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Sample records for gemini deep planet

  1. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the

  2. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, J. R.; Palmer, D.; Doyon, R.; Larkin, J.; Oppenheimer, B.; Saddlemyer, L.; Veran, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2007-12-01

    Direct detection of extrasolar planets would be a major step in the study of other solar systems, sensitive to planets beyond the period cutoff of Doppler surveys. Furthermore, such planets can be spectrally characterized to measure temperature, gravity, and perhaps composition, shedding light on planet formation and evolution. Surveys of 50-100 young stars with current generation AO systems have excluded the presence of massive (2-10 MJ), young (? Myr) planets in wide (? AU) orbits, but to probe 5-20 AU scales around a large sample of target stars will require dedicated next-generation instruments. One such facility will be the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). It combines a 2000-actuator adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 9. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets - opening up a new field in the characterization of the environments of nearby stars. I will present an overview of the instrument design and its scientific capabilities. GPI is currently in the design phase, scheduled for deployment as a facility instrument on the Gemini South telescope in early 2011. Portions of this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership.

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Palmer, David; Doyon, Rene; Gavel, Don; Larkin, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Wallace, J. Kent; Bauman, Brian; Evans, Julia; Erikson, Darren; Morzinski, Katie; Phillion, Donald; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thibault, Simon; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10 -7 to 10 -8, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  5. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  6. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: Deep Imaging of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Wahhaj, Z.; Liu, M.; Chun, M.; Close, L.; Ftaclas, C.; Hartung, M.; Hayward, T.; Nielsen, E.; Toomey, D.; NICI Planet-Finding Campaign Team

    2010-01-01

    The novel Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the 8-m Gemini South telescope combines a number of techniques to attenuate starlight and suppress superspeckles for direct detection of exoplanets: 1) Lyot coronagraphic imaging, 2) dual channel imaging for Spectral Differential Imaging (SDI) and 3) operation in a fixed Cassegrain rotator mode for Angular Differential Imaging (ADI). The combination of these techniques allows unprecedented contrasts of dmag > 14 (median value) at 1" in H band. We are currently conducting a 50 night planet-finding campaign using NICI. Although the majority of our survey targets are young (<300 Myr, so as to catch young planets while they are still self-luminous), we are also observing a subset of nearby stars in the immediate solar neighborhood. While these objects are old (and hence, planetary companions will be faint), they are still desirable targets for planet searches due to the excellent physical resolution possible around these stars. Additionally, their large proper motions also mean that planet candidates can be quickly confirmed. NICI is the first instrument with achieved star-planet contrasts high enough to image supergiant planets around these stars (M > 10 MJup). Here, we report on results from observations of 3 such nearby stars. At respective distances of 1.39 pc, 2.35 pc, and 3.8 pc, Proxima Centauri, Wolf 359, and Luyten's Star are the 1st, 3rd, and 22nd closest stars to the Sun. While our search yielded numerous candidate companions, especially around Proxima Centauri, all of these candidates were found to be background in second epoch observations.

  7. Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Mey, Jacob L.; Brenner, Doug; Mandeville, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Neil; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Graham, James R.; Saddlemyer, Les; Bauman, Brian; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Tuthill, Peter G.; Dorrer, Christophe; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  8. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Stone; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  9. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; et al

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a singlemore » 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.« less

  10. First light of the Gemini Planet imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 10(6) at 0.75 arcseconds and 10(5) at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of [Formula: see text] near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  11. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0−0.4+0.8 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  12. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0-0.4+0.8AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  13. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraph constructed for the Gemini Observatory. GPI will see first light this fall. It will be the most advanced planet-imaging system in operation - an order of magnitude more sensitive than any current instrument, capable of detecting and spectroscopically characterizing young Jovian planets 107 times fainter than their parent star at separations of 0.2 arcseconds. GPI was built from the beginning as a facility-class survey instrument, and the observatory will employ it that way. Our team has been selected by Gemini Observatory to carry out an 890-hour program - the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) campaign from 2014-2017. We will observe 600 stars spanning spectral types A-M. We will use published young association catalogs and a proprietary list in preparation that adds several hundred new young (<100 Myr, <75 pc) and adolescent (<300 Myr, <35 pc) stars. The range of separations studied by GPI is completely inaccessible to Doppler and transit techniques (even with Kepler or TESS)— GPI offers a new window into planet formation. We will use GPI to produce the first-ever robust census of giant planet populations in the 5-50 AU range, allowing us to: 1) illuminate the formation pathways of Jovian planets; 2) reconstruct the early dynamical evolution of systems, including migration mechanisms and the interaction with disks and belts of debris; and 3) bridge the gap between Jupiter and the brown dwarfs with the first examples of cool low- gravity planetary atmospheres. Simulations predict this survey will discover approximately 50 exoplanets, increasing the number of exoplanet images by an order of magnitude, enough for statistical investigation. This Origins of Solar Systems proposal will support the execution of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. We will develop tools needed to execute the survey efficiently. We will refine the existing GPI data pipeline to a final version that robustly removes residual speckle

  14. Gemini planet imager one button approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Kerley, Dan; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Smith, Malcolm; Wooff, Robert; Savransky, Dmitry; Palmer, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Weiss, Jason; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Goodsell, Stephen J.

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an "extreme" adaptive optics coronagraph system that is now on the Gemini South telescope in Chile. This instrument is composed of three different systems that historically have been separate instruments. These systems are the extreme Adaptive Optics system, with deformable mirrors, including a high-order 64x64 element MEMS system; the Science Instrument, which is a near-infrared integral field spectrograph; and the Calibration system, a precision IR wavefront sensor that also holds key coronagraph components. Each system coordinates actions that require precise timing. The observatory is responsible for starting these actions and has typically done this asynchronously across independent systems. Despite this complexity we strived to provide an interface that is as close to a onebutton approach as possible. This paper will describe the sequencing of these systems both internally and externally through the observatory.

  15. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  16. Gemini Planet Imager: Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2007-05-10

    For the first time in history, direct and indirect detection techniques have enabled the exploration of the environments of nearby stars on scales comparable to the size of our solar system. Precision Doppler measurements have led to the discovery of the first extrasolar planets, while high-contrast imaging has revealed new classes of objects including dusty circumstellar debris disks and brown dwarfs. The ability to recover spectrophotometry for a handful of transiting exoplanets through secondary-eclipse measurements has allowed us to begin to study exoplanets as individual entities rather than points on a mass/semi-major-axis diagram and led to new models of planetary atmospheres and interiors, even though such measurements are only available at low SNR and for a handful of planets that are automatically those most modified by their parent star. These discoveries have galvanized public interest in science and technology and have led to profound new insights into the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and they have set the stage for the next steps--direct detection and characterization of extrasolar Jovian planets with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). As discussed in Volume 1, the ability to directly detect Jovian planets opens up new regions of extrasolar planet phase space that in turn will inform our understanding of the processes through which these systems form, while near-IR spectra will advance our understanding of planetary physics. Studies of circumstellar debris disks using GPI's polarimetric mode will trace the presence of otherwise-invisible low-mass planets and measure the build-up and destruction of planetesimals. To accomplish the science mission of GPI will require a dedicated instrument capable of achieving contrast of 10{sup -7} or more. This is vastly better than that delivered by existing astronomical AO systems. Currently achievable contrast, about 10{sup -5} at separations of 1 arc second or larger, is

  17. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  18. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VII: on-sky polarimetric performance of the Gemini planet imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Draper, Zachary H.; Song, Inseok; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru

    2014-07-01

    We present on-sky polarimetric observations with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) obtained at straight Cassegrain focus on the Gemini South 8-m telescope. Observations of polarimetric calibrator stars, ranging from nearly un- polarized to strongly polarized, enable determination of the combined telescope and instrumental polarization. We find the conversion of Stokes I to linear and circular instrumental polarization in the instrument frame to be I --> (QIP, UIP, PIP, VIP) = (-0.037 +/- 0.010%, +0.4338 +/- 0.0075%, 0.4354 +/- 0.0075%, -6.64 +/- 0.56%). Such precise measurement of instrumental polarization enables ~0.1% absolute accuracy in measurements of linear polarization, which together with GPI's high contrast will allow GPI to explore scattered light from circumstellar disk in unprecedented detail, conduct observations of a range of other astronomical bodies, and potentially even study polarized thermal emission from young exoplanets. Observations of unpolarized standard stars also let us quantify how well GPI's differential polarimetry mode can suppress the stellar PSF halo. We show that GPI polarimetry achieves cancellation of unpolarized starlight by factors of 100-200, reaching the photon noise limit for sensitivity to circumstellar scattered light for all but the smallest separations at which the calibration for instrumental polarization currently sets the limit.

  19. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Palmer, David W; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Ammons, S Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Perrin, Marshall D; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J

    2016-01-10

    The Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. A definitive description of the system's algorithms and technologies as built is given. 564 AO telemetry measurements from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey campaign are analyzed. The modal gain optimizer tracks changes in atmospheric conditions. Science observations show that image quality can be improved with the use of both the spatially filtered wavefront sensor and linear-quadratic-Gaussian control of vibration. The error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term. PMID:26835769

  20. Results from the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark R.; Close, Laird M.; Ftaclas, Christ; Males, Jared R.; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. N.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan A.; Clarke, Fraser; Toomey, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 December to 2012 September, the NICI (Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager at the Gemini-South 8.1-m) Planet-Finding Campaign (Liu et al. 2010) obtained deep, high-contrast AO imaging of a carefully selected sample of over 200 young, nearby stars. In the course of the campaign, we discovered four co-moving brown dwarf companions: PZ Tel B (36+/-6 MJup, 16.4+/-1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31+/-8 MJup, 67+/-4 AU), HD 1160B (33+12 -9 MJup, 81+/- AU), and HIP 79797Bb (55+20-19MJup, 3 AU from the previously known brown dwarf companion HIP 79797Ba), as well as numerous stellar binaries. Three survey papers have been published to date, covering: 1) high mass stars (Nielsen et al. 2013), 2) debris disk stars (Wahhaj et al. 2013), and 3) stars which are members of nearby young moving groups (Biller et al. 2013). In addition, the Campaign has yielded new orbital constraints for the ~8-10 MJup planet Pic β (Nielsen et al. 2014) and a high precision measurement of the star-disk offset for the well-known disk around HR 4796A (Wahhaj et al. 2014). Here we discuss constraints placed on the distribution of wide giant exoplanets from the NICI Campaign, new substellar companion discoveries, and characterization both of exoplanets and circumstellar disks.

  1. Gemini planet imager integration to the Gemini South telescope software environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dunn, Jennifer; Goodsell, Stephen; Hibon, Pascale; Macintosh, Bruce; Quiroz, Carlos; Perrin, Marshall D.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Winge, Claudia; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Hardie, Kayla; Hartung, Markus; Luhrs, Javier; Poyneer, Lisa; Thomas, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme AO instrument with an integral field spectrograph (IFS) operating in Y, J, H, and K bands. Both the Gemini telescope and the GPI instrument are very complex systems. Our goal is that the combined telescope and instrument system may be run by one observer operating the instrument, and one operator controlling the telescope and the acquisition of light to the instrument. This requires a smooth integration between the two systems and easily operated control interfaces. We discuss the definition of the software and hardware interfaces, their implementation and testing, and the integration of the instrument with the telescope environment.

  2. Observations of Beta Pictoris b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, J.; Graham, J.; Barman, T.; Fitzgerald, M.; Larkin, J.; Macintosh, B.; Bauman, B.; Burrows, A.; Cardwell, A.; De Rosa, R.; Dillon, D.; Doyon, R.; Dunn, J.; Erikson, D.; Gavel, D.; Goodsell, S.; Hartung, M.; Hibon, P.; Ingraham, P.; Kalas, P.; Konopacky, Q.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Marley, M.; Mcbride, J.; Millar-Blanchaer, M.; Morzinski, K.; Norton, A.; Oppenheimer, B.; Palmer, D.; Patience, J.; Pueyo, L.; Rantakyro, F.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Savransky, D.; Serio, A.; Soummer, R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Thomas, S.; Wallace, K.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Wolff, S.

    2014-09-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we present measurements of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pic. GPI is a facility class instrument located at Gemini South designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. We present the current imaged spectrum and atmospheric models of the planet based upon GPI's R ˜50 integral field spectrograph. Further, we present a joint analysis of the GPI and NACO astrometry, and the Snellen et al. (2014) radial velocity measurement of beta Pic b that provides the first constraint on the argument of periastron, providing a causal link to the infalling, evaporating bodies.

  3. Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Thomas L.; Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the astrometric calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. The Campaign requires a relative astrometric accuracy of ≈20 mas across multiyear timescales in order to distinguish true companions from background stars by verifying common proper motion and parallax with their parent stars. The calibration consists of a correction for instrumental optical image distortion, plus on-sky imaging of astrometric fields to determine the pixel scale and image orientation. We achieve an accuracy of lsim7 mas between the center and edge of the 18'' NICI field, meeting the 20 mas requirement. Most of the Campaign data in the Gemini Science Archive are accurate to this level but we identify a number of anomalies and present methods to correct the errors. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  4. The Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Debby; Konopacky, Quinn; GPIES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), housed on the 8-meter Gemini South telescope in Chile, is an instrument designed to detect Jupiter-like extrasolar planets by direct imaging. It relies on adaptive optics to correct the effects of atmospheric turbulence, along with an advanced coronagraph and calibration system. One of the scientific goals of GPI is to measure the orbital properties of the planets it discovers. Because these orbits have long periods, precise measurements of the relative position between the star and the planet (relative astrometry) are required. In this poster, I will present the astrometric calibration of GPI. We constrain the plate scale and orientation of the camera by observing different binary star systems with both GPI and another well-calibrated instrument, NIRC2, at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. We measure their separations with both instruments and use that information to calibrate the plate scale. By taking these calibration measurements over the course of one year, we have measured the plate scale to 0.05% and shown that it is stable across multiple epochs. I will also discuss our effort to correct for optical distortion using pinhole masks in the laboratory.

  5. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  6. Test results for the Gemini Planet Imager data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Perrin, Marshall D.; Doyon, René; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Larkin, James E.; Weiss, Jason L.; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Graham, James R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Galicher, Raphael; Marchis, Franck; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Labrie, Kathleen; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument for the Gemini Observatory designed to detect and characterize planets and debris disks orbiting nearby stars; its science camera is a near infrared integral field spectrograph. We have developed a data pipeline for this instrument, which will be made publicly available to the community. The GPI data reduction pipeline (DRP) incorporates all necessary image reduction and calibration steps for high contrast imaging in both the spectral and polarimetric modes, including datacube generation, wavelength solution, astrometric and photometric calibrations, and speckle suppression via ADI and SSDI algorithms. It is implemented in IDL as a flexible modular system, and includes both command line and graphical interface tools including a customized viewer for GPI datacubes. This GPI data reduction pipeline is currently working very well, and is in use daily processing data during the instrument’s ongoing integration and test period at UC Santa Cruz. Here we summarize the results from recent pipeline tests, and present reductions of instrument test data taken with GPI. We will continue to refine and improve these tools throughout the rest of GPI’s testing and commissioning, and they will be released to the community, including both IDL source code and compiled versions that can be used without an IDL license.

  7. Wavefront sensing and correction with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Poyneer, L.; Savransky, D.; Macintosh, B.; Hartung, M.; Dillon, D.; Gavel, D.; Dunn, Jennifer; Wallace, K.; Palmer, D.; De Rosa, Robert

    2012-07-01

    High-contrast imaging is a growing observational technique aimed at discovering and characterizing extrasolar planets. The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is designed to achieve contrast ratios of 10-6 - 10-7 and requires unprecedented wavefront correction and coronagraphic control of diffraction. G PI is a facility instrument now undergoing integration and testing and is scheduled for first light on the 8-m Gemini South telescope towards the end of 2012. In this paper, we focus on the wavefront sensing and correction aspects of the instrument. To measure the wavefront, GPI combines a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a high-accuracy infrared interferometric wavefront calibration system. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor uses 1700 subapertures to precisely sample the wavefront at 1.5 kHz and features a spatial filter to prevent aliasing. The wavefront calibration system measures the slower temporal frequency errors as well as non-common path aberrations. The wavefront correction is performed using a two-stage adaptive optics system employing a 9x9 piezoelectric deformable mirror and a 43x43 actuators MEMS deformable mirror operating in a woofer-tweeter configuration. Finally, an image sharpening technique is used to further increase the contrast of the final image. In this paper, we describe the three wavefront sensing methods and how we combine their respective information to achieve the best possible contrast.

  8. Final A&T stages of the Gemini Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Markus; Macintosh, Bruce; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dimitri; Gavel, Donald; Palmer, Dave; Thomas, Sandrine; Dillon, Daren; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Ingraham, Patrick; Sadakuni, Naru; Wallace, Kent; Perrin, Marshall; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Saddlemyer, Les; Goodsell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Finder (GPI) is currently in its final Acceptance & Testing stages at the University of Santa Cruz, California. GPI is an XAO system based on a tweeter & woofer architecture (43 & 9 actuators across the pupil), with the tweeter being a Boston Michromachines 64^2 MEMS device. The XAO AO system is tightly integrated with a Lyot apodizing coronagraph. Acceptance has started in February 2013. After the conclusive acceptance review shipment is scheduled mid 2013 to ensure readiness for commissioning at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon, Chile, end of 2013, matching the summer window of the southern hemisphere. According to current estimates the 3 year (~800 allocated hours) planet finding campaign might discover, image, and spectroscopically analyze 20 to 40 new exo-planets.Final acceptance testing of the integrated instrument can always emerge a number of unforeseen challenges as we are eventually using cold chamber and flexure rig installations. The latest developments will be reported. Also, we will give an overview of GPI's lab performance, the interplay between subsystems such as the calibration unit (CAL) with the AO bench. (The CAL principal purpose is to maintain a clean and centered XAO PSF on the coronagraph.) We report on-going optimizations on the AO controler loop to filter vibrations and last but not least achieved contrast performance applying speckle nulling. Furthermore, we will give an outlook of possible but challenging future upgrades as the implementation of a predictive controler or exchanging the conventional 48x48 SH WFS with a pyramid. With the ELT area arising, GPI will proof as a versatile and path-finding testbed for AO technologies on the next generation of ground-based telescopes.

  9. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul G.; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James A.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie M.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, Dave W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2014-10-01

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets' spectral energy distributions. When combined with the 3 to 4 μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. The data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  10. GEMINI PLANET IMAGER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS c AND d

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Patrick; Macintosh, Bruce; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Doyon, René; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Graham, James R.; and others

    2014-10-10

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets' spectral energy distributions. When combined with the 3 to 4 μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. The data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  11. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  12. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Barman, T; De Rosa, R J; Konopacky, Q; Marley, M S; Marois, C; Nielsen, E L; Pueyo, L; Rajan, A; Rameau, J; Saumon, D; Wang, J J; Patience, J; Ammons, M; Arriaga, P; Artigau, E; Beckwith, S; Brewster, J; Bruzzone, S; Bulger, J; Burningham, B; Burrows, A S; Chen, C; Chiang, E; Chilcote, J K; Dawson, R I; Dong, R; Doyon, R; Draper, Z H; Duchêne, G; Esposito, T M; Fabrycky, D; Fitzgerald, M P; Follette, K B; Fortney, J J; Gerard, B; Goodsell, S; Greenbaum, A Z; Hibon, P; Hinkley, S; Cotten, T H; Hung, L-W; Ingraham, P; Johnson-Groh, M; Kalas, P; Lafreniere, D; Larkin, J E; Lee, J; Line, M; Long, D; Maire, J; Marchis, F; Matthews, B C; Max, C E; Metchev, S; Millar-Blanchaer, M A; Mittal, T; Morley, C V; Morzinski, K M; Murray-Clay, R; Oppenheimer, R; Palmer, D W; Patel, R; Perrin, M D; Poyneer, L A; Rafikov, R R; Rantakyrö, F T; Rice, E L; Rojo, P; Rudy, A R; Ruffio, J-B; Ruiz, M T; Sadakuni, N; Saddlemyer, L; Salama, M; Savransky, D; Schneider, A C; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Song, I; Soummer, R; Thomas, S; Vasisht, G; Wallace, J K; Ward-Duong, K; Wiktorowicz, S J; Wolff, S G; Zuckerman, B

    2015-10-01

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10(-6) and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, "hot-start" formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the "cold-start" core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter. PMID:26272904

  13. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; et al

    2014-09-30

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets’ spectral energy distributions.When combined with the 3 to 4μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. Lastly, the data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts mustmore » include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.« less

  14. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul G.; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James A.; Marchis, Franck; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie M.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, Dave W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Kent Wallace, J.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2014-09-30

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets’ spectral energy distributions.When combined with the 3 to 4μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. Lastly, the data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  15. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Rameau, J.; Saumon, D.; Wang, J. J.; Patience, J.; Ammons, M.; Arriaga, P.; Artigau, E.; Beckwith, S.; Brewster, J.; Bruzzone, S.; Bulger, J.; Burningham, B.; Burrows, A. S.; Chen, C.; Chiang, E.; Chilcote, J. K.; Dawson, R. I.; Dong, R.; Doyon, R.; Draper, Z. H.; Duchene, G.; Esposito, T. M.; Fabrycky, D.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Follette, K. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Gerard, B.; Goodsell, S.; Greenbaum, A. Z.; Hibon, P.; Hinkley, S.; Cotten, T. H.; Hung, L. -W.; Ingraham, P.; Johnson-Groh, M.; Kalas, P.; Lafreniere, D.; Larkin, J. E.; Lee, J.; Line, M.; Long, D.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Matthews, B. C.; Max, C. E.; Metchev, S.; Millar-Blanchaer, M. A.; Mittal, T.; Morley, C. V.; Morzinski, K. M.; Murray-Clay, R.; Oppenheimer, R.; Palmer, D. W.; Patel, R.; Perrin, M. D.; Poyneer, L. A.; Rafikov, R. R.; Rantakyro, F. T.; Rice, E. L.; Rojo, P.; Rudy, A. R.; Ruffio, J. -B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Salama, M.; Savransky, D.; Schneider, A. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Soummer, R.; Thomas, S.; Vasisht, G.; Wallace, J. K.; Ward-Duong, K.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Wolff, S. G.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-10-02

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. As a result, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

  16. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; et al

    2015-10-02

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twicemore » that of Jupiter. As a result, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.« less

  17. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Rameau, J.; Saumon, D.; Wang, J. J.; Patience, J.; Ammons, M.; Arriaga, P.; Artigau, E.; Beckwith, S.; Brewster, J.; Bruzzone, S.; Bulger, J.; Burningham, B.; Burrows, A. S.; Chen, C.; Chiang, E.; Chilcote, J. K.; Dawson, R. I.; Dong, R.; Doyon, R.; Draper, Z. H.; Duchêne, G.; Esposito, T. M.; Fabrycky, D.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Follette, K. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Gerard, B.; Goodsell, S.; Greenbaum, A. Z.; Hibon, P.; Hinkley, S.; Cotten, T. H.; Hung, L.-W.; Ingraham, P.; Johnson-Groh, M.; Kalas, P.; Lafreniere, D.; Larkin, J. E.; Lee, J.; Line, M.; Long, D.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Matthews, B. C.; Max, C. E.; Metchev, S.; Millar-Blanchaer, M. A.; Mittal, T.; Morley, C. V.; Morzinski, K. M.; Murray-Clay, R.; Oppenheimer, R.; Palmer, D. W.; Patel, R.; Perrin, M. D.; Poyneer, L. A.; Rafikov, R. R.; Rantakyrö, F. T.; Rice, E. L.; Rojo, P.; Rudy, A. R.; Ruffio, J.-B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Salama, M.; Savransky, D.; Schneider, A. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Soummer, R.; Thomas, S.; Vasisht, G.; Wallace, J. K.; Ward-Duong, K.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Wolff, S. G.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-10-01

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10-6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

  18. Non-Redundant Masking Science on the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra; Cheetham, Anthony; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Pueyo, L.; Wolff, S.; Perrin, M. D.; Ingraham, P.; Thomas, S.; Norris, B.; Tuthill, P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Redundant Mask Interferometry (NRM) transforms a fully transmissive pupil into an interferometer by masking all but a set of holes that form unique baselines. The interferometric resolution and dynamic range makes the technique suitable for probing potential planet forming regions. So called "transition disks" may or may not have perturbing bodies in the process of changing the disk morphology (cleared gaps, etc.) and require close-in imaging to peer inside disk clearings and spot companions that are several orders of magnitude fainter than the host star. Improvements in contrast for NRM rely on both the wavefront quality as well as the data reduction methods. Image plane modeling of the NRM point-spread function avoids ringing and windowing effects that result in Fourier domain analysis of bad pixel and restricted field of view data. The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph, is equipped with a 10-hole NRM. We present recent results from GPI NRM I&T data using the image plane approach to measure visibilities as an early prediction of performance. We additionally discuss the feasibility of measuring visibility amplitudes from ground-based studies and their implications for NRM science with GPI.

  19. The Gemini Planet-finding Campaign: The Frequency Of Giant Planets around Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-08-01

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known β Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a >=5 M Jup planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d 2 N/dMdavpropm α a β, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a max). We find that β < -0.8 and/or α > 1.7. Likewise, we find that β < -0.8 and/or a max < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass (α > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M Jup, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the β Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet beyond 10 AU, and β < -0.8 and/or α < -1.5. Likewise, β < -0.8 and/or a max < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet frequency on stellar host mass. Studies of transition disks have suggested that about 20% of stars are undergoing planet

  20. THE GEMINI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS AROUND DEBRIS DISK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; and others

    2013-08-20

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known {beta} Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a {>=}5 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d {sup 2} N/dMda{proportional_to}m {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}}, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a{sub max}). We find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} > 1.7. Likewise, we find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass ({alpha} > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M{sub Jup}, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the {beta} Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 10 AU, and {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} < -1.5. Likewise, {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet

  1. Adaptive Optics for Direct Detection of Extrasolar Planets: The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erikson, D; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Soummer, R; Veran, J

    2007-04-24

    The direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by extrasolar planets, spatially resolved from their parent star, is a major frontier in the study of other solar systems. Direct detection will provide statistical information on planets in 5-50 AU orbits, inaccessible to current Doppler searches, and allow spectral characterization of radius, temperature, surface gravity, and perhaps composition. Achieving this will require new dedicated high-contrast instruments. One such system under construction is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) This combines a high-order/high-speed adaptive optics system to control wavefront errors from the Earth's atmosphere, an advanced coronagraph to block diffraction, ultrasmooth optics, a precision infrared interferometer to measure and correct systematic errors, and a integral field spectrograph/polarimeter to image and characterize target planetary systems. We predict that GPI will be able to detect planets with brightness less than 10{sup -7} of their parent star, sufficient to observe warm self-luminous planets around a large population of targets.

  2. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Mark Ammons, S.; et al

    2016-01-07

    The Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. We give a definitive description of the system’s algorithms and technologies as built. Ultimately, the error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  3. A Gemini Planet Imager investigation of the atmosphere of the HD 95086b planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Robert J.; Pueyo, Laurent; Patience, Jenny; Graham, James R.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2015-01-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) near-infrared observations of the ~5 Mjup companion to the young, dusty A-type star HD 95086, observed during the course of the verification and commissioning of the instrument. By combining binned low-resolution H and K-band IFS spectra from GPI, with literature near and mid-IR photometry, we have undertaken the most comprehensive analysis of the spectral energy distribution of HD 95086 b to-date. Comparing these observational results with atmospheric models, we constrain key parameters such as the effective temperature and surface gravity, and place the results in the context of analyses of other directly imaged planetary-mass companions (e.g. HR 8799 bcde, β Pic b), and other substellar companions at a similar age (e.g. HD 106906 b, GQ Lup b). We also comment on the sensitivity of companions interior and exterior to HD 95086 b. Lastly, we present the color-corrections derived during the course of this study that are required to transform photometry obtained with GPI in the K1 and K2 filters into both the MKO and 2MASS photometric systems, essential for the propoer interpretation of K-band photometry measurements obtained with GPI.

  4. Deep Imaging of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, G.

    2010-10-01

    With the development of high contrast imaging instruments and techniques, vast efforts have been devoted during the past decade to detect and characterize lighter, cooler and closer companions to nearby stars, and ultimately image new planetary systems. Complementary to other observing techniques (radial velocity, transit, micro-lensing, pulsar-timing and astrometry), this approach has opened a new astrophysical window to study the physical properties and the formation and evolution mechanisms of giant planets at orbits larger than a few AUs. In this review, I will briefly present the main motivations to use deep imaging to search for exoplanets and review the constant progress achieved thanks to improved performances of advanced instrumentation and data analysis techniques. I will describe the main classes of stars identified and observed so far to increase the chances of detection. I will also detail the classical strategy adopted to identify false alarms and characterize true companions. I will review the current status of the different deep imaging surveys as well as the main results that recently led to the discovery of giant planets probably formed like the ones of our solar system. Finally, I will rise the questions and uncertainties related to the formation mechanisms, the physical properties and the frequency of these planetary mass companions to conclude with the exciting and attractive perspectives offered with the future generation of deep imaging instruments.

  5. Characterizing Young Giant Planets with the Gemini Planet Imager: An Iterative Approach to Planet Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    After discovery, the first task of exoplanet science is characterization. However experience has shown that the limited spectral range and resolution of most directly imaged exoplanet data requires an iterative approach to spectral modeling. Simple, brown dwarf-like models, must first be tested to ascertain if they are both adequate to reproduce the available data and consistent with additional constraints, including the age of the system and available limits on the planet's mass and luminosity, if any. When agreement is lacking, progressively more complex solutions must be considered, including non-solar composition, partial cloudiness, and disequilibrium chemistry. Such additional complexity must be balanced against an understanding of the limitations of the atmospheric models themselves. For example while great strides have been made in improving the opacities of important molecules, particularly NH3 and CH4, at high temperatures, much more work is needed to understand the opacity of atomic Na and K. The highly pressure broadened fundamental band of Na and K in the optical stretches into the near-infrared, strongly influencing the spectral shape of Y and J spectral bands. Discerning gravity and atmospheric composition is difficult, if not impossible, without both good atomic opacities as well as an excellent understanding of the relevant atmospheric chemistry. I will present examples of the iterative process of directly imaged exoplanet characterization as applied to both known and potentially newly discovered exoplanets with a focus on constraints provided by GPI spectra. If a new GPI planet is lacking, as a case study I will discuss HR 8799 c and d will explain why some solutions, such as spatially inhomogeneous cloudiness, introduce their own additional layers of complexity. If spectra of new planets from GPI are available I will explain the modeling process in the context of understanding these new worlds.

  6. Development and Commissioning of the Integral Field Spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, J. E.; Planet Imager instrument, Gemini; science Teams

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is one of a new generation of instruments being built to directly image extrasolar planets in the outer solar systems of young main sequence stars. By combining a 1700-actuactor adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision interferometric infrared wavefront sensor, and an integral field spectrograph (IFS), GPI’s goal is more than an order of magnitude improvement in contrast compared to existing high contrast systems. This presentation focuses on the performance and characterization of the GPI IFS which is based on concepts from the OSIRIS instrument employed at Keck. Like OSIRIS, the IFS utilizes an infrared transmissive lenslet array to sample an approximate 2.7 x 2.7 arcsecond field of view at the diffraction limit of the Gemini Telescopes. The IFS provides over 36,000 simultaneous low-resolution (R ~ 45) spectra across five bands between 1 and 2.5μm. Alternatively, the dispersing element can be replaced with a Wollaston prism to provide broadband polarimetry of the same five filter bands. The IFS construction was based at the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the Université de Montreal, Immervision and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IFS was integrated with the other components of GPI in the fall of 2011. GPI has recently finished Integration & Testing at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and has been shipped to Gemini South where it is undergoing post delivery acceptance testing.

  7. Peering into the Giant-planet-forming Region of the TW Hydrae Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapson, Valerie A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-12-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant-planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main-sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from ∼80 AU to within ∼10 AU of the star at ∼1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near ∼23 AU, with a width of ∼5 AU and a depth of ∼50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant-planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main-sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass ∼0.2 MJ could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semimajor axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas from the disk, it may be readily detectable by GPI or a similarly sensitive, high-resolution infrared imaging system.

  8. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  9. Design of high-resolution variable size spatial filter for Gemini Planet Imager using flexure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, Vlad; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a variable size spatial filter used in the wavefront sensor subsystem of the Gemini Planet Imager instrument. It describes an adjustable mechanism consisting of two slides forming a square aperture which can be varied in size between 1.8 and 6.7 mm. These slides are located on athermalized flexure mounts that move opposite to one another driven by a single precision linear actuator. The device retains long term dimensional stability, resolution, and repeatability on a micron level for all gravity vector orientations and for temperatures between -5°C and + 25°C.

  10. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Companion Detection Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. Constraints on the Architecture of the HD 95086 Planetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Patience, Jenny; Doyon, René; Graham, James R.; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Hung, Li-Wei; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. Mark; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Rantakyearö, Fredrik T.; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-05-01

    We present astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager between 2013 and 2016. A small but significant position angle change is detected at constant separation; the orbital motion is confirmed with literature measurements. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. With 68% confidence, a semimajor axis of {61.7}-8.4+20.7 au and an inclination of 153\\fdg {0}-13.5+9.7 are favored, with eccentricity less than 0.21. Under the assumption of a coplanar planet–disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 au with 68% confidence. Therefore, HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. We use our sensitivity to additional planets to discuss specific scenarios presented in the literature to explain the geometry of the debris belts. We suggest that either two planets on moderately eccentric orbits or three to four planets with inhomogeneous masses and orbital properties are possible. The sensitivity to additional planetary companions within the observations presented in this study can be used to help further constrain future dynamical simulations of the planet–disk system.

  12. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: the orbit of the young exoplanet β Pictoris b

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-10-20

    We present new astrometry for the young (12-21 Myr) exoplanet β Pictoris b taken with the Gemini/NICI and Magellan/MagAO instruments between 2009 and 2012. The high dynamic range of our observations allows us to measure the relative position of β Pic b with respect to its primary star with greater accuracy than previous observations. Based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, we find the planet has an orbital semi-major axis of 9.1{sub −0.5}{sup +5.3} AU and orbital eccentricity <0.15 at 68% confidence (with 95% confidence intervals of 8.2-48 AU and 0.00-0.82 for semi-major axis and eccentricity, respectively, due to a long narrow degenerate tail between the two). We find that the planet has reached its maximum projected elongation, enabling higher precision determination of the orbital parameters than previously possible, and that the planet's projected separation is currently decreasing. With unsaturated data of the entire β Pic system (primary star, planet, and disk) obtained thanks to NICI's semi-transparent focal plane mask, we are able to tightly constrain the relative orientation of the circumstellar components. We find the orbital plane of the planet lies between the inner and outer disks: the position angle (P.A.) of nodes for the planet's orbit (211.8 ± 0.°3) is 7.4σ greater than the P.A. of the spine of the outer disk and 3.2σ less than the warped inner disk P.A., indicating the disk is not collisionally relaxed. Finally, for the first time we are able to dynamically constrain the mass of the primary star β Pic to 1.76{sub −0.17}{sup +0.18} M {sub ☉}.

  13. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS AROUND YOUNG B AND A STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; Clarke, Fraser; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Kuchner, Marc; Lin, Douglas N. C.; and others

    2013-10-10

    We have carried out high contrast imaging of 70 young, nearby B and A stars to search for brown dwarf and planetary companions as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Our survey represents the largest, deepest survey for planets around high-mass stars (≈1.5-2.5 M{sub ☉}) conducted to date and includes the planet hosts β Pic and Fomalhaut. We obtained follow-up astrometry of all candidate companions within 400 AU projected separation for stars in uncrowded fields and identified new low-mass companions to HD 1160 and HIP 79797. We have found that the previously known young brown dwarf companion to HIP 79797 is itself a tight (3 AU) binary, composed of brown dwarfs with masses 58{sup +21}{sub -20} M{sub Jup} and 55{sup +20}{sub -19} M{sub Jup}, making this system one of the rare substellar binaries in orbit around a star. Considering the contrast limits of our NICI data and the fact that we did not detect any planets, we use high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations to show that fewer than 20% of 2 M{sub ☉} stars can have giant planets greater than 4 M{sub Jup} between 59 and 460 AU at 95% confidence, and fewer than 10% of these stars can have a planet more massive than 10 M{sub Jup} between 38 and 650 AU. Overall, we find that large-separation giant planets are not common around B and A stars: fewer than 10% of B and A stars can have an analog to the HR 8799 b (7 M{sub Jup}, 68 AU) planet at 95% confidence. We also describe a new Bayesian technique for determining the ages of field B and A stars from photometry and theoretical isochrones. Our method produces more plausible ages for high-mass stars than previous age-dating techniques, which tend to underestimate stellar ages and their uncertainties.

  14. Gemini Planet Imager observational calibrations I: Overview of the GPI data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Wang, Jason J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Sadakuni, Naru; Marois, Christian; Rajan, Abhijith; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René; Larkin, James E.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Palmer, David W.; Labrie, Kathleen; Beaulieu, Mathilde; De Rosa, Robert J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Konopacky, Quinn; Lafreniere, David; Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Marchis, Franck; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has as its science instrument an infrared integral field spectrograph/polarimeter (IFS). Integral field spectrographs are scientificially powerful but require sophisticated data reduction systems. For GPI to achieve its scientific goals of exoplanet and disk characterization, IFS data must be reconstructed into high quality astrometrically and photometrically accurate datacubes in both spectral and polarization modes, via flexible software that is usable by the broad Gemini community. The data reduction pipeline developed by the GPI instrument team to meet these needs is now publicly available following GPI's commissioning. This paper, the first of a series, provides a broad overview of GPI data reduction, summarizes key steps, and presents the overall software framework and implementation. Subsequent papers describe in more detail the algorithms necessary for calibrating GPI data. The GPI data reduction pipeline is open source, available from planetimager.org, and will continue to be enhanced throughout the life of the instrument. It implements an extensive suite of task primitives that can be assembled into reduction recipes to produce calibrated datasets ready for scientific analysis. Angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging are supported. Graphical tools automate the production and editing of recipes, an integrated calibration database manages reference files, and an interactive data viewer customized for high contrast imaging allows for exploration and manipulation of data.

  15. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The companion detection pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Biller, Beth A.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus

    2013-12-10

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.

  16. The Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Frequency of Planets around Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Hartung, Markus; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Toomey, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M Jup, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31 ± 8 M Jup, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M ⊙, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M ⊙, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc

  17. MEMS adaptive optics for the Gemini Planet Imager: control methods and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Dillon, Daren

    2008-02-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Adaptive Optics system will use a high-order MEMS deformable mirror for phase compensation. The MEMS mirror will be used in a Woofer-Tweeter configuration, with a frequency-domain based splitting of the phase between the two mirrors. Precise wavefront control depends on the ability to command them MEMS to make the exact phase desired. Non-linearities in the MEMS may prevent this. We determine that influence-function pre-compensation can remove most, but not all, open-loop error. We use simulation and a simulation of a non-linear MEMS to address the issue of how much non-linearity can be tolerated in closed-loop by GPI.

  18. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The offset ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-07-01

    We present J,H, CH4 short (1.578 μm), CH4 long (1.652 μm) and Ks-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 ± 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 ± 3°, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 ± 0.04°. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 MJup so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Tables 5 and 6 are available in electronic form at

  19. THE GEMINI/NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF PLANETS AROUND YOUNG MOVING GROUP STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, Beth A.; Ftaclas, Christ; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG and others

    2013-11-10

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH{sub 4} narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M{sub Jup}, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD–35 2722B (31 ± 8 M{sub Jup}, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉}, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars.

  20. Spectroscopic Characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Robert J.; Rameau, Julien; Patience, Jenny; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Hung, Li-Wei; Maire, Jérôme; Nielsen, Eric L.; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Galvez, Ramon L.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson-Groh, Mara; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-06-01

    We present new H (1.5–1.8 μm) photometric and K 1 (1.9–2.2 μm) spectroscopic observations of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager. The H-band magnitude has been significantly improved relative to previous measurements, whereas the low-resolution K 1 (λ /δ λ ≈ 66) spectrum is featureless within the measurement uncertainties and presents a monotonically increasing pseudo-continuum consistent with a cloudy atmosphere. By combining these new measurements with literature L\\prime photometry, we compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the planet to other young planetary-mass companions, field brown dwarfs, and to the predictions of grids of model atmospheres. HD 95086 b is over a magnitude redder in {K}1-L\\prime color than 2MASS J12073346–3932539 b and HR 8799 c and d, despite having a similar L\\prime magnitude. Considering only the near-infrared measurements, HD 95086 b is most analogous to the brown dwarfs 2MASS J2244316+204343 and 2MASS J21481633+4003594, both of which are thought to have dusty atmospheres. Morphologically, the SED of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature ({T}{{eff}} = 800–1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. This range of effective temperatures is consistent with field L/T transition objects, but the spectral type of HD 95086 b is poorly constrained between early L and late T due to its unusual position the color–magnitude diagram, demonstrating the difficulty in spectral typing young, low surface gravity substellar objects. As one of the reddest such objects, HD 95086 b represents an important empirical benchmark against which our current understanding of the atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets can be tested.

  1. Gemini Planet Imager Observations of the AU Microscopii Debris Disk: Asymmetries within One Arcsecond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; De Rosa, Robert J.; Kalas, Paul; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Matthews, Brenda C.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-10-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) observations of AU Microscopii, a young M dwarf with an edge-on, dusty debris disk. Integral field spectroscopy and broadband imaging polarimetry were obtained during the commissioning of GPI. In our broadband imaging polarimetry observations, we detect the disk only in total intensity and find asymmetries in the morphology of the disk between the southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) sides. The SE side of the disk exhibits a bump at 1″ (10 AU projected separation) that is three times more vertically extended and three times fainter in peak surface brightness than the NW side at similar separations. This part of the disk is also vertically offset by 69 ± 30 mas to the northeast at 1″ when compared to the established disk midplane and is consistent with prior Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations. We see hints that the SE bump might be a result of detecting a horizontal sliver feature above the main disk that could be the disk backside. Alternatively, when including the morphology of the NW side, where the disk midplane is offset in the opposite direction ∼50 mas between 0.″4 and 1.″2, the asymmetries suggest a warp-like feature. Using our integral field spectroscopy data to search for planets, we are 50% complete for ∼4 MJup planets at 4 AU. We detect a source, resolved only along the disk plane, that could either be a candidate planetary mass companion or a compact clump in the disk.

  2. Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2015-12-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at rproj ˜ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10-20 MJ candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.

  3. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as Seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Perrin, Marshall; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Grady, Carol A.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C.; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.

    2016-02-01

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  4. The Peculiar Debris Disk of HD 111520 as Resolved by the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Wang, Jason J.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Padgett, Deborah; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Chen, Christine; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Kate B.; Gerard, Benjamin; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Macintosh, Bruce; Ingraham, Patrick; Lafrenière, David; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patel, Rahul; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Vega, David; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2016-08-01

    Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we have resolved the circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ∼30–100 AU in both total and polarized H-band intensity. The disk is seen edge-on at a position angle of 165° along the spine of emission. A slight inclination and asymmetric warp are covariant and alter the interpretation of the observed disk emission. We employ three point-spread function subtraction methods to reduce the stellar glare and instrumental artifacts to confirm that there is a roughly 2:1 brightness asymmetry between the NW and SE extension. This specific feature makes HD 111520 the most extreme example of asymmetric debris disks observed in scattered light among similar highly inclined systems, such as HD 15115 and HD 106906. We further identify a tentative localized brightness enhancement and scale height enhancement associated with the disk at ∼40 AU away from the star on the SE extension. We also find that the fractional polarization rises from 10% to 40% from 0.″5 to 0.″8 from the star. The combination of large brightness asymmetry and symmetric polarization fraction leads us to believe that an azimuthal dust density variation is causing the observed asymmetry.

  5. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Offset Ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    We present J, H, CH4 short (1.578 micrometers), CH4 long (1.652 micrometers) and K(sub s)-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 +/- 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 +/- 3deg, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 +/- 0.04deg. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 Jup mass so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring.

  6. DETECTABILITY OF EXOPLANETS IN THE {beta} PIC MOVING GROUP WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, Tiffany; Simon, Michal

    2010-07-15

    We model the detectability of exoplanets around stars in the {beta} Pic Moving Group (BPMG) using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), a coronagraphic instrument designed to detect companions by imaging. Members of the BPMG are considered promising targets for exoplanet searches because of their youth ({approx}12 Myr) and proximity (median distance {approx}35 pc). We wrote a modeling procedure to generate hypothetical companions of given mass, age, eccentricity, and semi-major axis, and place them around BPMG members that fall within the V-band range of the GPI. We count companions lying within the GPI's field of view and H-band fluxes that have a host-companion flux ratio placing them within its sensitivity as possible detections. The fraction of companions that could be detected depends on their brightness at 12 Myr, and hence formation mechanism, and on their distribution of semi-major axes. We used brightness models for formation by disk instability and core-accretion. We considered the two extreme cases of the semi-major axis distribution-the log-normal distribution of the nearby F- and G-type stars and a power-law distribution indicated by the exoplanets detected by the radial velocity technique. We find that the GPI could detect exoplanets of all the F and G spectral type stars in the BPMG sample with a probability that depends on the brightness model and semi-major axis distribution. At spectral type K-M1, exoplanet detectability depends on brightness and hence distance of the host star. GPI will be able to detect the companions of M stars later than M1 only if they are closer than 10 pc. Of the four A stars in the BPMG sample, only one has a V-band brightness in the range of GPI; the others are too bright.

  7. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations III: empirical measurement methods and applications of high-resolution microlens PSFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, Patrick; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Perrin, Marshall D.; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Draper, Zachary H.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Fesquet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The newly commissioned Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an advanced coronagraph, precision wavefront control and a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph (IFS) to measure the spectra of young extrasolar giant planets between 0.9-2.5 μm. Each GPI detector image, when in spectral model, consists of ~37,000 microspectra which are under or critically sampled in the spatial direction. This paper demonstrates how to obtain high-resolution microlens PSFs and discusses their use in enhancing the wavelength calibration, flexure compensation and spectral extraction. This method is generally applicable to any lenslet-based integral field spectrograph including proposed future instrument concepts for space missions.

  8. Near-infrared detection and characterization of the exoplanet HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicher, R.; Rameau, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Baudino, J.-L.; Currie, T.; Boccaletti, A.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Marois, C.

    2014-05-01

    HD 95086 is an intermediate-mass debris-disk-bearing star. VLT/NaCo 3.8 μm observations revealed it hosts a 5 ± 2 MJup companion (HD 95086 b) at ≃56 AU. Follow-up observations at 1.66 and 2.18 μm yielded a null detection, suggesting extremely red colors for the planet and the need for deeper direct-imaging data. In this Letter, we report H-(1.7 μm) and K1-(2.05 μm) band detections of HD 95086 b from Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) commissioning observations taken by the GPI team. The planet position in both spectral channels is consistent with the NaCo measurements and we confirm it to be comoving. Our photometry yields colors of H - L' = 3.6 ± 1.0 mag and K1 - L' = 2.4 ± 0.7 mag, consistent with previously reported 5-σ upper limits in H and Ks. The photometry of HD 95086 b best matches that of 2M 1207 b and HR 8799 cde. Comparing its spectral energy distribution with the BT-SETTL and LESIA planet atmospheric models yields Teff ~ 600-1500 K and log g ~ 2.1-4.5. Hot-start evolutionary models yield M = 5 ± 2 MJup. Warm-start models reproduce the combined absolute fluxes of the object for M = 4-14 MJup for a wide range of plausible initial conditions (Sinit = 8-13 kB/baryon). The color-magnitude diagram location of HD 95086 b and its estimated Teff and log g suggest that the planet is a peculiar L - T transition object with an enhanced amount of photospheric dust. Based on public data taken at the GPI commissioning.

  9. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, Beta Pictoris b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc J.; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet Beta Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While Beta Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects-i.e., ? And b and 1RXJ 1609B-match Beta Pic b's JHKsL photometry and its 3.1 micron and 5 micron photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (approx. 60 micron)dust grains fail to reproduce the Beta Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found forHR8799 bcde, but also with small (a fewmicrons) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (a = 4 micron), we derive atmosphere parameters of log(g) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 and Teff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7+4 -3 MJ, and a luminosity of log(L/L) approx. -3.80 +/- 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, is approx. equal to 1.65 +/- 0.06 RJ, is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if Beta Pic b is younger than is approx. equal to 7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth approx. 12+8 -4 Myr ago.

  10. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, β Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-10-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet β Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While β Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects—i.e., κ And b and 1RXJ 1609B—match β Pic b's JHKsL' photometry and its 3.1 μm and 5 μm photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (~60 μm) dust grains fail to reproduce the β Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found for HR 8799 bcde, but also with small (a few microns) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (langarang = 4 μm), we derive atmosphere parameters of log (g) = 3.8 ± 0.2 and T eff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7^{+4}_{-3} MJ , and a luminosity of log(L/L ⊙) ~-3.80 ± 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, ≈1.65 ± 0.06 RJ , is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if β Pic b is younger than ≈7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth ~12^{+8}_{-4} Myr ago.

  11. 1 to 2.4 microns spectrum and orbital properties of the Giant Planet Beta Pictoris b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James; Kalas, Paul G.; dawson, Rebekah; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    We present a low-resolution multi-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pictoris using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. While H-bandis the primary workhorse for the GPI Exoplanet Survey, the instrument is capable of observing in the near infrared covering Y, J, H, and K bands. These observations of Beta Pic Pictoris b were taken covering multiple bands as part of GPI’s verification and commissioning phase in 2013 and 2014. Using atmospheric models along with the H-band data we recently reported an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). A similar exercise was also carried out by an independent team using the J band data, and did yield similar conclusions. These values agree well with ”hot-start” predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 M Jup and age between 10 and 20 Myr. Here we revisit these conclusions in light of a joint analysis of these two datasets along with the longer wavelength GPI spectrum in K band, and present refined constraints on the atmospheric properties of this giant planet. In addition, we present an updated orbit for Beta Pictoris b based on astrometric measurements taken using commissioning and subsequent monitoring observations, spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of 9.2 (+1.5 -0.4) AU, with an eccentricity e≤ 0.26. The position angle of the ascending node is Ω=31.75 deg±0.15, offset from both the outer main disk and the inner disk seen in the GPI image. We finally discuss these properties in the context of planet-disk dynamical interactions.

  12. A COMBINED VERY LARGE TELESCOPE AND GEMINI STUDY OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE DIRECTLY IMAGED PLANET, β PICTORIS b

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-10-10

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet β Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While β Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects—i.e., κ And b and 1RXJ 1609B—match β Pic b's JHK{sub s}L' photometry and its 3.1 μm and 5 μm photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (∼60 μm) dust grains fail to reproduce the β Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found for HR 8799 bcde, but also with small (a few microns) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles ((a) = 4 μm), we derive atmosphere parameters of log (g) = 3.8 ± 0.2 and T{sub eff} = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7{sup +4}{sub -3} M{sub J} , and a luminosity of log(L/L{sub ☉}) ∼–3.80 ± 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, ≈1.65 ± 0.06 R{sub J} , is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if β Pic b is younger than ≈7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth ∼12{sup +8}{sub -4} Myr ago.

  13. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Methods, Performance at First Light, and the Circumstellar Ring around HR 4796A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side >~ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  14. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via di erential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  15. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: DISCOVERY OF A MULTIPLE SYSTEM ORBITING THE YOUNG A STAR HD 1160

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Close, Laird M.; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Reid, I. Neill; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Burrows, Adam; and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of two low-mass companions to the young A0V star HD 1160 at projected separations of 81 {+-} 5 AU (HD 1160 B) and 533 {+-} 25 AU (HD 1160 C) by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Very Large Telescope images of the system taken over a decade for the purpose of using HD 1160 A as a photometric calibrator confirm that both companions are physically associated. By comparing the system to members of young moving groups and open clusters with well-established ages, we estimate an age of 50{sup +50}{sub -40} Myr for HD 1160 ABC. While the UVW motion of the system does not match any known moving group, the small magnitude of the space velocity is consistent with youth. Near-IR spectroscopy shows HD 1160 C to be an M3.5 {+-} 0.5 star with an estimated mass of 0.22{sup +0.03}{sub -0.04} M{sub Sun }, while NIR photometry of HD 1160 B suggests a brown dwarf with a mass of 33{sup +12}{sub -9} M{sub Jup}. The very small mass ratio (0.014) between the A and B components of the system is rare for A star binaries, and would represent a planetary-mass companion were HD 1160 A to be slightly less massive than the Sun.

  16. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager. Methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We report he first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI’s advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn’s F ring.

  17. POLARIMETRY WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: METHODS, PERFORMANCE AT FIRST LIGHT, AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING AROUND HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul G.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; De Rosa, Robert J.; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  18. First Scattered-light Image of the Debris Disk around HD 131835 with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Duchêne, Gaspard; Arriaga, Pauline; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Rajan, Abhijith; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul G.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Graham, James R.; Konopacky, Quinn; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. Mark; Chen, Christine H.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Draper, Zachary H.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Gerard, Benjamin; Goodsell, Stephen; Greenbaum, Alexandra; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patience, Jennifer L.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first scattered-light image of the debris disk around HD 131835 in the H band using the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 131835 is a ∼15 Myr old A2IV star at a distance of ∼120 pc in the Sco-Cen OB association. We detect the disk only in polarized light and place an upper limit on the peak total intensity. No point sources resembling exoplanets were identified. Compared to its mid-infrared thermal emission, in scattered light the disk shows similar orientation but different morphology. The scattered-light disk extends from ∼75 to ∼210 AU in the disk plane with roughly flat surface density. Our Monte Carlo radiative transfer model can describe the observations with a model disk composed of a mixture of silicates and amorphous carbon. In addition to the obvious brightness asymmetry due to stronger forward scattering, we discover a weak brightness asymmetry along the major axis, with the northeast side being 1.3 times brighter than the southwest side at a 3σ level.

  19. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager. Methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; et al

    2015-01-28

    We report he first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI’s advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly evenmore » prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn’s F ring.« less

  20. The first H-band spectrum of the giant planet β Pictoris b [THE FIRST H-BAND SPECTRUM OF THE MASSIVE GAS GIANT PLANET BETA PICTORIS b WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-12-12

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have obtained the first H-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star β Pictoris. GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter-sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. These observations were taken covering the H band (1.65 μm). The spectrum has a resolving power of ~45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). These values agree well with "hot-start" predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 MJup and age between 10 and 20 Myr.

  1. Deep Thermal Infrared Imaging of HR 8799 bcde: New Atmospheric Constraints and Limits on a Fifth Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Cloutier, Ryan; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Jayawardhana, Ray; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-01

    We present new L' (3.8 μm) and Brα (4.05 μm) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >~ 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, "HR 8799 f," at r < 15 AU at a 5σ confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 MJ (7 MJ ), 7 MJ (10 MJ ), or 12 MJ (13 MJ ) at r proj ~ 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' - [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  2. Deep thermal infrared imaging of HR 8799 bcde: new atmospheric constraints and limits on a fifth planet

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-10

    We present new L' (3.8 μm) and Brα (4.05 μm) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≳ 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, 'HR 8799 f', at r < 15 AU at a 5σ confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 M{sub J} (7 M{sub J} ), 7 M{sub J} (10 M{sub J} ), or 12 M{sub J} (13 M{sub J} ) at r {sub proj} ∼ 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' – [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  3. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  4. The Gemini NICI Planet-finding Campaign: Discovery of a Close Substellar Companion to the Young Debris Disk Star PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Burrows, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Skemer, Andrew; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Ida, Shigeru; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lin, Douglas; Toomey, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of a tight substellar companion to the young solar analog PZ Tel, a member of the β Pic moving group observed with high-contrast adaptive optics imaging as part of the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager Planet-Finding Campaign. The companion was detected at a projected separation of 16.4 ± 1.0 AU (0farcs33 ± 0farcs01) in 2009 April. Second-epoch observations in 2010 May demonstrate that the companion is physically associated and shows significant orbital motion. Monte Carlo modeling constrains the orbit of PZ Tel B to eccentricities >0.6. The near-IR colors of PZ Tel B indicate a spectral type of M7 ± 2 and thus this object will be a new benchmark companion for studies of ultracool, low-gravity photospheres. Adopting an age of 12+8 -4 Myr for the system, we estimate a mass of 36 ± 6 M Jup based on the Lyon/DUSTY evolutionary models. PZ Tel B is one of the few young substellar companions directly imaged at orbital separations similar to those of giant planets in our own solar system. Additionally, the primary star PZ Tel A shows a 70 μm emission excess, evidence for a significant quantity of circumstellar dust that has not been disrupted by the orbital motion of the companion. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  5. The Contingency of Success: Operations for Deep Impact's Planet Hunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieber, Richard R.; Sharrow, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft completed its prime mission in August 2005. It was reactivated for a mission of opportunity add-on called EPOXI on September 25, 2007. The first portion of EPOXI, called EPOCh (Extra-solar Planetary Observation & CHaracterization), occurred from January 21, 2008 through August 31, 2008. Its purpose was to characterize transiting hot-Jupiters by measuring the effects the planet has on the luminosity of its parent star. These observations entailed using the spacecraft in ways it was never intended. A new green-light, success-oriented operational strategy was devised that entailed high amounts of automation and minimal intervention from the ground. The specifics, techniques, and key challenges to obtaining the 172,209 usable science images from EPOCh are discussed in detail.

  6. POLARIZED LIGHT IMAGING OF THE HD 142527 TRANSITION DISK WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: DUST AROUND THE CLOSE-IN COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-20

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ∼100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ∼12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ∼ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15.

  7. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: DISCOVERY OF A CLOSE SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG DEBRIS DISK STAR PZ Tel

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Dupuy, Trent J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Skemer, Andrew; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Clarke, Fraser; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of a tight substellar companion to the young solar analog PZ Tel, a member of the {beta} Pic moving group observed with high-contrast adaptive optics imaging as part of the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager Planet-Finding Campaign. The companion was detected at a projected separation of 16.4 {+-} 1.0 AU (0.''33 {+-} 0.''01) in 2009 April. Second-epoch observations in 2010 May demonstrate that the companion is physically associated and shows significant orbital motion. Monte Carlo modeling constrains the orbit of PZ Tel B to eccentricities >0.6. The near-IR colors of PZ Tel B indicate a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 and thus this object will be a new benchmark companion for studies of ultracool, low-gravity photospheres. Adopting an age of 12{sup +8} {sub -4} Myr for the system, we estimate a mass of 36 {+-} 6 M {sub Jup} based on the Lyon/DUSTY evolutionary models. PZ Tel B is one of the few young substellar companions directly imaged at orbital separations similar to those of giant planets in our own solar system. Additionally, the primary star PZ Tel A shows a 70 {mu}m emission excess, evidence for a significant quantity of circumstellar dust that has not been disrupted by the orbital motion of the companion.

  8. Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Muto, Takayuki; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Gene; Suenaga, Takuya; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Wisniewski, John; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover "HD 100546 b" with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 MJ . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 MJ ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  9. RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Muto, Takayuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; and others

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover ''HD 100546 b'' with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 M{sub J} . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M{sub J} ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  10. The Gemini NICI Planet-finding Campaign: Discovery of a Substellar L Dwarf Companion to the Nearby Young M Dwarf CD-35 2722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Clarke, Fraser; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Cushing, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabethe; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Ida, Shigeru; Kuchner, Marc; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2011-03-01

    We present the discovery of a wide (67 AU) substellar companion to the nearby (21 pc) young solar-metallicity M1 dwarf CD-35 2722, a member of the ≈100 Myr AB Doradus association. Two epochs of astrometry from the NICI Planet-Finding Campaign confirm that CD-35 2722 B is physically associated with the primary star. Near-IR spectra indicate a spectral type of L4±1 with a moderately low surface gravity, making it one of the coolest young companions found to date. The absorption lines and near-IR continuum shape of CD-35 2722 B agree especially well the dusty field L4.5 dwarf 2MASS J22244381-0158521, while the near-IR colors and absolute magnitudes match those of the 5 Myr old L4 planetary-mass companion, 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Overall, CD-35 2722 B appears to be an intermediate-age benchmark for L dwarfs, with a less peaked H-band continuum than the youngest objects and near-IR absorption lines comparable to field objects. We fit Ames-Dusty model atmospheres to the near-IR spectra and find T eff= 1700-1900 K and log(g)= 4.5 ± 0.5. The spectra also show that the radial velocities of components A and B agree to within ±10 km s-1, further confirming their physical association. Using the age and bolometric luminosity of CD-35 2722 B, we derive a mass of 31 ± 8 M Jup from the Lyon/Dusty evolutionary models. Altogether, young late-M to mid-L type companions appear to be overluminous for their near-IR spectral type compared with field objects, in contrast to the underluminosity of young late-L and early-T dwarfs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ci

  11. Deep Space Detectives: Searching for Planets Suitable for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Damelin, Daniel; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the High-Adventure Science curriculum unit "Is There Life in Space?" This free online investigation, developed by The Concord Consortium, helps students see how scientists use modern tools to locate planets around distant stars and explore the probability of finding extraterrestrial life. This innovative curriculum…

  12. TPF Planet Detection Testbed: demonstrating deep, stable nulling and planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The design of a testbed being built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Simulatiung a dual chopped Bracewell interferometer, the testbed comprises a four beam star and planet source and nulling beam combiner. Since achieving a stable null is of great concern the testbed has many control systems designed to achieve stability of alignment and optical path difference over long periods of time. Comparisons between the testbed and the flight system are drawn and key performance parameters are discussed. The interaction between designs for phaseplate systems that achromatically invert the electric field of one of each pair of the incoming beams to achieve the null and the choice of fringe tracking schemes is also discussed.

  13. Gemini Space Program emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  14. The deep wind structure of the giant planets: Results from an anelastic general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Flierl, Glenn R.; Showman, Adam P.

    2009-08-01

    The giant gas planets have hot convective interiors, and therefore a common assumption is that these deep atmospheres are close to a barotropic state. Here we show using a new anelastic general circulation model that baroclinic vorticity contributions are not negligible, and drive the system away from an isentropic and therefore barotropic state. The motion is still aligned with the direction of the axis of rotation as in a barotropic rotating fluid, but the wind structure has a vertical shear with stronger winds in the atmosphere than in the interior. This shear is associated with baroclinic compressibility effects. Most previous convection models of giant planets have used the Boussinesq approximation, which assumes the density is constant in depth; however, Jupiter's actual density varies by four orders of magnitude through its deep molecular envelope. We therefore developed a new general circulation model (based on the MITgcm) that is anelastic and thereby incorporates this density variation. The model's geometry is a full 3D sphere down to a small inner core. It is nonhydrostatic, uses an equation of state suitable for hydrogen-helium mixtures (SCVH), and is driven by an internal heating profile. We demonstrate the effect of compressibility by comparing anelastic and Boussinesq cases. The simulations develop a mean state that is geostrophic and hydrostatic including the often neglected, but significant, vertical Coriolis contribution. This leads to modification of the standard thermal wind relation for a deep compressible atmosphere. The interior flow organizes in large cyclonically rotating columnar eddies parallel to the rotation axis, which drive upgradient angular momentum eddy fluxes, generating the observed equatorial superrotation. Heat fluxes align with the axis of rotation, and provide a mechanism for the transport of heat poleward, which can cause the observed flat meridional emission. We address the issue of over-forcing which is common in such

  15. ON THE VARIATION OF ZONAL GRAVITY COEFFICIENTS OF A GIANT PLANET CAUSED BY ITS DEEP ZONAL FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Dali; Zhang Keke; Schubert, Gerald E-mail: kzhang@ex.ac.uk

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly rotating giant planets are usually marked by the existence of strong zonal flows at the cloud level. If the zonal flow is sufficiently deep and strong, it can produce hydrostatic-related gravitational anomalies through distortion of the planet's shape. This paper determines the zonal gravity coefficients, J{sub 2n}, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., via an analytical method taking into account rotation-induced shape changes by assuming that a planet has an effective uniform density and that the zonal flows arise from deep convection and extend along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. Two different but related hydrostatic models are considered. When a giant planet is in rigid-body rotation, the exact solution of the problem using oblate spheroidal coordinates is derived, allowing us to compute the value of its zonal gravity coefficients J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., without making any approximation. When the deep zonal flow is sufficiently strong, we develop a general perturbation theory for estimating the variation of the zonal gravity coefficients, {Delta}J{sub 2n}=J{sub 2n}-J-bar{sub 2n}, n=1,2,3,..., caused by the effect of the deep zonal flows for an arbitrarily rapidly rotating planet. Applying the general theory to Jupiter, we find that the deep zonal flow could contribute up to 0.3% of the J{sub 2} coefficient and 0.7% of J{sub 4}. It is also found that the shape-driven harmonics at the 10th zonal gravity coefficient become dominant, i.e., {Delta}J{sub 2n}>=J-bar{sub 2n} for n {>=} 5.

  16. Gemini IRAF: Data reduction software for the Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemini Observatory; AURA

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini IRAF package processes observational data obtained with the Gemini telescopes. It is an external package layered upon IRAF and supports data from numerous instruments, including FLAMINGOS-2, GMOS-N, GMOS-S, GNIRS, GSAOI, NIFS, and NIRI. The Gemini IRAF package is organized into sub-packages; it contains a generic tools package, "gemtools", along with instrument-specific packages. The raw data from the Gemini facility instruments are stored as Multi-Extension FITS (MEF) files. Therefore, all the tasks in the Gemini IRAF package, intended for processing data from the Gemini facility instruments, are capable of handling MEF files.

  17. A Deep Moho in "Small Planet" Vesta and Implication Regarding the Chondritic Nature of Protoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clenet, H.; Jutzi, M.; Barrat, J. A.; Asphaug, E. I.; Benz, W.; Gillet, P.

    2014-12-01

    Asteroid 4-Vesta is the only differentiated protoplanet [1] which has been extensively explored by a space probe, and is represented by a large collection of basaltic and ultramafic samples, the Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) meteorites. High-resolution global mapping by the Dawn probe revealed that the south polar depression is composed of two overlapping impact basins, Veneneia and Rheasilvia [2]. Numerical simulations taking into account both sequential events [3] show that surface material in the northern hemisphere of Vesta came from a depth of about 20 km, whereas the exposed southern material comes from a depth of 60 to 100 km. Recent magma-ocean crystallization models [4], which consider a chondritic initial composition, predict a crustal thickness of 30-40 km. Thus a succession of two impacts would have dug well into the olivine-rich mantle. Here we use the results from 3D smooth particle hydrodynamics impact simulations to show that, not only the floor of the basins should expose very deep lithologies, but that a significant proportion of the rocks which have escaped from Vesta during the second impact originated from depth much greater than 40 km. We also mapped locally Vesta's mineralogy with images from the Dawn VIR spectrometer. The lack of olivine-rich lithologies in the Veneneia/Rheasilvia region, and the simultaneous lack of mantle samples among the vestoids and HEDs together provide evidence that the crust-mantle boundary (or Moho) was not reached during the two impacts, and entails that Vesta's Moho is deeper than 80 km [5]. With a deep Moho, it appears clear that the mantle is much thinner than expected, leading to the conclusion that Vesta contains far less olivine than predicted by magma-ocean crystallization models. This could be an evidence that its bulk chemical composition deviates substantially from a chondritic composition for major elements, alike as for sodium and other volatiles. [1] Russell et al, Science 336, 684-686, 2012

  18. A Deep Search for Additional Satellites around the Dwarf Planet Haumea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Luke D.; Ragozzine, Darin; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    Haumea is a dwarf planet with two known satellites, an unusually high spin rate, and a large collisional family, making it one of the most interesting objects in the outer solar system. A fully self-consistent formation scenario responsible for the satellite and family formation is still elusive, but some processes predict the initial formation of many small moons, similar to the small moons recently discovered around Pluto. Deep searches for regular satellites around Kuiper belt objects are difficult due to observational limitations, but Haumea is one of the few for which sufficient data exist. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations, focusing on a 10-consecutive-orbit sequence obtained in 2010 July, to search for new very small satellites. To maximize the search depth, we implement and validate a nonlinear shift-and-stack method. No additional satellites of Haumea are found, but by implanting and recovering artificial sources, we characterize our sensitivity. At distances between ∼10,000 and ∼350,000 km from Haumea, satellites with radii as small as ∼10 km are ruled out, assuming an albedo (p≃ 0.7) similar to Haumea. We also rule out satellites larger than ≳40 km in most of the Hill sphere using other HST data. This search method rules out objects similar in size to the small moons of Pluto. By developing clear criteria for determining the number of nonlinear rates to use, we find that far fewer shift rates are required (∼35) than might be expected. The nonlinear shift-and-stack method to discover satellites (and other moving transients) is tractable, particularly in the regime where nonlinear motion begins to manifest itself.

  19. Coexistence of Jets and Vortices in Anelastic Numerical Models of Deep Convection in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Observations of cloud motions reveal strong zonal flows and vortices on all four giant planets. Jupiter and Saturn feature a strong prograde equatorial flow and higher latitude jets that alternate in latitude between prograde and retrograde flow directions. These higher latitude zonal flows seem to be stable over long timescales, and exhibit a rough symmetry between cyclonic and anticyclonic shear zones. In contrast to this shear zone symmetry, vortices on Jupiter show a clear asymmetry between cyclones and anticyclones, and both Jupiter and Saturn have vortices with a large range of observed sizes and lifetimes. We have used the benchmarked 3D spherical anelastic convection code MagIC to investigate the relationship between zonal jets and vortices. Rotating deep convection is modelled for relatively thin spherical shells. We study the effect of varying the radial background density variation and the thermal boundary conditions on the formation of jets and vortices. We find that, whereas the formation of jets is relatively insensitive to these conditions, vortex formation and dynamics depends strongly on them. For constant entropy difference between top and bottom boundaries, models with strong radial density gradients form alternating, zonal flows, and very small-scale flow and vorticity structures at the outer boundary. Models driven by constant convective entropy flux at the bottom, and small convective, or reversed entropy flux at the top, also can produce multiple zonal jets. However, these models, with a nearly neutral or stably stratified background vertical thermal structure near the outer boundary, can produce vortices of larger scale and lifetime. In particular, anticyclonic vortices with large lateral scales tend to form in the first anticyclonic shear zone, away from the equatorial jet. These model results have implications for the formation of of Jupiter's Great Red Spot.

  20. Legacy of Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    In the perspective of a single composite mission, this documentary illustrates the major accomplishments of the Gemini two man space flights and the significance of these flights to the Apollo Program. This film includes outstanding photography of the Earth and man in space.

  1. Gemini facility calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Harris, John W.; Gostick, David C.; Laidlaw, Ken; Kidd, Norrie; Strachan, Mel; Wilson, Ken

    2000-08-01

    High-quality, efficient calibration instruments is a pre- requisite for the modern observatory. Each of the Gemini telescopes will be equipped with identical facility calibration units (GCALs) designed to provide wavelength and flat-field calibrations for the suite of instruments. The broad range of instrumentation planned for the telescopes heavily constrains the design of GCAL. Short calibration exposures are required over wavelengths from 0.3micrometers to 5micrometers , field sizes up to 7 arcminutes and spectral resolution from R-5 to 50,000. The output from GCAL must mimic the f-16 beam of the telescope and provide a uniform illumination of the focal plane. The calibration units are mounted on the Gemini Instrument Support Structure, two meters from the focal pane, necessitating the use of large optical components. We will discuss the opto-mechanical design of the Gemini calibration unit, with reference to those feature which allow these stringent requirements to be met. A novel reflector/diffuser unit replaces the integration sphere more normally found in calibration systems. The efficiency of this system is an order of magnitude greater than for an integration sphere. A system of two off-axis mirrors reproduces the telescope pupil and provides the 7 foot focal plane. The results of laboratory test of the uniformity and throughput of the GCAL will be presented.

  2. Gemini Scout Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton Hobart, Justin Garretson

    2010-11-23

    The Gemini Scout Control Software consists of two Windows applications that allow the Gemini Scout vehicle to be controlled by an operator. The Embedded application runs on the vehicle's Gemini Scout Control Software onboard computer and controls the vehicle's various motors and sensors. This application reports the vehicle's status and receives vehicle commands overthe local-area-network. The Embedded applicationalso allows the user to control the vehicle using a USB game-pad connected directly to the vehicle. The Operator Control Unit (OCU) application runs on an external PC and communicates with the vehicle via an Ethernet connection. The OCU application sends commands to and receives data from the Embedded application running on the vehicle. The OCU application also communicates directly with the digital video encoders and radios in order to display video from the vehicle's cameras and the status of the radio link. The OCU application has a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the vehicle's status and allows the user to change various vehicle settings. Finally, the OCU application receives input from a USB game-pad connected to the PC in order to control the vehicle's functions.

  3. Gemini Scout Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-11-23

    The Gemini Scout Control Software consists of two Windows applications that allow the Gemini Scout vehicle to be controlled by an operator. The Embedded application runs on the vehicle's Gemini Scout Control Software onboard computer and controls the vehicle's various motors and sensors. This application reports the vehicle's status and receives vehicle commands overthe local-area-network. The Embedded applicationalso allows the user to control the vehicle using a USB game-pad connected directly to the vehicle. Themore » Operator Control Unit (OCU) application runs on an external PC and communicates with the vehicle via an Ethernet connection. The OCU application sends commands to and receives data from the Embedded application running on the vehicle. The OCU application also communicates directly with the digital video encoders and radios in order to display video from the vehicle's cameras and the status of the radio link. The OCU application has a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the vehicle's status and allows the user to change various vehicle settings. Finally, the OCU application receives input from a USB game-pad connected to the PC in order to control the vehicle's functions.« less

  4. The Gemini Quick Look System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Norman; Gaudet, Séverin; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Data Handling System (DHS) developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is required to provide a ``Quick Look'' display system that allows near real-time display of image data collected by the instruments of the Gemini Telescopes. The Gemini Quick Look System allows data to be displayed on multiple display tools, possibly on different systems, allows the display of data from multiple data streams, and allows images to be sent incrementally (in chunks). The Quick Look Tool is based on the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Skycat display tool, and expands on the functionality provided by Skycat. This paper describes the design and function of the Gemini Quick Look System.

  5. Irregular Satellites of the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    2005-01-01

    This proposal is directed towards the observational exploration of the irregular satellite systems of the planets. Primarily we use large-format CCD cameras on the world's largest telescopes, on Mauna Kea, to discover new irregular satellites and then to monitor their positions in order to ascertain their orbital characteristics. Separate observations are taken to determine the physical properties of the irregular satellites. The big picture science objective is to determine how these satellites were captures, and to use the properties of the satellites and their orbits to place constraints on early solar system (including formation) processes. Work in the first year has focussed on a major investigation of the Saturn irregular satellite system. We secured observing time on the Subaru and Gemini 8-m diameter telescopes in December 2004, January, February and March 2005 for the conduct of a deep, wide-area survey. This has resulted in the detection and orbit determination for 12 new satellites to be announced in the next week or two. Additional satellites were lost, temporarily, due to unusually poor weather conditions on Mauna Kea. These objects will be recovered and their orbits published next year. A separate survey of the Uranus irregular satellites was published (Sheppard, Jewitt and Kleyna 2005). Away from the telescope, we have discovered the amazing result that the four giant planets possess similar numbers of irregular satellites. This flies in the face of the standard gas-drag model for satellite capture, since only two of the giant planets are gas giants and the others (Uranus and Neptune) formed by a different process and in the absence of much gas. The constancy of the satellite number (each giant holds approximately 100 irregular satellites measured down to the kilometer scale) is either a coincidence, with different capture mechanisms at different planets giving by chance the same total numbers of irregular satellites, or indicates that the satellites

  6. Astrometric planet search around southern ultracool dwarfs. II. Astrometric reduction methods and a deep astrometric catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazorenko, P. F.; Sahlmann, J.; Ségransan, D.; Martín, E. L.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We describe the astrometric reduction of images obtained with the FORS2/VLT camera in the framework of an astrometric planet search around 20 M/L-transition dwarfs. We present the correction of systematic errors, the achieved astrometric performance, and a new astrometric catalogue containing the faint reference stars in 20 fields located close to the Galactic plane. Methods: Remote reference stars were used both to determine the astrometric trajectories of the nearby planet search targets and to identify and correct systematic errors. Results: We detected three types of systematic errors in the FORS2 astrometry: the relative motion of the camera's two CCD chips, errors that are correlated in space, and an error contribution of as yet unexplained origin. The relative CCD motion probably has a thermal origin and typically is 0.001-0.010 px (~0.1-1 mas), but sometimes amounts to 0.02-0.05 px (3-6 mas). This instability and space-correlated errors are detected and mitigated using reference stars. The third component of unknown origin has an amplitude of 0.03-0.14 mas and is independent of the observing conditions. We find that a consecutive sequence of 32 images of a well-exposed star over 40 min at 0.6'' seeing results in a median rms of the epoch residuals of 0.126 mas. Overall, the epoch residuals are distributed according to a normal law with a χ2 value near unity. We compiled a catalogue of 12 000 stars with I-band magnitudes of 16-22 located in 20 fields, each covering ~ 2' × 2'. It contains I-band magnitudes, ICRF positions with 40-70 mas precision, and relative proper motions and absolute trigonometric parallaxes with a precision of 0.1 mas/yr and 0.1 mas at the bright end, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that an astrometric accuracy of ~100 micro-arcseconds over two years can be achieved with a large optical telescope in a survey covering several targets and varying observing conditions. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the

  7. Project Gemini online digital archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    An archive containing the first high-resolution digital scans of the original flight films from Project Gemini, the second U.S. human spaceflight program, was unveiled by the NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University's (ASU) School of Earth and Space Exploration on 6 January. The archive includes images from 10 flights. Project Gemini, which ran from 1964 to 1966, followed Project Mercury and preceded the Apollo spacecraft. Mercury and Apollo imagery are also available through ASU. For more information, see http://tothemoon.ser.asu.edu/gallery/gemini and http://apollo.sese.asu.edu/index.html.

  8. Elastic and Electronic Properties of CsI to 19 GPa: An Analog for Xe Deep Inside Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arveson, S. M.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    The isoelectronic analogs xenon and CsI (i.e. having the same, noble-gas electronic configuration) both undergo a fundamental change in chemical bonding under pressure, becoming metallic by 135 (±20) GPa, the pressure at Earth's core-mantle boundary. Using Brillouin spectroscopy and diamond-anvil cells to 19 GPa at 290 K, we find that the electronic polarizability of CsI increases with pressure, quantifying the delocalization of electron charge density as the initially ionic salt is compressed toward the metallic state. Our results show a different trend from a previous measurement of refractive index under pressure and are consistent with the Herzfeld criterion that metallization is achieved when electron polarization is comparable to (or exceeds) inter-atomic distances. Our measurements of longitudinal elastic-wave velocity, VP, are in good accord with prior ultrasonic determinations below 1 GPa but suggest a slightly larger pressure derivative for the average shear modulus than previously thought. This conclusion is based on using Eulerian finite-strain descriptions of the equation of state and elastic moduli under pressure, and assumes that nonhydrostatic effects are unimportant. Our measurements were made on decompression as well as compression, using polycrystalline samples. Experimental measurements of changes in electronic and elastic properties under pressure can be used to validate and improve first-principles quantum mechanical calculations of bonding and other material properties, and can characterize the evolution of noble-gas toward chemically bonded systems at conditions deep inside planets.

  9. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  10. Index maps for Gemini earth photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Index maps for the Gemini missions are presented; these are for the Gemini 3 through Gemini 12 missions. The maps are divided into four sections: the whole earth; the Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific Ocean; Africa, India, and the Near East; and Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  12. A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF 118 STARS WITH HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING: LONG-PERIOD EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS ARE RARE AROUND SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.

    2010-07-10

    We expand on the results of Nielsen et al., using the null result for giant extrasolar planets around the 118 target stars from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) NACO H- and Ks-band planet search (conducted by Masciadri and collaborators in 2003 and 2004), the VLT and MMT Simultaneous Differential Imager survey, and the Gemini Deep Planet Survey to set constraints on the population of giant extrasolar planets. Our analysis is extended to include the planet luminosity models of Fortney et al., as well as the correlation between stellar mass and frequency of giant planets found by Johnson et al. Doubling the sample size of FGKM stars strengthens our conclusions: a model for extrasolar giant planets with power laws for mass and semimajor axis as given by Cumming et al. cannot, with 95% confidence, have planets beyond 65 AU, compared to the value of 94 AU reported by Nielsen et al., using the models of Baraffe et al. When the Johnson et al. correction for stellar mass (which gives fewer Jupiter-mass companions to M stars with respect to solar-type stars) is applied, however, this limit moves out to 82 AU. For the relatively new Fortney et al. models, which predict fainter planets across most of parameter space, these upper limits, with and without a correction for stellar mass, are 182 and 234 AU, respectively.

  13. Careers and interactive technologies at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2008-06-01

    Gemini feels it is important to let the public know that there is a wide range of astronomy related careers that most people are not aware of. We hope to accomplish this by providing a video that profiles the different job opportunities available at Gemini. The video will be included on our next CD-ROM/internet-based Virtual Tour and will also eventually be available over Gemini's website.

  14. Adaptive Wavefront Calibration and Control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-02-02

    Quasi-static errors in the science leg and internal AO flexure will be corrected. Wavefront control will adapt to current atmospheric conditions through Fourier modal gain optimization, or the prediction of atmospheric layers with Kalman filtering.

  15. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  16. Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Twins; abbrev. Gem, gen. Geminorum; area 514 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Auriga and Canis Minor, and culminates at midnight in early January. It represents Castor and Pollux, the twin sons of Leda, Queen of Sparta, in Greek mythology, whose brotherly love was rewarded by a place among the stars. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) ...

  17. May Using New Concept GPR to Find Water in Deep Crust of Solid Planets in Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Jinsong; Wang, Mingyuan; Meng, Zhiguo

    2015-08-01

    Space borne and ground surface GPR techniques have been used to explore the inner structure of the Earth, the Moon, the Mars and the Venus. In the SELENE/KAGUYA mission, a maxium depth of 40 km was reached by integrating multi-pass measurements. Also in Chinese Chang'E-3 lunar landing mission, a surface GPR on Jade Rabbit rover detected the layered structure about 450 meters under the surface of landing area. Usually, the space borne powerful GPR working at very low frequency (1~5MHz), can reach deeper with poor resolution; the ground surface GPR working at higher frequency (20MHz ~1GHz) can has higher resolution with shallow detectability. Taking above advantages, we suggested an updated method for ground surface GPR method with both of higher resolution and deeper decection (4~8km) for future planetary landing missions. Usually the liquid water has much higher dielectric constant (80~81) than common rock (1~14). If a hidden reserve of underground water exists in the crust of the solid planet, it can be easily identified in the rock stratum by using GPR method.

  18. Speckle Camera Imaging of the Planet Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.

    2012-10-01

    We have obtained optical wavelength (692 nm and 880 nm) speckle imaging of the planet Pluto and its largest moon Charon. Using our DSSI speckle camera attached to the Gemini North 8 m telescope, we collected high resolution imaging with an angular resolution of ~20 mas, a value at the Gemini-N telescope diffraction limit. We have produced for this binary system the first speckle reconstructed images, from which we can measure not only the orbital separation and position angle for Charon, but also the diameters of the two bodies. Our measurements of these parameters agree, within the uncertainties, with the current best values for Pluto and Charon. The Gemini-N speckle observations of Pluto are presented to illustrate the capabilities of our instrument and the robust production of high accuracy, high spatial resolution reconstructed images. We hope our results will suggest additional applications of high resolution speckle imaging for other objects within our solar system and beyond. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  19. Schirra, Stafford and Gemini on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Walter H. Schirra Jr. (on right), Command pilot, climbs from his Gemini VI spacecraft as he and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (not in view) arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. They are assisted by various McDonell Douglas technicians. The Gemini VI spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recover area at 10:29 a.m. (EST) December 16, 1965, after a successful 25 hr. 52 minute mission in space.

  20. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  1. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  2. HOW DO MOST PLANETS FORM?-CONSTRAINTS ON DISK INSTABILITY FROM DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2012-01-20

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence has accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2-A0-type stars and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions is <8% for FGKM-type stars under our most conservative assumptions, for an outer disk radius of 300 AU, at 99% confidence. Furthermore, we find that the frequency is always <10% at 99% confidence independently of outer disk radius, for any radius from 5 to 500 AU. We also simulate migration at a wide range of rates and find that the conclusions hold even if the companions move substantially after formation. Hence, core accretion remains the likely dominant formation mechanism for the total planet population, for every type of star from M-type through B-type.

  3. The medical legacy of Gemini.

    PubMed

    Berry, C A

    1968-01-01

    The Mercury and Gemini space flights have provided approximately 2,000 manhours of weightless exposure which can be used in comparing flight results with the predicted effects of manned space flight. In general the environmental hazards and the effects upon man appear to be of less magnitude than originally anticipated. The effects noted on the various body systems are summarized. The principal physiologic changes noted were orthostatism for some 50 hours post-flight, reduced red cell mass, and reduced X-ray density in the os calcis and the small finger. Much was learned about man's ability to work in a pressurized suit in the extravehicular condition. Early biochemical findings have pointed the way to future investigations. All of these findings are of importance in relation to the planning for future long duration missions. Although much remains to be learned, it does appear from an overview of this medical legacy that if man is properly supported and evaluated his limitations will not be a barrier to the exploration of the universe. PMID:11982022

  4. Women Astronomers at Gemini: A Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Jorgensen, I.; Barker, N.; Edwards, M.; Trancho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gemini Observatory has been very successful at attracting, hiring and retaining female Scientists. We present data on the growth of the scientific staff since the start of the Observatory, and science fellow recruiting from 2006-2008. At Gemini 31% of the Science Staff holding PhDs are female compared with 13.9% within the United States. The Science Management is 75% female, as is 50% of the Gemini Directorate. This critical mass of female representation within the science staff and management appears to have had a positive effect on female recruitment and hiring. The science fellow recruitment during the past 3 years has attracted 21-38% female applicants and 57% of new hires during this period have been female scientists. Perhaps even more significant, the retention rate of female science staff at Gemini is 88%, compared to 64% for male science staff. There are likely many factors that contribute to this success, but the conclusion is that Gemini has earned a reputation in the scientific community as a place where female scientists are valued and can be successful.

  5. The Client Server Design of the Gemini Data Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Norman; Gaudet, Séverin; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Telescopes Data Handling System (DHS) developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) has diverse requirements to support the operation of the Gemini telescopes. The DHS is implemented as a group of servers, where each performs separate functions. The servers use a client server model to communicate between themselves and with other Gemini software systems. This paper describes the client server model of the Gemini Data Handling System.

  6. The Original Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The original Gemini 9 prime crew, astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot, in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them. On February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T-38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building in which the Gemini spacecraft were being manufactured. They were on final approach to Lambert-Saint Louis Municipal Airport when bad weather conditions hampered pilot See's ability to make a good visual contact with the runway. Noticing the building at the last second as he came out of the low cloud cover, See went to full afterburner and attempted to nose-up the aircraft in an attempt to miss the building. He clipped it and his plane crashed.

  7. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  8. Gemini 12 Liftoff Via Titan Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 12 astronauts James Lovell and Edwin Aldrin lifted off aboard a Titan launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center on November 11, 1966, an hour and a half after their Agena target vehicle was orbited by an Atlas rocket. Launched atop an Atlas booster, the Agena target vehicle (ATV) was a spacecraft used by NASA to develop and practice orbital space rendezvous and docking techniques in preparation for the Apollo program lunar missions. The objective was for Agena and Gemini to rendezvous in space and practice docking procedures. An intermediate step between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program, the Gemini Program's major objectives were to subject two men and supporting equipment to long duration flights, to perfect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles, methods of reentry, and landing of the spacecraft.

  9. Gemini Augmented Target Docking Adapter during pre-flight checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) during pre-flight checkout in the Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Building. The ATDA is being used because the Agena Target Vehicle failed to achieve orbit on May 17th, 1966, causing the postponement of the Gemini 9 mission. The mission (renamed Gemini 9-A) has been rescheduled for May 31st.

  10. Innovation without Boundaries: The Gemini. Assistive Technology. Associate Editor's Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Tamarah M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Gemini, an augmentative and alternative communication device that is also a full-featured Macintosh computer. The Gemini is designed to help individuals of all ages with learning, communication, or computer access difficulties to lead more independent lives. The benefits of Gemini are highlighted, including its weight of…

  11. The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

  12. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  13. Atmospheres of Jovian Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy

    The giant planets of the solar system have been studied for centuries using a wide range of remote sensing and in situ techniques. An understanding of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune has dramatically improved since the dawn of spacecraft exploration of the outer solar system in the 1970s. Cloud decks that were predicted to exist from thermochemical equilibrium arguments have been observationally confirmed, although the exact vertical distribution of condensible species in these atmospheres remains an active area of study. All four of the giant planets have fast zonal (east-west) winds with prograde and retrograde jets, which dominate their atmospheric circulations. Each planet also contains long-lived cyclonic features or convective cloud features that appear and disappear on short timescales. These features suggest a link between the energy transport in the deep atmosphere and the visible cloud tops; the exact nature of this connection remains an outstanding question in giant planet atmosphere studies. The chemistry of the giant planet atmospheres is driven by both the convective processes that loft disequilibrium species from the deep atmosphere into the stratosphere and the interaction between stratospheric materials and ultraviolet sunlight. A unique opportunity to study these interactions was presented to planetary scientists in 1994, when the 22 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted Jupiter. The future of giant planet atmospheric studies is promising. Several mission concepts that will answer fundamental questions regarding giant planet atmospheres are in various stages of development, and the James Webb Space Telescope will also contribute especially to our understanding of Uranus and Neptune. As an understanding of giant planet formation and evolution expands and deepens, these knowledge gains must be examined against the backdrop of the numerous exoplanet systems recently discovered, very few of which resemble our own.

  14. Synthesis of Novel Organosilicon Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Li, L. J.; Wang, E. F.

    A series of organosilicon gemini surfactants was synthesized from γ-(2. 3-epoxypropoxy) propytrimethoxysilane. hexametliyldisiloxane and polyethylene glycol. The target compounds were confirmed by IR. 1H NMR. Surface properties of the target compounds were measured. The critical micelle concentration values of 1-3 were 8mmol, 5mmol, and 3 mmol, respectively.

  15. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  16. Wide Giant Planets are Rare: Planet Demographics from Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The previous generation of direct imaging surveys probed samples of 100-200 stars with AO-driven coronagraphic imaging and advanced techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) (e.g. surveys such as SEEDS, IDPS, the NICI Science Campaign, among others). These surveys found that wide giant planets are comparatively rare, especially at separations > 50 AU: for instance, Biller et al. 2013 find for a sample of 78 young moving group stars that the the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU is <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. As next generation planet-finding cameras such as GPI at Gemini, SPHERE at VLT, project 1640, and SceXAO at Suburu come online, our understanding of wide planet populations is likely to undergo a rapid evolution, especially for planets at separations of 10-50 AU. New large-scale surveys (400-500 stars) are now underway with these new instruments, e.g. NIRSUR with SPHERE and GPIES with GPI. In this talk, I will review the previous generation of surveys and the statistical results that they have yielded. I will also discuss prospects for the new generation of ongoing surveys.

  17. Astrometric Planet Searches with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; March, Geoffrey W.

    2007-01-01

    SIM will search for planets with masses as small as the Earth's orbiting in the habitable zones' around more than 100 of the stars and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. With a planned 'Deep Survey' of 100-450 stars (depending on desired mass sensitivity) SIM will search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars for future direct detection missions such as Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin, SIM's 'Broad Survey' of 2010 stars will characterize single and multiple-planet systems around a wide variety of stellar types, including many now inaccessible with the radial velocity technique. In particular, SIM will search for planets around young stars providing insights into how planetary systems are born and evolve with time.

  18. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today - the realm of "Extreme" adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order "woofer" mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  19. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J R; Oppenheimer, B; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Veran, J

    2005-11-18

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  20. Extrasolar planets

    PubMed Central

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Ida, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  1. Extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, J J; Marcy, G W; Ida, S

    2000-11-01

    The first known extrasolar planet in orbit around a Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. This object, as well as over two dozen subsequently detected extrasolar planets, were all identified by observing periodic variations of the Doppler shift of light emitted by the stars to which they are bound. All of these extrasolar planets are more massive than Saturn is, and most are more massive than Jupiter. All orbit closer to their stars than do the giant planets in our Solar System, and most of those that do not orbit closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun travel on highly elliptical paths. Prevailing theories of star and planet formation, which are based on observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that planets should form in orbit about most single stars. However, these models require some modifications to explain the properties of the observed extrasolar planetary systems. PMID:11035782

  2. Gemini helium closed cycle cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, Manuel; Galvez, Ramon; Rogers, Rolando; Solis, Hernan; Tapia, Eduardo; Maltes, Diego; Collins, Paul; White, John; Cavedoni, Chas; Yamasaki, Chris; Sheehan, Michael P.; Walls, Brian

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory presents the Helium Closed Cycle Cooling System that provides cooling capacity at cryogenic temperatures for instruments and detectors. It is implemented by running three independent helium closed cycle cooling circuits with several banks of compressors in parallel to continuously supply high purity helium gas to cryocoolers located about 100-120 meters apart. This poster describes how the system has been implemented, the required helium pressures and gas flow to reach cryogenic temperature, the performance it has achieved, the helium compressors and cryocoolers in use and the level of vibration the cryocoolers produce in the telescope environment. The poster also describes the new technology for cryocoolers that Gemini is considering in the development of new instruments.

  3. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  4. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. PMID:11973852

  5. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  6. Astronaut James Lovell prior to entering Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., prime crew command pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, in Building 5, Mission Simulation and Training Facility, Houston, Texas. This photo was taken prior to his entering the Gemini Mission Simulator for flight training (45578); Astronaut Lovell (right) talks with Burton M. Gifford (left) and Duane K. Mosel (center), both with the Simulation Branch, Flight Crew Support Division (45579); Astronaut Lovell prepares to enter Gemini Mission Simulator (45580).

  7. The Transformation of Observatory Newsletters - A Gemini Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories publish newsletters to communicate the observatory’s new discoveries and activities with its user communities, funding agencies, and general public. Gemini Observatory started publishing the newsletter in March 1992. Over the years, it transformed from a no-frills black and white publication to a full-color magazine type newsletter with a special name “GeminiFocus”. Since 2012, the contents of GeminiFocus moved from print to digital with an additional print issue of the Year in Review. The newsletter transformation is in sync with the rapid development of the internet technologies. We discuss here the evolvement of Gemini newsletter and the lessons learned.

  8. Integral Field Spectroscopy with Gemini: Support for IFU data in the Gemini IRAF package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, James E. H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Beck, Tracy L.; Song, Inseok; Cooke, Andrew J.; Seaman, Robert L.; Valdés, Francisco G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a brief overview of facilities for Integral Field Spectroscopy at the Gemini Observatory. These include four optical and near-infrared IFUs suitable for high spatial resolution work and a suite of tasks for handling IFU data in the Gemini IRAF package. We describe the tools for data reduction that are available now or planned in the near future, helping investigators make productive use of these ground-breaking instruments. Further details on the individual IFUs, specific science applications and reduction examples are given in associated presentations by Beck et al., Carrasco et al., Trancho et al. and Winge et al.

  9. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  10. Outer Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Did you know that through NASA’s various satellite missions we have learned more about these planetary bodies in recent years than we knew collectively since we started to study our planets? Throu...

  11. Astrometric performance of the Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system in crowded fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neichel, Benoit; Lu, Jessica R.; Rigaut, François; Ammons, S. Mark; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Lassalle, Emmanuel

    2014-11-01

    The Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS) is a facility instrument for the Gemini South telescope. It delivers uniform, near-diffraction-limited image quality at near-infrared wavelengths over a 2 arcmin field of view. Together with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), a near-infrared wide-field camera, GeMS/GSAOI's combination of high spatial resolution and a large field of view will make it a premier facility for precision astrometry. Potential astrometric science cases cover a broad range of topics including exoplanets, star formation, stellar evolution, star clusters, nearby galaxies, black holes and neutron stars, and the Galactic Centre. In this paper, we assess the astrometric performance and limitations of GeMS/GSAOI. In particular, we analyse deep, mono-epoch images, multi-epoch data and distortion calibration. We find that for single-epoch, undithered data, an astrometric error below 0.2 mas can be achieved for exposure times exceeding 1 min, provided enough stars are available to remove high-order distortions. We show however that such performance is not reproducible for multi-epoch observations, and an additional systematic error of ˜0.4 mas is evidenced. This systematic multi-epoch error is the dominant error term in the GeMS/GSAOI astrometric error budget, and it is thought to be due to time-variable distortion induced by gravity flexure.

  12. Gemini 4 prime crew in elevator at Pad 19 preparing to enter Gemini capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Edward H. White II and James A. McDivitt are shown in the elevator on their way to the white room as they prepare to enter the Gemini 4 spacecraft atop the Titan launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

  13. Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klahr, Hubert; Brandner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    1. Historical notes on planet formation Bodenheimer; 2. The formation and evolution of planetary systems Bouwman et al.; 3. Destruction of protoplanetary disks by photoevaporation Richling, Hollenbach and Yorke; 4. Turbulence in protoplanetary accretion disks Klahr, Rozyczka, Dziourkevitch, Wunsch and Johansen; 5. The origin of solids in the early solar system Trieloff and Palme; 6. Experiments on planetesimal formation Wurm and Blum; 7. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks Henning, Dullemond, Wolf and Dominik; 8. The accretion of giant planet cores Thommes and Duncan; 9. Planetary transits: direct vision of extrasolar planets Lecavelier des Etangs and Vidal-Madjar; 10. The core accretion - gas capture model Hubickyj; 11. Properties of exoplanets Marcy, Fischer, Butler and Vogt; 12. Giant planet formation: theories meet observations Boss; 13. From hot Jupiters to hot Neptures … and below Lovis, Mayor and Udry; 14. Disk-planet interaction and migration Masset and Kley; 15. The Brown Dwarf - planet relation Bate; 16. From astronomy to astrobiology Brandner; 17. Overview and prospective Lin.

  14. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Sean T; Hudson, Amanda G; Allen, Michael H; Pole, Sandeep S; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2014-06-14

    Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkanes quantitatively react with excess 1-bromododecane to prepare novel phosphonium gemini surfactants with spacer lengths ranging from 2 to 4 methylenes (12-2/3/4-12P). Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DTPP), a monomeric surfactant analog, was readily water soluble, however, in sharp contrast, phosphonium gemini surfactants were poorly soluble in water due to two hydrophobic tails and relatively hydrophobic cationic head groups containing phenyl substituents. Isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal a measurable critical micelle concentration for the 12-2-12P phosphonium gemini surfactant in water at 25 °C. Subsequent studies in 50/50 v/v water-methanol at 25 °C showed a CMC of 1.0 mM for 12-2-12P. All phosphonium gemini surfactants effectively complexed nucleic acids, but failed to deliver nucleic acids in vitro to HeLa cells. The solution behavior of phosphonium gemini surfactants was investigated in chloroform, which is an organic solvent where reverse micellar structures are favored. Solution rheology in chloroform explored the solution behavior of the phosphonium gemini surfactants compared to DTPP. The 12-2-12P and 12-3-12P gemini surfactants were successfully electrospun from chloroform to generate uniform fibers while 12-4-12P gemini surfactant and DTPP only electrosprayed to form droplets. PMID:24733359

  15. Gemini Observatory's Innovative Education and Outreach for 2006 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2006-08-01

    Gemini Observatory, in preparation for its bold informal science plan for the next five years, is making an exciting effort to bring education outside our typical borders and into our partner countries and beyond. We will introduce some of the innovative outreach programs that have been highly successful in Hawaii/US and explain how Gemini's PIO efforts will further develop new concepts as we move forward in our next phase of education and outreach. In this presentation we will highlight a few of Gemini's highly successful initiatives: - Stars Over Mauna Kea Newspaper Tabloid, the second bi-annual publication giving a comprehensive review of astronomy on Mauna Kea - Hawaii's Journey through the Universe program which has been touted as the flagship program in the US. I will discuss how we envision introducing this novel education approach to our seven partner countries. - StarTeachers International teacher's exchange - The newly developed partnership between the Imiloa Astronomy Education Center's planetarium and Gemini's StarLab programs. - Extension of our Family Astro programs internationally. - Gemini's student "Time on the Telescope" mentor program. - "Gemini Live," a videoconference between our astronomers at the control room of Gemini and classrooms around the world. - The unique partnership created between Gemini's PIO department and the Department of Education in Hawaii, and how other astronomical facilities could play a prominent role in their state's/country's informal science education development.

  16. Gemini-IFU Spectroscopy of HH 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig-Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5\\prime\\prime × 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  17. Neurologic foundations of spinal cord fusion (GEMINI).

    PubMed

    Canavero, Sergio; Ren, XiaoPing; Kim, C-Yoon; Rosati, Edoardo

    2016-07-01

    Cephalosomatic anastomosis has been carried out in both monkeys and mice with preservation of brain function. Nonetheless the spinal cord was not reconstructed, leaving the animals unable to move voluntarily. Here we review the details of the GEMINI spinal cord fusion protocol, which aims at restoring electrophysiologic conduction across an acutely transected spinal cord. The existence of the cortico-truncoreticulo-propriospinal pathway, a little-known anatomic entity, is described, and its importance concerning spinal cord fusion emphasized. The use of fusogens and electrical stimulation as adjuvants for nerve fusion is addressed. The possibility of achieving cephalosomatic anastomosis in humans has become reality in principle. PMID:27180142

  18. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  19. Modification of reduced-charge montmorillonites by a series of Gemini surfactants: Characterization and application in methyl orange removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhongxin; Gao, Manglai; Ye, Yage; Yang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    The influences that the spacer chain length of Gemini surfactants and clay layer charge have on the structures and sorption characteristics of organoclays have been investigated. Organoclays were obtained by modifying a series of reduced charge montmorillonites (RCMs) using three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. And their structures and sorption characteristics for methyl orange (MO) were examined. It was suggested that the amount, spacer length of Gemini surfactant and clay layer charge had significant effects on the microstructure of the organoclays. The adsorption experiments results claimed that the uptake of MO onto organoclays was in the order: 16-4-16-Mt > 16-8-16-Mt > 16-6-16-Mt, while it increased with increasing clay layer charge. The adsorption isotherms of MO onto the organoclays could be best described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic was in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. This work will provide a deep insight into the interaction of Gemini-modified clays and MO, which pave the way for their practical applications in anionic dye adsorption.

  20. Tumbling and spaceflight: the Gemini VIII experience.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R; Nicogossian, A E; McCormack, P D; Mohler, S R

    1990-01-01

    A malfunctioning orbital flight attitude thruster during the flight of Gemini VIII led to acceleration forces on astronauts Neil Armstrong (commander) and David Scott (pilot) that created the potential for derogation of oculo-vestibular and eye-hand coordination effects. The spacecraft attained an axial tumbling rotation of 50 rpm and would have exceeded this had not the commander accurately diagnosed the problem and taken immediate corrective action. By the time counter-measure controls were applied, both astronauts were experiencing vertigo and the physiological effects of the tumbling acceleration. Data from the recorders reveal that one astronaut experienced -Gy of 0.92 G-units, and the other +Gy of 0.92 for approximately 46 s. Both received a -Gz of 0.89 G-units from the waist up with a +Gz of 0.05 from the waist down. A substantial increase of time and/or an increase in rpm would ultimately have produced incapacitation of both astronauts. NASA corrected the Gemini thruster problem by changing the ignition system wiring. Future space-craft undertaking long-term missions could be equipped with unambiguous thruster fault displays and could have computer-controlled automatic cutoffs to control excessive thruster burns. PMID:2302130

  1. Self-Assembly of Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yethiraj, Arun; Mondal, Jagannath; Mahanthappa, Mahesh

    2013-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of Gemini (dimeric or twin-tail) dicarboxylate disodium surfactants is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. This gemini architecture, in which two single tailed surfactants are joined through a flexible hydrophobic linker, has been shown to exhibit concentration-dependent aqueous self-assembly into lyotropic phases including hexagonal, gyroid, and lamellar morphologies. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally observed phases at similar amphiphile concentrations in water, including the unusual ability of these surfactants to form gyroid phases over unprecedentedly large amphiphile concentration windows. We demonstrate quanitative agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed domain spacings of these nanostructured materials. Through careful conformation analyses of the surfactant molecules, we show that the gyroid phase is electrostatically stabilized related to the lamellar phase. By starting with a lamellar phase, we show that decreasing the charge on the surfactant headgroups by carboxylate protonation or use of a bulkier tetramethyl ammonium counterion in place of sodium drives the formation of a gyroid phase.

  2. Mechanically selflocked chiral gemini-catenanes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Heng-Yi; Xu, Xiufang; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked and entangled molecular architectures represent one of the elaborate topological superstructures engineered at a molecular resolution. Here we report a methodology for fabricating mechanically selflocked molecules (MSMs) through highly efficient one-step amidation of a pseudorotaxane derived from dual functionalized pillar[5]arene (P[5]A) threaded by α,ω-diaminoalkane (DA-n; n=3–12). The monomeric and dimeric pseudo[1]catenanes thus obtained, which are inherently chiral due to the topology of P[5]A used, were isolated and fully characterized by NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. Of particular interest, the dimeric pseudo[1]catenane, named ‘gemini-catenane', contained stereoisomeric meso-erythro and dl-threo isomers, in which two P[5]A moieties are threaded by two DA-n chains in topologically different patterns. This access to chiral pseudo[1]catenanes and gemini-catenanes will greatly promote the practical use of such sophisticated chiral architectures in supramolecular and materials science and technology. PMID:26126502

  3. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  4. Astrometeric Science with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Unwin, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest. The topics include: 1) SIM PlanetQuest - the World's First Long- Baseline Optical Interferometer in Space; 2) National Academy of Sciences / NRC endorses SIM PlanetQuest; 3) SIM Planet Search; 4) Planetary System Architectures & Diversity; 5) SIM Search for 110 M(sub Earth) Planets Around Nearby Stars; 6) Deep Search of 120 nearby stars; 7) Planets around Young Stars; 8) SIM PlanetQuest Science Team; 9) Dark Halo of our Galaxy; 10) Dynamics of Galaxy Groups within 5 Mpc; 11) Probing Active Galactic Nuclei with Astrometry; 12) Snapshot Observing Mode: Astrometry for the masses; 13) SIM Technology Development is Complete; and 14) SIM Hardware, Tested for Flight.

  5. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    observations of protoplanetary disks: this would give us the ability to measure the mass of a planet in a disk without ever needing to directly observe the planet itself!Modeling ObservationsFung and Dong confirm their models by additionally running 3D simulations, which yield very similar outcomes. From these simulation results, they then synthesize scattered-light images similar to what we would expect to be able to observe with telescopes like the VLT, Gemini, or Subaru. The authors demonstrate that from these scattered-light images, they can correctly retrieve the planets mass to within 30%.Finally, as a proof-of-concept, the authors apply this modeling to an actual system: SAO 206462, a nearly face-on protoplanetary disk with an observed two-armed spiral within it. From the measured azimuthal separation of the two arms, the authors estimate that it contains a planet of about 6 Jupiter masses.CitationJeffrey Fung () and Ruobing Dong () 2015 ApJ 815 L21. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L21

  6. Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at Gemini South - Commissioning and Fist Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessev, Peter; Carrasco, R.; Winge, C.; McGregor, P.; Edwards, M.; Rigaut, F.; Neichel, B.; Young, P.; Artigau, E.; Mauro, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is the imaging camera to be used with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (GeMS) at Gemini South. GeMS and GSAOI are capable of delivering a diffraction limited images in the Near-Ifrared (0.9-2.5 micrometers) over an 85" square field of view. The focal plane of the instrument is covered by 2 x 2 array of HAWAII 2RG detectors and has a plate scale of 0.02". The instrument optics are all-refractive and coupled with the superb spatial resolution take a full advantage of the unprecedented image quality delivered by GeMS. GSAOI went through several commissioning runs during the southern summer of 2011/2012. In this presentation a brief summary of the system is provided, along with relevant commissioning information and some preliminary science results.

  7. Pluto: Planet or "Dwarf Planet"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; de Araújo, M. S. T.

    2010-09-01

    In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a "dwarf planet". This reclassification of Pluto by the academic community clearly illustrates how dynamic science is and how knowledge of different areas can be changed and evolves through the time, allowing to perceive Science as a human construction in a constant transformation, subject to political, social and historical contexts. These epistemological characteristics of Science and, in this case, of Astronomy, constitute important elements to be discussed in the lessons, so that this work contributes to enable Science and Physics teachers who perform a basic education to be always up to date on this important astronomical fact and, thereby, carry useful information to their teaching.

  8. Atlas-Agena Target Vehicle Launched for Gemini 12 Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Launched atop an Atlas booster, the Agena target vehicle (ATV) was a spacecraft used by NASA to develop and practice orbital space rendezvous and docking techniques in preparation for the Apollo program lunar missions. This particular launch preceded the Gemini 12, which launched aboard a Titan launch vehicle one and one half hours later. The objective was for Agena and Gemini to rendezvous in space and practice docking procedures. An intermediate step between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program, the Gemini Program's major objectives were to subject two men and supporting equipment to long duration flights, to perfect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles, methods of reentry, and landing of the spacecraft.

  9. The Gemini Data Handling System: A Case History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Séverin; Hill, Norman R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Data Handling System, developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre for the Gemini 8m Telescopes Project, provides the data handling infrastructure for the Observatory Control System and the instrument control systems. An overview of the preliminary design was presented at ADASS '95. In August 1998, the DHS passed its acceptance tests and was released operationally to Gemini North in Hawai'i. This paper will present a case history of the project: how the requirements changed, how the design evolved to its final form, the approaches taken, the tools used, and the problems encountered.

  10. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  11. Planet Formation Instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Troy, M; Graham, J; Doyon, R

    2006-02-22

    In the closing years of the 20th Century humankind began its exploration of the planetary systems in the solar neighborhood. Precision radial velocity measurements have now yielded the discovery of over 160 planets. Direct imaging of these planets, as opposed to detection of the effects of orbital motion on their parent star, is now feasible, and the first young planet in a wide orbit may have been detected using adaptive optics systems. Gemini and the VLT are building the first generation of high contrast adaptive optics systems, which deliver planet-imaging performance within few Airy rings of the host star. These systems will make the first surveys of the outer regions of solar systems by detecting the self-luminous radiation of young planets. These instruments will establish whether Jovian planets form predominantly through 'top-down' (global gravitational instability) or 'bottom-up' (core accretion) processes. The 8-m 'extreme' AO systems cannot see close enough to the host stars to image Doppler planets, and they cannot reach the relatively distant, young clusters and associations where planets are forming. The Planet Formation Instrument will use the nearly four-fold improved angular resolution of TMT to peer into the inner solar systems of Doppler-planet bearing stars to yield a unified sample of planets with known Keplerian orbital elements and atmospheric properties. In star formation regions, where T Tauri stars (young solar type stars) are found in abundance, PFI can see into the snow line, where the icy cores of planets like Jupiter must have formed. Thus, TMT will be the first facility to witness the formation of new planets.

  12. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  13. Infrastructure of the Gemini Observatory control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim K.; Walker, Shane

    1998-07-01

    Construction of the first Gemini 8-m telescope is well underway. The software that provides the user interface and high-level control of the observatory, the observatory control system (OCS), is also proceeding on track. The OCS provides tools that assist the astronomer from the proposal submission phase through planning, observation execution, and data review. A capable and flexible software infrastructure is required to support this comprehensive approach. New software technologies and industry standards have played a large part in the implementation of this infrastructure. For instance, the use of CORBA has provided many benefits in the software including object distribution, an interface definition language, and implementation language independence. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure of the OCS that supports observation planning and execution. Important software decisions and interfaces that allow Internet access and the ability to substitute alternate implementations easily are discussed as a model for other similar projects.

  14. Jets estelares observados con GSAOI/GEMINI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M.; Gunthard, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution we present H (2.122 m) and K (2.2 m) images of the Herbig-Haro object HH 137 and the stellar jet MHO 1502, taken with GSAOI+GeMS/GEMINI. The high resolution of GSAOI allows us to identify, with great definition, new internal structures not previously reported in the literature. We perform a detailed morphological description of each object. We detect the near-infrared counterpart of HH 137, that shows a bow shock-like terminal structure and an irregular profile. MHO 1502 shows a gentle ``S-shape'' as well as several nearby nebular (H) regions, probably not associated with this object, with bow shock-like shapes, not previously cataloged.

  15. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W. Lynn; Doveton, John H.; Victorine, John R.; Bohling, Goeffrey C.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Byers, Alan P.; Carr, Timothy R.; Dubois, Martin K.; Gagnon, Glen; Guy, Willard J.; Look, Kurt; Magnuson, Mike; Moore, Melissa; Olea, Ricardo; Pakalapadi, Jayprakash; Stalder, Ken; Collins, David R.

    2002-06-25

    GEMINI will resolve reservoir parameters that control well performance; characterize subtle reservoir properties important in understanding and modeling hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; expedite recognition of bypassed, subtle, and complex oil and gas reservoirs at regional and local scale; differentiate commingled reservoirs; build integrated geologic and engineering model based on real-time, iterate solutions to evaluate reservoir management options for improved recovery; provide practical tools to assist the geoscientist, engineer, and petroleum operator in making their tasks more efficient and effective; enable evaluations to be made at different scales, ranging from individual well, through lease, field, to play and region (scalable information infrastructure); and provide training and technology transfer to evaluate capabilities of the client.

  16. Structural Characterization of Novel Gemini Non-viral DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Foldvari,M.; Badea, I.; Wettig, S.; Verrall, R.; Bagonluri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The structural and physicochemical properties of novel cationic lipid-based DNA complexes have been investigated for the purpose of designing micro/nano-scale self-assembling delivery systems for cutaneous gene therapy. DNA/gemini surfactant (spacer n = 3-16; chain m = 12 or 16) complexes (1 : 10 charge ratio), with or without dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DOPE), designed for cellular transfection, were generally in the range of 100-200 nm as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and particle size analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements indicated that the DNA/gemini complexes lacked long-range order, whereas DNA/gemini/DOPE complexes exhibited lamellar and polymorphic phases other than hexagonal. Correlation studies using transfection efficiency data in PAM 212 keratinocytes and in vitro skin absorption indicated that formulations containing gemini surfactants having the ability to induce structures other than lamellar in the resulting complexes, generally exhibited greater transfection activity and cutaneous absorption.

  17. Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

  18. Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  19. Dicationic Alkylammonium Bromide Gemini Surfactants. Membrane Perturbation and Skin Irritation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, João A. S.; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A.; Marques, Eduardo F.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of 31P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by 31P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism. PMID:22102870

  20. Gemini 10 prime crew in White Room preparing for insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    In the white room atop the Gemini launch vehicle, Astronauts Michael Collins (left), pilot, and John W. Young (right), command pilot, prepare to enter the Gemini 10 spacecraft. Engineers and technicians stand by to assist in the insertion (42737); Young holds a pair of king-sized pliers presented to him by the crew at Pad 19. Dr. Donald K. Slayton, MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; Guenter Wendt, Pad 19 leader; and Astronaut Collins also shown (42738).

  1. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems. PMID:25513958

  2. GEMINI: Integrative Exploration of Genetic Variation and Genome Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Paila, Umadevi; Chapman, Brad A.; Kirchner, Rory; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Modern DNA sequencing technologies enable geneticists to rapidly identify genetic variation among many human genomes. However, isolating the minority of variants underlying disease remains an important, yet formidable challenge for medical genetics. We have developed GEMINI (GEnome MINIng), a flexible software package for exploring all forms of human genetic variation. Unlike existing tools, GEMINI integrates genetic variation with a diverse and adaptable set of genome annotations (e.g., dbSNP, ENCODE, UCSC, ClinVar, KEGG) into a unified database to facilitate interpretation and data exploration. Whereas other methods provide an inflexible set of variant filters or prioritization methods, GEMINI allows researchers to compose complex queries based on sample genotypes, inheritance patterns, and both pre-installed and custom genome annotations. GEMINI also provides methods for ad hoc queries and data exploration, a simple programming interface for custom analyses that leverage the underlying database, and both command line and graphical tools for common analyses. We demonstrate GEMINI's utility for exploring variation in personal genomes and family based genetic studies, and illustrate its ability to scale to studies involving thousands of human samples. GEMINI is designed for reproducibility and flexibility and our goal is to provide researchers with a standard framework for medical genomics. PMID:23874191

  3. Drag-o-llision Models of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2009-01-01

    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris disk around Fomalhaut; probably many other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks---difficult processes to model simultaneously. The author describes new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics, Drag-o-llision models, that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time. The author also discusses the implications of these models for coronagraphic imaging with Gemini and other telescopes.

  4. Kuiper Prize: Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2007-10-01

    The study of giant planet atmospheres is near and dear to me, for several reasons. First, the giant planets are photogenic; the colored clouds are great tracers, and one can make fantastic movies of the atmosphere in motion. Second, the giant planets challenge us with storms that last for hundreds of years and winds that blow faster the farther you go from the sun. Third, they remind us of Earth with their hurricanes, auroras, and lightning, but they also are the link to the 200 giant planets that have been discovered around other stars. This talk will cover the past, present, and future (one hopes) of giant planet research. I will review the surprises of the Voyager and Galileo eras, and will discuss what we are learning now from the Cassini orbiter. I will review the prospects for answering the outstanding questions like: Where's the water? What is providing the colors of the clouds? How deep do the features extend? Where do the winds get their energy? What is the role of the magnetic field? Finally, I will briefly discuss how extrasolar giant planets compare with objects in our own solar system.

  5. Speciation and solubility of reduced C-O-H-N volatiles in mafic melt: Implications for volcanism, atmospheric evolution, and deep volatile cycles in the terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Lora S.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Stanley, Ben D.; Falksen, Emily G.; Jacobsen, Steven D.

    2015-12-01

    Using vibrational spectroscopy and SIMS, we determined the solubility and speciation of C-O-H-N dissolved volatiles in mafic glasses quenched from high pressure under reduced conditions, with fO2 from -3.65 to +1.46 relative to the iron-wüstite buffer (IW). Experiments were performed on martian and terrestrial basalts at 1.2 GPa and 1400 °C in graphite containers with variable availability of H2O, and in the presence of FePt alloys or Fe-C liquids. The dominant C-O-H-N species varies systematically with fO2 and H2O content: the carbonate ion prevails above IW + 1, but for dry conditions between IW-2 and IW + 1, Ctbnd O species are most important. Below IW, reduced NH-bearing species are present. At the most reducing and hydrous (∼0.5 wt% H2O) conditions, small amounts of CH4 are present. Concentrations of C diminish as conditions become more reduced, amounting to 10 s to ∼100 ppm in the interval ∼IW-2 to IW + 1 where Ctbnd O species dominate, and as little as 1-3 ppm at more reduced conditions. Concentrations of non-carbonate carbon, dominated by Ctbnd O species, correlate with CO fugacities along a trend implying that the species stoichiometry has just one Ctbnd O group and suggesting that carbonyl complexes (transition metals with multiple carbon monoxide ligands) are not important species under these conditions. C partition coefficients between Fe-C liquid and silicate melt increase with decreasing fO2 , becoming as great as 104 for the most reducing conditions investigated. The low solubility of C in silicate liquids under reducing conditions means that most C during the magma ocean stage of planetary differentiation is either segregated to the core or in the overlying atmosphere. Precipitation of C-rich phases in a carbon-saturated magma ocean is also possible, and is one mechanism by which some C can be retained in the mantle of a planet. The predominant magmatic carbonaceous species for both martian and lunar volcanism is likely Ctbnd O.

  6. Extrasolar Planets and Prospects for Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Fischer, Debra A.

    2004-06-01

    Examination of ˜2000 sun--like stars has revealed 97 planets (as of 2002 Nov), all residing within our Milky Way Galaxy and within ˜200 light years of our Solar System. They have masses between 0.1 and 10 times that of Jupiter, and orbital sizes of 0.05--5 AU. Thus planets occupy the entire detectable domain of mass and orbits. News &summaries about extrasolar planets are provided at: http://exoplanets.org. These planets were all discovered by the wobble of the host stars, induced gravitationally by the planets, causing a periodicity in the measured Doppler effect of the starlight. Earth--mass planets remain undetectable, but space--based missions such as Kepler, COROT and SIM may provide detections of terrestrial planets within the next decade. The number of planets increases with decreasing planet mass, indicating that nature makes more small planets than jupiter--mass planets. Extrapolation, though speculative, bodes well for an even larger number of earth--mass planets. These observations and the theory of planet formation suggests that single sun--like stars commonly harbor earth--sized rocky planets, as yet undetectable. The number of planets increases with increasing orbital distance from the host star, and most known planets reside in non--circular orbits. Many known planets reside in the habitable zone (albeit being gas giants) and most newly discovered planets orbit beyond 1 AU from their star. A population of Jupiter--like planets may reside at 5--10 AU from stars, not easily detectable at present. The sun--like star 55 Cancri harbors a planet of 4--10 Jupiter masses orbiting at 5.5 AU in a low eccentricity orbit, the first analog of our Jupiter, albeit with two large planets orbiting inward. To date, 10 multiple--planet systems have been discovered, with four revealing gravitational interactions between the planets in the form of resonances. GJ 876 has two planets with periods of 1 and 2 months. Other planetary systems are ``hierarchical'', consisting

  7. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-05-13

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mapping of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.

  8. Testing of the Gemini secondary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    The first 1-m secondary mirror for the Gemini 8-m telescopes project was delivered by Zeiss in 1998, and 2nd mirror will be delivered in the summer of 1999. For first use during commissioning we produced an extreme lightweight Zerodur solution prefabricated at Schott. To reach the 85 percent weight reduction a novel etching technique was used. INterferometric testing was done performing full aperture measurements using a concave matrix. In progress with the fabrication process of the matrix we applied 3D-mechanical measurements, IR-interferometry, and VIS-interferometry using null lenses to reach the final intrinsic quality of 6 nm rms. For interferometric testing of the secondaries phase shifting interferometry with a tunable laser diode was applied. The optical test results of the secondaries show, that the mirrors are well within specification. The finally achieved intrinsic surface quality is 17 nm rms for Unit 1 and 13 nm rms for Unit 2, dominated by cutting effects which were introduced by removing the oversize at the inner and outer edge of the mirror after the final polishing step.

  9. Gemini-IFU spectroscopy of HH 111

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5{sup ′′}×3.{sup ′′}5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks.

  10. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  11. Sky Background Variability Measured on Maunakea at Gemini North Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam B.; Roth, Katherine; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Gemini North has recently implemented a Quality Assessment Pipeline (QAP) that automatically reduces images in realtime to determine sky condition quantities, including background sky brightness from the optical to near-infrared. Processing archived images through the QAP and mining the results allows us to look for trends and systematic issues with the instruments and optics during the first decade of Gemini.Here we present the results of using the QAP calculated values to quantify how airglow affects the background sky brightness of images taken with Gemini's imaging instruments, GMOS and NIRI, as well as searching for other factors that may cause changes in the sky brightness. By investigating the dependence of measured sky brightness as a function of a variety of variables, including time after twilight, airmass, season, distance from the moon, air temperature, etc., we quantify the effect of sky brightness and its impact on the sensitivity of Gemini optical and near-infrared imaging data. These measurements will be used to determine new sky background relationships for Maunakea, and to improve the Gemini Integration Time Calculators (ITCs).

  12. Astronaut James Lovell walks to elevator on Pad 19 before Gemini 7 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, walks to the elevator at Pad 19 one hour and forty minutes before launch of the spacecraft. He is dressed in the new Gemini space suit.

  13. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  14. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular cluster systems in five early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, Favio R.; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Bridges, Terry; Forbes, Duncan A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Mike; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present deep high-quality photometry of globular cluster systems (GCSs) belonging to five early-type galaxies, covering a range of mass and environment. Photometric data were obtained with the Gemini North and Gemini South telescopes in the filter passbands g', r' and i'. The combination of these filters with good seeing conditions allows an excellent separation between globular cluster (GC) candidates and unresolved field objects. In fact, our previously published spectroscopic data indicate a contamination level of only ˜10 per cent in our sample of GC candidates. Bimodal GC colour distributions are found in all five galaxies. Most of the GCSs appear bimodal even in the (g'-r') versus (r'-i') plane. A population of resolved/marginally resolved GC and ultracompact dwarf candidates was found in all the galaxies. A search for the so-called 'blue tilt' in the colour-magnitude diagrams reveals that NGC 4649 clearly shows this phenomenon, although no conclusive evidence was found for the other galaxies in the sample. This 'blue tilt' translates into a mass-metallicity relation given by Z∝M0.28 ±0.03. This dependence was found using a new empirical (g'-i') versus [Z/H] relation, which relies on an homogeneous sample of GC colours and metallicities. In this paper, we also explore the radial trends in both colour and surface density for the blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations. As usual, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. Evidence of galactocentric colour gradients is found in some of the GCSs, which is more significant for the two S0 galaxies in the sample. Red GC subpopulations show similar colours and gradients to the galaxy halo stars in their inner region. A GC mean colour-galaxy luminosity relation, consistent with [Z/H]∝L0.26 ±0.08B, is present for the red GCs. Estimates of the total GC populations and specific frequency SN values are presented for NGC 3115, 3923 and 4649. Based on

  15. Exploring Planet Sizes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson combines a series of activities to compare models of the size of Earth to other planets and the distances to other planets. Activities highlight space missions to other planets in our s...

  16. Observing Planet Formation in Young Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kuchner, M. J.; Debes, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Identification and observation of where and when gaps form in protoplanetary disks is vital for learning about the process of planet formation. We will present simulations of radiative transfer in gas-rich protoplanetary disks with embedded planets that predict and model observable signatures of planet formation. Depending on the mass of the planet, the perturbation may be a local dimple or an annular gap. We will demonstate that these features can already be detected in some nearby gas-rich disks. The appearance of disks with embedded planets varies with wavelength as it ranges from optical through infrared to radio because of optical depth effects. Shorter wavelengths reveal superficial surface features of disks, while longer wavelengths probe deeper in the disk. Confirmation of a planet-induced gap in a disk requires multi-wavelength observations. Imaging of the predicted features of planet formation in disks requires very high spatial resolution, and is currently most feasible in the optical and radio. However, data in the infrared is crucial for constraining the models. Deep gaps created by very massive planets may be detectable in SEDs. Confirmation of a planet-induced gap in a disk requires multi-wavelength observations.

  17. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  18. Evolution and Atmospheric Circulation of "Pegasi Planets"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, T.; Showman, A.

    About one-quarter of the extrasolar giant planets discovered so far have orbital distances smaller than 0.1 AU. Among those are the first genuine giant planet detected outside our solar system, 51 Peg b, and the first characterized extrasolar planet, HD 209458b (also in the Pegasus constellation). These ``Pegasi planets'' form a class of objects whose evolution and structure is strongly affected by stellar irradiation and tides. We show in particular that the radius of HD 209458b cannot be reproduced by conventional evolution models unless its atmosphere is assumed to be unrealistically hot. We argue that the combination of the synchronization by stellar tides and the strong irradiation yield an atmosphere that has significant temperature variations and strong winds. The kinetic energy thus generated can be transported in the deep interior and slow the planet's contraction. We also discuss the consequences of the atmospheric circulation on the chemistry.

  19. Distributed user support and the Gemini Observatory help desk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Simon; Puxley, Phil J.

    2000-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory HelpDesk was activated early in 2000 to aid in the rapid and accurate resolution of queries concerning the Gemini telescopes and their capabilities. This system co- ordinates user support amongst staff within the Observatory and at National Offices in each partner country. The HelpDesk is based on a commercial product from Remedy Corporation that logs, tracks, forwards and escalates queries and self- generates a knowledgebase of previously asked questions. Timestamping of these events in the life cycle of a request and analysis of associated information provides valuable feedback on the static web content and performance of user support.

  20. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  1. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  2. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  3. Gemini 4 prime crew during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Gemini-Titan 4 prime crew, Astronauts Edward H. White II (center), pilot, and James A. McDivitt (left), command pilot, is shown aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico suiting up for water egress training (22655); White (left) and McDivit (right) in flight suits on ship in Gulf of Mexico (22656).

  4. Remote Operations of Laser Guide Star Systems: Gemini Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, Richard J.; Fesquet, Vincent; Wyman, Robert; D'Orgeville, Celine

    2011-03-01

    The Gemini North telescope, equipped with a 14W laser, has been providing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) regular science queue observations for worldwide astronomers since February 2007. The new 55W laser system for MCAO was installed on the Gemini South telescope in May 2010. In this paper, we comment on how Gemini Observatory developed regular remote operation of the Laser Guide Star Facility and high-power solid-state laser as routine normal operations. Fully remote operation of the LGSF from the Hilo base facility HBF was initially trialed and then optimized and became the standard operating procedure (SOP) for LGS operation in December 2008. From an engineering perspective remote operation demands stable, well characterized and base-lined equipment sets. In the effort to produce consistent, stable and controlled laser parameters (power, wavelength and beam quality) we completed a failure mode effect analysis of the laser system and sub systems that initiated a campaign of hardware upgrades and procedural improvements to the routine maintenance operations. Finally, we provide an overview of normal operation procedures during LGS runs and present a snapshot of data accumulated over several years that describes the overall LGS AO observing efficiency at the Gemini North telescope.

  5. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  6. Gemini photographs of the world: A complete index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The most authoritative catalogs of photographs of all Gemini missions are assembled. Included for all photographs are JSC (Johnson Space Center) identification number, percent cloud cover, geographical area in sight, and miscellaneous information. In addition, details are given on cameras, filters, films, and other technical details.

  7. Gemini Series Experiment Data Reduction and Storage Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berglin

    2011-11-01

    The presentation covers data formats expected from Gemini experiments; data quick look vs. in-depth analysis; iPDV object-oriented data storage; iPDV's traceability of analysis results; optimizing object memory usage in iPDV; and long-term archival of data objects by iPDV.

  8. Classification of 3 DES supernovae by Gemini-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 3 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 119), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  9. Designing Scalable PGAS Communication Subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2012-12-26

    The Cray Gemini Interconnect has been recently introduced as a next generation network architecture for building multi-petaflop supercomputers. Cray XE6 systems including LANL Cielo, NERSC Hopper, ORNL Titan and proposed NCSA BlueWaters leverage the Gemini Interconnect as their primary Interconnection network. At the same time, programming models such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) and Co-Array Fortran (CAF) have become available on these systems. Global Arrays is a popular PGAS model used in a variety of application domains including hydrodynamics, chemistry and visualization. Global Arrays uses Aggregate Re- mote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) as the communication runtime system for Remote Memory Access communication. This paper presents a design, implementation and performance evaluation of scalable and high performance communication subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect using ARMCI. The design space is explored and time-space complexities of commu- nication protocols for one-sided communication primitives such as contiguous and uniformly non-contiguous datatypes, atomic memory operations (AMOs) and memory synchronization is presented. An implementation of the proposed design (referred as ARMCI-Gemini) demonstrates the efficacy on communication primitives, application kernels such as LU decomposition and full applications such as Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) application.

  10. Novel fluorinated gemini surfactants with γ-butyrolactone segments.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Okada, Kazuyuki; Oida, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, novel γ-butyrolactone-type monomeric and dimeric (gemini) surfactants with a semifluoroalkyl group [Rf- (CH2)3-; Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17] as the hydrophobic group were successfully synthesized. Dimethyl malonate was dimerized or connected using Br(CH2)sBr (s = 0, 1, 2, 3) to give tetraesters, and they were bis-allylated. Radical addition of fluoroalkyl using Rf-I and an initiator, i.e., 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile for C4F9 or di-t-butyl peroxide for C6F13 and C8F17, was perform at high temperature, with prolonged heating, to obtain bis(semifluoroalkyl)-dilactone diesters. These dilactone diesters were hydrolyzed using KOH/EtOH followed by decarboxylation in AcOH to afford γ-butyrolactonetype gemini surfactants. Common 1 + 1 semifluoroalkyl lactone surfactants were synthesized using the same method. Their surfactant properties [critical micelle concentration (CMC), γCMC, pC20, ΓCMC, and AG] were investigated by measuring the surface tension of the γ-hydroxybutyrate form prepared in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. As expected, the CMC values of the gemini surfactants were more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of the corresponding 1 + 1 surfactants. Other properties also showed the excellent ability of the gemini structure to reduce the surface tension. These surfactants were easily and quantitatively recovered by acidification. The monomeric surfactant was recovered in the γ-hydroxybutyric acid form, and the gemini surfactant as a mixture of γ-butyrolactone and γ-hydroxybutyric acid forms. PMID:25748377

  11. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: asymmetries in the HD 141569 disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Rice, Ken; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric; Hayward, Thomas; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2015-07-01

    We report here the highest resolution near-IR imaging to date of the HD 141569A disc taken as part of the NICI (near infrared coronagraphic imager) Science Campaign. We recover four main features in the NICI images of the HD 141569 disc discovered in previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging: (1) an inner ring/spiral feature. Once deprojected, this feature does not appear circular. (2) An outer ring which is considerably brighter on the western side compared to the eastern side, but looks fairly circular in the deprojected image. (3) An additional arc-like feature between the inner and outer ring only evident on the east side. In the deprojected image, this feature appears to complete the circle of the west side inner ring and (4) an evacuated cavity from 175 au inwards. Compared to the previous HST imaging with relatively large coronagraphic inner working angles (IWA), the NICI coronagraph allows imaging down to an IWA of 0.3 arcsec. Thus, the inner edge of the inner ring/spiral feature is well resolved and we do not find any additional disc structures within 175 au. We note some additional asymmetries in this system. Specifically, while the outer ring structure looks circular in this deprojection, the inner bright ring looks rather elliptical. This suggests that a single deprojection angle is not appropriate for this system and that there may be an offset in inclination between the two ring/spiral features. We find an offset of 4 ± 2 au between the inner ring and the star centre, potentially pointing to unseen inner companions.

  12. The Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The objectives, functions, and organization, of the Deep Space Network are summarized. Deep Space stations, ground communications, and network operations control capabilities are described. The network is designed for two-way communications with unmanned spacecraft traveling approximately 1600 km from earth to the farthest planets in the solar system. It has provided tracking and data acquisition support for the following projects: Ranger, Surveyor, Mariner, Pioneer, Apollo, Helios, Viking, and the Lunar Orbiter.

  13. Tides in Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    2015-11-01

    The arrival of Juno at Jupiter in less than a year necessitates analysis of what we can learn from the gravitational signal due to tides raised on the planet by satellites (especially Io but also Europa). In the existing literature, there is extensive work on static tidal theory (the response of the planet to a tidal potential whose time dependence is ignored) and this is what is usually quoted when people refer to tidal Love numbers. If this were correct then there would be almost no new information content in the measurement of tidally induced gravity field, since the perturbation is of the same kind as the response to rotation (i.e., the measurement of J2, a well-known quantity). However, tides are dynamic (that is, k2 is frequency dependent) and so there is new information in the frequency dependent part. There is also (highly important) information in the imaginary part (more commonly expressed as tidal Q) but there is no prospect of direct detection of this by Juno since that quadrature signal is so small. The difference between what we expect to measure and what we can already calculate directly from J2 is easily shown to be of order the square of tidal frequency over the lowest order normal mode frequency, and thus of order 10%. However, the governing equations are not simple (not separable) because of the Coriolis force. An approximate solution has been obtained for the n =1 polytrope showing that the correction to k2 is even smaller, typically a few percent, because the tidal frequency is not very different from twice the rotation frequency. Moreover, it is not highly sensitive to structure in standard models. However, the deep interior of the planet may be stably stratified because of a compositional gradient and this modifies the tidal flow amplitude, changing the dynamic k2 but not the static k2. This raises the exciting possibility that we can use the determination of k2 to set bounds on the extent of static stability, if any. There is also the slight

  14. A spectrum of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L Jeremy; Deming, Drake; Horning, Karen; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph

    2007-02-22

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, 14 exhibit transits in front of their parent stars as seen from Earth. Spectroscopic observations of the transiting planets can probe the physical conditions of their atmospheres. One such technique can be used to derive the planetary spectrum by subtracting the stellar spectrum measured during eclipse (planet hidden behind star) from the combined-light spectrum measured outside eclipse (star + planet). Although several attempts have been made from Earth-based observatories, no spectrum has yet been measured for any of the established extrasolar planets. Here we report a measurement of the infrared spectrum (7.5-13.2 microm) of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Our observations reveal a hot thermal continuum for the planetary spectrum, with an approximately constant ratio to the stellar flux over this wavelength range. Superposed on this continuum is a broad emission peak centred near 9.65 microm that we attribute to emission by silicate clouds. We also find a narrow, unidentified emission feature at 7.78 microm. Models of these 'hot Jupiter' planets predict a flux peak near 10 microm, where thermal emission from the deep atmosphere emerges relatively unimpeded by water absorption, but models dominated by water fit the observed spectrum poorly. PMID:17314975

  15. Gemini surfactants mediate efficient mitochondrial gene delivery and expression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Cardoso, Ana L; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-03-01

    Gene delivery targeting mitochondria has the potential to transform the therapeutic landscape of mitochondrial genetic diseases. Taking advantage of the nonuniversal genetic code used by mitochondria, a plasmid DNA construct able to be specifically expressed in these organelles was designed by including a codon, which codes for an amino acid only if read by the mitochondrial ribosomes. In the present work, gemini surfactants were shown to successfully deliver plasmid DNA to mitochondria. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were taken up by cells through a variety of routes, including endocytic pathways, and showed propensity for inducing membrane destabilization under acidic conditions, thus facilitating cytoplasmic release of DNA. Furthermore, the complexes interacted extensively with lipid membrane models mimicking the composition of the mitochondrial membrane, which predicts a favored interaction of the complexes with mitochondria in the intracellular environment. This work unravels new possibilities for gene therapy toward mitochondrial diseases. PMID:25634573

  16. Aqueous Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly into Complex Lyotropic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the potentially wide-ranging applications of aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), the discovery of amphiphiles that reliably form these non-constant mean curvature morphologies over large phase windows remains largely serendipitous. Recent work has established that cationic gemini surfactants exhibit a pronounced tendency to form bicontinuous cubic (e.g. gyroid) phases as compared to their parent single-tail amphiphiles. The universality of this phenomenon in other surfactant systems remains untested. In this paper, we will report the aqueous LLC phase behavior of a new class of anionic gemini surfactants derived from long chain carboxylic acids. Our studies show that these new surfactants favor the formation of non-constant mean curvature gyroid and primitive (``Plumber's Nightmare'') structures over amphiphile concentration windows up to 20 wt% wide. Based on these observations, we will discuss insights gained into the delicate force balance governing the self-assembly of these surfactants into aqueous bicontinuous LLCs.

  17. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  18. Kinetics of aqueous lubrication in the hydrophilic hydrogel Gemini interface.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison C; Pitenis, Angela A; Urueña, Juan M; Schulze, Kyle D; Angelini, Thomas E; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2015-12-01

    The exquisite sliding interfaces in the human body share the common feature of hydrated dilute polymer mesh networks. These networks, especially when they constitute a sliding interface such as the pre-corneal tear film on the ocular interface, are described by the molecular weight of the polymer chains and a characteristic size of a minimum structural unit, the mesh size, ξ. In a Gemini interface where hydrophilic hydrogels are slid against each other, the aqueous lubrication behavior has been shown to be a function of sliding velocity, introducing a sliding timescale competing against the time scales of polymer fluctuation and relaxation at the surface. In this work, we examine two recent studies and postulate that when the Gemini interface slips faster than the single-chain relaxation time, chains must relax, suppressing the amplitude of the polymer chain thermal fluctuations. PMID:26614802

  19. Peeking at the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)

  20. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  1. Terrestrial Planets: Comparative Planetology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented at the 47th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting on the Comparative planetology of Terrestrial Planets. Subject matter explored concerning terrestrial planets includes: interrelationships among planets; plaentary evolution; planetary structure; planetary composition; planetary Atmospheres; noble gases in meteorites; and planetary magnetic fields.

  2. Synthesis of organic rectorite with novel Gemini surfactants for copper removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guocheng; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-10-01

    Three novel Gemini surfactants were used to prepare organic rectorite (OREC) under microwave irradiation, in comparison with single-chain surfactant ester quaternary ammonium salt (EQAS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The structure and morphology of OREC were characterized by XRD, BET, FT-IR, TEM and TGA. The removal of Cu2+ on OREC from aqueous solution was performed. The results reveal that Gemini surfactants modified REC had larger interlayer distance and higher surface area than single-chain surfactants EQAS and CTAB, and the increasing amount or chain length of Gemini surfactants led to larger layer spacing and higher adsorption capacities. The adsorption behavior of Gemini surfactant modified REC can be better described by Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 15.16 mg g-1. The desorption and regeneration experiments indicate good reuse property of Gemini modified REC adsorbent. Therefore, this study may widen the utilization of Gemini surfactants modified layered silicates.

  3. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA. PMID:25133582

  4. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  5. Dr. von Braun in the Gemini Simulator at MSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    In this 1964 photograph, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Director Dr. Wernher von Braun (in commander's seat, background) tries out the Gemini Simulator at the Marned Spacecraft Center (now Johnson Space Center). Looking on from the pilot's seat is J.P. Kuettner, deputy director of MSFC Saturn Apollo Systems Office, and standing at left, Warren J. North, chief of Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Flight Crew Support Division.

  6. Visible Spectroscopic Observation Of Asteroid 162173 (1999ju3) With The Gemini-s Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji; Kuroda, D.; Kameda, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamata, S.; Abe, M.; Ishiguro, M.; Takato, N.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2012-10-01

    Asteroid 162173 (1999JU3; hereafter JU3) is the target of the Hayabusa-2 mission. Its visible reflectance spectra have been observed a few times [1,2], and obtained spectra exhibit a wide variety of spectral patterns ranging from a spectra with absorption in the UV region (May 1999) to a flat spectrum with a faint broad absorption centered around 0.6 microns (September 2007) and that with UV absorption and strong broad absorption centered around 0.7 micron (July 2007). The apparent large spectral variation may be due to variegation on the asteroid surface. Such variegation would make a large influence on remote sensing strategy for Hayabusa-2 before its sampling operations. In order to better constraint the spectral properties of JU3, we conducted visible spectroscopic observations at the GEMINI-South observatory 8.1-m telescope with the GMOS instrument. We could obtain three different sets of data in June and July 2012. Although the JU3 rotation phases of two of the observation are close to each other, the other is about 120 degrees away from the two. Our preliminary analyses indicate that these three spectra are slightly reddish but generally flat across the observed wavelength range (0.47 - 0.89 microns). The observed flat spectra are most similar to the spectrum obtained in September 2007, which probably has the highest signal-to-noise ratio among the previous three spectra. This result suggests that material with a flat spectrum probably covers a dominant proportion of the JU3 surface and that the other two types of previously obtained spectra may not cover a very large fraction of the JU3 surface. [1] Binzel, R. P. et al. (2001) Icarus, 151, 139-149; [2] Vilas, F. (2008) AJ, 135, 1101-1105.

  7. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  8. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    Gemini was the intermediate manned space flight program between America's first steps into space with Mercury and the manned lunar expeditions of Apollo. Because of its position between these two other efforts, Gemini is probably less remembered. Still, it more than had its place in man's progress into this new frontier. Gemini accomplishments were manyfold. They included many firsts: first astronaut-controlled maneuvering in space; first rendezvous in space of one spacecraft with another; first docking of one spacecraft with a propulsive stage and use of that stage to transfer man to high altitude; first traverse of man into the earth's radiation belts; first extended manned flights of a week or more in duration; first extended stays of man outside his spacecraft; first controlled reentry and precision landing; and many more. These achievements were significant in ways one cannot truly evaluate even today, but two things stand out: (1) it was the time when America caught up and surpassed the Soviet Union in manned space flight, and (2) these demonstrations of capability were an absolute prerequisite to the phenomenal Apollo accomplishments then yet to come.

  9. Slab laser development at MSNW - The Gemini and Centurion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, J. M.; Albrecht, G. F.

    Two, zig-zag-optical-path, slab-geometry, solid-state lasers, referred to as Gemini and Centurion, are described. The Nd:glass laser (Gemini) uses a pump geometry in which the flash lamps are located between two slabs in the same laser head. The dimensions and functions of the glass slabs are studied and the single-sided pumping of the Nd:glass laser is examined. The system is verified using the Nd:YAG laser system (Centurion). The Centurion system uses four flash lamps to pump a single 6 mm x 2 cm x 15.5 cm Nd:YAG slab; the reflector structure of the system is analyzed. The thermal-optical model for the Nd:glass laser and the Trace 3D, a three-dimensional flashlamp-slab coupling code, are evaluated. The oscillation performance and defocusing of a single-pass beam are measured; it is observed that the single-sided pump output is 30 percent more efficient than the standard configuration and no major defocusing effect is detected. The use of the Trace 3D code to design a reflector system for Gemini is discussed.

  10. Easier Phase IIs: Recent Improvements to the Gemini User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Nuñez, A.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 and 2012 Gemini Observatory undertook a significant project to improve the software tools used by investigators to propose for and prepare observations. The main goal was to make the definition of observation details (the Phase II process) easier and faster. The main initiatives included rewriting the observing proposal tool (Phase I Tool) and making several major improvements to the Observing Tool, including automatic settings for arc and flat exposures, automatic guide star selection for all instruments and wavefront sensors, and more complete initial template observations with capabilities for simultaneous editing of many observations. This poster explains these major changes as well as outlines future development plans. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. Gemini 9-A spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 9-A space flight is concluded as the Gemini 9 spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic. In this view its parachute is still deployed as the spacecraft hits the water (34117); Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to the crowd aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp as they emerge from their Gemini 9 capsule. John C. Stonesifer (far right), with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, was on board to greet the astronauts (34118).

  12. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2006-04-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  13. Planets to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Casertano, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Preface; 1. Hubble's view of transiting planets D. Charbonneau; 2. Unsolved problems in star formation C. J. Clarke; 3. Star formation in clusters S. S. Larson; 4. HST abundance studies of low metallicity stars J. W. Truran, C. Sneden, F. Primas, J. J. Cowan and T. Beers; 5. Physical environments and feedback: HST studies of intense star-forming environments J. S. Gallagher, L. J. Smith and R. W. O'Connell; 6. Quasar hosts: growing up with monstrous middles K. K. McLeod; 7. Reverberation mapping of active galactic nuclei B. M. Peterson and K. Horne; 8. Feedback at high redshift A. E. Shapley; 9. The baryon content of the local intergalactic medium J. T. Stocke, J. M. Shull, and S. V. Penton; 10. Hot baryons in supercluster filaments E. D. Miller, R. A. Dupke and J. N. Bregman; 11. Galaxy assembly E. F. Bell; 12. Probing the reionization history of the Universe Z. Haiman; 13. Studying distant infrared-luminous galaxies with Spitzer and Hubble C. Papovich, E. Egami, E. Le Floc'h, P. Pérez-González, G. Rieke, J. Rigby, H. Dole and M. Reike; 14. Galaxies at z = g-i'-drop selection and the GLARE Project E. R. Stanway, K. Glazebrook, A. J. Bunker and the GLARE Consortium; 15. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field with NIMCOS R. I. Thompson, R. J. Bouwens and G. Illingworth.

  14. Hole-y Debris Disks, Batman! Where are the planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V.; Meshkat, T.; Hinz, P.; Kenworthy, M.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2014-03-01

    Giant planets at wide separations are rare and direct imaging surveys are resource-intensive, so a cheaper marker for the presence of giant planets is desirable. One intriguing possibility is to use the effect of planets on their host stars' debris disks. Theoretical studies indicate giant planets can gravitationally carve sharp boundaries and gaps in their disks; this has been seen for HR 8799, β Pic, and tentatively for HD 95086 (Su et al. 2009, Lagrange et al. 2010, Moor et al. 2013). If more broadly demonstrated, this link could help guide target selection for next generation direct imaging surveys. Using Spitzer MIPS/IRS spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we identify several dozen systems with two-component and/or large inner cavity disks (aka Hole-y Debris Disks). With LBT/LBTI, VLT/NaCo, GeminiS/NICI, MMT/Clio and Magellan/Clio, we survey a subset these SEDselected targets (~20). In contrast to previous disk-selected planet surveys (e.g.: Janson et al. 2013, Wahhaj et al. 2013) we image primarily in the thermal IR (L'-band), where planet-to-star contrast is more favorable and background contaminants less numerous. Thus far, two of our survey targets host planet-mass companions, both of which were discovered in L'-band after they were unrecognized or undetectable in H-band. For each system in our sample set, we will investigate whether the known companions and/or companions below our detection threshold could be responsible for the disk architecture. Ultimately, we will increase our effective sample size by incorporating detection limits from surveys that have independently targeted some of our systems of interest. In this way we will refine the conditions under which disk SED-based target selection is likely to be useful and valid.

  15. Kepler's missing planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the distributions of the orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in high-multiplicity Kepler systems (four or more planets) and low-multiplicity systems (two planets). Modelling the low-multiplicity sample as essentially equivalent to the high-multiplicity sample, but with unobserved intermediate planets, we find some evidence for an excess of planet pairs between the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances in the low-multiplicity sample. This possible excess may be the result of strong dynamical interactions near these or other resonances or it may be a byproduct of other evolutionary events or processes such as planetary collisions. Three-planet systems show a significant excess of planets near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that is not as prominent in either of the other samples. This observation may imply a correlation between strong dynamical interactions and observed planet number - perhaps a relationship between resonance pairs and the inclinations or orbital periods of additional planets. The period ratio distributions can also be used to identify targets to search for missing planets in the each of the samples, the presence or absence of which would have strong implications for planet formation and dynamical evolution models.

  16. Planet Demographics from Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    From the demographics of planets detected by the Kepler mission, we have learned that there exists approximately one planet per star for planets larger than Earth orbiting inside of 1 AU. We have also learned the relative occurrence of these planets as a function of their orbital periods, sizes, and host star masses and metallicities. In this talk I will review the key statistical findings that the planet size distribution peaks in the range 1-3 times Earth-size, the orbital period distribution is characterized by a power-law cut off at short periods, small planets are more prevalent around small stars, and that approximately 20% of Sun-like stars hosts a planet 1-2 times Earth-size in a habitable zone. Looking forward, I will describe analysis of photometry from the K2 mission that is yielding initial planet discoveries and offering the opportunity to measure planet occurrence in widely separated regions of the galaxy. Finally, I will also discuss recent techniques to discover transiting planets in space-based photometry and to infer planet population properties from the ensemble of detected and non-detected transit signals.

  17. The SARG Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Endl, M.; Fiorenzano, A. F. Martinez; Barbieri, M.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Scuderi, S.; Bonavita, M.

    The search for planets in multiple systems allows to improve our knowledge of planet formation and evolution. On one hand, the frequency of planets in binary systems has a strong effect on the global frequency of planets, as more than half of solar-type stars are in binary or multiple systems (Duquennoy and Mayor 1991). On the other hand, the properties of planets in binaries, and their differences with the properties of the planets orbiting single stars, would shed light on the effects caused by the presence of the companion stars. Indeed, the first analysis of the properties of planets in binaries showed the occurrence of some differences with respect to those orbiting single stars (Zucker and Mazeh 2002; Eggenberger et al. 2004).

  18. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 spacecraft, with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini 8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission.

  19. Update on the Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, Steven J.; Ghost Instrument Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini High-Resolution Opitcal SpecTrograph (GHOST) is under development for the Gemini telescopes in collaboration with the Austrailian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), the NRC-Herzberg in Canada, and the Australian National University (ANU). The latest design and project plan will be presented and the scientific role of the instrument will be discussed.

  20. Memorized chiral arrangement of gemini surfactant assemblies in nanometric hybrid organic-silica helices.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Naoya; Okazaki, Yutaka; Hirai, Kana; Takafuji, Makoto; Nagaoka, Shoji; Pouget, Emilie; Ihara, Hirotaka; Oda, Reiko

    2016-04-30

    Hybrid nanohelices were obtained from silicification of self-assemblies of gemini surfactants with tartrate counterions. The chiral arrangement of these non-chiral gemini surfactants was preserved in the silica matrix even after the counterion exchange for a non-chiral bromide, and was capable of inducing the chiral organisation of a non-chiral dye, methyl orange. PMID:26961377

  1. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (∼106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  2. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  3. Giant Micelles of Organoplatinum(II) Gemini Amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Maran, Umamageswaran; Conley, Hiram; Frank, Markus; Arif, Atta M.; Orendt, Anita M.; Britt, David; Hlady, Vladimir; Davis, Robert; Stang, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Organoplatinum(II) gemini amphiphiles with two different chain lengths are synthesized and characterized. Self-assembly at the air-water interface is investigated as a function of chain length and reduction in surface area by using Langmuir-trough techniques. The Langmuir-trough experiments lead to a conjecture that surface aggregates may be the adsorbing units. Atomic force microscopy on the transferred Langmuir-Schaefer films reveals spontaneous formation of wormlike micellar aggregates. A shear-induced transition and alignment are proposed for the observed effects. PMID:18439034

  4. Characterizing Transiting Exoplanet Atmospheres with Gemini/GMOS: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huitson, Catherine; Desert, Jean-Michel; Bean, Jacob; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bergmann, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from a 4-year ground-based survey of nine transiting exoplanet atmospheres. The program uses the Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on both Gemini north and south to repetitively measure transit lightcurves of individual exoplanets at high spectrophotometric precision. I will present the first results from this program. We attain photometric precisions per spectral bin of 200-600 ppm. Such precision enables us to construct transmission spectra of hot Jupiters. These transmission spectra reveal the dominant upper-atmosphere absorbers in the optical bandpass. Our overarching goal is to understand the prevalence and formation of high altitude clouds and hazes, and other important atmospheric constituents.

  5. Partitioning of naphthalene to gemini surfactant-treated alumina.

    PubMed

    Neupane, D; Park, J W

    2000-09-01

    Partitioning of naphthalene to anionic surfactants adsorbed on alumina in the aqueous phase was studied for immobilization of the contaminant in the subsurface. Three anionic surfactants with different molecular structures were used: a conventional (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDDBS), a gemini (dialkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide with alkyl chain length of 12, DADS-C12), and a dianionic (monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide with alkyl chain length of 12, MADS-C12). Sorption of the surfactants onto alumina was studied in a series of batch experiments and the effectiveness of the adsorbed surfactants onto aluminum oxide as a sorptive phase for naphthalene was compared. PMID:10834382

  6. Astronaut Virgil Grissom at Gemini 3 crew breakfast before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (second from left), command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, is shown during a steak breakfast which he was served about two hours prior to the launch. Others seated at the table are (left to right), Donald K. Slayton, Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Walter Burke (back to camera), General Mangaer of McDonnell Aircraft Corportation Spacecraft and Missiles; Walter C. Williams, former Deputy Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center; and Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr.

  7. Photo-switched self-assembly of a gemini α-helical peptide into supramolecular architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Li, Shi-Ying; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-06-01

    An azobenzene-linked symmetrical gemini α-helical peptide was designed and prepared to realize the light-switched self-assembly. With the reversible molecular structure transition between Z- and U-structures, the morphology of the self-assembled gemini α-helical peptide can reversibly change between nanofibers and nanospheres in acidic medium, and between nanospheres and vesicles in basic medium.An azobenzene-linked symmetrical gemini α-helical peptide was designed and prepared to realize the light-switched self-assembly. With the reversible molecular structure transition between Z- and U-structures, the morphology of the self-assembled gemini α-helical peptide can reversibly change between nanofibers and nanospheres in acidic medium, and between nanospheres and vesicles in basic medium. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and characterizations of a gemini α-helical peptide. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01967e

  8. Chandra Pilot Survey of Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Yohko

    2012-09-01

    We propose to detect planetary-mass companion around young nearby stars by X-ray direct imaging observations with Chandra. Our goals are to determine I. if the X-ray band can be a new probe to the exo-planet search, and II. if a planet emit detectable X-rays with a magnetic origin at a young age. This should be a challenging observation but a brand-new discovery space unique to Chandra. The abundant population of YSOs in the same field of view will enable us to obtain complete X-ray catalogues of YSOs with all categories of masses. We will also execute simultaneous deep NIR observations with IRSF/SIRIUS and Nishiharima 2m telescope to search for the other X-ray-emitting very low-mass objects near our aiming planet candidates.

  9. On the road to imaging extrasolar planets: Null results, other discoveries along the way, and signposts for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric Ludwig

    I present my experiences designing, conducting, and analyzing the results from direct imaging surveys for extrasolar giant planets. Using the young, low-mass star AB Dor C, I show that models for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs at young ages are good representations of reality. I discuss the design of the Simultaneous Differential Imaging survey, and how Monte Carlo simulations of giant planet populations allow for the design of imaging surveys, including the choice of target list, that maximizes the expected yield of extrasolar planets. With the conclusion of the SDI survey, I examine how its null result for planets sets constraints on the allowable populations of long-period exoplanets, finding that fewer than 8% of sun-like stars can have planets more massive than 4M Jup between 20 and 100 AU, at 68% confidence. When I include null results from other direct imaging surveys, these constraints are further strengthened: at 68% confidence, fewer than 20% of sun-like stars can have planets more massive than 4M Jup , at orbital semi-major axes between 8.1 and 911 AU. Even when applying the mass scaling of Johnson et al. (2007), and the "cold start" planet luminosity models of Fortney et al. (2008), the results remain consistent: giant planets are rare at large separations around sun-like stars. I explain how these constraints and planet simulations were used to design the Gemini South NICI Planet-Finding Campaign survey and target list, in order to maximize the chance of NICI detecting a planet, and so giving the campaign the greatest ability to strongly constrain populations of extrasolar giant planets, even in the case of a null result. Finally, I discuss future directions for direct imaging planet searches, and the steps needed to move from existing surveys to a truly unified distribution of extrasolar planet populations.

  10. Unravelling tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenel, M.; Mathis, S.; Remus, F.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. New constraints on this dissipation are now obtained both in the solar and exo-planetary systems. Aims: Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. Indeed, the dissipation behaves very differently when we compare its properties in solid and fluid planetary layers. Since planetary interiors consist of both types of regions, it is necessary to be able to assess and compare the respective intensity of the reservoir of dissipation in each type of layers. Therefore, in the case of giant planets, the respective contribution of the potential central dense rocky/icy core and of the deep convective fluid envelope must be computed as a function of the mass and the radius of the core. This will allow us to obtain their respective strengths. Methods: Using a method that evaluates the reservoir of dissipation associated to each region, which is a frequency-average of complex tidal Love numbers, we compared the respective contributions of the central core and of the fluid envelope. Results: For Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets, we show that the viscoelastic dissipation in the core could dominate the turbulent friction acting on tidal inertial waves in the envelope. However, the fluid dissipation would not be negligible. This demonstrates that it is necessary to build complete models of tidal dissipation in planetary interiors from their deep interior to their surface without any arbitrary assumptions. Conclusions: We demonstrate how important it is to carefully evaluate the respective strength of each type of dissipation mechanism in planetary interiors and to go beyond the usually adopted ad-hoc models. We confirm the significance of tidal dissipation in the potential dense core of gaseous giant planets.