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Sample records for gel-tamo study group

  1. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  2. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  3. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  4. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  5. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  6. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  7. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  8. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  9. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  10. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  11. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  12. Simulated Group Counseling for Group Work Training: A Four-Year Research Study of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Simulated Group Counseling (SGC), a training model for graduate-level group workers. During a four-year period, 98 graduate students participated in 12 role-played SGC groups. SGC followed a model of group development and was highly consistent with expected changes in non-role-played groups. Discusses SGC advantages, especially related to…

  13. Cretaceous Cogollo Group study - District Zulia Occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Lagazzi, R.; D`Antonio, G.; Hung, O.; Avila, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Cretaceous Cogollo Group, with over 1500 feet of platform carbonate and shale section, contains important oil accumulations in the west portion of the Maracaibo basin. However, after discovery of the major oil fields, all subsequent exploration and exploitation efforts led to disappointing results. This paper summarizes the study of the Cogollo Group in the Lake Maracaibo West Coast area, where light Cretaceous oil may have an impact on the total reserves. After integrating the Cogollo Group into the regional framework, the study focuses on the District Zulia Occidental, where over 40 deep wells either penetrated or tested the reservoir. Structural and stratigraphic descriptions are enriched by a significant amount of core and petrophysical data that leads to a better understanding of the reservoir layering and pore geometry. Well production performance and reservoir data are incorporated to the study as additional tools to determine the size of the oil accumulations. Finally, the study addresses the possibility of drilling slant or horizontal wells as a way to reduce the number of dry holes or marginal producers.

  14. Group exposure for agoraphobics: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, J D; Walsh, P A; Lancashire, M; Mathews, A M

    1977-02-01

    A replication study was conducted of the treatment of agoraphobics by exposure in cohesive groups, as described by Hand, Lamantagne and Marks (1974). The continuing improvement during follow-up, with consequent large overall improvement, reported in the original study was not replicated. However, the present study confirmed the usefulness of this procedure as a highly cost-efficient treatment. The assumed equivalence of the Gelder and Marks (1966) phobic rating scale and its modification by Watson and Marks (1971) was examined. Large discrepancies between the scales were obtained for initial assessments and change scores. It is suggested that there is a need for workers in this field to agree on methods of measurement. PMID:837039

  15. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  16. Bayesian Model Selection for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Penny, Will D.; Daunizeau, Jean; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    approaches in the presence of outliers. We expect that this new random effects method will prove useful for a wide range of group studies, not only in the context of DCM, but also for other modelling endeavours, e.g. comparing different source reconstruction methods for EEG/MEG or selecting among competing computational models of learning and decision-making. PMID:19306932

  17. DPHEP: From Study Group to Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiers, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The international study group on data preservation in High Energy Physics, DPHEP, achieved a major milestone in 2012 with the publication of its eagerly anticipated large-scale report [1]. This document contains a description of data preservation activities from all major high energy physics collider-based experiments and laboratories. A central message of the report is that data preservation in HEP is not possible without long term investment in not only hardware but also human resources, and with this in mind DPHEP will evolve to a new collaboration structure in 2013. This paper describes the progress made since the publication of that report - shortly before CHEP 2012 - as well as the future working directions of the new collaboration.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

  19. Learning in Groups: A Comparison of Study Groups and T Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward B.; Astrachan, Boris M.

    1971-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of two models, with special attention to the ways in which authority and peer relations are viewed. The need for theoretical and technical amalgamation to advance our understanding of group phenomena is stressed. A comment by James Crowfoot, University of Michigan follows. (Author)

  20. Children's Learning Groups: A Study of Emergent Leadership, Dominance, and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko

    This study explores the importance of the group context in the emergence of leadership, dominance, and group effectiveness in children's collaborative learning groups. Ten 3-person work groups performed a collaborative math activity. Using achievement goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Maehr and Midgley, 1996; Pintrich and Schunk, 1996) as a framework,…

  1. Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

  2. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  3. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  4. Computational Study of Platinum Group Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoola, A. I.; Lowther, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Various properties of substitutional alloys formed from aluminium and the platinum group metals (PGMs) are examined using density functional (D-F) theory and show strong variations depending on metal type. A similar pattern for the binary alloys is observed using molecular dynamics modeling employing Sutton Chen potentials. All results suggest that several of the PGMs could have superior properties to the presently used Ni3Al alloy for high temperature applications. Some phases are predicted to be stable with extremely high melting temperatures (MTs).

  5. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  6. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  7. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  8. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  9. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  10. Facilitating Professional Development through Teacher Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, La' Toya

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a way of teaching, which gives students multiple choices to learn information. Fourth grade teachers at one elementary school were not implementing the differentiated instructional techniques that would help them address the learning needs of their students. The purpose of this project study was to create a teacher…

  11. Cluster Analysis in Minority Group Poverty Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Lamar

    This paper, one of a series which arose out of data gathered on Choctaw Indians, Negroes, and whites in a low income area of Mississippi, expands upon one aspect of a recently completed analysis by the author. In the study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the characteristics associated with income levels and those related to ethnic…

  12. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  13. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  14. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  15. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  16. Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome.…

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Principles within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jent, Jason F.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group…

  18. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  19. English Curriculum Redesign through an EFL Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-chin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a teacher study group collectively examined problems in their current English curriculum and redesigned the curriculum into theme-based lessons for various grades. Comprised of seven elementary school teachers and a teacher educator, the teacher study group met bi-weekly for three hours for a total of eight meetings.…

  20. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice. PMID:20718517

  1. Investigating Science Collaboratively: A Case Study of Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinicola, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of one urban middle school group of students who were investigating scientific phenomena were analyzed; this study was conducted to discern if and how peer interaction contributes to learning. Through a social constructivist lens, case study methodology, we examined conceptual change among group members. Data about science talk was…

  2. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  3. Follow Up Study of Group Counseling with Underachieving College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    The purpose of this study was to report long-range effects of group counseling and the college growth experience of students who were identified as underachievers and were enrolled as freshmen during the fall of 1969. Five variables were selected for this study as having possible influence on self-concept: (1) group, (2) education, (3) status, (4)…

  4. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  5. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  6. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Principles Within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    JENT, JASON F.; NIEC, LARISSA N.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group mentoring significantly increased children’s reported social problem-solving skills and decreased parent-reported child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems after controlling for other concurrent mental health services. Attrition from the group mentoring program was notably low (7%) for children. The integration of a cognitive behavioral group mentoring program into children’s existing community mental health services may result in additional reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. PMID:20582243

  8. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  9. Bion's thinking about groups: a study of influence and originality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2015-04-01

    One of Bion's least-acknowledged contributions to psychoanalytic theory is his study of the relationship between the mind of the individual (the ability to think), the mentalities of groups of which the individual is a member, and the individual's bodily states. Bion's early work on group therapy evolved into a study of the interplay between mind and bodily instincts associated with being a member of a group, and became the impetus for his theory of thinking. On the foundation of Bion's ideas concerning this interaction among the thinking of the individual, group mentality, and the psyche-soma, the author presents his thoughts on the ways in which group mentality is recognizable in the analysis of individuals. PMID:25876541

  10. Case stories in general practice: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Participants Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. Results The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients’ and doctors’ perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Conclusions Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support. PMID:22874630

  11. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  12. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  13. Reverse Discrimination by Minority Groups. A Participant Observation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Clavner, Catherine

    This study explores reverse discrimination as a cultural phenomenon that should be studied by anthropologists, and to which anthropology has inadvertently contributed. Discrimination by minority group members is taught and encouraged under the guise of ethnic pride and promotion of traditional beliefs. Ethnocentrism may be a cultural defense…

  14. Motivating Study Groups across the Disciplines in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Clary, Deidre M.; Oglan, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces Project RAISSE: Reading Assistance Initiative for Secondary School Educators and shares the findings of a study into those factors found to motivate study group participants at two rural high schools in the southern USA. The research team collected qualitative data over a two-year period, including interviews, artifacts,…

  15. Group Therapy Intervention for Male Batterers: A Microethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Varsha; Gingerich, Wallace J.

    2002-01-01

    The study discussed in this article describes change processes in abusers and examines the dynamics of unsuccessful processes. In doing so, this study provides a useful evaluation of group therapy as it is offered to batterers. Implications for microethnographic methods are discussed for social work students learning to evaluate their practice.…

  16. Developing Dialogic Teaching Identities through Online Video Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nathan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers narrate and develop their identities through their participation in an online video study group. Participants are six public school world language teachers using "Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling" (TPRS) methodology who live in geographically diverse regions of the United States but…

  17. The history of the EuroSPK - Study Group.

    PubMed

    Squifflet, J P; Malaise, J; Van Ophem, D; Marcelis, V; Land, W G

    2008-01-01

    The EuroSPK Study group was created during the 4th Spitzingsee 1997 workshop in Kühtai, Austria. Thanks to W. Land for the incentive to gather European Centres--with Switzerland and Israel--and propose them to joint efforts and share data in the field of pancreas transplantation. Today, two prospective randomized studies have been already performed; a lot of data and results have been generated and worldwide spread. The spirit of the group will continue with a new interest in innate immunity and prevention of the ischemic reperfusion injury in pancreas transplantation. PMID:18411576

  18. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10μg/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  19. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  20. Group Involvement in Decision-Making: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genrich, Sandra J.; Banks, J. Carolyn; Bufton, Karen; Savage, Mary Ellen; Owens, Marcella Upshaw

    2001-01-01

    Health care leaders (n=27) read case studies and identified leadership styles appropriate for the scenarios. Results suggest that participating in a class on the use of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model may help leaders gain the skill needed to delegate decision making to groups. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  1. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  2. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  3. SU(3) renormalization group study on parallel computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Fujisaki, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hege, H. C.; Hioki, S.; Makino, J.; Miyamura, O.; Nakamura, A.; Okada, M.; Stamatescu, I. O.; Tago, Y.; Takaishi, T.; QCD TARO (QCD on Thousand cell ARay processorOmnipurpose) Collaboration

    We report results of a Monte Crlo renormalization group study with b = 2 blocking on a 34 4 lattice in progress. Δβ at β = 6.8 is consistent with previously obtained values at a large β and is smaller than the two-loop asymptotic value.

  4. A Comparative Study of Small Group Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the reading development of small groups of learners making the transition from intentional decoding to fluent reading. The research focused on the relative effectiveness of repeated and wide reading as a means of developing reading fluency. It also looked at the importance of expressive, or prosodic, reading in…

  5. [A Critical Condition of Clinical Studies in Japan -- A Battle of Clinical Study Groups].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The post-marketing clinical study groups have been losing their activity due to stop of financial support. As the result, clinical study groups cannot achieve any EBM for treatment guidelines. Financial supports should be restarted immediately not to extinguish the post-marketing clinical studies and study groups. PMID:27220798

  6. How Does a Child Learn English? Study Group Paper No. 4; and Study Group Supporting Papers I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Miriam E.; And Others

    Originating from a study group at the Dartmouth Seminar entitled "How Does a Child Learn English?" these four papers agree that all psychologically normal children come to school already highly proficient in operating a wide range of language structure. The first paper synthesizes some theories regarding language acquisition and discusses the role…

  7. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. PMID:24591119

  8. Faculty Study Groups: Solving "Good Problems" through Study, Reflection, and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; Hable, Margaret P.; Preston, Marlene M.; Magliaro, Susan G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and assessment of a faculty study group program at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The study group was designed to foster teaching as a reflective, collaborative activity and encourage interaction of faculty of different disciplines, age groups, ranks, and teaching experience. (DB)

  9. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  10. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  11. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E.; van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level – e.g., dynamic causal models – and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  12. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  13. Fundamental Studies on Donor-acceptor Conjugated Polymers Containing 'Heavy' Group 14 and Group 16 Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Gregory Laird

    One advantage of conjugated polymers as organic materials is that their properties may be readily tuned through covalent modifications. This thesis presents studies on the structure-property relationships resulting from single- and double-atom substitutions on an alternating donor-acceptor conjugated polymer. Specifically, single selenium and tellurium atoms have been incorporated into the acceptor monomer in place of sulfur; silicon and germanium atoms have been substituted in place of carbon at the donor monomer bridge position. The carbon-donor/ tellurium-acceptor polymer was synthesized by a post-polymerization reaction sequence and demonstrated the utility of heavy group 16 atoms to red shift a polymer absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations point to a new explanation for this result invoking the lower heavy atom ionization energy and reduced aromaticity of acceptor monomers containing selenium and tellurium compared to sulfur. Absorption and emission experiments demonstrate that both silicon and germanium substitutions in the donor slightly blue shift the polymer absorption spectrum. Polymers containing sulfur in the acceptor are the strongest light absorbers of all polymers studied here. Molecular weight and phenyl end capping studies show that molecular weight appears to affect polymer absorption to the greatest degree in a medium molecular weight regime and that these effects have a significant aggregation component. Solar cell devices containing either the silicon- or germanium-donor/selenium-acceptor polymer display improved red light harvesting or hole mobility relative to their structural analogues. Overall, these results clarify the effects of single atom substitution on donor-acceptor polymers and aid in the future design of polymers containing heavy atoms.

  14. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  15. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  16. Numerical renormalization group study of a dissipative quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, M. T.; Ingersent, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by dissipation in a quantum dot device at the degeneracy point. We employ a Bose-Fermi numerical renormalization group approach [1] to study the simplest case of a spinless resonant-level model that couples the charge density on the dot to a dissipative bosonic bath with density of states B(φ)ŝ. In anticipation of future experiments [2] and to assess further the validity of theoretical techniques in this rapidly developing area, we take the conduction-electron leads to have a pseudogap density of states: ρ(φ) |φ|^r, as considered in a very recent perturbative renormalization group study [3]. We establish the conditions on r and s such that a QPT arises with increasing dissipation strength --- from a delocalized phase, where resonant tunneling leads to large charge fluctuations on the dot, to a localized phase where such fluctuations are frozen. We present results for the single-particle spectrum and the response of the system to a local electric field, extracting critical exponents that depend in general on r and s and obey hyperscaling relations. We make full comparison with results of [3] where appropriate. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0312939. [1] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006). [2] L. G. G. V. Dias da Silva, N. P. Sandler, K. Ingersent, and S. E. Ulloa, PRL 97, 096603 (2006). [3] C.-H. Chung, M. Kir'can, L. Fritz, and M. Vojta (2006).

  17. Patients, health information, and guidelines: A focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Saarelma, Osmo; Callaghan, Margaret; Harbour, Robin; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Loudon, Kirsty; Mcfarlane, Emma; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evidence-based clinical guidelines could support shared decision-making and help patients to participate actively in their care. However, it is not well known how patients view guidelines as a source of health information. This qualitative study aimed to assess what patients know about guidelines, and what they think of their presentation formats. Research question. What is the role of guidelines as health information for patients and how could the implementation of evidence-based information for patients be improved? Methods. A qualitative study with focus groups that were built around a semi-structured topic guide. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Results. Five focus groups were carried out in 2012 with a total of 23 participants. Patients searched for health information from the Internet or consulted health professionals or their personal networks. The concepts of guidelines included instructions or standards for health professionals, information given by a health professional to the patient, and material to protect and promote the interests of patients. Some patients did not have a concept for guidelines. Patients felt that health information was abundant and its quality sometimes difficult to assess. They respected conciseness, clarity, clear structure, and specialists or well-known organizations as authors of health information. Patients would like health professionals to deliver and clarify written materials to them or point out to them the relevant Internet sites. Conclusions. The concept of guidelines was not well known among our interviewees; however, they expressed an interest in having more communication on health information, both written information and clarifications with their health professionals. PMID:26205344

  18. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    van Leerdam, Lotte; Rietveld, Lianne; Teunissen, Doreth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the goals of the medical master’s degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship. Methods A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis. Results Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors. Conclusion Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues. PMID:24600301

  19. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of

  20. Dynamical study of the Atira group of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. O.; Roig, F.; De Prá, M. N.; Carvano, J. M.; DeSouza, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the group of Atira asteroids, characterized by aphelion distance Q < 0.983 au. This group has a significant observational bias, and their number is expected to be an order of magnitude larger than is known today. Due to their orbital configuration, these asteroids may represent a potential danger to the Earth. Here, we construct dynamical maps of the region between 0.2 and 0.98 au using a simple chaos indicator, the mean standard deviation in semimajor axis, and also analyse the behaviour of the real Atira orbits by means of the diffusion coefficient in semimajor axis. Our results indicate that Atira asteroids are located in the most unstable regions of the inner Solar system, and their stability is determined by close encounters and collisions with Mercury, Venus, and the Earth. A fraction of the known Atiras may represent a potential threat to the Earth over a few 105 yr of evolution. We found two islands of low-eccentricity stable orbits that might harbour a long-lasting sub-population of Atiras not yet observed.

  1. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  2. Student Use of Out-of-Class Study Groups in an Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybczynski, Stephen M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively…

  3. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. AIM: To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus group discussions. SETTING: Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. METHODS: Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. RESULTS: All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and

  4. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  5. Study of the Moraxella Group I. Genus Moraxella and the Neisseria catarrhalis Group1

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Doudoroff, M.; Stanier, R. Y.

    1968-01-01

    A number of strains of oxidase-positive moraxellas and of neisserias related to Neisseria catarrhalis were characterized with respect to a number of nutritional and physiological properties and could be assigned to several species or species groups on the basis of their phenotypic traits. This grouping was consistent with that established by Bövre on the basis of transformation frequencies for streptomycin resistance. It is proposed to reserve the generic name Moraxella for the oxidase-positive rodshaped organisms, and a redescription of the genus is offered. Following the recent taxonomic proposals of Bövre and Henriksen, the specific name Moraxella osloensis is applied to the nutritionally unexacting strains that accumulate poly-β-hydroxybutyrate as carbon reserve. The nutritionally exacting strains are assigned to three distinct groups which can be regarded as separate species or as varieties of M. lacunata. The epithets applicable to these groups appear to be lacunata, nonliquefaciens, and bovis. The “false neisserias” could be assigned to at least three subgroups, one of which constitutes the clearly defined entity, N. catarrhalis, which could be distinguished from N. caviae and N. ovis. Images PMID:4866103

  6. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  7. Multicultural Influences on Group Learning: A Qualitative Higher Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Arthur; Weaven, Scott; Herington, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Although the literature examining the usefulness of group projects is extensive, the link between cooperative learning, group performance and skills transfer in multicultural contexts remains unclear. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 107 international and domestic postgraduate and undergraduate marketing students to investigate this…

  8. A Pilot Study in Marital Group Therapy: Process and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, James N.; Giordano, Francesca G.; King, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    A marital group intervention was developed to address communication, conflict, forgiveness, and reconciliation. This article reviews the history of marital group intervention and presents a description of an 8-week marital group intervention. Results indicated improvement in forgiveness skills, anger expression, and marital satisfaction at…

  9. Incipient Studies of School-Based Decision Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John J.

    To address the effectiveness, the process, and the results of decisionmaking groups that include both administrators and teachers, and to discern the difference between the effective and less effective decisionmaking groups, 107 test groups, each composed of one Florida elementary school principal and two teachers from the same school, were…

  10. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  11. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  12. Post-stroke fatigue: qualitative study of three focus groups.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Nancy A; Stube, Jan E

    2010-06-01

    Fatigue affects many persons after cerebrovascular accident, particularly those with mild stroke. A qualitative methodology using focus groups with 19 community-living post-stroke survivors was utilized to explore the occupational impact of fatigue as communicated by the participants. Although self-report of a small sample of the United States' post-stroke population will have limitations in generalizability, this study identifies specific health-related quality of life issues that can occur with post-stroke fatigue. The participants felt unprepared for the fatigue phenomenon and struggled to adapt, with fatigue having a debilitating influence upon daily occupational performance and roles, including social participation, return to work, driving, reading and sleeping. The participants indicated that exercise (such as walking and water aerobics) and use of assistive technology were helpful strategies in reducing fatigue. The occupational performance and role impact identified by participants in this study can inform the design of effective occupational therapy interventions and further quantitative study of persons with post-stroke fatigue. PMID:19787634

  13. Study of idempotents in cyclic group rings over F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Kai Lin; Ang, Miin Huey

    2016-06-01

    The existence of an idempotent generator for group codes or group ring codes in FqG plays a very important role in determining the minimal distance of the respective code. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for a group ring element to be an idempotent in F2Cn are investigated in this paper. The main result in this paper is the affirmation of the existence of finitely many basis idempotents which gives a full identification of all idempotents in every binary cyclic group ring F2Cn. All the basis idempotents in F2Cn are able to be found by partitioning the largest idempotent's support.

  14. Profiles in Successful Group Piano for Children: A Collective Case Study of Children's Group-Piano Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the best practices in beginning group-piano instruction. Four beginning and intermediate groups of piano students (N =20) were observed. Data were triangulated through in-class observation of students and teachers, teacher interviews and student questionnaires. The master teachers…

  15. What about N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. Methods We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. Results We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Conclusions Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and

  16. Implementation of Total School Cluster Grouping: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necciai, Rodney Alan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed and conducted to examine perception of classroom grouping practices in elementary schools. It includes a comprehensive review of literature related to grade-level and within-class grouping practices over the past thirty years in American schools. A focus was gleaned from the literature that led to the design of a…

  17. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  18. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  19. Older Inmates’ Pursuit of Good Health: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order. PMID:20795581

  20. A Study on Signal Group Processing of AUTOSAR COM Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Han, Tae Man; Ahn, Yong Hak

    2013-06-01

    In vehicle, there are many ECU(Electronic Control Unit)s, and ECUs are connected to networks such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and so on. AUTOSAR COM(Communication) which is a software platform of AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) in the international industry standards of automotive electronic software processes signals and signal groups for data communications between ECUs. Real-time and reliability are very important for data communications in the vehicle. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze functions of signals and signal groups used in COM, and represent that functions of signal group are more efficient than signals in real-time data synchronization and network resource usage between the sender and receiver.

  1. Polyimide characterization studies - Effect of pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  2. Enhancing Group Discussion Skills of Educable Children: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Raymond M.; Goldgraber, Jacob

    1974-01-01

    Two special classes, each containing eight educable mentally retarded students, 9 and 10 years of age, respectively, played a group discussion game twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks in which the teachers presented a discussion topic and reinforced specified good discussion behaviors with high points. (MC)

  3. Pilot Study of Four Selected Groups of Parolees, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garay, Bert; And Others

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Vocational Rehabilitation Programs of the Adult Correctional Facilities of the State of Washington, four groups of parolees were reviewed to determine their successful adjustment 18 months after parole. The Adult Correctional Facilities offer training in a variety of vocations, including the following: auto…

  4. Multilevel Mediation Modeling in Group-Based Intervention Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Jennifer L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Applies the method to the ATLAS intervention designed to decrease steroid use among high school football players. (SLD)

  5. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  6. Needs Assessment Among Diverse Groups: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooler, Anne E.; Toner, James F.

    A Teacher Corps project to deliver staff development services focused on five educational settings: a correctional youth center, a high school, a junior high school, a youth group home consortium, and a college of education. It was felt that comparing the results of needs assessments conducted at each facility would enable useful analyses of…

  7. Enhancing Student Engagement: A Group Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taneja, Aakash

    2014-01-01

    Computing professionals work in groups and collaborate with individuals having diverse backgrounds and behaviors. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) characterizes that a computing program must enable students to attain the ability to analyze a problem, design and evaluate a solution, and work effectively on teams to…

  8. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  9. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  10. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience. PMID:21833243

  11. A portable system for studying discrete-trial group choice.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Tonneau, François; Cordevant, Marie-Alix

    2015-03-01

    Whether groups of people or animals behave optimally in relation to resources is an issue of interest to psychology, ecology, and economics. In behavioral ecology, the simplest model of optimal group choice is the ideal free distribution (IFD). The IFD model has been tested in humans with discrete or continuous inputs and through manual or automated procedures (e.g., Kraft, Baum, & Burge, 2002; Madden, Peden, & Yamagushi, 2002). Manual procedures tend to be time consuming, however, whereas automated procedures typically require access to a computer network. In this article, we describe a new automated system for discrete-trial tests of the IFD model. Our protocol involves a single computer connected to a digital projector (for stimulus presentation) and a network of gamepads (for registering choices). The system is comparatively inexpensive, easy to install, easy to transport, and it permits the automated collection of group data in minimal time. We show that the data generated through this protocol are comparable to those previously reported in the IFD literature. PMID:25732576

  12. Studying AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jeremy; Athena Topical PanelAGN Feedback in Clusters; Groups

    2015-09-01

    In the centres of clusters of galaxies and groups the central active galactic nuclei are playing a vital role in preventing the rapid cooling of the surrounding hot atmosphere. Important scientific questions remain unanswered, however. These include (1) What is the mechanism by which the energy from jets is dissipated and distributed through intracluster or intragroup medium? (2) How is the AGN fuelling regulated? (3) What is the cumulative impact of powerful radio galaxies on baryons over cosmic time? With its high spectral resolution, good spatial resolution and large effective area, Athena promises to make important progress in answering these questions. For the first time it will measure both the spatially-resolved velocity distribution and thermodynamics of the cluster core region, allowing us to measure all the energetic contributions to feedback and cooling in the hot plasma. We describe how Athena will address these areas, as described in our supporting paper for the Athena mission proposal on AGN feedback in galaxy clusters and groups.

  13. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  14. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  15. Renormalization group studies of many-body localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    Quantum correlations do not usually persist for long in systems at finite energy density and disappear once the system thermalizes. But many-body localization offers an alternative paradigm, whereby quantum matter can evade the usual fate of thermal equilibrium and retain retrievable quantum correlations even at high energies. I will survey a dynamical renormalization group (RG) approach used to characterize the novel dynamics and entanglement structures, which develop in the localized phase in lieu of classical thermalization. Then I will present a theory of the transition between the ergodic and the many-body localized phase based on a novel RG framework. Here eigenstate entanglement entropy emerges as a natural scaling variable; the RG describes a change from area-law to volume law entanglement through an intriguing critical point, where the distribution of entanglement entropy becomes maximally broad. The ergodic phase established near the critical point is a Griffiths phase, which exhibits sub-diffusive energy transport and sub-ballistic entanglement propagation. The anomalous diffusion exponent vanishes continuously at the critical point. Before closing I will discuss recent progress in confronting the emerging theoretical understanding of many-body localization with experimental tests. This research is supported in part by the ERC synergy grant UQUAM.

  16. DFT study of glycosyl group reactivity in quercetin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevitha, D.; Sadasivam, K.; Praveena, R.; Jayaprakasam, R.

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to compute relevant electronic properties with the purpose of generating precise information which facilitates the best activity given by the positions of glycosyl group attached at all 3 different rings of quercetin such as Q3G (C- ring), Q7G (A-ring) and Q3‧G (B-ring). Computed values of the OH BDE, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Density of states (DOS,PDOS,OPDOS) and electronic properties such as electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IP), softness (S), hardness (η), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilic index (ω) indicate that the title compounds possess good radical scavenging activity. Charge delocalization and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are characterized using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NBO accurately differentiate the weak and strong intramolecular hydrogen bond of quercetin-O-glycoside compounds. Results available from the computational investigation have proved that A-ring glycoside of quercetin is capable of donating electrons and acts as a good anti-oxidant than B-ring glycoside and C-ring glycoside of quercetin.

  17. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  18. Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

  19. Group Therapy for Adult Children of Alcoholics: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corazzini, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses survival roles adopted by children growing up in families where alcohol is abused, relating them to birth order, and emphasizing their maladaptivity for later adult interactions. Presents case studies of two common roles of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs), those of hero and scapegoat, and demonstrates how ACAs interact in a mixed,…

  20. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Heterogeneous Grouping: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppish, Susan; And Others

    Evidence suggests that tracking of students on the secondary level may not only be discriminatory, but also counterproductive to the personal, educational, and economic potential of all students. The English and Social Studies department of Oak Hill High School, in Wales, Maine, developed an intervention program concerning heterogeneous grouping…

  1. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  2. American Pluralism: A Study of Minority Groups and Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William M.

    This book addresses some basic issues and topics in the sociology of majority-minority relationships and attempts to evaluate and reformulate the conceptual and theoretical tools of the field. It is argued in Part I that majority-minority relationships must be understood as a case study in social stratification and as an opportunity for the study…

  3. Teacher Study Groups: Toward a Model of Differentiated Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Mallory, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    While there is extensive research related to the study of high-quality professional development, the research shows that there is limited evidence to indicate that teachers are provided with this type of professional development on a consistent, ongoing basis. The research also suggests that there is a lack of adequate evidence to show that…

  4. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ozyurt, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed. PMID:25386314

  5. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  6. Digital Study Groups: Online Learning Environments in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin; Jamison, Todd; Sprague, Debra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an online learning environment on student computer use, classroom/school activities, and parental involvement. An online learning environment was created with the goals of giving students access to a variety of software programs from home and school, facilitating home-school connectivity, and…

  7. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  8. SOCIOMETRIC FORMATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUPS IN A FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONGEST, JAMES W.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXTENSION AGENT CONDUCTING THE FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR FARMERS AND THEIR WIVES IN A NEW YORK COUNTY BEGAN USING SMALL EXPERIMENTAL STUDY GROUPS IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE PROGRAM. USE OF SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR FORMING THESE GROUPS RESULTED IN REDISTRIBUTION OF THE 15 MEMBERS OF TWO ORIGINAL GROUPS TO FIVE DIFFERENT GROUPS AND…

  9. Flare build-up study - Homologous flares group. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martres, M.-J.; Mein, N.; Mouradian, Z.; Rayrole, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simon, G.; Soru-Escaut, I.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solar Maximum Mission observations have been used to study the origin and amount of energy, mechanism of storage and release, and conditions for the occurrence of solar flares, and some results of these studies as they pertain to homologous flares are briefly discussed. It was found that every set of flares produced 'rafales' of homologous flares, i.e., two, three, four, or more flares separated in time by an hour or less. No great changes in macroscopic photospheric patterns were observed during these flaring periods. A quantitative brightness parameter of the relation between homologous flares is defined. Scale changes detected in the dynamic spectrum of flare sites are in good agreement with a theoretical suggestion by Sturrock. Statistical results for different homologous flare active regions show the existence in homologous flaring areas of a 'pivot' of previous filaments interpreted as a signature of an anomaly in the solar rotation.

  10. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  11. [Study of heavy-flavored particles]. [Albany High Energy Group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The program of physics analysis using CLEO II data is reported. A statistically significant measurement was made of the isospin mass splitting of the [Sigma][sub c][sup +] with respect to the [Sigma][sub c][sup o] and [Sigma][sub c][sup ++]. This result is based on first observation of the [Sigma][sub c][sup +] in the decay mode [Lambda][sub c][sup +][pi][sup 0]. Many new decay modes of the charmed baryon [Lambda][sub c][sup +] were studied. Several new decay modes of [xi][sub c]'s. Some preliminary results on 3 new modes of [Omega][sub c][sup 0] decay are reported. In the area of B-meson decay into baryons, were observed conclusively the decays B [yields] [Sigma][sub c][sup 0] and [Sigma][sub c][sup ++]. From about 1500 events corresponding to B [yields] [Lambda][sub c][sup +]X reconstruction of exclusive final states of the form [Lambda][sub c][sup +](n[pi]) was started. A comprehensive investigation of particle identification using both the time-of-flight and dE/dx systems was made. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton identification efficiencies have been made, corresponding to several different selection criteria. Measurements of corresponding pion probabilities to fake kaons nd protons have also been made.

  12. Studies on a new group of biodegradable surfactants for glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Haefs, Roland; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Mainx, Hans-G; Mittelstaedt, Werner; Noga, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of a homologous series of biodegradable rapeseed oil derivatives (triglyceride ethoxylates; Agnique RSO series containing an average of 5, 10, 30 and 60 units of ethylene oxide (EO) as adjuvants for foliage-applied, water-soluble, systemic active ingredients was evaluated employing glyphosate as an example. Previous experiments had revealed that the surfactants used are not phytotoxic at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g litre-1. The experiments were performed using Phaseolus vulgaris L and nine selected weed species, grown in a growth chamber at 25/20 (+/- 2) degrees C day/night temperature and 40/70 (+/- 10)% relative humidity. The surfactants were evaluated for enhancement of spray retention, and foliar penetration biological efficacy of glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at a concentration of 43 mM. The surfactants were added at concentrations of 1 g litre-1. The commercial glyphosate 360 g AE litre-1 SL Roundup Ultra and unformulated glyphosate served as references. The surfactants used improved spray retention, foliar penetration and biological efficacy. Some of the formulations were comparable to the performance of Roundup Ultra in the aspects evaluated; some were even more effective in enhancing spray liquid retention and promoting glyphosate phytotoxicity in several plant species. In these studies Agnique RSO 60 generally was most effective. PMID:12192908

  13. Psychophysiological Measures of Learning Comfort: Study Groups' Learning Styles and Pulse Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Tacy L.; Said, Sukhaynah H.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided empirical support for tutor-led study groups using a physiological measurement and study survey data. The scope of this preliminary study included determining differences in biology and chemistry study group members' (N = 25) regarding learning styles and pulse rate changes. As hypothesized, there was significant evidence that…

  14. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? (a)(1) A group research or study project is designed to permit a group of faculty of an institution... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  15. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  16. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  17. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  18. Influence of Study Group Attendance and Students' Perceived Helpfulness on Expected Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecha, Michelle

    This study examines the association between the number of study group sessions a student attends, the student's attitude toward these sessions, and expected grade for the class. Seven hundred and two students participated in the study, 30% of whom never attended a study group session. Of the remaining 70% who did participate, 24% attended five or…

  19. A HIM-G Interaction Process Analysis Study of Facilitator--and Self-Directed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.; Rapin, Lynn S.

    1977-01-01

    This study of group process evaluated the relative effectiveness of facilitator-directed (FD) and self-directed (SD) personal growth group treatments in inducing change in the level of group member interaction. Examination of treatment effectiveness was accomplished through an interaction process analysis approach, the Hill Interaction…

  20. Peer Group Influence and Selection in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which peer group similarity in school burnout is due to peer group influence and the extent to which it is due to peer group selection. Moreover, the roles of academic achievement and gender in school burnout were examined. A total of 611 ninth graders were examined at the beginning of the final term of…

  1. Therapists' Use of Boundaries in Sexual Abuse Groups: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Laura L.; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    This study surveyed survivor and nonsurvivor therapists regarding their use of boundaries in groups with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. No differences were detected between the two groups when all types of boundaries were considered. Using boundary subscales, significant differences for therapist neutrality in their groups was observed,…

  2. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  3. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  4. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology. PMID:20940342

  5. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  6. The quality of control groups in non-randomized studies published in Journal of Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate control group selection in non-randomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). Methods We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used non-randomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine if authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Results Thirty-seven non-randomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18(49%) identified sources of selection bias. Conclusions In our review of non-randomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Clinical relevance Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. PMID:25447000

  7. Minority Groups Study in the Work Opportunity Center. Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, M. P.; Almen, R. E.

    Some 18% of the total enrollment at the Work Opportunity Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the time of this study, were from some minority group background: Negro, American-Indian, or Spanish-speaking. This study reports some characteristics of students in minority groups. They came from senior or junior high schools where their attendance had…

  8. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  9. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  10. Authentic Conversation as Faculty Development: Establishing a Self-Study Group in a Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Gallagher, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Nine teacher educators in their first three years as tenure-track professors in an education faculty established a self-study group in 2006-2007. These professors met once a month to link their teaching and service to scholarship through the self-study of teacher education practices. In addition, members met in pairs or small groups to develop…

  11. Student-Initiated Study Groups for STEM Classes in Community College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Blasius, Eileen; Klingsmith, Libby; Waite, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a focus group research study that examined the experiences of community college students who initiated study groups for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses based on self-identified needs for learning support. Results indicated that students identified early in the semester that they needed…

  12. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom…

  13. Computer Science and Technology: Findings of the Standard Benchmark Library Study Group. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Dennis M.

    This report presents the findings of a joint government/industry study group which investigated the technical feasibility of standard benchmark programs for testing vendor systems in the competitive selection of computer systems within both private industry and the federal government. As part of its investigation, the study group reviewed earlier…

  14. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  15. How Teachers Develop Their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to understand the perceptions of Taiwanese teachers of the effects of a study group on their professional growth in the workplace. This case study employed the following data collection techniques: (1) informal observations and interviews, (2) focus group interview, (3) semi-structured individual…

  16. OTSEGO COUNTY EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR TESTING METHODS OF FORMING FARM MANAGEMENT STUDY GROUPS, A PROGRESS REPORT. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONGEST, JAMES W.; GENGENBACK, WILLIAM H.

    THE MOST FREQUENT METHOD OF GROUP FORMATION FOR INTENSIVE FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN NEW YORK STATE HAS BEEN TO COMBINE ALL INTERESTED FARMERS IN LARGE GROUPS AT THE COUNTY EXTENSION HEADQUARTERS. THIS EXPERIMENT WAS SET UP TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF FORMING SMALL GROUPS--BY SOCIOMETRIC CHOICE OR SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS. ALL…

  17. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  18. The Effects of Style and Sex of Consultants and Sex of Members in Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Fred

    1976-01-01

    Defines the self-study group and differentiates it from other laboratory training groups. Investigates the effects of sex and style of the facilitators on group members. Presented at the American Group Psychotherapy Association Convention, Boston, Mass., February, 1976. (HMV)

  19. Is Radiosensitivity Associated to Different Types of Blood Groups? (A cytogenetic study)

    PubMed Central

    Elahimanesh, Farideh; Shabestani Monfared, Ali; Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh; Abedian, Zeinab; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Borzouisileh, Sajad; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Amiri, Mehrangiz

    2013-01-01

    Many biological factors affect radiosensitivity. In this study, radiosensitivity among the different blood groups was investigated. Peripheral blood sample of 95 healthy people were divided into two parts. One part was irradiated with 2 Gy Co-60 gamma rays and the second one was considered as control. Then all the samples were studied by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). Our study showed that the radiosensitivity index of A+ and O+ groups was significantly higher and lower than other blood groups, respectively. It seems that blood type can be used as a radiosensitivity index for determining the given dose to radiotherapy, although extensive studies are necessary. PMID:24551803

  20. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  1. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  2. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Group Process and Development in Online Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Nolla, Ana C.; Wilson, Penne L.; Lopez-Islas, Jose R.; Ramirez-Angel, Noemi; Megchun-Alpizar, Rosa M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that used survey and focus group data to examine differences in perception of online group process and development between college students in Mexico and the United States. Discusses language, power distance, gender differences, collectivist versus individualist tendencies, conflict, social presence, time frame, and technical…

  4. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  5. IR spectroscopic study of hydroxyl groups of molecular sieves in the fundamental and combination tone regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, E.; Zscherpel, U.; Peuker, Ch.; Staudte, B.

    1993-03-01

    The fundamental and combination vibrations of hydroxyl groups in zeolites (Y, ZSM-5) and silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO-5, -17, -34) are investigated. The influence of adsorbed molecules (C 6F 6, n-hexane) on the combination vibrations is also studied. Finally, remarks on quantitative evaluation of DRIFT spectra of NaHZSM-5 containing different amounts of bridging OH groups are given.

  6. Peer Learning Group among College Voice Majors: Collaborative Inquiry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative inquiry case study investigated a pre-existing peer learning group composed of five Korean college voice students and a non-musician facilitator. The group was chosen for this research to understand the implications of a diversified learning context in addition to the typical master-apprenticeship context of higher music…

  7. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  8. Follow-Up Studies of Three Groups of Former Real Estate Students. Volume XXII, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, W. D.; Lucas, J. A.

    As part of the program review process at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, a study was conducted in spring 1993 of three groups of former Real Estate program students who had enrolled at WRHC during the previous 5 years. The three groups of students, each of whom were sent different questionnaires, included 252 students…

  9. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  10. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  11. Identifying Implications of Tensions in a Series of Collaborative Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Katheryn; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Manke, Mary P.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on 14 years of collaborative self-study group work at their university, East and Fitzgerald reviewed the data, stories and findings from that collaborative work, seeking to go beyond those original stories to identify practical implications of the tensions that emerged and played out within the various groups. Findings were shared and…

  12. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  13. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  14. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Kinds of Projects Does the Secretary Assist...

  15. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  16. Critical Teaching in Higher Education: An Interview with the Front Range Critical Studies Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The Front Range Critical Studies Group, comprised of four California State University teacher educators, aims to provide a scholarly, informal forum for interdisciplinary discussion of theoretical, political, and cultural issues. The group facilitates collegial scholar/student relationships, promotes enlightened discussion through lecture series…

  17. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  18. Current Assessment Practices: A Report from the Virginia Assessment Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The report details the activities of the Virginia Assessment Study Group in documenting the utility of various approaches to assessing adult education programs and instruction within the state. A group of diverse practitioners convened during 1997 to establish project objectives and research questions and to report on their work. The reports of…

  19. Group Therapy for Children after Homicide and Violence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated a group intervention designed to reduce posttraumatic stress among children after homicide and/or violence. Method: Employing a secondary data analysis of 117 participants in 21 group interventions, pretest and posttest differences in posttraumatic stress levels and between child witnesses and nonwitnesses,…

  20. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  1. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  2. Innovation in the teaching of astrophysics and space science - spacecraft design group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes how the design of a scientific satellite can be used to provide both a stimulating and effective subject for a physics based group study. The group study divides the satellite into distinct subsystems and small teams of two or three students carry out the detailed design of each subsystem. The aim is to produce a complete satellite system design along with the choice of launch vehicle, orbit and communications system so that all the mission requirements can be met. An important feature of the group study is that it is a student led activity with staff acting as mentors. The development of key skills and important learning outcomes from the group study is discussed along with the method for assessment, structuring and resourcing the study.

  3. The Italian AIPO study on tuberculosis treatment results, report 1995. National AIPO "Tuberculosis" Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, M; Besozzi, G; Codecasa, L R; Farris, B; Nutini, S; Saini, L; Casali, L; Nardini, S; Migliori, G B

    1999-02-01

    In Italy, no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995, the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a nationwide network of 41 TB units, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1995. Seven hundred and seventy eight TB cases were reported (59% males; 21% immigrants), 640 (82%) being new cases. Of these cases, 517 (66%) were pulmonary, 239 (31%) extrapulmonary and 22 (3%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Thirty-seven per cent of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acid-fast bacilli; 20% were resistant to any drug (monoresistance to isoniazid 3.5%; multidrug resistance 5.2%). In 95% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed) was 81.1%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:10218371

  4. Surface properties of a single perfluoroalkyl group on water surfaces studied by surface potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Shimoaka, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Shioya, Nobutaka; Morita, Kohei; Sonoyama, Masashi; Amii, Hideki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A discriminative study of a single perfluoroalkyl (Rf) group from a bulk material is recently recognized to be necessary toward the total understanding of Rf compounds based on a primary chemical structure. The single molecule and the bulk matter have an interrelationship via an intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) aggregation property of an Rf group, which is theorized by the stratified dipole-arrays (SDA) theory. Since an Rf group has dipole moments along many C-F bonds, a single Rf group would possess a hydrophilic-like character on the surface. To reveal the hydration character of a single Rf group, in the present study, surface potential (ΔV) measurements are performed for Langmuir monolayers of Rf-containing compounds. From a comparative study with a monolayer of a normal hydrocarbon compound, the hydration/dehydration dynamics of a lying Rf group on water has first been monitored by ΔV measurements, through which a single Rf group has been revealed to have a unique "dipole-interactive" character, which enables the Rf group interacted with the water 'surface.' In addition, the SDA theory proves to be useful to predict the 2D aggregation property across the phase transition temperature of 19°C by use of the ΔV measurements. PMID:27569518

  5. The ignition physics study group supports the compact ignition tokamak and engineering test reactor programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Vugraphs dealing with the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The role of the Ignition Physics Study Group is defined. Several design goals are presented. (JDH)

  6. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-06-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  7. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  8. Elementary teachers in a science inquiry study group: Concerns, uses, and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundzynski, Christina

    Professional development is evolving into an ongoing learning process of self-disclosure, reflection, and growth that produces the best results when it is job-embedded over a period of time (Diaz-Maggioli, 2003). One promising approach to use is that of study groups (National Science Education Standards, 2006). A study group is a series of weekly sessions in which a small group of teachers meet voluntarily for a period of time, to discuss educational issues (Farstrup, 2002). Utilizing study groups is particularly helpful in the area of science inquiry (National Science Education Standards, 2006). In concert with the use of study groups for inquiry teaching, using teacher concerns, levels of use and the reflective process are promising variables within teacher professional development activities. This study examined the effects of elementary teachers' participating in a science inquiry study group. Data were collected at the onset and the completion of the twelve sessions (30 hours) using the Stages of Concerns Questionnaire, Levels of Use interviews, and teacher reflection journals. Findings indicated participants changed their concerns about science inquiry in some stages within the phases of self, task, and impact, increased their level of use in science inquiry, and generated surface knowledge on the third level (multi-structural).

  9. Experiences of older adults in a group physiotherapy program at a rehabilitation hospital: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Melissa J; Burge, Angela T; Soh, Sze-Ee; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy delivered in a group setting has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations. However, little is known about the attitudes of older adults toward participating in group physiotherapy. The objectives of this study were to explore older inpatients' perceptions and experiences of group physiotherapy using qualitative methods. Twelve hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years who were involved in a larger randomized controlled trial undertook individual semistructured interviews regarding their experiences in group physiotherapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and line by line, iterative thematic analysis was undertaken. Descriptive codes were developed, compared, and grouped together to create themes. Analysis revealed 6 major themes and 10 subthemes. All participants reported feeling happy to attend group sessions, a satisfactory alternative to individual physiotherapy. Participants described physical benefits that increased their motivation, and comparisons with their peers either motivated them or made them feel gratitude for their own health. Perceived attentiveness of group instructors contributed to participants reporting that treatment was individualized and similar to individual physiotherapy. Motivation and camaraderie with peers contributed to their enjoyment of group physiotherapy. Hospitalized older adults enjoyed exercising with their peers and valued the physical and social benefits of group physiotherapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:358-362. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26821260

  10. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  11. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  12. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junhe; Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2016-01-01

    Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered. PMID:26742033

  13. The TAFES multi-family group intervention for Kosovar refugees: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan M; Raina, Dheeraj; Zhubi, Merita; Delesi, Mejreme; Huseni, Dzana; Feetham, Suzanne; Kulauzovic, Yasmina; Mermelstein, Robin; Campbell, Richard T; Rolland, John; Pavkovic, Ivan

    2003-02-01

    The object of this study was to describe a feasibility study of the Tea and Families Education and Support (TAFES) intervention used in a group of newly resettled adult refugees from Kosova. The subjects were 86 newly resettled Kosovar refugees in Chicago who gave informed consent to participate in an investigation of the TAFES intervention. All subjects received family home visits, and most participated in the TAFES multi-family groups. The instruments were administered to adult participants before and 3 months after the intervention. The TAFES program had contact with 61 Kosovar refugee families, of which 42 families (69%) engaged in TAFES groups, including families with educated and working members. Several characteristics were associated with engaging in TAFES groups and included lower monthly family income and higher age of the first child. The uncontrolled postintervention assessments demonstrated increases in social support and psychiatric service use associated with engagement in the TAFES group. Participants also showed time changes in scale scores assessing trauma mental health knowledge, trauma mental health attitudes, and family hardiness. This study provides preliminary evidence that multi-family support and education groups are a feasible and possibly beneficial intervention for newly resettled refugees and indicates the need for further studies. PMID:12586963

  14. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  15. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  16. Efficacy and safety of Ascoril in the management of cough--National Study Group report.

    PubMed

    Ainapure, S S; Desai, A; Korde, K

    2001-02-01

    A total of 768 patients were recruited by 81 physicians and paediatricians all over the country in this National Study Group of 'Ascoril + Expectorant'. The results of this first large scale study of a cough formula indicates that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is effective in controlling cough, breathlessness and decreasing the volume of sputum. No serious adverse events were noted. Ascoril was well accepted by the patients and its efficacy was rated very high by the physician. The National Study Group concludes that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is highly effective in the management of cough associated with lower respiratory tract infection and COPDs. PMID:11482804

  17. Literacy Practices and Linguistic Choices: A Sociocultural Study of a Multilingual Adult Literacy Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay

    The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…

  18. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  19. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  20. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  1. Liberal Studies in Hong Kong: A New Perspective on Critical Thinking through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article reports research that is contextualised within reforms of secondary education in Hong Kong and the reintroduction of Liberal Studies, which jointly emphasise the need for a learning environment that facilitates the practice of group work and the development of critical thinking. A study is described that explores the relevance of…

  2. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  3. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  4. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  5. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  6. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  7. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning Relationships…

  8. The impact of instructor grouping strategies on student efficacy in inquiry science labs: A phenomenological case study of grouping perceptions and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathaniel J.

    Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was derived from student efficacy surveys, direct classroom observations, and three-tiered interviews with teacher participants. Four high school science instructors and their students from two school districts in Northern Illinois were selected to participate in the study. This study sought to identify instructor strategies or criteria used to formulate student laboratory groups and the impact of such groupings on student self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Open coding of interview transcripts, observation logs, and student surveys led to the development of eight emerging themes. These themes included the purpose of science laboratory activities, instructor grouping strategies, instructor roles, instructor's perceptions, science laboratory assessment, student interactions, learner self-perceptions, and grouping preferences. Results from the study suggest that some students were innately inclined to assume leadership roles, smaller groupings had greater participation from all group members, students had a strong preference for working collaboratively in groups, and students desired to maintain stable laboratory groups in lieu of periodically changing laboratory partners. As with all case study methodologies, the findings of the study were limited to the individual participants at research sites and were not generalizable to all science classrooms. Additional research in the realms of group size, group autonomy, and student interviews would provide even greater insights into the observed phenomena.

  9. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  10. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  11. The relationship between three-dimensional imaging and group decision making: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Litynski, D M; Grabowski, M; Wallace, W A

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical investigation of the effect of three dimensional (3-D) imaging on group performance in a tactical planning task. The objective of the study is to examine the role that stereoscopic imaging can play in supporting face-to-face group problem solving and decision making-in particular, the alternative generation and evaluation processes in teams. It was hypothesized that with the stereoscopic display, group members would better visualize the information concerning the task environment, producing open communication and information exchanges. The experimental setting was a tactical command and control task, and the quality of the decisions and nature of the group decision process were investigated with three treatments: 1) noncomputerized, i.e., topographic maps with depth cues; 2) two-dimensional (2-D) imaging; and 3) stereoscopic imaging. The results were mixed on group performance. However, those groups with the stereoscopic displays generated more alternatives and spent less time on evaluation. In addition, the stereoscopic decision aid did not interfere with the group problem solving and decision-making processes. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential benefits, and the need to resolve demonstrated weaknesses of the technology. PMID:11541531

  12. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabi, Narges; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Belleman, Robbert G.; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; De Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the research focuses on the transmission within HIV risk groups, while transmission between different risk groups has been less studied. We use a proposed filter-reduction method to infer hypothetical transmission networks of HIV by combining data from social and genetic scales. We modified the filtering process in order to include mixing risk groups in the model. For this, we use the information on phylogenetic clusters obtained through phylogenetic analysis. A probability matrix is also defined to specify contact rates between individuals form the same and different risk groups. The method converts the data form each scale into network forms and combines them by overlaying and computing their intersection. We apply this method to reconstruct networks of HIV infected patients in central Italy, including mixing between risk groups. Our results suggests that bisexual behavior among Italian MSM and IDU partnership are relatively important in heterosexual transmission of HIV in central Italy.

  13. The impacts of racial group membership on people's distributive justice: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Deng, Yuqin

    2014-04-16

    How individuals and societies distribute benefits has long been studied by psychologists and sociologists. Previous work has highlighted the importance of social identity on people's justice concerns. However, it is not entirely clear how racial in-group/out-group relationship affects the brain activity in distributive justice. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants made their decisions about donation allocation. Behavioral results showed that racial in-group factor affected participants' decisions on justice consideration. Participants were more likely to make relatively equity decisions when racial in-group factor was congruent with equity compared with the corresponding incongruent condition. Moreover, this incongruent condition took longer response times than congruent condition. Meanwhile, less equity decisions were made when efficiency was larger in the opposite side to equity than it was equal between the two options. Scalp event-related potential analyses revealed that greater P300 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited by the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the decision-making of distributive justice could be modulated by racial group membership, and greater attentional resources or cognitive efforts are required when racial in-group factor and equity conflict with each other. PMID:24394904

  14. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Method Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Results The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees’ presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. Conclusion This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are

  15. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  16. Parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Robert K.; Waxman, Allen M.

    1991-06-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Summary of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory effort into the parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision. Spatiotemporal grouping phenomena are examined in the context of static and time-varying imagery. Dynamics that exhibit static feature grouping on multiple scales as a function of time and long-range apparent motion between time-varying inputs are developed for a biologically plausible diffusion-enhancement bilayer. The architecture consists of a diffusion and a contrast-enhancement layer coupled by feedforward and feedback connections: input is provided by a separate feature extracting layer. The model is cast as an analog circuit that is realizable in VLSI, the parameters of which are selected to satisfy a psychophysical database on apparent motion. Specific topics include: neural networks, astrocyte glial networks, diffusion enhancement, long-range apparent motion, spatiotemporal grouping dynamics, and interference suppression.

  17. Studying high redshift galaxy groups with the Athena Wide-Field-Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian; Reiprich, Thomas; Ramos Ceja, Miriam Elizabeth; Lovisari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of Athena to study high redshift galaxy groups (1groups in Athena WFI observations and our ability to identify them as extended sources among the numerous active galactic nuclei (AGN) at similar fluxes. Our analysis also includes the determination of the physical properties of these galaxy groups (average gas temperature, luminosity). Based on these tools, we discuss the science achievable with such systems thanks to Athena and its dependance on the final instrumental set-up. In particular, we investigate the impact of different levels of contamination by AGNs and assumptions on the luminosity of the groups as a function of their mass.

  18. Case studies putting the decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) into practice.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Neubauer, Nicole; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide and metal sulphate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments were performed to assess the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). The usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. In two tiers that rely exclusively on non-animal test methods followed by a third tier, if necessary, in which data from rat short-term inhalation studies are evaluated, nanomaterials are assigned to one of four main groups (MGs). The DF4nanoGrouping proved efficient in sorting out nanomaterials that could undergo hazard assessment without further testing. These are soluble nanomaterials (MG1) whose further hazard assessment should rely on read-across to the dissolved materials, high aspect-ratio nanomaterials (MG2) which could be assessed according to their potential fibre toxicity and passive nanomaterials (MG3) that only elicit effects under pulmonary overload conditions. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping allows identifying active nanomaterials (MG4) that merit in-depth investigations, and it provides a solid rationale for their sub-grouping to specify the further information needs. Finally, the evaluated case study materials may be used as source nanomaterials in future read-across applications. Overall, the DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard assessment strategy that strictly uses animals as a last resort. PMID:26687418

  19. Using focus groups to discover health professionals' information needs: a regional marketing study.

    PubMed

    Mullaly-Quijas, P; Ward, D H; Woelfl, N

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the use of focus groups as a data-gathering tool, in both theoretical and practical terms. Calder's discussion of focus groups is presented as the basis of the theory, and the marketing study conducted by the Midcontinental Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine serves as the backdrop to highlight some of the practical aspects of using this qualitative data-gathering method. Results of the marketing study are presented to illustrate the types of data that can be gathered using this methodology and the types of plans for future activities that can be developed based on the data gathered. PMID:7920341

  20. Current status and future perspectives of cooperative study groups for lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuko; Okamoto, Isamu; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Saka, Hideo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Koichi; Semba, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The performance of scientifically and ethically valid prospective clinical trials is the only means by which to obtain reliable clinical evidence that can improve clinical practice and thus the outcome of patients with lung cancer. The efficacy of treatment for advanced lung cancer remains limited; many cooperative study groups for lung cancer have been established in Japan since 1990s, and they have completed several landmark investigator-initiated clinical trials. This review highlights eight active Japanese cooperative study groups for lung cancer and summarizes their achievements made through clinical trials. In addition to their benefits, the existence of multiple study groups for a single disease such as lung cancer presents several challenges including the provision of infrastructure to ensure the scientific integrity of trial results, the unnecessary duplication of effort and the wasting of limited resources, and the accrual and completion of large-scale phase III trials in the shortest possible time. Collaboration among Japanese cooperative groups has recently increased in order to overcome these challenges. Although institutional barriers to the performance of such large intergroup trials remain, further harmonization and collaboration among cooperative groups will be vital in allowing Japanese investigators to make further important contributions for the development of new lung cancer therapies. PMID:25453377

  1. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that

  2. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  3. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Kadipasaoglu, Cihan M.; Forseth, Kiefer; Whaley, Meagan; Conner, Christopher R.; Rollo, Matthew J.; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Tandon, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions. PMID:26257673

  4. AGN feedback in groups of galaxies: a joint X-ray/low-frequency radio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Raychaudhury, S.; David, L. P.; Venturi, T.; Athreya, R.; Gitti, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present an ongoing, low-frequency radio/X-ray study of 18 nearby galaxy groups, chosen for the evidence, either in the X-ray or radio images, of AGN/intragroup gas interaction. We have obtained radio observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) for all the groups, and 327 MHz and 150 MHz for a few. We present results of the recent Chandra/GMRT study of the interesting case of AWM 4, a relaxed poor cluster of galaxies with no evidence of a large cool core and no X-ray cavities associated with the central radio galaxy. Our analysis shows how joining low-frequency radio data (to track the history of AGN outbursts) with X-ray data (to determine the state of the hot gas, its disturbances, heating and cooling) can provide a unique insight into the nature of the feedback mechanism in galaxy groups.

  5. Photophysical studies of oxicam group of NSAIDs: piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona; Chakraborty, Hirak; Sarkar, Munna

    2003-04-01

    Oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been chosen as a prototype molecular group that shows diverse biological functions and dynamic structural features. Photophysical studies of three drugs from this group viz., piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam have been carried out in different solvents with varying polarity, H-bond character and viscosity. The spectral responses of different prototropic forms of these drugs towards varying solvent parameters have been studied, with the aim to characterize their interaction in biomimetic environment non-invasively. The nature of the lowest transition has been identified. The extinction coefficient, quantum yield and viscosity dependence on the nature of the solvents, all indicate the extreme sensitivity of these drugs to their microenvironment.

  6. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  7. Going Through, Going Around: A Study on Individual Avoidance of Groups.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Julien; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Pettré, Julien

    2015-04-01

    When avoiding a group, a walker has two possibilities: either he goes through it or around it. Going through very dense groups or around huge ones would not seem natural and could break any sense of presence in a virtual environment. This paper aims to enable crowd simulators to handle such situations correctly. To this end, we need to understand how real humans decide to go through or around groups. As a first hypothesis, we apply the Principle of Minimum Energy (PME) on different group sizes and density. According to this principle, a walker should go around small and dense groups whereas he should go through large and sparse groups. Such principle has already been used for crowd simulation; the novelty here is to apply it to decide on a global avoidance strategy instead of local adaptations only. Our study quantifies decision thresholds. However, PME leaves some inconclusive situations for which the two solutions paths have similar energetic costs. In a second part, we propose an experiment to corroborate PME decisions thresholds with real observations. As controlling the factors of an experiment with many people is extremely hard, we propose to use Virtual Reality as a new method to observe human behavior. This work represents the first crowd simulation algorithm component directly designed from a VR-based study. We also consider the role of secondary factors in inconclusive situations. We show the influence of the group appearance and direction of relative motion in the decision process. Finally, we draw some guidelines to integrate our conclusions to existing crowd simulators and show an example of such integration. We evaluate the achieved improvements. PMID:26357102

  8. Functional grouping and cortical–subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Hedy; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Joseph, Josh; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Lindquist, Kristen; Wager, Tor D.

    2009-01-01

    We performed an updated quantitative meta-analysis of 162 neuroimaging studies of emotion using a novel multi-level kernel-based approach, focusing on locating brain regions consistently activated in emotional tasks and their functional organization into distributed functional groups, independent of semantically defined emotion category labels (e.g., “anger,” “fear”). Such brain-based analyses are critical if our ways of labeling emotions are to be evaluated and revised based on consistency with brain data. Consistent activations were limited to specific cortical sub-regions, including multiple functional areas within medial, orbital, and inferior lateral frontal cortices. Consistent with a wealth of animal literature, multiple subcortical activations were identified, including amygdala, ventral striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. We used multivariate parcellation and clustering techniques to identify groups of co-activated brain regions across studies. These analyses identified six distributed functional groups, including medial and lateral frontal groups, two posterior cortical groups, and paralimbic and core limbic/brainstem groups. These functional groups provide information on potential organization of brain regions into large-scale networks. Specific follow-up analyses focused on amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and hypothalamic (Hy) activations, and identified frontal cortical areas co-activated with these core limbic structures. While multiple areas of frontal cortex co-activated with amygdala sub-regions, a specific region of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, Brodmann’s Area 9/32) was the only area co-activated with both PAG and Hy. Subsequent mediation analyses were consistent with a pathway from dmPFC through PAG to Hy. These results suggest that medial frontal areas are more closely associated with core limbic activation than their lateral counterparts, and that dmPFC may play a particularly important role in the

  9. A pilot study of transdiagnostic group cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in a veteran sample.

    PubMed

    Espejo, Emmanuel P; Castriotta, Natalie; Bessonov, Daniel; Kawamura, Mari; Werdowatz, Emily A; Ayers, Catherine R

    2016-05-01

    High rates of anxiety disorders at Veteran Affairs (VA) health care centers necessitate increased availability of evidence-based treatments for all anxiety disorders. Group-based transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety can help to increase the availability of effective treatment for anxiety. The current study examined group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety when implemented in a VA outpatient mental health clinic. Over a 1-year period, 52 veterans with various anxiety disorders completed transdiagnostic group CBT for anxiety. Veterans completing the group treatment reported significant decreases in general distress, anxiety, depression, and individualized fear hierarchy ratings (ps < .01). Additionally, treatment completers reported high satisfaction with the treatment experience. The current study indicates that transdiagnostic group CBT for anxiety can be effectively implemented in a VA outpatient mental health clinic and holds promise for initiatives aimed at broadly increasing the availability of evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders in VA health care systems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26349072

  10. Management of Myofascial Pain of Upper Trapezius: A Three Group Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laserand Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. Results: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. Weconclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:22980377

  11. Learning science through talk: A case study of middle school students engaged in collaborative group investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinicola, Debra Ann

    Reformers call for change in how science is taught in schools by shifting the focus towards conceptual understanding for all students. Constructivist learning is being promoted through the dissemination of National and State Science Standards that recommend group learning practices in science classrooms. This study examined the science learning and interactions, using case study methodology, of one collaborative group of 4 students in an urban middle school. Data on science talk and social interaction were collected over 9 weeks through 12 science problem solving sessions. To determine student learning through peer interaction, varied group structures were implemented, and students reflected on the group learning experience. Data included: field notes, cognitive and reflective journals, audiotapes and videotapes of student talk, and audiotapes of group interviews. Journal data were analyzed quantitatively and all other data was transcribed into The Ethnograph database for qualitative analysis. The data record was organized into social and cognitive domains and coded with respect to interaction patterns to show how group members experienced the social construction of science concepts. The most significant finding was that all students learned as a result of 12 talk sessions as evidenced by pre- and post-conceptual change scores. Interactions that promoted learning involved students connecting their thoughts, rephrasing, and challenging ideas. The role structure was only used by students about 15% of the time, but it started the talk with a science focus, created awareness of scientific methods, and created an awareness of equitable member participation. Students offered more spontaneous, explanatory talk when the role structure was relaxed, but did not engage in as much scientific writing. They said the role structure was important for helping them know what to do in the talk but they no longer needed it after a time. Gender bias, status, and early adolescent

  12. Writer's Workshop: Implementing Units of Study, Findings from a Teacher Study Group, and Student Success in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Sandra Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Background: An elementary teacher study group supports each other in a year-long journey as they learn how to work through writer's workshop curriculum in order to implement Units of Study by Lucy Calkins at a K-6 school. Time spent in writing instruction has been largely neglected, and a teacher-researcher wants to document the support found from…

  13. A Case Study of Markdale High School's Implementation of Heterogeneously-Grouped Classes in English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006)…

  14. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  15. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  16. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  17. A Study of Social Identity in Two Ethnic Groups in India and Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, E. S. K.; Huq, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports two studies which examined the social identity of Hindu and Muslim subjects under three frames of reference: self, own group, and outgroup evaluations cross-nationally. Findings are examined in relation to the interplay of specific socio-contextual experiences in the differential pattern of social identity processes. (SED)

  18. A Classroom-Based Study of Small-Group Planned Improvisation with Fifth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe children's music improvisations and the interactions that transpired within their four-person groups during regular weekly music classes as they planned and performed music improvisations in response to three different prompts: a poem, a painting, and a musical composition. Participants were…

  19. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  20. Career Repertoires of IT Students: A Group Counselling Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Leena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty about future career prospects has increased enormously for students enrolled in higher education Information Technology (IT) programs. However, many computer science programmes pay little attention to career counselling. This article reports the results of a pilot study intended to develop group counselling for IT students to promote…

  1. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  2. A Self-Study Investigation of Using Inquiry Groups in a Professional Development School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garin, Eva; Harper, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry Group participation for PDS teachers and teacher candidates is one of the signature programs of the Bowie State University PDS Network and provides PDS teachers and teacher candidates the opportunity to collaborate on teaching strategies and methodologies to use in their classrooms. This article uses self-study methodology to explore the…

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  4. Whole-Faculty Study Groups: Creating Student-Based Professional Development. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carlene U.; Lick, Dale W.

    This book discusses the most current knowledge on whole- faculty study groups (WFSGs). Nine chapters examine: (1) "Introduction" (how WFSGs began and spread); (2) "Enabling Professional Development and Schoolwide Change" (guiding principles and questions); (3) "Key Components: Context, Process, and Content"; (4) "Context: Clarifying Roles,…

  5. Preliminary Study of Resilience-Based Group Therapy for Improving the Functioning of Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Candice C.; Rich, Brendan A.; Sanchez, Lisa; O'Brien, Kelly; Alvord, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of research examining the feasibility of group psychotherapy interventions for anxious children in private clinical service settings. Furthermore, no research to date has examined the effectiveness of resilience-based interventions for helping children with anxiety disorders. Objective: The present study aims to examine…

  6. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  7. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  8. Benefits and Barriers: Case Study of a Government Technology-Mediated Group Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brigitte; Cheng, Kwan Fan; Gorley, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees' and mentors' experiences in the program. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 151 mentees rated their satisfaction in a post-program survey. The survey was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10…

  9. Facilitator--and Self-Directed Groups: A Statement-by-Statement Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.; Rapin, Lynn S.

    1977-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of facilitator-directed and self-directed personal growth group treatments toward inducing therapeutic verbal interaction. An interaction process analysis approach, the Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) statement-by-statement system, was used to examine treatment differences. (Author)

  10. USE OF DISCUSSION GROUPS TO INVESTIGATE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Discussion Groups to Investigate Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health
    DT Lobdell*, S Gutter+, P Mendola* (*US EPA, NHEERL; +UNC Chapel Hill)

    Much of what is known about successful recruitment and retention o...