted yeast species composition of the cocoa bean fermentation process. Exceptionally, the Ivorian cocoa bean box fermentation samples showed a wider yeast species composition, with Hyphopichia burtonii and Meyerozyma caribbica among the main representatives. Yeasts were not detected in the samples when the temperature inside the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass reached values higher than 45 °C or under early acetic acid production conditions. PMID:22093683

  18. LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb PPrroottooccoollss Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.docx revised 11/2/12 by JW pg 1 of 3

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    , with 5 µl sample, the final conc. of loading dye is 1x. 5. Put lid on gel rig, matching red and black that the samples will "run to red." 2. Pour in enough 1x TAE buffer to cover the gel (about 250 ml), and remove the gel combs carefully. 3. Aliquot 1.5 µl dots of [SYBR green + loading dye] (see below for recipe) onto

  19. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab (for a single 2D gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 9. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37

  20. Identification of the hepatic protein targets of reactive metabolites of acetaminophen in vivo in mice using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Benet, L Z; Burlingame, A L

    1998-07-10

    Liver toxicity following an overdose of acetaminophen is frequently considered a model for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Extensive studies over many years have established that such toxicity is well correlated with liver protein arylation by acetaminophen metabolites. Identification of protein targets for covalent modifications is a challenging but necessary step in understanding how covalent binding could lead to liver toxicity. Previous approaches suffered from technical limitations, and thus over the last 10 years heroic efforts were required to determine the identity of only a few target proteins. We present a new mass spectrometry-based strategy for identification of all target proteins that now provides a comprehensive survey of the suite of liver proteins modified. After administration of radiolabeled acetaminophen to mice, the proteins in the liver tissue lysate were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In-gel digestion of the radiolabeled gel spots gave a set of tryptic peptides, which were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Interrogation of data bases based on experimentally determined molecular weights of peptides and product ion tags from postsource decay mass spectra was employed for the determination of the identities of modified liver proteins. Using this method, more than 20 new drug-labeled proteins have been identified. PMID:9651401

  1. Efficient extraction of proteins from recalcitrant plant tissue for subsequent analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2015-10-01

    Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from tissues of recalcitrant species is quite problematic and challenging due to the low protein content and high abundance of contaminants. Proteomics in Shorea robusta is scarcely conducted due to the lack of a suitable protein preparation procedure. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis in Shorea robusta, four procedures (borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction, organic solvent/trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sucrose/Tris/phenol, and organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate) were evaluated. Following these, proteins were isolated from mature leaves and were analyzed for proteomics, and also for potential contaminants, widely reported to hinder proteomics. The borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction had the lowest protein yield and did not result in any banding even in one-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction allowed the highest protein yield. Moreover, during proteomics, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extracted protein resolved the maximum number (144) of spots. Further, when proteins were evaluated for contaminants, significant (77-95%) reductions in the nucleic acids, phenol, and sugars were discernible with refinement in extraction procedure. Accumulated data suggested that the organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction was the most effective protocol for protein isolation for proteomics of Shorea robusta and can be used for plants that have a similar set of contaminants. PMID:26257211

  2. Comparison of the genomes of simian, bovine, and human rotaviruses by gel electrophoresis and detection of genomic variation among bovine isolates.

    PubMed

    Rodger, S M; Holmes, I H

    1979-06-01

    By co-electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, the segmented double-standed RNA genome of the simian rotavirus, SA 11, was compared with those of human and bovine rotaviruses. A comparison between SA 11 virus and the Northern Ireland cell culture adapted bovine virus showed that the electrophoretic mobilities of each of the 11 corresponding segments differed. In other comparisons, four to seven segment variations were more common. When the genomes of various bovine rotaviruses were compared, eight different electropherotypes were detected. Four of these electropherotypes were obtained from one property during a single outbreak of disease. In view of such genetic diversity, a scheme for the systematic designation of different rotavirus samples is proposed. The significance of the variations in relation to the molecular epidemiology of bovine rotavirus infections is discussed. PMID:225545

  3. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of a cluster of invasive group A streptococcal illness--Spokane, Washington, 1999.

    PubMed

    1999-08-13

    On January 25, 1999, health officials in Spokane County, Washington (1999 population: 415,000), were notified of a fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) caused by community-acquired invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. Although invasive GAS infection is not a reportable disease in Washington, Spokane health officials requested reports of additional invasive GAS cases from local hospital infection-control professionals and the medical examiner to identify other cases. This report describes a cluster of fatal illnesses caused by GAS in five residents of Spokane County and illustrates how investigators used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine whether the cluster was unrelated sporadic cases or attributable to a common source. PMID:10484123

  4. [Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for study of nosocomial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, S

    1992-05-01

    In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with Sma I were most suitable for the PFGE separation, giving 15-20 fragments of sizes ranging from about 30-1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 isolates of MRSA. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infection among 18 inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in 21 isolates of MRSA. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. PMID:1507456

  5. Analysis of the genome of the gram-negative moderate halophiles Halomonas and Chromohalobacter by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, E; García, M T; Roldán, E; Nieto, J J; Ventosa, A

    1998-11-01

    The genomes of 11 moderately halophilic bacteria belonging to the genera Halomonas and Chromohalobacter have been analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By using the infrequently cutting restriction endonucleases SpeI and SwaI, highly characteristic fingerprintings were obtained for each of the isolates studied. On the basis of the lengths of the SpeI and SwaI fragments, separated by PFGE, the genome size of the 11 strains studied was estimated. The genome size for 8 Halomonas strains ranged from 1450 to 2830 kb, whereas for the 3 Chromohalobacter strains studied it ranged from 1770 to 2295 kb. Finally, we show that macrorestriction fingerprints could be a useful tool to elucidate the taxonomic position of bacteria belonging to the Halomonas-Deleya complex. PMID:9827333

  6. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data in support of leaf comparative proteomics of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-09-01

    Here, we provide the data from a comparative proteomics approach used to investigate the response of boron (B)-tolerant 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) and B-intolerant 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) leaves to B-toxicity. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique, we identified 50 and 45 protein species with a fold change of more than 1.5 and a P-value of less than 0.05 from B-toxic C. sinensis and C. grandis leaves. These B-toxicity-responsive protein species were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, stress responses, coenzyme biosynthesis, protein and amino acid metabolism, signal transduction, cell transport, cytoskeleton, nucleotide metabolism, and cell cycle and DNA processing. A detailed analysis of this data may be obtained from Sang et al. (J. Proteomics 114 (2015))[1]. PMID:26217760

  7. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data in support of leaf comparative proteomics of two citrus species differing in boron-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Wen; Huang, Zeng-Rong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the data from a comparative proteomics approach used to investigate the response of boron (B)-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and B-intolerant ‘Sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) leaves to B-toxicity. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique, we identified 50 and 45 protein species with a fold change of more than 1.5 and a P-value of less than 0.05 from B-toxic C. sinensis and C. grandis leaves. These B-toxicity-responsive protein species were mainly involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, antioxidation and detoxification, stress responses, coenzyme biosynthesis, protein and amino acid metabolism, signal transduction, cell transport, cytoskeleton, nucleotide metabolism, and cell cycle and DNA processing. A detailed analysis of this data may be obtained from Sang et al. (J. Proteomics 114 (2015))[1]. PMID:26217760

  8. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  9. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20?l using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  10. Application of a label-free, gel-free quantitative proteomics method for ecotoxicological studies of small fish species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-GE) remains the basis for many ecotoxicoproteomic analyses, new, non gel-based methods are beginning to be applied to overcome throughput and coverage limitations of 2D-GE. The overall objective of our research was to apply a comprehe...

  11. Diffusion blotting for rapid production of multiple identical imprints from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingrid; Wiker, Harald G

    2009-01-01

    A very simple and fast method for diffusion blotting of proteins from precast SDS-PAGE gels on a solid plastic support was developed. Diffusion blotting for 3 min gave a quantitative transfer of 10% compared with 1-h electroblotting. For each subsequent blot from the same gel a doubling of transfer time is necessary to obtain the same amount of protein onto each blot. The relative transfer of low and high molecular weight components was similar in diffusion and electroblotting. However, both methods do give a higher total transfer of the low molecular weight proteins compared with the large proteins. The greatest advantage of diffusion blotting is that several blots can be made from each lane, thus enabling testing of multiple antisera on virtually identical blots. The gel remains on the plastic support, which prevents it from stretching or shrinking. This ensures identical blots and facilitates more reliable molecular weight determination. Furthermore, the proteins remaining in the gel can be stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue or other methods for exact and easy comparison with the developed blots. These advantages make diffusion blotting the method of choice when quantitative protein transfer is not required. PMID:19378042

  12. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  13. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures. PMID:25319243

  14. Bacterial community structure in Apis florea larvae analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Saraithong, Prakaimuk; Li, Yihong; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Chen, Zhou; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-10-01

    This study characterizes the colonization and composition of bacterial flora in dwarf Asian honeybee (Apis florea) larvae and compares bacterial diversity and distribution among different sampling locations. A. florea larvae were collected from 3 locations in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each larva using the phenol-chloroform method. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed, and the dominant bands were excised from the gels, cloned, and sequenced for bacterial species identification. The result revealed similarities of bacterial community profiles in each individual colony, but differences between colonies from the same and different locations. A. florea larvae harbor bacteria belonging to 2 phyla (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria), 5 classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Clostridia), 6 genera (Clostridium, Gilliamella, Melissococcus, Lactobacillus, Saccharibacter, and Snodgrassella), and an unknown genus from uncultured bacterial species. The classes with the highest abundance of bacteria were Alphaproteobacteria (34%), Bacilli (25%), Betaproteobacteria (11%), Gammaproteobacteria (10%), and Clostridia (8%), respectively. Similarly, uncultured bacterial species were identified (12%). Environmental bacterial species, such as Saccharibacter floricola, were also found. This is the first study in which sequences closely related to Melissococcus plutonius, the causal pathogen responsible for European foulbrood, have been identified in Thai A. florea larvae. PMID:25393530

  15. An Optimized Trichloroacetic Acid/Acetone Precipitation Method for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Qinchuan Cattle Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Containing High Proportion of Marbling

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruijie; Adoligbe, Camus; Jiang, Bijie; Zhao, Xianlin; Gui, Linsheng; Qu, Kaixing; Wu, Sen; Zan, Linsen

    2015-01-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) proteomics provides a novel opportunity to reveal the molecular mechanism behind intramuscular fat deposition. Unfortunately, the vast amounts of lipids and nucleic acids in this tissue hampered LD proteomics analysis. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation is a widely used method to remove contaminants from protein samples. However, the high speed centrifugation employed in this method produces hard precipitates, which restrict contaminant elimination and protein re-dissolution. To address the problem, the centrifugation precipitates were first grinded with a glass tissue grinder and then washed with 90% acetone (TCA/acetone-G-W) in the present study. According to our result, the treatment for solid precipitate facilitated non-protein contaminant removal and protein re-dissolution, ultimately improving two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Additionally, we also evaluated the effect of sample drying on 2-DE profile as well as protein yield. It was found that 30 min air-drying did not result in significant protein loss, but reduced horizontal streaking and smearing on 2-DE gel compared to 10 min. In summary, we developed an optimized TCA/acetone precipitation method for protein extraction of LD, in which the modifications improved the effectiveness of TCA/acetone method. PMID:25893432

  16. Diffusion blotting for rapid production of multiple identical imprints from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Olsen, I; Wiker, H G

    1998-11-01

    A simple and fast method for diffusion blotting of proteins from precast SDS-PAGE gels (0.5 mm) was developed. The efficiency of protein transfer was evaluated using 14C labelled proteins. Diffusion blotting for three minutes, gave a transfer of 10% compared to electroblotting. By doubling the transfer time for each subsequent imprint, four imprints were made from the same lane with similar amounts of protein transferred onto each imprint. With a transfer time of three minutes each, it was possible to obtain at least ten imprints with all the proteins visible in all the imprints. There was no detectable loss in resolution as compared to electroblotting. The method also works well with an immuno-detecting system. The number of imprints which can be obtained, is dependent on the sensitivity of the detection system and the amount of protein applied. The greatest advantage of diffusion blotting compared to electroblotting is that several imprints can be made from each lane, and different antisera can be tested on identical imprints. The gel remains on its plastic support which prevents it from stretching and compression; this ensures identical imprints and facilitates more reliable molecular mass determination. If only a few imprints are made, sufficient protein remains within the gel for general protein staining. These advantages make diffusion blotting the method of choice when quantitative protein transfer is not required. PMID:9839928

  17. Investigation of malignant hyperthermia: analysis of skeletal muscle proteins from normal and halothane sensitive pigs by two dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Lorkin, P A; Lehmann, H

    1983-01-01

    Two dimensional gel analysis of skeletal muscles from normal pigs and from pigs which were homozygous for halothane sensitivity showed no obvious differences in the patterns of spots attributed to the major contractile proteins and glycolytic enzymes. In muscle from a sensitive pig which died of heat shock under anaesthesia there was a selective loss of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aldolase, presumably owing to proteolytic activity. The progressive loss of these enzymes under anaesthesia could contribute to the mechanism of heat production by diverting fructose 1,6 diphosphate into a futile cycle. PMID:6842531

  18. Application of PhastSystem to the resolution of bovine milk proteins on urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Thompson, M P

    1992-05-01

    Optimal conditions were established for alkaline urea-PAGE using modified precast, ultrathin gradient gels on the automated PhastSystem. Profiles of milk proteins showed that the caseins and whey proteins resolved extremely well. Major bands were observed for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein, and alpha s2-casein appeared as a well-resolved doublet. In contrast, kappa-casein separated from other caseins as a faint doublet, and purified kappa-casein appeared as one major and one minor band. Whey proteins (serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) separated into broad bands resolved from each other and from the caseins. Partially (40%) dephosphorylated whole casein showed multiple bands for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein at different levels of phosphorylation. Separation of genetic phenotypes was observed for beta-lactoglobulin A and B; alpha s1-casein A, B, and C; and beta-casein A, B, and C. Electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins extracted from cheese samples varied among the different types of cheeses. Our modified procedure provides researchers with a rapid technique to separate both caseins and whey proteins on the same urea gel according to their charge to mass ratios. PMID:1597574

  19. Comparison of JC and BK Human Papovaviruses with Simian Virus 40: Restriction Endonuclease Digestion and Gel Electrophoresis of Resultant Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, June E.; Robertson, Sylvia M.; Padgett, Billie L.; Zu Rhein, Gabrielle M.; Walker, Duard L.; Weisblum, Bernard

    1974-01-01

    JC virus was found to have a buoyant density of 1.20 g/cm3 in linear sucrose-D2O and 1.35 g/cm3 in cesium chloride isopycnic gradients. DNA extracted either from JC-infected cultures or from gradient-purified virions occupied a dense position relative to linear DNA in cesium chloride/ethidium bromide gradients, and the circular configuration of the extracted DNA was confirmed by electron microscopy, with a measured molecular weight of 2.93 × 106. DNA from BK virus was similarly prepared and compared to JC and to an SV40 DNA standard by digestion with restriction endonuclease preparations from Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Escherichia coli. Digests were electrophoretically analyzed on gradient polyacrylamide slab gels or agarose gels, and the three viruses were found to have distinctly different cleavage patterns by this form of analysis: JC and BK viruses were almost entirely different from SV40 and significantly different from each other. Thus, JC and BK human papovaviruses appear to be discrete new members of the papovavirus group, rather than SV40 variants. Images PMID:4362864

  20. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 5. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37°C. 6. Following

  1. Analysis of interspecies adherence of oral bacteria using a membrane binding assay coupled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren-ke; He, Xue-song; Hu, Wei; Lux, Renate; Li, Ji-yao; Zhou, Xue-dong; Shi, Wen-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Information on co-adherence of different oral bacterial species is important for understanding interspecies interactions within oral microbial community. Current knowledge on this topic is heavily based on pariwise coaggregation of known, cultivable species. In this study, we employed a membrane binding assay coupled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to systematically analyze the co-adherence profiles of oral bacterial species, and achieved a more profound knowledge beyond pairwise coaggregation. Two oral bacterial species were selected to serve as “bait”: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) whose ability to adhere to a multitude of oral bacterial species has been extensively studied for pairwise interactions and Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) whose interacting partners are largely unknown. To enable screening of interacting partner species within bacterial mixtures, cells of the “bait” oral bacterium were immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes which were washed and blocked to prevent unspecific binding. The “prey” bacterial mixtures (including known species or natural saliva samples) were added, unbound cells were washed off after the incubation period and the remaining cells were eluted using 0.2 mol·L?1 glycine. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to 16S rRNAPCR amplification and separation of the resulting PCR products by DGGE. Selected bands were recovered from the gel, sequenced and identified via Nucleotide BLAST searches against different databases. While few bacterial species bound to S. mutans, consistent with previous findings F.nucleatum adhered to a variety of bacterial species including uncultivable and uncharacterized ones. This new approach can more effectively analyze the co-adherence profiles of oral bacteria, and could facilitate the systematic study of interbacterial binding of oral microbial species. PMID:21485313

  2. Assessment of Resolution and Intercenter Reproducibility of Results of Genotyping Staphylococcus aureus by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of SmaI Macrorestriction Fragments: a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, Alex; van Leeuwen, Willem; Kaufmann, Mary Elizabeth; Cookson, Barry; Forey, Françoise; Etienne, Jerome; Goering, Richard; Tenover, Fred; Steward, Christine; O’Brien, Frances; Grubb, Warren; Tassios, Panayotis; Legakis, Nicholas; Morvan, Anne; El Solh, Névine; de Ryck, Raf; Struelens, Marc; Salmenlinna, Saara; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Kooistra, Mirjam; Talens, Adriaan; Witte, Wolfgang; Verbrugh, Henri

    1998-01-01

    Twenty well-characterized isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were used to study the optimal resolution and interlaboratory reproducibility of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA macrorestriction fragments. Five identical isolates (one PFGE type), 5 isolates that produced related PFGE subtypes, and 10 isolates with unique PFGE patterns were analyzed blindly in 12 different laboratories by in-house protocols. In several laboratories a standardized PFGE protocol with a commercial kit was applied successfully as well. Eight of the centers correctly identified the genetic homogeneity of the identical isolates by both the in-house and standard protocols. Four of 12 laboratories failed to produce interpretable data by the standardized protocol, due to technical problems (primarily plug preparation). With the five related isolates, five of eight participants identified the same subtype interrelationships with both in-house and standard protocols. However, two participants identified multiple strain types in this group or classified some of the isolates as unrelated isolates rather than as subtypes. The remaining laboratory failed to distinguish differences between some of the related isolates by utilizing both the in-house and standardized protocols. There were large differences in the relative genome lengths of the isolates as calculated on the basis of the gel pictures. By visual inspection, the numbers of restriction fragments and overall banding pattern similarity in the three groups of isolates showed interlaboratory concordance, but centralized computer analysis of data from four laboratories yielded percent similarity values of only 85% for the group of identical isolates. The differences between the data sets obtained with in-house and standardized protocols could be the experimental parameters which differed with respect to the brand of equipment used, imaging software, running time (20 to 48 h), and pulsing conditions. In conclusion, it appears that the standardization of PFGE depends on controlling a variety of experimental intricacies, as is the case with other bacterial typing procedures. PMID:9620395

  3. Identification of Vibrio cholerae serotypes in high-risk marine products with non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Ming; Sun, Chengjun; Zou, Haimin; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Liyin; Tao, Siyuan; Wang, Bingyue; Li, Yongxin

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a natural inhabitant of the marine environment, poses a threat to human health, and its new epidemic variants have been reported. A method of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (PCR-CE-LIF) detection has been developed to detect and identify V. cholerae in marine products sensitively, rapidly, and reliably. Four sets of primers were selected to amplify genus-specific VCC gene, O139 serogroup-specific O139 gene, O1 serogroup-specific O1 gene, and ctxA gene associated with the CT toxin of enterotoxigenic V. cholerae. The PCR products were detected using CE-LIF with SYBR Gold serving as the DNA fluorescent dye. The parameters of PCR and the separation conditions of CE-LIF were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, V. cholerae was detected and four serotypes were identified simultaneously within 8 min. The alignment analysis showed that the PCR products had good agreement with the published sequences from GenBank, indicating that the primers selected in this study had high specificity and the PCR results were reliable. The proposed method could detect 5 to 20 cfu/ml V. cholerae. The intraday precisions of migration time and peak area of DNA marker and PCR products were in the ranges of 1.60-2.56% and 1.60-6.29%, respectively. The specificity results showed that only five standard bacteria used in this study showed the specific peaks when the target bacteria were mixed with seven other common intestinal pathogenic bacteria at the same concentration. The assay was applied to 71 high-risk marine products, and different serotypes of V. cholerae could be identified sensitively and reliably. PMID:26548956

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels.

    PubMed

    Pielesz, A

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants. PMID:22465769

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy and electrophoresis as a "golden means" in monitoring of polysaccharides in medical plant and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielesz, A.

    In recent years, some bioactive polysaccharides isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. Of them, polysaccharides or their glycoconjugates were shown to exhibit multiple biological activities including anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, immunostimulating, antioxidant, etc. Pharmacotherapy using plant-derived substances can be currently regarded as a very promising future alternative to conventional therapy. The advanced biotechnologies available today enable chemical investigation of well-defined bioactive plant components as sources of novel drugs. The need for safer drugs without side effects has led to the use of natural ingredients with proven safety. Special interest is focused on plant polysaccharides. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive monosaccharides isolated from following plant cell-wall: Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Thymus pulegioides (thyme), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek), Tussilago farfara L. (coltsfoot), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop), Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) and Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail). The chemical structures of monosaccharides were analysed using FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAE). The dried plant samples were gently hydrolysed with sulphuric acid. The presence of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, alginic acid, glucose, mannose and xylose in the hydrolysates of reference substances and non-defatted plant films was proved. The possibility of a taxonomic classification of plant cell walls based on infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the use of spectral fingerprinting for authentication and detection of adulteration of products rich in cell-wall materials are discussed. Individual bands were selected to monitor the sugar content in medical plant cell walls and to confirm the identity of the analysed plants.

  6. Genetic Characterization of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Ewes' Milk, Sheep Farm Environments, and Humans by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2013-01-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water. PMID:23872571

  7. Epidemiological Analysis of Salmonella enteritidis Isolates from Humans and Broiler Chickens in Thailand by Phage Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Boonmar, Sumalee; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pornrunangwong, Srirat; Terajima, Jun; Watanabe, Haruo; Kaneko, Ken-Ichi; Ogawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    To determine the phage types (PT) of Salmonella enteritidis found in Thailand and to clarify the potential for human infection by S. enteritidis in broiler chicken meat, human and poultry isolates taken from Thailand between 1990 and 1997 were phage typed and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ten different PT were found among the 302 isolates phage typed, with PT 4 being the most frequent in human (73.9%) and poultry (76.2%) isolates, followed by PT 1 (8.0%), 8 (3.6%), and 7a (2.2%) in human isolates and by PT 7a (4.9%), 1 (3.7%), and 12 (2.4%) in poultry isolates. Of the 53 isolates analyzed by PFGE, 45 showed an indistinguishable pattern (pattern A) by BlnI-digested PFGE and the other 8 isolates showed a very similar pattern that differed by only a few bands. These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. PMID:9542918

  8. Molecular characterization of mild-to-moderate hemophilia A: detection of the mutation in 25 of 29 patients by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, M; Antonarakis, S E; Kasch, L; Oldenburg, J; Economou-Petersen, E; Olek, K; Arai, M; Inaba, H; Kazazian, H H

    1991-01-01

    To date it has been difficult to characterize completely a genetic disorder, such as hemophilia A, in which the involved gene is large and unrelated affected individuals have different mutations, most of which are point mutations. Toward this end, we analyzed the DNA of 29 patients with mild-to-moderate hemophilia A in which the causative mutation is likely to be a missense mutation. Using computer analysis, we determined the melting properties of factor VIII gene sequences to design primer sets for PCR amplification and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 45 primer sets was chosen to amplify 99% of the coding region of the gene and 41 of 50 splice junctions. To facilitate detection of point mutations, we mixed DNA from two male patients, and both homoduplexes and heteroduplexes were analyzed. With these 45 primer sets, 26 DNAs containing previously identified point mutations in the factor VIII gene were studied, and all 26 mutations were easily distinguishable from normal. After analyzing the 29 patients with unknown mutations, we identified the disease-producing mutation in 25 (86%). Two polymorphisms and two rare normal variants were also found. Therefore, DGGE after computer analysis is a powerful method for nearly complete characterization of disease-producing mutations and polymorphisms in large genes such as that for factor VIII. Images PMID:1924291

  9. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  10. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma hyorhinis isolated from pigs using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Marques, Lucas M; Buzinhani, Melissa; Buim, Marcos R; Neto, Renata L; Guimarães, Ana Márcia S; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Economic loss in pig breeding is common due to respiratory disorders, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, namely, are the most common infectious agents. The aim of this study is to recover these mollicutes and detect their genotypic variations by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing the 16?s rRNA gene. One hundred and twenty-six swabs from tonsil and nasal mucus of pigs with respiratory disorders were analysed. A total of 78 lungs were sampled, as well as two trachea and two tonsils obtained from animals with respiratory disorder. A total of 59 isolates were obtained: 1 (1.70 per cent) of M hyopneumoniae, 2 (3.40 per cent) of Mycoplasma flocculare and 56 (94.90 per cent) of M hyorhinis. The PFGE for M hyorhinis showed 10 profiles with enzyme AvaI and 9 profiles with XhoI. A low polymorphism of the 16sRNS gene was detected in M hyorhinis isolates compared with the type strain in the GenBank. M hyorhinis isolates of different herds showed a large heterogenicity with enzymes AvaI and XhoI. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed for analysing the interspecific and intraspecific variations of isolated mycoplasmas. PMID:26688737

  11. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to characterise and trace the prevalence of Enterobacter sakazakii in an infant formula processing facility.

    PubMed

    Mullane, N R; Whyte, P; Wall, P G; Quinn, T; Fanning, S

    2007-05-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii (E. sakazakii) contamination of powdered infant formula (PIF) and its processing environment was monitored between April 2005 and March 2006. The purpose of the monitoring programme was to locate points of contamination, investigate clonal persistence, and identify possible dissemination routes along the processing chain. A total of 80 E. sakazakii isolates were recovered from the manufacturing facility. The overall frequency of isolation of E. sakazakii in intermediate and final product was 2.5%, while specific locations in the processing environment were contaminated at frequencies up to 31%. All E. sakazakii isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). XbaI macrorestriction digests yielded 19 unique pulse-types that could be grouped into 6 clusters of between 5 and 32 isolates. The formation of large clusters was consistent with the presence of a number of clones in the manufacturing environment. While the majority of isolates were of environmental origin (72.5%), no cluster was confined to one specific location and indistinguishable PFGE profiles were generated from isolates cultured from the manufacturing environment, sampling points along the processing chain and from intermediate and final product. These findings suggest that the manufacturing environment serves as a key route for sporadic contamination of PIF. These data will support the development of efficient intervention measures contributing to the reduction of E. sakazakii in the PIF processing chain. PMID:17307267

  12. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole?Acetic acid, HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES?Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris?HEPES?MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  13. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  14. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed. PMID:25836408

  15. Development and Application of a Selective PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Approach To Detect a Recently Cultivated Bacillus Group Predominant in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tzeneva, Vesela A.; Li, Youguo; Felske, Andreas D. M.; de Vos, Willem M.; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Smidt, Hauke

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide presence of a hitherto-nondescribed group of predominant soil microorganisms related to Bacillus benzoevorans was analyzed after development of two sets of selective primers targeting 16S rRNA genes in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The high abundance and cultivability of at least some of these microorganisms makes them an appropriate subject for studies on their biogeographical dissemination and diversity. Since cultivability can vary significantly with the physiological state and even between closely related strains, we developed a culture-independent 16S rRNA gene-targeted DGGE fingerprinting protocol for the detection of these bacteria from soil samples. The composition of the B. benzoevorans relatives in the soil samples from The Netherlands, Bulgaria, Russia, Pakistan, and Portugal showed remarkable differences between the different countries. Differences in the DGGE profiles of these communities in archived soil samples from the Dutch Wieringermeer polder were observed over time during which a shift from anaerobic to aerobic and from saline to freshwater conditions occurred. To complement the molecular methods, we additionally cultivated B. benzoevorans-related strains from all of the soil samples. The highest number of B. benzoevorans relatives was found in the soils from the northern part of The Netherlands. The present study contributes to our knowledge of the diversity and abundance of this interesting group of microbes in soils throughout the world. PMID:15466517

  16. Carnosol, rosemary ingredient, induces apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells via glutathione depletion: proteomic approach using fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yo-ichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Okayama, Akihiko; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a fatal malignancy caused by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 and there is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. We searched for biological active substances for the prevention and treatment of ATL from several species of herbs. The ATL cell growth-inhibitory activity and apoptosis assay showed that carnosol, which is an ingredient contained in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), induced apoptosis in ATL cells. Next, to investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism of carnosol, we applied proteomic analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteomic analysis showed that the expression of reductases, enzymes in glycolytic pathway, and enzymes in pentose phosphate pathway was increased in carnosol-treated cells, compared with untreated cells. These results suggested that carnosol affected the redox status in the cells. Further, the quantitative analysis of glutathione, which plays the central role for the maintenance of intracellular redox status, indicated that carnosol caused the decrease of glutathione in the cells. Further, N-acetyl-L-cystein, which is precursor of glutathione, canceled the efficiency of carnosol. From these results, it was suggested that the apoptosis-inducing activity of carnosol in ATL cells was caused by the depletion of glutathione. PMID:24323765

  17. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as an epidemiological marker for study of nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Takeuchi, J

    1991-12-01

    In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with SmaI were most suitable for the PFGE separation. SmaI cut genomic DNA into 15 to 20 fragments whose sizes ranged from about 30 to 1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 infecting and colonizing MRSA isolates from six different hospitals in Japan. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infections among inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in the 20 strains isolated from 18 infected patients and 1 from colonized hospital personnel. According to the restriction patterns, we found that four types of these strains had caused epidemic infections among 13 patients in the outbreak. Two types (types 1 and 4) of the strains were involved in the death of five patients. The other infections were sporadic. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates which could not be differentiated by antibiogram or plasmid analysis. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. PMID:1757534

  18. Genomic DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as an epidemiological marker for study of nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Takeuchi, J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with SmaI were most suitable for the PFGE separation. SmaI cut genomic DNA into 15 to 20 fragments whose sizes ranged from about 30 to 1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 infecting and colonizing MRSA isolates from six different hospitals in Japan. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infections among inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in the 20 strains isolated from 18 infected patients and 1 from colonized hospital personnel. According to the restriction patterns, we found that four types of these strains had caused epidemic infections among 13 patients in the outbreak. Two types (types 1 and 4) of the strains were involved in the death of five patients. The other infections were sporadic. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates which could not be differentiated by antibiogram or plasmid analysis. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. Images PMID:1757534

  19. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis & repetitive sequence-based PCR methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Escherichia coli clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Juwon; Sun, Je Young Hannah; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Yong-Rok; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Lee, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: PFGE, rep-PCR, and MLST are widely used to identify related bacterial isolates and determine epidemiologic associations during outbreaks. This study was performed to compare the ability of repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the genetic relationships among Escherichia coli isolates assigned to various sequence types (STs) by two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes. Methods: A total of 41 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase- (ESBL-) and/or AmpC ?-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical isolates were included in this study. MLST experiments were performed following the Achtman's MLST scheme and the Whittam's MLST scheme, respectively. Rep-PCR experiments were performed using the DiversiLab system. PFGE experiments were also performed. Results: A comparison of the two MLST methods demonstrated that these two schemes yielded compatible results. PFGE correctly segregated E. coli isolates belonging to different STs as different types, but did not group E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST in the same group. Rep-PCR accurately grouped E. coli isolates belonging to the same ST together, but this method demonstrated limited ability to discriminate between E. coli isolates belonging to different STs. Interpretation & conclusions: These results suggest that PFGE would be more effective when investigating outbreaks in a limited space, such as a specialty hospital or an intensive care unit, whereas rep-PCR should be used for nationwide or worldwide epidemiology studies. PMID:25579152

  20. Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Mark J.; Shield-Artin, Kristy L.; Oliva, Karen; Ayhan, Mustafa; Reisman, Simone; Rice, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4). The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to “normal” levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage. PMID:23858298

  1. Quantification of 16S rRNAs in Complex Bacterial Communities by Multiple Competitive Reverse Transcription-PCR in Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Felske, Andreas; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; De Vos, Willem M.

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach was developed to quantify rRNA sequences in complex bacterial communities. The main bacterial 16S rRNAs in Drentse A grassland soils (The Netherlands) were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with bacterium-specific primers and were separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The primer pair used (primers U968-GC and L1401) was found to amplify with the same efficiency 16S rRNAs from bacterial cultures containing different taxa and cloned 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from uncultured soil bacteria. The sequence-specific efficiency of amplification was determined by monitoring the amplification kinetics by kinetic PCR. The primer-specific amplification efficiency was assessed by competitive PCR and RT-PCR, and identical input amounts of different 16S rRNAs resulted in identical amplicon yields. The sequence-specific detection system used for competitive amplifications was TGGE, which also has been found to be suitable for simultaneous quantification of more than one sequence. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied to TGGE fingerprints of soil bacteria to estimate the ratios of the bacterial 16S rRNAs. PMID:9797325

  2. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis for multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Schwarzengrund isolates collected in six years (2000-2005) from retail chicken meat in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Hui; Hwang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Shu-Wan; Shih, Yang-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella Schwarzengrund is one of the causative agents of human salmonellosis and animal infections. High prevalence of multidrug resistant strains of S. Schwarzengrund from chicken meat has been recently reported in Taiwan. With an attempt to see if such prevalence in chicken meat was due to the recirculation of S. Schwarzengrund strains in traditional marketplaces, a total of 173 S. Schwarzengrund strains isolated between 2000 and 2005 from 417 retail chicken meat samples purchased from Taipei, Taiwan were analyzed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. For XbaI and AvrII digested DNA, a total of 23 and 16 PFGE patterns, respectively, were obtained. When these patterns were combined, a total of 47 subtypes were obtained and the major subtypes were X3A2, X1A2 and X2A1. Since it was found that these major subtypes were repeatedly found for multidrug resistant strains collected from 2000 to 2005, we then collected the chicken meat isolates from central and southern Taiwan in 2006. These strains did not show similar major subtypes as those found in Taipei. Such results might also suggest that the repeated appearance of some major subtypes for S. Schwarzengrund strains isolated each year in Taipei was due to the recirculation of these strains in retail marketplace during these years. PMID:21356444

  3. A comparative proteomic study of plasma in feline pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify diagnostic biomarkers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meachem, Melissa D; Snead, Elisabeth R; Kidney, Beverly A; Jackson, Marion L; Dickinson, Ryan; Larson, Victoria; Simko, Elemir

    2015-07-01

    While pancreatitis is now recognized as a common ailment in cats, the diagnosis remains challenging due to discordant results and suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and specific feline pancreatic lipase (Spec fPL) assay. Pancreatitis also shares similar clinical features with pancreatic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive disease with a grave prognosis. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the plasma proteomes of normal healthy cats (n = 6), cats with pancreatitis (n = 6), and cats with pancreatic carcinoma (n = 6) in order to identify potential new biomarkers of feline pancreatic disease. After plasma protein separation by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein spots were detected by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining and identified by mass spectrometry. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein-A1 precursor (Pre Apo-A1) appeared to be differentially expressed, which suggests the presence of a systemic acute-phase response and alteration of lipid metabolism in cats with pancreatic disease. Future studies involving greater case numbers are needed in order to assess the utility of these proteins as potential biomarkers. More sensitive proteomic techniques may also be helpful in detecting significant but low-abundance proteins. PMID:26130850

  4. Parallel Characterization of Anaerobic Toluene- and Ethylbenzene-Degrading Microbial Consortia by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, RNA-DNA Membrane Hybridization, and DNA Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Saïd; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis. PMID:12088997

  5. Molecular characterization of mild-to-moderate hemophilia A: Detection of the mutation in 25 of 29 patients by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Miyoko; Antonarakis, S.E.; Kasch, L. Economou-Petersen, E.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. ); Oldenburg, J.; Olek, K. ); Arai, Morio; Inaba, Hiroshi )

    1991-10-01

    To date it has been difficult to characterize completely a genetic disorder, such as hemophilia A, in which the involved gene is large and unrelated affected individuals have different mutations, most of which are point mutations. Toward this end, the authors analyzed the DNA of 29 patients with mild-to-moderate hemophilia A in which the causative mutation is likely to be a missense mutation. Using computer analysis, they determined the melting properties of factor VIII gene sequences to design primer sets for PCR amplification and subsequent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 45 primer sets was chosen to amplify 99% of the coding region of the gene and 41 of 50 splice junctions. To facilitate detection of point mutations, they mixed DNA from two male patients, and both homoduplexes and heteroduplexes were analyzed. With these 45 primer sets, 26 DNAs containing previously identified point mutations were easily distinguishable from normal. After analyzing the 29 patient with unknown mutations, they identified the disease-producing mutation in 25 (86%). Two polymorphisms and two rare normal variants were also found. Therefore, DGGE after computer analysis is a powerful method for nearly complete characterization of disease-producing mutations and polymorphisms in large genes such as that for factor VIII.

  6. Comparison of the Diversilab® system with multi-locus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for the characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae invasive strains.

    PubMed

    Al Nakib, Malik; Longo, Magalie; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoet, Annick; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire

    2011-05-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (or group B streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Several epidemiological typing tools have been developed for GBS to investigate the association between genotype and disease and to assess genetic variations within genogroups. This study compared the semi-automated repetitive sequence-based PCR Diversilab® system (DL) with MLST and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for determining the relatedness of invasive GBS strains. We analysed 179 unrelated GBS strains isolated from adult (n=108) and neonatal (n=71) invasive infections. By MLST, strains were resolved into 6 clonal complexes (CCs) including 23 sequence-types (STs), and 4 unique STs, whereas DL differentiated these isolates into 12 rep-PCR clusters (rPCs) and 9 unique rep-PCR types. The discriminatory power of both methods was similar, with Simpson's diversity indexes of 71.9% and 70.6%, respectively. However, their clustering concordance was low with Wallace concordance coefficients inferior to 0.4. PFGE was performed on 31 isolates representative of the most relevant DLrPCs clustered within the 3 major MLST CCs (CC-17, CC-23 and CC-1). As already observed with MLST, the concordance of DL with PFGE was low for all three CCs (Wallace coefficient <0.5), PFGE being more discriminative than rep-PCR. In summary, this work suggests that DL is less appropriate than MLST or PFGE to study GBS population genetic diversity. PMID:21338630

  7. Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J.; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M.; Tecles, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

  8. Porcine salivary analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis in 3 models of acute stress: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Rubio, María; Cerón, José J; de Torre, Carlos; Escribano, Damián; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Tecles, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to study changes in the salivary proteome of healthy pigs in stressful situations to identify any potential new salivary biomarker of stress. Three groups of animals were subjected to 3 stress models: snaring restraint followed by simulated sampling of vena cava blood; brief transport by road; and restriction of movement in a digestibility cage. Saliva was obtained from each animal before and 15 and 30 min after the induction of stress. The samples from the animals that showed the greatest increase in salivary cortisol concentration were pooled and run on 2-dimensional gels. Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 was used for spot detection and mass spectrometry for spot identification. Statistical analyses showed that 2 proteins had significant differences in expression before and after the induction of stress. These proteins were identified as odorant-binding protein and fragments of albumin. Further studies will be necessary to confirm the value of using these proteins as salivary biomarkers of stress in pigs. PMID:24688174

  9. Solution-state 2D NMR of ball-milled plant cell wall gels in DMSO-d6/pyridine-d5†

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, John

    2014-01-01

    NMR fingerprinting of the components of finely divided plant cell walls swelled in DMSO has been recently described. Cell wall gels, produced directly in the NMR tube with perdeutero-dimethylsulfoxide, allowed the acquisition of well resolved/dispersed 2D 13C–1H correlated solution-state NMR spectra of the entire array of wall polymers, without the need for component fractionation. That is, without actual solubilization, and without apparent structural modification beyond that inflicted by the ball milling and ultrasonication steps, satisfactorily interpretable spectra can be acquired that reveal compositional and structural details regarding the polysaccharide and lignin components in the wall. Here, the profiling method has been improved by using a mixture of perdeuterated DMSO and pyridine (4:1, v/v). Adding pyridine provided not only easier sample handling because of the better mobility compared to the DMSO-d6-only system but also considerably elevated intensities and improved resolution of the NMR spectra due to the enhanced swelling of the cell walls. This modification therefore provides a more rapid method for comparative structural evaluation of plant cell walls than is currently available. We examined loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, a gymnosperm), aspen (Populus tremuloides, an angiosperm), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, an herbaceous plant), and corn (Zea mays L., a grass, i.e., from the Poaceae family). In principle, lignin composition (notably, the syringyl : guaiacyl : p-hydroxyphenyl ratio) can be quantified without the need for lignin isolation. Correlations for p-coumarate units in the corn sample are readily seen, and a variety of the ferulate correlations are also well resolved; ferulates are important components responsible for cell wall cross-linking in grasses. Polysaccharide anomeric correlations were tentatively assigned for each plant sample based on standard samples and various literature data. With the new potential for chemometric analysis using the 2D NMR fingerprint, this gel-state method may provide the basis for an attractive approach to providing a secondary screen for selecting biomass lines and for optimizing biomass processing and conversion efficiencies. PMID:20090974

  10. Analytical QbD: development of a native gel electrophoresis method for measurement of monoclonal antibody aggregates.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Mili; Dutta, Debayon; Rathore, Anurag

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a quality by design (QbD) based development of a novel native PAGE (N-PAGE) method as a low-cost analytical tool for analysis of aggregates of monoclonal antibodies. Comparability to the present gold standard of SEC has been established. The motivation is the fact that SEC requires relatively expensive equipment and consumables, thus making N-PAGE relevant to those academicians and other small companies involved in early-stage development of biotherapeutics that do not have access to SEC, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, SEC suffers from certain disadvantages including the possibility of secondary interactions between the stationary phase and analyte resulting in higher elution time and therefore underestimation of the analyte size. The proposed N-PAGE method can also serve as an orthogonal analytical method for aggregate analysis. A QbD-based approach has been used for development and optimization of the protocol. First, initial screening studies were carried out with parameters including the running buffer pH, running buffer molarity, gel buffer pH, loading dye, sample concentration, and running voltage. Next, optimization of operating parameters was performed using principles of design of experiments. The final optimized protocol was compared to the traditional SEC method and the results were found to be comparable. While N-PAGE has been in use for protein analysis for several decades, use of N-PAGE for analysis of mAb aggregates with data comparable to SEC such as the case presented here is novel. PMID:24643784

  11. Determination of optimal protein quantity required to identify abundant and less abundant soybean seed proteins by 2D-PAGE and MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing the amounts of proteins required to separate and characterize both abundant and less abundant proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) is critical for conducting proteomic research. In this study, we tested five different levels of soybean seed proteins (7...

  12. Image Pretreatment Tools II: Normalization Techniques for 2-DE and 2-D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Robotti, Elisa; Marengo, Emilio; Quasso, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is usually applied to identify different protein expression profiles in biological samples (e.g., control vs. pathological, control vs. treated). Information about the effect to be investigated (a pathology, a drug, a ripening effect, etc.) is however generally confounded with experimental variability that is quite large in 2-DE and may arise from small variations in the sample preparation, reagents, sample loading, electrophoretic conditions, staining and image acquisition. Obtaining valid quantitative estimates of protein abundances in each map, before the differential analysis, is therefore fundamental to provide robust candidate biomarkers.Normalization procedures are applied to reduce experimental noise and make the images comparable, improving the accuracy of differential analysis. Certainly, they may deeply influence the final results, and to this respect they have to be applied with care. Here, the most widespread normalization procedures are described both for what regards the applications to 2-DE and 2D Difference Gel-electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) maps. PMID:26611411

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of Dan'er malts produced from distinct malting processes by two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Jin, Zhao; Gao, Fei; Lu, Jian; Cai, Guolin; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-24

    The malting process is the controlled germination, followed by drying, of the barley grain. For brewing beer, the malting process is modified according to the features of the barley variety being malted. In China, there are two schedules routinely used for malting the widely grown Dan'er cultivar, processes I and II. The quality of malt produced with process II is considered to be superior to that from process I for Dan'er by maltsters and brewers. In the present study, comparative proteomic analysis was performed between Dan'er malts produced by malting processes I and II. The data showed that enzymes and proteins responsible for cell wall polysaccharide degradation and starch and protein hydrolysis were more abundant in malt produced by process II, leading to improved quality, especially for the commercially important filterability, saccharification time, and diastatic power (DP) quality traits. In addition, to verify the proteomic results, the activities of several key enzymes (?-amylase, ?-amylase, and limit dextrinase) were compared between the two malts. This enabled the influence of malting process on malt quality to be determined and suggested malting process schedule changes to optimize the malting process for the Dan'er cultivar, especially for improving filterability, which is often deemed as suboptimal by maltsters and brewers. PMID:25190622

  14. Getting the Most out of Electrophoresis Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    At Oklahoma City Community College, they have developed gel electrophoresis activities that support active learning of many scientific concepts, including: pH, electrolysis, oxidation reduction, electrical currents, potentials, conductivity, molarity, gel electrophoresis, DNA and protein separation, and DNA fingerprinting. This article presents…

  15. Proteinases secreted by Fasciola hepatica: time course of the inhibitory effect of serum from experimentally infected rabbits demonstrated by gelatin-substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, L; Acosta, D; Dowd, A; McGonicle, S; Dalton, J; Carmona, C

    1997-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica secretes proteolytic enzymes to aid it to penetrate and migrate through the host tissues. Two of these proteinases have been purified and shown to be cathepsin L-like, and are termed, CL1 (27.5 kD) and CL2 (29 kD). The immunogenicity of these proteinases was investigated over the course of an experimental infection and following drug treatment. Four groups of rabbits were studied: group 1: orally infected with 50 metacercariae; group 2: infected and treated 8 weeks after infection; group 3: infected, treated at week 8 and reinfected at week 13 and group 4: non-infected control group. Sera were collected weekly from each group until week 20 postinfection. CL1 and CL2 were incubated with the different sera and then analysed by gelatin substrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GS-PAGE). Analysis of groups 1, 2 and 3 showed that CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies appear at week 5 post-infection. In group 1, these remained throughout the 20 weeks of infection. In group 2, neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13, that is, 5 weeks after anti-Fasciola treatment. In group 3, CL1 and CL2 neutralizing antibodies disappeared at week 13 but reappeared by week 15, that is 2 weeks after reinfection. Pooled sera from group 4, showed no inhibitory capacity. ELISA results using CL1 and CL2 as antigen, correlate very well with the inhibitiory time course observed by GS-PAGE. These results suggest that purified cathepsin Ls are antigenic molecules recognized early in the infective process and capable of inducing a specific humoral response, strong enough to neutralize, at least partially, their enzymatic activity. PMID:9443952

  16. A study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma by gel electrophoresis method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Golgire, Someshwar

    2014-01-01

    Context: The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is found in almost all the cells of body tissues, can be separated into five fractions and the isoenzyme pattern is believed to vary according to the metabolic requirement of each tissue. LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be considered to be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate salivary LDH isoenzyme pattern in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate between LDH isoenzyme levels and histopathologic grading in selected cases of OL and OSCC. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed 30 cases each of OL and OSCC were selected for the study and 30 healthy individuals of comparable age served as control. Unstimulated whole saliva was aseptically collected and was processed immediately for LDH isoenzymes measurement by agarose gel electrophoresis. Biopsy specimen obtained was processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Sections of OL and OSCC cases were scrutinized histopathologically and appropriately graded for epithelial dysplasia and differentiation of carcinoma respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two sample t test for testing the significance of difference between two group means was used. Results and Conclusion: The present salivary analysis for LDH isoenzyme reveals an overall increased salivary LDH isoenzyme level in OL and OSCC cases and a significant correlation between levels of salivary LDH isoenzymes and histopathologic grades of dysplasia in OL and OSCC. Salivary analysis of LDH will definitely provide the clinician and/or the patient himself with an efficient, non invasive and friendly new tool for diagnosis and monitoring of oral precancer and cancer. PMID:25364177

  17. Identification of bacteria in a biodegraded wall painting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified gene fragments coding for 16S rRNA.

    PubMed

    Rölleke, S; Muyzer, G; Wawer, C; Wanner, G; Lubitz, W

    1996-06-01

    Medieval wall paintings are often affected by biodecay. An inventory of the existing microorganisms associated with the damage to the paintings is not yet an integral part of the restoration process. This stems from the lack of effective means for such a stocktaking. Nevertheless, fungi and bacteria cause severe damage through mechanical processes from growth into the painting and its grounding and through their metabolism. Detailed information on the bacterial colonization of ancient wall paintings is essential for the protection of the paintings. We used a molecular approach based on the detection and identification of DNA sequences encoding rRNA (rDNA) to identify bacteria present on an ancient wall painting without prior cultivation of the organisms, since it has been shown that most of these bacteria cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. To trace the noncultivated fraction of bacteria, total DNA from a biodegraded wall painting sample from a 13th century fresco was extracted and 194-bp fragments of the 16S rDNA were amplified with eubacterial primers. The 16S rDNA fragments of uniform length obtained from the different bacterial species were separated according to their sequence differences by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). By sequencing excised and reamplified individual DNA bands, we characterized the phylogenetic affiliation of the corresponding bacteria. Using this approach, we identified members or close relatives of the genera Halomonas, Clostridium, and Frankia. To our knowledge, these groups of bacteria have not yet been isolated and implicated by conventional microbiological techniques as contributing to the biodegradation of wall paintings. PMID:8787403

  18. A comparison of BOX-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Charlene R; Furtula, Vesna; Farrell, Erin G; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the Lower Fraser Valley regions of British Columbia, Canada was determined. A new automated BOX-PCR and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to subtype enterococcal isolates from broiler and layer litter and surface and groundwater. All surface water samples (n = 12) were positive for enterococci, as were 11% (3/28) of groundwater samples. Enterococcus faecium (n = 90) was isolated from all sources, while Enterococcus faecalis (n = 59) was isolated from all sources except layer litter. The majority of E. faecalis originated from broiler litter (28/59; 47.5%) while the majority of E. faecium were isolated from layer litter (29/90; 32.2%). E. faecalis grouped primarily by source using BOX-PCR. Isolates from water samples were dispersed more frequently among PFGE groups containing isolates from poultry litter. E. faecium strains were genetically diverse as overall clustering was independent of source by both molecular methods. Subgroups of E. faecium isolates based upon source (layer litter) were present in BOX-PCR groups. Three individual E. faecalis groups and two individual E. faecium groups were 100% similar using BOX-PCR; only one instance of 100% similarity among isolates using PFGE was observed. Although enterococci from litter and water sources were grouped together using BOX-PCR and PFGE, isolates originating from water could not be definitively identified as originating from poultry litter. Automation of BOX-PCR amplicon separation and visualization increased the reproducibility and standardization of subtyping using this procedure. PMID:22383122

  19. Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Paenibacillus azotofixans Strains and Soil Samples Analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of PCR-Amplified Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Alexandre S.; Duarte, Gabriela F.; Seldin, Lucy; Van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    1998-01-01

    The diversity of dinitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) fragments in Paenibacillus azotofixans strains was investigated by using molecular methods. The partial nifH gene sequences of eight P. azotofixans strains, as well as one strain each of the close relatives Paenibacillus durum, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus macerans, were amplified by PCR by using degenerate primers and were characterized by DNA sequencing. We found that there are two nifH sequence clusters, designated clusters I and II, in P. azotofixans. The data further indicated that there was sequence divergence among the nifH genes of P. azotofixans strains at the DNA level. However, the gene products were more conserved at the protein level. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all nifH cluster II sequences were similar to the alternative (anf) nitrogenase sequence. A nested PCR assay for the detection of nifH (cluster I) of P. azotofixans was developed by using the degenerate primers as outer primers and two specific primers, designed on the basis of the sequence information obtained, as inner primers. The specificity of the inner primers was tested with several diazotrophic bacteria, and PCR revealed that these primers are specific for the P. azotofixans nifH gene. A GC clamp was attached to one inner primer, and a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol was developed to study the genetic diversity of this region of nifH in P. azotofixans strains, as well as in soil and rhizosphere samples. The results revealed sequence heterogeneity among different nifH genes. Moreover, nifH is probably a multicopy gene in P. azotofixans. Both similarities and differences were detected in the P. azotofixans nifH DGGE profiles generated with soil and rhizosphere DNAs. The DGGE assay developed here is reproducible and provides a rapid way to assess the intraspecific genetic diversity of an important functional gene in pure cultures, as well as in environmental samples. PMID:9687429

  20. Molecular Typing and Epidemiological Study of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Isolates from Cattle by Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Yukihiro; Nakaoka, Yuji; Nishimori, Kei; Doi, Akira; Kumaki, Takahiro; Uemura, Nobuko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Sameshima, Toshiya; Akiba, Masato; Nakazawa, Muneo; Uchida, Ikuo

    2001-01-01

    One hundred twenty Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains, including 103 isolates from cattle gathered between 1977 and 1999 in the prefecture located on the northern-most island of Japan, were analyzed by using fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine the genotypic basis of the epidemic. Among these strains, there were 17 FAFLP profiles that formed four distinct clusters (A, B, C, and D). Isolates that belonged to cluster A have become increasingly common since 1992 with the increase of bovine salmonellosis caused by serotype Typhimurium. PFGE resolved 25 banding patterns that formed three distinct clusters (I, II, and III). All the isolates that belonged to FAFLP cluster A, in which all the strains of definitive phage type 104 examined were included, were grouped into PFGE cluster I. Taken together, these results indicate that clonal exchange of serotype Typhimurium has taken place since 1992, and they show a remarkable degree of homogeneity at a molecular level among contemporary isolates from cattle in this region. Moreover, we have sequenced two kinds of FAFLP markers, 142-bp and 132-bp fragments, which were identified as a polymorphic marker of strains that belonged to clusters A and C, respectively. The sequence of the 142-bp fragment shows homology with a segment of P22 phage, and that of the 132-bp fragment shows homology with a segment of traG, which is an F plasmid conjugation gene. FAFLP is apparently as well suited for epidemiological typing of serotype Typhimurium as is PFGE, and FAFLP can provide a source of molecular markers useful for studies of genetic variation in natural populations of serotype Typhimurium. PMID:11230427

  1. Screening for Genomic Rearrangements in Families with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Identifies BRCA1 Mutations Previously Missed by Conformation-Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis or Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Meredith A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Calzone, Kathleen; Antin-Ozerkis, Danielle; Shih, Helen A.; Martin, Anne-Marie; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; L. Weber, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    The frequency of genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 was assessed in 42 American families with breast and ovarian cancer who were seeking genetic testing and who were subsequently found to be negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding-region mutations. An affected individual from each family was tested by PCR for the exon 13 duplication (Puget et al. 1999a) and by Southern blot analysis for novel genomic rearrangements. The exon 13 duplication was detected in one family, and four families had other genomic rearrangements. A total of 5 (11.9%) of the 42 families with breast/ovarian cancer who did not have BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding-region mutations had mutations in BRCA1 that were missed by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis or sequencing. Four of five families with BRCA1 genomic rearrangements included at least one individual with both breast and ovarian cancer; therefore, 4 (30.8%) of 13 families with a case of multiple primary breast and ovarian cancer had a genomic rearrangement in BRCA1. Families with genomic rearrangements had prior probabilities of having a BRCA1 mutation, ranging from 33% to 97% (mean 70%) (Couch et al. 1997). In contrast, in families without rearrangements, prior probabilities of having a BRCA1 mutation ranged from 7% to 92% (mean 37%). Thus, the prior probability of detecting a BRCA1 mutation may be a useful predictor when considering the use of Southern blot analysis for families with breast/ovarian cancer who do not have detectable coding-region mutations. PMID:10978226

  2. Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from turkey farms and different stages at slaughter using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA-short variable region sequencing.

    PubMed

    Perko-Mäkelä, P; Alter, T; Isohanni, P; Zimmermann, S; Lyhs, U

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolated from turkey flocks at six rearing farms 1-2 weeks prior to slaughter (360 faecal swab samples) and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse (636 caecal, environmental, neck skin and meat samples). A total of 121 Campylobacter isolates were identified to species level using a multiplex PCR assay and were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA-short variable region (SVR) sequencing. All Campylobacter isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. PFGE analysis with KpnI restriction enzyme resulted in 11 PFGE types (I-XI) and flaA SVR typing yielded in nine flaA-SVR alleles. The Campylobacter-positive turkey flocks A, C and E were colonized by a limited number of Campylobacter clones at the farm and slaughter. The present study confirms the traceability of flock-specific strains (PFGE types I, V and IX; flaA types 21, 36 and 161) from the farm along the entire processing line to meat cuts. It seems that stress factors such as high temperature of the defeathering water (54-56 °C), drying of the carcass skin during air chilling (24 h at 2 °C), and oxygen in the air could not eliminate Campylobacter completely. Campylobacter-negative flocks became contaminated during processing by the same subtypes of Campylobacter introduced into the slaughter house by preceeding positive flocks even if they were slaughtered on subsequent days. Proper and efficient cleaning and disinfection of slaughter and processing premises are needed to avoid cross-contamination, especially in countries with a low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The majority of flaA SVR alleles displayed a distinct association with a specific PFGE type. However, a linear relationship for all strains among both typing methods could not be established. To specify genetic relatedness of strains, a combination of different genotyping methods, is needed. PMID:21824338

  3. Bacterial Community Composition in Central European Running Waters Examined by Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes? †

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Marxsen, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community composition in small streams and a river in central Germany was examined by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with PCR products of 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequence analysis. Complex TGGE band patterns suggested high levels of diversity of bacterial species in all habitats of these environments. Cluster analyses demonstrated distinct differences among the communities in stream and spring water, sandy sediments, biofilms on stones, degrading leaves, and soil. The differences between stream water and sediment were more significant than those between sites within the same habitat along the stretch from the stream source to the mouth. TGGE data from an entire stream course suggest that, in the upper reach of the stream, a special suspended bacterial community is already established and changes only slightly downstream. The bacterial communities in water and sediment in an acidic headwater with a pH below 5 were highly similar to each other but deviated distinctly from the communities at the other sites. As ascertained by nucleotide sequence analysis, stream water communities were dominated by Betaproteobacteria (one-third of the total bacteria), whereas sediment communities were composed mainly of Betaproteobacteria and members of the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group (each accounting for about 25% of bacteria). Sequences obtained from bacteria from water samples indicated the presence of typical cosmopolitan freshwater organisms. TGGE bands shared between stream and soil samples, as well as sequences found in bacteria from stream samples that were related to those of soil bacteria, demonstrated the occurrence of some species in both stream and soil habitats. Changes in bacterial community composition were correlated with geographic distance along a stream, but in comparisons of different streams and rivers, community composition was correlated only with environmental conditions. PMID:18024682

  4. Association of oral streptococci community dynamics with severe early childhood caries as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the rnpB gene.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Zhou, Yan; Ouyang, Yong; Lin, Huan Cai

    2015-08-01

    This study sought to investigate the possible association between the dynamics of oral streptococci community profiles and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) development, compared with caries-free (CF) controls. Supragingival plaque samples were evaluated from 8-32-month-old children who had previously been assessed for overall profiles of their oral microbial community. Twelve children were in each group. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted and amplified using rnpB-specific primers for streptococci; the products were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis. We observed that the mean values for species richness (N) and diversity of oral streptococci (H') were significantly lower in the S-ECC group than in the CF group (N?=?1.25?±?4.14 vs 14.92?±?2.84; H'?=?1.41?±?0.29 vs 1.64?±?0.18) at 32 ?months of age (P?

  5. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, M G; Belisle, J T

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were generated. In total, 205 protein spots were observed. The coupling of this electrophoretic technique with Western blot analysis allowed the identification and mapping of 32 proteins. Further molecular characterization of abundant proteins within this fraction was achieved by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were subjected to N-group analysis; of these, only 10 could be sequenced by Edman degradation. Among the most interesting were a novel 52-kDa protein demonstrating significant homology to an alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, a 25-kDa protein corresponding to open reading frame 28 of the M. tuberculosis cosmid MTCY1A11, and a 31-kDa protein exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to that of antigen 85A and 85B. This latter product migrated with an isoelectric point between those of antigen 85A and 85C but did not react with the antibody specific for this complex, suggesting that there is a fourth member of the antigen 85 complex. Novel N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for three additional culture filtrate proteins; however, these did not yield significant homology to known protein sequences. A protein cluster of 85 to 88 kDa, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies IT-57 and IT-42 and known to react with sera from a large proportion of tuberculosis patients, was refractory to N-group analysis. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from one member of this complex identified it as the M. tuberculosis KatG catalase/peroxidase. Thus, the detailed mapping of M. tuberculosis proteins, combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, provides a basis for further analysis and rapid identification of biologically relevant molecules. PMID:9353028

  6. Comparative assessment of next-generation sequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, clonal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning-sequencing as methods for characterizing commercial microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, A D; Hammad, A; Masson, L; Khan, I U H; Scroggins, R; Beaudette, L A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of commercial microbial consortia products for human and environmental health risk assessment is a major challenge for regulatory agencies. As a means to develop an approach to assess the potential environmental risk of these products, research was conducted to compare four genomics methods for characterizing bacterial communities; (i) Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), (ii) Clonal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (C/RFLP), (iii) partial 16S rDNA amplification, cloning followed by Sanger sequencing (PRACS) and (iv) Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) based on Ion Torrent technology. A commercially available microbial consortium, marketed as a remediation agent for degrading petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soil and water, was assessed. The bacterial composition of the commercial microbial product was characterized using the above four methods. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA was performed targeting the variable region V6 for DGGE, C/RFLP and PRACS and V5 for Ion Torrent sequencing. Ion Torrent technology was shown to be a promising tool for initial screening by detecting the majority of bacteria in the consortium that were also detected by DGGE, C/RFLP and PRACS. Additionally, Ion Torrent sequencing detected some of the bacteria that were claimed to be in the product, while three other methods failed to detect these specific bacteria. However, the relative proportions of the microbial composition detected by Ion Torrent were found to be different from DGGE, C/RFLP and PRACS, which gave comparable results across these three methods. The discrepancy of the Ion Torrent results may be due to the short read length generated by this technique and the targeting of different variable regions on the 16S rRNA gene used in this study. Arcobacter spp. a potential pathogenic bacteria was detected in the product by all methods, which was further confirmed using genus and species-specific PCR, RFLP and DNA-based sequence analyses. However, the viability of Arcobacter spp. was not confirmed. This study suggests that a combination of two or more methods may be required to ascertain the microbial constituents of a commercial microbial consortium reliably and for the presence of potentially human pathogenic contaminants. PMID:25479430

  7. Harmonization of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Protocols for Epidemiological Typing of Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a Single Approach Developed by Consensus in 10 European Laboratories and Its Application for Tracing the Spread of Related Strains

    PubMed Central

    Murchan, Stephen; Kaufmann, Mary Elizabeth; Deplano, Ariane; de Ryck, Raf; Struelens, Marc; Zinn, Christina Elsberg; Fussing, Vivian; Salmenlinna, Saara; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; El Solh, Névine; Cuny, Christina; Witte, Wolfgang; Tassios, Panayotis T.; Legakis, Nikolas; van Leeuwen, Willem; van Belkum, Alex; Vindel, Anna; Laconcha, Idoia; Garaizar, Javier; Haeggman, Saara; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Ransjo, Ulrika; Coombes, Geoffrey; Cookson, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed-fieldgel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most common genotypic method used in reference and clinical laboratories for typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Many different protocols have been developed in laboratories that have extensive experience with the technique and have established national databases. However, the comparabilities of the different European PFGE protocols for MRSA and of the various national MRSA clones themselves had not been addressed until now. This multinational European Union (EU) project has established for the first time a European database of representative epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) strains and has compared them by using a new “harmonized” PFGE protocol developed by a consensus approach that has demonstrated sufficient reproducibility to allow the successful comparison of pulsed-field gels between laboratories and the tracking of strains around the EU. In-house protocols from 10 laboratories in eight European countries were compared by each center with a “gold standard” or initial harmonized protocol in which many of the parameters had been standardized. The group found that it was not important to standardize some elements of the protocol, such as the type of agarose, DNA block preparation, and plug digestion. Other elements were shown to be critical, namely, a standard gel volume and concentration of agarose, the DNA concentration in the plug, the ionic strength and volume of running buffer used, the running temperature, the voltage, and the switching times of electrophoresis. A new harmonized protocol was agreed on, further modified in a pilot study in two laboratories, and finally tested by all others. Seven laboratories' gels were found to be of sufficiently good quality to allow comparison of the strains by using a computer software program, while two gels could not be analyzed because of inadequate destaining and DNA overloading. Good-quality gels and inclusion of an internal quality control strain are essential before attempting intercenter PFGE comparisons. A number of clonally related strains have been shown to be present in multiple countries throughout Europe. The well-known Iberian clone has been demonstrated in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, and Spain (and from the wider HARMONY collection in Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden). Strains from the United Kingdom (EMRSA-15 and -16) have been identified in several othercountries, and other clonally related strains have also been identified. This highlights the need for closer international collaboration to monitor the spread of current epidemic strains as well as the emergence of new ones. PMID:12682148

  8. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesi?, Ljiljana; Hansen, Hanne Boskov; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2002-12-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Rønhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height. PMID:12481272

  9. Study of disposable microdevices for DNA electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Timp, Winston (Winston G.)

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if a microfluidic chip, made of economical plastic materials, is feasible. The chip was designed to perform gel electrophoresis, specifically of DNA fragments for either sequencing or ...

  10. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  11. Analysis of electrophoresis performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    The SAMPLE computer code models electrophoresis separation in a wide range of conditions. Results are included for steady three dimensional continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), time dependent gel and acetate film experiments in one or two dimensions and isoelectric focusing in one dimension. The code evolves N two dimensional radical concentration distributions in time, or distance down a CFE chamber. For each time or distance increment, there are six stages, successively obtaining the pH distribution, the corresponding degrees of ionization for each radical, the conductivity, the electric field and current distribution, and the flux components in each direction for each separate radical. The final stage is to update the radical concentrations. The model formulation for ion motion in an electric field ignores activity effects, and is valid only for low concentrations; for larger concentrations the conductivity is, therefore, also invalid.

  12. Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new high resolution apparatus designed for space was built as a laboratory prototype. Using a moving wall with a low zeta potential coating, the major sources of flow distortion for an electrophoretic sample stream are removed. Highly resolved fractions, however, will only be produced in space because of the sensitivity of this chamber to buoyancy-induced convection in the laboratory. The second and third flights of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corporation continuous flow electrophoresis system carried samples developed at MSFC intended to evaluate the broad capabilities of free flow electrophoresis in a reduced gravity environment. Biological model materials, hemoglobin and polystyrene latex microspheres, were selected because of their past use as electrophoresis standards and as visible markers for fluid flow due to electroosmosis, spacecraft acceleration or other factors. The dependence of the separation resolution on the properties of the sample and its suspension solution was assessed.

  13. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed nondestructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  14. Novel separation and detection methods of DNA fragments in electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, King Cheung.

    1993-01-27

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) based electrophoresis system was developed. The system allowed non-destructive, sensitive, and on-line detection of native DNA in slab-gel electrophoresis via ultraviolet absorption measurement. The detection limit of double-stranded DNA fragment was 5 ng per band. Since the amount of DNA used in this experiment was typical, the CCD-based system could be readily implemented in molecular biology. Gel-filled and non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis was developed for rapid and efficient separation of double-stranded DNA fragments. For the gel-filled CE separation a new gel matrix, the HydroLink gel (HL), was used. The HL capillary gel was easier to cast than the polyacrylamide capillary gel. For the non-gel separation, a GC capillary was used as the separation chamber, and cellulose additive was included in the electrophoresis as the sieving medium. Indirect fluorometry was applied in non-gel and gel electrophoresis for the detection of DNA fragments. This method allowed non-destructive and on-line detection of DNA during electrophoresis. The amount of DNA used with this method was comparable to those obtained with absorption measurement.

  15. Analysis of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable peptidoglycan autolysins of select gram-negative pathogens by using renaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Bernadsky, G; Beveridge, T J; Clarke, A J

    1994-01-01

    For the first time, peptidoglycan autolysins from cellular fractions derived from sonicated cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli W7, Klebsiella pneumoniae CWK2, and Proteus mirabilis 19 were detected and partially characterized by zymogram analysis. Purified murein sacculi from P. aeruginosa PAO1 were incorporated into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel at a concentration of 0.05% (wt/vol) to serve as a substrate for the separated autolysins. At least 11 autolysin bands of various intensities with M(r)s ranging between 17,000 and 122,000 were detected in each of the homogenated cultures. Some of the autolysins of the four bacteria had similar M(r)s. The zymogram analysis was used to show that a number of the autolysins from E. coli were inhibited by the heavy metals Hg2+ and Cu2+, at 1 and 10 mM, respectively, high ionic strengths, and reagents known to affect the packing of lipopolysaccharides. The activity of an autolysin with an M(r) of 65,000 was also impaired by penicillin G, whereas it was enhanced by gentamicin. A preliminary screen to determine the relationship between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and autolysins was carried out by using a dual assay in which radiolabelled penicillin V bands were visualized on an autolysin zymogram. Radiolabelled bands corresponding to PBPs 3, 4, 5, and 6 from E. coli and P. aeruginosa; PBPs 3, 4, and 6 from Proteus mirabilis; and PBP 6 from K. pneumoniae degraded the murein sacculi in the gels and were presumed to have autolytic activity, although the possibility of two distinct enzymes, each with one of the activities, comigrating in the SDS-polyacrylamide gels could not be excluded. Some radiolabelled bands possessed an Mr of <34,000 and coincided with similar low-Mr autolysin bands. Images PMID:7915268

  16. Exploratory data analysis groupware for qualitative and quantitative electrophoretic gel analysis over the Internet-WebGel.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Myrick, J M; Lakshmanan, Y; Shue, M J; Patrick, J L; Hornbeck, P V; Thornwal, G C; Partin, A W

    1999-12-01

    Many scientists use quantitative measurements to compare the presence and amount, of various proteins and nucleotides among series of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) electrophoretic gels. These gels are often scanned into digital image files. Gel spots are then quantified using stand-alone analysis software. However, as more research collaborations take place over the Internet, it has become useful to share intermediate quantitative data between researchers. This allows research group members to investigate their data and share their work in progress. We developed a World Wide Web group-accessible software system, WebGel, for interactively exploring qualitative and quantitative differences between electrophoretic gels. Such Internet databases are useful for publishing quantitative data and allow other researchers to explore the data with respect to their own research. Because intermediate results of one user may be shared with their collaborators using WebGel, this form of active data-sharing constitutes a groupware method for enhancing collaborative research. Quantitative and image gel data from a stand-alone gel image processing system are copied to a database accessible on the WebGel Web server. These data are then available for analysis by the WebGel database program residing on that server. Visualization is critical for better understanding of the data. WebGel helps organize labeled gel images into montages of corresponding spots as seen in these different gels. Various views of multiple gel images, including sets of spots, normalization spots, labeled spots, segmented gels, etc. may also be displayed. These displays are active and may be used for performing database operations directly on individual protein spots by simply clicking on them. Corresponding regions between sets of gels may be visually analyzed using Flicker-comparison (Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 122-140) as one of the WebGel methods for qualitative analysis. Quantitative exploratory data analysis can be performed by comparing protein concentration values between corresponding spots for multiple samples run in separate gels. These data are then used to generate reports on statistical differences between sets of gels (e.g., between different disease states such as benign or metastatic cancers, etc.). Using combined visual and quantitative methods, WebGel can help bridge the analysis of dissimilar gels which are difficult to analyze with stand-alone systems and can serve as a collaborative Internet tool in a groupware setting. PMID:10612275

  17. Histone H4 N-Terminal Acetylation in Kasumi-1 Cells Treated with Depsipeptide Determined by Acetic Acid–Urea olyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Amino Acid Coded Mass Tagging, and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liwen; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Shujun; Knapp, Amy R.; Parthun, Mark R.; Marcucci, Guido; Freitas, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted patterns of acetylation and deacetylation of core histones play an important role in silencing transcription of hematopoietic important genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A thorough investigation of these mechanisms and the response to pharmacologic modifiers will provide a better understanding of the role of histone acetylation in leukemogenesis. We describe here an analytical approach that combines acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE), amino acid coded mass tagging (AACM), and mass spectrometry (MS) for the investigation of histone acetylation patterns. The combined approach was used to follow the dynamics of H4 acetylation in Kasumi-1 cells harboring the fusion gene AML1/ETO shown to aberrantly recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs). The histones in Kasumi-1 cells were labeled by growing the cells in media in which lysine was replaced with stable isotope-labeled lysine (Lys-D4). Labeled and unlabeled cells were treated with depsipeptide and analyzed at different time points (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h). The cells were mixed, the histone was extracted, and acetylated H4 isoforms were separated using AU-PAGE before in-gel trypsin digestion. The digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Peptides were identified by mass and isotope pattern. LC–MS/MS of Arg-C digests were also performed to verify the acetylation pattern for H4. The major pattern of acetylation was determined as follows: initial acetylation at K16, followed by acetylation at K12, and finally acetylation of either K8 and/or K5. PMID:17203951

  18. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beati, L; Finidori, J P; Gilot, B; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, 17 adult Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks were collected in the south of France. Two spotted fever group rickettsiae, Mtu1 and Mtu5, were isolated from the hemolymphs of two of these ticks by the centrifugation shell-vial technique by using HEL cells. These isolates were compared with reference spotted fever group rickettsial serotypes by using three identification methods: microimmunofluorescence serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results obtained by all these techniques showed that Mtu1 and Mtu5 are each previously undescribed rickettsial serotypes. A comparison of the three methods used to identify the isolates led us to the conclusion that, in large-scale epidemiological studies, the simplest way to identify isolates in ticks is to first use the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis directly on triturated ticks as a screening method to detect interesting rickettsiae, and then attempt to isolate rickettsiae from ticks for identification by microimmunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE, both of which are time-consuming and expensive to carry out. Images PMID:1354221

  19. Analysis of bacterial diversity during the fermentation of inyu, a high-temperature fermented soy sauce, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and the plate count method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Li; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Lee, Pei-Shan; Tsau, Nai-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Shan; Lai, Wen-Lin; Tu, James Ching-Yueh; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    The diversity of bacteria associated with the fermentation of inyu, also known as black soy sauce, was studied through the nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of samples collected from the fermentation stages of the inyu production process. The DGGE profiles targeted the bacterial 16S rDNA and revealed the presence of Citrobacter farmeri, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri and Weissella confusa. The bacterial compositions of 4 fermented samples were further elucidated using the plate count method. The bacteria isolated from the koji-making stage exhibited the highest diversity; Brachybacterium rhamnosum, E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, Kurthia gibsonii, Pantoea dispersa, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus kloosii and S. sciuri were identified. Koji collected during the preincubation stage presented the largest cell counts, and E. hormaechei, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Enterobacter pulveris were identified. In brine samples aged for 7 and 31 days, the majority of the bacteria isolated belonged to 4 Bacillus species, but 4 Staphylococcus species and Delftia tsuruhatensis were also detected. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined approach to obtain a more complete picture of microbial populations and provides useful information for the control or development of bacterial flora during inyu fermentation. PMID:23200659

  20. Microbial characterization of a JP-4 fuel-contaminated site using a combined lipid biomarker/polymerase chain reaction--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)-based approach.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J R; Chang, Y J; Gan, Y D; Peacock, A; Pfiffner, S M; Barcelona, M J; White, D C; Macnaughton, S J

    1999-06-01

    The impact of pollution on soil microbial communities and subsequent bioremediation can be measured quantitatively in situ using direct, non-culture-dependent techniques. Such techniques have advantages over culture-based methods, which often account for less than 1% of the extant microbial community. In 1988, a JP-4 fuel spill contaminated the glacio-fluvial aquifer at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, USA. In this study, lipid biomarker characterization of the bacterial and eukaryotic communities was combined with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the eubacterial community to evaluate correlation between contaminant (JP-4 fuel) concentration and community structure shifts. Vadose, capillary fringe and saturated zone samples were taken from cores within and up- and down-gradient from the contaminant plume. Lipid biomarker analysis indicated that samples from within the plume contained increased biomass, with large proportions of typically gram-negative bacteria. Outside the plume, lipid profiles indicated low-biomass microbial communities compared with those within the initial spill site. 16S rDNA sequences derived from DGGE profiles from within the initial spill site suggested dominance of the eubacterial community by a limited number of phylogenetically diverse organisms. Used in tandem with pollutant quantification, these molecular techniques should facilitate significant improvements over current assessment procedures for the determination of remediation end-points. PMID:11207742

  1. Identification of DNA-binding proteins that interact with the 5'-flanking region of the human d-amino acid oxidase gene by pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diem Hong; Shishido, Yuji; Chung, Seong Pil; Trinh, Huong Thi Thanh; Yorita, Kazuko; Sakai, Takashi; Fukui, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-10

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that metabolizes d-amino acids and is expected to be a promising therapeutic target of schizophrenia and glioblastoma. The study of DNA-binding proteins has yielded much information in the regulation of transcription and other biological processes. However, proteins interacting with DAO gene have not been elucidated. Our assessment of human DAO promoter activity using luciferase reporter system indicated the 5'-flanking region of this gene (-4289bp from transcription initiation site) has a regulatory sequence for gene expression, which is regulated by multi-protein complexes interacting with this region. By using pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified six proteins binding to the 5'-flanking region of the human DAO gene (zinc finger C2HC domain-containing protein 1A; histidine-tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic; molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein; 60S ribosomal protein L37; calponin-1; calmodulin binding protein and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1). These preliminary results will contribute to the advance in the understanding of the potential factors associated with the regulatory mechanism of DAO expression. PMID:25749303

  2. A fourth example suggests that premature termination codons in the COL2A1 gene are a common cause of the Stickler syndrome: Analysis of the COL2A1 gene by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritvaniemi, P.; Hyland, J.; Kivirikko, K.I. ); Ignatius, J. ); Prockop, D.J. ); Ala-Kokko, L. Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA )

    1993-07-01

    A series of oligonucleotide primers was designed to generate polymerase chain reaction products that contained exons 6 to 49 of the human gene for type II procollagen (COL2A1) and that could be used to detect sequence variations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. To improve the sensitivity of the analysis, GC clamps were introduced into one primer of each pair. The procedure successfully detected 10 neutral single-base variations in the gene. In addition, the procedure detected a single-base deletion in exon 43 that introduced a premature termination codon in exon 44 and caused the Stickler syndrome (arthro-ophthalmopathy) in one family. The mutation is the fourth mutation in the COL2A1 gene shown to cause the Stickler syndrome. The mutation is similar to the first three mutations causing the disease in that they also introduced premature termination signals. Since only one mutation introducing a premature termination codon was found in the course of defining 120 or more mutations in type I and III procollagens, the results suggest that such mutations may have a special relationship to the Stickler syndrome. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Svendsen, Camilla; Brunborg, Gunnar; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Meinl, Walter; Husøy, Trine

    2015-10-01

    The food processing contaminants 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF) are potentially both mutagenic and carcinogenic in vitro and/or in vivo, although data on DMF is lacking. The PHIP metabolite N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF are bioactivated by sulfotransferases (SULTs). The substrate specificity and tissue distribution of SULTs differs between species. A single oral dose of PhIP, HMF or DMF was administered to wild-type (wt) mice and mice expressing human SULT1A1/1A2 (hSULT mice). DNA damage was studied using the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. No effects were detected in wt mice. In the hSULT mice, PhIP and HMF exposure increased the levels of DNA damage in the liver and kidney, respectively. DMF was not found to be genotoxic. The observation of increased DNA damage in hSULT mice compared with wt mice supports the role of human SULTs in the bioactivation of N-hydroxy-PhIP and HMF in vivo. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:709-714, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26270892

  4. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins secreted from articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Monika; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Wait, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful method for separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The standard procedure is not, however, well suited to analysis of articular cartilage, which contains high concentrations of proteoglycans, the polyanionic glycosaminoglycan chains of which interfere with isoelectric focusing. We have developed a method for selective removal of proteoglycans by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, after which the residual cartilage proteins are amenable to conventional 2DE analysis. Using this method, reproducible 2D-patterns can be obtained from proteins secreted by articular cartilage. The separated proteins may then be visualized by metabolic radiolabeling and silver staining, digested in gel with trypsin, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:17983159

  5. Separation of DNA restriction fragments using capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.C.; Whang, Chenwen; Yeung, E.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gel-filled and non-gel' capillary electrophoresis (CE) have been applied to the separation of various DNA restriction fragments. 30% HydroLink gel, polymerized inside a 75[mu]m i.d. fused-silica capillary, was used in the gel-filled CE. Primary results show that the HL capillary gel was simple to cast, and its stability was reasonably good under the running conditions. In the non-gel CE experiment, a buffer containing the sieving additive hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was used to affect the size-dependent separation. The use of GC capillaries eliminates the inconvenience of separately coating the capillary walls for efficient non-gel separation. Finally, the authors demonstrate that it is feasible to detect native DNA fragments using indirect fluorometry in non-gel capillary electrophoresis.

  6. Colonization of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that differ by pulsed field gel electrophoresis types in the lungs of naïve mice or mice immunized with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine used in Poland.

    PubMed

    Polak, Maciej; Zawadka, Monika; Mosiej, Ewa; Rabczenko, Daniel; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Guiso, Nicole; Luty?ska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the elimination of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates that differ according to pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotypes and genes encoding virulence factors from the lungs of naïve mice or mice immunized with commercial diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine used in Poland. When a mixture of four isolates, given in equal proportions and harboring different PFGE profiles, serotypes, and alleles encoding virulence factors, was used to infect non-immunized mice, a single isolate, characterized by PFGE type IV?, Fim2 phenotype and ptxA1-prn2-tcfA2-fim2-1-ptxP1-ptxC1-fim3-1 alleles, was found to be significantly predominant compared to the others. This PFGE profile is commonly found in B. pertussis isolates circulating in some European countries since the late 1990s, confirming its high fitness. The Polish commercial whole-cell pertussis vaccine induced an immunity effective at eliminating the B. pertussis isolates from the lungs. However, the elimination of the isolate harboring PFGE type C profile, Fim2,3 phenotype and ptxA1-prn1-tcfA2-fim2-1-ptxP1-ptxC1-fim3-1 alleles was delayed as compared to the others, suggesting phenotypic differences with the other isolates and vaccine strains. Nevertheless, the same isolate, when challenged into mice in the defined mixture of strains, lost the competition with the others, as measured by lung colonization efficiency. This PFGE profile represents 15 % of the isolates circulating in Poland between 2001 and 2012. PMID:25297678

  7. A New Electrophoresis Technique to Seperate Microsatellite Alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used commonly for microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) analysis, but they are labor- intensive and not always able to provide accurate sizes for different alleles. Capillary sequencers provide automated analysis and accur...

  8. Glycosaminoglycan blotting and detection after electrophoresis separation.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Separation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by electrophoresis and their characterization to the microgram level are integral parts of biochemical research. Their blotting on membranes after electrophoresis offers the advantage to perform further analysis on single separated species such as identification with antibodies and/or recovery of single band. A method for the blotting and immobilizing of several nonsulfated and sulfated complex GAGs on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis is illustrated. This approach to the study of these complex macromolecules utilizes the capacity of agarose-gel electrophoresis to separate single species of polysaccharides from mixtures and the membrane technology for further preparative and analytical uses. Nitrocellulose membranes are derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of GAGs are capillary blotted after their separation in agarose-gel electrophoresis. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides are transferred on derivatized membranes with an efficiency of 100 % and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining). This enables a lower amount limit of detection of 0.1 ?g. Nonsulfated polyanions, for example hyaluronic acid (HA), may also be transferred to membranes with a limit of detection of approximately 0.1-0.5 ?g after irreversible or reversible staining. The membranes may be stained with reversible staining and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. PMID:26043997

  9. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of catechin and tannins from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. in metabolically competent, human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) using single cell gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Andreas; Hensel, Andreas; Lhoste, Evelyne; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2003-05-01

    The genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of catechin, hamamelitannin and two proanthocyanidin fractions prepared from the bark of Hamamelis virginiana L. were investigated in a human derived, metabolically competent hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) for the detection of DNA-damage. DNA-migration was calculated as Olive tail moment (OTM). Catechin and a low-molecular weight proanthocyandin fraction (W(M)) caused only slight increases of OTM up to concentrations of 166 microg/ml whereas hamamelitannin and the proanthocyandin fraction with higher molecular weight (W(A)) led to a two-fold enhancement of OTM at the same concentrations. These effects were dose-independent. Treatment of the cells with the test compounds in a dose-range of 2-166 microg/ml prior to the exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 10 microM, 2.5 microg/ml) led to a significant reduction of induced DNA damage which was dose-dependent for all test compounds, except for hamamelitannin. The inhibitory effects of proanthocyanidins were stronger than those of catechin and hamamelitannin; the lowest effective concentrations were about 2 microg/ml. In order to clarify the mechanisms of protection, possible effects of the test compounds on enzymes involved in toxification and detoxification of B(a)P were investigated. While B(a)P toxification by cytochrome P450 was not inhibited by the test compounds, detoxification by glutathion-S-transferase (GST) was induced by catechin and W(M). Combination experiments with the ultimate metabolite of B(a)P, (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE; 5 microM, 1.5 microg/ml), revealed strong inhibitory effects, indicating that the observed protective effects were caused by scavenging of the ultimate mutagen by the test compounds. Exposure of Hep G2 cells to the test compounds after B(a)P treatment did not influence B(a)P induced DNA damage, demonstrating that repair mechanisms were not affected. PMID:12711142

  11. Proteomic analysis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: identification of differentially expressed protein by 2-D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Francesca; Salemi, Claudia; Chinello, Clizia; Fumagalli, Daniela; Morosi, Lavinia; Rocco, Francesco; Ferrero, Stefano; Perego, Roberto; Bianchi, Cristina; Sarto, Cecilia; Pitto, Marina; Brambilla, Paolo; Magni, Fulvio

    2012-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common neoplasm affecting the adult kidney, is characterised by heterogeneity of histological subtypes, drug resistance, and absence of molecular markers. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) technology in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to detect differentially expressed proteins in 20 pairs of RCC tissues and matched adjacent normal kidney cortex (ANK), in order to search for RCC markers. After gel analysis by DeCyder 6.5 and EDA software, differentially expressed protein spots were excised from Deep Purple stained preparative 2DE gel. A total of 100 proteins were identified by MS out of 2500 spots, 23 and 77 of these were, respectively, over- and down-expressed in RCC. The Principal Component Analysis applied to gels and protein spots exactly separated the two sample classes in two groups: RCC and ANK. Moreover, some spots, including ANXA2, PPIA, FABP7 and LEG1, resulted highly differential. The DIGE data were also confirmed by immunoblotting analysis for these proteins. In conclusion, we suggest that applying 2-D DIGE to RCC may provide the basis for a better molecular characterization and for the discovery of candidate biomarkers. PMID:22315040

  12. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePLUS

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis

  13. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  14. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  15. Polyacrylamide gel with switchable trypsin activity for analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangjie; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Chunli; Hu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Hongqiang; Cheng, Kai; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-08-01

    Trypsin was immobilized on a variety of materials to improve digestion efficiency. However, because the immobilized trypsin will digest proteins during electrophoresis, direct immobilization of active trypsin in polyacrylamide gel will compromise the protein separation. To overcome this problem, here we report a novel polyacrylamide gel with switchable trypsin activity. It was prepared by copolymerization of the PEG-trypsin-aprotinin complex during the gel-casting step. Because the inhibitor aprotinin binds strongly with trypsin at alkaline pH, this novel gel does not display hydrolytic activity during electrophoresis. After electrophoresis, the activity of trypsin embedded in gel could be recovered by simply washing away the bound inhibitor at a low pH. It was demonstrated that this unique switchable activity design allowed high resolution of the complex protein mixture during electrophoresis and highly efficient digestion of the separated proteins in situ in the gel after electrophoresis. PMID:23855779

  16. Detrapping Particles in a Gel : A Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubé, Antoine; Torres, Francis; Slater, Gary W.

    2009-03-01

    Pulsed fields are widely used in gel electrophoretic separations to increase resolution. For instance, Boyde & To [1] presented experimental results for the separation of spherical particles using pulsed fields. They first used alternating fields of fixed amplitudes (E±=±| E |) applied in the forward direction for a duration twice as long as in the backward direction. They then used field interruption in order to allow particles to thermally detrap. In both cases, they reported that using a pulsed field makes the particles migrate faster. We model the gel used in electrophoresis as a 2D system of obstacles on a lattice. We use a method that allows us to calculate the exact mean velocity of a particle for Monte-Carlo simulations to first reproduce the experimental results presented above. We then investigate different signals (e.g., telegraph signal) to determine the optimal conditions. Optimal conditions can be either higher velocities or larger velocity differences between particles. [4pt] [1] Pulsed-field acceleration: The electrophoretic behavior of large spherical particles in agarose gels, Electrophoresis, 1993.

  17. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  18. In-Gel Stable-Isotope Labeling (ISIL): a strategy for mass spectrometry-based relative quantification.

    PubMed

    Asara, John M; Zhang, Xiang; Zheng, Bin; Christofk, Heather H; Wu, Ning; Cantley, Lewis C

    2006-01-01

    Most proteomics approaches for relative quantification of protein expression use a combination of stable-isotope labeling and mass spectrometry. Traditionally, researchers have used difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) from stained 1D and 2D gels for relative quantification. While differences in protein staining intensity can often be visualized, abundant proteins can obscure less abundant proteins, and quantification of post-translational modifications is difficult. A method is presented for quantifying changes in the abundance of a specific protein or changes in specific modifications of a protein using In-gel Stable-Isotope Labeling (ISIL). Proteins extracted from any source (tissue, cell line, immunoprecipitate, etc.), treated under two experimental conditions, are resolved in separate lanes by gel electrophoresis. The regions of interest (visualized by staining) are reacted separately with light versus heavy isotope-labeled reagents, and the gel slices are then mixed and digested with proteases. The resulting peptides are then analyzed by LC-MS to determine relative abundance of light/heavy isotope pairs and analyzed by LC-MS/MS for identification of sequence and modifications. The strategy compares well with other relative quantification strategies, and in silico calculations reveal its effectiveness as a global relative quantification strategy. An advantage of ISIL is that visualization of gel differences can be used as a first quantification step followed by accurate and sensitive protein level stable-isotope labeling and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification. PMID:16396506

  19. Undergraduate physics laboratory: Electrophoresis in chromatography paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Alexander; Batishchev, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    An experiment studying the physical principles of electrophoresis in liquids was developed for an undergraduate laboratory. We have improved upon the standard agarose gel electrophoresis experimental regime with a straightforward and cost-effective procedure, in which drops of widely available black food coloring were separated by electric field into their dye components on strips of chromatography paper soaked in a baking soda/water solution. Terminal velocities of seven student-safe dyes were measured as a function of the electric potential applied along the strips. The molecular mobility was introduced and calculated by analyzing data for a single dye. Sources of systematic and random errors were investigated.

  20. Identification of RSVP14 and RSVP20 components by two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western-blotting.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, J A; Fernández-Juan, M; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2008-02-01

    We have already shown that RSVP14 and RSVP20, two ram seminal plasma (SP) proteins postulated to be involved in sperm capacitation and gamete interaction can protect spermatozoa against cold-shock. In this study, we use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) for the analysis of SP proteins of Rasa Aragonesa rams, using enhanced protein solubilization in the presence of tributyl phosphine (TBP) and a polyacrylamide linear gradient gel with a narrow pH range (4-7). The image analysis of the 2D map detected 195 protein spots, with isoelectric points (pIs) ranging from 4.5 to 6.6, and molecular weight (M(r)) from 11.7 to 90.4. Staining of 2D gels with Pro-Q Emerald 300 Glycoprotein Stain revealed that most significant proteins in ram SP are glycosylated. The removing of protein N-linked oligosaccharides improved the gel resolution. 2D-PAGE analysis of the whole fraction 6 (F6) separated from ram SP by exclusion chromatography showed six main protein spots, four (a, b, c, d) in the 14 kDa and two (e, f) in the 20 kDa region. Western-blot analyses indicated that the anti-P14 antibody recognized four spots on the SP map, 4, 5, 6 and 7, that matched with spots a, b, c, d of F6 map. The anti-P20 antibody recognized spots 13 and 14 of SP map that corresponded to spots e, f of F6 map. The deduced sequences by de novo sequencing evidenced that protein spots 7 and 13 have significant similarities to BSP family, while protein spots 4 and 14 did not appear to be homologous with any reported protein in the current mammalian Proteinbank databases. PMID:18199253

  1. Some Key References Regarding the ABI 310 and STR Typing Buel, E., Schwartz, M., and LaFountain, M. J. (1998) Capillary electrophoresis STR analysis: Comparison to gel-based

    E-print Network

    1998-01-01

    tandem repeat loci. PCR Meth. Appl. 3: 13-22. LaFountain, M. J., Schwartz, M. B., Svete, P. A-284. Moretti, T. R., Baumstark, A. L., Defenbaugh, D. A., Keys, K. M., Brown, A. L., and Budowle, B. (2001 electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res. 25(19): 3925-3929. Wallin, J. M., Holt, C. L., Lazaruk, K. D., Nguyen, T. H

  2. ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 196,427-432 (19%) Denaturing Gradient Gel Method for Mapping Single

    E-print Network

    Ernst, Susan G.

    ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY 196,427-432 (19%) Denaturing Gradient Gel Method for Mapping Single Base, Massachusetts 02155 Received February 26,199l A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method the appli- cation of a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method (described first by Gray et al

  3. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  4. Proteomic analysis of rice after different seed space flights by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

    To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.

  5. The Use of Legendre and Zernike Moment Functions for the Comparison of 2-D PAGE Maps.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Demartini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of 2-D maps is not trivial, the main difficulties being the high complexity of the sample and the large experimental variability characterizing 2-D gel electrophoresis. The comparison of maps from control and treated samples is usually performed by specific software, providing the so-called spot volume dataset where each spot of a specific map is matched to its analogous in other maps, and they are described by their optical density, which is supposed to be related to the underlying protein amount. Here, a different approach is presented, based on the direct comparison of 2-D map images: each map is decomposed in terms of moment functions, successively applying the multivariate tools usually adopted in image analysis problems. The moments calculated are then treated with multivariate classification techniques. Here, two types of moment functions are presented (Legendre and Zernike moments), while linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis are exploited as classification tools to provide the classification of the samples. The procedure is applied to a sample dataset to prove its effectiveness. PMID:26611420

  6. Electronic imaging systems for quantitative electrophoresis of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful and widely used methods for the separation of DNA. During the last decade, instruments have been developed that accurately quantitate in digital form the distribution of materials in a gel or on a blot prepared from a gel. In this paper, I review the various physical properties that can be used to quantitate the distribution of DNA on gels or blots and the instrumentation that has been developed to perform these tasks. The emphasis here is on DNA, but much of what is said also applies to RNA, proteins and other molecules. 36 refs.

  7. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  8. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  9. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  10. Automatic multiple-sample applicator and electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for performing electrophoresis and a multiple-sample applicator is described. Electrophoresis is a physical process in which electrically charged molecules and colloidal particles, upon the application of a dc current, migrate along a gel or a membrane that is wetted with an electrolyte. A multiple-sample applicator is provided which coacts with a novel tank cover to permit an operator either to depress a single button, thus causing multiple samples to be deposited on the gel or on the membrane simultaneously, or to depress one or more sample applicators separately by means of a separate button for each applicator.

  11. Monitoring refolding of tailspike endorhamnosidase using capillary electrophoresis-laser induced tryptophan fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.K.; Lee, Cheng S.; King, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of capillary electrophoresis equipped with laser-induced tryptophan fluorescence detection is presented for monitoring the refolding pathway of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase. Upon initiation of refolding, tailspike polypeptides rapidly fold into structured monomeric intermediates with a high content of secondary structure. These monomeric species associate to form the triple-chain defined folding intermediates, the protrimers. Conversion of the protrimer into the native, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant tailspike protein is the rate-limiting step in the refolding pathway. Refolding kinetics and yield measured by capillary electrophoresis are in good agreement with those obtained via native gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. To enhance separation resolution between protrimer and native protein in capillary electrophoresis, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) is investigated for the introduction of a sieving separation mechanism. The increased viscosity of the electrophoresis buffer may also play a role in resolution enhancement.

  12. Preparative electrophoresis experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiehler, A.

    1972-01-01

    A multifaceted study supporting the NASA programs to develop a space electrophoresis capability has been conducted. The study involved principally the technique of continuous free electrophoresis. It comprised a critical review of the art, study of new techniques for enhancing resolution and stability, and construction and initial testing of a high resolution cell. The effort resulted in a significant advance in free electrophoresis technique. It has provided also a much improved base for developments exploiting the added advantages of a zero-gravity environment.

  13. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  14. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other application papers of sequencing up to this level were also published in the mid 1990's. A major interest of the sequencing community has always been read length. The longer the sequence read per run the more efficient the process as well as the ability to read repeat sequences. We therefore devoted a great deal of time to studying the factors influencing read length in capillary electrophoresis, including polymer type and molecule weight, capillary column temperature, applied electric field, etc. In our initial optimization, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the sequencing of over 1000 bases with 90% accuracy. The run required 80 minutes for separation. Sequencing of 1000 bases per column was next demonstrated on a multiple capillary instrument. Our studies revealed that linear polyacrylamide produced the longest read lengths because the hydrophilic single strand DNA had minimal interaction with the very hydrophilic linear polyacrylamide. Any interaction of the DNA with the polymer would lead to broader peaks and lower read length. Another important parameter was the molecular weight of the linear chains. High molecular weight (> 1 MDA) was important to allow the long single strand DNA to reptate through the entangled polymer matrix. In an important paper, we showed an inverse emulsion method to prepare reproducibility linear polyacrylamide polymer with an average MWT of 9MDa. This approach was used in the polymer for sequencing the human genome. Another critical factor in the successful use of capillary electrophoresis for sequencing was the sample preparation method. In the Sanger sequencing reaction, high concentration of salts and dideoxynucleotide remained. Since the sample was introduced to the capillary column by electrokinetic injection, these salt ions would be favorably injected into the column over the sequencing fragments, thus reducing the signal for longer fragments and hence reading read length. In two papers, we examined the role of individual components from the sequencing reaction and then developed a protocol to reduce the deleterio

  15. MP 33354 Pro-Q Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    MP 33354 Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain Product Information Storage upon receipt: · 6­ polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western blot analysis. With Molecular Probes Pro-Q® Sapphire 532­polyacrylamide gel, eliminating the need to blot the protein to a membrane (Figure 1, top). Pro-Q Sapphire 532

  16. Electrophoresis operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis in space processing is described. Spaceborne experiments in areas such as biological products and FDA approved drugs are discussed. These experiments will be carried on shuttle payloads.

  17. Potentials and Method Improvements of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Use in Spelt Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in acidic buffer systems is capable of separating cereal storage proteins based on similar separation principles as classical acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, it is faster, its resolution is distinctly higher and data evaluation is much simpler...

  18. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  19. SDS agarose gels for analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Kusukawa, N

    1998-04-01

    A new agarose-based protein electrophoresis gel system is described. The system consists of a highly resolving agarose, MetaPhor XR (FMC BioProducts, Rockland, ME, USA) dissolved in urea and TBE buffer and a stacking gel composed of a high gel-strength agarose, SeaKem Gold (FMC BioProducts). TBE containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used as electrophoresis buffer. The disadvantages of traditional agarose gels have been overcome, and several advantages over polyacrylamide gels have been demonstrated. The system is capable of high-resolution separation of small proteins and has a dynamic separation range equivalent to a 4%-20% gradient polyacrylamide gel. Furthermore, the staining of protein bands by Coomassie Brilliant Blue is very uniform in this gel, and depending on the protein, higher detection sensitivity can be obtained compared to SDS polyacrylamide gels. In Western blotting, proteins are more efficiently transferred to the membrane from the agarose gel than from polyacrylamide gels. Finally, the exceptional stability of agarose allows for gels to be precast and stored for a year. PMID:9564543

  20. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  1. Proteomic Changes during B Cell Maturation: 2D-DIGE Approach

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Johanna; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Vihinen, Mauno

    2013-01-01

    B cells play a pivotal role in adaptive immune system, since they maintain a delicate balance between recognition and clearance of foreign pathogens and tolerance to self. During maturation, B cells progress through a series of developmental stages defined by specific phenotypic surface markers and the rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. To get insight into B cell proteome during the maturation pathway, we studied differential protein expression in eight human cell lines, which cover four distinctive developmental stages; early pre-B, pre-B, plasma cell and immature B cell upon anti-IgM stimulation. Our two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry based proteomic study indicates the involvement of large number of proteins with various functions. Notably, proteins related to cytoskeleton were relatively highly expressed in early pre-B and pre-B cells, whereas plasma cell proteome contained endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi system proteins. Our long time series analysis in anti-IgM stimulated Ramos B cells revealed the dynamic regulation of cytoskeleton organization, gene expression and metabolic pathways, among others. The findings are related to cellular processes in B cells and are discussed in relation to experimental information for the proteins and pathways they are involved in. Representative 2D-DIGE maps of different B cell maturation stages are available online at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/BcellProteome/. PMID:24205016

  2. Visualization of DNA molecules in time during electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubega, Seth

    1991-01-01

    For several years individual DNA molecules have been observed and photographed during agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA molecule is clearly the largest molecule known. Nevertheless, the largest molecule is still too small to be seen using a microscope. A technique developed by Morikawa and Yanagida has made it possible to visualize individual DNA molecules. When these long molecules are labeled with appropriate fluorescence dyes and observed under a fluorescence microscope, although it is not possible to directly visualize the local ultrastructure of the molecules, yet because they are long light emitting chains, their microscopic dynamical behavior can be observed. This visualization works in the same principle that enables one to observe a star through a telescope because it emits light against a dark background. The dynamics of individual DNA molecules migrating through agarose matrix during electrophoresis have been described by Smith et al. (1989), Schwartz and Koval (1989), and Bustamante et al. (1990). DNA molecules during agarose gel electrophoresis advance lengthwise thorough the gel in an extended configuration. They display an extension-contraction motion and tend to bunch up in their leading ends as the 'heads' find new pores through the gel. From time to time they get hooked on obstacles in the gel to form U-shaped configurations before they resume their linear configuration.

  3. Running DNA Mini-Gels in 20 Minutes or Less Using Sodium Boric Acid Buffer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristin P.; Bielec, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Providing a biotechnology experience for students can be challenging on several levels, and time is a real constraint for many experiments. Many DNA based methods require a gel electrophoresis step, and although some biotechnology procedures have convenient break points, gel electrophoresis does not. In addition to the time required for loading…

  4. Reuse of denaturing polyacrylamide gels for short tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Tereba, A; Micka, K A; Schumm, J W

    1998-11-01

    Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of amplified polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci using fluorescent markers is a mainstay of forensic and paternity testing. To reduce the drawback of preparing gels or using expensive precast gels, we have developed a simple and rapid method to reuse gels between 2 and 8 times over a period of several days. Following the initial electrophoresis and scan, the original samples are removed from the gel by a 1-1.5-h reverse-electrophoresis step. This step heats the gel for the next set of samples and can be performed several days after the initial electrophoresis. Sample bands remain sharp on subsequent runs, but edge effects (frowning of the outside lanes) become progressively worse and ultimately limit gel reuse. Well distortions and separation of the gel from the plates become problems if the gel is used more than twice. However, degassing the gel solution and bonding the gel to both plates eliminate these problems. Precast gels also can be used multiple times. Using this technique, we have successfully analyzed samples amplified with a nine-locus multiplex system and characterized the separated products using a fluorescent scanner and software. PMID:9821592

  5. Nonlinear electrophoresis for purification of soil DNA for metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katja; Pinnell, Lee; Cheng, Jiujun; Charles, Trevor C; Neufeld, Josh D

    2012-01-01

    Purification of microbial DNA from soil is challenging due to the co-extraction of humic acids and associated phenolic compounds that inhibit subsequent cloning, amplification or sequencing. Removal of these contaminants is critical for the success of metagenomic library construction and high-throughput sequencing of extracted DNA. Using three different composite soil samples, we compared a novel DNA purification technique using nonlinear electrophoresis on the synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) instrument with alternate purification methods such as direct current (DC) agarose gel electrophoresis followed by gel filtration or anion exchange chromatography, Wizard DNA Clean-Up System, and the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Both nonlinear and DC electrophoresis were effective at retrieving high-molecular weight DNA with high purity, suitable for construction of large-insert libraries. The PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit and the nonlinear electrophoresis had high recovery of high purity DNA suitable for sequencing purposes. All methods demonstrated high consistency in the bacterial community profiles generated from the DNA extracts. Nonlinear electrophoresis using the SCODA instrument was the ideal methodology for the preparation of soil DNA samples suitable for both high-throughput sequencing and large-insert cloning applications. PMID:22056233

  6. Aniso2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  7. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  8. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  9. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  10. Mesh2d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore »an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  11. Quantitative proteomics: assessing the spectrum of in-gel protein detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Victoria J.; Wright, Elise P.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics research relies heavily on visualization methods for detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Commonly used staining approaches involve colorimetric dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue, fluorescent dyes including Sypro Ruby, newly developed reactive fluorophores, as well as a plethora of others. The most desired characteristic in selecting one stain over another is sensitivity, but this is far from the only important parameter. This review evaluates protein detection methods in terms of their quantitative attributes, including limit of detection (i.e., sensitivity), linear dynamic range, inter-protein variability, capacity for spot detection after 2D gel electrophoresis, and compatibility with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Unfortunately, many of these quantitative criteria are not routinely or consistently addressed by most of the studies published to date. We would urge more rigorous routine characterization of stains and detection methodologies as a critical approach to systematically improving these critically important tools for quantitative proteomics. In addition, substantial improvements in detection technology, particularly over the last decade or so, emphasize the need to consider renewed characterization of existing stains; the quantitative stains we need, or at least the chemistries required for their future development, may well already exist. PMID:21686332

  12. "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97)

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    98 "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97) Samples to be digested in the gel are run in as few lanes as possible and alkylated prior to electrophoresis. Note that an alternate buffer system is also provided for LysC digestion

  13. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  14. Preparative cell electrophoresis at 1 and 0 gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Oss, C. J.; Bronson, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is attempted to show that the use of heavy water (D2O) as starting cushion for the cells combines the advantages of the required density difference, with no lasting biochemical or physiochemical influence on the cells. Phosphate buffers of low ionic strength were prepared in distilled water or heavy water. A vertical starch gel electrophoresis was used to support a cylindrical polystyrene electrophoresis tube used for lymphocyte separations, 25 cm in length and 0.75 cm I.D., prepared from a 10 ml disposable pipet. Erythrocyte separations were carried out in a jacketed rectangular plexiglas chamber. It is pointed out that the described preparative D2O gradient electrophoresis method cannot be readily used for the measurement of electrophoretic mobilities for analytical purposes. However, for the preparative separation of cells with only slightly different electrokinetic properties the method appears promising, simple, and entirely inocuous to the cells.

  15. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  16. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  17. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  18. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chang, Huan-Tsang (Silver Spring, MD); Fung, Eliza N. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  19. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, N.

    1998-03-27

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  20. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  1. Electrophoresis demonstration on Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Free fluid electrophoresis, a process used to separate particulate species according to surface charge, size, or shape was suggested as a promising technique to utilize the near zero gravity condition of space. Fluid electrophoresis on earth is disturbed by gravity-induced thermal convection and sedimentation. An apparatus was developed to demonstrate the principle and possible problems of electrophoresis on Apollo 14 and the separation boundary between red and blue dye was photographed in space. The basic operating elements of the Apollo 14 unit were used for a second flight demonstration on Apollo 16. Polystyrene latex particles of two different sizes were used to simulate the electrophoresis of large biological particles. The particle bands in space were extremely stable compared to ground operation because convection in the fluid was negligible. Electrophoresis of the polystyrene latex particle groups according to size was accomplished although electro-osmosis in the flight apparatus prevented the clear separation of two particle bands.

  2. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  3. Static continuous electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for carrying out a moving wall type electrophoresis process for separation of cellular particles. The apparatus includes a water-tight housing containing an electrolytic buffer solution. A separation chamber in the housing is defined by spaced opposed moving walls and spaced opposed side walls. Substrate assemblies, which support the moving wall include vacuum ports for positively sealing the moving walls against the substrate walls. Several suction conduits communicate with the suction ports and are arranged in the form of valleys in a grid plate. The raised land portion of the grid plat supports the substrate walls against deformation inwardly under suction. A cooling chamber is carried on the back side of plate. The apparatus also has tensioner means including roller and adjustment screws for maintaining the belts in position and a drive arrangement including an electric motor with a gear affixed to its output shaft. Electrode assemblies are disposed to provide the required electric field.

  4. Fluorographic detection of tritiated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides separated on polyacrylamide gels: analysis of glycans from Dictyostelium discoideum glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Prem Das, O.; Henderson, E.J.

    1986-11-01

    Previous workers have shown that oligosaccharides and glycopeptides can be separated by electrophoresis in buffers containing borate ions. However, normal fluorography of tritium-labeled structures cannot be performed because the glycans are soluble and can diffuse during equilibration with scintillants. This problem has been circumvented by equilibration of the gel with 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) prior to electrophoresis. The presence of PPO in the gel during electrophoresis does not alter mobility of the glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. After electrophoresis, the gel is simply dried and fluorography performed. This allows sensitive and precise comparisons of labeled samples in parallel lanes of a slab gel and, since mobilities are highly reproducible, between different gels. The procedure is preparative in that after fluorography the gel bands can be quantitatively eluted for further study, without any apparent modification by the procedure. In this report, the procedure is illustrated by fractionation of both neutral and anionic glycopeptides produced by the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle thermosensitive gel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hongmei; Pan, Xin; Xie, Xiaobao; Wu, Chuanbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel (S-T-Gel) on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patients and methods This study investigated the growth, permeability, and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in order to observe the action of S-T-Gel on the membrane structure of these three bacteria. The cell morphology of normal and treated bacteria cells was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the effects of S-T-Gel on genome DNA of bacterial cells were evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results S-T-Gel showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus and moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The observation with TEM suggested that S-T-Gel may destroy the structure of bacterial cell membranes in order to enter the bacterial cell. S-T-Gel then condensed DNA and combined and coagulated with the cytoplasm of the damaged bacteria, resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic component and the eventual death of these three bacteria. In addition, the analysis of agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated that S-T-Gel could increase the decomposability of genome DNA. Conclusion These results about promising antimicrobial activity and mechanism of S-T-Gel may be useful for further research and development in in-vivo studies. PMID:22131833

  6. Polyelectrolyte gels

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1995-06-01

    Polyelectrolyte (PE) gels are swollen polymer/solvent networks that undergo a reversible volume collapse/expansion through various types of stimulation. Applications that could exploit this large deformation and solvent expulsion/absorption characteristics include robotic {open_quotes}fingers{close_quotes} and drug delivery systems. The goals of the research were to first explore the feasibility of using the PE gels as {open_quotes}smart materials{close_quotes} - materials whose response can be controlled by an external stimulus through a feedback mechanism. Then develop a predictive capability to simulate the dynamic behavior of these gels. This involved experimentally characterizing the response of well-characterized gels to an applied electric field and other stimuli to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanisms which cause the volume collapse. Lastly, the numerical analysis tool was used to simulate various potential engineering devices based on PE gels. This report discusses the pursuit of those goals through experimental and computational means.

  7. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that solute is drawn into the cell from reservoirs at both ends of the cell leading to a large mass build up. As a consequence, any initially induced mass flux will vanish after short times. This effect was not captured by the infinite channel model and hence numerical and experimental results deviated significantly. The revised model including finite cell lengths and reservoir volumes allowed quantitative predictions of the time history of the concentration profile throughout the system. This latter model accurately describes the fluxes observed for both oscillatory flow modes in experiments using single protein species. Based on the results obtained from research funded under NASA grant NAG-8-1080.S, we conclude that binary separations are not possible using purely oscillatory flow modes because of end effects associated with the cos((omega)t) mode. Our research shows, however, that a combination of cos(2(omega)t) and steady flow should lead to efficient separation free of end effects. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  8. Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Jung, Byoungsok; Rose, Klint A; Shusteff, Maxim; Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan

    2015-04-07

    The present invention provides a mechanism for separating or isolating charged particles under the influence of an electric field without metal electrodes being in direct contact with the sample solution. The metal electrodes normally in contact with the sample are replaced with high conductivity fluid electrodes situated parallel and adjacent to the sample. When the fluid electrodes transmit the electric field across the sample, particles within the sample migrate according to their electrophoretic mobility.

  9. Edinburgh Research Explorer Native gel electrophoresis of human telomerase distinguishes

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, 3 Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research Telomeres, the ends of linear chromosomes, safe- guard against genome instability. The enzyme re- sponsible for extension of the telomere 30 terminus is the ribonucleoprotein telomerase. Whereas tel- omerase activity can

  10. PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CHROMOSOMAL DNA

    E-print Network

    Pikaard, Craig

    : 500 mM EDTA, 1% N-laurylsarcosine, 1 mM Tris For 1 L dissolve the EDTA and Tris in 700 ml of ddH2O ml ddH2O (helps to use 65°C bath). Add the sarcosine solution to the EDTA solution and pH to 9.5, and add ddH2O to volume. T10E10: 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 10 mM EDTA pH 8.0 #12;CHEF protocol Copenhaver

  11. POULTRY DIGESTIVE BIODIVERSITY AS INDICATED BY DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of digestive microflora change as chickens age and can be affected by diet, stresses, and performance enhancers. A mature digestive bacterial community is protective against colonization and infection by enteropathogens and other harmful bacteria. Most culture techniques used to profil...

  12. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842?m at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  13. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  14. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  15. Algorithms for Warping of 2-D PAGE Maps.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Marcello; Robotti, Elisa; Marengo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Software-based image analysis of 2-D PAGE maps is an important step for the investigation of proteome. Warping algorithms, which are employed to register spots among gels, are able to overcome the difficulties due to the low reproducibility of this analytical technique. Over the years, the research of new matching and warping mathematical methods has allowed the development of several routine applications of easy-to-use software. This chapter describes common and basic spatial transformations used for the alignment of protein spots present in different gel maps; some recently new approaches are also presented. PMID:26611413

  16. Dynamic protein phosphorylation during the growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100 revealed by a gel-based proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Musa, Yaarub Raji; Bäsell, Katrin; Schatschneider, Sarah; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Becher, Dörte; Niehaus, Karsten

    2013-08-20

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) synthesizes huge amounts of the exopolysaccharide xanthan and is a plant pathogen affecting Brassicaceae, among them the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Xanthan is produced as a thickening agent at industrial scale by fermentation of Xcc. In an approach based on 2D gel electrophoresis, protein samples from different growth phases were characterized to initialize analysis of the Xanthomonas phosphoproteome. The 2D gels were stained with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain to identify putatively phosphorylated proteins. Spots of putatively phosphorylated proteins were excised from the gel and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated, the phosphoglucomutase/phosphomannomutase XanA that is important for xanthan and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, the phosphoenolpyruvate synthase PspA that is involved in gluconeogenesis, and an anti-sigma factor antagonist RsbR that was so far uncharacterized in xanthomonads. The growth phase in which the samples were collected had an influence on protein phosphorylation in Xcc, particular distinct in case of RsbR, which was phosphorylated during the transition from the late exponential growth phase to the stationary phase. PMID:23792782

  17. Understanding Electrophoresis through the Investigation of Size, Shape, and Charge of pH Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Ryan K.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Morford, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level students in a Chemical Analysis course to illustrate the theoretical and practical applications of 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and to reinforce an understanding of weak acids/bases using easy-to-visualize pH indicators. The careful choice of indicators included acid and base types with…

  18. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tentori, Augusto M.; Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20 micron-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a ‘lane’ at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high resolution (0.1 pH units) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished using chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 hr assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  19. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tentori, Augusto M; Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

    2013-05-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20-?m-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a "lane" at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high-resolution (0.1 pH unit) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished by chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer-induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 h assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  20. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Baiz, Carlos R; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-28

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with ?m-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear "one beam" geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  1. Electrophoresis as a management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Chapman, J.A.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    The theme of this 1974 Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference is 'A New Era'. Indeed, it is a new era for improved techniques to assist in management of our fish and wildlife resources for the maximum benefit of all. In some cases, the new techniques are primarily used in research.on fish and wildlife, and the results from the research are used to aid management and enforcement agencies in the decision-making process. One of the newer techniques that is being applied to problems in fisheries and wildlife is electrophoresis. In this paper, we review briefly the techniques of electrophoresis and illustrate research problems in wildlife and fisheries where the use of electrophoresis is now assisting or may potentially aid in management decisions.

  2. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  3. 2D DIGE Does Not Reveal all: A Scotopic Report Suggests Differential Expression of a Single “Calponin Family Member” Protein for Tetany of Sphincters!

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a recent report by Rattan and Ali (2015) compared proteome expression between tonically contracted sphincteric smooth muscles of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), in comparison to the adjacent rectum [rectal smooth muscles (RSM)] that contracts in a phasic fashion. The study showed the differential expression of a single 23?kDa protein SM22, which was 1.87 fold, overexpressed in RSM in comparison to IAS. Earlier studies have shown differences in expression of different proteins like Rho-associated protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase, and protein kinase C between IAS and RSM. The currently employed methods, despite its high-throughput potential, failed to identify these well-characterized differences between phasic and tonic muscles. This calls into question the fidelity and validatory potential of the otherwise powerful technology of 2D DIGE/MS. These discrepancies, when redressed in future studies, will evolve this recent report as an important baseline study of “sphincter proteome.” Proteomics techniques are currently underutilized in examining pathophysiology of hypertensive/hypotensive disorders involving gastrointestinal sphincters, including achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), spastic pylorus, seen during diabetes or chronic chemotherapy, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and recto-anal incontinence. Global proteome mapping may provide instant snapshot of the complete repertoire of differential proteins, thus expediting to identify the molecular pathology of gastrointestinal motility disorders currently labeled “idiopathic” and facilitating practice of precision medicine. PMID:26151053

  4. Fluid flow electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.

  5. Transfer of SDS-proteins from gel electrophoretic zones into mass spectrometry, using electroelution of the band into buffer without sectioning of the gel.

    PubMed

    Yefimov, S; Yergey, A L; Chrambac, A

    2000-01-01

    Five SDS-proteins, ranging in molecular weight from 14 to 66 kDa, were detected without covalent fluorescent labeling by the automated gel electrophoresis apparatus with intermittent fluorescence scanning (HPGE apparatus, LabIntelligence) during electrophoresis in barbiturate buffer in the presence of Cascade Blue. The SDS-proteins were electroeluted from the gel into 220 microl of buffer by a modification of the procedure of Gombocz and Cortez. The electroeluate was freed of SDS, ultrafiltered and subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The masses of the five native proteins were found to be maintained after electrophoresis and electroelution in the presence of the potential contaminants SDS, barbituric acid and Cascade Blue. The procedure of protein transfer from SDS-PAGE into mass spectrometry, without excision of bands, gel maceration and protein recovery by diffusion, therefore is shown to be suitable for the identification by mass of intact proteins derived from gel electrophoretic bands. PMID:10647815

  6. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on brain protein levels: a proteomic investigation using 2-D DIGE system.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Dlugos, Cynthia A; Wood, Troy D; Rabin, Richard A

    2006-10-10

    The effects of chronic ethanol treatment on the brain proteome were investigated in the long-fin striped strain of zebrafish Danio rerio. Prolonged exposure to 0.5% (v/v) ethanol resulted in the development of tolerance to the ethanol-induced disruption of normal swimming behavior. This behavioral tolerance was manifested after two weeks of continuous treatment and was maintained for an additional three weeks. After four weeks of ethanol treatment, zebrafish brains were divided into 40,000 g supernatant and pellet fractions, and an Ettan 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) system was used to detect ethanol-induced alterations in the level of protein expression. Protein identification was carried out using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and the Mascot and ProFound search engines. In the present study, we have identified some novel protein targets as well as substantiated some putative previous targets of chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:16978605

  7. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain Advanced staining technology for 2-D gels and proteomics

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    for proteomics. It provides the same low nanogram sensitivity as the best silver staining techniques (Figure 1), but stains more proteins and has a much broader linear quantitation range -- extending over three orders

  8. Electroacoustics of Particles Dispersed in Polymer Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

    2011-06-27

    This study examines the acoustic electrophoresis of particles dispersed in polymer hydrogels, with the particle size either less than or greater than the gel mesh size. When the particles are smaller than the gel mesh size, their acoustic vibration is resisted by only the background water medium, and the measured dynamic electrophoretic mobility, ?d (obtained in terms of colloid vibration current, CVI), is the same as in water. For the case of particles larger than the gel mesh size, ?d is decreased due to trapping, and the net decrease depends on the viscoelastic properties of the gel. The gel mesh size was varied by varying its crosslink density, the latter being characterized as the storage modulus, G’. The dependence of mobility on G’, for systems of a given particle size, and on particle size, for gels of a given G’, are investigated. The measured mobility remains constant as G’ is increased (i.e., mesh size is decreased) up to a value of approximately 300 Pa, beyond which it decreases. In the second set of measurements, the trapped particle size was increased in a gel medium of constant mesh size, with G’ approximately 100 Pa. In this case, the measured ?d is found to be effectively constant over the particle size range studied (14-120 nm), i.e., it is independent of the degree of trapping as expressed by the ratio of the particle size to the mesh size.

  9. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  10. A blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technology to probe the functional proteomics mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    E-print Network

    Appanna, Vasu

    mediating nitrogen homeostasis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Sungwon Han a , Christopher Auger a , Varun P Keywords: Functional proteomics Nitrogen homeostasis Glutamate dehydrogenase Gel electrophoresis As glutamate and ammonia play a pivotal role in nitrogen homeostasis, their production is mediated by various

  11. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  12. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  13. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic methods in the separation of structural muscle proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Barany, M.; Giometti, C. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-04-28

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plays a major role in analyzing the function of muscle structural proteins. This review describes one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic methods for qualitative and quantitative investigation of the muscle proteins, with special emphasis on determination of protein phosphorylation. The electrophoretic studies established the subunit structures of the muscle proteins, characterized their multiple forms, revealed changes in subunit composition or shifts in isoform distribution of specific proteins during development, upon stimulation or denervation of the muscle. Protein phosphorylation during muscle contraction is preferentially studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The same method demonstrated protein alterations in human neuromuscular diseases.

  14. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted. PMID:25840947

  15. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, D; Merril, C R

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P = 19/186 = .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:6577787

  16. Microchip electrophoresis: a method for high-speed SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    Schmalzing, Dieter; Belenky, Alexei; Novotny, Mark A.; Koutny, Lance; Salas-Solano, Oscar; El-Difrawy, Sameh; Adourian, Aram; Matsudaira, Paul; Ehrlich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    As a trial practical application, we have applied optimized microfabricated electrophoresis devices, combined with enzymatic mutation detection methods, to the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the p53 suppressor gene. Using clinical samples, we have achieved robust assays with quality factors as good as conventional electrophoresis in ~100 s. This is 10 and 50 times faster than capillary and slab gel electrophoresis, respectively. The method was highly accurate with an average error of mutation site measurement of only ±5 bp. No clean-up of the digestion mixtures was needed prior to injection. This greatly simplifies sample handling relative to capillary instruments, which is important for high-throughput screening applications. Following identification, absolute mutation determination of the screened samples was achieved in a second microdevice optimized for four-color DNA sequencing. Total run time was 25 min in this second device and sequencing data were in full agreement with ABI Prism® 377 sequencing runs which required 3.5 h. The tandem application of microdevices for location then full characterization of SNPs appears to confirm many of the improvements claimed for future application of microdevices in practical scaled screening for mutational analysis. PMID:10756210

  17. Fluorography of polyacrylamide gels containing tritium.

    PubMed

    Waterborg, J H; Matthews, H R

    1984-01-01

    Fluorography is the term used for the process of determining radioactivity in gels and other media by a combination of fluorescence and photography. Since most of the radiation of a low energy emitter will largely be absorbed by the gel, in the technique of fluorography a fluor (e.g., PPO) is infiltrated into the gel where it can absorb the radiation and re-emit light that will pass through the gel to the film. The resulting photographic image is analogous to an autoradiograph, but for a low energy beta-emitting isotope like (3)H, the sensitivity of fluorography is many times the sensitivity of autoradiography. The fluorograph may be used directly, as a qualitative picture of the radioactivity on the gel. It may also be used to locate radioactive bands or spots that can then be cut from the original gel for further analysis, or be scanned to give quantitative information about the distribution of radioactivity. Figure 1 shows an example of a gel that was stained with Coomassie blue and then fluorographed. Notice that there is no loss of resolution in the fluorography of thin gels of normal size. Fig. 1. This shows two examples of fluorography of protein bands labeled with (3)H. Basic nuclear proteins were isolated from the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, pulse-labeled with (3)H-acetate in either S phase or G(2) phase of the naturally synchronous cell cycle. The proteins were analyzed by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in acetic acid, urea, and Triton X-100. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained with Coomassie blue, photographed, and then fluorographed. Individual lanes of the gel image were cut from the photograph (negative) and the fluorograph and then printed side-by-side to give the figure shown. Notice that the stain patterns of the two lanes are practically identical, except for the loading, while the radioactivity patterns show major differences, for example, the absence of label in his-tones H2A and H2B in G2 phase (4). PMID:20512684

  18. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B Java 2D

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section B ­ Java 2D 20 - Graphics2D: Introduction 21 - Graphics2D: Shapes 22 2D: General Path Curves 29 - Graphics 2D: Constructive Area Geometry Gary Hill December 2003 Java 2 Java initially through the Abstract Window Toolkit, which was extended to include swing, shortly

  19. Validation of fragment analysis by capillary electrophoresis to resolve mixed infections by Cryptosporidium parvum subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Quílez, Joaquín; Hadfield, Stephen J; Ramo, Ana; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2014-05-01

    The potential of capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based DNA fragment analysis to identify mixed infections by Cryptosporidium parvum subpopulations was validated using high-resolution slab-gel electrophoresis. A selection of genomic DNA samples from C. parvum isolates with CE electropherogram profiles indicative of two concurrent alleles at one or more of six mini and microsatellite loci (MSB, MS5, ML1, ML2, TP14, 5B12) were analysed. These loci were PCR-amplified and products separated on precast Spreadex EL600 slab gels. ML1 PCR products differing by as little as 3 bp in length were visible after Spreadex gel electrophoresis and fragments were clearly separated for all but the ML2 and 5B12 loci, which generated stutter bands. No stuttering was seen for the remaining markers, having three or more nucleotide motifs in the repeat region. For each sample, the two bands of interest were excised separately, DNA extracted and re-amplified by PCR. Sequencing of these PCR products revealed the expected sequences for both alleles at most samples, except for the longest ML2 and 5B12 alleles which generated indeterminate sequences. Two novel MS5 alleles were successfully sequenced after PCR re-amplification. These findings demonstrate the utility of high-resolution Spreadex gels for analysing the polymorphism of satellite markers of Cryptosporidium isolates and support the validity of CE as a reliable and sensitive tool for detecting mixed Cryptosporidium subpopulations in a single-host infection. PMID:24609235

  20. Conservation Anomaly in 2-d

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    What is an anomaly? Current Conservation Anomaly in 2-d QED: Schwinger model Current Matrix´alez University of California ­ Santa Cruz March 2015 1 / 23 #12;What is an anomaly? Current Conservation Anomaly, in other words quantum corrections break the symmetry. 2 / 23 #12;What is an anomaly? Current Conservation

  1. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  2. A method for the preparation of low-pH dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gradient gels.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G D; Wilson, M T; Darley-Usmar, V M

    1981-01-01

    1. A low-pH lithium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gradient slab-gel system, suitable for electrophoresis, is described, and the migration properties of standard proteins are compared on this and conventional high-pH gels. 2. Cytochrome oxidase may be partially resolved into its component polypeptides. The order of migration of these is, however, dependent on the pH of the gel system. PMID:6272713

  3. Improving gel properties of hairtail surimi by electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xianping; Yang, Wenge; Xu, Dalun; Jie, Zhen; Liu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Hairtail surimi was subjected to electron irradiation for doses up to 9 kGy. At 7 kGy highest gel strength was achieved. The irradiation also increased lightness and expressible water amount. Scanning electron micrographs showed that 7 kGy irradiation made the surimi protein gel network more compact. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) as the irradiation dose increased, particularly at the 7 and 9 kGy doses. Radiation processing may become a new effective tool in surimi production.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh (Hillsboro, OR); Keynton, Robert S. (Louisville, KY); Roussel, Thomas J. (Louisville, KY); Crain, Mark M. (Georgetown, IN); Jackson, Douglas J. (New Albany, IN); Walsh, Kevin M. (Louisville, KY); Naber, John F. (Goshen, KY); Baldwin, Richard P. (Louisville, KY); Franco, Danielle B. (Mount Washington, KY)

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  5. Enhancing Centrifugal Separation With Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Separation of biological cells by coil-planet centrifuge enhanced by electrophoresis. By itself, coil-planet centrifuge offers relatively gentle method of separating cells under low centrifugal force in physiological medium that keeps cells alive. With addition of voltage gradient to separation column of centrifuge, separation still gentle but faster and more complete. Since separation apparatus contains no rotary seal, probability of leakage, contamination, corrosion, and short circuits reduced.

  6. 2D Lattice Liquid Models

    E-print Network

    Yukitaka Ishimoto; Takahiro Murashima; Takashi Taniguchi; Ryoichi Yamamoto

    2012-03-31

    A family of novel models of liquid on a 2D lattice (2D lattice liquid models) have been proposed as primitive models of soft-material membrane. As a first step, we have formulated them as single-component, single-layered, classical particle systems on a two-dimensional surface with no explicit viscosity. Among the family of the models, we have shown and constructed two stochastic models, a vicious walk model and a flow model, on an isotropic regular lattice and on the rectangular honeycomb lattice of various sizes. In both cases, the dynamics is governed by the nature of the frustration of the particle movements. By simulations, we have found the approximate functional form of the frustration probability, and peculiar anomalous diffusions in their time-averaged mean square displacements in the flow model. The relations to other existing statistical models and possible extensions of the models are also discussed.

  7. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  8. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 ?g of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3–10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima. PMID:26641262

  9. The separation of the ?-chains of collagen by free-flow electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Camille J.; Glimcher, M. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The separation of the ?-components of codfish-skin and calf-skin collagen from the higher-molecular-weight components was accomplished by gel filtration with Bio-Gel P-300 resin in 5m-lithium chloride and at pH7·4. 2. From this fraction three distinct ?-components, corresponding to the ?1-, ?2- and ?3- chains of collagen, were isolated by free-flow electrophoresis in 6m-urea at 4°. At the temperatures and pH values used there was no detectable degradation of the ?-chains. PMID:6030276

  10. Mathematical models of continuous flow electrophoresis: Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, Dudley A.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of continuous flow electrophoresis were studied: (1) the structure of the flow field in continuous flow devices; and (2) the electrokinetic properties of suspended particles relevant to electrophoretic separations. Mathematical models were developed to describe flow structure and stability, with particular emphasis on effects due to buoyancy. To describe the fractionation of an arbitrary particulate sample by continuous flow electrophoresis, a general mathematical model was constructed. In this model, chamber dimensions, field strength, buffer composition, and other design variables can be altered at will to study their effects on resolution and throughput. All these mathematical models were implemented on a digital computer and the codes are available for general use. Experimental and theoretical work with particulate samples probed how particle mobility is related to buffer composition. It was found that ions on the surface of small particles are mobile, contrary to the widely accepted view. This influences particle mobility and suspension conductivity. A novel technique was used to measure the mobility of particles in concentrated suspensions.

  11. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  12. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Tan, Hongdong (Ames, IA)

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  13. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced crosslinking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm2. Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rhe...

  14. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ira S.

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

  15. Electrical characterization of gel collected from shark electrosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Brandon R.; Hutchison, John C.; Hughes, Mary E.; Kellogg, Douglas R.; Murray, Royce W.

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the physical mechanism of the electric sense, we present an initial electrical characterization of the glycoprotein gel that fills the electrosensitive organs of marine elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays). We have collected samples of this gel, postmortem, from three shark species, and removed the majority of dissolved salts in one sample via dialysis. Here we present the results of dc conductivity measurements, low-frequency impedance spectroscopy, and electrophoresis. Electrophoresis shows a range of large protein-based molecules fitting the expectations of glycoproteins, but the gels of different species exhibit little similarity. The electrophoresis signature is unaffected by thermal cycling and measurement currents. The dc data were collected at various temperatures, and at various electric and magnetic fields, showing consistency with the properties of seawater. The impedance data collected from a dialyzed sample, however, show large values of static permittivity and a loss peak corresponding to an unusually long relaxation time, about 1 ms. The exact role of the gel is still unknown, but our results suggest its bulk properties are well matched to the sensing mechanism, as the minimum response time of an entire electric organ is on the order of 5 ms.

  16. A surfactant-based, regularly arrayed nanostructure gel matrix for migration of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaru; Suwanai, Yusuke; Shimojima, Atsushi; Santa, Tomofumi

    2012-11-01

    The preparation of nanometer-scale pores, or nanopores, has become easy because of the progress in nanotechnology. Surfactants are promising materials for the preparation of nanostructures containing nanopores, because surfactants form many different phase structures, including cubic, micellar, and lamellar structures. We prepared a gel matrix with a cubic structure from a commercially available surfactant, polyoxyethylene(50) lauryl ether (C12EO50, Adekatol LA-50). This gel matrix had regularly arrayed nanopores between the packed spherical micelles. We used the gel to separate biomolecules by means of slab gel electrophoresis. The gel was applicable to migration of amino acids and peptides; however, larger molecules, such as proteins and single-walled carbon nanotubes, did not migrate through the gel. We concluded that the pore size was too small for the penetration of large molecules, and that only small molecules could penetrate the gel matrix. The migration mechanism of small molecules was similar to that observed in conventional gel electrophoresis. We concluded that the gel matrix prepared from surfactant is a promising matrix for migration and purification of small molecules. We also expect that the gel can be used as a nanoscale filter to trap large molecules, allowing only small molecules to pass. PMID:22961738

  17. Compensating for Electro-Osmosis in Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Simple mechanical adjustment eliminates transverse velocity component. New apparatus for moving-wall electrophoresis increases degree of collimation of chemical species in sample stream. Electrophoresis chamber set at slight angle in horizontal plane to adjust angle between solution flow and wall motion. Component of velocity created cancels electro-osmotic effect.

  18. Patch Clamp Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Articles Patch Clamp Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis Kent Jardemark Department of Anatomy a capillary electrophoresis-patch clamp (CE- PC) analysis of biomolecules that activate ligand-gated ion responses were calculated from currents recorded with patch clamp detection. This information

  19. Silver staining DNA in polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Bassam, Brant J; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes a simple silver staining method used to visualize DNA fragments and other organic molecules with unsurpassed detail following traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Sensitivity rivals radioisotopic methods and DNA in the picogram range can be reliably detected. The described protocol is fast (approximately 1 h) and is implemented using readily available chemicals and materials. To achieve the sensitivity and visual clarity expected, quality reagents and clean handling are important. The updated protocol described here is based on the widely used method of Bassam et al. (1991), but provides improved image contrast and less risk of staining artefacts. PMID:18007600

  20. Electrophoresis of DNA on a disordered two-dimensional substrate

    E-print Network

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-10-10

    We propose a new method for electrophoretic separation of DNA in which adsorbed polymers are driven over a disordered two-dimensional substrate which contains attractive sites for the polymers. Using simulations of a model for long polymer chains, we show that the mobility increases with polymer length, in contrast to gel electrophoresis techniques, and that separation can be achieved for a range of length scales. We demonstrate that the separation mechanism relies on steric interactions between polymer segments, which prevent substrate disorder sites from trapping more than one DNA segment each. Since thermal activation does not play a significant role in determining the polymer mobility, band broadening due to diffusion can be avoided in our separation method.

  1. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  2. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  3. Tris-dependent oxidative DNA strand scission during electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ray, T; Mills, A; Dyson, P

    1995-06-01

    The DNA of two Streptomyces species contains site-specific labile modifications. During gel electrophoresis the DNA can undergo Tris-dependent strand scission at the positions of these modifications. Our investigations into the nucleolytic activity which reacts with the modifications implicate a peracid derivative of Tris formed at the anode; the kinetics of production and decay of this activity were followed using both a DNA cleavage assay and a reduced methyl viologen assay to measure oxidant. Anode activation could be chemically mimicked by addition of peracetic acid to Tris buffers. We tested the DNA cleavage activity of several other compounds after anode or chemical activation; we used an analogue of Tris lacking a primary amine group and also several reagents known to promote DNA strand cleavage by amine-catalysis at abasic sites. Anode generation of oxidant could be detected for compounds containing either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. However, DNA cleavage activity correlated with oxidant formation only for those compounds also containing primary amine groups. These results support a mechanism of DNA strand scission at modification sites via concerted peracid-mediated oxidative and amine-catalysed reactions. The novel finding of Tris-dependent formation of a long-lived reactive oxidant at the anode suggests that this compound is unsuited as an electrophoresis buffer for certain biological macromolecules. PMID:7498131

  4. Diversity of puroindolines as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Branlard, Gérard; Amiour, Nardjis; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gaborit, Thérèse; Herbette, Stephane; Dardevet, Mireille; Marion, Didier

    2003-02-01

    Puroindolines are endosperm lipid binding proteins, which are separated by reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography or cation exchange chromatography into two isoforms, puroindoline-a (PIN-a) and puroindoline-b (PIN-b). Being very basic and close in molecular weight, PIN-a and PIN-b have never been separated using conventional isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A two-dimensional electrophoresis method, linear immobiline pH gradient (IPGxSDS-PAGE), was developed, using 6-11 linear immobiline Dry Strips in the first dimension, which allowed the puroindolines to be focused between isoelectric point 10.5 and 11. Immunoblotting revealed that both PIN-a and PIN-b were each composed of several spots. Two-dimensional patterns from unrelated wheat varieties revealed that several spots can be highlighted among varieties. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometry allowed the majority of the spots revealed in the puroindoline zone to be identified. The two-dimensional IPGxSDS-PAGE of these very basic wheat endosperm proteins, puroindolines and related grain softness proteins should facilitate the identification of the proteins associated with wheat endosperm texture that have a strong effect on milling, dough properties and end-uses of wheats. PMID:12601809

  5. *PSD:Position Sensitive Detector GP2D12/GP2D15 Distance Measuring Sensors

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    *PSD:Position Sensitive Detector GP2D12/GP2D15 Distance Measuring Sensors General Purpose Type Distance Measuring Sensors SHARP's GP2D12/GP2D15 are general purpose type distance measuring sensors which -10 to +60°C -10 to +60°C Dissipation current Icc MAX.35mA GP2D12 Distance Measuring SensorsGP2D12/GP2

  6. Rapid and automated characterisation of seed genotype using Micrograd electrophoresis and pattern-matching software.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Batey, I L; Bekes, F; Gore, P J; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    New precast microgels are described for use in quickly identifying seed of cereal varieties by determining protein composition within an hour. For example, gliadin proteins are extracted from crushed wheat grain, wheatmeal or flour with ethylene glycol (centrifugation not necessary) and 5 microliters extract is applied to a Micrograd gel (3-15% gel gradient) for ten minutes' electrophoresis at 300 volts in sodium lactate buffer (pH 3.1). Alternatively, precast gels are available for SDS gel electrophoresis for examining a different aspect of grain composition as a means of identification. To further expedite identification, software packages have been developed to match the protein pattern for an unknown sample against those of authentic samples, thus to provide quick and definite identity, based on electrophoretic banding, densitometer scan, HPLC profile, multiple antibody reaction or RFLP pattern (PatMatch program). Furthermore, the program WhatWheat offers advice on the best combination of methods to use for a specific task of identification. PMID:1477115

  7. Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy JUNRONG ZHENG, KYUNGWON KWAK, AND M. D. FAYER The experimental technique and applications of ultrafast two- dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo systems. The form and time evolution of the 2D IR spectrum permits examination of processes that cannot

  8. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between human esophageal immortalized and carcinomatous cell lines by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Xu, Li-Yan; Shen, Zhong-Ying; Cai, Wei-Jia; Luo, Jian-Min; Han, Ya-Li; Li, En-Min

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To identify the differentially expressed proteins between the human immortalized esophageal epithelial cell line (SHEE) and the malignant transformed esophageal carcinoma cell line (SHEEC), and to explore new ways for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. METHODS: SHEE and SHEEC cell lines were used to separate differentially expressed proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The silver-stained 2-D gels was scanned with EDAS290 digital camera system and analyzed with the PDQuest 6.2 Software. Six spots in which the differentially expressed protein was more obvious were selected and analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flying mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). RESULTS: There were 107±4.58 and 115±9.91 protein spots observed in SHEE and SHEEC respectively, and the majority of these spots between the two cell lines matched each other (r = 0.772), only a few were expressed differentially. After analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search for the six differentially expressed proteins, One new protein as well as other five sequence-known proteins including RNPEP-like protein, human rRNA gene upstream sequence binding transcription factor, uracil DNA glycosylase, Annexin A2 and p300/CBP-associated factor were preliminarily identified. CONCLUSION: These differentially expressed proteins might play an importance role during malignant transformation of SHEEC from SHEE. The identification of these proteins may serve as a new way for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. PMID:12378614

  9. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  10. Comparative gel-based phosphoproteomics in response to signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Marondedze, Claudius; Lilley, Kathryn; Thomas, Ludivine

    2013-01-01

    The gel-based proteomics approach is a valuable technique for studying the characteristics of proteins. This technique has diverse applications ranging from analysis of a single protein to the study of the total cellular proteins. Further, protein quality and to some extent distribution can be first assessed by means of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and then more informatively, for comparative analysis, using the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique. Here, we describe how to take advantage of the availability of fluorescent dyes to stain for a selective class of proteins on the same gel for the detection of both phospho- and total proteomes. This enables the co-detection of phosphoproteins as well as total proteins from the same gel and is accomplished by utilizing two different fluorescent stains, the ProQ-Diamond, which stains only phosphorylated proteins, and Sypro Ruby, which stains the entire subset of proteins. This workflow can be applied to gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms induced by signaling molecules such as cyclic nucleotides through the quantification and subsequent identification of responsive phospho- and total proteins. PMID:23681577

  11. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  12. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOEpatents

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  13. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  14. Mesoscale modelling of polyelectrolyte electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Grass, Kai; Holm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains ranging from single monomers up to long fragments of a hundred repeat units is studied by a mesoscopic simulation approach. Abstracting from the atomistic details of the polyelectrolyte and the fluid, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model connected to a mesoscopic fluid described by the Lattice-Boltzmann approach is used to investigate free-solution electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates the importance of hydrodynamic interactions for the electrophoretic motion of polyelectrolytes and quantifies the influence of surrounding ions. The length-dependence of the electrophoretic mobility can be understood by evaluating the scaling behavior of the effective charge and the effective friction. The perfect agreement of our results with experimental measurements shows that all chemical details and fluid structure can be safely neglected, and a suitable coarse-grained approach can yield an accurate description of the physics of the problem, provided that electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between all entities in the system, i.e., the polyelectrolyte, dissociated counterions, additional salt and the solvent, are properly accounted for. Our model is able to bridge the single molecule regime of a few nm up to macromolecules with contour lengths of more than 100 nm, a length scale that is currently not accessible to atomistic simulations. PMID:20158023

  15. Mesoscale modelling of polyelectrolyte electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Kai Grass; Christian Holm

    2009-02-11

    The electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains ranging from single monomers up to long fragments of hundred repeat units is studied by a mesoscopic simulation approach. Abstracting from the atomistic details of the polyelectrolyte and the fluid, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model connected to a mesoscopic fluid described by the Lattice Boltzmann approach is used to investigate free-solution electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates the importance of hydrodynamic interactions for the electrophoretic motion of polyelectrolytes and quantifies the influence of surrounding ions. The length-dependence of the electrophoretic mobility can be understood by evaluating the scaling behavior of the effective charge and the effective friction. The perfect agreement of our results with experimental measurements shows that all chemical details and fluid structure can be safely neglected, and a suitable coarse-grained approach can yield an accurate description of the physics of the problem, provided that electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between all entities in the system, i.e., the polyelectrolyte, dissociated counterions, additional salt and the solvent, are properly accounted for. Our model is able to bridge the single molecule regime of a few nm up to macromolecules with contour lengths of more than 100 nm, a length scale that is currently not accessible to atomistic simulations.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Severs, Joanne C. (Hayward, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  17. Induced-charge electrophoresis near a wall

    E-print Network

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri

    Induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP) has mostly been analyzed for asymmetric particles in an infinite fluid, but channel walls in real systems further break symmetry and lead to dielectrophoresis (DEP) in local field ...

  18. Affinity Electrophoresis Using Ligands Attached To Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Harris, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    In new technique, reduction of electrophoretic mobilities by addition of polyethylene glycol to ligands increases electrophoretic separabilities. In immuno-affinity electrophoresis, modification of ligands extends specificity of electrophoretic separation to particles having surface electric-charge structures otherwise making them electrophoretically inseparable. Modification of antibodies by polyethylene glycol greatly reduces ability to aggregate while enhancing ability to affect electrophoretic mobilities of cells. In hydrophobic-affinity electrophoresis, addition of polyethylene glycol reduces tendency toward aggregation of cells or macromolecules.

  19. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  20. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    E-print Network

    Purcaru, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features of 2D barcode implementation for DNA.