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Sample records for gel-tamo study group

  1. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  2. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  3. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  4. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  5. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  6. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  7. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  8. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  9. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  10. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  11. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  12. Simulated Group Counseling for Group Work Training: A Four-Year Research Study of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Simulated Group Counseling (SGC), a training model for graduate-level group workers. During a four-year period, 98 graduate students participated in 12 role-played SGC groups. SGC followed a model of group development and was highly consistent with expected changes in non-role-played groups. Discusses SGC advantages, especially related to…

  13. Cretaceous Cogollo Group study - District Zulia Occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Lagazzi, R.; D`Antonio, G.; Hung, O.; Avila, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Cretaceous Cogollo Group, with over 1500 feet of platform carbonate and shale section, contains important oil accumulations in the west portion of the Maracaibo basin. However, after discovery of the major oil fields, all subsequent exploration and exploitation efforts led to disappointing results. This paper summarizes the study of the Cogollo Group in the Lake Maracaibo West Coast area, where light Cretaceous oil may have an impact on the total reserves. After integrating the Cogollo Group into the regional framework, the study focuses on the District Zulia Occidental, where over 40 deep wells either penetrated or tested the reservoir. Structural and stratigraphic descriptions are enriched by a significant amount of core and petrophysical data that leads to a better understanding of the reservoir layering and pore geometry. Well production performance and reservoir data are incorporated to the study as additional tools to determine the size of the oil accumulations. Finally, the study addresses the possibility of drilling slant or horizontal wells as a way to reduce the number of dry holes or marginal producers.

  14. Group exposure for agoraphobics: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, J D; Walsh, P A; Lancashire, M; Mathews, A M

    1977-02-01

    A replication study was conducted of the treatment of agoraphobics by exposure in cohesive groups, as described by Hand, Lamantagne and Marks (1974). The continuing improvement during follow-up, with consequent large overall improvement, reported in the original study was not replicated. However, the present study confirmed the usefulness of this procedure as a highly cost-efficient treatment. The assumed equivalence of the Gelder and Marks (1966) phobic rating scale and its modification by Watson and Marks (1971) was examined. Large discrepancies between the scales were obtained for initial assessments and change scores. It is suggested that there is a need for workers in this field to agree on methods of measurement. PMID:837039

  15. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  16. Bayesian Model Selection for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Penny, Will D.; Daunizeau, Jean; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    approaches in the presence of outliers. We expect that this new random effects method will prove useful for a wide range of group studies, not only in the context of DCM, but also for other modelling endeavours, e.g. comparing different source reconstruction methods for EEG/MEG or selecting among competing computational models of learning and decision-making. PMID:19306932

  17. DPHEP: From Study Group to Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiers, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The international study group on data preservation in High Energy Physics, DPHEP, achieved a major milestone in 2012 with the publication of its eagerly anticipated large-scale report [1]. This document contains a description of data preservation activities from all major high energy physics collider-based experiments and laboratories. A central message of the report is that data preservation in HEP is not possible without long term investment in not only hardware but also human resources, and with this in mind DPHEP will evolve to a new collaboration structure in 2013. This paper describes the progress made since the publication of that report - shortly before CHEP 2012 - as well as the future working directions of the new collaboration.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

  19. Learning in Groups: A Comparison of Study Groups and T Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward B.; Astrachan, Boris M.

    1971-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of two models, with special attention to the ways in which authority and peer relations are viewed. The need for theoretical and technical amalgamation to advance our understanding of group phenomena is stressed. A comment by James Crowfoot, University of Michigan follows. (Author)

  20. Children's Learning Groups: A Study of Emergent Leadership, Dominance, and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko

    This study explores the importance of the group context in the emergence of leadership, dominance, and group effectiveness in children's collaborative learning groups. Ten 3-person work groups performed a collaborative math activity. Using achievement goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Maehr and Midgley, 1996; Pintrich and Schunk, 1996) as a framework,…

  1. Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

  2. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  3. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  4. Computational Study of Platinum Group Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoola, A. I.; Lowther, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Various properties of substitutional alloys formed from aluminium and the platinum group metals (PGMs) are examined using density functional (D-F) theory and show strong variations depending on metal type. A similar pattern for the binary alloys is observed using molecular dynamics modeling employing Sutton Chen potentials. All results suggest that several of the PGMs could have superior properties to the presently used Ni3Al alloy for high temperature applications. Some phases are predicted to be stable with extremely high melting temperatures (MTs).

  5. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  6. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  7. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  8. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  9. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  10. Facilitating Professional Development through Teacher Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, La' Toya

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a way of teaching, which gives students multiple choices to learn information. Fourth grade teachers at one elementary school were not implementing the differentiated instructional techniques that would help them address the learning needs of their students. The purpose of this project study was to create a teacher…

  11. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  12. Cluster Analysis in Minority Group Poverty Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Lamar

    This paper, one of a series which arose out of data gathered on Choctaw Indians, Negroes, and whites in a low income area of Mississippi, expands upon one aspect of a recently completed analysis by the author. In the study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the characteristics associated with income levels and those related to ethnic…

  13. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  14. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  15. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Principles within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jent, Jason F.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group…

  17. Group Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanlass, Janine; Moreno, J. Kelly; Thomson, Hannah M.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing amount of research supports group therapy as an effective treatment option for eating disorders (Moreno, 1994). In an attempt to further delineate therapeutic factors associated with productive group work, this study represents an exploratory, descriptive analysis of client and therapist perspectives on group process and outcome.…

  18. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  19. English Curriculum Redesign through an EFL Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-chin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a teacher study group collectively examined problems in their current English curriculum and redesigned the curriculum into theme-based lessons for various grades. Comprised of seven elementary school teachers and a teacher educator, the teacher study group met bi-weekly for three hours for a total of eight meetings.…

  20. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice. PMID:20718517

  1. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  2. Follow Up Study of Group Counseling with Underachieving College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    The purpose of this study was to report long-range effects of group counseling and the college growth experience of students who were identified as underachievers and were enrolled as freshmen during the fall of 1969. Five variables were selected for this study as having possible influence on self-concept: (1) group, (2) education, (3) status, (4)…

  3. Investigating Science Collaboratively: A Case Study of Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinicola, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of one urban middle school group of students who were investigating scientific phenomena were analyzed; this study was conducted to discern if and how peer interaction contributes to learning. Through a social constructivist lens, case study methodology, we examined conceptual change among group members. Data about science talk was…

  4. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  5. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  6. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Principles Within Group Mentoring: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    JENT, JASON F.; NIEC, LARISSA N.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group mentoring program that included components of empirically supported mentoring and cognitive behavioral techniques for children served at a community mental health center. Eighty-six 8- to 12-year-old children were randomly assigned to either group mentoring or a wait-list control group. Group mentoring significantly increased children’s reported social problem-solving skills and decreased parent-reported child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems after controlling for other concurrent mental health services. Attrition from the group mentoring program was notably low (7%) for children. The integration of a cognitive behavioral group mentoring program into children’s existing community mental health services may result in additional reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. PMID:20582243

  8. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  9. Bion's thinking about groups: a study of influence and originality.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John A

    2015-04-01

    One of Bion's least-acknowledged contributions to psychoanalytic theory is his study of the relationship between the mind of the individual (the ability to think), the mentalities of groups of which the individual is a member, and the individual's bodily states. Bion's early work on group therapy evolved into a study of the interplay between mind and bodily instincts associated with being a member of a group, and became the impetus for his theory of thinking. On the foundation of Bion's ideas concerning this interaction among the thinking of the individual, group mentality, and the psyche-soma, the author presents his thoughts on the ways in which group mentality is recognizable in the analysis of individuals. PMID:25876541

  10. Case stories in general practice: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Abildsnes, Eirik; Flottorp, Signe; Stensland, Per

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the interactive process of sharing case stories in small-group activity in general practice. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Peer-group meetings of doctors attending specialist training or continuous medical education in general practice. Participants Twenty female and 30 male doctors working in general practice in Norway. Results The storyline of case presentations included detailed stories with emotional engagement, co-authored by other group members. The stories initiated discussions and reflections concerning patients’ and doctors’ perspectives, medical ethics as well as clinical problems. The safe atmosphere allowed testing out boundaries of socially shared knowledge. Conclusions Sharing case stories in small groups in general practice initiated interaction that facilitated meaning-making, reflection and peer support. PMID:22874630

  11. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  12. Reverse Discrimination by Minority Groups. A Participant Observation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Clavner, Catherine

    This study explores reverse discrimination as a cultural phenomenon that should be studied by anthropologists, and to which anthropology has inadvertently contributed. Discrimination by minority group members is taught and encouraged under the guise of ethnic pride and promotion of traditional beliefs. Ethnocentrism may be a cultural defense…

  13. Motivating Study Groups across the Disciplines in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.; Clary, Deidre M.; Oglan, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces Project RAISSE: Reading Assistance Initiative for Secondary School Educators and shares the findings of a study into those factors found to motivate study group participants at two rural high schools in the southern USA. The research team collected qualitative data over a two-year period, including interviews, artifacts,…

  14. Group Therapy Intervention for Male Batterers: A Microethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Varsha; Gingerich, Wallace J.

    2002-01-01

    The study discussed in this article describes change processes in abusers and examines the dynamics of unsuccessful processes. In doing so, this study provides a useful evaluation of group therapy as it is offered to batterers. Implications for microethnographic methods are discussed for social work students learning to evaluate their practice.…

  15. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  16. Developing Dialogic Teaching Identities through Online Video Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Nathan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers narrate and develop their identities through their participation in an online video study group. Participants are six public school world language teachers using "Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling" (TPRS) methodology who live in geographically diverse regions of the United States but…

  17. The history of the EuroSPK - Study Group.

    PubMed

    Squifflet, J P; Malaise, J; Van Ophem, D; Marcelis, V; Land, W G

    2008-01-01

    The EuroSPK Study group was created during the 4th Spitzingsee 1997 workshop in Kühtai, Austria. Thanks to W. Land for the incentive to gather European Centres--with Switzerland and Israel--and propose them to joint efforts and share data in the field of pancreas transplantation. Today, two prospective randomized studies have been already performed; a lot of data and results have been generated and worldwide spread. The spirit of the group will continue with a new interest in innate immunity and prevention of the ischemic reperfusion injury in pancreas transplantation. PMID:18411576

  18. Lead exposure among five distinct occupational groups: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Mohammad Younis; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan; Khabour, Omar Falah; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Gharaibeh, Mamoun Abdallah; Matarneh, Sulaiman Khalid

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate blood lead concentration among five selected occupational groups. The five groups were: hospital health workers, shop workers, taxi drivers, automobiles mechanics, and wood workers. The groups did not significantly differ among each other in the average of age and work years. ANOVA test revealed significantly higher mean lead blood concentration in taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers compared to other groups. Additionally, workers with lead concentration >0.483 umol/L (10μg/dL) were more likely to have frequent muscle pain compared to those with lower concentrations. No association between other symptoms of lead exposure/toxicity and blood lead concentration was detected. In conclusion, special attention must be directed toward lead blood levels and lead poisoning symptoms when examining patients from certain occupational groups such as taxi drivers, automechanics, and wood workers. Special safety precautions and educational programs are also needed to limit the lead exposure in these occupational groups. PMID:24374433

  19. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  20. SU(3) renormalization group study on parallel computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Fujisaki, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hege, H. C.; Hioki, S.; Makino, J.; Miyamura, O.; Nakamura, A.; Okada, M.; Stamatescu, I. O.; Tago, Y.; Takaishi, T.; QCD TARO (QCD on Thousand cell ARay processorOmnipurpose) Collaboration

    We report results of a Monte Crlo renormalization group study with b = 2 blocking on a 34 4 lattice in progress. Δβ at β = 6.8 is consistent with previously obtained values at a large β and is smaller than the two-loop asymptotic value.

  1. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  2. A Comparative Study of Small Group Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the reading development of small groups of learners making the transition from intentional decoding to fluent reading. The research focused on the relative effectiveness of repeated and wide reading as a means of developing reading fluency. It also looked at the importance of expressive, or prosodic, reading in…

  3. Group Involvement in Decision-Making: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genrich, Sandra J.; Banks, J. Carolyn; Bufton, Karen; Savage, Mary Ellen; Owens, Marcella Upshaw

    2001-01-01

    Health care leaders (n=27) read case studies and identified leadership styles appropriate for the scenarios. Results suggest that participating in a class on the use of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Leadership Model may help leaders gain the skill needed to delegate decision making to groups. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  4. Effective Single-Parent Training Group Program: Three System Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Miller, Keva M.; Orellana, E. Roberto; Briggs, Adam C.; Cox, Wendell H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study highlights Dr. Elsie Pinkston and colleagues' research on the effectiveness of behavior parent training and examines the application of single-parent training group (SPG) programs to three parent-child dyads exposed to distressed family circumstances. Methods: Single-system evaluation designs were conducted with two…

  5. [A Critical Condition of Clinical Studies in Japan -- A Battle of Clinical Study Groups].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The post-marketing clinical study groups have been losing their activity due to stop of financial support. As the result, clinical study groups cannot achieve any EBM for treatment guidelines. Financial supports should be restarted immediately not to extinguish the post-marketing clinical studies and study groups. PMID:27220798

  6. How Does a Child Learn English? Study Group Paper No. 4; and Study Group Supporting Papers I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, Miriam E.; And Others

    Originating from a study group at the Dartmouth Seminar entitled "How Does a Child Learn English?" these four papers agree that all psychologically normal children come to school already highly proficient in operating a wide range of language structure. The first paper synthesizes some theories regarding language acquisition and discusses the role…

  7. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. PMID:24591119

  8. Faculty Study Groups: Solving "Good Problems" through Study, Reflection, and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Terry M.; Hable, Margaret P.; Preston, Marlene M.; Magliaro, Susan G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and assessment of a faculty study group program at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The study group was designed to foster teaching as a reflective, collaborative activity and encourage interaction of faculty of different disciplines, age groups, ranks, and teaching experience. (DB)

  9. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  10. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level - e.g., dynamic causal models - and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  11. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Litvak, Vladimir; Oswal, Ashwini; Razi, Adeel; Stephan, Klaas E.; van Wijk, Bernadette C.M.; Ziegler, Gabriel; Zeidman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This technical note describes some Bayesian procedures for the analysis of group studies that use nonlinear models at the first (within-subject) level – e.g., dynamic causal models – and linear models at subsequent (between-subject) levels. Its focus is on using Bayesian model reduction to finesse the inversion of multiple models of a single dataset or a single (hierarchical or empirical Bayes) model of multiple datasets. These applications of Bayesian model reduction allow one to consider parametric random effects and make inferences about group effects very efficiently (in a few seconds). We provide the relatively straightforward theoretical background to these procedures and illustrate their application using a worked example. This example uses a simulated mismatch negativity study of schizophrenia. We illustrate the robustness of Bayesian model reduction to violations of the (commonly used) Laplace assumption in dynamic causal modelling and show how its recursive application can facilitate both classical and Bayesian inference about group differences. Finally, we consider the application of these empirical Bayesian procedures to classification and prediction. PMID:26569570

  12. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  13. Fundamental Studies on Donor-acceptor Conjugated Polymers Containing 'Heavy' Group 14 and Group 16 Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Gregory Laird

    One advantage of conjugated polymers as organic materials is that their properties may be readily tuned through covalent modifications. This thesis presents studies on the structure-property relationships resulting from single- and double-atom substitutions on an alternating donor-acceptor conjugated polymer. Specifically, single selenium and tellurium atoms have been incorporated into the acceptor monomer in place of sulfur; silicon and germanium atoms have been substituted in place of carbon at the donor monomer bridge position. The carbon-donor/ tellurium-acceptor polymer was synthesized by a post-polymerization reaction sequence and demonstrated the utility of heavy group 16 atoms to red shift a polymer absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations point to a new explanation for this result invoking the lower heavy atom ionization energy and reduced aromaticity of acceptor monomers containing selenium and tellurium compared to sulfur. Absorption and emission experiments demonstrate that both silicon and germanium substitutions in the donor slightly blue shift the polymer absorption spectrum. Polymers containing sulfur in the acceptor are the strongest light absorbers of all polymers studied here. Molecular weight and phenyl end capping studies show that molecular weight appears to affect polymer absorption to the greatest degree in a medium molecular weight regime and that these effects have a significant aggregation component. Solar cell devices containing either the silicon- or germanium-donor/selenium-acceptor polymer display improved red light harvesting or hole mobility relative to their structural analogues. Overall, these results clarify the effects of single atom substitution on donor-acceptor polymers and aid in the future design of polymers containing heavy atoms.

  14. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  15. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  16. Numerical renormalization group study of a dissipative quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glossop, M. T.; Ingersent, K.

    2007-03-01

    We study the quantum phase transition (QPT) induced by dissipation in a quantum dot device at the degeneracy point. We employ a Bose-Fermi numerical renormalization group approach [1] to study the simplest case of a spinless resonant-level model that couples the charge density on the dot to a dissipative bosonic bath with density of states B(φ)ŝ. In anticipation of future experiments [2] and to assess further the validity of theoretical techniques in this rapidly developing area, we take the conduction-electron leads to have a pseudogap density of states: ρ(φ) |φ|^r, as considered in a very recent perturbative renormalization group study [3]. We establish the conditions on r and s such that a QPT arises with increasing dissipation strength --- from a delocalized phase, where resonant tunneling leads to large charge fluctuations on the dot, to a localized phase where such fluctuations are frozen. We present results for the single-particle spectrum and the response of the system to a local electric field, extracting critical exponents that depend in general on r and s and obey hyperscaling relations. We make full comparison with results of [3] where appropriate. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-0312939. [1] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006). [2] L. G. G. V. Dias da Silva, N. P. Sandler, K. Ingersent, and S. E. Ulloa, PRL 97, 096603 (2006). [3] C.-H. Chung, M. Kir'can, L. Fritz, and M. Vojta (2006).

  17. Patients, health information, and guidelines: A focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Saarelma, Osmo; Callaghan, Margaret; Harbour, Robin; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Loudon, Kirsty; Mcfarlane, Emma; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Evidence-based clinical guidelines could support shared decision-making and help patients to participate actively in their care. However, it is not well known how patients view guidelines as a source of health information. This qualitative study aimed to assess what patients know about guidelines, and what they think of their presentation formats. Research question. What is the role of guidelines as health information for patients and how could the implementation of evidence-based information for patients be improved? Methods. A qualitative study with focus groups that were built around a semi-structured topic guide. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed and analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Results. Five focus groups were carried out in 2012 with a total of 23 participants. Patients searched for health information from the Internet or consulted health professionals or their personal networks. The concepts of guidelines included instructions or standards for health professionals, information given by a health professional to the patient, and material to protect and promote the interests of patients. Some patients did not have a concept for guidelines. Patients felt that health information was abundant and its quality sometimes difficult to assess. They respected conciseness, clarity, clear structure, and specialists or well-known organizations as authors of health information. Patients would like health professionals to deliver and clarify written materials to them or point out to them the relevant Internet sites. Conclusions. The concept of guidelines was not well known among our interviewees; however, they expressed an interest in having more communication on health information, both written information and clarifications with their health professionals. PMID:26205344

  18. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    van Leerdam, Lotte; Rietveld, Lianne; Teunissen, Doreth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives One of the goals of the medical master’s degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship. Methods A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis. Results Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors. Conclusion Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues. PMID:24600301

  19. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of

  20. Dynamical study of the Atira group of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. O.; Roig, F.; De Prá, M. N.; Carvano, J. M.; DeSouza, S. R.

    2016-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the group of Atira asteroids, characterized by aphelion distance Q < 0.983 au. This group has a significant observational bias, and their number is expected to be an order of magnitude larger than is known today. Due to their orbital configuration, these asteroids may represent a potential danger to the Earth. Here, we construct dynamical maps of the region between 0.2 and 0.98 au using a simple chaos indicator, the mean standard deviation in semimajor axis, and also analyse the behaviour of the real Atira orbits by means of the diffusion coefficient in semimajor axis. Our results indicate that Atira asteroids are located in the most unstable regions of the inner Solar system, and their stability is determined by close encounters and collisions with Mercury, Venus, and the Earth. A fraction of the known Atiras may represent a potential threat to the Earth over a few 105 yr of evolution. We found two islands of low-eccentricity stable orbits that might harbour a long-lasting sub-population of Atiras not yet observed.

  1. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  2. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. AIM: To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus group discussions. SETTING: Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. METHODS: Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. RESULTS: All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. CONCLUSIONS: Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and

  3. Student Use of Out-of-Class Study Groups in an Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybczynski, Stephen M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Self-formed out-of-class study groups may benefit student learning; however, few researchers have quantified the relationship between study group use and achievement or described changes in study group usage patterns over a semester. We related study group use to performance on content exams, explored patterns of study group use, and qualitatively…

  4. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  5. Study of the Moraxella Group I. Genus Moraxella and the Neisseria catarrhalis Group1

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, P.; Doudoroff, M.; Stanier, R. Y.

    1968-01-01

    A number of strains of oxidase-positive moraxellas and of neisserias related to Neisseria catarrhalis were characterized with respect to a number of nutritional and physiological properties and could be assigned to several species or species groups on the basis of their phenotypic traits. This grouping was consistent with that established by Bövre on the basis of transformation frequencies for streptomycin resistance. It is proposed to reserve the generic name Moraxella for the oxidase-positive rodshaped organisms, and a redescription of the genus is offered. Following the recent taxonomic proposals of Bövre and Henriksen, the specific name Moraxella osloensis is applied to the nutritionally unexacting strains that accumulate poly-β-hydroxybutyrate as carbon reserve. The nutritionally exacting strains are assigned to three distinct groups which can be regarded as separate species or as varieties of M. lacunata. The epithets applicable to these groups appear to be lacunata, nonliquefaciens, and bovis. The “false neisserias” could be assigned to at least three subgroups, one of which constitutes the clearly defined entity, N. catarrhalis, which could be distinguished from N. caviae and N. ovis. Images PMID:4866103

  6. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  7. A Pilot Study in Marital Group Therapy: Process and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, James N.; Giordano, Francesca G.; King, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    A marital group intervention was developed to address communication, conflict, forgiveness, and reconciliation. This article reviews the history of marital group intervention and presents a description of an 8-week marital group intervention. Results indicated improvement in forgiveness skills, anger expression, and marital satisfaction at…

  8. Multicultural Influences on Group Learning: A Qualitative Higher Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Arthur; Weaven, Scott; Herington, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Although the literature examining the usefulness of group projects is extensive, the link between cooperative learning, group performance and skills transfer in multicultural contexts remains unclear. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 107 international and domestic postgraduate and undergraduate marketing students to investigate this…

  9. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  10. Incipient Studies of School-Based Decision Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John J.

    To address the effectiveness, the process, and the results of decisionmaking groups that include both administrators and teachers, and to discern the difference between the effective and less effective decisionmaking groups, 107 test groups, each composed of one Florida elementary school principal and two teachers from the same school, were…

  11. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  12. Post-stroke fatigue: qualitative study of three focus groups.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Nancy A; Stube, Jan E

    2010-06-01

    Fatigue affects many persons after cerebrovascular accident, particularly those with mild stroke. A qualitative methodology using focus groups with 19 community-living post-stroke survivors was utilized to explore the occupational impact of fatigue as communicated by the participants. Although self-report of a small sample of the United States' post-stroke population will have limitations in generalizability, this study identifies specific health-related quality of life issues that can occur with post-stroke fatigue. The participants felt unprepared for the fatigue phenomenon and struggled to adapt, with fatigue having a debilitating influence upon daily occupational performance and roles, including social participation, return to work, driving, reading and sleeping. The participants indicated that exercise (such as walking and water aerobics) and use of assistive technology were helpful strategies in reducing fatigue. The occupational performance and role impact identified by participants in this study can inform the design of effective occupational therapy interventions and further quantitative study of persons with post-stroke fatigue. PMID:19787634

  13. Study of idempotents in cyclic group rings over F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Kai Lin; Ang, Miin Huey

    2016-06-01

    The existence of an idempotent generator for group codes or group ring codes in FqG plays a very important role in determining the minimal distance of the respective code. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for a group ring element to be an idempotent in F2Cn are investigated in this paper. The main result in this paper is the affirmation of the existence of finitely many basis idempotents which gives a full identification of all idempotents in every binary cyclic group ring F2Cn. All the basis idempotents in F2Cn are able to be found by partitioning the largest idempotent's support.

  14. Profiles in Successful Group Piano for Children: A Collective Case Study of Children's Group-Piano Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the best practices in beginning group-piano instruction. Four beginning and intermediate groups of piano students (N =20) were observed. Data were triangulated through in-class observation of students and teachers, teacher interviews and student questionnaires. The master teachers…

  15. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  16. Implementation of Total School Cluster Grouping: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necciai, Rodney Alan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed and conducted to examine perception of classroom grouping practices in elementary schools. It includes a comprehensive review of literature related to grade-level and within-class grouping practices over the past thirty years in American schools. A focus was gleaned from the literature that led to the design of a…

  17. What about N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine the number of focus groups to conduct. The methodological literature commonly advises researchers to follow principles of data saturation, although practical advise on how to do this is lacking. Our objectives were firstly, to describe the current status of sample size in focus group studies reported in health journals. Secondly, to assess whether and how researchers explain the number of focus groups they carry out. Methods We searched PubMed for studies that had used focus groups and that had been published in open access journals during 2008, and extracted data on the number of focus groups and on any explanation authors gave for this number. We also did a qualitative assessment of the papers with regard to how number of groups was explained and discussed. Results We identified 220 papers published in 117 journals. In these papers insufficient reporting of sample sizes was common. The number of focus groups conducted varied greatly (mean 8.4, median 5, range 1 to 96). Thirty seven (17%) studies attempted to explain the number of groups. Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation. Among those stating that they had reached a point of saturation, several appeared not to have followed principles from grounded theory where data collection and analysis is an iterative process until saturation is reached. Studies with high numbers of focus groups did not offer explanations for number of groups. Too much data as a study weakness was not an issue discussed in any of the reviewed papers. Conclusions Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting. The often poor and

  18. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  19. Older Inmates’ Pursuit of Good Health: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    A multitude of intersecting factors including the graying of the broader society, a paradigm shift away from rehabilitation, fewer opportunities for parole, and retrospective prosecutions contribute to an exponential increase in number of geriatric inmates. Elderly prisoners are likely to live in small tight quarters with other inmates, have two or more chronic health conditions, and encounter multiple barriers impeding health promotion while incarcerated. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived challenges to the health of older male inmates and to explore their self-care strategies. Focus group methodology was used. Data were collected from 42 male inmates age 50 and over who were aging in place and living with comorbidity. Cost issues, prison personnel and policies, food concerns, fellow inmates, and personal barriers all challenged older inmates’ abilities to maintain their health in prison. However, these older inmates engaged in a variety of self-care strategies, including: accessing resources and support; staying positive; managing diet and weight; engaging in physical activity; and protecting self. A key motivator for pursuing good health was to be respected and perceived as healthy and strong by fellow inmates. Looking to the future, development and testing of programs to enhance inmates' self-management of chronic conditions and to facilitate health promotion are in order. PMID:20795581

  20. Polyimide characterization studies - Effect of pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  1. A Study on Signal Group Processing of AUTOSAR COM Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Hwang, Hyun Yong; Han, Tae Man; Ahn, Yong Hak

    2013-06-01

    In vehicle, there are many ECU(Electronic Control Unit)s, and ECUs are connected to networks such as CAN, LIN, FlexRay, and so on. AUTOSAR COM(Communication) which is a software platform of AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) in the international industry standards of automotive electronic software processes signals and signal groups for data communications between ECUs. Real-time and reliability are very important for data communications in the vehicle. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze functions of signals and signal groups used in COM, and represent that functions of signal group are more efficient than signals in real-time data synchronization and network resource usage between the sender and receiver.

  2. Multilevel Mediation Modeling in Group-Based Intervention Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Jennifer L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Applies the method to the ATLAS intervention designed to decrease steroid use among high school football players. (SLD)

  3. Pilot Study of Four Selected Groups of Parolees, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garay, Bert; And Others

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Vocational Rehabilitation Programs of the Adult Correctional Facilities of the State of Washington, four groups of parolees were reviewed to determine their successful adjustment 18 months after parole. The Adult Correctional Facilities offer training in a variety of vocations, including the following: auto…

  4. Needs Assessment Among Diverse Groups: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pooler, Anne E.; Toner, James F.

    A Teacher Corps project to deliver staff development services focused on five educational settings: a correctional youth center, a high school, a junior high school, a youth group home consortium, and a college of education. It was felt that comparing the results of needs assessments conducted at each facility would enable useful analyses of…

  5. Enhancing Student Engagement: A Group Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taneja, Aakash

    2014-01-01

    Computing professionals work in groups and collaborate with individuals having diverse backgrounds and behaviors. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) characterizes that a computing program must enable students to attain the ability to analyze a problem, design and evaluate a solution, and work effectively on teams to…

  6. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  7. Enhancing Group Discussion Skills of Educable Children: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Raymond M.; Goldgraber, Jacob

    1974-01-01

    Two special classes, each containing eight educable mentally retarded students, 9 and 10 years of age, respectively, played a group discussion game twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks in which the teachers presented a discussion topic and reinforced specified good discussion behaviors with high points. (MC)

  8. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  9. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  10. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience. PMID:21833243

  11. A portable system for studying discrete-trial group choice.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Tonneau, François; Cordevant, Marie-Alix

    2015-03-01

    Whether groups of people or animals behave optimally in relation to resources is an issue of interest to psychology, ecology, and economics. In behavioral ecology, the simplest model of optimal group choice is the ideal free distribution (IFD). The IFD model has been tested in humans with discrete or continuous inputs and through manual or automated procedures (e.g., Kraft, Baum, & Burge, 2002; Madden, Peden, & Yamagushi, 2002). Manual procedures tend to be time consuming, however, whereas automated procedures typically require access to a computer network. In this article, we describe a new automated system for discrete-trial tests of the IFD model. Our protocol involves a single computer connected to a digital projector (for stimulus presentation) and a network of gamepads (for registering choices). The system is comparatively inexpensive, easy to install, easy to transport, and it permits the automated collection of group data in minimal time. We show that the data generated through this protocol are comparable to those previously reported in the IFD literature. PMID:25732576

  12. Studying AGN Feedback in Galaxy Clusters and Groups with Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jeremy; Athena Topical PanelAGN Feedback in Clusters; Groups

    2015-09-01

    In the centres of clusters of galaxies and groups the central active galactic nuclei are playing a vital role in preventing the rapid cooling of the surrounding hot atmosphere. Important scientific questions remain unanswered, however. These include (1) What is the mechanism by which the energy from jets is dissipated and distributed through intracluster or intragroup medium? (2) How is the AGN fuelling regulated? (3) What is the cumulative impact of powerful radio galaxies on baryons over cosmic time? With its high spectral resolution, good spatial resolution and large effective area, Athena promises to make important progress in answering these questions. For the first time it will measure both the spatially-resolved velocity distribution and thermodynamics of the cluster core region, allowing us to measure all the energetic contributions to feedback and cooling in the hot plasma. We describe how Athena will address these areas, as described in our supporting paper for the Athena mission proposal on AGN feedback in galaxy clusters and groups.

  13. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  14. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  15. Renormalization group studies of many-body localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    Quantum correlations do not usually persist for long in systems at finite energy density and disappear once the system thermalizes. But many-body localization offers an alternative paradigm, whereby quantum matter can evade the usual fate of thermal equilibrium and retain retrievable quantum correlations even at high energies. I will survey a dynamical renormalization group (RG) approach used to characterize the novel dynamics and entanglement structures, which develop in the localized phase in lieu of classical thermalization. Then I will present a theory of the transition between the ergodic and the many-body localized phase based on a novel RG framework. Here eigenstate entanglement entropy emerges as a natural scaling variable; the RG describes a change from area-law to volume law entanglement through an intriguing critical point, where the distribution of entanglement entropy becomes maximally broad. The ergodic phase established near the critical point is a Griffiths phase, which exhibits sub-diffusive energy transport and sub-ballistic entanglement propagation. The anomalous diffusion exponent vanishes continuously at the critical point. Before closing I will discuss recent progress in confronting the emerging theoretical understanding of many-body localization with experimental tests. This research is supported in part by the ERC synergy grant UQUAM.

  16. DFT study of glycosyl group reactivity in quercetin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeevitha, D.; Sadasivam, K.; Praveena, R.; Jayaprakasam, R.

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to compute relevant electronic properties with the purpose of generating precise information which facilitates the best activity given by the positions of glycosyl group attached at all 3 different rings of quercetin such as Q3G (C- ring), Q7G (A-ring) and Q3‧G (B-ring). Computed values of the OH BDE, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Density of states (DOS,PDOS,OPDOS) and electronic properties such as electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IP), softness (S), hardness (η), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilic index (ω) indicate that the title compounds possess good radical scavenging activity. Charge delocalization and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are characterized using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NBO accurately differentiate the weak and strong intramolecular hydrogen bond of quercetin-O-glycoside compounds. Results available from the computational investigation have proved that A-ring glycoside of quercetin is capable of donating electrons and acts as a good anti-oxidant than B-ring glycoside and C-ring glycoside of quercetin.

  17. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  18. Teacher Study Groups: Toward a Model of Differentiated Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Mallory, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    While there is extensive research related to the study of high-quality professional development, the research shows that there is limited evidence to indicate that teachers are provided with this type of professional development on a consistent, ongoing basis. The research also suggests that there is a lack of adequate evidence to show that…

  19. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  20. American Pluralism: A Study of Minority Groups and Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William M.

    This book addresses some basic issues and topics in the sociology of majority-minority relationships and attempts to evaluate and reformulate the conceptual and theoretical tools of the field. It is argued in Part I that majority-minority relationships must be understood as a case study in social stratification and as an opportunity for the study…

  1. Using Online Study Groups to Prepare Police Promotional Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quality policing requires selecting and retaining the best and the brightest officers and supporting their advancement into the leadership ranks of police organizations. This study investigates two aspects of police promotional testing: identifying and understanding the barriers to participation in the promotional process and the use of online…

  2. Digital Study Groups: Online Learning Environments in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kevin; Jamison, Todd; Sprague, Debra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an online learning environment on student computer use, classroom/school activities, and parental involvement. An online learning environment was created with the goals of giving students access to a variety of software programs from home and school, facilitating home-school connectivity, and…

  3. Group Therapy for Adult Children of Alcoholics: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corazzini, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses survival roles adopted by children growing up in families where alcohol is abused, relating them to birth order, and emphasizing their maladaptivity for later adult interactions. Presents case studies of two common roles of adult children of alcoholics (ACAs), those of hero and scapegoat, and demonstrates how ACAs interact in a mixed,…

  4. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Heterogeneous Grouping: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppish, Susan; And Others

    Evidence suggests that tracking of students on the secondary level may not only be discriminatory, but also counterproductive to the personal, educational, and economic potential of all students. The English and Social Studies department of Oak Hill High School, in Wales, Maine, developed an intervention program concerning heterogeneous grouping…

  5. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ozyurt, Selcuk

    2012-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed. PMID:25386314

  6. Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

  7. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  8. SOCIOMETRIC FORMATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF GROUPS IN A FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONGEST, JAMES W.; AND OTHERS

    THE EXTENSION AGENT CONDUCTING THE FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR FARMERS AND THEIR WIVES IN A NEW YORK COUNTY BEGAN USING SMALL EXPERIMENTAL STUDY GROUPS IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE PROGRAM. USE OF SOCIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR FORMING THESE GROUPS RESULTED IN REDISTRIBUTION OF THE 15 MEMBERS OF TWO ORIGINAL GROUPS TO FIVE DIFFERENT GROUPS AND…

  9. Flare build-up study - Homologous flares group. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martres, M.-J.; Mein, N.; Mouradian, Z.; Rayrole, J.; Schmieder, B.; Simon, G.; Soru-Escaut, I.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solar Maximum Mission observations have been used to study the origin and amount of energy, mechanism of storage and release, and conditions for the occurrence of solar flares, and some results of these studies as they pertain to homologous flares are briefly discussed. It was found that every set of flares produced 'rafales' of homologous flares, i.e., two, three, four, or more flares separated in time by an hour or less. No great changes in macroscopic photospheric patterns were observed during these flaring periods. A quantitative brightness parameter of the relation between homologous flares is defined. Scale changes detected in the dynamic spectrum of flare sites are in good agreement with a theoretical suggestion by Sturrock. Statistical results for different homologous flare active regions show the existence in homologous flaring areas of a 'pivot' of previous filaments interpreted as a signature of an anomaly in the solar rotation.

  10. Group Dynamics: Toward a Study of the Administrative/Supervisory Leadership Role Within Group Decision-Making Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Francis, II

    Group processes are an integral part of the educational enterprise, but "effectiveness of group processes" does not necessarily follow from the simple act of group formation. The administrator has the responsibility of exercising effective group leadership. Group formation, group task functions or assignments, and decision-making processes are…

  11. [Study of heavy-flavored particles]. [Albany High Energy Group

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The program of physics analysis using CLEO II data is reported. A statistically significant measurement was made of the isospin mass splitting of the [Sigma][sub c][sup +] with respect to the [Sigma][sub c][sup o] and [Sigma][sub c][sup ++]. This result is based on first observation of the [Sigma][sub c][sup +] in the decay mode [Lambda][sub c][sup +][pi][sup 0]. Many new decay modes of the charmed baryon [Lambda][sub c][sup +] were studied. Several new decay modes of [xi][sub c]'s. Some preliminary results on 3 new modes of [Omega][sub c][sup 0] decay are reported. In the area of B-meson decay into baryons, were observed conclusively the decays B [yields] [Sigma][sub c][sup 0] and [Sigma][sub c][sup ++]. From about 1500 events corresponding to B [yields] [Lambda][sub c][sup +]X reconstruction of exclusive final states of the form [Lambda][sub c][sup +](n[pi]) was started. A comprehensive investigation of particle identification using both the time-of-flight and dE/dx systems was made. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton identification efficiencies have been made, corresponding to several different selection criteria. Measurements of corresponding pion probabilities to fake kaons nd protons have also been made.

  12. Studies on a new group of biodegradable surfactants for glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Haefs, Roland; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela; Mainx, Hans-G; Mittelstaedt, Werner; Noga, Georg

    2002-08-01

    The effectiveness of a homologous series of biodegradable rapeseed oil derivatives (triglyceride ethoxylates; Agnique RSO series containing an average of 5, 10, 30 and 60 units of ethylene oxide (EO) as adjuvants for foliage-applied, water-soluble, systemic active ingredients was evaluated employing glyphosate as an example. Previous experiments had revealed that the surfactants used are not phytotoxic at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g litre-1. The experiments were performed using Phaseolus vulgaris L and nine selected weed species, grown in a growth chamber at 25/20 (+/- 2) degrees C day/night temperature and 40/70 (+/- 10)% relative humidity. The surfactants were evaluated for enhancement of spray retention, and foliar penetration biological efficacy of glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at a concentration of 43 mM. The surfactants were added at concentrations of 1 g litre-1. The commercial glyphosate 360 g AE litre-1 SL Roundup Ultra and unformulated glyphosate served as references. The surfactants used improved spray retention, foliar penetration and biological efficacy. Some of the formulations were comparable to the performance of Roundup Ultra in the aspects evaluated; some were even more effective in enhancing spray liquid retention and promoting glyphosate phytotoxicity in several plant species. In these studies Agnique RSO 60 generally was most effective. PMID:12192908

  13. Psychophysiological Measures of Learning Comfort: Study Groups' Learning Styles and Pulse Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Tacy L.; Said, Sukhaynah H.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided empirical support for tutor-led study groups using a physiological measurement and study survey data. The scope of this preliminary study included determining differences in biology and chemistry study group members' (N = 25) regarding learning styles and pulse rate changes. As hypothesized, there was significant evidence that…

  14. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? (a)(1) A group research or study project is designed to permit a group of faculty of an institution... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  15. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  16. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  17. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  18. Influence of Study Group Attendance and Students' Perceived Helpfulness on Expected Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plecha, Michelle

    This study examines the association between the number of study group sessions a student attends, the student's attitude toward these sessions, and expected grade for the class. Seven hundred and two students participated in the study, 30% of whom never attended a study group session. Of the remaining 70% who did participate, 24% attended five or…

  19. Peer Group Influence and Selection in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which peer group similarity in school burnout is due to peer group influence and the extent to which it is due to peer group selection. Moreover, the roles of academic achievement and gender in school burnout were examined. A total of 611 ninth graders were examined at the beginning of the final term of…

  20. A HIM-G Interaction Process Analysis Study of Facilitator--and Self-Directed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.; Rapin, Lynn S.

    1977-01-01

    This study of group process evaluated the relative effectiveness of facilitator-directed (FD) and self-directed (SD) personal growth group treatments in inducing change in the level of group member interaction. Examination of treatment effectiveness was accomplished through an interaction process analysis approach, the Hill Interaction…

  1. Therapists' Use of Boundaries in Sexual Abuse Groups: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Laura L.; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    This study surveyed survivor and nonsurvivor therapists regarding their use of boundaries in groups with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. No differences were detected between the two groups when all types of boundaries were considered. Using boundary subscales, significant differences for therapist neutrality in their groups was observed,…

  2. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  3. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  4. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology. PMID:20940342

  5. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  6. The quality of control groups in non-randomized studies published in Journal of Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shepard P.; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate control group selection in non-randomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). Methods We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used non-randomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine if authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Results Thirty-seven non-randomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18(49%) identified sources of selection bias. Conclusions In our review of non-randomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Clinical relevance Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. PMID:25447000

  7. Student-Initiated Study Groups for STEM Classes in Community College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Blasius, Eileen; Klingsmith, Libby; Waite, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a focus group research study that examined the experiences of community college students who initiated study groups for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses based on self-identified needs for learning support. Results indicated that students identified early in the semester that they needed…

  8. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom…

  9. Computer Science and Technology: Findings of the Standard Benchmark Library Study Group. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Dennis M.

    This report presents the findings of a joint government/industry study group which investigated the technical feasibility of standard benchmark programs for testing vendor systems in the competitive selection of computer systems within both private industry and the federal government. As part of its investigation, the study group reviewed earlier…

  10. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  11. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  12. Authentic Conversation as Faculty Development: Establishing a Self-Study Group in a Faculty of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Gallagher, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Nine teacher educators in their first three years as tenure-track professors in an education faculty established a self-study group in 2006-2007. These professors met once a month to link their teaching and service to scholarship through the self-study of teacher education practices. In addition, members met in pairs or small groups to develop…

  13. Learning to Love Reading: A Self-Study on Fostering Students' Reading Motivation in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between small, differentiated reading groups and fourth-grade students' reading motivation. Using self-study methodology, the author examined her own process of implementing these reading groups through two cycles of action research. Data were analyzed from two different administrations of the Motivations for…

  14. Minority Groups Study in the Work Opportunity Center. Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, M. P.; Almen, R. E.

    Some 18% of the total enrollment at the Work Opportunity Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the time of this study, were from some minority group background: Negro, American-Indian, or Spanish-speaking. This study reports some characteristics of students in minority groups. They came from senior or junior high schools where their attendance had…

  15. How Teachers Develop Their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to understand the perceptions of Taiwanese teachers of the effects of a study group on their professional growth in the workplace. This case study employed the following data collection techniques: (1) informal observations and interviews, (2) focus group interview, (3) semi-structured individual…

  16. OTSEGO COUNTY EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM FOR TESTING METHODS OF FORMING FARM MANAGEMENT STUDY GROUPS, A PROGRESS REPORT. EXTENSION STUDY, NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONGEST, JAMES W.; GENGENBACK, WILLIAM H.

    THE MOST FREQUENT METHOD OF GROUP FORMATION FOR INTENSIVE FARM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS IN NEW YORK STATE HAS BEEN TO COMBINE ALL INTERESTED FARMERS IN LARGE GROUPS AT THE COUNTY EXTENSION HEADQUARTERS. THIS EXPERIMENT WAS SET UP TO STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF FORMING SMALL GROUPS--BY SOCIOMETRIC CHOICE OR SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS. ALL…

  17. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  18. Is Radiosensitivity Associated to Different Types of Blood Groups? (A cytogenetic study)

    PubMed Central

    Elahimanesh, Farideh; Shabestani Monfared, Ali; Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh; Abedian, Zeinab; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Borzouisileh, Sajad; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Amiri, Mehrangiz

    2013-01-01

    Many biological factors affect radiosensitivity. In this study, radiosensitivity among the different blood groups was investigated. Peripheral blood sample of 95 healthy people were divided into two parts. One part was irradiated with 2 Gy Co-60 gamma rays and the second one was considered as control. Then all the samples were studied by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). Our study showed that the radiosensitivity index of A+ and O+ groups was significantly higher and lower than other blood groups, respectively. It seems that blood type can be used as a radiosensitivity index for determining the given dose to radiotherapy, although extensive studies are necessary. PMID:24551803

  19. The Effects of Style and Sex of Consultants and Sex of Members in Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Fred

    1976-01-01

    Defines the self-study group and differentiates it from other laboratory training groups. Investigates the effects of sex and style of the facilitators on group members. Presented at the American Group Psychotherapy Association Convention, Boston, Mass., February, 1976. (HMV)

  20. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross–Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults’ participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Methods Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population–based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Results Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults’ participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future

  1. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  2. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  3. Combining Propensity Score Matching and Group-Based Trajectory Analysis in an Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Amelia; Nagin, Daniel S.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    In a nonrandomized or observational study, propensity scores may be used to balance observed covariates and trajectory groups may be used to control baseline or pretreatment measures of outcome. The trajectory groups also aid in characterizing classes of subjects for whom no good matches are available and to define substantively interesting groups…

  4. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Kinds of Projects Does the Secretary Assist...

  5. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  6. Critical Teaching in Higher Education: An Interview with the Front Range Critical Studies Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The Front Range Critical Studies Group, comprised of four California State University teacher educators, aims to provide a scholarly, informal forum for interdisciplinary discussion of theoretical, political, and cultural issues. The group facilitates collegial scholar/student relationships, promotes enlightened discussion through lecture series…

  7. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  8. Current Assessment Practices: A Report from the Virginia Assessment Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The report details the activities of the Virginia Assessment Study Group in documenting the utility of various approaches to assessing adult education programs and instruction within the state. A group of diverse practitioners convened during 1997 to establish project objectives and research questions and to report on their work. The reports of…

  9. Group Therapy for Children after Homicide and Violence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salloum, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated a group intervention designed to reduce posttraumatic stress among children after homicide and/or violence. Method: Employing a secondary data analysis of 117 participants in 21 group interventions, pretest and posttest differences in posttraumatic stress levels and between child witnesses and nonwitnesses,…

  10. Peer Learning Group among College Voice Majors: Collaborative Inquiry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Joo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative inquiry case study investigated a pre-existing peer learning group composed of five Korean college voice students and a non-musician facilitator. The group was chosen for this research to understand the implications of a diversified learning context in addition to the typical master-apprenticeship context of higher music…

  11. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  12. Follow-Up Studies of Three Groups of Former Real Estate Students. Volume XXII, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, W. D.; Lucas, J. A.

    As part of the program review process at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, a study was conducted in spring 1993 of three groups of former Real Estate program students who had enrolled at WRHC during the previous 5 years. The three groups of students, each of whom were sent different questionnaires, included 252 students…

  13. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  14. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  15. Identifying Implications of Tensions in a Series of Collaborative Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Katheryn; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Manke, Mary P.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on 14 years of collaborative self-study group work at their university, East and Fitzgerald reviewed the data, stories and findings from that collaborative work, seeking to go beyond those original stories to identify practical implications of the tensions that emerged and played out within the various groups. Findings were shared and…

  16. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  17. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  18. IR spectroscopic study of hydroxyl groups of molecular sieves in the fundamental and combination tone regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, E.; Zscherpel, U.; Peuker, Ch.; Staudte, B.

    1993-03-01

    The fundamental and combination vibrations of hydroxyl groups in zeolites (Y, ZSM-5) and silicoaluminophosphates (SAPO-5, -17, -34) are investigated. The influence of adsorbed molecules (C 6F 6, n-hexane) on the combination vibrations is also studied. Finally, remarks on quantitative evaluation of DRIFT spectra of NaHZSM-5 containing different amounts of bridging OH groups are given.

  19. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study of Group Process and Development in Online Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Nolla, Ana C.; Wilson, Penne L.; Lopez-Islas, Jose R.; Ramirez-Angel, Noemi; Megchun-Alpizar, Rosa M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that used survey and focus group data to examine differences in perception of online group process and development between college students in Mexico and the United States. Discusses language, power distance, gender differences, collectivist versus individualist tendencies, conflict, social presence, time frame, and technical…

  1. Gender, Group Composition, Cooperation, and Self-Efficacy in Computer Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of Norwegian college students that investigated whether gender, group composition, or self-efficacy in computing has any impact on cooperation, giving or getting task-related help, and level of activity in student groups. Results confirms gender differences in self-efficacy in computing. (Author/LRW)

  2. Innovation in the teaching of astrophysics and space science - spacecraft design group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, C.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes how the design of a scientific satellite can be used to provide both a stimulating and effective subject for a physics based group study. The group study divides the satellite into distinct subsystems and small teams of two or three students carry out the detailed design of each subsystem. The aim is to produce a complete satellite system design along with the choice of launch vehicle, orbit and communications system so that all the mission requirements can be met. An important feature of the group study is that it is a student led activity with staff acting as mentors. The development of key skills and important learning outcomes from the group study is discussed along with the method for assessment, structuring and resourcing the study.

  3. The Italian AIPO study on tuberculosis treatment results, report 1995. National AIPO "Tuberculosis" Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, M; Besozzi, G; Codecasa, L R; Farris, B; Nutini, S; Saini, L; Casali, L; Nardini, S; Migliori, G B

    1999-02-01

    In Italy, no national data on tuberculosis (TB) treatment results were available. In 1995, the AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pneumologists) TB Study Group, in collaboration with the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (technical branch of the Ministry of Health), started a prospective monitoring activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) recommendations. Data were collected from a nationwide network of 41 TB units, managing a significant proportion of all TB cases notified in Italy each year. The aim of this study was to analyse the case findings and treatment results for the year 1995. Seven hundred and seventy eight TB cases were reported (59% males; 21% immigrants), 640 (82%) being new cases. Of these cases, 517 (66%) were pulmonary, 239 (31%) extrapulmonary and 22 (3%) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The main risk factors for TB were a history of recent contact and alcohol abuse among native Italians and human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive status among immigrants. The majority of immigrants were from Africa and South America, and had been in Italy > 24 months before diagnosis of TB. Thirty-seven per cent of patients had a positive direct sputum smear examination for alcohol acid-fast bacilli; 20% were resistant to any drug (monoresistance to isoniazid 3.5%; multidrug resistance 5.2%). In 95% of cases, the duration of treatment was < 12 months. The overall success rate (cured plus treatment completed) was 81.1%. A significantly higher percentage of deaths was found in native Italians (being age-related), whereas immigrants had a higher default rate. PMID:10218371

  4. Surface properties of a single perfluoroalkyl group on water surfaces studied by surface potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Shimoaka, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Shioya, Nobutaka; Morita, Kohei; Sonoyama, Masashi; Amii, Hideki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A discriminative study of a single perfluoroalkyl (Rf) group from a bulk material is recently recognized to be necessary toward the total understanding of Rf compounds based on a primary chemical structure. The single molecule and the bulk matter have an interrelationship via an intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) aggregation property of an Rf group, which is theorized by the stratified dipole-arrays (SDA) theory. Since an Rf group has dipole moments along many C-F bonds, a single Rf group would possess a hydrophilic-like character on the surface. To reveal the hydration character of a single Rf group, in the present study, surface potential (ΔV) measurements are performed for Langmuir monolayers of Rf-containing compounds. From a comparative study with a monolayer of a normal hydrocarbon compound, the hydration/dehydration dynamics of a lying Rf group on water has first been monitored by ΔV measurements, through which a single Rf group has been revealed to have a unique "dipole-interactive" character, which enables the Rf group interacted with the water 'surface.' In addition, the SDA theory proves to be useful to predict the 2D aggregation property across the phase transition temperature of 19°C by use of the ΔV measurements. PMID:27569518

  5. The ignition physics study group supports the compact ignition tokamak and engineering test reactor programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Vugraphs dealing with the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). The role of the Ignition Physics Study Group is defined. Several design goals are presented. (JDH)

  6. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-06-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  7. Chemical studies of L-chondrites. I - A study of possible chemical sub-groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. W.; Dodd, R. T.; Jarosewich, E.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Te, Tl and Zn and major element data in 14 L4-6 and 3 LL5 chondrites indicates that the L-group is unusually variable and may represent at least 2 sub-groups differing in formation history. Chemical trends in the S/Fe-rich sub-group support textural evidence indicating late loss of a shock-formed Fe-Ni-S melt; the S/Fe-poor sub-group seemingly reflects nebular fractionation only. Highly mobile In and Zn apparently reflect shock-induced loss from L-chondrites. Data for L5 chondrites suggest higher formation temperatures and/or degrees of shock than for LL5 chondrites.

  8. Elementary teachers in a science inquiry study group: Concerns, uses, and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundzynski, Christina

    Professional development is evolving into an ongoing learning process of self-disclosure, reflection, and growth that produces the best results when it is job-embedded over a period of time (Diaz-Maggioli, 2003). One promising approach to use is that of study groups (National Science Education Standards, 2006). A study group is a series of weekly sessions in which a small group of teachers meet voluntarily for a period of time, to discuss educational issues (Farstrup, 2002). Utilizing study groups is particularly helpful in the area of science inquiry (National Science Education Standards, 2006). In concert with the use of study groups for inquiry teaching, using teacher concerns, levels of use and the reflective process are promising variables within teacher professional development activities. This study examined the effects of elementary teachers' participating in a science inquiry study group. Data were collected at the onset and the completion of the twelve sessions (30 hours) using the Stages of Concerns Questionnaire, Levels of Use interviews, and teacher reflection journals. Findings indicated participants changed their concerns about science inquiry in some stages within the phases of self, task, and impact, increased their level of use in science inquiry, and generated surface knowledge on the third level (multi-structural).

  9. Experiences of older adults in a group physiotherapy program at a rehabilitation hospital: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Melissa J; Burge, Angela T; Soh, Sze-Ee; Jeffs, Kimberley J; Winter, Adele; Holland, Anne E

    2016-05-01

    Physiotherapy delivered in a group setting has been shown to be effective in a variety of populations. However, little is known about the attitudes of older adults toward participating in group physiotherapy. The objectives of this study were to explore older inpatients' perceptions and experiences of group physiotherapy using qualitative methods. Twelve hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years who were involved in a larger randomized controlled trial undertook individual semistructured interviews regarding their experiences in group physiotherapy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and line by line, iterative thematic analysis was undertaken. Descriptive codes were developed, compared, and grouped together to create themes. Analysis revealed 6 major themes and 10 subthemes. All participants reported feeling happy to attend group sessions, a satisfactory alternative to individual physiotherapy. Participants described physical benefits that increased their motivation, and comparisons with their peers either motivated them or made them feel gratitude for their own health. Perceived attentiveness of group instructors contributed to participants reporting that treatment was individualized and similar to individual physiotherapy. Motivation and camaraderie with peers contributed to their enjoyment of group physiotherapy. Hospitalized older adults enjoyed exercising with their peers and valued the physical and social benefits of group physiotherapy. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:358-362. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:26821260

  10. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  11. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  12. Effect of Acetyl Group on Mechanical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan Nanocrystal: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junhe; Yu, Zechuan; Lau, Denvid

    2016-01-01

    Chitin fiber is the load-bearing component in natural chitin-based materials. In these materials, chitin is always partially deacetylated to different levels, leading to diverse material properties. In order to understand how the acetyl group enhances the fracture resistance capability of chitin fiber, we constructed atomistic models of chitin with varied acetylation degree and analyzed the hydrogen bonding pattern, fracture, and stress-strain behavior of these models. We notice that the acetyl group can contribute to the formation of hydrogen bonds that can stabilize the crystalline structure. In addition, it is found that the specimen with a higher acetylation degree presents a greater resistance against fracture. This study describes the role of the functional group, acetyl groups, in crystalline chitin. Such information could provide preliminary understanding of nanomaterials when similar functional groups are encountered. PMID:26742033

  13. The TAFES multi-family group intervention for Kosovar refugees: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan M; Raina, Dheeraj; Zhubi, Merita; Delesi, Mejreme; Huseni, Dzana; Feetham, Suzanne; Kulauzovic, Yasmina; Mermelstein, Robin; Campbell, Richard T; Rolland, John; Pavkovic, Ivan

    2003-02-01

    The object of this study was to describe a feasibility study of the Tea and Families Education and Support (TAFES) intervention used in a group of newly resettled adult refugees from Kosova. The subjects were 86 newly resettled Kosovar refugees in Chicago who gave informed consent to participate in an investigation of the TAFES intervention. All subjects received family home visits, and most participated in the TAFES multi-family groups. The instruments were administered to adult participants before and 3 months after the intervention. The TAFES program had contact with 61 Kosovar refugee families, of which 42 families (69%) engaged in TAFES groups, including families with educated and working members. Several characteristics were associated with engaging in TAFES groups and included lower monthly family income and higher age of the first child. The uncontrolled postintervention assessments demonstrated increases in social support and psychiatric service use associated with engagement in the TAFES group. Participants also showed time changes in scale scores assessing trauma mental health knowledge, trauma mental health attitudes, and family hardiness. This study provides preliminary evidence that multi-family support and education groups are a feasible and possibly beneficial intervention for newly resettled refugees and indicates the need for further studies. PMID:12586963

  14. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  15. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  16. Efficacy and safety of Ascoril in the management of cough--National Study Group report.

    PubMed

    Ainapure, S S; Desai, A; Korde, K

    2001-02-01

    A total of 768 patients were recruited by 81 physicians and paediatricians all over the country in this National Study Group of 'Ascoril + Expectorant'. The results of this first large scale study of a cough formula indicates that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is effective in controlling cough, breathlessness and decreasing the volume of sputum. No serious adverse events were noted. Ascoril was well accepted by the patients and its efficacy was rated very high by the physician. The National Study Group concludes that 'Ascoril + Expectorant' is highly effective in the management of cough associated with lower respiratory tract infection and COPDs. PMID:11482804

  17. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  18. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  19. Liberal Studies in Hong Kong: A New Perspective on Critical Thinking through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article reports research that is contextualised within reforms of secondary education in Hong Kong and the reintroduction of Liberal Studies, which jointly emphasise the need for a learning environment that facilitates the practice of group work and the development of critical thinking. A study is described that explores the relevance of…

  20. Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study Using Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Farah; Egan, Sarah; Gasson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Depression and anxiety affect up to 50% of people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Marsh, 2000; Murray, 1996), however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of psychological treatment. This study examined the effectiveness of group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in treating depression and anxiety in PD. Four participants, aged between 56…

  1. Literacy Practices and Linguistic Choices: A Sociocultural Study of a Multilingual Adult Literacy Student Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay

    The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…

  2. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  3. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  4. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  5. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  6. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  7. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning Relationships…

  8. The impact of instructor grouping strategies on student efficacy in inquiry science labs: A phenomenological case study of grouping perceptions and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathaniel J.

    Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was derived from student efficacy surveys, direct classroom observations, and three-tiered interviews with teacher participants. Four high school science instructors and their students from two school districts in Northern Illinois were selected to participate in the study. This study sought to identify instructor strategies or criteria used to formulate student laboratory groups and the impact of such groupings on student self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Open coding of interview transcripts, observation logs, and student surveys led to the development of eight emerging themes. These themes included the purpose of science laboratory activities, instructor grouping strategies, instructor roles, instructor's perceptions, science laboratory assessment, student interactions, learner self-perceptions, and grouping preferences. Results from the study suggest that some students were innately inclined to assume leadership roles, smaller groupings had greater participation from all group members, students had a strong preference for working collaboratively in groups, and students desired to maintain stable laboratory groups in lieu of periodically changing laboratory partners. As with all case study methodologies, the findings of the study were limited to the individual participants at research sites and were not generalizable to all science classrooms. Additional research in the realms of group size, group autonomy, and student interviews would provide even greater insights into the observed phenomena.

  9. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  10. The relationship between three-dimensional imaging and group decision making: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Litynski, D M; Grabowski, M; Wallace, W A

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes an empirical investigation of the effect of three dimensional (3-D) imaging on group performance in a tactical planning task. The objective of the study is to examine the role that stereoscopic imaging can play in supporting face-to-face group problem solving and decision making-in particular, the alternative generation and evaluation processes in teams. It was hypothesized that with the stereoscopic display, group members would better visualize the information concerning the task environment, producing open communication and information exchanges. The experimental setting was a tactical command and control task, and the quality of the decisions and nature of the group decision process were investigated with three treatments: 1) noncomputerized, i.e., topographic maps with depth cues; 2) two-dimensional (2-D) imaging; and 3) stereoscopic imaging. The results were mixed on group performance. However, those groups with the stereoscopic displays generated more alternatives and spent less time on evaluation. In addition, the stereoscopic decision aid did not interfere with the group problem solving and decision-making processes. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential benefits, and the need to resolve demonstrated weaknesses of the technology. PMID:11541531

  11. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  12. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabi, Narges; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Belleman, Robbert G.; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; De Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the research focuses on the transmission within HIV risk groups, while transmission between different risk groups has been less studied. We use a proposed filter-reduction method to infer hypothetical transmission networks of HIV by combining data from social and genetic scales. We modified the filtering process in order to include mixing risk groups in the model. For this, we use the information on phylogenetic clusters obtained through phylogenetic analysis. A probability matrix is also defined to specify contact rates between individuals form the same and different risk groups. The method converts the data form each scale into network forms and combines them by overlaying and computing their intersection. We apply this method to reconstruct networks of HIV infected patients in central Italy, including mixing between risk groups. Our results suggests that bisexual behavior among Italian MSM and IDU partnership are relatively important in heterosexual transmission of HIV in central Italy.

  13. The impacts of racial group membership on people's distributive justice: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Deng, Yuqin

    2014-04-16

    How individuals and societies distribute benefits has long been studied by psychologists and sociologists. Previous work has highlighted the importance of social identity on people's justice concerns. However, it is not entirely clear how racial in-group/out-group relationship affects the brain activity in distributive justice. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants made their decisions about donation allocation. Behavioral results showed that racial in-group factor affected participants' decisions on justice consideration. Participants were more likely to make relatively equity decisions when racial in-group factor was congruent with equity compared with the corresponding incongruent condition. Moreover, this incongruent condition took longer response times than congruent condition. Meanwhile, less equity decisions were made when efficiency was larger in the opposite side to equity than it was equal between the two options. Scalp event-related potential analyses revealed that greater P300 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited by the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the decision-making of distributive justice could be modulated by racial group membership, and greater attentional resources or cognitive efforts are required when racial in-group factor and equity conflict with each other. PMID:24394904

  14. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Method Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Results The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees’ presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. Conclusion This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are

  15. Studying high redshift galaxy groups with the Athena Wide-Field-Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, Florian; Reiprich, Thomas; Ramos Ceja, Miriam Elizabeth; Lovisari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of Athena to study high redshift galaxy groups (1groups in Athena WFI observations and our ability to identify them as extended sources among the numerous active galactic nuclei (AGN) at similar fluxes. Our analysis also includes the determination of the physical properties of these galaxy groups (average gas temperature, luminosity). Based on these tools, we discuss the science achievable with such systems thanks to Athena and its dependance on the final instrumental set-up. In particular, we investigate the impact of different levels of contamination by AGNs and assumptions on the luminosity of the groups as a function of their mass.

  16. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  17. Parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Robert K.; Waxman, Allen M.

    1991-06-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Summary of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory effort into the parametric study of diffusion-enhancement networks for spatiotemporal grouping in real-time artificial vision. Spatiotemporal grouping phenomena are examined in the context of static and time-varying imagery. Dynamics that exhibit static feature grouping on multiple scales as a function of time and long-range apparent motion between time-varying inputs are developed for a biologically plausible diffusion-enhancement bilayer. The architecture consists of a diffusion and a contrast-enhancement layer coupled by feedforward and feedback connections: input is provided by a separate feature extracting layer. The model is cast as an analog circuit that is realizable in VLSI, the parameters of which are selected to satisfy a psychophysical database on apparent motion. Specific topics include: neural networks, astrocyte glial networks, diffusion enhancement, long-range apparent motion, spatiotemporal grouping dynamics, and interference suppression.

  18. Case studies putting the decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) into practice.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Neubauer, Nicole; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide and metal sulphate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments were performed to assess the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). The usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. In two tiers that rely exclusively on non-animal test methods followed by a third tier, if necessary, in which data from rat short-term inhalation studies are evaluated, nanomaterials are assigned to one of four main groups (MGs). The DF4nanoGrouping proved efficient in sorting out nanomaterials that could undergo hazard assessment without further testing. These are soluble nanomaterials (MG1) whose further hazard assessment should rely on read-across to the dissolved materials, high aspect-ratio nanomaterials (MG2) which could be assessed according to their potential fibre toxicity and passive nanomaterials (MG3) that only elicit effects under pulmonary overload conditions. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping allows identifying active nanomaterials (MG4) that merit in-depth investigations, and it provides a solid rationale for their sub-grouping to specify the further information needs. Finally, the evaluated case study materials may be used as source nanomaterials in future read-across applications. Overall, the DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard assessment strategy that strictly uses animals as a last resort. PMID:26687418

  19. Using focus groups to discover health professionals' information needs: a regional marketing study.

    PubMed

    Mullaly-Quijas, P; Ward, D H; Woelfl, N

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the use of focus groups as a data-gathering tool, in both theoretical and practical terms. Calder's discussion of focus groups is presented as the basis of the theory, and the marketing study conducted by the Midcontinental Region of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine serves as the backdrop to highlight some of the practical aspects of using this qualitative data-gathering method. Results of the marketing study are presented to illustrate the types of data that can be gathered using this methodology and the types of plans for future activities that can be developed based on the data gathered. PMID:7920341

  20. Current status and future perspectives of cooperative study groups for lung cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuko; Okamoto, Isamu; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Saka, Hideo; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Koichi; Semba, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    The performance of scientifically and ethically valid prospective clinical trials is the only means by which to obtain reliable clinical evidence that can improve clinical practice and thus the outcome of patients with lung cancer. The efficacy of treatment for advanced lung cancer remains limited; many cooperative study groups for lung cancer have been established in Japan since 1990s, and they have completed several landmark investigator-initiated clinical trials. This review highlights eight active Japanese cooperative study groups for lung cancer and summarizes their achievements made through clinical trials. In addition to their benefits, the existence of multiple study groups for a single disease such as lung cancer presents several challenges including the provision of infrastructure to ensure the scientific integrity of trial results, the unnecessary duplication of effort and the wasting of limited resources, and the accrual and completion of large-scale phase III trials in the shortest possible time. Collaboration among Japanese cooperative groups has recently increased in order to overcome these challenges. Although institutional barriers to the performance of such large intergroup trials remain, further harmonization and collaboration among cooperative groups will be vital in allowing Japanese investigators to make further important contributions for the development of new lung cancer therapies. PMID:25453377

  1. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that

  2. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  3. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Kadipasaoglu, Cihan M.; Forseth, Kiefer; Whaley, Meagan; Conner, Christopher R.; Rollo, Matthew J.; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Tandon, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions. PMID:26257673

  4. AGN feedback in groups of galaxies: a joint X-ray/low-frequency radio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Raychaudhury, S.; David, L. P.; Venturi, T.; Athreya, R.; Gitti, M.

    2010-07-01

    We present an ongoing, low-frequency radio/X-ray study of 18 nearby galaxy groups, chosen for the evidence, either in the X-ray or radio images, of AGN/intragroup gas interaction. We have obtained radio observations at 235 MHz and 610 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) for all the groups, and 327 MHz and 150 MHz for a few. We present results of the recent Chandra/GMRT study of the interesting case of AWM 4, a relaxed poor cluster of galaxies with no evidence of a large cool core and no X-ray cavities associated with the central radio galaxy. Our analysis shows how joining low-frequency radio data (to track the history of AGN outbursts) with X-ray data (to determine the state of the hot gas, its disturbances, heating and cooling) can provide a unique insight into the nature of the feedback mechanism in galaxy groups.

  5. Photophysical studies of oxicam group of NSAIDs: piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona; Chakraborty, Hirak; Sarkar, Munna

    2003-04-01

    Oxicam group of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been chosen as a prototype molecular group that shows diverse biological functions and dynamic structural features. Photophysical studies of three drugs from this group viz., piroxicam, meloxicam and tenoxicam have been carried out in different solvents with varying polarity, H-bond character and viscosity. The spectral responses of different prototropic forms of these drugs towards varying solvent parameters have been studied, with the aim to characterize their interaction in biomimetic environment non-invasively. The nature of the lowest transition has been identified. The extinction coefficient, quantum yield and viscosity dependence on the nature of the solvents, all indicate the extreme sensitivity of these drugs to their microenvironment.

  6. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  7. Functional grouping and cortical–subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Hedy; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Joseph, Josh; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Lindquist, Kristen; Wager, Tor D.

    2009-01-01

    We performed an updated quantitative meta-analysis of 162 neuroimaging studies of emotion using a novel multi-level kernel-based approach, focusing on locating brain regions consistently activated in emotional tasks and their functional organization into distributed functional groups, independent of semantically defined emotion category labels (e.g., “anger,” “fear”). Such brain-based analyses are critical if our ways of labeling emotions are to be evaluated and revised based on consistency with brain data. Consistent activations were limited to specific cortical sub-regions, including multiple functional areas within medial, orbital, and inferior lateral frontal cortices. Consistent with a wealth of animal literature, multiple subcortical activations were identified, including amygdala, ventral striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. We used multivariate parcellation and clustering techniques to identify groups of co-activated brain regions across studies. These analyses identified six distributed functional groups, including medial and lateral frontal groups, two posterior cortical groups, and paralimbic and core limbic/brainstem groups. These functional groups provide information on potential organization of brain regions into large-scale networks. Specific follow-up analyses focused on amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and hypothalamic (Hy) activations, and identified frontal cortical areas co-activated with these core limbic structures. While multiple areas of frontal cortex co-activated with amygdala sub-regions, a specific region of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, Brodmann’s Area 9/32) was the only area co-activated with both PAG and Hy. Subsequent mediation analyses were consistent with a pathway from dmPFC through PAG to Hy. These results suggest that medial frontal areas are more closely associated with core limbic activation than their lateral counterparts, and that dmPFC may play a particularly important role in the

  8. Going Through, Going Around: A Study on Individual Avoidance of Groups.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Julien; Olivier, Anne-Hélène; Pettré, Julien

    2015-04-01

    When avoiding a group, a walker has two possibilities: either he goes through it or around it. Going through very dense groups or around huge ones would not seem natural and could break any sense of presence in a virtual environment. This paper aims to enable crowd simulators to handle such situations correctly. To this end, we need to understand how real humans decide to go through or around groups. As a first hypothesis, we apply the Principle of Minimum Energy (PME) on different group sizes and density. According to this principle, a walker should go around small and dense groups whereas he should go through large and sparse groups. Such principle has already been used for crowd simulation; the novelty here is to apply it to decide on a global avoidance strategy instead of local adaptations only. Our study quantifies decision thresholds. However, PME leaves some inconclusive situations for which the two solutions paths have similar energetic costs. In a second part, we propose an experiment to corroborate PME decisions thresholds with real observations. As controlling the factors of an experiment with many people is extremely hard, we propose to use Virtual Reality as a new method to observe human behavior. This work represents the first crowd simulation algorithm component directly designed from a VR-based study. We also consider the role of secondary factors in inconclusive situations. We show the influence of the group appearance and direction of relative motion in the decision process. Finally, we draw some guidelines to integrate our conclusions to existing crowd simulators and show an example of such integration. We evaluate the achieved improvements. PMID:26357102

  9. A pilot study of transdiagnostic group cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in a veteran sample.

    PubMed

    Espejo, Emmanuel P; Castriotta, Natalie; Bessonov, Daniel; Kawamura, Mari; Werdowatz, Emily A; Ayers, Catherine R

    2016-05-01

    High rates of anxiety disorders at Veteran Affairs (VA) health care centers necessitate increased availability of evidence-based treatments for all anxiety disorders. Group-based transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety can help to increase the availability of effective treatment for anxiety. The current study examined group-based transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety when implemented in a VA outpatient mental health clinic. Over a 1-year period, 52 veterans with various anxiety disorders completed transdiagnostic group CBT for anxiety. Veterans completing the group treatment reported significant decreases in general distress, anxiety, depression, and individualized fear hierarchy ratings (ps < .01). Additionally, treatment completers reported high satisfaction with the treatment experience. The current study indicates that transdiagnostic group CBT for anxiety can be effectively implemented in a VA outpatient mental health clinic and holds promise for initiatives aimed at broadly increasing the availability of evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders in VA health care systems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26349072

  10. Management of Myofascial Pain of Upper Trapezius: A Three Group Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Priya

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laserand Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. Results: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. Weconclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology. PMID:22980377

  11. Learning science through talk: A case study of middle school students engaged in collaborative group investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinicola, Debra Ann

    Reformers call for change in how science is taught in schools by shifting the focus towards conceptual understanding for all students. Constructivist learning is being promoted through the dissemination of National and State Science Standards that recommend group learning practices in science classrooms. This study examined the science learning and interactions, using case study methodology, of one collaborative group of 4 students in an urban middle school. Data on science talk and social interaction were collected over 9 weeks through 12 science problem solving sessions. To determine student learning through peer interaction, varied group structures were implemented, and students reflected on the group learning experience. Data included: field notes, cognitive and reflective journals, audiotapes and videotapes of student talk, and audiotapes of group interviews. Journal data were analyzed quantitatively and all other data was transcribed into The Ethnograph database for qualitative analysis. The data record was organized into social and cognitive domains and coded with respect to interaction patterns to show how group members experienced the social construction of science concepts. The most significant finding was that all students learned as a result of 12 talk sessions as evidenced by pre- and post-conceptual change scores. Interactions that promoted learning involved students connecting their thoughts, rephrasing, and challenging ideas. The role structure was only used by students about 15% of the time, but it started the talk with a science focus, created awareness of scientific methods, and created an awareness of equitable member participation. Students offered more spontaneous, explanatory talk when the role structure was relaxed, but did not engage in as much scientific writing. They said the role structure was important for helping them know what to do in the talk but they no longer needed it after a time. Gender bias, status, and early adolescent

  12. USE OF DISCUSSION GROUPS TO INVESTIGATE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Discussion Groups to Investigate Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health
    DT Lobdell*, S Gutter+, P Mendola* (*US EPA, NHEERL; +UNC Chapel Hill)

    Much of what is known about successful recruitment and retention o...

  13. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  14. Profiles of Constituent Groups: Indicators of Effectiveness of Schools of Library and Information Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Boone, Rebecca; Weingand, Darlene E.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on indicators of effectiveness of schools of library and information studies derived from surveying and profiling four American Library Association (ALA) constituent groups: ALA's Committee on Accreditation, senior academic administrators, alumni and alumnae, and employers. The methodology and results are discussed, and a table of…

  15. Talking through the Problems: A Study of Discourse in Peer-Led Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repice, Michelle D.; Sawyer, R. Keith; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Brown, Patrick L.; Luesse, Sarah B.; Gealy, Daniel J.; Frey, Regina F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, studies are investigating the factors that influence student discourse in science courses, and specifically the mechanisms and discourse processes within small groups, to better understand the learning that takes place as students work together. This paper contributes to a growing body of research by analyzing how students engage in…

  16. Gesture and Naming Therapy for People with Severe Aphasia: A Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane; Best, Wendy; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Pring, Tim; Bulcock, Gemma; Creek, Gemma; Eales, Nancy; Mummery, Alice Lockhart; Matthews, Niina; Caute, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors (a) investigated whether a group of people with severe aphasia could learn a vocabulary of pantomime gestures through therapy and (b) compared their learning of gestures with their learning of words. The authors also examined whether gesture therapy cued word production and whether naming therapy cued gestures.…

  17. Questionnaire Design in Broad-Based Evaluation Studies: Letting Someone Else Collect Comparison Group Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    A context in which existing items may provide a convenient source of questions for questionnaires was explored through a case study making use of existing comparison groups. Two programs at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), the Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) and the Laboratory Graduate Research Participation (Lab Grad)…

  18. Collaborative Learning in Online Study Groups: An Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiong, Raymond; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Educational benefits of online collaborative group work have been confirmed in numerous research studies. Most frequently cited advantages include the development of skills of critical thinking and problem solving as well as skills of self-reflection and co-construction of knowledge and meaning. However, the establishment and maintenance of active…

  19. Using a Hypertext Environment for Teaching Process Writing: An Evaluation Study of Three Student Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Linda; And Others

    A comprehensive evaluation of a hypertext model for teaching process writing at the junior high and high school level was conducted over an 8-week period. The purpose of the study was to determine how two teachers and three different age groups of students used and reacted to the model, specifically, its embedded design features of model stories,…

  20. Whole-Faculty Study Groups: Creating Professional Learning Communities That Target Student Learning. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carlene U.; Lick, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    Used by hundreds of schools and school districts across the country, the Whole-Faculty Study Group (WFSG) System is a student-driven, holistic process for facilitating major staff development and schoolwide change. While providing a step-by-step methodology for the development and implementation of successful WFSGs, this newest edition of Murphy…

  1. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  2. A Study of Social Identity in Two Ethnic Groups in India and Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, E. S. K.; Huq, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports two studies which examined the social identity of Hindu and Muslim subjects under three frames of reference: self, own group, and outgroup evaluations cross-nationally. Findings are examined in relation to the interplay of specific socio-contextual experiences in the differential pattern of social identity processes. (SED)

  3. A Classroom-Based Study of Small-Group Planned Improvisation with Fifth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe children's music improvisations and the interactions that transpired within their four-person groups during regular weekly music classes as they planned and performed music improvisations in response to three different prompts: a poem, a painting, and a musical composition. Participants were…

  4. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  5. Career Repertoires of IT Students: A Group Counselling Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Leena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty about future career prospects has increased enormously for students enrolled in higher education Information Technology (IT) programs. However, many computer science programmes pay little attention to career counselling. This article reports the results of a pilot study intended to develop group counselling for IT students to promote…

  6. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  7. A Self-Study Investigation of Using Inquiry Groups in a Professional Development School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garin, Eva; Harper, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry Group participation for PDS teachers and teacher candidates is one of the signature programs of the Bowie State University PDS Network and provides PDS teachers and teacher candidates the opportunity to collaborate on teaching strategies and methodologies to use in their classrooms. This article uses self-study methodology to explore the…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Mood Management in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghafoori, Bita; Ratanasiripong, Paul; Holladay, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often display mental health symptoms that may benefit from psychotherapy. In this pilot study, a newly designed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group treatment targeting mood difficulties was provided to 8 adults with mild-borderline ID. Assessment occurred at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 4…

  9. Whole-Faculty Study Groups: Creating Student-Based Professional Development. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carlene U.; Lick, Dale W.

    This book discusses the most current knowledge on whole- faculty study groups (WFSGs). Nine chapters examine: (1) "Introduction" (how WFSGs began and spread); (2) "Enabling Professional Development and Schoolwide Change" (guiding principles and questions); (3) "Key Components: Context, Process, and Content"; (4) "Context: Clarifying Roles,…

  10. Preliminary Study of Resilience-Based Group Therapy for Improving the Functioning of Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Candice C.; Rich, Brendan A.; Sanchez, Lisa; O'Brien, Kelly; Alvord, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of research examining the feasibility of group psychotherapy interventions for anxious children in private clinical service settings. Furthermore, no research to date has examined the effectiveness of resilience-based interventions for helping children with anxiety disorders. Objective: The present study aims to examine…

  11. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  13. Benefits and Barriers: Case Study of a Government Technology-Mediated Group Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Brigitte; Cheng, Kwan Fan; Gorley, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to describe the design of a provincial government ministry group mentoring program and examine mentees' and mentors' experiences in the program. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 151 mentees rated their satisfaction in a post-program survey. The survey was followed by in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10…

  14. The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  15. A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Parents Attending a Psychoanalytically Informed Parent-Toddler Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Maria; Kitson, Annabel; Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the experience of seven parents attending a psychoanalytically informed parent-toddler group. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with each parent, and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of the interviews led us to three "superordinate themes", each…

  16. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  17. Self-Esteem Changes in the Middle School Years: A Study of Ethnic and Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…

  18. National facilities study. Volume 2: Task group on aeronautical research and development facilities report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Task Group on Aeronautics R&D Facilities examined the status and requirements for aeronautics facilities against the competitive need. Emphasis was placed on ground-based facilities for subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, and propulsion. Subsonic and transonic wind tunnels were judged to be most critical and of highest priority. Results of the study are presented.

  19. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  20. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  1. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  2. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  3. Facilitator--and Self-Directed Groups: A Statement-by-Statement Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyne, Robert K.; Rapin, Lynn S.

    1977-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of facilitator-directed and self-directed personal growth group treatments toward inducing therapeutic verbal interaction. An interaction process analysis approach, the Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM) statement-by-statement system, was used to examine treatment differences. (Author)

  4. A Window into Learning: Case Studies of Online Group Communication and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard E. J.; Cooke, Louise

    2006-01-01

    The two case studies presented explore the potential offered by in-depth qualitative analysis of students' online discussion to enhance our understanding of how students learn. Both cases are used to illustrate how the monitoring and moderation of online student group communication can open up a "window into learning", providing us with new…

  5. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  6. Segregated Groups or Inclusive Education? An Interview Study with Students Experiencing Failure in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this study a group of students with reading and writing difficulties relate their experiences of school to their expressed opinions concerning the possibilities of participation and influence in this setting. Twelve students at upper-level compulsory school or upper secondary school were interviewed. Mostly their reading and writing…

  7. A Study of Some Effects of Early Change Agent Behavior on a Group Client System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Douglas Wylie

    A study was conducted to explore some of the relationships existing between the early behavior of a change agent with a group client system and its subsequent effects on the helping relationship established between them. A review of related literature was made. The model of helping relationship which formed the basis for the design of the study…

  8. Considering Community Literacies in the Secondary Classroom: A Collaborative Teacher and Researcher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Paula M.; Reynolds, Rema E.

    2013-01-01

    A year long study group brought teachers and researchers working in urban contexts in US public schools together to examine literacy practices incorporating students' community literacies into schooled tasks. The goal was to provide teacher development in making connections across their students' community literacies and the academic…

  9. Using the Facebook Group as a Learning Management System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit; Quek, Choon Lang; Yang, Yuqin; Liu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social networking site. It, like many other new technologies, has potential for teaching and learning because of its unique built-in functions that offer pedagogical, social and technological affordances. In this study, the Facebook group was used as a learning management system (LMS) in two courses for putting up…

  10. A Case Study of Markdale High School's Implementation of Heterogeneously-Grouped Classes in English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006)…

  11. Writer's Workshop: Implementing Units of Study, Findings from a Teacher Study Group, and Student Success in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Sandra Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Background: An elementary teacher study group supports each other in a year-long journey as they learn how to work through writer's workshop curriculum in order to implement Units of Study by Lucy Calkins at a K-6 school. Time spent in writing instruction has been largely neglected, and a teacher-researcher wants to document the support found from…

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor in oliguric acute renal failure. Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J; Salem, M M; Chertow, G M; Weisberg, L S; McGrew, F; Marbury, T C; Allgren, R L

    2000-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an endogenous hormone synthesized by the cardiac atria, has been shown to improve renal function in multiple animal models of acute renal failure. In a recent multicenter clinical trial of 504 patients with acute tubular necrosis (oliguric and nonoliguric), ANP decreased the need for dialysis only in the oliguric patients. In the present study, 222 patients with oliguric acute renal failure were enrolled into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to assess prospectively the safety and efficacy of ANP compared with placebo. Subjects were randomized to treatment with a 24-hour infusion of ANP (anaritide, 0.2 microgram/kg/min; synthetic form of human ANP) or placebo. Dialysis and mortality status were followed up for 60 days. The primary efficacy end point was dialysis-free survival through day 21. Dialysis-free survival rates were 21% in the ANP group and 15% in the placebo group (P = 0.22). By day 14 of the study, 64% and 77% of the ANP and placebo groups had undergone dialysis, respectively (P = 0.054), and 9 additional patients (7 patients, ANP group; 2 patients, placebo group) needed dialysis but did not receive it. Although a trend was present, there was no statistically significant beneficial effect of ANP in dialysis-free survival or reduction in dialysis in these subjects with oliguric acute renal failure. Mortality rates through day 60 were 60% versus 56% in the ANP and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.541). One hundred two of 108 (95%) versus 63 of 114 (55%) patients in the ANP and placebo groups had systolic blood pressures less than 90 mm Hg during the study-drug infusion (P < 0.001). The maximal absolute decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the anaritide group than placebo group (33.6 versus 23.9 mm Hg; P < 0.001). This well-characterized population with oliguric acute renal failure had an overall high morbidity and mortality. PMID:11007679

  13. Chemistry concepts and group cognitive structure: A study of undergraduate nursing students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Janice M.

    1990-01-01

    The long term aim of this study is to document changes in the nature and level of conceptual understanding revealed by a cohort of undergraduate nursing students. The outcome of such a study may be used in future review and redesign processes by curriculum planners. Conceptual understanding of physiology and pharmacology, areas which are central to nursing studies depends, in turn, on an understanding of certain chemical concepts. This paper describes the group cognitive structure of 60 first year preservice nursing students, with respect to 21 basic chemistry concepts. Group cognitive structure is represented by non-metric multidimensional scaling of data obtained from individual concept maps prepared by students. The impact of prior studies in chemistry on the level of understanding revealed is discussed.

  14. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Puterbaugh, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests. PMID:27429800

  15. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  16. [Treatment outcome for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) obtained by the Polish Children's Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Chybicka, A; Kołecki, P; Pietras, W; Bogusławska-Jaworska, J; Wójcik, D; Armata, J; Eliasińska, A; Kowalczyk, J; Jackowska, T; Klus, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Stefańska, K; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Wiśniewska-Slusarz, H

    1998-02-01

    Fourty children with MDS treated in seven centres of The Polish Children's Leukemia Lymphoma Study Group in period 1975-1998y were included to the study. In 16 children RAEB-T, in 2 CMML in 10 RA and in 12 RAEB were diagnosed. Our and literature data showed that BMT is the best therapy for children with MDS. For children, who don't have a donor for BMT. Roacutan therapy seems to be the most effective. PMID:9686518

  17. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Diane L.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P.; Way, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact

  18. Yusho and its latest findings-A review in studies conducted by the Yusho Group.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Yamada, Hideyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Imamura, Tomoaki; Utani, Atsushi; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-09-01

    The Yusho incident is an unprecedented mass food poisoning that occurred in Japan in 1968. It was caused by the ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The victims of Yusho have suffered from characteristic skin manifestations associated with systemic, ophthalmological, and mucosal symptoms for a long period of time. The Study Group of Yusho (the Yusho Group) has been conducting annual medical check-ups on Yusho victims for more than 45years. Since 2002, when concentrations of dioxins in the blood of Yusho patients started to be measured, the pharmacokinetics of dioxins, relationship between blood levels of dioxins and symptoms/signs in patients directly exposed to dioxins, and the adverse effects on the next generation have become dramatically clear. Herein we review recent findings of studies conducted by the Yusho Group to evaluate chronic dioxin-induced toxicity to the next generation as well as Yusho patients in comparison with a similar food mass poisoning, the Yucheng incident. Additionally, we summarized basic studies carried out by the Yusho Group to re-evaluate the mechanisms of dioxin toxicities in experimental models and various functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), known as the dioxin receptor, pathway. PMID:26010306

  19. Theoretical study of vibrational energy transfer of free OH groups at the water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Renhui; Wei, Wenmei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the vibrational dynamics of free OH groups at the water-air interface is significantly different from that in bulk water. In this work, by performing molecular dynamics simulations and mixed quantum/classical calculations, we investigate different vibrational energy transfer pathways of free OH groups at the water-air interface. The calculated intramolecular vibrational energy transfer rate constant and the free OH bond reorientation time scale agree well with the experiment. It is also found that, due to the small intermolecular vibrational couplings, the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer pathway that is very important in bulk water plays a much less significant role in the vibrational energy relaxation of the free OH groups at the water-air interface.

  20. Theoretical study of vibrational energy transfer of free OH groups at the water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Renhui; Wei, Wenmei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang

    2016-04-14

    Recent experimental studies have shown that the vibrational dynamics of free OH groups at the water-air interface is significantly different from that in bulk water. In this work, by performing molecular dynamics simulations and mixed quantum/classical calculations, we investigate different vibrational energy transfer pathways of free OH groups at the water-air interface. The calculated intramolecular vibrational energy transfer rate constant and the free OH bond reorientation time scale agree well with the experiment. It is also found that, due to the small intermolecular vibrational couplings, the intermolecular vibrational energy transfer pathway that is very important in bulk water plays a much less significant role in the vibrational energy relaxation of the free OH groups at the water-air interface. PMID:27083739

  1. XMM study of the interplay between the intra-group medium and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Current models of galaxy evolution rely critically on AGN and SN feedback processes. However, these ideas have not been fully tested, particularly in the intra-group medium (IGM), the environment most commonly experienced by galaxies. For this purpose we propose to use XMM-Newton to study the thermodynamic properties of the IGM (via its diffuse X-ray emission), which retains a fossil record of the energy released by past star formation and AGN activity, for an unbiased sample of 23 groups with fully determined galaxy population and AGN properties. The 23 target groups are selected from our Zurich ENvironmental Survey, for which we have optical spectroscopic, photometric and morphological information as well as HI mass content.

  2. AGN Feedback in Galaxy Groups: A Joint GMRT/X-ray Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; Vrtilek, J. M.; O'Sullivan, E.; Raychaudhury, S.; David, L. P.; Venturi, T.; Athreya, R.; Gitti, M.

    2009-12-01

    We present an ongoing study of 18 nearby galaxy groups, chosen for the availability of Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and evidence for AGN/hot intragroup gas interaction. We have obtained 235 and 610 MHz observations at the GMRT for all the groups, and 327 and 150 MHz for a few. We discuss two interesting cases-NGC 5044 and AWM 4-which exhibit different kinds of AGN/hot gas interaction. With the help of these examples we show how joining low-frequency radio data (to track the history of AGN outbursts through emission from aged electron populations) with X-ray data (to determine the state of hot gas, its disturbances, heating and cooling) can provide a unique insight into the nature of the feedback mechanism in galaxy groups.

  3. A Randomized Parallel-Group Dietary Study for Stage II–IV Ovarian Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Garcia-Prieto, Celia; Berglund, Maria; Hernandez, Mike; Hejek, Richard A.; Handy, Beverly; Brown, Jubilee; Jones, Lovell A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the dietary habits of ovarian cancer survivors. Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the feasibility and impact of two dietary interventions for ovarian cancer survivors. Methods In this randomized, parallel-group study, 51 women (mean age, 53 years) diagnosed with stage II–IV ovarian cancer were recruited and randomly assigned to a low fat, high fiber (LFHF) diet or a modified National Cancer Institute diet supplemented with a soy-based beverage and encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrates (FVJCs). Changes in clinical measures, serum carotenoid and tocopherol levels, dietary intake, anthropometry, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were assessed with paired t-tests. Results The recruitment rate was 25%, and the retention rate was 75% at 6 months. At baseline, 28% and 45% of women met guidelines for intake of fiber and of fruits and vegetables, respectively. After 6 months, total serum carotenoid levels and α- and β-carotene concentrations were significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.01); however, β-carotene concentrations were increased more in the FVJC group. Serum β-cryptoxanthin levels, fiber intake (+5.2 g/day), and daily servings of juice (+0.9 servings/day) and vegetables (+1.3 servings/day) were all significantly increased in the LFHF group (all P < 0.05). Serum levels of albumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, retinol, and retinyl palmitate were significantly increased in the FVJC group (all P < 0.05). No changes in cancer antigen-125, anthropometry, or HRQOL were observed. Conclusion Overall, this study supports the feasibility of designing dietary interventions for stage II–IV ovarian cancer survivors and provides preliminary evidence that a low fat high fiber diet and a diet supplemented with encapsulated FVJC may increase phytonutrients in ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:22119991

  4. A method for studying decision-making by guideline development groups

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benjamin; Davidson, Rosemary; McAteer, John; Michie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary guideline development groups (GDGs) have considerable influence on UK healthcare policy and practice, but previous research suggests that research evidence is a variable influence on GDG recommendations. The Evidence into Recommendations (EiR) study has been set up to document social-psychological influences on GDG decision-making. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relevance of existing qualitative methodologies to the EiR study, and to develop a method best-suited to capturing influences on GDG decision-making. Methods A research team comprised of three postdoctoral research fellows and a multidisciplinary steering group assessed the utility of extant qualitative methodologies for coding verbatim GDG meeting transcripts and semi-structured interviews with GDG members. A unique configuration of techniques was developed to permit data reduction and analysis. Results Our method incorporates techniques from thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, content analysis, and framework analysis. Thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted with group members at the start and end of the GDG process defines discrete problem areas to guide data extraction from GDG meeting transcripts. Data excerpts are coded both inductively and deductively, using concepts taken from theories of decision-making, social influence and group processes. These codes inform a framework analysis to describe and explain incidents within GDG meetings. We illustrate the application of the method by discussing some preliminary findings of a study of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) acute physical health GDG. Conclusion This method is currently being applied to study the meetings of three of NICE GDGs. These cover topics in acute physical health, mental health and public health, and comprise a total of 45 full-day meetings. The method offers potential for application to other health care and decision-making groups. PMID:19656366

  5. Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: an empirical study of the searching CIT.

    PubMed

    Breska, Assaf; Zaidenberg, Daphna; Gronau, Nurit; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) to situations in which the crime-related information is shared by a group of suspects but is not available to the investigators (a method known as the "searching CIT," or SCIT). Twenty-two groups, each comprising 4 to 7 participants (115 in total), planned 1 of 2 mock crimes (kidnapping or bank robbery). While planning the crime, each group decided on 5 crime-related critical items (e.g., the city in which the bank was located). Each critical item was chosen from a predefined set of 4 alternatives. At a second stage, the SCIT was administered individually and each participant was tested on the 2 crimes-the actual planned crime, in which the participant was "guilty," and the unplanned crime, in which the participant was "innocent." Two algorithms, adopted from Breska, Ben-Shakhar, and Gronau (2012), were applied to detect the critical items and to differentiate between "guilty" and "innocent" participants. Findings revealed that differentiation efficiency based on electrodermal and respiration measures was identical to that obtained with the standard CIT when applied to large groups, but lower, although significantly greater than chance, when applied to differentiate between small groups. PMID:24564513

  6. Systems Approach to Studying Animal Sociality: Individual Position versus Group Organization in Dynamic Social Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  7. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  8. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  9. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  10. Implementation and Benefits of Psychooncological Group Interventions in German Breast Centers: A Pilot Study on Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women with Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Katrin; Scholl, Isabelle; Sillem, Martin; Hasenburg, Annette; Härter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Psychosocial treatment is an integral component in today's comprehensive breast cancer care. The main goal of this study was to test the feasibility (benefits and acceptance) of supportive-expressive group psychotherapy (SEGT), a short-term breast cancer-specific group therapy developed and tested in Anglo-American countries, within breast centers in Germany. Patients and Methods The study was realized as a single-group pre-post design. Data were analyzed by combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sample consisted of 49 women with breast cancer stage 1 or 2 according to TNM classification (tumor, node, metastasis). Results The results indicate positive acceptance of the group intervention. Quality of life, tumor-related fatigue and coping strategies improved after SEGT. 1 year after the intervention, the patients report lasting positive results from the group intervention. Conclusions This pilot study illustrates the importance of psychooncological group interventions for breast cancer patients and indicates that this form of outpatient psychooncological care is feasible within the German health care system, and breast centers in particular. Effectiveness has to be investigated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:20847820

  11. Proceedings of the 1982 Annual Meeting. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, June 3-7, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Dale R., Ed.

    Papers from the 1982 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group are organized similarly to the meeting, presenting materials from the lectures, working groups, topic groups and panel groups. One lecture, by Davis, discussed a philosophy of computation in relation to computing. Vergnaud lectured on cognitive and developmental…

  12. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n = 60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory. PMID:24341406

  13. Study Orientations as Indicators of Ideologies. A Study of Five Student Teacher Groups. Research Report 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puurula, Arja

    The official recommendations of teacher education in Finland stress the personality growth of student teachers towards an active, highly educated, socially oriented, and humanistic personality. This is a study of three kinds of prospective teachers: nursery school teachers, elementary teachers, and subject teachers. The student teachers of the…

  14. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  15. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  16. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  17. Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, H; Berrios, G; London, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the dysexecutive syndrome (DES) hypothesis of chronic alcoholism by the neuropsychological group and case study approaches.
METHODS—A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including the "behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome", a battery of tests recently designed to be "ecologically valid", was administered to 17 patients with chronic alcoholism without amnesia to examine executive functions, intelligence, and memory. In terms of each neuropsychological measure, reciprocal analyses of group means and individual case profiles were conducted: for the first contrasting the alcoholic patients with 17 age matched healthy subjects; and for the second making intersubject and intrasubject comparison of the patients, according to percentile basis impairment indices obtained from the control subjects.
RESULTS—Despite relatively unimpaired memory and intelligence, the patients as a whole had the impairment of a wide range of executive domains, extending to "everyday" problem solving as well as more elementary aspects of executive functions, such as visuospatial performance, mental set shifting, and the inhibition of habitual behaviour. The profile analysis divided individual patients into four groups: the representative DES characterised by a clear dissociation between impaired executive functions and preserved intelligence and memory; the group of a modified dysexecutive pattern in which memory as well as executive functions were impaired with intelligence preserved; the group of general cognitive deterioration; and the group of unimpaired cognitive functioning. About two thirds of the patients were categorised into either the first or the second type of DES.
CONCLUSION—DES characterised by the even more pronounced impairment of executive functions than of intelligence and memory afflicts a considerable proportion of patients with chronic alcoholism. Due to its subtlety, this would be potentially left out, unless appropriate

  18. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  19. A Brief History of the Study of Nearby Young Moving Groups and Their Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning with the enigmatic (and now emblematic) TW Hya, the scutiny of individual stars and star-disk systems has both motivated and benefitted from the identification of nearby young moving groups (NYMGs). I briefly outline the emergence of this relatively new subfield of astronomy over the past two decades, and offer a few examples illustrating how the study of NYMGs and their members enables unique investigations of pre-main sequence stellar evolution, evolved protoplanetary disks, and young exoplanets.

  20. The Role of Walkers’ Needs and Expectations in Supporting Maintenance of Attendance at Walking Groups: A Longitudinal Multi-Perspective Study of Walkers and Walk Group Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Kassavou, Aikaterini; Turner, Andrew; French, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is good evidence that when people’s needs and expectations regarding behaviour change are met, they are satisfied with that change, and maintain those changes. Despite this, there is a dearth of research on needs and expectations of walkers when initially attending walking groups and whether and how these needs and expectations have been satisfied after a period of attendance. Equally, there is an absence of research on how people who lead these groups understand walkers’ needs and walk leaders’ actions to address them. The present study was aimed at addressing both of these gaps in the research. Methods Two preliminary thematic analyses were conducted on face-to-face interviews with (a) eight walkers when they joined walking groups, five of whom were interviewed three months later, and (b) eight walk leaders. A multi-perspective analysis building upon these preliminary analyses identified similarities and differences within the themes that emerged from the interviews with walkers and walk leaders. Results Walkers indicated that their main needs and expectations when joining walking groups were achieving long-term social and health benefits. At the follow up interviews, walkers indicated that satisfaction with meeting similar others within the groups was the main reason for continued attendance. Their main source of dissatisfaction was not feeling integrated in the existing walking groups. Walk leaders often acknowledged the same reasons for walkers joining and maintaining attendance at walking. However, they tended to attribute dissatisfaction and drop out to uncontrollable environmental factors and/or walkers’ personalities. Walk leaders reported a lack of efficacy to effectively address walkers’ needs. Conclusions Interventions to increase retention of walkers should train walk leaders with the skills to help them modify the underlying psychological factors affecting walkers’ maintenance at walking groups. This should result in

  1. Using archetypes to create user panels for usability studies: Streamlining focus groups and user studies.

    PubMed

    Stavrakos, S-K; Ahmed-Kristensen, S; Goldman, T

    2016-09-01

    Designers at the conceptual phase of products such as headphones, stress the importance of comfort, e.g. executing comfort studies and the need for a reliable user panel. This paper proposes a methodology to issue a reliable user panel to represent large populations and validates the proposed framework to predict comfort factors, such as physical fit. Data of 200 heads was analyzed by forming clusters, 9 archetypal people were identified out of a 200 people's ear database. The archetypes were validated by comparing the archetypes' responses on physical fit against those of 20 participants interacting with 6 headsets. This paper suggests a new method of selecting representative user samples for prototype testing compared to costly and time consuming methods which relied on the analysis of human geometry of large populations. PMID:27184318

  2. Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: a prospective control group study

    PubMed Central

    Binzer, M.; Andersen, P.; Kullgren, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous studies have suggested associations between conversion and many different clinical characteristics. This study investigates these findings in a prospective design including a control group.
METHODS—Thirty consecutive patients with a recent onset of motor disability due to a conversion disorder were compared with a control group of patients with corresponding motor symptoms due to a definite organic lesion. Both groups had a similar duration of symptoms and a comparable age and sex profile and were assessed on a prospective basis. Background information about previous somatic and psychiatric disease was collected and all patients were assessed by means of a structured clinical interview linked to the diagnostic system DSM III-R, the Hamilton rating depression scale, and a special life events inventory.
RESULTS—The conversion group had a higher degree of psychopathology with 33% of the patients fulfilling the criteria for psychiatric syndromes according to DSM-III-R axis I, whereas 50% had axis II personality disorders compared with 10% and 17% respectively in the control group. Conversion patients also had significantly higher scores according to the Hamilton rating depression scale. Although patients with known neurological disease were not included in the conversion group, a concomitant somatic disorder was found in 33% of the patients and 50% complained of benign pain. The educational background in conversion patients was poor with only 13% having dropped out of high school compared with 67% in the control group. Self reported global assessment of functioning according to the axis V on DSM IV was significantly lower in conversion patients, who also registered significantly more negative life events before the onset of symptoms than controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that low education, presence of a personality disorder, and high Hamilton depression score were significantly associated with conversion disorder

  3. Microwave Study of a Hydrogen-Transfer Methyl-Group Internal Rotation in 5-METHYLTROPOLONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Vadim V.; Cloessner, Emily A.; Chou, Yung-Ching; Picraux, Laura B.; Hougen, Jon T.; Lavrich, Richard

    2010-06-01

    We present here the first experimental and theoretical study of the microwave spectrum of 5-methyltropolone, which can be visualized as a 7-membered "aromatic" carbon ring with a five-membered hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure at the top and a methyl group at the bottom. The molecule exhibits two large-amplitude motions, an intramolecular hydrogen transfer and a methyl torsion. The former motion is particularly interesting because transfer of the hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl to the carbonyl group induces a tautomerization in the molecule, which then triggers a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group. Measurements were carried out by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 8 to 24 GHz frequency range. Theoretical analysis was carried out using a tunneling-rotational Hamiltonian based on a G12^m extended-group-theory formalism. Our global fit of 1015 transitions to 20 molecular parameters gave a root-mean-square deviation of 1.5 kHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J = 0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure hydrogen transfer motion is calculated to be 1310 MHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J = 0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure methyl-top internal rotation motion is calculated to be 885 MHz. Some theoretical difficulties in interpreting the low-order tunneling parameters in this and the related molecule 2-methylmalonaldehyde will be discussed.

  4. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.; English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  5. Occupational differences in work engagement: A longitudinal study among eight occupational groups in Norway.

    PubMed

    Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore occupational differences in the experience of engagement both with regard to differences in the level of work engagement as well as in the predicting value of different antecedent variables. Multigroup latent mean analysis was performed on eight different occupational groups in Norway (lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers, and people working in advertising and information technology; N = 3,475). Tests for factorial invariance supported the use of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory scale across occupational groups and that the latent means were comparable across the groups. Results indicated significant occupational differences in the experience of vigor and dedication. The lawyers reported the most vigor and the church ministers the most dedication. Least vigor was reported among the teachers and the advertising group reported to be least dedicated. Cross-lagged multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis suggested there are different processes behind the development of engagement across occupations. Visualization of how some occupations cluster or differ from each other is important as it might engender theory building and further hypotheses testing. PMID:27263496

  6. Study of general practice consultations and menopausal problems. Oxford General Practitioners Menopause Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, D H; Brockie, J A; Rees, C M

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the nature of work related to the menopause in general practice. DESIGN--Questionnaire study over six months among general practitioners after each consultation with a woman aged 40-69 at which issues related to the climacteric had been discussed. SETTING--9 General practices in the Oxford area. SUBJECTS--416 Women who had 572 consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age, menopausal state, and first or subsequent consultation. Symptoms were classified together with the treatment and the outcome of the consultation. RESULTS--The consultation rate varied greatly between practices, the overall rate being 4.4%. There were many premenopausal women and women in their 60s presenting; women with hysterectomies presented more often--36% (37/103) of women with hysterectomies had more than one consultation compared with 26% (38/144) for premenopausal women and 24% (38/155) for postmenopausal women. 409 women had symptoms and 218 were prescribed oestrogen treatment. 156 of the consultations involved discussion and advice only. Only four women were referred to a local specialist clinic. CONCLUSION--There is a low overall use of hormone replacement therapy in the general postmenopausal population despite the recent media coverage of its benefits in the prevention of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. PMID:1998795

  7. Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: a retrospective intergroup study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Jasmijn D E; Masetti, Riccardo; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Trka, Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rasche, Mareike; Sonneveld, Edwin; Alonzo, Todd A; Fornerod, Maarten; Zimmermann, Martin; Pigazzi, Martina; Pieters, Rob; Meshinchi, Soheil; Zwaan, C Michel; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-06-30

    Genetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar frequencies as RBM15/MKL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements. We studied whether these cytogenetic aberrations can be used for risk group stratification. To assess frequencies and outcome parameters of recurrent cytogenetic aberrations in AMKL, samples and clinical data of patients treated by the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Study Group, Children's Oncology Group, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, and the Saint Louis Hôpital were collected, enabling us to screen 153 newly diagnosed pediatric AMKL cases for the aforementioned aberrations and to study their clinical characteristics and outcome. CBFA2T3/GLIS2 was identified in 16% of the cases; RBM15/MKL1, in 12%; NUP98/KDM5A and KMT2A rearrangements, in 9% each; and monosomy 7, in 6%. These aberrations were mutually exclusive. RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients were significantly younger. No significant differences in sex and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/KDM5A, CBFA2T3/GLIS2, KMT2A-rearranged lesions and monosomy 7 (NCK-7) independently predicted a poor outcome, compared with RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients and those with AMKL not carrying these molecular lesions. NCK-7-patients (n = 61) showed a 4-year probability of overall survival of 35 ± 6% vs 70 ± 5% in the RBM15/MKL1-other groups (n = 92, P < .0001) and 4-year probability of event-free survival of 33 ± 6% vs 62 ± 5% (P = .0013), the 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse being 42 ± 7% and 19 ± 4% (P = .003), respectively. We conclude that these genetic aberrations may be used for risk group stratification of pediatric AMKL and for treatment tailoring. PMID:27114462

  8. Behaviour of NBD-head group labelled phosphatidylethanolamines in POPC bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Hugo A L; Santos, Lennon S; Prates Ramalho, J P; Moreno, Maria João; Loura, Luís M S

    2015-08-21

    A complete homologous series of fluorescent phosphatidylethanolamines (diCnPE), labelled at the head group with a 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazo-4-yl(NBD) fluorophore and inserted in 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayers, was studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The longer-chained derivatives of NBD-diCnPE, with n = 14, 16, and 18, are commercially available, and widely used as fluorescent membrane probes. Properties such as location of atomic groups and acyl chain order parameters of both POPC and NBD-diCnPE, fluorophore orientation and hydrogen bonding, membrane electrostatic potential and lateral diffusion were calculated for all derivatives in the series. Most of these probes induce local disordering of POPC acyl chains, which is on the whole counterbalanced by ordering resulting from binding of sodium ions to lipid carbonyl/glycerol oxygen atoms. An exception is found for NBD-diC16PE, which displays optimal matching with POPC acyl chain length and induces a slight local ordering of phospholipid acyl chains. Compared to previously studied fatty amines, acyl chain-labelled phosphatidylcholines, and sterols bearing the same fluorescent tag, the chromophore in NBD-diCnPE locates in a similar region of the membrane (near the glycerol backbone/carbonyl region) but adopts a different orientation (with the NO2 group facing the interior of the bilayer). This modification leads to an inverted orientation of the P-N axis in the labelled lipid, which affects the interface properties, such as the membrane electrostatic potential and hydrogen bonding to lipid head group atoms. The implications of this study for the interpretation of the photophysical properties of NBD-diCnPE (complex fluorescence emission kinetics, differences with other NBD lipid probes) are discussed. PMID:26063509

  9. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies with meropenem in the pediatric field. Pediatric Study Group of Meropenem].

    PubMed

    Fujii, R; Yoshioka, H; Fujita, K; Maruyama, S; Sakata, H; Inyaku, F; Chiba, S; Tsutsumi, H; Wagatsuma, Y; Fukushima, N

    1992-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic and clinical evaluations in pediatrics were made on meropenem (SM-7338, MEPM), a new parenteral dehydropeptidase-1 stable carbapenem used without any inhibitors, at 33 medical institutions. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Pharmacokinetic studies. MEPM at a dose of 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg was administered to 53 children by 30-minute drip infusion. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax's) and plasma half-lives (T1/2's) of these doses were 28.5, 47.2 and 130.0 micrograms/ml, and 0.80, 0.93 and 0.94 hours, respectively. A clear dose response was observed in Cmax's and T1/2 values were quite similar to those observed in adults. In the first 6 hours after administration, 54.4 to 68.1% of the administered drug was recovered in urine. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of MEPM in patients with purulent meningitis were 0.13 microgram/ml at a dose of 6 mg/kg, and 0.64 to 4.22 micrograms/ml at a dose of 29 to 44 mg/kg within day 4 of onset. The penetration rate of MEPM showed an intermediate value among those for other cephalosporin antibiotics. 2. Clinical study. Clinical efficacies of MEPM were evaluated in 389 cases. The most common doses used were 10 to 20 mg/kg/once, 2 to 3 times a day. The maximum dose was 173 mg/kg/day q.i.d. MEPM gave "excellent" or "good" responses in 242 (97.6%) out of 248 cases in which causative organisms were documented and in 134 (95.0%) out of 141 cases in which causative organisms were not identified. Clinical efficacy rates were 100% in 11 patients with purulent meningitis, 85.7% in 7 with septicemia, 98.8% in 173 with pneumonia, and 100% in 65 with UTI. Bacteriologically, 260 strains (96.7%) out of 269 strains were eradicated by MEPM treatment. Eradication rates were 89.2% for Staphylococcus aureus (37 strains) and 100% for Streptococcus pneumoniae (35 strains). The overall eradication rate for Gram-positive bacteria was 94.6%. Among Gram-negative bacteria, 98.3% out of 172 strains were eradicated. The eradication rate of

  10. Clinical and molecular study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae systemic infections in France. Coryne Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Patey, O; Bimet, F; Riegel, P; Halioua, B; Emond, J P; Estrangin, E; Dellion, S; Alonso, J M; Kiredjian, M; Dublanchet, A; Lafaix, C

    1997-01-01

    Diphtheria is a disease with a long history that almost completely disappeared from developed countries. In addition, until 1987, systemic infections involving Corynebacterium diphtheriae were rare. However, in 1990, an epidemic occurred in Russia. These two circumstances have provided the stimulus to gain insight into the situation in France. In fact, between 1987 and 1993, a total of 59 C. diphtheriae strains were isolated. Epidemiological data were collected for patients from whom 40 strains were isolated from normally sterile sites, including 34 from blood cultures, and half of the bacteremic patients developed endocarditis. Osteoarticular involvement was noted in 11 of these 40 patients, including 5 bacteremic patients. The fatality rate following bacteremia was 36%, despite specific antibiotic treatment (beta-lactams and aminoglycosides). The mean age of the participants was 38 years, with half of the patients subsisting under low socioeconomic conditions and suffering from homelessness or alcoholism. Apparently, the skin turned out to be the major route of transmission in this reemerging disease. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates belonged to the C. diphtheriae biotype mitis. These were found predominantly in the Paris area, and most were of the same ribotype. Those isolates originating from the overseas territories (Guyana and New Caledonia) belonged to C. diphtheriae biotype gravis. No strains were positive for the tox gene by PCR. This study attests to the persistent circulation in France of C. diphtheriae in the form of systemic infections. The matter is especially significant since these strains are nontoxigenic and are of a unique ribotype. The strains are, however, sensitive to most antibiotics, although 20% are rifampin resistant. PMID:9003612

  11. Health studies on a group of captive helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E; Max, R A; Mbassa, G K

    1996-03-01

    A small group of housed helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) was studied over a 6-week period. Blood samples were taken on three occasions and basic haematology was performed. Clinical examination of the birds revealed a number of abnormalities including bumblefoot, inflammatory lesions on the wings and body, impaction of the preen gland and traumatic injuries. Supporting laboratory tests provided further information on the aetiology and pathogenesis of some of these disorders. Four birds died during the study: postmortem findings included oviductitis and septicaemia, visceral gout and nephropathy. Virological investigations were not carried out. The importance, when keeping guineafowl, of good husbandry, including regular handling and examination, is stressed. PMID:18645844

  12. H I Studies of the Sculptor Group Galaxies. III - NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puche, Daniel; Carignan, Claude; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    1995-07-01

    A VLA HI map was made of NGC 55. In this study, there is a continuum map (ngc0055.con), an HI data cube (ngc0055.cub), and moment maps (ngc0055.m0 = total HI, ngc0055.m1 = velocity field, and ngc0055.m2 = second moment). These maps have been used in an extensive dynamical and kinematical study of the Sculptor Group galaxies. The images and related TeX file come from the NRAO CDROM "Images From the Radio Universe" (c. 1992 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, used with permission).

  13. Absence of adverse events in healthy individuals using probiotics - analysis of six randomised studies by one study group.

    PubMed

    Tapiovaara, L; Lehtoranta, L; Poussa, T; Mäkivuokko, H; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-03-11

    Consumption of live bacteria as probiotic supplements is increasing. There is, however, a lack of information on the safety of ingested probiotics. The main objective of this study was to investigate the adverse events (AEs) of specific probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) alone or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12, or Bifidobacterium breve 99) studied in six of our study groups' clinical trials, by analysing individual participant data. A secondary objective was to study AEs associated with the consumed probiotic species and mixtures in three specific categories; 'gastrointestinal disorders', 'respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders' and 'infections and infestations'. Six randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies by our study group were included in this AE analysis (study population n=1,909). All AE data were classified according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0. From the 26 CTCAE System Organ Classes, we identified AEs in 20 classes among 1,909 subjects. Probiotic ingestion did not result in statistically significant differences in AEs in different groups, when compared to placebo. A subgroup analysis of gastrointestinal, respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders, infections and infestations, found no differences between the intervention groups or for different probiotic combinations (risk ratio (RR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.02, P=0.30; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, P=0.35; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06, P=0.62, respectively). As a conclusion, ingestion of probiotic supplementations containing LGG alone, or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii JS, B. breve 99, or B. lactis BB12 did not seem to cause AEs in young and elderly subjects in this analysis. PMID:26689224

  14. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Sally A.; Samson, Rachel A.; Simpson, Susan G.; van Vreeswijk, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group schema therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioral, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at 6-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the Global Symptom Index (GSI). For the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up, 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants' psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing inhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the

  15. Do Simultaneously Viewed Objects Influence Scene Recognition Individually or as Groups? Two Perceptual Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Christopher R.; MacEvoy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to quickly categorize visual scenes is critical to daily life, allowing us to identify our whereabouts and to navigate from one place to another. Rapid scene categorization relies heavily on the kinds of objects scenes contain; for instance, studies have shown that recognition is less accurate for scenes to which incongruent objects have been added, an effect usually interpreted as evidence of objects' general capacity to activate semantic networks for scene categories they are statistically associated with. Essentially all real-world scenes contain multiple objects, however, and it is unclear whether scene recognition draws on the scene associations of individual objects or of object groups. To test the hypothesis that scene recognition is steered, at least in part, by associations between object groups and scene categories, we asked observers to categorize briefly-viewed scenes appearing with object pairs that were semantically consistent or inconsistent with the scenes. In line with previous results, scenes were less accurately recognized when viewed with inconsistent versus consistent pairs. To understand whether this reflected individual or group-level object associations, we compared the impact of pairs composed of mutually related versus unrelated objects; i.e., pairs, which, as groups, had clear associations to particular scene categories versus those that did not. Although related and unrelated object pairs equally reduced scene recognition accuracy, unrelated pairs were consistently less capable of drawing erroneous scene judgments towards scene categories associated with their individual objects. This suggests that scene judgments were influenced by the scene associations of object groups, beyond the influence of individual objects. More generally, the fact that unrelated objects were as capable of degrading categorization accuracy as related objects, while less capable of generating specific alternative judgments, indicates that the process

  16. Exploring purine N7 interactions via atomic mutagenesis: The group I ribozyme as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Forconi, Marcello; Benz-Moy, Tara; Gleitsman, Kristin Rule; Ruben, Eliza; Metz, Clyde; Herschlag, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Atomic mutagenesis has emerged as a powerful tool to unravel specific interactions in complex RNA molecules. An early extensive study of analogs of the exogenous guanosine nucleophile in group I intron self-splicing by Bass and Cech demonstrated structure–function relationships analogous to those seen for protein ligands and provided strong evidence for a well-formed substrate binding site made of RNA. Subsequent functional and structural studies have confirmed these interacting sites and extended our understanding of them, with one notable exception. Whereas 7-methyl guanosine did not affect reactivity in the original study, a subsequent study revealed a deleterious effect of the seemingly more conservative 7-deaza substitution. Here we investigate this paradox, studying these and other analogs with the more thoroughly characterized ribozyme derived from the Tetrahymena group I intron. We found that the 7-deaza substitution lowers binding by ∼20-fold, relative to the cognate exogenous guanosine nucleophile, whereas binding and reaction with 7-methyl and 8-aza-7-deaza substitutions have no effect. These and additional results suggest that there is no functionally important contact between the N7 atom of the exogenous guanosine and the ribozyme. Rather, they are consistent with indirect effects introduced by the N7 substitution on stacking interactions and/or solvation that are important for binding. The set of analogs used herein should be valuable in deciphering nucleic acid interactions and how they change through reaction cycles for other RNAs and RNA/protein complexes. PMID:22543863

  17. Mothers' perceptions of children's food behaviors: use of focus group interview study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Mee; Oh, Yu-Jin; Lee, Min-June

    2008-01-01

    Children's food behaviors have been expressed in a various ways because of recent changes in their family environment. Thus, this study was performed to investigate in-depth qualitative research on the mother's perception on children's food behaviors by focused group interview. This study was designed in four steps of planning, collection of participants, process, and analysis. Participants for the focus group interview were recruited and sampled from households with elementary school students in the Seoul and Gyeonggido areas. Groups were divided by total income and education expense levels. 1) High income household: It is better to improve currently existing web sites for nutrition education. 2) Mid income household: Easy, practical, and inexpensive off-line cooking class/nutrition education classes for mothers are needed. Nutrition programs for children should be developed through mass media and be promoted in the broadcasting circle. 3) Low income household: Motivation is required for mothers' education and the serious nutritional problems of children should be informed through mass media and home correspondence from school. And interesting educational materials should be developed for children to read whenever they want. PMID:20016728

  18. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. P.; Jiang, J. K.; Liang, Q. H.; Yang, N.; Ye, H. Y.; Cai, M.; Shen, L.; Yang, D. G.; Ren, T. L.

    2015-11-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity.

  19. Radiostratigraphic study of the deposits of the Maikop Group, Western Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendieva, M.; Babaev, R.; Johnson, C.; Feyzullayev, A.; Aliev, Ch.

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the results of biostratigraphic study of natural outcrops of the Maikop Group, which were first carried together with detailed radiometric studies in the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region, Western Azerbaijan. The paleontological research method included determination of the genus or species (depending on the preservation) of microfaunistic remains (foraminifera, ostracods, fish remains). The radiometric research method included measurements of the integral radioactivity in the field, the sampling, as well as laboratory radionuclide (spectral) analysis. As a result of our research, the stratigraphic control of variation in the radioactivity of rocks of the Maikop Group of the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region has been established. The radioactivity of Oligocene rocks is predominantly determined by potassium content. The radioactivity of the Miocene part of the section of the Maikop Group is determined by uranium-potassium contents. Within the Ganja oil and gas-bearing region, deposits of the Kotsakhurian regional stage, which are usually referred to "barren" formations or anoxic "fish facies", contain a significant number of species of benthic foraminiferal fauna.

  20. A focus-group study on spirituality and substance-abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Disney, Elizabeth R.; Epstein, David H.; Glezen, Louise A.; Clark, Pamela I.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals recovering from addictions frequently cite spirituality as a helpful influence. However, little is known about whether or how spirituality could be incorporated into formal treatment in a manner that is sensitive to individual differences. In the present study, focus groups were conducted with 25 methadone-maintained outpatients (primarily high-school educated, African-American males) to examine beliefs about the role of spirituality in recovery and its appropriateness in formal treatment. Groups also discussed the relationship between spirituality and behavior during active addiction. Thematic analyses suggested that spirituality and religious practices suffered in complex ways during active addiction, but went “hand in hand” with recovery. Nearly all participants agreed that integration of a voluntary spiritual discussion group into formal treatment would be preferable to currently available alternatives. One limitation was that all participants identified as strongly spiritual. Studies of more diverse samples will help guide the development and evaluation of spiritually based interventions in formal treatment settings. PMID:20025443

  1. Equestrian injuries in the paediatric age group: a two centre study.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Hewson, G L; Robinson, S M; Egleston, C V

    1999-03-01

    This study's objective was to examine the nature, cause and frequency of injury resulting from equestrian sport in paediatric patients attending two accident and emergency departments. We recorded the attendances of patients aged less than 16 years with equestrian-related trauma in 1 year. Demographic details, injury, mechanism of injury, rider experience and use of protective equipment were noted. There were 41 attendances (39 female, two male, median age 12 years). Thirty-one were injured while mounted, 10 while dismounted. The commonest group of injuries were soft tissue injuries of the lower limb (13 cases), soft tissue injuries of the upper limb (12 cases), fractures of the upper limb (nine cases), and minor head injury (seven cases). There was one case of severe head injury. Two patients required admission to hospital. The commonest mechanism of injury in the mounted group was a fall or throw (23 cases), in the dismounted group injuries were most commonly the result of being trodden on or being kicked (seven cases). The majority of equestrian-related trauma was minor in this study. The possibility of severe trauma exists. Emergency physicians working in areas where equestrian sport is popular should be aware of the likely injuries and their treatment. PMID:10340733

  2. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. P.; Jiang, J. K.; Liang, Q. H.; Yang, N.; Ye, H. Y.; Cai, M.; Shen, L.; Yang, D. G.; Ren, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity. PMID:26584671

  3. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone.

    PubMed

    Chen, X P; Jiang, J K; Liang, Q H; Yang, N; Ye, H Y; Cai, M; Shen, L; Yang, D G; Ren, T L

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity. PMID:26584671

  4. [A comparative study of individuals' responses to formative and declining groups].

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, K

    1990-04-01

    Using 40 college students as subjects, this experiment was conducted to investigate differences in the influence exerted by formative groups and declining groups of the same size. No significant differences between formative and declining groups were found at the behavioural level, especially with respect to conformity rates. However, significant differences were found between the two groups at internal levels, especially with respect to the confidence exhibited in subjects' responses and the evaluation of group opinions. In formative groups, the confidence of conformers in the group increased but non-conformers showed no change. In declining groups, the confidence of non-conformers increased but conformers showed no change. Moreover, only the conformers continued to support group opinions after the groups broke down, evaluating the group opinions highly in private. The results suggested in general that individuals are influenced by group changes and that they select their own responses by anticipating changes likely to occur in the group. PMID:2250419

  5. An exploratory study of group therapy for sexually abused adolescents and nonoffending guardians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda P; Kelly, Adrian B

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific group intervention with a nonoffending parent/caregiver component. Participants (aged 11 16 years) consisted of six adolescents with severe abuse histories, and their caregivers. Participants completed pre-, post-, and 1-month follow-up measures. The results were consistent with the possibility that the program produced clinically meaningful reductions in abuse-related psychological sequelae, the program had excellent face validity with participants, and there were no dropouts. PMID:19042240

  6. Nonperturbative renormalization group study of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    We study the renormalization group flow of the average action of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with power-law forcing. Using Galilean invariance, we introduce a nonperturbative approximation adapted to the zero-frequency sector of the theory in the parametric range of the Hölder exponent 4-2ε of the forcing where real-space local interactions are relevant. In any spatial dimension d, we observe the convergence of the resulting renormalization group flow to a unique fixed point which yields a kinetic energy spectrum scaling in agreement with canonical dimension analysis. Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is, thus, recovered for ε = 2 as also predicted by perturbative renormalization. At variance with the perturbative prediction, the -5/3 law emerges in the presence of a saturation in the ε dependence of the scaling dimension of the eddy diffusivity at ε = 3/2 when, according to perturbative renormalization, the velocity field becomes infrared relevant. PMID:23005533

  7. Further studies on immunoglobulin G- and albumin-binding properties of streptococci of serological group L.

    PubMed

    Sippel, K; Lämmler, C

    1995-09-01

    In this study, all 88 streptococci of serological group L isolated from cows, pigs, poultry and humans bound 125I-immunoglobulin G, and, in addition, 22 cultures interacted with 125I-albumin. IgG- and albumin-binding sites were solubilized from the streptococcal surface by heat extraction at an acid pH and also by mutanolysin treatment of the bacteria. Western blot analysis of these binding proteins revealed that almost identical protein bands were responsible for 125I-IgG and -albumin binding. Certain protein fractions of the cultures interacted exclusively with 125I-IgG, indicating that there are two groups of IgG receptors among streptococci of this serogroup. PMID:8594855

  8. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  9. Multifrequency studies of galaxies and groups. I. Environmental effect on galaxy stellar mass and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, A.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Teerikorpi, P.; Tempel, E.; Lietzen, H.; Einasto, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. To understand the role of the environment in galaxy formation, evolution, and present-day properties, it is essential to study the multifrequency behavior of different galaxy populations under various environmental conditions. Aims: We study the stellar mass functions of different galaxy populations in groups as a function of their large-scale environments using multifrequency observations. Methods: We cross-matched the SDSS DR10 group catalog with GAMA Data Release 2 and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) data to construct a catalog of 1651 groups and 11 436 galaxies containing photometric information in 15 different wavebands ranging from ultraviolet (0.152 μm) to mid-infrared (22 μm). We performed the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies using the MAGPHYS code and estimate the rest-frame luminosities and stellar masses. We used the 1 /Vmax method to estimate the galaxy stellar mass and luminosity functions, and the luminosity density field of galaxies to define the large-scale environment of galaxies. Results: The stellar mass functions of both central and satellite galaxies in groups are different in low- and high-density, large-scale environments. Satellite galaxies in high-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope compared to low-density environments, independent of the galaxy morphology. Central galaxies in low-density environments have a steeper low-mass end slope, but the difference disappears for fixed galaxy morphology. The characteristic stellar mass of satellite galaxies is higher in high-density environments and the difference exists only for galaxies with elliptical morphologies. Conclusions: Galaxy formation in groups is more efficient in high-density, large-scale environments. Groups in high-density environments have higher abundances of satellite galaxies, irrespective of the satellite galaxy morphology. The elliptical satellite galaxies are generally more massive in high-density environments. The stellar

  10. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  11. A microwave study of hydrogen-transfer-triggered methyl-group rotation in 5-methyltropolone.

    PubMed

    Ilyushin, Vadim V; Cloessner, Emily A; Chou, Yung-Ching; Picraux, Laura B; Hougen, Jon T; Lavrich, Richard

    2010-11-14

    We present here the first experimental and theoretical study of the microwave spectrum of 5-methyltropolone, which can be visualized as a seven-membered "aromatic" carbon ring with a five-membered hydrogen-bonded cyclic structure at the top and a methyl group at the bottom. The molecule is known from earlier studies in the literature to exhibit two large-amplitude motions, an intramolecular hydrogen transfer and a methyl torsion. The former motion is particularly interesting because transfer of the hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl to the carbonyl group induces a tautomerization in the molecule, which then triggers a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group. Measurements were carried out by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 8-24 GHz frequency range. Theoretical analysis was carried out using a tunneling-rotational Hamiltonian based on a G(12)(m) extended-group-theory formalism. Our global fit of 1015 transitions to 20 molecular parameters gave a root-mean-square deviation of 1.5 kHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J=0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure hydrogen-transfer motion is calculated to be 1310 MHz. The tunneling splitting of the two J=0 levels arising from a hypothetical pure methyl top internal-rotation motion is calculated to be 885 MHz. We have also carried out ab initio calculations, which support the structural parameters determined from our spectroscopic analysis and give estimates of the barriers to the two large-amplitude motions. PMID:21073223

  12. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  13. Structured group psychotherapy in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of an open multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195

  14. Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents treated with adult protocols: a report from the German Hodgkin study group.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Bredenfeld, Henning; Haverkamp, Heinz; Müller, Horst; Franklin, Jeremy; Fuchs, Michael; Borchmann, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Eich, Hans T; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

    2009-12-20

    PURPOSE The standard of care for adolescent patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is undefined, particularly the choice between pediatric and adult protocols. Thus, we compared risk factors and outcome of adolescents and young adults treated within study protocols of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS Three thousand seven hundred eighty-five patients treated within the GHSG studies HD4 to HD9 were analyzed; 557 patients were adolescents age 15 to 20 years, and 3,228 patients were young adults age 21 to 45 years. Results Large mediastinal mass and involvement of three or more lymph node areas were more frequent in adolescents (P < .001). The incidence of other risk factors did not differ significantly between age groups. With a median observation time of 81 months for freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and 85 months for overall survival (OS), log-rank test showed no significant differences between age groups regarding FFTF (P = .305) and a superior OS (P = .008) for adolescents. Six-year estimates for FFTF and OS were 80% and 94%, respectively, for adolescents and 80% and 91%, respectively, for young adults. After adjustment for other predictive factors, Cox regression analysis revealed age as a significant predictor for OS (P = .004), with a higher mortality risk for young adults. Secondary malignancies were more common in young adults (P = .037). CONCLUSION Outcome of adolescent and young adult patients treated within GHSG study protocols is comparable. These data suggest that adult treatment protocols exhibit a safe and effective treatment option for adolescent patients with HL. However, longer follow-up, including assessment of late toxicity, is necessary for final conclusions. PMID:19901121

  15. Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: two studies in construct validation.

    PubMed

    Waters, E; Wippman, J; Sroufe, L A

    1979-09-01

    2 studies were undertaken to assess the positive affective correlates of secure attachment in infancy and to assess the relation between secure attachment in infancy and competence in the peer group at age 3 1/2 years. In study 1, smiling and smiling combined with vocalizing and/or showing toys distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at age 18 months. Rated quality of affective sharing distinguished securely from anxiously attached infants during free play at 18 months and 24 months. Thus, secure attachment involves more than the absence of negative or maladaptive behavior directed toward a caregiver. Study 2 assessed cross-age, cross-situational, and cross-behavioral consistency in quality of social adaptation. Quality of infant-mother attachment relationships at age 15 months was related to Q-sort assessments of personal and interpersonal competence in the preschool play-group at age 3 1/2 years. The results contribute to the validation of attachment as an important developmental construct. They also suggest that age appropriate assessment of developmental social competence constructs can be a useful alternative to the study of homotypic behavioral continuity. PMID:498856

  16. Virtually supportive: A feasibility pilot study of an online support group for dementia caregivers in a 3D virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J.; Kaszniak, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver support groups effectively reduce stress from caring for someone with dementia. These same demands can prevent participation in a group. The present feasibility study investigated a virtual online caregiver support group to bring the support group into the home. While online groups have been shown to be helpful, submissions to a message board (vs. live conversation) can feel impersonal. By using avatars, participants interacted via real-time chat in a virtual environment in an 8-week support group. Data indicated lower levels of perceived stress, depression and loneliness across participants. Importantly, satisfaction reports also indicate that caregivers overcame the barriers to participation, and had a strong sense of the group’s presence. This study provides the framework for an accessible and low cost online support group for a dementia caregiver. The study demonstrates the feasibility of interactive group in a virtual environment for engaging members in meaningful interaction. PMID:24984911

  17. Solid-state 207pb nmr studies of lead-group 16 and mixedtransition-metal-lead-group 16 element-containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bramer, S.E.; Glatfelter, A.; Bai, S.; Dybowksi, C.; GNeue,G.; Perry, D.L.

    2005-08-26

    207Pb solid-state NMR studies have been conducted on binarylead-group 16 and mixed transition-metal/lead group 16 materials,correlating the NMR chemical shifts of the materials with theirstructures. The experimental results show that the 207Pb chemical shiftsare strongly influenced by the local electronic structure. Data arereported for lead selenide, lead selenate, calcium plumbate, strontiumplumbite, barium plumbite, lead borate, lead zirconate, lead tungstate,lead meta-tantalate, lead niobate, lead molybdate, lead meta-vanadate,lead sulfite, and lead sulfate.

  18. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision: A Multiple Case Study of GPs.

    PubMed

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values of professionalism within the individual are, however, difficult to assess. Aim. On the basis of a multiple case study, this paper describes the process of professional learning and challenges for individual GPs, as they take part in supervision groups focusing on children cases. Methods and Results. By using a two-dimensional theoretical model, it is shown that all GPs developed their professional behaviour, and many of them strengthened their professional identity in this domain towards a changed professionalism. Most participants emphasized the positive experience of sharing worries with families indicating care and interest. Some participants learning processes were very linear/convergent; others were complex/divergent-starting out with a relatively simple objective, realizing how multifaceted the issue was after the first year leading to a final development of new perspectives or action possibilities. Conclusion. The composition of supervision groups, as well as the professional background of the supervisor, may play a significant role in the development of professional behaviour and professionalism. PMID:22693669

  19. Tuning the electron transport of molecular junctions by chemically functionalizing anchoring groups: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    In this first-principles study, we present density-functional calculations of the electronic structures and electron transport properties of organic molecular junctions with several anchoring groups containing atoms with different electronegativities, i.e., benzenediboronate (BDB), benzenedicarboxylate (BDC), and dinitrobenzene (DNB) molecular junctions sandwiched between two Cu(110) electrodes. The electronic-structure calculations exhibit a significant difference in the density of states not only at the anchoring groups but also at the aromatic rings of the molecular junctions, suggesting that the electron transport is specific for each system. Our transport calculations show that the BDB and DNB molecular junctions have finite electron transmissions at the zero-bias limit while the BDC molecular junction has a negligible electron transmission. Moreover, for the BDB and DNB systems, the electron transmission channels around the Fermi energy reveal fingerprint features, which provide specific functionalities for the molecular junctions. Therefore, our theoretical results demonstrate the possibility to precisely tune the electron transport properties of molecular junctions by engineering the anchoring groups at the single-atom level.

  20. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  1. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  2. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  3. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  4. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  5. Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 Carbapenems on the Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Carbapenems: A Before and After Intervention Study of Carbapenem-Use Stewardship

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Yang, Kyung Sook; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems. Methods A before and after intervention study was conducted at a university hospital from September 2008 to February 2013. Three study periods were defined: Phase I, pre-intervention (months 1–18); Phase II, a postintervention period during which ertapenem use was mandated but carbapenem use was not restricted (months 19–36); and Phase III, a postintervention period during which Group 2 carbapenem use was restricted (months 37–54). Results During the study period, intervention resulted in diminished consumption of Group 2 carbapenems (antimicrobial use density (AUD): 21.3±6.0 in Phase I, 18.8±6.0 in Phase II, 16.1±4.4 in Phase III; P = 0.028) and increased consumption of ertapenem (AUD: 2.7±1.7 in Phase I, 7.2±4.5 in Phase II, 9.1±5.3 in Phase III; P<0.001). The use of autoregressive-error models showed that in contrast with ertapenem use, the use of Group 2 carbapenem during the previous one month was positively and significantly associated with a subsequent increase in the proportion of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) (P = 0.031). Conclusions Implementing a carbapenem-use stewardship program featuring the preferential use of ertapenem for treating appropriate indications of infection resulted in reduced use of Group 2 carbapenems and had a positive impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to carbapenems. This approach could be integrated into CRAB-control strategies in hospitals. PMID:24911244

  6. Learning to create new solutions together: A focus group study exploring interprofessional innovation in midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students can learn how to be innovative in partnerships with health care institutions and private enterprises. This study portrays how a three phase innovation model was applied in an interprofessional health education context at a Danish university college. The aim of the study was to explore midwifery, nutrition and health as well physiotherapy students' perceptions of participating in a real-life innovation project situated in antenatal care. A total of eighteen students participated in five focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data findings. Data analysis revealed three themes: 'Navigating in uncertainty', 'Being part of a team' and 'Impact of project learning'. Students found project learning to be the most relevant with regards to their clinical practice. Furthermore, study findings suggest that innovation is promoted by teamwork, interprofessional participation, mentor support and external partnerships. PMID:26073761

  7. GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (WG2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2002-01-01

    Status, progress and plans will be given for current GCSS (GEWEX Cloud System Study) WG2 (Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems) projects, including: (a) the Idealized Cirrus Model Comparison Project, (b) the Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project (Phase 2), and (c) the developing Hurricane Nora extended outflow model case study project. Past results will be summarized and plans for the upcoming year described. Issues and strategies will be discussed. Prospects for developing improved cloud parameterizations derived from results of GCSS WG2 projects will be assessed. Plans for NASA's CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) potential opportunities for use of those data for WG2 model simulations (future projects) will be briefly described.

  8. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock III, Clarence H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to examine underserved women’s perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study. Background: Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.  Methods: We assessed underserved women’s perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.  Conclusions: Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming

  9. Evaluating the program of a smoking cessation support group for adult smokers: a longitudinal pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Ling

    2005-09-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in Taiwan. In order to increase cessation rates among adult smokers, the Department of Health in Taiwan has begun providing financial support for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). However, therapies based on multiple interventions can lead to significantly higher cessation rates than NRT alone. This study develops and evaluates the outcomes of a smoking cessation program that provides a combination of physiological and psychological treatment in the context of a short-term support group. In this study, ten adult smokers were recruited by means of advertisements broadcast on local television over a seven-day period and one thousand flyers that advertised free assistance with quitting smoking. The smoking cessation support group was carried in Tainan County, in southern Taiwan. The three-month program consisted of three, monthly group sessions, free nicotine patches, telephone counseling by public health nurses, and telephone interviews by community health volunteers. Those participating in the group were encouraged to keep a record of all smoking behavior and its "triggers" in a diary, list the personal benefits of quitting, draw up a quitting contract, and enlist significant family members to monitor their quitting behavior. Participants were also trained in behavioral strategies to avoid smoking, including imagery rehearsal, relaxation techniques, exercise, and distraction. The outcome of the project was assessed by the following two criteria: (1) carbon monoxide (CO) level in the breath before and after the three-month program, as measured by percentage of carboxyhemoglobin (%COHB), and (2) the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per month, taken at the outset of the three-month program, at the conclusion of the program, and six months after the termination of the program. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Friedman tests respectively revealed that there were significant decreases both in the subjects' %COHB

  10. Metacommunity versus Biogeography: A Case Study of Two Groups of Neotropical Vegetation-Dwelling Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Romero, Gustavo Q.; Cottenie, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Biogeography and metacommunity ecology provide two different perspectives on species diversity. Both are spatial in nature but their spatial scales do not necessarily match. With recent boom of metacommunity studies, we see an increasing need for clear discrimination of spatial scales relevant for both perspectives. This discrimination is a necessary prerequisite for improved understanding of ecological phenomena across scales. Here we provide a case study to illustrate some spatial scale-dependent concepts in recent metacommunity studies and identify potential pitfalls. We presented here the diversity patterns of Neotropical lepidopterans and spiders viewed both from metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives. Specifically, we investigated how the relative importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes for community assembly change at two spatial scales: metacommunity scale, i.e. within a locality, and biogeographical scale, i.e. among localities widely scattered along a macroclimatic gradient. As expected, niche-based processes dominated the community assembly at metacommunity scale, while dispersal-based processes played a major role at biogeographical scale for both taxonomical groups. However, we also observed small but significant spatial effects at metacommunity scale and environmental effects at biogeographical scale. We also observed differences in diversity patterns between the two taxonomical groups corresponding to differences in their dispersal modes. Our results thus support the idea of continuity of processes interactively shaping diversity patterns across scales and emphasize the necessity of integration of metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives. PMID:25549332

  11. Theoretical study on magnetic coupling interaction for Cu(II) binuclear systems with extended bridging groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwei; Liu, Chengbu; Hu, Haiquan; Zhang, Changqiao

    2001-12-01

    The magnetic coupling interaction for Cu(II) binuclear systems with bridging groups C2O4 2- , C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( cis), C2O2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) and C2S2( NH) 2 2- ( trans) was studied by the broken symmetry (BS) approach within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT). The influence of different coordination atoms and geometry on magnetic coupling interaction was theoretically analyzed. Both of the calculated and experimental results were compared. The variation trends of coupling interaction calculated are in agreement with experimental ones.

  12. The pattern of serotonin and FMRFamide in cercaria from different taxonomic groups--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tolstenkov, O O; Terenina, Nadezhda; Gustafsson, Margaretha; Serbina, Elena; Kreshchenko, Natalia D; Maklakova, Ludmila; Jashina, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Serotoninergic and FMRFamidergic components of the nervous system were examined in cercaria from different types using immunocytochemical techniques interfaced with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Cercariae from 9 families were studied - Opisthorchis felineus, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Echinochasmus coaxatus, Echinoparyphium aconiatum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Psilotrema tuberculata, Plagiorchis sp., Cyathocotyle bithyniae, Diplostomum chromatophorum. The results show that 5-HT-IR and FMRFamide-IR occur in all types of cercariae, regardless of what morphological, taxonomic and biological group they belong to. Small differences in the patterns of 5-HT-IR and FMRFamide-IR were observed. PMID:18652395

  13. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  14. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  15. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  16. A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laurena E.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

  17. Voting in Group Support Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Results from an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kung-E

    2009-01-01

    Group decision making is essential in organizations. Group Support Systems (GSS) can aide groups in making decisions by providing tools and process support. GSS is especially useful for geographically or temporally distributed groups. Researchers of GSS have pointed out that convergence processes are hard to accomplish in GSS. Voting tools in GSS…

  18. The American Cowboy: Developing Small Group Social Studies Interaction Experiences in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Edward, Jr.

    Appropriate for elementary school students, this resource unit on the American cowboy provides four activities for small group work. The unit also lists objectives and discusses the organization and dynamics of small groups. The general objective is for the student to learn how to work within groups and how to resolve group conflict. The…

  19. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  20. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. Methods/Design The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8–12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Discussion By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184 PMID:22827935

  1. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    prevalent among the medical students, while smokeless tobacco use was more among the other groups. Conclusions: Physical inactivity, obesity, including central obesity, alcohol and tobacco use were found in various degrees in the study samples. An important finding was that both obesity and central obesity ascertained by BMI and WHR respectively were highest among the rural population implying the impact of social change on diabetic risk factors. PMID:25506486

  2. Optical properties of Group X-XII intermetallic compounds studied by HR-EELS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2014-11-01

    Electronic structure of d orbital states in transition metals is a key factor for their physical properties and chemical functions. Copper and intermetallic compound PdZn have good catalysis function for the methanol steam reforming reaction. Tsai et al. showed that from results of XPS measurements the d electronic structure of PdZn was similar with that of copper, and the catalysis function should be related to the d electron states [1]. This similarity of d electronic states leads to another view point of the mechanism for coloring the intermetallic compounds. It is well-known that the characteristic red color of copper is caused by interband transition from the d electrons. Therefore, PdZn and Group X-XII intermetallic compounds are expected to be colored and the optical properties should depend on the d electronic states. In this study, the relations between optical properties and d electron states of Group X-XII intermetallic compounds were investigated by using high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the relation between optical properties and d electronic states, the mechanism of colored intermetallic compounds will be discussed.Figure shows the optical reflectivity of NiZn, PdZn and PtZn, which were derived from EELS spectra by Kramers-Kronig analysis. Intensity drops (arrows) of the reflectivity were observed in visible energy region. These are caused by the interband transitions from d electronic states. The energy positions of the reflectivity drops have tendency of shifting to higher energy side with increasing atomic number of Group X elements (Ni → Pd → Pt). This indicates that the transition energies of d electrons become larger with the atomic number of the elements. First principle calculations (WIEN2k) confirmed that the interband transitions of d electronic states were excitations from bonding d states to hybrid states of anti-bonding s, p, and d states of Group

  3. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  4. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  5. Periodontal conditions in a group of Swedish adolescents. (I). A descriptive epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Källestål, C; Matsson, L; Holm, A K

    1990-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe, clinically and radiographically, the periodontal conditions in 16- and 18-year-old adolescents from Northern Sweden. The studied samples comprised 287 16-year-olds and 283 18-year-olds. The clinical examination included recording of presence of plaque, bleeding on probing and calculus, and measurements of attachment level and pocket depth. Alveolar bone level was measured on bite-wing radiographs. A history was taken of the individual's occupation, oral hygiene habits and tobacco use, health, medication and previous orthodontic treatment. The prevalence of attachment loss (AL) was 9.4% in the 16-year-olds and 19.4% in the 18-year-olds. Proximal AL was found in 2.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and proximal bone loss in 1% in both groups. With only a few exceptions (3 individuals out of 82), the individuals with AL had their loss either at buccal/lingual surfaces or at proximal surfaces. Calculus was present in 32.7% of the 16-year-olds and in 44.9% of the 18-year-olds. Pocket greater than 3 mm were found in 4%. No significant differences concerning the periodontal status or presence of plaque and calculus were detected between urban and rural groups or between sexes. Toothbrushing 2 or more times/day was performed by 84.3% of the 16-year-olds and by 83.7% of the 18-year-olds. PMID:2250073

  6. The value of prostate cancer support groups: a pilot study of primary physicians’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Canada, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male cancer, and prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have prevailed for more than 20 years providing support to men with PCa and their families. While the format, focus and benefits of attending PCSGs have been reported little is known about primary physicians’ (PPs) perceptions of these groups. This article describes Canadian primary physicians’ views about face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. Methods Canadian based primary physicians (n = 140) attending a 2012 Continuing Medical Education Conference participated in a pilot survey questionnaire study. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure primary physicians’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. Results Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Poor inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing and web-based PCSGs to increase engagement with potential attendees. Conclusions Findings suggest PPs highly valued the role and potential benefits of PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits amid the need to improve local and provincial marketing of PCSGs. The potential for web-based PCSGs to help in the support of PCa patients was also recognized. PMID:24673983

  7. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary. PMID:25662147

  8. ABO Blood Group, Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Herbert; Lu, Lingeng; Kidd, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Carriage of a non–O ABO blood group and colonization by Helicobacter pylori are thought to be risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We examined these associations in a population-based case–control study of 373 case patients and 690 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age. Control subjects were selected by random-digit dialing. Seropositivity for H pylori and its virulence protein CagA was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with non–O blood group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.83, P = .034) and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.66, P = .025), but no association was observed for CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.16). An association between pancreatic cancer risk and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity was found among individuals with non–O blood type but not among those with O blood type (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.49 to 5.20, P = .0014; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.64, P = .51, respectively). This study demonstrates an association between pancreatic cancer and H pylori colonization, particularly for individuals with non–O blood types. PMID:20181960

  9. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research…

  10. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies.

  11. Learning through Interactive Talk: A School-Based Mentor Teacher Study Group as a Context for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a year-long study of collaborative professional learning in a mentor teacher study group connected to a large university teacher education program. It introduces a theoretical framework for considering the nature of interactive talk and its relationship to professional learning. Using examples of study group discourse, it…

  12. Community Pharmacy Practice Barriers in Preventing Drug Misuse, Divergence and Overdose: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Christine; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W; Bolton, James; Alessi-Severini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists frequently encounter patients suspected to be at risk of medication misuse, divergence and overdose; yet, little research exists in describing how pharmacists effectively identify and intervene during these encounters. This study aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators in community pharmacy practice using a focus group design to help inform policymakers in the development of effective and feasible strategies for limiting the means of medication misuse. Findings revealed three themes: (1) patient-level barriers (deciphering signs of misuse); (2) pharmacist-level barriers (type of practice experience); and (3) system-level barriers (prescriber, third-party payer). Insight into pharmacy practice provided a foundation for future study to explore strategies for improving care for at-risk patients. PMID:26718251

  13. Proceedings of the 2013 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kable, Julie A; Reynolds, James N; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E

    2014-11-01

    The 2013 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was held in Orlando (Grand Cypress), FL with the theme "Developing Brain-Based Interventions for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders." Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have significant impairments in cognitive functioning and behavioral regulation skills, which lead to a lifetime of challenges for themselves and their families; thus, developing interventions that remediate or compensate for these deficits is of great importance. The conference included 2 keynote presentations, FASt data talks, award presentations, and updates by government agencies. In addition, a lively panel discussion addressed the challenges faced by FASDSG researchers in the translation of intervention strategies developed in preclinical studies to clinical trials and, ultimately, to clinical practice. PMID:25224492

  14. On the "dependence" of "independent" group EEG sources; an EEG study on two large databases.

    PubMed

    Congedo, Marco; John, Roy E; De Ridder, Dirk; Prichep, Leslie; Isenhart, Robert

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the coherence profile (dependence) of robust eyes-closed resting EEG sources isolated by group blind source separation (gBSS). We employ a test-retest strategy using two large sample normative databases (N = 57 and 84). Using a BSS method in the complex Fourier domain, we show that we can rigourously study the out-of-phase dependence of the extracted components, albeit they are extracted so as to be in-phase independent (by BSS definition). Our focus on lagged communication between components effectively yields dependence measures unbiased by volume conduction effects, which is a major concern about the validity of any dependence measures issued by EEG measurements. We are able to show the organization of the extracted components in two networks. Within each network components oscillate coherently with multiple-frequency dynamics, whereas between networks they exchange information at non-random multiple time-lag rates. PMID:19802727

  15. Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Julie A.; Reynolds, James N.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was held in Orlando (Grand Cypress), FL with the theme “Developing Brain-Based Interventions for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders”. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have significant impairments in cognitive functioning and behavioral regulation skills, which lead to a lifetime of challenges for themselves and their families; thus, developing interventions that remediate or compensate for these deficits is of great importance. The conference included 2 keynote presentations, FASt data talks, award presentations, and updates by government agencies. In addition, a lively panel discussion addressed the challenges faced by FASDSG researchers in the translation of intervention strategies developed in preclinical studies to clinical trials and, ultimately, to clinical practice. PMID:25224492

  16. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

  17. [Current musculoskeletal symptoms in peri and postmenopausal women: results of a multicenter population epidemiological study. The EVOS Study Group].

    PubMed

    Raspe, A; Matthis, C; von Domarus, U; Scheidt-Nave, C; Abendroth, K; Reisinger, W; Ziegler, R; Raspe, H

    1994-01-01

    Within the European vertebral osteoporosis study four stratified systematic samples of German residents aged 50-79 in Lübeck, Heidelberg, Jena and East Berlin have been drawn. Overall 4628 subjects were included, of whom 4385 were contactable and 3106 (71%) responded to the postal questionnaire enquiring about rheumatic complaints "today". 2348 (54%) followed an invitation to a medical examination in which a specific gynaecological history was taken. The prevalence of current back-, neck- and joint-pain is consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups. Females show a peak prevalence in the age group 55-64. 104/1134 women were pre- or perimenopausal. 1030 women had not had their period for at least 13 months and were classified as "postmenopausal". Neither the menopausal status nor the duration of the postmenopause were statistically significantly associated with the frequency of the three rheumatic complaints. PMID:7817626

  18. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  19. Anatomy by whole body dissection: a focus group study of students’ learning experience

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Annette; Ramsey-Stewart, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The social construction of knowledge within medical education is essential for learning. Students’ interactions within groups and associated learning artifacts can meaningfully impact learning. Situated cognition theory poses that knowledge, thinking, and learning are located in experience. In recent years, there has been a reported decline in time spent on anatomy by whole body dissection (AWBD) within medical programs. However, teaching by surgeons in AWBD provides unique opportunities for students, promoting a deeper engagement in learning. In this study, we apply situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework to explore students’ perceptions of their learning experience within the 2014 iteration of an 8-week elective AWBD course. Methods At the end of the course, all students (n=24) were invited to attend one of three focus groups. Framework analysis was used to code and categorize data into themes. Results In total, 20/24 (83%) students participated in focus groups. Utilizing situated cognition theory as a conceptual framework, we illustrate students’ learning experiences within the AWBD course. Students highlighted opportunities to create and reinforce their own knowledge through active participation in authentic dissection tasks; guidance and clinical context provided by surgeons as supervisors; and the provision of an inclusive learning community. Conclusion Situated cognition theory offers a valuable lens through which to view students’ learning experience in the anatomy dissection course. By doing so, the importance of providing clinical relevance to medical teaching is highlighted. Additionally, the value of having surgeons teach AWBD and the experience they share is illustrated. The team learning course design, with varying teaching methods and frequent assessments, prompting student–student and student–teacher interaction, was also beneficial for student learning. PMID:26345392

  20. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopic titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.

  1. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopicmore » titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.« less

  2. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  3. Rationale and design of the African group A streptococcal infection registry: the AFROStrep study

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Dylan D; Engel, Mark E; Whitelaw, Andrew; Alemseged, Abdissa; Sadoh, Wilson E; Ali, Sulafa K M; Sow, Samba O; Dale, James; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS), a Gram-positive bacterium, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, causes pyoderma, pharyngitis and invasive disease. Repeated GAS infections may lead to autoimmune diseases such as acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Invasive GAS (iGAS) disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The burden of GAS infections is, however, unknown in Africa because of lack of surveillance systems. Methods and analysis The African group A streptococcal infection registry (the AFROStrep study) is a collaborative multicentre study of clinical, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular characteristics for GAS infection in Africa. The AFROStrep registry comprises two components: (1) active surveillance of GAS pharyngitis cases from sentinel primary care centres (non-iGAS) and (2) passive surveillance of iGAS disease from microbiology laboratories. Isolates will also be subjected to DNA isolation to allow for characterisation by molecular methods and cryopreservation for long-term storage. The AFROStrep study seeks to collect comprehensive data on GAS isolates in Africa. The biorepository will serve as a platform for vaccine development in Africa. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for the AFROStrep registry has been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of Cape Town (HREC/REF: R006/2015). Each recruiting site will seek ethics approval from their local ethics’ committee. All participants will be required to provide consent for inclusion into the registry as well as for the storage of isolates and molecular investigations to be conducted thereon. Strict confidentiality will be applied throughout. Findings and updates will be disseminated to collaborators, researchers, health planners and colleagues through peer-reviewed journal articles, conference publications and proceedings. PMID:26916694

  4. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  5. The molecular recognition of dipeptide by oligoglycyl head group of amphiphile: a quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Soni, Kiran; Nandi, Nilashis

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we presented an analysis of the unusual recognition specificity exhibited by marked difference in the binding behavior of dipeptide with amphiphilic head group when subtle relative change of N-terminal and C-terminal of the dipeptide are made. Recently, in a series of detailed experiments, binding of aqueous dipeptides, GlyX and X/Gly (X = Leu, Phe, Pro, Ala; X/ = Leu, Phe) with dialkyl oligoglycyl amphiphiles is studied [X. Cha, K. Ariga, M. Onda, and T. Kunitake, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11833 (1995)]. It is observed that GlyX are specifically bound to 2C18BGly2NH2 while X/Gly are insignificantly bound. We first studied the conformational energy variation of GlyPhe, PheGly and model of 2C18BGly2NH2 amphiphile using semi-empirical and ab-initio methods in vacuum. Using the individual energy optimized monomer structure of amphiphile and peptide, we studied the binding energy of optimized GlyPhe: amphiphile pair and PheGly: amphiphile pair structures at 1:1 and 1:2 ratio at the same level of theory using a population of structures. Binding of GlyPhe is favorable over the binding of PheGly at various levels of theory (semi-empirical and ab-initio). It is noted that the hydrogen bonding pattern in the GlyPhe binding is more effective than that in the PheGly binding. In the population of low energy structures, PheGly: amphiphile structures have more exposed area around the hydrophobic Phe group than the GlyPhe: amphiphile structures. Relatively more PheGly: amphiphile structures have intermolecular orientation unsuitable to contribute to the population of head group structures relevant in aqueous interface. Summarizing, significantly better binding capacity of GlyPhe over the PheGly with amphiphile, is due to the difference in hydrogen bonding interaction pattern, hydrophobic effect and possible orientations of the amphiphile and peptide at interface, relevant to the condensed phase monolayer structure. All the three factors cooperatively lead to

  6. Prescribing attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding metformin for patients with diabetes: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Trinkley, Katy E.; Malone, Daniel C.; Nelson, Jennifer A.; Saseen, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons why metformin prescribing is suboptimal. Methods: Two semi-structured focus groups with attitudinal questionnaires and a brief educational presentation were held in two US cities. Participants included providers (physicians, pharmacists, midlevel practitioners) caring for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an ambulatory setting. Outcome measures included provider attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding the use of metformin. Results: Participants identified three main themes influencing the use of metformin, including the appropriate timing of metformin initiation, known risks associated with metformin, and procedures to manage safety concerns and mitigate adverse effects associated with metformin. Participant prescribing behaviors of metformin were not consistent with the best available evidence in the settings of renal insufficiency, heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, alcohol use, and lactic acidosis. With minimal education, provider prescribing behaviors appeared to change by the end of the focus group to align more closely with the best available evidence. Conclusions: Provider attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding the use of metformin for T2DM reveals the need for further education to improve appropriate use of metformin. Educational interventions should target prescribing behaviors and opinions identified to be inconsistent with the evidence. PMID:27583122

  7. Focus group study assessing self-management skills of Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Chuang, Les; Bateman, William B

    2012-10-01

    Despite a rapid growth of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans, the management of diabetes in this population is yet understudied. This pilot study attempts a first step in seeking solutions to decrease demand for health services in this population by improving patients' self-care. Focus groups were conducted in well-controlled (HbA1c < 7) and poorly-controlled (HbA1c > 8) Chinese Americans with Type 2 DM who were asked about their knowledge and self-care skills of diabetes as well as experience of living with the disease. Well-controlled had more insights in their illness and were more inquisitive, while poorly-controlled were more fixated on symptoms and side effects of treatments. Common themes for both groups included interest in diet and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The findings provide valuable information to design a survey instrument to more definitively assess self-care skills differentiating levels of control, suggest that changing attitudes and behaviors need to be a stronger focus in care and identify needs to provide more culturally appropriate materials to care for this population. PMID:21877209

  8. Preparation of group I introns for biochemical studies and crystallization assays by native affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Vicens, Quentin; Gooding, Anne R; Duarte, Luis F; Batey, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    The study of functional RNAs of various sizes and structures requires efficient methods for their synthesis and purification. Here, 23 group I intron variants ranging in length from 246 to 341 nucleotides -- some containing exons -- were subjected to a native purification technique previously applied only to shorter RNAs (<160 nucleotides). For the RNAs containing both exons, we adjusted the original purification protocol to allow for purification of radiolabeled molecules. The resulting RNAs were used in folding assays on native gel electrophoresis and in self-splicing assays. The intron-only RNAs were subjected to the regular native purification scheme, assayed for folding and employed in crystallization screens. All RNAs that contained a 3' overhang of one nucleotide were efficiently cleaved off from the support and were at least 90% pure after the non-denaturing purification. A representative subset of these RNAs was shown to be folded and self-splicing after purification. Additionally, crystals were grown for a 286 nucleotide long variant of the Clostridium botulinum intron. These results demonstrate the suitability of the native affinity purification method for the preparation of group I introns. We hope these findings will stimulate a broader application of this strategy to the preparation of other large RNA molecules. PMID:19710925

  9. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  10. Attachment relationships of adolescents who spent their infancy in residential group care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference. PMID:25862310

  11. Leadership of healthcare commissioning networks in England: a mixed-methods study on clinical commissioning groups

    PubMed Central

    Zachariadis, Markos; Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Zollinger-Read, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relational challenges for general practitioner (GP) leaders setting up new network-centric commissioning organisations in the recent health policy reform in England, we use innovation network theory to identify key network leadership practices that facilitate healthcare innovation. Design Mixed-method, multisite and case study research. Setting Six clinical commissioning groups and local clusters in the East of England area, covering in total 208 GPs and 1 662 000 population. Methods Semistructured interviews with 56 lead GPs, practice managers and staff from the local health authorities (primary care trusts, PCT) as well as various healthcare professionals; 21 observations of clinical commissioning group (CCG) board and executive meetings; electronic survey of 58 CCG board members (these included GPs, practice managers, PCT employees, nurses and patient representatives) and subsequent social network analysis. Main outcome measures Collaborative relationships between CCG board members and stakeholders from their healthcare network; clarifying the role of GPs as network leaders; strengths and areas for development of CCGs. Results Drawing upon innovation network theory provides unique insights of the CCG leaders’ activities in establishing best practices and introducing new clinical pathways. In this context we identified three network leadership roles: managing knowledge flows, managing network coherence and managing network stability. Knowledge sharing and effective collaboration among GPs enable network stability and the alignment of CCG objectives with those of the wider health system (network coherence). Even though activities varied between commissioning groups, collaborative initiatives were common. However, there was significant variation among CCGs around the level of engagement with providers, patients and local authorities. Locality (sub) groups played an important role because they linked commissioning decisions with

  12. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  13. Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, R. Brent

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  14. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Gloria D; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18-45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18<24.9 or BMI>28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (<100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006-March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P<0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  15. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18–45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18 < 24.9 or BMI > 28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (< 100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006–March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P <0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  16. Empirical Studies on the Network of Social Groups: The Case of Tencent QQ

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in social groups are important but the collective behaviors of human as a group are difficult to analyze due to the difficulties to quantify ordinary social relation, group membership, and to collect a comprehensive dataset. Such difficulties can be circumvented by analyzing online social networks. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we analyze a comprehensive dataset released from Tencent QQ, an instant messenger with the highest market share in China. Specifically, we analyze three derivative networks involving groups and their members—the hypergraph of groups, the network of groups and the user network—to reveal social interactions at microscopic and mesoscopic level. Conclusions/Significance Our results uncover interesting behaviors on the growth of user groups, the interactions between groups, and their relationship with member age and gender. These findings lead to insights which are difficult to obtain in social networks based on personal contacts. PMID:26176850

  17. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  18. Transpersonal experiences in childhood: an exploratory empirical study of selected adult groups.

    PubMed

    Hunt, H T; Gervais, A; Shearing-Johns, S; Travis, F

    1992-12-01

    A questionnaire was developed to assess adult recall for a range of transpersonal experiences throughout childhood and adolescence (mystical experience, out-of-body experience, lucid dreams, archetypal dreams, ESP), as well as nightmares and night terrors as indicators of more conflicted, negative states. In two exploratory studies this questionnaire was administered to subjects with high estimated levels of early transpersonal experiences and practising meditators, with respective undergraduate controls. A cognitive skills/precocity model of early transpersonal experience was contrasted with a vulnerability of self model by comparisons of these groups on questionnaire categories, imaginative absorption, neuroticism, and visual-spatial skills, with some support found for both models depending on experience type, age of estimated recall, and adult meditative practice. PMID:1484777

  19. Solving nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement: examples from group II intron studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marcia, Marco Humphris-Narayanan, Elisabeth; Keating, Kevin S.; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-11-01

    Strategies for phasing nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement, using both experimental and de novo designed models, are discussed. Structured RNA molecules are key players in ensuring cellular viability. It is now emerging that, like proteins, the functions of many nucleic acids are dictated by their tertiary folds. At the same time, the number of known crystal structures of nucleic acids is also increasing rapidly. In this context, molecular replacement will become an increasingly useful technique for phasing nucleic acid crystallographic data in the near future. Here, strategies to select, create and refine molecular-replacement search models for nucleic acids are discussed. Using examples taken primarily from research on group II introns, it is shown that nucleic acids are amenable to different and potentially more flexible and sophisticated molecular-replacement searches than proteins. These observations specifically aim to encourage future crystallographic studies on the newly discovered repertoire of noncoding transcripts.

  20. [Hazardous health effect of isolation. A clinical study of 2 groups of persons in custody].

    PubMed

    Gamman, T

    1995-08-10

    The possible effects of solitary confinement on prisoners' health were studied using a prospective design. 27 secluded prisoners were compared with 27 others who were held in custody. The latter group of prisoners was able to see other prisoners, visitors, friends and family members, and could participate in prison activities. The results showed that secluded prisoners had more health problems than prisoners serving less restrictive prison sentences did. The most usual complaints were headache, pain in the neck, stomach and shoulders, anxiety and depression. Psychotic symptoms were rare. The complaints tended to last for the whole period of solitary confinement and were difficult to treat while the prisoners remained secluded. Patients with chronic somatic diseases tended to deteriorate in solitary confinement. Most patients recovered when the seclusion was terminated. PMID:7652720

  1. Single mothers' views of young children's everyday routines: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Koulouglioti, Christina; Cole, Robert; Moskow, Marian

    2011-07-01

    Consistent daily routines have been associated with children's well-being, but children of single parents are less likely to engage in regular family meals or bedtime routines. This study explored routines and the challenges of maintaining routines as experienced by single mothers with a preschool age (3-5) child. Four focus groups (N = 12) were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used. Mothers described routines as an integral part of their parenting role and a reflection of successful parenting but maintaining routines around bedtimes and mealtimes were major concerns. Difficulties managing their child's behavior and their own fatigue were major challenges but mothers described a wide range of helpful strategies as well. PMID:21809930

  2. Multichannel Numerical Renormalization Group study of the Anderson Hamiltonian with multiple impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, James; Konik, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Using the Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG), the low energy sector of the Anderson Hamiltonian with two impurities in parallel has been previously argued to be consistent with an underscreened spin-1 Kondo effect (R. Zitko and J. Bonca, Phys. Rev. B 76, 241305 (2007); Logan et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 125117 (2009)). Bethe Ansatz and slave boson calculations have given the ground state as a singlet (M. Kulkarni and R. M. Konik, Phys. Rev. B 83, 245121 (2011)). As an attempt to understand these differences, we have developed a modified NRG routine that takes into account the multiple channels arising from the logarithmic discretization of the Fermi sea. This could conceivably allow for more complicated screening processes suggested by the Bethe ansatz computations. Results of studies using this code for various numbers of impurities and channels will be presented and discussed in relationship to these conflicting views.

  3. Hybrid-Space Density Matrix Renormalization Group Study of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Georg; Noack, Reinhard M.

    We investigate the ground state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model on a cylinder geometry at intermediate coupling and weak doping. We study properties such as the behavior of the ground-state energy, pair-field correlations, and the appearance of stripes. We find striped ground states generically, with the width of the stripes depending on the filling, the boundary conditions, and the circumference of the cylinder. Furthermore, we analyse the interplay between the different stripe configurations and the decay of the pairing correlations. Our analysis is based on a hybrid-space density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) approach, which uses a momentum-space representation in the transverse and a real-space representation in the longitudinal direction. Exploiting the transverse momentum quantum number makes significant speedup and memory savings compared to the real-space DMRG possible. In particular, we obtain computational costs that are independent of the cylinder width for fixed size of the truncated Hilbert space.

  4. Proceedings of the 1979 Meeting [of the] Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    These proceedings contain: two lectures; reports from four working groups, four review groups, and three special groups; and a list of participants. Lecture I, by Joseph Agassi, was entitled "On Mathematics Education: The Lakatosian Revolution." Lecture II, by Jack Easley, was entitled "Alternative Research Metaphore and the Social Context of…

  5. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  6. Online Graduate Study Health Care Learners' Perceptions of Group Work and Helpful Instructional Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Kim; Melrose, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Participating in small group activities has emerged as a trend in online learning events. However, little is known about how graduate students experience online group work and what instructional behaviors are perceived as helpful during the group process. This article discusses a qualitative research project that revealed how online health care…

  7. When Is There Strength in Numbers? A Study of Undergraduate Task Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diane F.; Campbell, Connie M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate college students in an advanced math class were videotaped as they worked on three mathematical proofs. Findings indicated that both ability and self-efficacy were needed for group success. Members with high levels of self-efficacy served the group by encouraging others to continue working. Groups tended to use a trial-and-error…

  8. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  9. The WERO group stop smoking competition: main outcomes of a pre- and post- study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One potential promising strategy for increasing smoking cessation for Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) and New Zealand resident Pacific Island people is Quit and Win competitions. The current uncontrolled pre and post study, WERO (WERO in Māori language means challenge), differs from previous studies in that it aims to investigate if a stop smoking contest, using both within team support, external support from a team coach and cessation experts, and technology, would be effective in prompting and sustaining quitting. Method Fifteen teams, recruited from urban Māori, rural Māori and urban Pacific communities, competed to win a NZ$5000 (about €3,000, £2600) prize for a charity or community group of their choice. People were eligible if they were aged 18 years and over and identified as smokers. Smoking status was biochemically validated at the start and end of the 3 month competition. At 3-months post competition self-reported smoking status was collected. Results Fourteen teams with 10 contestants and one team with eight contestants were recruited. At the end of the competition the biochemically verified quit rate was 36%. The 6 months self-reported quit rate was 26%. The Pacific and rural Māori teams had high end of competition and 6 months follow-up quit rates (46% and 44%, and 36% and 29%). Conclusion WERO appeared to be successful in prompting quitting among high smoking prevalence groups. WERO combined several promising strategies for supporting cessation: peer support, cessation provider support, incentives, competition and interactive internet and mobile tools. Though designed for Māori and Pacific people, WERO could potentially be effective for other family- and community-centred cultures. PMID:24924780

  10. What are parents' perspectives on psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Carraro, Valter; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most developed countries do not have compulsory immunisation requirements, but instead issue recommendations. Although parents are expected to make an informed, autonomous (ie, empowered) decision regarding their children's vaccinations, there is no evidence about how parents' interpret this demand nor on the latitude of their decision-making. The goal of this study is to gain insights from parents residing in a low measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) uptake area on what constitutes feelings of empowerment in the decision they have to make on their child's MMR vaccination. Design A qualitative study employing focus group interviews. Setting 11 vaccination centres and hospitals in the Province of Trento, Italy. Participants 24 mothers and 4 fathers of children for whom the MMR vaccination decision was still pending participated in 6 focus groups. Results Autonomy and competence were salient themes in relation to empowerment, and were further connected with beliefs regarding legal responsibility and ethics of freedom concerning the decision, parents' relationship with the paediatrician (trust), feelings of relevance of the decision and related stress, and seeking, avoidance, or fear of vaccination-related information. Competence was interpreted as medical knowledge and information-seeking skills, but it was also related to the extent parents perceived the paediatrician to be competent. Conclusions Since parents' interpretation of empowerment goes beyond mere perceptions of being informed and autonomous and differs across individuals, it is important that this construct be correctly interpreted and implemented by best practice, for instance by explicitly adopting a relational conception of autonomy. Knowing whether parents want to make an empowered decision and what their information and autonomy needs are might help health professionals adapt their communication about immunisation, and promote parental perception of making an informed, autonomous decision. PMID

  11. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Dengue Fever: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045

  12. Innovation management based on proactive engagement of customers: A case study on LEGO Group. Part I: Innovation Management at Lego Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, G.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Customers' proactive engagement in the innovation process represents a business priority for companies which adopt the open innovation business model. In such a context, it is of outmost importance for companies to use the online environment and social media, in order to create an interactive and open dialogue with customers and other important external stakeholders, achieving to gather creative solutions and innovative ideas by involving them in the process of co-creating value. Thus, the current paper is based on a case study approach, which aims to highlight the open innovation business model of the LEGO Group, one of the most successful and active company in engaging customers in submitting ideas and creative solutions for developing new products and new technologies, through online platforms. The study then proceeds to analyze the innovation management at LEGO Group, emphasizing the most important elements regarding the management team, the success and failures, the evolution of the LEGO products focusing on the innovation efforts of the company, its mission, vision, and values, emphasizing the innovation terms which guide the actions and objectives of the LEGO Group. Also, the research based on the case study approach, outlines the most important policies and strategies of the company, the organizational structure consisting of flat structures which facilitate the orientation of the team management on the innovation process and the proactive involvement of consumers and other external stakeholders in product development, highlighting also the most important activities developed by the management team in exploring the new opportunities which may occur on the market, involving customers in sharing their ideas at festivals, participating to discussions of adult fans on web-based platforms and establishing partnerships with the external stakeholders in order to create value. Moreover, the paper is focused on identifying the company's concerns regarding the

  13. Two Year Study of the Effect of Group Therapy on Teacher Perceived Classroom Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Harold; And Others

    A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…

  14. The Whole-Faculty Study Groups Fieldbook: Lessons Learned and Best Practices From Classrooms, Districts, and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lick, Dale W.; Murphy, Carlene U.

    2006-01-01

    The Whole-Faculty Study Group (WFSG) System is a student-centered, teacher-driven process for facilitating major staff development and schoolwide change. When applied properly, it has produced extraordinary results for thousands of educators and students in schools and school districts across the country. The Whole-Faculty Study Groups Fieldbook…

  15. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  17. Internet addiction in a group of medical students: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Sherpa, M T; Shrestha, R

    2012-03-01

    The use of Internet for education, recreation and communication is increasing day by day. Nevertheless, the possibility of exploitation and addiction leading to impairment in academic performance and emotional balance cannot be denied, especially among young population. The study was aimed to measure the degree of Internet addiction among a group of medical students. Internet addiction test questionnaire developed by Young was used to assess mild, moderate and severe addiction. Amongst the study population (n=130, age 19-23 years), 40% had mild addiction. Moderate and severe addiction was found in 41.53% and 3.07% of the participants respectively. The study revealed that 24% often and 19.2% always found themselves using Internet longer than they had planned or thought. Late night Internet surfing leading to sleep deprivation was found in 31.53% of the participants. Almost one fourth of them (25.38%) occasionally tried to cut down the time they spent on the Internet but failed and 31.53% sometimes experienced restlessness when deprived of Internet access. Results reflected that a significant number of participants suffered from mild to moderate addiction. The role of counseling and education should be emphasized for prevention of Internet addiction. PMID:23441494

  18. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  19. Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment. PMID:26788405

  1. Studying with the cloud: the use of online Web-based resources to augment a traditional study group format.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa; Sennik, Serena; Zaki, Amna; Trotter, Brendon

    2015-03-01

    Cloud-based applications such as Google Docs, Skype, Dropbox, and SugarSync are revolutionizing the way that we interact with the world. Members of the millennial generation (those born after 1980) are now becoming senior residents and junior attending physicians. We describe a novel technique combining Internet- and cloud-based methods to digitally augment the classic study group used by final-year residents studying for the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada examination. This material was developed by residents and improved over the course of 18 months. This is an innovation report about a process for enhanced communication and collaboration as there has been little research to date regarding the augmentation of learner-driven initiatives with virtual resources. PMID:25927263

  2. Studies on cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances: functional groups, calcite biomineralization and formation of capsular polymeric substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M.; Sibler, S.; Matsko, N.

    2006-12-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of microbial origin are an important class of polymeric materials which have been involved in different processes such as biofilm development or mineral precipitation. Cyanobacteria have been known as potential EPS producers for a long time. Despite their ubiquitous distribution, there is still a great lack of knowledge concerning the diversity of EPS binding sites of different picocyanobacterial strains on the one hand and the specific components of EPS which are responsible for calcite precipitation and crystal morphology on the other hand. It is generally accepted that capsular extracellular polymeric substances are the main components of biofilm matrixes. In this context, it is important to understand under which conditions cyanobacteria produce surface polysaccharides. In a recent study, we characterized the binding sites of EPS of three unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains of the Synechococcus-type. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine different types of functional groups present at the various sites. Precipitation experiments with EPS of different strains allowed for estimating the potential of EPS to precipitate calcium carbonate and the impact of functional groups composition on crystal morphology. In order to clarify the conditions under which cyanobacteria formed capsular EPS, we performed growth experiments in nutrients medium with different phosphorus concentrations (0.4, 4.1, 8.2 and 41 mgP/l). Cyanobacterial cells produced capsular EPS under phosphorus concentrations of 0.4, 4.1 and 8.2 mgP/l, while no capsular EPS were observed for the highest P concentration (41 mgP/l). At this concentration, however, calcium rich storage products were detected in the cells. The results thus suggest that both extracellular and intracellular products are regulated through phosphorus concentrations in growth solutions. Titrations reveal five or six distinct sites on surfaces of picocyanobacterial

  3. Grouping Influences Output Interference in Short-term Memory: A Mixture Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Suk; Oh, Byung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference. PMID:27199820

  4. Grouping Influences Output Interference in Short-term Memory: A Mixture Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Oh, Byung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference. PMID:27199820

  5. Relapse Analysis of Irradiated Patients Within the HD15 Trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, Jan; Reinartz, Gabriele; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Kuhnert, Georg; Haverkamp, Heinz; Haverkamp, Uwe; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Herfarth, Klaus; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Hegerfeld, Kira; Baues, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To determine, in the setting of advanced-stage of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), whether relapses occur in the irradiated planning target volume and whether the definition of local radiation therapy (RT) used by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) is adequate, because there is no harmonization of field and volume definitions among the large cooperative groups in the treatment of advanced-stage HL. Methods and Materials: All patients with residual disease of ≥2.5 cm after multiagent chemotherapy (CTX) were evaluated using additional positron emission tomography (PET), and those with a PET-positive result were irradiated with 30 Gy to the site of residual disease. We re-evaluated all sites of disease before and after CTX, as well as the PET-positive residual tumor that was treated in all relapsed patients. Documentation of radiation therapy (RT), treatment planning procedures, and portal images were carefully analyzed and compared with the centrally recommended RT prescription. The irradiated sites were compared with sites of relapse using follow-up computed tomography scans. Results: A total of 2126 patients were enrolled, and 225 patients (11%) received RT. Radiation therapy documents of 152 irradiated patients (68%) were analyzed, with 28 irradiated patients (11%) relapsing subsequently. Eleven patients (39%) had an in-field relapse, 7 patients (25%) relapsed outside the irradiated volume, and an additional 10 patients (36%) showed mixed in- and out-field relapses. Of 123 patients, 20 (16%) with adequately performed RT relapsed, compared with 7 of 29 patients (24%) with inadequate RT. Conclusions: The frequency and pattern of relapses suggest that local RT to PET-positive residual disease is sufficient for patients in advanced-stage HL. Insufficient safety margins of local RT may contribute to in-field relapses.

  6. Teen Use of Marijuana Edibles: A Focus Group Study of an Emerging Issue.

    PubMed

    Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D; Annechino, Rachelle; Battle, Robynn S

    2016-06-01

    Recent research indicates that marijuana-infused food product (i.e., edible) use is becoming nearly as common as smoking marijuana where medical marijuana is available. This study explores edible use among teens. We conducted four focus groups in the San Francisco Bay Area with youth, ages 15-17. The focus groups were divided by gender and whether they used marijuana. Some teens mentioned edible use at school. Youth reported that teens consume edibles, primarily to reduce the likelihood of getting caught. Edibles are also attractive to those who do not like to smoke or have concerns about smoking. Both male and female respondents suggested that females are more likely than males to prefer edibles over smoking, one reason for which may be to avoid smelling like marijuana smoke. For some young women, edibles may be a way to avoid publicly presenting themselves as marijuana users. Findings also suggest that youth have access to edibles through multiple sources. Youth reported that they can purchase edibles at school from other students who either make the edibles themselves or are reselling edibles obtained from dispensaries. Both users and non-users were aware of potentially negative consequences related to edible use. Some youth mentioned that they have heard of youth dying from edibles, and several reported being concerned about the high produced by edibles. Female non-users appeared to be more concerned than others about edibles and compared them to drinks that could be spiked with drugs. However, sentiment among some male marijuana users was that if you cannot handle edibles you should not be using them. These findings suggest that strategies to curb access to edibles and use among youth, such as restricting sales of edibles with strong youth appeal and educating youth on the risks of edibles, will need to be developed. PMID:27056685

  7. The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Weisz, Daniel R.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bullock, James S.; Conroy, Charlie; Fitts, Alex

    2015-10-01

    We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times (z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 7) by combining stellar population synthesis modelling with star formation histories derived from deep colour-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-z galaxies - including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-z Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe z ˜ 7 progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field luminosity function (LF) at z ≈ 7 by at least 2 orders of magnitude in order to maintain reionization. This scenario requires the progenitors of the Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies to be contributors to the ionizing background at z ˜ 7. Combined with numerical simulations, our results argue for a break in the UV LF from a faint-end slope of α ˜ -2 at MUV ≲ -13 to α ˜ -1.2 at lower luminosities. Applied to photometric samples at lower redshifts, our analysis suggests that HST observations in lensing fields at z ˜ 2 are capable of probing galaxies with luminosities comparable to the expected progenitor of Fornax.

  8. Dietary patterns, food groups and myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lockheart, Michael S K; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebnord, Hege Møklebust; Fimreite, Ragnhild Lekven; Ringstad, Jetmund; Thelle, Dag S; Pedersen, Jan I; Jacobs, David R

    2007-08-01

    Certain dietary patterns may be related to the risk of CVD. We hypothesised that a plant-centred dietary pattern would be associated with a reduced risk of first myocardial infarction (MI). A case-control study of Norwegian men and postmenopausal women (age 45-75 years) was performed. A FFQ was administered, generally within 3 d after incident MI (n 106 cases). Controls (n 105) were frequency matched on sex, age and geographic location. On the FFQ, 190 items were categorised into thirty-five food groups and an a priori healthy diet pattern score was created. We estimated OR using logistic regression with adjustment for energy intake, family history of heart disease, marital status, current smoking, education and age. Among food groups, the risk of MI was significantly higher per SD of butter and margarine (OR 1.66 (95 % CI 1.12, 2.46)), and lower per SD of tomatoes (OR 0.53 (95 % CI 0.35, 0.79)), high-fat fish (OR 0.57 (95 % CI 0.38, 0.86)), wine (OR 0.58 (95 % CI 0.41, 0.83)), salad (OR 0.59 (95 % CI 0.40, 0.87)), whole grain breakfast cereals (OR 0.64 (95 % CI 0.45, 0.90)), cruciferous vegetables (OR 0.66 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.93)) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oil (OR 0.68 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.95)). An abundance of cases were found to have a low a priori healthy diet pattern score. A dietary pattern emphasising nutrient-rich plant foods and high-fat fish and low in trans fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of MI among Norwegians. PMID:17391555

  9. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  10. [A study on early-onset group "B" streptococcal neonatal infection].

    PubMed

    Vacheva, R; Todorova, M; Decheva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, Ts; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2012-01-01

    The results achieved with 80% reduction in the incidence of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis following the implementation of the preliminary (1996, 2002) and subsequently the revised (2010) guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis imposed the discussion on a large scale of the updated:--algorithms for GBS screening (35-37 weeks of gestation) with the recommended dosage of penicillin-G for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for women having normal labor and delivery;--algorithms for GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for women with preterm labor (PPROM) or premature rupture of membranes (PROM);--intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for women with penicillin allergy;--algorithm for management of newborns with respect to risk of early-onset GBS disease. The present study is aimed at studying the distribution of the early-onset GBS disease in our country based on the data of leading obstetrics & gynecology clinics and wards. The aim is to diferrentiate clinically the cases and investigate the influence of the known risk factors on the part of the mother. A special accent is put over the microbiological diagnostics of cases in view of CDC expanded recommendations on the laboratory methods for identification of GBS. As a final conclusion the necessity for introduction of an official registration of the early- and late-onset GBS disease in the country is emphasized. PMID:23390859

  11. Renormalization group study of the minimal Majoronic dark radiation and dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, We-Fu; Ng, John N.

    2016-07-01

    We study the 1-loop renormalization group equation running in the simplest singlet Majoron model constructed by us earlier to accommodate the dark radiation and dark matter content in the universe. A comprehensive numerical study was performed to explore the whole model parameter space. A smaller effective number of neutrinos triangle Neff~ 0.05, or a Majoron decoupling temperature higher than the charm quark mass, is preferred. We found that a heavy scalar dark matter, ρ, of mass 1.5–4 TeV is required by the stability of the scalar potential and an operational type-I see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. A neutral scalar, S, of mass in the 10–100 GeV range and its mixing with the standard model Higgs as large as 0.1 is also predicted. The dominant decay modes are S into bbar b and/or ωω. A sensitive search will come from rare Z decays via the chain Z → S+ fbar f, where f is a Standard Model fermion, followed by S into a pair of Majoron and/or b-quarks. The interesting consequences of dark matter bound state due to the sizable Sρ ρ-coupling are discussed as well. In particular, shower-like events with an apparent neutrino energy at Mρ could contribute to the observed effective neutrino flux in underground neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  12. Density matrix renormalization group study of Y-junction spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haihui

    Junction systems are important to understand both from the fundamental and the practical point of view, as they are essential components in existing and future electronic and spintronic devices. With the continuous advance of technology, device size will eventual reach the atomic scale. Some of the most interesting and useful junction systems will be strongly correlated. We chose the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method to study two types of Y-junction systems, the Y and YDelta junctions, on strongly correlated spin chains. With new ideas coming from the quantum information field, we have made a very efficient. Y-junction DMRG algorithm, which improves the overall CUB cost from O(m6) to O(m4), where m is the number of states kept per block. We studied the ground state properties, the correlation length, and investigated the degeneracy problem on the Y and YDelta junctions. For the excited states, we researched the existence of magnon bound states for various conditions, and have shown that the bound state exists when the central coupling constant is small.

  13. Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Julie; Peretz, Isabelle; Hyde, Krista

    2002-02-01

    The condition of congenital amusia, commonly known as tone-deafness, has been described for more than a century, but has received little empirical attention. In the present study, a research effort has been made to document in detail the behavioural manifestations of congenital amusia. A group of 11 adults, fitting stringent criteria of musical disabilities, were examined in a series of tests originally designed to assess the presence and specificity of musical disorders in brain-damaged patients. The results show that congenital amusia is related to severe deficiencies in processing pitch variations. The deficit extends to impairments in music memory and recognition as well as in singing and the ability to tap in time to music. Interestingly, the disorder appears specific to the musical domain. Congenital amusical individuals process and recognize speech, including speech prosody, common environmental sounds and human voices, as well as control subjects. Thus, the present study convincingly demonstrates the existence of congenital amusia as a new class of learning disabilities that affect musical abilities. PMID:11844725

  14. Density matrix renormalization group study of the Anyon-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcila-Forero, J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    Recently optical lattices allow us to observe phase transition without the uncertainty posed by complex materials, and the simulations of these systems are an excellent bridge between materials-based condensed matter physics and cold atoms. In this way, the computational physics related to many-body problems have increased in importance. Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we studied a Hubbard model for anyons, which is an equivalent to a variant of the Bose-Hubbard model in which the bosonic hopping depends on the local density. This is an exact mapping between anyons and bosons in one dimension. The anyons interlope between bosons and fermions. For two anyons under particle exchange, the wave function acquires a fractional phase eiθ . We conclude that this system exhibits two phases: Mott-insulator and superfluid. We present the phase diagram for some angles. The Mott lobe increases with an increase of the statistical. We observed a reentrance phase transition for all lobes. We showed that the model studied is in the same universality class as the Bose-Hubbard model with two-body interactions.

  15. A focus group study of factors influencing African-American men's prostate cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John; Emanuel, Angela; LaRose-Pierre, Margareth; Brown, James; Nash, Rowena

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors perceived by African-American men as influencing their behavior relative to prostate cancer screening. A total of 49 African-American men, age 40 and above, participated in 10 focus group discussions in Florida. Data collection was between October 12, 2001 and March 9, 2002 in Tallahassee, Tampa, and Miami. Data analysis was conducted using a comprehensive ethnographical analysis, including the use of an ethnographical retrieval program, Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing (QSR NUD*IST 4.0) software. Factors identified as influencing prostate cancer screening participation by African-American men were impediments to prostate cancer screening; positive outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; social influence; negative outcome beliefs associated with prostate cancer screening; resources or opportunities that facilitate prostate cancer screening; prostate cancer knowledge; perceived susceptibility to prostate cancer; perceived threat of prostate cancer; perceived severity of prostate cancer; positive health activities; illness experience; and prostate cancer screening intervention message concept, message source, and message channel. The results of this study may offer an excellent guide to designing effective, culturally sensitive, and relevant interventions, which would increase African-American men's participation in prostate cancer screening. PMID:15233488

  16. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers: findings from focus group studies in South India.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, G M; Sudershan, R V; Rao, Pratima; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2007-09-01

    In India, most of the diarrhoeal deaths among children (<5 years) are attributed to food and water contamination. Mothers are usually the final line of defence against food borne illnesses. Thus, the role of mothers in ensuring food safety at homes is well accepted. There are hardly any studies in India to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices on food safety. The present study was an attempt in this direction. A total of 32 Focus Group Discussions were carried out with mothers of children <5 years in 16 districts from all the four South Indian states. The findings reveal that food safety awareness and practices are good among mothers perhaps due to the Indian food ethos passed on to them through generations. Home cooked foods are considered to be safer than prepared foods bought from outside. Many mothers were aware of the common food adulterants but do not bother to complain or take action. There is a need to create enabling environment with improved access to potable water, sanitation and cooking fuel. Spreading awareness about checking food labels and reporting to the health authorities in case of food poisoning or adulteration is also the need of the hour. The Anganwadi Centres can be the focal points for imparting food safety education to the mothers. PMID:17448570

  17. Study group report on the impact of television on adolescent views of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Bearinger, L H

    1990-01-01

    There is not much research done on US television's portrayal of sex and its relation to teenage attitudes and sex behavior. What has been done is on marital fidelity, gender roles, and rape myths. Sexuality taboos have created research problems. Future research should include longitudinal studies. These should use sex behavior as a dependent variable and focus on correlational and causal questions. Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans should be included in future research. Research should address the decision-making process within the television industry. A "consortium" of researchers from different disciplines should be used. Health professionals and the television industry should talk. Key people in professional organizations should have this dialog with the television industry. Press releases should be sent to key industry publications. The study group recommends a 6-12 month "sabbatical" wherein television and health professionals could work in each others' settings. There is a restriction on the advertising of contraceptive in the networks. Condoms can be promoted for disease protection, but not for birth control. Prescription products can't be advertised. Generic contraceptive advertisement should be created. Products could be advertised in magazines, too. Guidelines should be set up for television advertising. It is not possible to predict which hours adolescents will be watching television anymore. Critical viewing skills should be taught in "media literacy" curricula for "early and middle" adolescents. PMID:2307598

  18. Comparative study of the hypotensive effect of a group of structural derivatives of glaucine.

    PubMed

    Todorov, S; Zamfirova, R

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on the hypotensive effect of a group of dehydrogenated structural derivatives of the alkaloid glaucine. The compounds studied induced a slowly occurring marked decrease in the blood pressure. Applied intravenously, they did not manifest the initial brief and very pronounced phase of the hypotensive effect, typical of glaucine, and failed to change substantially the respiration and the cardiac activity of the experimental animals. The most marked hypotensive effect was demonstrated by 7-benzoyl-dehydroglaucine (DG4), which reduced the blood pressure by about 50 and 60% respectively, when applied in doses of 1 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg. Applied duodenally, the dehydrogenated glaucine derivatives also manifested a gradually occurring hypotensive effect, whereby DG4 again caused the most pronounced blood pressure drop. Depending on the DG4 and glaucine doses used, the pressor effects of noradrenaline (NA) and nicotine (NIC) were moderately to strongly suppressed or completely inhibited. In experiments on cat membrana nictitans glaucine also suppressed moderately (2.5 mg/kg) or markedly (5 mg/kg) the contractile effects of NIC and NA, while DG4 did not influence (1 mg/kg) or potentiated (2.5 mg/kg) these effects. PMID:1819921

  19. Density-matrix renormalization group study of the extended Kitaev-Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, Kazuya; Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami

    2015-02-01

    We study an extended Kitaev-Heisenberg model including additional anisotropic couplings by using the two-dimensional density-matrix renormalization group method. Calculating the ground-state energy, entanglement entropy, and spin-spin correlation functions, we make a phase diagram of the extended Kitaev-Heisenberg model around the spin-liquid phase. We find a zigzag antiferromagnetic phase, a ferromagnetic phase, a 120∘ antiferromagnetic phase, and two kinds of incommensurate phases around the Kitaev spin-liquid phase. Furthermore, we study the entanglement spectrum of the model, and we find that entanglement levels in the Kitaev spin-liquid phase are degenerate forming pairs, but those in the magnetically ordered phases are nondegenerate. The Schmidt gap defined as the energy difference between the lowest two levels changes at the phase boundary adjacent to the Kitaev spin-liquid phase. However, we find that phase boundaries between magnetically ordered phases do not necessarily agree with the change of the Schmidt gap.

  20. Functional groups of forest succession as dissipative structures: an applied study.

    PubMed

    Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Santos, M G; Ribeiro, H L; Oliveira, R F

    2004-08-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dissipative efficiency of tropical tree species could be an ecological advantage in the forest succession process. Daily leaf gas exchanges of a pioneer species (Guazuma ulmifolia) and a late successional species (Cariniana legalis) were evaluated under well-irrigated conditions and by withholding irrigation. Analyses of network connectance (Cg) and plant autonomy (At) were carried out in order to assess metabolic network changes in response to environmental perturbation. As a global estimation of latent heat dissipation, the capacity to both maintain and cool leaf temperature in response to air temperature changes (deltaT = T degrees Cair - T degrees Cleaf) was evaluated. The changes observed in both the systemic parameters (Cg and At) and the physiological ones brought about by water deficit, associated with discrepant growth rates between both species, suggested that the initial formation of gap canopies composed by pioneer species could simply be a result of the higher photosynthetic rates of these species, and not necessarily because late successional species cannot cope with such a heterogeneous environment as that of a gap. Our results indicate that, in the absence of water constraints, the highest CO2 assimilation rates of pioneer species are supported by the efficiency of the whole dissipative structure, involving both degradation and dissipative processes. As a practical result, our study suggests the deltaT analysis in order to evaluate the efficiency of dissipative structures and as a aid in characterizing functional groups. PMID:15620011

  1. Social interaction in management group meetings: a case study of Finnish hospital.

    PubMed

    Laapotti, Tomi; Mikkola, Leena

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of management group meetings (MGMs) in hospital organization by examining the social interaction in these meetings. Design/methodology/approach - This case study approaches social interaction from a structuration point of view. Social network analysis and qualitative content analysis are applied. Findings - The findings show that MGMs are mainly forums for information sharing. Meetings are not held for problem solving or decision making, and operational coordinating is limited. Meeting interaction is very much focused on the chair, and most of the discussion takes place between the chair and one other member, not between members. The organizational structures are maintained and reproduced in the meeting interaction, and they appear to limit discussion. Meetings appear to fulfil their goals as a part of the organization's information structure and to some extent as an instrument for management. The significance of the relational side of MGMs was recognized. Research limitations/implications - The results of this study provide a basis for future research on hospital MGMs with wider datasets and other methodologies. Especially the relational role of MGMs needs more attention. Practical implications - The goals of MGMs should be reviewed and MG members should be made aware of meeting interaction structures. Originality/value - The paper provides new knowledge about interaction networks in hospital MGMs, and describes the complexity of the importance of MGMs for hospitals. PMID:27296882

  2. Ventricular arrhythmias in dilated cardiomyopathy as an independent prognostic hallmark. Italian Multicenter Cardiomyopathy Study (SPIC) Group.

    PubMed

    De Maria, R; Gavazzi, A; Caroli, A; Ometto, R; Biagini, A; Camerini, F

    1992-06-01

    Prevalence and characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) on Holter monitoring were evaluated in 218 patients with invasively documented idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy to clarify their relation to pump dysfunction, and their prognostic role. VA were observed in 205 patients (94%) and were high grade (ventricular pairs or tachycardia) in 130 (60%). No simple or multiform ventricular premature complexes were present in 88 patients (group 1; 41%), ventricular pairs in 63 (group 2; 32%), and ventricular tachycardia in 67 (group 3; 27%). Only echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions (p less than 0.05) and prevalence of VA during effort (8% in group 1, 15% in group 2, and 14% in group 3; p = 0.0005) differed significantly between groups. VA severity, and number of ventricular premature beats and tachycardia episodes were not correlated to right/left ventricular dimensions and pump function indexes. During a mean follow-up of 29 +/- 16 months, 27 patients died from cardiac events, and 16 received transplants. Three-year survival probability was lower in groups 2 (0.82) and 3 (0.81) than in group 1 (0.94). By Cox multivariate analysis, VA severity (p less than 0.01) was a major independent predictor of prognosis after markers of ventricular dysfunction such as left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.001) and stroke work index (p less than 0.001). PMID:1590236

  3. A case study of Markdale High School's implementation of heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006) experienced during this effort. The researcher used Hall and Hord's (2006) Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework. Specifically, the researcher applied three elements of the CBAM model: (a) the Twelve Principles of Change, (b) the Change Facilitator Styles, and (c) the Stages of Concerns. Hall and Hord's framework served as a lens through which the researcher analyzed all data. The researcher used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to answer the four research questions. The participants completed three instruments: (a) the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), (b) the Principles of Change Survey, and (c) the Facilitator Style Survey. All three instruments were self-report, paper-pencil surveys. The sample included 72 faculty members who experienced the change over the past three years. Findings from the three data sources and the school principal's comments during debriefing are indicated for each research question and reported by unit of analysis. Respective to the research questions, the researcher concluded that: (1) Markdale High School accomplished the change by implementing both structural and instructional changes supporting to the change to heterogeneous grouping; (2) even though teachers had divergent opinions on the school principal's facilitation style, the principal thought of himself as an incrementalist and a practitioner of differentiated facilitation styles; (3) while half of the faculty felt that they received formal training on heterogeneous grouping, (4) half felt that they did not have a choice in the decision-making process as it occurred with college preparatory and

  4. Food groups and laryngeal cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-07-20

    Besides tobacco and alcohol, diet has been thought to be associated with laryngeal cancer risk. We thus analyzed the role of various food groups, as well as specific seasoning fats, in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud from 1992 to 2000. Our study included 527 incident, histologically confirmed cases and 1,297 frequency-matched controls, selected among patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, unrelated to smoking, alcohol consumption and long-term modifications of diet. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for major confounding factors, a significant trend of increasing risk was observed for eggs (OR = 1.7 for the highest compared to the lowest quintile), red meat (OR = 3.1), processed meat (OR = 1.7), fish (OR = 1.6) and sugars (OR = 1.6). Significant inverse associations were observed for pulses (OR = 0.7), raw vegetables (OR = 0.2), cooked vegetables (OR = 0.3), citrus fruit (OR = 0.6) and other fruit (OR = 0.5). In regard to seasoning fats, a significant reduction of cancer risk was observed for olive oil (OR = 0.4) and specific seed oils (OR = 0.6), while mixed seed oils were directly associated with laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 2.2). Our study suggests that increasing vegetables and fruit, decreasing meat consumption and perhaps substituting olive oil or specific seed oils for other types of seasoning lipids might help reduce laryngeal cancer risk. PMID:12115553

  5. Farm and rural adolescents’ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Nordstrom, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths’ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents. PMID:25913552

  6. Farm and rural adolescents' perspective on hearing conservation: reports from a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Nordstrom, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths' recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents. PMID:25913552

  7. Experiences of employees with arm, neck or shoulder complaints: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people suffer from complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). CANS causes significant work problems, including absenteeism (sickness absence), presenteeism (decreased work productivity) and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people suffering from CANS. Management of symptoms and workload, and improving the workstyle, could be important factors in the strategy to deal with CANS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experienced problems of employees with CANS, as a first step in an intervention mapping process aimed at adaptation of an existing self-management program to the characteristics of employees suffering from CANS. Methods A qualitative study comprising three focus group meetings with 15 employees suffering from CANS. Based on a question guide, participants were asked about experiences in relation to continuing work despite their complaints. Data were analysed using content analysis with an open-coding system. During selective coding, general themes and patterns were identified and relationships between the codes were examined. Results Participants suffering from CANS often have to deal with pain, disability, fatigue, misunderstanding and stress at work. Some needs of the participants were identified, i.e. disease-specific information, exercises, muscle relaxation, working with pain, influence of the work and/or social environment, and personal factors (including workstyle). Conclusions Employees suffering from CANS search for ways to deal with their complaints in daily life and at work. This study reveals several recurring problems and the results endorse the multi-factorial origin of CANS. Participants generally experience problems similar to those of employees with other types of complaints or chronic diseases, e.g. related to their illness, insufficient communication, working together with healthcare professionals, colleagues and management, and workplace adaptations. These topics will be

  8. Online Group Course for Parents With Mental Illness: Development and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Paula AM; Arntz, Karlijn SE; Onrust, Simone A

    2010-01-01

    Background Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children’s well-being by strengthening children’s protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. Objective This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. Method The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen’s d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. Results The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P < .01) and on the OOO Feelings of Incompetence and Competence subscales (P < .01) in analysis

  9. Theoretical Study of Material and Device Properties of Group-III Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qimin

    Group-III nitride semiconductors, including AlN, GaN, InN, and their alloys, are ideal materials for solid state lighting applications. Current research focuses on improving the efficiency by improvements in materials quality and novel device designs, for instance based on nonpolar and semipolar growth. The motivation for our work is to assist and guide the experimental development of high-performance solid state optoelectronic devices by performing computational studies. Our investigations range from basic structural and electronic properties of nitrides to the effects of device design on efficiency of light emission. In the area of fundamental properties, we performed a systematic study of strain effects on the electronic band structures of the group-III-nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) using density-functional theory with an advanced hybrid functional as well as using the quasiparticle GW method. We present a complete set of deformation potentials that allows us to predict the band positions of group-III nitrides and their alloys (InGaN and AlGaN) under realistic strain conditions. We then employed the resulting first-principles deformation potentials to predict the effects of strain on transition energies and valence-band structures of c-plane, nonpolar, and semipolar InGaN alloy layers grown on GaN substrates, with particular attention to the role of strain in the polarized light emission. We also investigated the role of native defects in the optical properties of GaN and AlN, again using hybrid density-functional calculations. We established that complexes between Mg and nitrogen vacancies lead to the broad red luminescence that has often been observed in GaN. We find that isolated nitrogen vacancies can give rise to broad emission peaked at 2.18 eV. We show that isolated aluminum vacancies lead to an absorption peak at 3.43 eV and an emission peak at 2.73 eV. We also find that the complexes can give rise to absorption peaked at 3.97 eV and

  10. Utilizing the Peer Group Method with Case Studies to Teach Pharmacokinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Pamela J.

    1994-01-01

    A pharmacy school large-group (110 students) course in pharmacokinetics was designed to incorporate small-group team-based problem solving. The method allows students to learn material through traditional lecture, research the topic further, discuss the information gained, and apply the learning to specific cases in a manner that promotes…

  11. Team Satisfaction and Student Group Performance: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitun, Rami M.; Abdulqader, Khalid Shams; Alshare, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between team satisfaction and students' performance in group projects in two universities, one from the United States and one from Qatar. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between team satisfaction and group performance only for the American students. Demographic factors…

  12. Facebook Groups as an Academic Teaching Aid: Case Study and Recommendations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Eli; Ravid, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    The move from a walled garden type Learning Management Systems (LMS) to open environments (like Facebook) forces us to adapt new teaching ways. This article offers a brief review of the use of Facebook groups in learning, describes the experience of using Facebook groups in an academic institute, explains the considerations for choosing the type…

  13. A Well Woman's Health Maintenance Study Comparing Physical Fitness and Group Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Alice Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To examine the effect of group support and physical activity on 75 physiological and psychological health indicators in women 40 to 64 years of age, 50 subjects were placed in exercise, discussion, exercise and discussion, or control groups. Pre- and postprogram psychosocial and physical measures were analyzed, and implications for prevention and…

  14. Teacher Commitment: A Comparative Study of Malaysian Ethnic Groups in Three Types of Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Razak, Nordin Abd

    2014-01-01

    Commitment is a complex attitude that is potentially influenced by the nature of the groups and is contingent on the context in which an individual functions. Thus, different sociocultural environments will prescribe different imperatives for individuals' or groups' attitudes toward their work, particularly teachers' commitment in a…

  15. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  16. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  17. An iterative evaluation of two shortened systematic review formats for clinicians: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Laure; Kealey, M Ryan; Straus, Sharon E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a series of focus groups with primary care physicians to determine the optimal format of a shortened, focused systematic review. Materials and methods Prototypes for two formats of a shortened systematic review were developed and presented to participants during focus group sessions. Focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians who were in full- or part-time practice. An iterative process was used so that the information learned from the first set of focus groups (Round 1) influenced the material presented to the second set of focus groups (Round 2). The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed. Results Each of the two rounds of testing included three focus groups. A total of 32 physicians participated (Round 1:16 participants; Round 2:16 participants). Analysis of the transcripts from Round 1 identified three themes including ease of use, clarity, and implementation. Changes were made to the prototypes based on the results so that the revised prototypes could be presented and discussed in the second round of focus groups. After analysis of transcripts from Round 2, four themes were identified, including ease of use, clarity, brevity, and implementation. Revisions were made to the prototypes based on the results. Conclusions Primary care physicians provided input on the refinement of two prototypes of a shortened systematic review for clinicians. Their feedback guided changes to the format, presentation, and layout of these prototypes in order to increase usability and uptake for end-users. PMID:24786378

  18. Case Study: Improving Laboratory Learning through Group Working and Structured Reflection and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes how student learning from a series of laboratory practicals was improved using small group methods and a structured learning cycle that encouraged reflection on group performance and investigative techniques. Discussion includes evaluation of learning benefits by means of written records, a questionnaire, observation, and the role of…

  19. Personality Traits and Group-Based Information Behaviour: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyldegard, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between hypothesised behaviour resulting from a personality test and actual information behaviour resulting from a group-based assignment process is addressed in this paper. Methods: Three voluntary groups of ten librarianship and information science students were followed during a project assignment. The long…

  20. Interpersonal Relationship Styles in Marathon Group Therapy: A Study with Illicit Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)

  1. A Comparative Study of Collaborative Learning in "Paper Scribbles" and "Group Scribbles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Chen Fang

    2010-01-01

    "Paper Scribbles" (PS) consisting of markers, vanguard sheets and 3M "Post-It" notes, is a pedagogical tool to harness collective intelligence of groups for collaborative learning in the classroom. Borrowing the key features of PS and yet avoiding some of their physical limitations, a computer-based tool called "Group Scribbles" (GS) was designed…

  2. Qualitative Differences between Learning Environments Using Videos in Small Groups and Whole Class Discussions: A Preliminary Study in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ashleigh; Sharma, Manjula D.; Muller, Derek A.

    2009-01-01

    Interactivity, group learning and student engagement are accepted as key features of social constructivist learning theories. The challenge is to understand the interplay between such features in different learning environments. This study focused on the qualitative differences between two interventions--small-groups and whole-class discussions.…

  3. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  4. Multidisciplinary Approach to Rehabilitation. Report from the Study Group. Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (13th, Little Rock, Arkansas, October 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Robert; And Others

    This manual is the response of a National Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (IRI) Prime Study Group to charges given to the group by the National IRI Planning Committee to develop a meaningful training and resource document on the multidisciplinary approach to vocational rehabilitation. The guide is organized in seven chapters that cover the…

  5. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Use of Sand for Counselor Interns in Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Helena Bohn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore sandtray as a group supervision method in counselor education programs. The research centered on the personal growth and development of counselor interns as they conceptualized and reflected on cases during group supervision. Research questions guiding the process included: What is the experience of…

  7. The Principal Perspective: A Case Study on the Perceptions of Middle School Principals toward Ability Grouping and Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Brenda Watts

    2013-01-01

    The "Principal Perspective: A Case Study on the Perspectives of Middle School Principals" toward Ability Grouping and Tracking investigated the views and beliefs middle and high school principals hold about curricular tracking and ability grouping, and the impact such organizational structures may have on student learning. Tracking…

  8. Garden Counseling Groups and Self-Esteem: A Mixed Methods Study with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Group Treatment for Symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder: A Public Sector Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jane; Snowdon, Sharon; Gopold, Michelle; Guymer, Elise

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study of a brief group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention (12 two-hour sessions) was conducted with clients of public mental health services meeting four or more criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were randomly assigned to receive the ACT group intervention in addition to their current…

  10. Case Study of Implementation of Flexible Grouping in One School Framed within the Change Based Adoption Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaydon, Donda

    2013-01-01

    This case study was designed to investigate the implementation of flexible grouping at one elementary school framed within the Change Based Adoption Model. Using interviews and observations, data were compiled to answer research questions related to the steps taken to implement flexible grouping, challenges faced, overall effects of flexible…

  11. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. PMID:24852220

  12. Vibrational properties of the amide group in acetanilide: A molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Giansanti, Andrea; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    1987-09-01

    A simplified classical model of acetanilide crystal is built in order to study the mechanisms of vibrational energy transduction in a hydrogen-bonded solid. The intermolecular hydrogen bond is modeled by an electrostatic interaction between neighboring excess charges on hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The intramolecular interaction in the peptide group is provided by a dipole-charge interaction. Forces are calculated up to second-order terms in the atomic displacements from equilibrium positions; the model is thus a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators. Numerical molecular-dynamics experiments are performed on chain segments of five molecules. The dynamics is ordered, at all temperatures. Energy is widely exchanged between the stretching and the bending of the N-H bond, with characteristic times of the order of 0.2 ps. Energy transduction through the H bond is somewhat slower and of smaller amplitude, and is strongly reduced when the energies of the two bound molecules are very different: This could reduce the dissipation of localized energy fluctuations.

  13. Updated model of group A Streptococcus M proteins based on a comprehensive worldwide study.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D J; Drèze, P-A; Vu, T; Bessen, D E; Guglielmini, J; Steer, A C; Carapetis, J R; Van Melderen, L; Sriprakash, K S; Smeesters, P R

    2013-05-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) M protein is an important virulence factor and potential vaccine antigen, and constitutes the basis for strain typing (emm-typing). Although >200 emm-types are characterized, structural data were obtained from only a limited number of emm-types. We aim to evaluate the sequence diversity of near-full-length M proteins from worldwide sources and analyse their structure, sequence conservation and classification. GAS isolates recovered from throughout the world during the last two decades underwent emm-typing and complete emm gene sequencing. Predicted amino acid sequence analyses, secondary structure predictions and vaccine epitope mapping were performed using MUSCLE and Geneious software. A total of 1086 isolates from 31 countries were analysed, representing 175 emm-types. emm-type is predictive of the whole protein structure, independent of geographical origin or clinical association. Findings of an emm-type paired with multiple, highly divergent central regions were not observed. M protein sequence length, the presence or absence of sequence repeats and predicted secondary structure were assessed in the context of the latest vaccine developments. Based on these global data, the M6 protein model is updated to a three representative M protein (M5, M80 and M77) model, to aid in epidemiological analysis, vaccine development and M protein-related pathogenesis studies. PMID:23464795

  14. A combined stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video system to study group composition of dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräger, S.; Chong, A.; Dawson, S.; Slooten, E.; Würsig, B.

    1999-11-01

    One reason for the paucity of knowledge of dolphin social structure is the difficulty of measuring individual dolphins. In Hector's dolphins, Cephalorhynchus hectori, total body length is a function of age, and sex can be determined by individual colouration pattern. We developed a novel system combining stereo-photogrammetry and underwater-video to record dolphin group composition. The system consists of two downward-looking single-lens-reflex (SLR) cameras and a Hi8 video camera in an underwater housing mounted on a small boat. Bow-riding Hector's dolphins were photographed and video-taped at close range in coastal waters around the South Island of New Zealand. Three-dimensional, stereoscopic measurements of the distance between the blowhole and the anterior margin of the dorsal fin (BH-DF) were calibrated by a suspended frame with reference points. Growth functions derived from measurements of 53 dead Hector's dolphins (29 female : 24 male) provided the necessary reference data. For the analysis, the measurements were synchronised with corresponding underwater-video of the genital area. A total of 27 successful measurements (8 with corresponding sex) were obtained, showing how this new system promises to be potentially useful for cetacean studies.

  15. Category-Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex Follows Cortical Topology: A Grouped icEEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Christopher Richard; Whaley, Meagan Lee; Baboyan, Vatche George; Tandon, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that category-selective regions in higher-order visual cortex are topologically organized around specific anatomical landmarks: the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS) in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and lateral occipital sulcus (LOS) in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). To derive precise structure-function maps from direct neural signals, we collected intracranial EEG (icEEG) recordings in a large human cohort (n = 26) undergoing implantation of subdural electrodes. A surface-based approach to grouped icEEG analysis was used to overcome challenges from sparse electrode coverage within subjects and variable cortical anatomy across subjects. The topology of category-selectivity in bilateral VTC and LOC was assessed for five classes of visual stimuli—faces, animate non-face (animals/body-parts), places, tools, and words—using correlational and linear mixed effects analyses. In the LOC, selectivity for living (faces and animate non-face) and non-living (places and tools) classes was arranged in a ventral-to-dorsal axis along the LOS. In the VTC, selectivity for living and non-living stimuli was arranged in a latero-medial axis along the MFS. Written word-selectivity was reliably localized to the intersection of the left MFS and the occipito-temporal sulcus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence for topological information structuring of functional representations within higher-order visual cortex. PMID:27272936

  16. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  17. Sickness absence, marginality, and medically unexplained physical symptoms: A focus-group study of patients’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. Methods Two focus-group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24–59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically unexplained. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis. Inspired by theories of marginalization and coping, the authors searched for knowledge of how patients’ positive resources can be mobilized to counteract processes of marginality. Results Analysis revealed how invisible symptoms and lack of objective findings were perceived as an additional burden to the sickness absence itself. Factors that could counteract further marginalization were a supportive social network, positive coping strategies such as keeping to the daily schedule and physical activity, and positive attention and confidence from professionals. Conclusions Confidence from both personal and professional contacts is crucial. GPs have an important and appreciated role in this aspect. PMID:23659708

  18. Comparative studies on group III σ-hole and π-hole interactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zeng, Yanli; Zhang, Xueying; Meng, Lingpeng

    2016-05-30

    The σ-hole of M2 H6 (M = Al, Ga, In) and π-hole of MH3 (M = Al, Ga, In) were discovered and analyzed, the bimolecular complexes M2 H6 ···NH3 and MH3 ···N2 P2 F4 (M = Al, Ga, In) were constructed to carry out comparative studies on the group III σ-hole interactions and π-hole interactions. The two types of interactions are all partial-covalent interactions; the π-hole interactions are stronger than σ-hole interactions. The electrostatic energy is the largest contribution for forming the σ-hole and π-hole interaction, the polarization energy is also an important factor to form the M···N interaction. The electrostatic energy contributions to the interaction energy of the σ-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those of the π-hole interactions. However, the polarization contributions for the π-hole interactions are somewhat greater than those for the σ-hole interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949204

  19. Kondo insulators modeled by the one-dimensional Anderson lattice: A numerical-renormalization-group study

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, M.; Yu, C.C.

    1995-04-15

    In order to better understand Kondo insulators, we have studied both the symmetric and asymmetric Anderson lattices at half filling in one dimension using the density-matrix formulation of the numerical renormalization group. The asymmetric case is treated in the mixed-valence regime. We have calculated the charge gap, the spin gap, and the quasiparticle gap as a function of the repulsive interaction {ital U} using open boundary conditions for lattices as large as 24 sites. We find that the charge gap is larger than the spin gap for all {ital U} for both the symmetric and asymmetric cases. Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions are evident in the {ital f}-spin--{ital f}-spin correlation functions at large {ital U} in the symmetric case, but are suppressed in the asymmetric case as the {ital f} level approaches the Fermi energy. This suppression can also be seen in the staggered susceptibility {chi}({ital q}=2{ital k}{sub {ital F}}) and it is consistent with neutron scattering measurements of {chi}({ital q}) in CeNiSn.

  20. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it. PMID:24748849

  1. Attitudes towards patient gender among psychiatric hospital staff: results of a case study with focus groups.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Silvia; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    There is an increasing awareness of gender-related issues in psychiatry. However, empirical findings on attitudes of psychiatric staff towards patient gender are limited. Gender-related issues are particularly relevant in the debate about mixed versus segregated sex wards, yet while the appropriateness of mixed-sex wards is questioned in Great Britain this is not the case in Germany. To investigate attitudes of psychiatric staff towards both patient gender and mixed versus segregated sex wards, we conducted a case study using focus groups with members of professional teams. We evaluated the transition process from two single-sex wards to two mixed-sex wards in a 330-bed psychiatric hospital in a rural area in south Germany. Staff described female patients as more externally oriented, motivating of others, demanding, and even sexually aggressive. Male patients, on the other hand, were described as more quiet, modest, or lazy. Furthermore, participants described the mixing process as a positive development whereas they did not see a need for gender-separated wards in order to protect vulnerable female patients. Some gender descriptions by professionals are "reversed" in comparison with gender stereotypes supposed to be present in wider society. The perception of crossed gender norms may affect staff attitudes towards the vulnerability of female patients in psychiatric settings and the provision of single-sex wards in in-patient psychiatric care. Practical implications are discussed against the background of a high rate of female patients with sexual abuse histories. PMID:16157434

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering study of methyl groups rotation in some methylxanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, M.; Pawlukojc, A.; Wischnewski, A.; Wuttke, J.

    2007-12-01

    The three isomeric dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthine are studied by neutron spectroscopy up to energy transfers of 100meV at energy resolutions ranging from 0.7μeV to some meV. The loss of elastic intensity with increasing temperature can be modeled by quasielastic methyl rotation. The number of inequivalent methyl groups is in agreement with those of the room temperature crystal structures. Activation energies are obtained. In the case of theophylline, a doublet tunneling band is observed at 15.1 and 17.5μeV. In theobromine, a single tunneling band at 0.3μeV is found. Orientational disorder in caffeine leads to a 2.7μeV broad distribution of tunneling bands around the elastic line. At the same time, broad low energy phonon spectra characterize an orientational glassy state with weak methyl rotational potentials. Librational energies of the dimethylxanthines are clearly seen in the phonon densities of states. Rotational potentials can be derived which explain consistently all observables. While their symmetry in general is threefold, theophylline shows a close to sixfold potential reflecting a mirror symmetry.

  3. The effects of study groups on teachers' transfer of inquiry instruction training to elementary school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerer, Karen M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the study group model of job-embedded professional development implemented by one district to determine its effectiveness on the degree to which teachers successfully transferred the "best practice" of inquiry into their science classroom as a result of the study group, and the impact of this professional development on students' science achievement in grades 3, 4 and 5. Upon the implementation of a new science curriculum, grade 3, 4 and 5 teachers and students were randomly selected to comprise two treatment groups. One group of teachers participated in two workshops while the other group of teachers participated in the workshops and formed study groups to continue their science professional development training, meeting six times during the course of four months. Students completed a science content assessment as a pre- and post-test measure of their achievement. Teachers and students also completed a pre- and post-test Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) to measure the implementation of constructivist practices in the classroom. An analysis of covariance was conducted to determine if any significant results occurred. Teachers from both treatment groups were also observed using the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR), which was designed and validated to measure their transfer of inquiry training into the science classroom. An occurrence analysis was utilized to examine the results. Significant findings occurred in the achievement results of grade 3 and 5 study group students. In addition, it was determined that study groups may have resulted in the implementation of more student-centered inquiry practices than the workshop group in grades 3 and 5. However, in this study, it appeared that the study group teachers may not have used enough student-centered features of inquiry to establish constructivist learning environments as no statistically significant findings occurred. Grade 4 achievement results were

  4. A Renormalization Group Study of the Ising Model on the Hierarchical Hanoi Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunson, Clifton Trent

    Despite all the remarkable breakthroughs in the area of complex networks over the last two decades, there still lacks a complete and general understanding of effects that occur when long-range connections are present in a system. This thesis explores the Ising model using recursive hierarchical networks called Hanoi networks (HN) as a substrate. Hanoi networks are purely synthetic and are not found in nature, so it is important to establish and not lose sight of why they worth studying. In essence, we are not strictly interested in HNs themselves, but the generalized statements about phase transitions on complex networks that they provide via the renormalization group (RG). The RG framework on HNs is established in this study and the thermodynamic observables for statistical models are derived from it. Traditionally, the RG has given physicists insight into the critical exponents of a system or model, which leads to universal behavior; however, hyperbolic networks, like the ones currently under investigation, do not contain constant exponents and do not exhibit universality. Instead, it is found that the scaling exponents are functions of the temperature. We ultimately want to answer the questions: What is it about long-range connections that create a break in universal behavior and can complex networks be designed to produce predicted and intended effects in phase behavior? The current state of research is several years or perhaps decades away from fully comprehending the answers to these questions. The research presented here is motivated by these questions, and our contribution here is intended to show a generalized picture of phase transitions on networks.

  5. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  6. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P < 0.001), and in 50.0% VTE was the main cause of death. Estimated incidence of VTE in Croatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Conclusion Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  7. Parametric approaches to quality-adjusted survival analysis. International Breast Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cole, B F; Gelber, R D; Anderson, K M

    1994-09-01

    We present a parametric methodology for performing quality-of-life-adjusted survival analysis using multivariate censored survival data. It represents a generalization of the nonparametric Q-TWiST method (Quality-adjusted Time without Symptoms and Toxicity). The event times correspond to transitions between states of health that differ in terms of quality of life. Each transition is governed by a competing risks model where the health states are the competing risks. Overall survival is the sum of the amount of time spent in each health state. The first step of the proposed methodology consists of defining a quality function that assigns a "score" to a life having given health state transitions. It is a composite measure of both quantity and quality of life. In general, the quality function assigns a small value to a short life with poor quality and a high value to a long life with good quality. In the second step, parametric survival models are fit to the data. This is done by repeatedly modeling the conditional cause-specific hazard functions given the previous transitions. Covariates are incorporated by accelerated failure time regression, and the model parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood. Lastly, the modeling results are used to estimate the expectation of quality functions. Standard errors and confidence intervals are computed using the bootstrap and delta methods. The results are useful for simultaneously evaluating treatments in terms of quantity and quality of life. To demonstrate the proposed methods, we perform an analysis of data from the International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial V, which compared short-duration chemotherapy versus long-duration chemotherapy in the treatment of node-positive breast cancer. The events studied are: (1) the end of treatment toxicity, (2) disease recurrence, and (3) overall survival. PMID:7981389

  8. Many-body localization and transition by density matrix renormalization group and exact diagonalization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. P.; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-07-01

    A many-body localized (MBL) state is a new state of matter emerging in a disordered interacting system at high-energy densities through a disorder-driven dynamic phase transition. The nature of the phase transition and the evolution of the MBL phase near the transition are the focus of intense theoretical studies with open issues in the field. We develop an entanglement density matrix renormalization group (En-DMRG) algorithm to accurately target highly excited states for MBL systems. By studying the one-dimensional Heisenberg spin chain in a random field, we demonstrate the accuracy of the method in obtaining energy eigenstates and the corresponding statistical results of quantum states in the MBL phase. Based on large system simulations by En-DMRG for excited states, we demonstrate some interesting features in the entanglement entropy distribution function, which is characterized by two peaks: one at zero and another one at the quantized entropy S =ln2 with an exponential decay tail on the S >ln2 side. Combining En-DMRG with exact diagonalization simulations, we demonstrate that the transition from the MBL phase to the delocalized ergodic phase is driven by rare events where the locally entangled spin pairs develop power-law correlations. The corresponding phase diagram contains an intermediate or crossover regime, which has power-law spin-z correlations resulting from contributions of the rare events. We discuss the physical picture for the numerical observations in this regime, where various distribution functions are distinctly different from results deep in the ergodic and MBL phases for finite-size systems. Our results may provide new insights for understanding the phase transition in such systems.

  9. Ab initio density matrix renormalization group study of magnetic coupling in dinuclear iron and chromium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Travis V.; Morokuma, Keiji; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2014-02-07

    The applicability of ab initio multireference wavefunction-based methods to the study of magnetic complexes has been restricted by the quickly rising active-space requirements of oligonuclear systems and dinuclear complexes with S > 1 spin centers. Ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods built upon an efficient parameterization of the correlation network enable the use of much larger active spaces, and therefore may offer a way forward. Here, we apply DMRG-CASSCF to the dinuclear complexes [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} and [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+}. After developing the methodology through systematic basis set and DMRG M testing, we explore the effects of extended active spaces that are beyond the limit of conventional methods. We find that DMRG-CASSCF with active spaces including the metal d orbitals, occupied bridging-ligand orbitals, and their virtual double shells already capture a major portion of the dynamic correlation effects, accurately reproducing the experimental magnetic coupling constant (J) of [Fe{sub 2}OCl{sub 6}]{sup 2−} with (16e,26o), and considerably improving the smaller active space results for [Cr{sub 2}O(NH{sub 3}){sub 10}]{sup 4+} with (12e,32o). For comparison, we perform conventional MRCI+Q calculations and find the J values to be consistent with those from DMRG-CASSCF. In contrast to previous studies, the higher spin states of the two systems show similar deviations from the Heisenberg spectrum, regardless of the computational method.

  10. The Future of Stellar Populations Studies in the Milky Way and the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    2010-04-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in understanding the structure of the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies via the production of large-scale digital surveys of the sky like 2MASS and SDSS, as well as specialized, counterpart imaging surveys of other Local Group systems. Apart from providing snaphots of galaxy structure, these “cartographic” surveys lend insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies when supplemented with additional data (e.g., spectroscopy, astrometry) and when referenced to theoretical models and simulations of galaxy evolution. These increasingly sophisticated simulations are making ever more specific predictions about the detailed chemistry and dynamics of stellar populations in galaxies. To fully exploit, test and constrain these theoretical ventures demands similar commitments of observational effort as has been plied into the previous imaging surveys to fill out other dimensions of parameter space with statistically significant intensity. Fortunately the future of large-scale stellar population studies is bright with a number of grand projects on the horizon that collectively will contribute a breathtaking volume of information on individual stars in Local Group galaxies. These projects include: (1) additional imaging surveys, such as Pan-STARRS, SkyMapper and LSST, which, apart from providing deep, multicolor imaging, yield time series data useful for revealing variable stars (including critical standard candles, like RR Lyrae variables) and creating large-scale, deep proper motion catalogs; (2) higher accuracy, space-based astrometric missions, such as Gaia and SIM-Lite, which stand to provide critical, high precision dynamical data on stars in the Milky Way and its satellites; and (3) large-scale spectroscopic surveys provided by RAVE, APOGEE, HERMES, LAMOST, and the Gaia spectrometer, which will yield not only enormous numbers of stellar radial velocities, but extremely comprehensive views of the chemistry of stellar

  11. Assistive technologies after stroke: self-management or fending for yourself? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistive Technologies, defined as “electrical or mechanical devices designed to help people recover movement” have demonstrated clinical benefits in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Stroke services are becoming community-based and more reliant on self-management approaches. Assistive technologies could become important tools within self-management, however, in practice, few people currently use assistive technologies. This study investigated patients’, family caregivers and health professionals’ experiences and perceptions of stroke upper-limb rehabilitation and assistive technology use and identified the barriers and facilitators to their use in supporting stroke self-management. Methods A three-day exhibition of assistive technologies was attended by 204 patients, family caregivers/friends and health professionals. Four focus groups were conducted with people purposively sampled from exhibition attendees. They included i) people with stroke who had used assistive technologies (n = 5), ii) people with stroke who had not used assistive technologies (n = 6), iii) family caregivers (n = 5) and iv) health professionals (n = 6). The audio-taped focus groups were facilitated by a moderator and observer. All participants were asked to discuss experiences, strengths, weaknesses, barriers and facilitators to using assistive technologies. Following transcription, data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All respondents thought assistive technologies had the potential to support self-management but that this opportunity was currently unrealised. All respondents considered assistive technologies could provide a home-based solution to the need for high intensity upper-limb rehabilitation. All stakeholders also reported significant barriers to assistive technology use, related to i) device design ii) access to assistive technology information and iii) access to assistive technology provision. The lack of and need for a coordinated

  12. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and…

  13. Secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: breath study on a control group.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lozano, P; Zingaro, L; Finiguerra, A; Cristoni, S

    2011-03-01

    A series of fatty acids among other compounds have recently been detected in breath in real time by secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) (Martínez-Lozano P and Fernández de la Mora J 2008 Anal. Chem. 80 8210). Our main aim in this work was to (1) quantify their abundance in breath calibrating the system with standard vapors and (2) extend the study to a control group for several days, both under fasting conditions and after sucrose intake. For the quantitative study, we fed our system with controlled amounts (∼140-1440 ppt) of fatty acid vapors (i.e. propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids). As a result, we found sensitivities ranging between 1 and 2.2 cps/ppt. Estimated concentrations of these particular acids in the breath of a fasting subject were in the order of 100 ppt. These values were in reasonable agreement with those expected from reported typical plasma concentrations and Henry constants. A second set of experiments on three fasting individuals before and after ingesting 15 g of sucrose showed that the concentration of propionic and butanoic acids increased rapidly in breath for two subjects. This response was attributed to bacterial activity in mouth and pharynx. In contrast, a third subject showed no response to the administration of sucrose. In addition, we performed a survey among six fasting subjects comparing nasal and mouth exhalations during 11 days, 4 months apart. The signal intensity was comparable for mouth and nose breath. This observation, in conjunction with the quantitative study, suggests that these compounds are mostly systemic when measured under fasting conditions. We finally used the NIST MS search algorithm to evaluate the possibility of recognizing a breathing subject based on his/her breath signature. The global recognition score was 63% (41 out of 65), while the probability by chance alone was 6 × 10(-17). This indicates that (i) there are statistically recognizable differences in

  14. PHENOME-WIDE INTERACTION STUDY (PheWIS) IN AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP DATA (ACTG)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali S.; Frase, Alex T.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Mahony, Shaun; Haas, David W.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Association studies have shown and continue to show a substantial amount of success in identifying links between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes. These studies are also believed to provide insights toward identification of new drug targets and therapies. Albeit of all the success, challenges still remain for applying and prioritizing these associations based on available biological knowledge. Along with single variant association analysis, genetic interactions also play an important role in uncovering the etiology and progression of complex traits. For gene-gene interaction analysis, selection of the variants to test for associations still poses a challenge in identifying epistatic interactions among the large list of variants available in high-throughput, genome-wide datasets. Therefore in this study, we propose a pipeline to identify interactions among genetic variants that are associated with multiple phenotypes by prioritizing previously published results from main effect association analysis (genome-wide and phenome-wide association analysis) based on a-priori biological knowledge in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) data. We approached the prioritization and filtration of variants by using the results of a previously published single variant PheWAS and then utilizing biological information from the Roadmap Epigenome project. We removed variants in low functional activity regions based on chromatin states annotation and then conducted an exhaustive pairwise interaction search using linear regression analysis. We performed this analysis in two independent pre-treatment clinical trial datasets from ACTG to allow for both discovery and replication. Using a regression framework, we observed 50,798 associations that replicate at p-value 0.01 for 26 phenotypes, among which 2,176 associations for 212 unique SNPs for fasting blood glucose phenotype reach Bonferroni significance and an additional 9,970 interactions for high

  15. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    PubMed

    Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Attfield, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m⁻³ across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m⁻³, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m⁻³ by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average

  16. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  17. The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS): Galaxy Evolution in Groups in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudick, Craig; Carollo, M.; Cibinel, A.; Pipino, A.; Lu, T.; Cameron, E.; Lilly, S.; Peng, Y.; Miniati, F.; Bonoli, S.; Silverman, J.; van Gorkum, J.

    2012-05-01

    ZENS is a survey of nearby (z 0.05) galaxy groups in the mass range 1012-1014 MSUN. From both spectroscopy and deep optical imaging, we have analyzed the structural, stellar population, and star-formation properties of the group galaxies. By comparing the galaxy populations, at fixed galactic stellar mass, across a wide range of environmental indicators - including group halo mass, group-centric radius, large scale structure density, and satellite vs. central galaxies - we are able to determine the dependence of galactic properties on each of these environmental measures. Our results indicate that the most significant environmental effects are seen for satellite galaxies as a function of the group-centric distance, where galaxies nearer the group centers are more likely to be quenched, be more bulge-dominated, and have redder colors (particularly in the disk component) than galaxies in the group outskirts. Group halo mass, LSS-density, and the central/satellite dichotomy tend to have smaller, although not always negligible, effects. Additionally, the group environment has a more pronounced affect on galaxies at lower stellar masses. We compare these results to those of several state-of-the art semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution. We find that the standard recipes tend to predict both an over-abundance of, and overly red colors for quenched galaxies. We instead find that a model in which the star-formation rate of galaxies is tied to the observed specific star formation evolution with redshift more accurately reproduced the numbers and colors of these quenched galaxies.

  18. ZIF-8 gate tuning via terminal group modification: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Lian Li; Du, Lifei; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Du, Huiling

    2016-08-01

    Tuning the pore structure of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) enables unique control of their material properties. In this work, we used computational methods to examine the gate structure of ZIF-8 tuned by substitution terminal groups. The substitution position and electron affinity of the added groups were shown to be key factors in gate size. Electrostatic interactions are responsible for the variation in gate opening. These results suggest that the post-modification of terminal group in ZIFs can be used to finely tune the pore gate, opening up new strategies in the design of ZIFs with desired properties.

  19. Supervised classification in the presence of misclassified training data: a Monte Carlo simulation study in the three group case

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Jocelyn Holden; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    Statistical classification of phenomena into observed groups is very common in the social and behavioral sciences. Statistical classification methods, however, are affected by the characteristics of the data under study. Statistical classification can be further complicated by initial misclassification of the observed groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of initial training data misclassification on several statistical classification and data mining techniques. Misclassification conditions in the three group case will be simulated and results will be presented in terms of overall as well as subgroup classification accuracy. Results show decreased classification accuracy as sample size, group separation and group size ratio decrease and as misclassification percentage increases with random forests demonstrating the highest accuracy across conditions. PMID:24616711

  20. Long Term Results of the Children’s Cancer Group Studies for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 1983–2002: a Children’s Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Gaynon, Paul S.; Angiolillo, Anne L.; Carroll, William L.; Nachman, James B.; Trigg, Michael E.; Sather, Harland N.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2010-01-01

    The Children’s Cancer Group enrolled 13,298 young people age < 21 years on one of 16 protocols between 1983 and 2002. Outcomes were examined in three time periods, 1983–1988, 1989–1995, 1996–2002. Over the three intervals, 10-year event-free survival (EFS) for Rome/NCI standard risk and higher risk B-precursor patients was 68% and 58%, 77% and 63%, and 78% and 67%, respectively; while for standard risk and higher risk T-cell patients, EFS was 65% and 56%, 78% and 68%, and 70% and 72%, respectively. Five-year EFS for infants was 36%, 38%, and 43%, respectively. Seminal randomized studies led to a number of important findings. Stronger post induction intensification improved outcome for both standard and higher risk patients. With improved systemic therapy, additional IT methotrexate effectively replaced cranial radiation. For standard risk patients receiving three-drug induction, iso-toxic substitution of dexamethasone for prednisone improved EFS. Pegylated asparaginase safely and effectively replaced native asparaginase. Thus, rational therapy modifications yielded better outcomes for both standard and higher risk patients. These trials provide the platforms for current Children’s Oncology Group trials. PMID:20016531