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Sample records for gemini planet imager

  1. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, J. R.; Palmer, D.; Doyon, R.; Larkin, J.; Oppenheimer, B.; Saddlemyer, L.; Veran, J.; Wallace, J. K.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2007-12-01

    Direct detection of extrasolar planets would be a major step in the study of other solar systems, sensitive to planets beyond the period cutoff of Doppler surveys. Furthermore, such planets can be spectrally characterized to measure temperature, gravity, and perhaps composition, shedding light on planet formation and evolution. Surveys of 50-100 young stars with current generation AO systems have excluded the presence of massive (2-10 MJ), young (? Myr) planets in wide (? AU) orbits, but to probe 5-20 AU scales around a large sample of target stars will require dedicated next-generation instruments. One such facility will be the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). It combines a 2000-actuator adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 9. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets - opening up a new field in the characterization of the environments of nearby stars. I will present an overview of the instrument design and its scientific capabilities. GPI is currently in the design phase, scheduled for deployment as a facility instrument on the Gemini South telescope in early 2011. Portions of this work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership.

  2. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Palmer, David; Doyon, Rene; Gavel, Don; Larkin, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Wallace, J. Kent; Bauman, Brian; Evans, Julia; Erikson, Darren; Morzinski, Katie; Phillion, Donald; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Thibault, Simon; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10 -7 to 10 -8, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  5. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Stone; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  6. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; et al

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a singlemore » 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.« less

  7. First light of the Gemini Planet imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 10(6) at 0.75 arcseconds and 10(5) at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of [Formula: see text] near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  8. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0−0.4+0.8 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  9. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraph constructed for the Gemini Observatory. GPI will see first light this fall. It will be the most advanced planet-imaging system in operation - an order of magnitude more sensitive than any current instrument, capable of detecting and spectroscopically characterizing young Jovian planets 107 times fainter than their parent star at separations of 0.2 arcseconds. GPI was built from the beginning as a facility-class survey instrument, and the observatory will employ it that way. Our team has been selected by Gemini Observatory to carry out an 890-hour program - the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) campaign from 2014-2017. We will observe 600 stars spanning spectral types A-M. We will use published young association catalogs and a proprietary list in preparation that adds several hundred new young (<100 Myr, <75 pc) and adolescent (<300 Myr, <35 pc) stars. The range of separations studied by GPI is completely inaccessible to Doppler and transit techniques (even with Kepler or TESS)— GPI offers a new window into planet formation. We will use GPI to produce the first-ever robust census of giant planet populations in the 5-50 AU range, allowing us to: 1) illuminate the formation pathways of Jovian planets; 2) reconstruct the early dynamical evolution of systems, including migration mechanisms and the interaction with disks and belts of debris; and 3) bridge the gap between Jupiter and the brown dwarfs with the first examples of cool low- gravity planetary atmospheres. Simulations predict this survey will discover approximately 50 exoplanets, increasing the number of exoplanet images by an order of magnitude, enough for statistical investigation. This Origins of Solar Systems proposal will support the execution of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. We will develop tools needed to execute the survey efficiently. We will refine the existing GPI data pipeline to a final version that robustly removes residual speckle

  10. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0-0.4+0.8AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  11. Gemini planet imager one button approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Kerley, Dan; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Smith, Malcolm; Wooff, Robert; Savransky, Dmitry; Palmer, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Weiss, Jason; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Goodsell, Stephen J.

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an "extreme" adaptive optics coronagraph system that is now on the Gemini South telescope in Chile. This instrument is composed of three different systems that historically have been separate instruments. These systems are the extreme Adaptive Optics system, with deformable mirrors, including a high-order 64x64 element MEMS system; the Science Instrument, which is a near-infrared integral field spectrograph; and the Calibration system, a precision IR wavefront sensor that also holds key coronagraph components. Each system coordinates actions that require precise timing. The observatory is responsible for starting these actions and has typically done this asynchronously across independent systems. Despite this complexity we strived to provide an interface that is as close to a onebutton approach as possible. This paper will describe the sequencing of these systems both internally and externally through the observatory.

  12. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  13. Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Mey, Jacob L.; Brenner, Doug; Mandeville, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Neil; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Graham, James R.; Saddlemyer, Les; Bauman, Brian; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Tuthill, Peter G.; Dorrer, Christophe; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  14. Gemini Planet Imager: Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2007-05-10

    For the first time in history, direct and indirect detection techniques have enabled the exploration of the environments of nearby stars on scales comparable to the size of our solar system. Precision Doppler measurements have led to the discovery of the first extrasolar planets, while high-contrast imaging has revealed new classes of objects including dusty circumstellar debris disks and brown dwarfs. The ability to recover spectrophotometry for a handful of transiting exoplanets through secondary-eclipse measurements has allowed us to begin to study exoplanets as individual entities rather than points on a mass/semi-major-axis diagram and led to new models of planetary atmospheres and interiors, even though such measurements are only available at low SNR and for a handful of planets that are automatically those most modified by their parent star. These discoveries have galvanized public interest in science and technology and have led to profound new insights into the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and they have set the stage for the next steps--direct detection and characterization of extrasolar Jovian planets with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). As discussed in Volume 1, the ability to directly detect Jovian planets opens up new regions of extrasolar planet phase space that in turn will inform our understanding of the processes through which these systems form, while near-IR spectra will advance our understanding of planetary physics. Studies of circumstellar debris disks using GPI's polarimetric mode will trace the presence of otherwise-invisible low-mass planets and measure the build-up and destruction of planetesimals. To accomplish the science mission of GPI will require a dedicated instrument capable of achieving contrast of 10{sup -7} or more. This is vastly better than that delivered by existing astronomical AO systems. Currently achievable contrast, about 10{sup -5} at separations of 1 arc second or larger, is

  15. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Palmer, David W; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Ammons, S Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Perrin, Marshall D; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J

    2016-01-10

    The Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. A definitive description of the system's algorithms and technologies as built is given. 564 AO telemetry measurements from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey campaign are analyzed. The modal gain optimizer tracks changes in atmospheric conditions. Science observations show that image quality can be improved with the use of both the spatially filtered wavefront sensor and linear-quadratic-Gaussian control of vibration. The error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term. PMID:26835769

  16. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  17. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VII: on-sky polarimetric performance of the Gemini planet imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Draper, Zachary H.; Song, Inseok; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru

    2014-07-01

    We present on-sky polarimetric observations with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) obtained at straight Cassegrain focus on the Gemini South 8-m telescope. Observations of polarimetric calibrator stars, ranging from nearly un- polarized to strongly polarized, enable determination of the combined telescope and instrumental polarization. We find the conversion of Stokes I to linear and circular instrumental polarization in the instrument frame to be I --> (QIP, UIP, PIP, VIP) = (-0.037 +/- 0.010%, +0.4338 +/- 0.0075%, 0.4354 +/- 0.0075%, -6.64 +/- 0.56%). Such precise measurement of instrumental polarization enables ~0.1% absolute accuracy in measurements of linear polarization, which together with GPI's high contrast will allow GPI to explore scattered light from circumstellar disk in unprecedented detail, conduct observations of a range of other astronomical bodies, and potentially even study polarized thermal emission from young exoplanets. Observations of unpolarized standard stars also let us quantify how well GPI's differential polarimetry mode can suppress the stellar PSF halo. We show that GPI polarimetry achieves cancellation of unpolarized starlight by factors of 100-200, reaching the photon noise limit for sensitivity to circumstellar scattered light for all but the smallest separations at which the calibration for instrumental polarization currently sets the limit.

  18. Observations of Beta Pictoris b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, J.; Graham, J.; Barman, T.; Fitzgerald, M.; Larkin, J.; Macintosh, B.; Bauman, B.; Burrows, A.; Cardwell, A.; De Rosa, R.; Dillon, D.; Doyon, R.; Dunn, J.; Erikson, D.; Gavel, D.; Goodsell, S.; Hartung, M.; Hibon, P.; Ingraham, P.; Kalas, P.; Konopacky, Q.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Marley, M.; Mcbride, J.; Millar-Blanchaer, M.; Morzinski, K.; Norton, A.; Oppenheimer, B.; Palmer, D.; Patience, J.; Pueyo, L.; Rantakyro, F.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Savransky, D.; Serio, A.; Soummer, R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Thomas, S.; Wallace, K.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Wolff, S.

    2014-09-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we present measurements of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pic. GPI is a facility class instrument located at Gemini South designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. We present the current imaged spectrum and atmospheric models of the planet based upon GPI's R ˜50 integral field spectrograph. Further, we present a joint analysis of the GPI and NACO astrometry, and the Snellen et al. (2014) radial velocity measurement of beta Pic b that provides the first constraint on the argument of periastron, providing a causal link to the infalling, evaporating bodies.

  19. Gemini planet imager integration to the Gemini South telescope software environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dunn, Jennifer; Goodsell, Stephen; Hibon, Pascale; Macintosh, Bruce; Quiroz, Carlos; Perrin, Marshall D.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Winge, Claudia; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Hardie, Kayla; Hartung, Markus; Luhrs, Javier; Poyneer, Lisa; Thomas, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme AO instrument with an integral field spectrograph (IFS) operating in Y, J, H, and K bands. Both the Gemini telescope and the GPI instrument are very complex systems. Our goal is that the combined telescope and instrument system may be run by one observer operating the instrument, and one operator controlling the telescope and the acquisition of light to the instrument. This requires a smooth integration between the two systems and easily operated control interfaces. We discuss the definition of the software and hardware interfaces, their implementation and testing, and the integration of the instrument with the telescope environment.

  20. The Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Debby; Konopacky, Quinn; GPIES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), housed on the 8-meter Gemini South telescope in Chile, is an instrument designed to detect Jupiter-like extrasolar planets by direct imaging. It relies on adaptive optics to correct the effects of atmospheric turbulence, along with an advanced coronagraph and calibration system. One of the scientific goals of GPI is to measure the orbital properties of the planets it discovers. Because these orbits have long periods, precise measurements of the relative position between the star and the planet (relative astrometry) are required. In this poster, I will present the astrometric calibration of GPI. We constrain the plate scale and orientation of the camera by observing different binary star systems with both GPI and another well-calibrated instrument, NIRC2, at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. We measure their separations with both instruments and use that information to calibrate the plate scale. By taking these calibration measurements over the course of one year, we have measured the plate scale to 0.05% and shown that it is stable across multiple epochs. I will also discuss our effort to correct for optical distortion using pinhole masks in the laboratory.

  1. Wavefront sensing and correction with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Poyneer, L.; Savransky, D.; Macintosh, B.; Hartung, M.; Dillon, D.; Gavel, D.; Dunn, Jennifer; Wallace, K.; Palmer, D.; De Rosa, Robert

    2012-07-01

    High-contrast imaging is a growing observational technique aimed at discovering and characterizing extrasolar planets. The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is designed to achieve contrast ratios of 10-6 - 10-7 and requires unprecedented wavefront correction and coronagraphic control of diffraction. G PI is a facility instrument now undergoing integration and testing and is scheduled for first light on the 8-m Gemini South telescope towards the end of 2012. In this paper, we focus on the wavefront sensing and correction aspects of the instrument. To measure the wavefront, GPI combines a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a high-accuracy infrared interferometric wavefront calibration system. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor uses 1700 subapertures to precisely sample the wavefront at 1.5 kHz and features a spatial filter to prevent aliasing. The wavefront calibration system measures the slower temporal frequency errors as well as non-common path aberrations. The wavefront correction is performed using a two-stage adaptive optics system employing a 9x9 piezoelectric deformable mirror and a 43x43 actuators MEMS deformable mirror operating in a woofer-tweeter configuration. Finally, an image sharpening technique is used to further increase the contrast of the final image. In this paper, we describe the three wavefront sensing methods and how we combine their respective information to achieve the best possible contrast.

  2. Test results for the Gemini Planet Imager data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, Jérôme; Perrin, Marshall D.; Doyon, René; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Larkin, James E.; Weiss, Jason L.; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Graham, James R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Galicher, Raphael; Marchis, Franck; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Labrie, Kathleen; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument for the Gemini Observatory designed to detect and characterize planets and debris disks orbiting nearby stars; its science camera is a near infrared integral field spectrograph. We have developed a data pipeline for this instrument, which will be made publicly available to the community. The GPI data reduction pipeline (DRP) incorporates all necessary image reduction and calibration steps for high contrast imaging in both the spectral and polarimetric modes, including datacube generation, wavelength solution, astrometric and photometric calibrations, and speckle suppression via ADI and SSDI algorithms. It is implemented in IDL as a flexible modular system, and includes both command line and graphical interface tools including a customized viewer for GPI datacubes. This GPI data reduction pipeline is currently working very well, and is in use daily processing data during the instrument’s ongoing integration and test period at UC Santa Cruz. Here we summarize the results from recent pipeline tests, and present reductions of instrument test data taken with GPI. We will continue to refine and improve these tools throughout the rest of GPI’s testing and commissioning, and they will be released to the community, including both IDL source code and compiled versions that can be used without an IDL license.

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  5. Non-Redundant Masking Science on the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra; Cheetham, Anthony; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Pueyo, L.; Wolff, S.; Perrin, M. D.; Ingraham, P.; Thomas, S.; Norris, B.; Tuthill, P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-Redundant Mask Interferometry (NRM) transforms a fully transmissive pupil into an interferometer by masking all but a set of holes that form unique baselines. The interferometric resolution and dynamic range makes the technique suitable for probing potential planet forming regions. So called "transition disks" may or may not have perturbing bodies in the process of changing the disk morphology (cleared gaps, etc.) and require close-in imaging to peer inside disk clearings and spot companions that are several orders of magnitude fainter than the host star. Improvements in contrast for NRM rely on both the wavefront quality as well as the data reduction methods. Image plane modeling of the NRM point-spread function avoids ringing and windowing effects that result in Fourier domain analysis of bad pixel and restricted field of view data. The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph, is equipped with a 10-hole NRM. We present recent results from GPI NRM I&T data using the image plane approach to measure visibilities as an early prediction of performance. We additionally discuss the feasibility of measuring visibility amplitudes from ground-based studies and their implications for NRM science with GPI.

  6. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul G.; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James A.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie M.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, Dave W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2014-10-01

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets' spectral energy distributions. When combined with the 3 to 4 μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. The data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  7. GEMINI PLANET IMAGER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS c AND d

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Patrick; Macintosh, Bruce; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Doyon, René; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Graham, James R.; and others

    2014-10-10

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets' spectral energy distributions. When combined with the 3 to 4 μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. The data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  8. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Barman, T; De Rosa, R J; Konopacky, Q; Marley, M S; Marois, C; Nielsen, E L; Pueyo, L; Rajan, A; Rameau, J; Saumon, D; Wang, J J; Patience, J; Ammons, M; Arriaga, P; Artigau, E; Beckwith, S; Brewster, J; Bruzzone, S; Bulger, J; Burningham, B; Burrows, A S; Chen, C; Chiang, E; Chilcote, J K; Dawson, R I; Dong, R; Doyon, R; Draper, Z H; Duchêne, G; Esposito, T M; Fabrycky, D; Fitzgerald, M P; Follette, K B; Fortney, J J; Gerard, B; Goodsell, S; Greenbaum, A Z; Hibon, P; Hinkley, S; Cotten, T H; Hung, L-W; Ingraham, P; Johnson-Groh, M; Kalas, P; Lafreniere, D; Larkin, J E; Lee, J; Line, M; Long, D; Maire, J; Marchis, F; Matthews, B C; Max, C E; Metchev, S; Millar-Blanchaer, M A; Mittal, T; Morley, C V; Morzinski, K M; Murray-Clay, R; Oppenheimer, R; Palmer, D W; Patel, R; Perrin, M D; Poyneer, L A; Rafikov, R R; Rantakyrö, F T; Rice, E L; Rojo, P; Rudy, A R; Ruffio, J-B; Ruiz, M T; Sadakuni, N; Saddlemyer, L; Salama, M; Savransky, D; Schneider, A C; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Song, I; Soummer, R; Thomas, S; Vasisht, G; Wallace, J K; Ward-Duong, K; Wiktorowicz, S J; Wolff, S G; Zuckerman, B

    2015-10-01

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10(-6) and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, "hot-start" formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the "cold-start" core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter. PMID:26272904

  9. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; et al

    2014-09-30

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets’ spectral energy distributions.When combined with the 3 to 4μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. Lastly, the data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts mustmore » include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.« less

  10. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul G.; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James A.; Marchis, Franck; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie M.; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, Dave W.; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Kent Wallace, J.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2014-09-30

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets’ spectral energy distributions.When combined with the 3 to 4μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. Lastly, the data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts must include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.

  11. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Rameau, J.; Saumon, D.; Wang, J. J.; Patience, J.; Ammons, M.; Arriaga, P.; Artigau, E.; Beckwith, S.; Brewster, J.; Bruzzone, S.; Bulger, J.; Burningham, B.; Burrows, A. S.; Chen, C.; Chiang, E.; Chilcote, J. K.; Dawson, R. I.; Dong, R.; Doyon, R.; Draper, Z. H.; Duchene, G.; Esposito, T. M.; Fabrycky, D.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Follette, K. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Gerard, B.; Goodsell, S.; Greenbaum, A. Z.; Hibon, P.; Hinkley, S.; Cotten, T. H.; Hung, L. -W.; Ingraham, P.; Johnson-Groh, M.; Kalas, P.; Lafreniere, D.; Larkin, J. E.; Lee, J.; Line, M.; Long, D.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Matthews, B. C.; Max, C. E.; Metchev, S.; Millar-Blanchaer, M. A.; Mittal, T.; Morley, C. V.; Morzinski, K. M.; Murray-Clay, R.; Oppenheimer, R.; Palmer, D. W.; Patel, R.; Perrin, M. D.; Poyneer, L. A.; Rafikov, R. R.; Rantakyro, F. T.; Rice, E. L.; Rojo, P.; Rudy, A. R.; Ruffio, J. -B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Salama, M.; Savransky, D.; Schneider, A. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Soummer, R.; Thomas, S.; Vasisht, G.; Wallace, J. K.; Ward-Duong, K.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Wolff, S. G.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-10-02

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. As a result, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

  12. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; et al

    2015-10-02

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10–6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twicemore » that of Jupiter. As a result, this planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.« less

  13. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Rameau, J.; Saumon, D.; Wang, J. J.; Patience, J.; Ammons, M.; Arriaga, P.; Artigau, E.; Beckwith, S.; Brewster, J.; Bruzzone, S.; Bulger, J.; Burningham, B.; Burrows, A. S.; Chen, C.; Chiang, E.; Chilcote, J. K.; Dawson, R. I.; Dong, R.; Doyon, R.; Draper, Z. H.; Duchêne, G.; Esposito, T. M.; Fabrycky, D.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Follette, K. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Gerard, B.; Goodsell, S.; Greenbaum, A. Z.; Hibon, P.; Hinkley, S.; Cotten, T. H.; Hung, L.-W.; Ingraham, P.; Johnson-Groh, M.; Kalas, P.; Lafreniere, D.; Larkin, J. E.; Lee, J.; Line, M.; Long, D.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Matthews, B. C.; Max, C. E.; Metchev, S.; Millar-Blanchaer, M. A.; Mittal, T.; Morley, C. V.; Morzinski, K. M.; Murray-Clay, R.; Oppenheimer, R.; Palmer, D. W.; Patel, R.; Perrin, M. D.; Poyneer, L. A.; Rafikov, R. R.; Rantakyrö, F. T.; Rice, E. L.; Rojo, P.; Rudy, A. R.; Ruffio, J.-B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Salama, M.; Savransky, D.; Schneider, A. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Soummer, R.; Thomas, S.; Vasisht, G.; Wallace, J. K.; Ward-Duong, K.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Wolff, S. G.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-10-01

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10-6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

  14. Adaptive Optics for Direct Detection of Extrasolar Planets: The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erikson, D; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Soummer, R; Veran, J

    2007-04-24

    The direct detection of photons emitted or reflected by extrasolar planets, spatially resolved from their parent star, is a major frontier in the study of other solar systems. Direct detection will provide statistical information on planets in 5-50 AU orbits, inaccessible to current Doppler searches, and allow spectral characterization of radius, temperature, surface gravity, and perhaps composition. Achieving this will require new dedicated high-contrast instruments. One such system under construction is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) This combines a high-order/high-speed adaptive optics system to control wavefront errors from the Earth's atmosphere, an advanced coronagraph to block diffraction, ultrasmooth optics, a precision infrared interferometer to measure and correct systematic errors, and a integral field spectrograph/polarimeter to image and characterize target planetary systems. We predict that GPI will be able to detect planets with brightness less than 10{sup -7} of their parent star, sufficient to observe warm self-luminous planets around a large population of targets.

  15. A Gemini Planet Imager investigation of the atmosphere of the HD 95086b planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Robert J.; Pueyo, Laurent; Patience, Jenny; Graham, James R.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2015-01-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) near-infrared observations of the ~5 Mjup companion to the young, dusty A-type star HD 95086, observed during the course of the verification and commissioning of the instrument. By combining binned low-resolution H and K-band IFS spectra from GPI, with literature near and mid-IR photometry, we have undertaken the most comprehensive analysis of the spectral energy distribution of HD 95086 b to-date. Comparing these observational results with atmospheric models, we constrain key parameters such as the effective temperature and surface gravity, and place the results in the context of analyses of other directly imaged planetary-mass companions (e.g. HR 8799 bcde, β Pic b), and other substellar companions at a similar age (e.g. HD 106906 b, GQ Lup b). We also comment on the sensitivity of companions interior and exterior to HD 95086 b. Lastly, we present the color-corrections derived during the course of this study that are required to transform photometry obtained with GPI in the K1 and K2 filters into both the MKO and 2MASS photometric systems, essential for the propoer interpretation of K-band photometry measurements obtained with GPI.

  16. Characterizing Young Giant Planets with the Gemini Planet Imager: An Iterative Approach to Planet Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    After discovery, the first task of exoplanet science is characterization. However experience has shown that the limited spectral range and resolution of most directly imaged exoplanet data requires an iterative approach to spectral modeling. Simple, brown dwarf-like models, must first be tested to ascertain if they are both adequate to reproduce the available data and consistent with additional constraints, including the age of the system and available limits on the planet's mass and luminosity, if any. When agreement is lacking, progressively more complex solutions must be considered, including non-solar composition, partial cloudiness, and disequilibrium chemistry. Such additional complexity must be balanced against an understanding of the limitations of the atmospheric models themselves. For example while great strides have been made in improving the opacities of important molecules, particularly NH3 and CH4, at high temperatures, much more work is needed to understand the opacity of atomic Na and K. The highly pressure broadened fundamental band of Na and K in the optical stretches into the near-infrared, strongly influencing the spectral shape of Y and J spectral bands. Discerning gravity and atmospheric composition is difficult, if not impossible, without both good atomic opacities as well as an excellent understanding of the relevant atmospheric chemistry. I will present examples of the iterative process of directly imaged exoplanet characterization as applied to both known and potentially newly discovered exoplanets with a focus on constraints provided by GPI spectra. If a new GPI planet is lacking, as a case study I will discuss HR 8799 c and d will explain why some solutions, such as spatially inhomogeneous cloudiness, introduce their own additional layers of complexity. If spectra of new planets from GPI are available I will explain the modeling process in the context of understanding these new worlds.

  17. Development and Commissioning of the Integral Field Spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, J. E.; Planet Imager instrument, Gemini; science Teams

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is one of a new generation of instruments being built to directly image extrasolar planets in the outer solar systems of young main sequence stars. By combining a 1700-actuactor adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision interferometric infrared wavefront sensor, and an integral field spectrograph (IFS), GPI’s goal is more than an order of magnitude improvement in contrast compared to existing high contrast systems. This presentation focuses on the performance and characterization of the GPI IFS which is based on concepts from the OSIRIS instrument employed at Keck. Like OSIRIS, the IFS utilizes an infrared transmissive lenslet array to sample an approximate 2.7 x 2.7 arcsecond field of view at the diffraction limit of the Gemini Telescopes. The IFS provides over 36,000 simultaneous low-resolution (R ~ 45) spectra across five bands between 1 and 2.5μm. Alternatively, the dispersing element can be replaced with a Wollaston prism to provide broadband polarimetry of the same five filter bands. The IFS construction was based at the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the Université de Montreal, Immervision and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IFS was integrated with the other components of GPI in the fall of 2011. GPI has recently finished Integration & Testing at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and has been shipped to Gemini South where it is undergoing post delivery acceptance testing.

  18. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  19. Design of high-resolution variable size spatial filter for Gemini Planet Imager using flexure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetov, Vlad; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a variable size spatial filter used in the wavefront sensor subsystem of the Gemini Planet Imager instrument. It describes an adjustable mechanism consisting of two slides forming a square aperture which can be varied in size between 1.8 and 6.7 mm. These slides are located on athermalized flexure mounts that move opposite to one another driven by a single precision linear actuator. The device retains long term dimensional stability, resolution, and repeatability on a micron level for all gravity vector orientations and for temperatures between -5°C and + 25°C.

  20. Peering into the Giant-planet-forming Region of the TW Hydrae Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapson, Valerie A.; Kastner, Joel H.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-12-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) adaptive optics near-infrared images of the giant-planet-forming regions of the protoplanetary disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), pre-main-sequence (classical T Tauri) star TW Hydrae. The GPI images, which were obtained in coronagraphic/polarimetric mode, exploit starlight scattered off small dust grains to elucidate the surface density structure of the TW Hya disk from ∼80 AU to within ∼10 AU of the star at ∼1.5 AU resolution. The GPI polarized intensity images unambiguously confirm the presence of a gap in the radial surface brightness distribution of the inner disk. The gap is centered near ∼23 AU, with a width of ∼5 AU and a depth of ∼50%. In the context of recent simulations of giant-planet formation in gaseous, dusty disks orbiting pre-main-sequence stars, these results indicate that at least one young planet with a mass ∼0.2 MJ could be present in the TW Hya disk at an orbital semimajor axis similar to that of Uranus. If this (proto)planet is actively accreting gas from the disk, it may be readily detectable by GPI or a similarly sensitive, high-resolution infrared imaging system.

  1. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: Deep Imaging of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Wahhaj, Z.; Liu, M.; Chun, M.; Close, L.; Ftaclas, C.; Hartung, M.; Hayward, T.; Nielsen, E.; Toomey, D.; NICI Planet-Finding Campaign Team

    2010-01-01

    The novel Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the 8-m Gemini South telescope combines a number of techniques to attenuate starlight and suppress superspeckles for direct detection of exoplanets: 1) Lyot coronagraphic imaging, 2) dual channel imaging for Spectral Differential Imaging (SDI) and 3) operation in a fixed Cassegrain rotator mode for Angular Differential Imaging (ADI). The combination of these techniques allows unprecedented contrasts of dmag > 14 (median value) at 1" in H band. We are currently conducting a 50 night planet-finding campaign using NICI. Although the majority of our survey targets are young (<300 Myr, so as to catch young planets while they are still self-luminous), we are also observing a subset of nearby stars in the immediate solar neighborhood. While these objects are old (and hence, planetary companions will be faint), they are still desirable targets for planet searches due to the excellent physical resolution possible around these stars. Additionally, their large proper motions also mean that planet candidates can be quickly confirmed. NICI is the first instrument with achieved star-planet contrasts high enough to image supergiant planets around these stars (M > 10 MJup). Here, we report on results from observations of 3 such nearby stars. At respective distances of 1.39 pc, 2.35 pc, and 3.8 pc, Proxima Centauri, Wolf 359, and Luyten's Star are the 1st, 3rd, and 22nd closest stars to the Sun. While our search yielded numerous candidate companions, especially around Proxima Centauri, all of these candidates were found to be background in second epoch observations.

  2. Gemini Planet Imager observational calibrations I: Overview of the GPI data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Wang, Jason J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Sadakuni, Naru; Marois, Christian; Rajan, Abhijith; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René; Larkin, James E.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Palmer, David W.; Labrie, Kathleen; Beaulieu, Mathilde; De Rosa, Robert J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Konopacky, Quinn; Lafreniere, David; Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Marchis, Franck; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) has as its science instrument an infrared integral field spectrograph/polarimeter (IFS). Integral field spectrographs are scientificially powerful but require sophisticated data reduction systems. For GPI to achieve its scientific goals of exoplanet and disk characterization, IFS data must be reconstructed into high quality astrometrically and photometrically accurate datacubes in both spectral and polarization modes, via flexible software that is usable by the broad Gemini community. The data reduction pipeline developed by the GPI instrument team to meet these needs is now publicly available following GPI's commissioning. This paper, the first of a series, provides a broad overview of GPI data reduction, summarizes key steps, and presents the overall software framework and implementation. Subsequent papers describe in more detail the algorithms necessary for calibrating GPI data. The GPI data reduction pipeline is open source, available from planetimager.org, and will continue to be enhanced throughout the life of the instrument. It implements an extensive suite of task primitives that can be assembled into reduction recipes to produce calibrated datasets ready for scientific analysis. Angular, spectral, and polarimetric differential imaging are supported. Graphical tools automate the production and editing of recipes, an integrated calibration database manages reference files, and an interactive data viewer customized for high contrast imaging allows for exploration and manipulation of data.

  3. Constraints on the Architecture of the HD 95086 Planetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Patience, Jenny; Doyon, René; Graham, James R.; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Hung, Li-Wei; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. Mark; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Rantakyearö, Fredrik T.; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-05-01

    We present astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager between 2013 and 2016. A small but significant position angle change is detected at constant separation; the orbital motion is confirmed with literature measurements. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. With 68% confidence, a semimajor axis of {61.7}-8.4+20.7 au and an inclination of 153\\fdg {0}-13.5+9.7 are favored, with eccentricity less than 0.21. Under the assumption of a coplanar planet–disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 au with 68% confidence. Therefore, HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. We use our sensitivity to additional planets to discuss specific scenarios presented in the literature to explain the geometry of the debris belts. We suggest that either two planets on moderately eccentric orbits or three to four planets with inhomogeneous masses and orbital properties are possible. The sensitivity to additional planetary companions within the observations presented in this study can be used to help further constrain future dynamical simulations of the planet–disk system.

  4. MEMS adaptive optics for the Gemini Planet Imager: control methods and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Dillon, Daren

    2008-02-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Adaptive Optics system will use a high-order MEMS deformable mirror for phase compensation. The MEMS mirror will be used in a Woofer-Tweeter configuration, with a frequency-domain based splitting of the phase between the two mirrors. Precise wavefront control depends on the ability to command them MEMS to make the exact phase desired. Non-linearities in the MEMS may prevent this. We determine that influence-function pre-compensation can remove most, but not all, open-loop error. We use simulation and a simulation of a non-linear MEMS to address the issue of how much non-linearity can be tolerated in closed-loop by GPI.

  5. Gemini Planet Imager Observations of the AU Microscopii Debris Disk: Asymmetries within One Arcsecond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; De Rosa, Robert J.; Kalas, Paul; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Chen, Christine; Chiang, Eugene; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Matthews, Brenda C.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-10-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) observations of AU Microscopii, a young M dwarf with an edge-on, dusty debris disk. Integral field spectroscopy and broadband imaging polarimetry were obtained during the commissioning of GPI. In our broadband imaging polarimetry observations, we detect the disk only in total intensity and find asymmetries in the morphology of the disk between the southeast (SE) and northwest (NW) sides. The SE side of the disk exhibits a bump at 1″ (10 AU projected separation) that is three times more vertically extended and three times fainter in peak surface brightness than the NW side at similar separations. This part of the disk is also vertically offset by 69 ± 30 mas to the northeast at 1″ when compared to the established disk midplane and is consistent with prior Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations. We see hints that the SE bump might be a result of detecting a horizontal sliver feature above the main disk that could be the disk backside. Alternatively, when including the morphology of the NW side, where the disk midplane is offset in the opposite direction ∼50 mas between 0.″4 and 1.″2, the asymmetries suggest a warp-like feature. Using our integral field spectroscopy data to search for planets, we are 50% complete for ∼4 MJup planets at 4 AU. We detect a source, resolved only along the disk plane, that could either be a candidate planetary mass companion or a compact clump in the disk.

  6. The PDS 66 Circumstellar Disk as Seen in Polarized Light with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Schuyler G.; Perrin, Marshall; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wang, Jason; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Dong, Ruobing; Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Grady, Carol A.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C.; Hung, Li-Wei; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Schneider, Glenn; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.

    2016-02-01

    We present H- and K-band imaging polarimetry for the PDS 66 circumstellar disk obtained during the commissioning of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Polarization images reveal a clear detection of the disk in to the 0.″12 inner working angle (IWA) in the H band, almost three times closer to the star than the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations with NICMOS and STIS (0.″35 effective IWA). The centro-symmetric polarization vectors confirm that the bright inner disk detection is due to circumstellar scattered light. A more diffuse disk extends to a bright outer ring centered at 80 AU. We discuss several physical mechanisms capable of producing the observed ring + gap structure. GPI data confirm enhanced scattering on the east side of the disk that is inferred to be nearer to us. We also detect a lateral asymmetry in the south possibly due to shadowing from material within the IWA. This likely corresponds to a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry observed in HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging.

  7. Spectroscopic Characterization of HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Robert J.; Rameau, Julien; Patience, Jenny; Graham, James R.; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Hung, Li-Wei; Maire, Jérôme; Nielsen, Eric L.; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Galvez, Ramon L.; Gerard, Benjamin L.; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson-Groh, Mara; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-06-01

    We present new H (1.5–1.8 μm) photometric and K 1 (1.9–2.2 μm) spectroscopic observations of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager. The H-band magnitude has been significantly improved relative to previous measurements, whereas the low-resolution K 1 (λ /δ λ ≈ 66) spectrum is featureless within the measurement uncertainties and presents a monotonically increasing pseudo-continuum consistent with a cloudy atmosphere. By combining these new measurements with literature L\\prime photometry, we compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the planet to other young planetary-mass companions, field brown dwarfs, and to the predictions of grids of model atmospheres. HD 95086 b is over a magnitude redder in {K}1-L\\prime color than 2MASS J12073346–3932539 b and HR 8799 c and d, despite having a similar L\\prime magnitude. Considering only the near-infrared measurements, HD 95086 b is most analogous to the brown dwarfs 2MASS J2244316+204343 and 2MASS J21481633+4003594, both of which are thought to have dusty atmospheres. Morphologically, the SED of HD 95086 b is best fit by low temperature ({T}{{eff}} = 800–1300 K), low surface gravity spectra from models which simulate high photospheric dust content. This range of effective temperatures is consistent with field L/T transition objects, but the spectral type of HD 95086 b is poorly constrained between early L and late T due to its unusual position the color–magnitude diagram, demonstrating the difficulty in spectral typing young, low surface gravity substellar objects. As one of the reddest such objects, HD 95086 b represents an important empirical benchmark against which our current understanding of the atmospheric properties of young extrasolar planets can be tested.

  8. The Peculiar Debris Disk of HD 111520 as Resolved by the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Wang, Jason J.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Padgett, Deborah; Ammons, S. Mark; Bulger, Joanna; Chen, Christine; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Doyon, René; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Kate B.; Gerard, Benjamin; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Macintosh, Bruce; Ingraham, Patrick; Lafrenière, David; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patel, Rahul; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Vega, David; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2016-08-01

    Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we have resolved the circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ∼30–100 AU in both total and polarized H-band intensity. The disk is seen edge-on at a position angle of 165° along the spine of emission. A slight inclination and asymmetric warp are covariant and alter the interpretation of the observed disk emission. We employ three point-spread function subtraction methods to reduce the stellar glare and instrumental artifacts to confirm that there is a roughly 2:1 brightness asymmetry between the NW and SE extension. This specific feature makes HD 111520 the most extreme example of asymmetric debris disks observed in scattered light among similar highly inclined systems, such as HD 15115 and HD 106906. We further identify a tentative localized brightness enhancement and scale height enhancement associated with the disk at ∼40 AU away from the star on the SE extension. We also find that the fractional polarization rises from 10% to 40% from 0.″5 to 0.″8 from the star. The combination of large brightness asymmetry and symmetric polarization fraction leads us to believe that an azimuthal dust density variation is causing the observed asymmetry.

  9. Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2015-12-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at rproj ˜ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10-20 MJ candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.

  10. DETECTABILITY OF EXOPLANETS IN THE {beta} PIC MOVING GROUP WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, Tiffany; Simon, Michal

    2010-07-15

    We model the detectability of exoplanets around stars in the {beta} Pic Moving Group (BPMG) using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), a coronagraphic instrument designed to detect companions by imaging. Members of the BPMG are considered promising targets for exoplanet searches because of their youth ({approx}12 Myr) and proximity (median distance {approx}35 pc). We wrote a modeling procedure to generate hypothetical companions of given mass, age, eccentricity, and semi-major axis, and place them around BPMG members that fall within the V-band range of the GPI. We count companions lying within the GPI's field of view and H-band fluxes that have a host-companion flux ratio placing them within its sensitivity as possible detections. The fraction of companions that could be detected depends on their brightness at 12 Myr, and hence formation mechanism, and on their distribution of semi-major axes. We used brightness models for formation by disk instability and core-accretion. We considered the two extreme cases of the semi-major axis distribution-the log-normal distribution of the nearby F- and G-type stars and a power-law distribution indicated by the exoplanets detected by the radial velocity technique. We find that the GPI could detect exoplanets of all the F and G spectral type stars in the BPMG sample with a probability that depends on the brightness model and semi-major axis distribution. At spectral type K-M1, exoplanet detectability depends on brightness and hence distance of the host star. GPI will be able to detect the companions of M stars later than M1 only if they are closer than 10 pc. Of the four A stars in the BPMG sample, only one has a V-band brightness in the range of GPI; the others are too bright.

  11. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations III: empirical measurement methods and applications of high-resolution microlens PSFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, Patrick; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Perrin, Marshall D.; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Draper, Zachary H.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Fesquet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The newly commissioned Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an advanced coronagraph, precision wavefront control and a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph (IFS) to measure the spectra of young extrasolar giant planets between 0.9-2.5 μm. Each GPI detector image, when in spectral model, consists of ~37,000 microspectra which are under or critically sampled in the spatial direction. This paper demonstrates how to obtain high-resolution microlens PSFs and discusses their use in enhancing the wavelength calibration, flexure compensation and spectral extraction. This method is generally applicable to any lenslet-based integral field spectrograph including proposed future instrument concepts for space missions.

  12. First Scattered-light Image of the Debris Disk around HD 131835 with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Duchêne, Gaspard; Arriaga, Pauline; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Rajan, Abhijith; Pueyo, Laurent; Kalas, Paul G.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Graham, James R.; Konopacky, Quinn; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. Mark; Chen, Christine H.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Draper, Zachary H.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Gerard, Benjamin; Goodsell, Stephen; Greenbaum, Alexandra; Hibon, Pascale; Hinkley, Sasha; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Patience, Jennifer L.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first scattered-light image of the debris disk around HD 131835 in the H band using the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 131835 is a ∼15 Myr old A2IV star at a distance of ∼120 pc in the Sco-Cen OB association. We detect the disk only in polarized light and place an upper limit on the peak total intensity. No point sources resembling exoplanets were identified. Compared to its mid-infrared thermal emission, in scattered light the disk shows similar orientation but different morphology. The scattered-light disk extends from ∼75 to ∼210 AU in the disk plane with roughly flat surface density. Our Monte Carlo radiative transfer model can describe the observations with a model disk composed of a mixture of silicates and amorphous carbon. In addition to the obvious brightness asymmetry due to stronger forward scattering, we discover a weak brightness asymmetry along the major axis, with the northeast side being 1.3 times brighter than the southwest side at a 3σ level.

  13. Near-infrared detection and characterization of the exoplanet HD 95086 b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicher, R.; Rameau, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Baudino, J.-L.; Currie, T.; Boccaletti, A.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Marois, C.

    2014-05-01

    HD 95086 is an intermediate-mass debris-disk-bearing star. VLT/NaCo 3.8 μm observations revealed it hosts a 5 ± 2 MJup companion (HD 95086 b) at ≃56 AU. Follow-up observations at 1.66 and 2.18 μm yielded a null detection, suggesting extremely red colors for the planet and the need for deeper direct-imaging data. In this Letter, we report H-(1.7 μm) and K1-(2.05 μm) band detections of HD 95086 b from Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) commissioning observations taken by the GPI team. The planet position in both spectral channels is consistent with the NaCo measurements and we confirm it to be comoving. Our photometry yields colors of H - L' = 3.6 ± 1.0 mag and K1 - L' = 2.4 ± 0.7 mag, consistent with previously reported 5-σ upper limits in H and Ks. The photometry of HD 95086 b best matches that of 2M 1207 b and HR 8799 cde. Comparing its spectral energy distribution with the BT-SETTL and LESIA planet atmospheric models yields Teff ~ 600-1500 K and log g ~ 2.1-4.5. Hot-start evolutionary models yield M = 5 ± 2 MJup. Warm-start models reproduce the combined absolute fluxes of the object for M = 4-14 MJup for a wide range of plausible initial conditions (Sinit = 8-13 kB/baryon). The color-magnitude diagram location of HD 95086 b and its estimated Teff and log g suggest that the planet is a peculiar L - T transition object with an enhanced amount of photospheric dust. Based on public data taken at the GPI commissioning.

  14. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, Beta Pictoris b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc J.; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet Beta Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While Beta Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects-i.e., ? And b and 1RXJ 1609B-match Beta Pic b's JHKsL photometry and its 3.1 micron and 5 micron photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (approx. 60 micron)dust grains fail to reproduce the Beta Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found forHR8799 bcde, but also with small (a fewmicrons) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (a = 4 micron), we derive atmosphere parameters of log(g) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 and Teff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7+4 -3 MJ, and a luminosity of log(L/L) approx. -3.80 +/- 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, is approx. equal to 1.65 +/- 0.06 RJ, is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if Beta Pic b is younger than is approx. equal to 7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth approx. 12+8 -4 Myr ago.

  15. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, β Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-10-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet β Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While β Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects—i.e., κ And b and 1RXJ 1609B—match β Pic b's JHKsL' photometry and its 3.1 μm and 5 μm photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (~60 μm) dust grains fail to reproduce the β Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found for HR 8799 bcde, but also with small (a few microns) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (langarang = 4 μm), we derive atmosphere parameters of log (g) = 3.8 ± 0.2 and T eff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7^{+4}_{-3} MJ , and a luminosity of log(L/L ⊙) ~-3.80 ± 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, ≈1.65 ± 0.06 RJ , is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if β Pic b is younger than ≈7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth ~12^{+8}_{-4} Myr ago.

  16. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the

  17. 1 to 2.4 microns spectrum and orbital properties of the Giant Planet Beta Pictoris b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James; Kalas, Paul G.; dawson, Rebekah; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    We present a low-resolution multi-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pictoris using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. While H-bandis the primary workhorse for the GPI Exoplanet Survey, the instrument is capable of observing in the near infrared covering Y, J, H, and K bands. These observations of Beta Pic Pictoris b were taken covering multiple bands as part of GPI’s verification and commissioning phase in 2013 and 2014. Using atmospheric models along with the H-band data we recently reported an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). A similar exercise was also carried out by an independent team using the J band data, and did yield similar conclusions. These values agree well with ”hot-start” predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 M Jup and age between 10 and 20 Myr. Here we revisit these conclusions in light of a joint analysis of these two datasets along with the longer wavelength GPI spectrum in K band, and present refined constraints on the atmospheric properties of this giant planet. In addition, we present an updated orbit for Beta Pictoris b based on astrometric measurements taken using commissioning and subsequent monitoring observations, spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of 9.2 (+1.5 -0.4) AU, with an eccentricity e≤ 0.26. The position angle of the ascending node is Ω=31.75 deg±0.15, offset from both the outer main disk and the inner disk seen in the GPI image. We finally discuss these properties in the context of planet-disk dynamical interactions.

  18. A COMBINED VERY LARGE TELESCOPE AND GEMINI STUDY OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE DIRECTLY IMAGED PLANET, β PICTORIS b

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-10-10

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet β Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While β Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects—i.e., κ And b and 1RXJ 1609B—match β Pic b's JHK{sub s}L' photometry and its 3.1 μm and 5 μm photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (∼60 μm) dust grains fail to reproduce the β Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found for HR 8799 bcde, but also with small (a few microns) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles ((a) = 4 μm), we derive atmosphere parameters of log (g) = 3.8 ± 0.2 and T{sub eff} = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7{sup +4}{sub -3} M{sub J} , and a luminosity of log(L/L{sub ☉}) ∼–3.80 ± 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, ≈1.65 ± 0.06 R{sub J} , is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if β Pic b is younger than ≈7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth ∼12{sup +8}{sub -4} Myr ago.

  19. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Methods, Performance at First Light, and the Circumstellar Ring around HR 4796A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side >~ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  20. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point spread function subtraction via di erential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  1. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager. Methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kerley, Daniel; Konapacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Mittal, Tushar; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David W.; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason J.; Wolff, Schuyler G.

    2015-01-28

    We report he first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI’s advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn’s F ring.

  2. POLARIMETRY WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: METHODS, PERFORMANCE AT FIRST LIGHT, AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING AROUND HR 4796A

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul G.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; De Rosa, Robert J.; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; and others

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI's advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly even prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳ 9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. These findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn's F ring.

  3. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  4. Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager. Methods, performance at first light, and the circumstellar ring around HR 4796A

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Duchene, Gaspard; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Kalas, Paul G.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; et al

    2015-01-28

    We report he first results from the polarimetry mode of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), which uses a new integral field polarimetry architecture to provide high contrast linear polarimetry with minimal systematic biases between the orthogonal polarizations. We describe the design, data reduction methods, and performance of polarimetry with GPI. Point-spread function (PSF) subtraction via differential polarimetry suppresses unpolarized starlight by a factor of over 100, and provides sensitivity to circumstellar dust reaching the photon noise limit for these observations. In the case of the circumstellar disk around HR 4796A, GPI’s advanced adaptive optics system reveals the disk clearly evenmore » prior to PSF subtraction. In polarized light, the disk is seen all the way in to its semi-minor axis for the first time. The disk exhibits surprisingly strong asymmetry in polarized intensity, with the west side ≳9 times brighter than the east side despite the fact that the east side is slightly brighter in total intensity. Based on a synthesis of the total and polarized intensities, we now believe that the west side is closer to us, contrary to most prior interpretations. Forward scattering by relatively large silicate dust particles leads to the strong polarized intensity on the west side, and the ring must be slightly optically thick in order to explain the lower brightness in total intensity there. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the ring is geometrically narrow and dynamically cold, perhaps shepherded by larger bodies in the same manner as Saturn’s F ring.« less

  5. Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Thomas L.; Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the astrometric calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. The Campaign requires a relative astrometric accuracy of ≈20 mas across multiyear timescales in order to distinguish true companions from background stars by verifying common proper motion and parallax with their parent stars. The calibration consists of a correction for instrumental optical image distortion, plus on-sky imaging of astrometric fields to determine the pixel scale and image orientation. We achieve an accuracy of lsim7 mas between the center and edge of the 18'' NICI field, meeting the 20 mas requirement. Most of the Campaign data in the Gemini Science Archive are accurate to this level but we identify a number of anomalies and present methods to correct the errors. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  6. The first H-band spectrum of the giant planet β Pictoris b [THE FIRST H-BAND SPECTRUM OF THE MASSIVE GAS GIANT PLANET BETA PICTORIS b WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-12-12

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have obtained the first H-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star β Pictoris. GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter-sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. These observations were taken covering the H band (1.65 μm). The spectrum has a resolving power of ~45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). These values agree well with "hot-start" predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 MJup and age between 10 and 20 Myr.

  7. POLARIZED LIGHT IMAGING OF THE HD 142527 TRANSITION DISK WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: DUST AROUND THE CLOSE-IN COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-20

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ∼100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ∼12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ∼ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15.

  8. The Gemini Planet-finding Campaign: The Frequency Of Giant Planets around Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-08-01

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known β Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a >=5 M Jup planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d 2 N/dMdavpropm α a β, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a max). We find that β < -0.8 and/or α > 1.7. Likewise, we find that β < -0.8 and/or a max < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass (α > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M Jup, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the β Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet beyond 10 AU, and β < -0.8 and/or α < -1.5. Likewise, β < -0.8 and/or a max < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet frequency on stellar host mass. Studies of transition disks have suggested that about 20% of stars are undergoing planet

  9. Final A&T stages of the Gemini Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Markus; Macintosh, Bruce; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dimitri; Gavel, Donald; Palmer, Dave; Thomas, Sandrine; Dillon, Daren; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Ingraham, Patrick; Sadakuni, Naru; Wallace, Kent; Perrin, Marshall; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Saddlemyer, Les; Goodsell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Finder (GPI) is currently in its final Acceptance & Testing stages at the University of Santa Cruz, California. GPI is an XAO system based on a tweeter & woofer architecture (43 & 9 actuators across the pupil), with the tweeter being a Boston Michromachines 64^2 MEMS device. The XAO AO system is tightly integrated with a Lyot apodizing coronagraph. Acceptance has started in February 2013. After the conclusive acceptance review shipment is scheduled mid 2013 to ensure readiness for commissioning at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon, Chile, end of 2013, matching the summer window of the southern hemisphere. According to current estimates the 3 year (~800 allocated hours) planet finding campaign might discover, image, and spectroscopically analyze 20 to 40 new exo-planets.Final acceptance testing of the integrated instrument can always emerge a number of unforeseen challenges as we are eventually using cold chamber and flexure rig installations. The latest developments will be reported. Also, we will give an overview of GPI's lab performance, the interplay between subsystems such as the calibration unit (CAL) with the AO bench. (The CAL principal purpose is to maintain a clean and centered XAO PSF on the coronagraph.) We report on-going optimizations on the AO controler loop to filter vibrations and last but not least achieved contrast performance applying speckle nulling. Furthermore, we will give an outlook of possible but challenging future upgrades as the implementation of a predictive controler or exchanging the conventional 48x48 SH WFS with a pyramid. With the ELT area arising, GPI will proof as a versatile and path-finding testbed for AO technologies on the next generation of ground-based telescopes.

  10. THE GEMINI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS AROUND DEBRIS DISK STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; and others

    2013-08-20

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known {beta} Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a {>=}5 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d {sup 2} N/dMda{proportional_to}m {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}}, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a{sub max}). We find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} > 1.7. Likewise, we find that {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass ({alpha} > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M{sub Jup}, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the {beta} Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a {>=}3 M{sub Jup} planet beyond 10 AU, and {beta} < -0.8 and/or {alpha} < -1.5. Likewise, {beta} < -0.8 and/or a{sub max} < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet

  11. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Mark Ammons, S.; et al

    2016-01-07

    The Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. We give a definitive description of the system’s algorithms and technologies as built. Ultimately, the error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  12. Results from the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark R.; Close, Laird M.; Ftaclas, Christ; Males, Jared R.; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. N.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan A.; Clarke, Fraser; Toomey, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 December to 2012 September, the NICI (Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager at the Gemini-South 8.1-m) Planet-Finding Campaign (Liu et al. 2010) obtained deep, high-contrast AO imaging of a carefully selected sample of over 200 young, nearby stars. In the course of the campaign, we discovered four co-moving brown dwarf companions: PZ Tel B (36+/-6 MJup, 16.4+/-1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31+/-8 MJup, 67+/-4 AU), HD 1160B (33+12 -9 MJup, 81+/- AU), and HIP 79797Bb (55+20-19MJup, 3 AU from the previously known brown dwarf companion HIP 79797Ba), as well as numerous stellar binaries. Three survey papers have been published to date, covering: 1) high mass stars (Nielsen et al. 2013), 2) debris disk stars (Wahhaj et al. 2013), and 3) stars which are members of nearby young moving groups (Biller et al. 2013). In addition, the Campaign has yielded new orbital constraints for the ~8-10 MJup planet Pic β (Nielsen et al. 2014) and a high precision measurement of the star-disk offset for the well-known disk around HR 4796A (Wahhaj et al. 2014). Here we discuss constraints placed on the distribution of wide giant exoplanets from the NICI Campaign, new substellar companion discoveries, and characterization both of exoplanets and circumstellar disks.

  13. Point Source Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Sensitivity Characterization with T5.5 Dwarf Companion HD 19467 B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Mawet, Dimitri; Graham, James R.; Wallace, J. Kent; Macintosh, Bruce; Hinkley, Sasha; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Marley, Mark S.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Ammons, S. Mark; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Marchis, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Detecting polarized light from self-luminous exoplanets has the potential to provide key information about rotation, surface gravity, cloud grain size, and cloud coverage. While field brown dwarfs with detected polarized emission are common, no exoplanet or substellar companion has yet been detected in polarized light. With the advent of high contrast imaging spectro-polarimeters such as GPI and SPHERE, such a detection may now be possible with careful treatment of instrumental polarization. In this paper, we present 28 minutes of H-band GPI polarimetric observations of the benchmark T5.5 companion HD 19467 B. We detect no polarization signal from the target, and place an upper limit on the degree of linear polarization of pCL99:73% less than 1:7%. We discuss our results in the context of T dwarf cloud models and photometric variability.

  14. Point Source Polarimetry with the Gemini Planet Imager: Sensitivity Characterization with T5.5 Dwarf Companion HD 19467 B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Mawet, Dimitri; Graham, James R.; Wallace, J. Kent; Macintosh, Bruce; Hinkley, Sasha; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Marley, Mark S.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Ammons, S. Mark; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Marchis, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Detecting polarized light from self-luminous exoplanets has the potential to provide key information about rotation, surface gravity, cloud grain size, and cloud coverage. While field brown dwarfs with detected polarized emission are common, no exoplanet or substellar companion has yet been detected in polarized light. With the advent of high contrast imaging spectro-polarimeters such as GPI and SPHERE, such a detection may now be possible with careful treatment of instrumental polarization. In this paper, we present 28 minutes of H-band GPI polarimetric observations of the benchmark T5.5 companion HD 19467 B. We detect no polarization signal from the target, and place an upper limit on the degree of linear polarization of {p}{CL99.73%}≤slant 2.4%. We discuss our results in the context of T dwarf cloud models and photometric variability.

  15. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Companion Detection Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  16. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The companion detection pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Biller, Beth A.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus

    2013-12-10

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.

  17. Speckle Camera Imaging of the Planet Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.

    2012-10-01

    We have obtained optical wavelength (692 nm and 880 nm) speckle imaging of the planet Pluto and its largest moon Charon. Using our DSSI speckle camera attached to the Gemini North 8 m telescope, we collected high resolution imaging with an angular resolution of ~20 mas, a value at the Gemini-N telescope diffraction limit. We have produced for this binary system the first speckle reconstructed images, from which we can measure not only the orbital separation and position angle for Charon, but also the diameters of the two bodies. Our measurements of these parameters agree, within the uncertainties, with the current best values for Pluto and Charon. The Gemini-N speckle observations of Pluto are presented to illustrate the capabilities of our instrument and the robust production of high accuracy, high spatial resolution reconstructed images. We hope our results will suggest additional applications of high resolution speckle imaging for other objects within our solar system and beyond. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  18. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The offset ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-07-01

    We present J,H, CH4 short (1.578 μm), CH4 long (1.652 μm) and Ks-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 ± 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 ± 3°, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 ± 0.04°. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 MJup so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Tables 5 and 6 are available in electronic form at

  19. The Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Frequency of Planets around Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Hartung, Markus; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Toomey, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M Jup, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31 ± 8 M Jup, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M ⊙, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M ⊙, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc

  20. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS AROUND YOUNG B AND A STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; Clarke, Fraser; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Kuchner, Marc; Lin, Douglas N. C.; and others

    2013-10-10

    We have carried out high contrast imaging of 70 young, nearby B and A stars to search for brown dwarf and planetary companions as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Our survey represents the largest, deepest survey for planets around high-mass stars (≈1.5-2.5 M{sub ☉}) conducted to date and includes the planet hosts β Pic and Fomalhaut. We obtained follow-up astrometry of all candidate companions within 400 AU projected separation for stars in uncrowded fields and identified new low-mass companions to HD 1160 and HIP 79797. We have found that the previously known young brown dwarf companion to HIP 79797 is itself a tight (3 AU) binary, composed of brown dwarfs with masses 58{sup +21}{sub -20} M{sub Jup} and 55{sup +20}{sub -19} M{sub Jup}, making this system one of the rare substellar binaries in orbit around a star. Considering the contrast limits of our NICI data and the fact that we did not detect any planets, we use high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations to show that fewer than 20% of 2 M{sub ☉} stars can have giant planets greater than 4 M{sub Jup} between 59 and 460 AU at 95% confidence, and fewer than 10% of these stars can have a planet more massive than 10 M{sub Jup} between 38 and 650 AU. Overall, we find that large-separation giant planets are not common around B and A stars: fewer than 10% of B and A stars can have an analog to the HR 8799 b (7 M{sub Jup}, 68 AU) planet at 95% confidence. We also describe a new Bayesian technique for determining the ages of field B and A stars from photometry and theoretical isochrones. Our method produces more plausible ages for high-mass stars than previous age-dating techniques, which tend to underestimate stellar ages and their uncertainties.

  1. THE GEMINI/NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: THE FREQUENCY OF PLANETS AROUND YOUNG MOVING GROUP STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, Beth A.; Ftaclas, Christ; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG and others

    2013-11-10

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH{sub 4} narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M{sub Jup}, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD–35 2722B (31 ± 8 M{sub Jup}, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉}, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M{sub Jup} companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars.

  2. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Offset Ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    We present J, H, CH4 short (1.578 micrometers), CH4 long (1.652 micrometers) and K(sub s)-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 +/- 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 +/- 3deg, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 +/- 0.04deg. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 Jup mass so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring.

  3. Wide Giant Planets are Rare: Planet Demographics from Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The previous generation of direct imaging surveys probed samples of 100-200 stars with AO-driven coronagraphic imaging and advanced techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) (e.g. surveys such as SEEDS, IDPS, the NICI Science Campaign, among others). These surveys found that wide giant planets are comparatively rare, especially at separations > 50 AU: for instance, Biller et al. 2013 find for a sample of 78 young moving group stars that the the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU is <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. As next generation planet-finding cameras such as GPI at Gemini, SPHERE at VLT, project 1640, and SceXAO at Suburu come online, our understanding of wide planet populations is likely to undergo a rapid evolution, especially for planets at separations of 10-50 AU. New large-scale surveys (400-500 stars) are now underway with these new instruments, e.g. NIRSUR with SPHERE and GPIES with GPI. In this talk, I will review the previous generation of surveys and the statistical results that they have yielded. I will also discuss prospects for the new generation of ongoing surveys.

  4. Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at Gemini South - Commissioning and Fist Science Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessev, Peter; Carrasco, R.; Winge, C.; McGregor, P.; Edwards, M.; Rigaut, F.; Neichel, B.; Young, P.; Artigau, E.; Mauro, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is the imaging camera to be used with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (GeMS) at Gemini South. GeMS and GSAOI are capable of delivering a diffraction limited images in the Near-Ifrared (0.9-2.5 micrometers) over an 85" square field of view. The focal plane of the instrument is covered by 2 x 2 array of HAWAII 2RG detectors and has a plate scale of 0.02". The instrument optics are all-refractive and coupled with the superb spatial resolution take a full advantage of the unprecedented image quality delivered by GeMS. GSAOI went through several commissioning runs during the southern summer of 2011/2012. In this presentation a brief summary of the system is provided, along with relevant commissioning information and some preliminary science results.

  5. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  6. The Planet Formation Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Buscher, D. F.; Monnier, J. D.; PFI Science, the; Technical Working Group

    2014-04-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI and discuss how PFI could significantly advance our understanding of the architecture and potential habitability of planetary systems. We present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, we give an overview about the interferometric and non-interferometric technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  7. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: the orbit of the young exoplanet β Pictoris b

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-10-20

    We present new astrometry for the young (12-21 Myr) exoplanet β Pictoris b taken with the Gemini/NICI and Magellan/MagAO instruments between 2009 and 2012. The high dynamic range of our observations allows us to measure the relative position of β Pic b with respect to its primary star with greater accuracy than previous observations. Based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, we find the planet has an orbital semi-major axis of 9.1{sub −0.5}{sup +5.3} AU and orbital eccentricity <0.15 at 68% confidence (with 95% confidence intervals of 8.2-48 AU and 0.00-0.82 for semi-major axis and eccentricity, respectively, due to a long narrow degenerate tail between the two). We find that the planet has reached its maximum projected elongation, enabling higher precision determination of the orbital parameters than previously possible, and that the planet's projected separation is currently decreasing. With unsaturated data of the entire β Pic system (primary star, planet, and disk) obtained thanks to NICI's semi-transparent focal plane mask, we are able to tightly constrain the relative orientation of the circumstellar components. We find the orbital plane of the planet lies between the inner and outer disks: the position angle (P.A.) of nodes for the planet's orbit (211.8 ± 0.°3) is 7.4σ greater than the P.A. of the spine of the outer disk and 3.2σ less than the warped inner disk P.A., indicating the disk is not collisionally relaxed. Finally, for the first time we are able to dynamically constrain the mass of the primary star β Pic to 1.76{sub −0.17}{sup +0.18} M {sub ☉}.

  8. The Gemini NICI Planet-finding Campaign: Discovery of a Close Substellar Companion to the Young Debris Disk Star PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Burrows, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Skemer, Andrew; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Ida, Shigeru; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lin, Douglas; Toomey, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of a tight substellar companion to the young solar analog PZ Tel, a member of the β Pic moving group observed with high-contrast adaptive optics imaging as part of the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager Planet-Finding Campaign. The companion was detected at a projected separation of 16.4 ± 1.0 AU (0farcs33 ± 0farcs01) in 2009 April. Second-epoch observations in 2010 May demonstrate that the companion is physically associated and shows significant orbital motion. Monte Carlo modeling constrains the orbit of PZ Tel B to eccentricities >0.6. The near-IR colors of PZ Tel B indicate a spectral type of M7 ± 2 and thus this object will be a new benchmark companion for studies of ultracool, low-gravity photospheres. Adopting an age of 12+8 -4 Myr for the system, we estimate a mass of 36 ± 6 M Jup based on the Lyon/DUSTY evolutionary models. PZ Tel B is one of the few young substellar companions directly imaged at orbital separations similar to those of giant planets in our own solar system. Additionally, the primary star PZ Tel A shows a 70 μm emission excess, evidence for a significant quantity of circumstellar dust that has not been disrupted by the orbital motion of the companion. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  9. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: DISCOVERY OF A MULTIPLE SYSTEM ORBITING THE YOUNG A STAR HD 1160

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Bowler, Brendan; Kraus, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Close, Laird M.; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Reid, I. Neill; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Burrows, Adam; and others

    2012-05-01

    We report the discovery of two low-mass companions to the young A0V star HD 1160 at projected separations of 81 {+-} 5 AU (HD 1160 B) and 533 {+-} 25 AU (HD 1160 C) by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Very Large Telescope images of the system taken over a decade for the purpose of using HD 1160 A as a photometric calibrator confirm that both companions are physically associated. By comparing the system to members of young moving groups and open clusters with well-established ages, we estimate an age of 50{sup +50}{sub -40} Myr for HD 1160 ABC. While the UVW motion of the system does not match any known moving group, the small magnitude of the space velocity is consistent with youth. Near-IR spectroscopy shows HD 1160 C to be an M3.5 {+-} 0.5 star with an estimated mass of 0.22{sup +0.03}{sub -0.04} M{sub Sun }, while NIR photometry of HD 1160 B suggests a brown dwarf with a mass of 33{sup +12}{sub -9} M{sub Jup}. The very small mass ratio (0.014) between the A and B components of the system is rare for A star binaries, and would represent a planetary-mass companion were HD 1160 A to be slightly less massive than the Sun.

  10. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  11. THE GEMINI NICI PLANET-FINDING CAMPAIGN: DISCOVERY OF A CLOSE SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE YOUNG DEBRIS DISK STAR PZ Tel

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Dupuy, Trent J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared; Skemer, Andrew; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Clarke, Fraser; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of a tight substellar companion to the young solar analog PZ Tel, a member of the {beta} Pic moving group observed with high-contrast adaptive optics imaging as part of the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager Planet-Finding Campaign. The companion was detected at a projected separation of 16.4 {+-} 1.0 AU (0.''33 {+-} 0.''01) in 2009 April. Second-epoch observations in 2010 May demonstrate that the companion is physically associated and shows significant orbital motion. Monte Carlo modeling constrains the orbit of PZ Tel B to eccentricities >0.6. The near-IR colors of PZ Tel B indicate a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 and thus this object will be a new benchmark companion for studies of ultracool, low-gravity photospheres. Adopting an age of 12{sup +8} {sub -4} Myr for the system, we estimate a mass of 36 {+-} 6 M {sub Jup} based on the Lyon/DUSTY evolutionary models. PZ Tel B is one of the few young substellar companions directly imaged at orbital separations similar to those of giant planets in our own solar system. Additionally, the primary star PZ Tel A shows a 70 {mu}m emission excess, evidence for a significant quantity of circumstellar dust that has not been disrupted by the orbital motion of the companion.

  12. Deep Imaging of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, G.

    2010-10-01

    With the development of high contrast imaging instruments and techniques, vast efforts have been devoted during the past decade to detect and characterize lighter, cooler and closer companions to nearby stars, and ultimately image new planetary systems. Complementary to other observing techniques (radial velocity, transit, micro-lensing, pulsar-timing and astrometry), this approach has opened a new astrophysical window to study the physical properties and the formation and evolution mechanisms of giant planets at orbits larger than a few AUs. In this review, I will briefly present the main motivations to use deep imaging to search for exoplanets and review the constant progress achieved thanks to improved performances of advanced instrumentation and data analysis techniques. I will describe the main classes of stars identified and observed so far to increase the chances of detection. I will also detail the classical strategy adopted to identify false alarms and characterize true companions. I will review the current status of the different deep imaging surveys as well as the main results that recently led to the discovery of giant planets probably formed like the ones of our solar system. Finally, I will rise the questions and uncertainties related to the formation mechanisms, the physical properties and the frequency of these planetary mass companions to conclude with the exciting and attractive perspectives offered with the future generation of deep imaging instruments.

  13. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge

  14. Adaptive Wavefront Calibration and Control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-02-02

    Quasi-static errors in the science leg and internal AO flexure will be corrected. Wavefront control will adapt to current atmospheric conditions through Fourier modal gain optimization, or the prediction of atmospheric layers with Kalman filtering.

  15. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  16. Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Muto, Takayuki; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Gene; Suenaga, Takuya; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Wisniewski, John; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover "HD 100546 b" with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 MJ . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 MJ ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  17. RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Muto, Takayuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; and others

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover ''HD 100546 b'' with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 M{sub J} . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M{sub J} ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  18. Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2005-04-11

    One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the

  19. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: asymmetries in the HD 141569 disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Rice, Ken; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric; Hayward, Thomas; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2015-07-01

    We report here the highest resolution near-IR imaging to date of the HD 141569A disc taken as part of the NICI (near infrared coronagraphic imager) Science Campaign. We recover four main features in the NICI images of the HD 141569 disc discovered in previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging: (1) an inner ring/spiral feature. Once deprojected, this feature does not appear circular. (2) An outer ring which is considerably brighter on the western side compared to the eastern side, but looks fairly circular in the deprojected image. (3) An additional arc-like feature between the inner and outer ring only evident on the east side. In the deprojected image, this feature appears to complete the circle of the west side inner ring and (4) an evacuated cavity from 175 au inwards. Compared to the previous HST imaging with relatively large coronagraphic inner working angles (IWA), the NICI coronagraph allows imaging down to an IWA of 0.3 arcsec. Thus, the inner edge of the inner ring/spiral feature is well resolved and we do not find any additional disc structures within 175 au. We note some additional asymmetries in this system. Specifically, while the outer ring structure looks circular in this deprojection, the inner bright ring looks rather elliptical. This suggests that a single deprojection angle is not appropriate for this system and that there may be an offset in inclination between the two ring/spiral features. We find an offset of 4 ± 2 au between the inner ring and the star centre, potentially pointing to unseen inner companions.

  20. Polarization of Directly Imaged Young Giant Planets as a Probe of Mass, Rotation, and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Sengupta, Sujan

    2012-01-01

    Young, hot gas giant planets at large separations from their primaries have been directly imaged around several nearby stars. More such planets will likely be detected by ongoing and new imaging surveys with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). Efforts continue to model the spectra of these planets in order to constrain their masses, effective temperatures, composition, and cloud structure. One potential tool for analyzing these objects, which has received relatively less attention, is polarization. Linear polarization of gas giant exoplanets can arise from the combined influences of light scattering by atmospheric dust and a rotationally distorted shape. The oblateness of gas giant planet increases of course with rotation rate and for fixed rotation also rises with decreasing gravity. Thus young, lower mass gas giant planets with youthful inflated radii could easily have oblateness greater than that of Saturn s 10%. We find that polarizations of over 1% may easily be produced in the near-infrared in such cases. This magnitude of polarization may be measurable by GPI and other instruments. Thus if detected, polarization of a young Jupiter places constraints on the combination of its gravity, rotation rate, and degree of cloudiness. We will present results of our multiple scattering analysis coupled with a self-consistent dusty atmospheric models to demonstrate the range of polarizations that might be expected from resolved exoplanets and the range of parameter space that such observations may inform.

  1. On the road to imaging extrasolar planets: Null results, other discoveries along the way, and signposts for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric Ludwig

    I present my experiences designing, conducting, and analyzing the results from direct imaging surveys for extrasolar giant planets. Using the young, low-mass star AB Dor C, I show that models for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs at young ages are good representations of reality. I discuss the design of the Simultaneous Differential Imaging survey, and how Monte Carlo simulations of giant planet populations allow for the design of imaging surveys, including the choice of target list, that maximizes the expected yield of extrasolar planets. With the conclusion of the SDI survey, I examine how its null result for planets sets constraints on the allowable populations of long-period exoplanets, finding that fewer than 8% of sun-like stars can have planets more massive than 4M Jup between 20 and 100 AU, at 68% confidence. When I include null results from other direct imaging surveys, these constraints are further strengthened: at 68% confidence, fewer than 20% of sun-like stars can have planets more massive than 4M Jup , at orbital semi-major axes between 8.1 and 911 AU. Even when applying the mass scaling of Johnson et al. (2007), and the "cold start" planet luminosity models of Fortney et al. (2008), the results remain consistent: giant planets are rare at large separations around sun-like stars. I explain how these constraints and planet simulations were used to design the Gemini South NICI Planet-Finding Campaign survey and target list, in order to maximize the chance of NICI detecting a planet, and so giving the campaign the greatest ability to strongly constrain populations of extrasolar giant planets, even in the case of a null result. Finally, I discuss future directions for direct imaging planet searches, and the steps needed to move from existing surveys to a truly unified distribution of extrasolar planet populations.

  2. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  3. Molecular hydrogen high resolution imaging of NGC 2346 with GSAOI/GeMS on Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchado, Arturo; Stanghellini, Letizia; Villaver, Eva; Garcia-Segura, Guillermo; Shaw, Richard A.; Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Aníbal

    2015-08-01

    We present high spatial resolution ($\\approx60$--90 milliarcseconds) images of the molecular hydrogen emission in the Planetary Nebula (PN) NGC~2346.The data were acquired during the System Verification of the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) + Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager GSAOI).At the distance of NGC~2346, 700 pc, the physical resolution corresponds to 56 AU, which is slightly higher than an H$\\alpha$image of NGC~2346 obtained with WFPC2 onboard the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope}.GeMS comprises multiple deformable mirrors, three natural guide stars and five sodium laser guide stars.GSAOI is a near-infrared camera used with GeMS on Gemini South.GSAOI provides diffraction limited images in the 0.9--$2.4\\mu$ range over a field of view of $85 \\times 85$ arcsec, and a plate scale of 0.02 arcseoc per pixel.With this unprecedented resolution we were able to study in detail the structure of the molecular hydrogen within the nebula for the first time.We found it to be composed of knots and filaments, which at lower resolution had appeared to be a uniform torus of material.The clumps range in size from 112 to 238 AU.We explain how the formation of the clumps and filaments in this PN is consistent with a mechanism in which a central hot bubble of nebular gas surrounding the central star has been depressurized, and the thermal pressure of the photoionized region drives the fragmentation of the swept-up shell.

  4. The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Alicia; Monnier, John; Kraus, Stefan; Ireland, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work is being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere, which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planet-hosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution I outline the primary science case of PFI and give an overview about the work of the PFI science and technical working group and present radiation-hydrodynamics simulations from which we derive preliminary specifications that guide the design of the facility. Finally, I give an overview about the technologies that we are investigating in order to meet the specifications.

  5. Extreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: XAOPI

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J; Poyneer, L; Sommargren, G; Wilhelmsen, J; Gavel, D; Jones, S; Kalas, P; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Patience, J; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Troy, M; Wallace, K

    2003-09-17

    Ground based adaptive optics is a potentially powerful technique for direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. Turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere imposes some fundamental limits, but the large size of ground-based telescopes compared to spacecraft can work to mitigate this. We are carrying out a design study for a dedicated ultra-high-contrast system, the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager (XAOPI), which could be deployed on an 8-10m telescope in 2007. With a 4096-actuator MEMS deformable mirror it should achieve Strehl >0.9 in the near-IR. Using an innovative spatially filtered wavefront sensor, the system will be optimized to control scattered light over a large radius and suppress artifacts caused by static errors. We predict that it will achieve contrast levels of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} at angular separations of 0.2-0.8 inches around a large sample of stars (R<7-10), sufficient to detect Jupiter-like planets through their near-IR emission over a wide range of ages and masses. We are constructing a high-contrast AO testbed to verify key concepts of our system, and present preliminary results here, showing an RMS wavefront error of <1.3 nm with a flat mirror.

  6. The Impact of Transiting Planet Science on the Next Generation of Direct-Imaging Planet Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Joseph C.

    2009-02-01

    Within the next five years, a number of direct-imaging planet search instruments, like the VLT SPHERE instrument, will be coming online. To successfully carry out their programs, these instruments will rely heavily on a-priori information on planet composition, atmosphere, and evolution. Transiting planet surveys, while covering a different semi-major axis regime, have the potential to provide critical foundations for these next-generation surveys. For example, improved information on planetary evolutionary tracks may significantly impact the insights that can be drawn from direct-imaging statistical data. Other high-impact results from transiting planet science include information on mass-to-radius relationships as well as atmospheric absorption bands. The marriage of transiting planet and direct-imaging results may eventually give us the first complete picture of planet migration, multiplicity, and general evolution.

  7. The Gemini Quick Look System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Norman; Gaudet, Séverin; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Data Handling System (DHS) developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is required to provide a ``Quick Look'' display system that allows near real-time display of image data collected by the instruments of the Gemini Telescopes. The Gemini Quick Look System allows data to be displayed on multiple display tools, possibly on different systems, allows the display of data from multiple data streams, and allows images to be sent incrementally (in chunks). The Quick Look Tool is based on the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Skycat display tool, and expands on the functionality provided by Skycat. This paper describes the design and function of the Gemini Quick Look System.

  8. The Gemini Frontier Field: Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Ks-band imaging of selected HST Frontier Field galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivo, Gaetano; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schirmer, Mischa; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Garrel, Vincent; Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We use the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at the Gemini South telescope to image three of the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Field targets. These observations cover the gap between the HST observations beyond 1.7 microns and the 3.6 micron provided by Spitzer. GeMS is the first multi-conjugate adaptive optics system in use at an 8meter telescope. It delivers and uniform, close to diffraction-limited near-infrared images over a 2‧ field of view. In this presentation we describe the release of 100'' x 100'' high resolution wide-field images obtained for the galaxy clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744 in Ks-band. The angular resolution achieved is between 70 to 110 mas, twice as high as HST/WFC3, using a single natural guide star only. This is a demonstration that even for fields at high galactic latitude, where natural guide stars are scarce, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8m-telescopes has opened a new window on the distant Universe.

  9. HOW DO MOST PLANETS FORM?-CONSTRAINTS ON DISK INSTABILITY FROM DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Klahr, Hubert; Lafreniere, David

    2012-01-20

    Core accretion and disk instability have traditionally been regarded as the two competing possible paths of planet formation. In recent years, evidence has accumulated in favor of core accretion as the dominant mode, at least for close-in planets. However, it might be hypothesized that a significant population of wide planets formed by disk instabilities could exist at large separations, forming an invisible majority. In previous work, we addressed this issue through a direct imaging survey of B2-A0-type stars and concluded that <30% of such stars form and retain planets and brown dwarfs through disk instability, leaving core accretion as the likely dominant mechanism. In this paper, we extend this analysis to FGKM-type stars by applying a similar analysis to the Gemini Deep Planet Survey sample. The results strengthen the conclusion that substellar companions formed and retained around their parent stars by disk instabilities are rare. Specifically, we find that the frequency of such companions is <8% for FGKM-type stars under our most conservative assumptions, for an outer disk radius of 300 AU, at 99% confidence. Furthermore, we find that the frequency is always <10% at 99% confidence independently of outer disk radius, for any radius from 5 to 500 AU. We also simulate migration at a wide range of rates and find that the conclusions hold even if the companions move substantially after formation. Hence, core accretion remains the likely dominant formation mechanism for the total planet population, for every type of star from M-type through B-type.

  10. The Gemini NICI Planet-finding Campaign: Discovery of a Substellar L Dwarf Companion to the Nearby Young M Dwarf CD-35 2722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Clarke, Fraser; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Cushing, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabethe; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Ida, Shigeru; Kuchner, Marc; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2011-03-01

    We present the discovery of a wide (67 AU) substellar companion to the nearby (21 pc) young solar-metallicity M1 dwarf CD-35 2722, a member of the ≈100 Myr AB Doradus association. Two epochs of astrometry from the NICI Planet-Finding Campaign confirm that CD-35 2722 B is physically associated with the primary star. Near-IR spectra indicate a spectral type of L4±1 with a moderately low surface gravity, making it one of the coolest young companions found to date. The absorption lines and near-IR continuum shape of CD-35 2722 B agree especially well the dusty field L4.5 dwarf 2MASS J22244381-0158521, while the near-IR colors and absolute magnitudes match those of the 5 Myr old L4 planetary-mass companion, 1RXS J160929.1-210524 b. Overall, CD-35 2722 B appears to be an intermediate-age benchmark for L dwarfs, with a less peaked H-band continuum than the youngest objects and near-IR absorption lines comparable to field objects. We fit Ames-Dusty model atmospheres to the near-IR spectra and find T eff= 1700-1900 K and log(g)= 4.5 ± 0.5. The spectra also show that the radial velocities of components A and B agree to within ±10 km s-1, further confirming their physical association. Using the age and bolometric luminosity of CD-35 2722 B, we derive a mass of 31 ± 8 M Jup from the Lyon/Dusty evolutionary models. Altogether, young late-M to mid-L type companions appear to be overluminous for their near-IR spectral type compared with field objects, in contrast to the underluminosity of young late-L and early-T dwarfs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ci

  11. Reaching the Diffraction Limit - Differential Speckle and Wide-Field Imaging for the Gemini-N Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Nic J.; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Speckle imaging allows telescopes to achieve di raction limited imaging performance. The technique requires cameras capable of reading out frames at a very fast rate, e ectively `freezing out' atmospheric seeing. The resulting speckles can be correlated and images reconstructed that are at the di raction limit of the telescope. These new instruments are based on the successful performance and design of the Di erential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) [2, 1]. The instruments are being built for the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes and will be made available to the community via the peer review proposal process. We envision their primary use to be validation and characterization of exoplanet targets from the NASA K2 and TESS missions and RV discovered exoplanets. Such targets will provide excellent follow-up candidates for both the WIYN and Gemini telescopes [3]. Examples of DSSI data are shown in the gures below. We expect similar data quality in speckle imaging mode with the new instruments. Additionally, both cameras will have a wide- eld mode and standard SDSS lters. They will be highly versatile instruments and it is that likely many other science programs will request time on the cameras. The limiting magnitude for speckle observations, will remain around 13-14th at WIYN and 16-17th at Gemini, while wide- eld, normal CCD imaging operation should be able to go to much fainter, providing usual CCD imaging and photometric capabilities. The instruments will also have high utility as scoring cameras for telescope engineering purposes, or other applications where high time resolution is needed. Instrument support will be provided, including a software pipeline that takes raw speckle data to fully reconstructed images.

  12. A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF 118 STARS WITH HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING: LONG-PERIOD EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS ARE RARE AROUND SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.

    2010-07-10

    We expand on the results of Nielsen et al., using the null result for giant extrasolar planets around the 118 target stars from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) NACO H- and Ks-band planet search (conducted by Masciadri and collaborators in 2003 and 2004), the VLT and MMT Simultaneous Differential Imager survey, and the Gemini Deep Planet Survey to set constraints on the population of giant extrasolar planets. Our analysis is extended to include the planet luminosity models of Fortney et al., as well as the correlation between stellar mass and frequency of giant planets found by Johnson et al. Doubling the sample size of FGKM stars strengthens our conclusions: a model for extrasolar giant planets with power laws for mass and semimajor axis as given by Cumming et al. cannot, with 95% confidence, have planets beyond 65 AU, compared to the value of 94 AU reported by Nielsen et al., using the models of Baraffe et al. When the Johnson et al. correction for stellar mass (which gives fewer Jupiter-mass companions to M stars with respect to solar-type stars) is applied, however, this limit moves out to 82 AU. For the relatively new Fortney et al. models, which predict fainter planets across most of parameter space, these upper limits, with and without a correction for stellar mass, are 182 and 234 AU, respectively.

  13. Mass Determination Of Directly Imaged Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Neuhauser, R.; Seifahrt, A.

    2011-09-01

    About 20 sub-stellar companions with large separations (> 50 AU) to their young primary stars and brown dwarfs are confirmed by both common proper motion and late-M / early-L type spectra. The origin and early evolution of these objects is still under debate. While often these sub-stellar companions are regarded as brown dwarfs, they could possibly also be massive planets, the mass estimates are very uncertain so far. They are companions to primary stars or brown dwarfs in young associations and star forming regions like Taurus, Upper Scorpius, the TW Hya association, Beta Pic moving group, TucHor association, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon, hence their ages and distances are well known, in contrast to free-floating brown dwarfs. Here we present how mass estimates of such young directly imaged companions can be derived, using e.g. evolutionary models, which are however currently almost uncalibrated by direct mass measurements of young objects. An empirical classification by medium-resolution spectroscopy is currently not possible, because a spectral sequence that is taking the lower gravity into account, is not existing. This problem leads to an apparent mismatch between spectra of old field type objects and young low-mass companions at the same effective temperature, hampering a determination of temperature and surface gravity independent from models. We show that from spectra of the objects, using the advantages of light concentration by an AO-assisted integral field spectrograph, temperature, extinction, metallicity and surface gravity can be derived using non-equilibrium radiative transfer atmosphere models as comparison and that this procedure as well allows a mass determination in combination with the luminosities found by the direct observations, as has recently been done by us for several young sub-stellar companions, as e.g. GQ Lup, CT Cha or UScoCTIO 108.

  14. ALMA images of discs: are all gaps carved by planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.-F.; Laibe, G.; Maddison, S. T.; Pinte, C.; Ménard, F.

    2015-11-01

    Protoplanetary discs are now routinely observed and exoplanets, after the numerous indirect discoveries, are starting to be directly imaged. To better understand the planet formation process, the next step is the detection of forming planets or of signposts of young planets still in their disc, such as gaps. A spectacular example is the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) science verification image of HL Tau showing numerous gaps and rings in its disc. To study the observability of planet gaps, we ran 3D hydrodynamical simulations of a gas and dust disc containing a 5 MJ gap-opening planet and characterized the spatial distribution of migrating, growing and fragmenting dust grains. We then computed the corresponding synthetic images for ALMA. For a value of the dust fragmentation threshold of 15 m s-1 for the collisional velocity, we identify for the first time a self-induced dust pile-up in simulations taking fragmentation into account. This feature, in addition to the easily detected planet gap, causes a second apparent gap that could be mistaken for the signature of a second planet. It is therefore essential to be cautious in the interpretation of gap detections.

  15. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantin, Eric; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Cavarroc, Celine; Sterzik, Michael F.

    2008-07-01

    The phase A study of a mid infrared imager and spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), called METIS, was endorsed in May 2008. Two key science drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo-planets and b) characterization of circumstellar discs from the early proto-planetary to the late debris phase. Observations in the 10μm atmospheric window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet or the disc of ~ 105. At shorter wavelengths the contrast between star and reflected light from the planet-disc system exceeds >~ 107 posing technical challenges. By means of end-to-end detailed simulations we demonstrate that the superb spatial resolution of a 42m telescope in combination with stellar light rejection methods such as coronagraphic or differential imaging will allow detections at 10μm for a solar type system down to a star-planet separation of 0.1" and a mass limit for irradiated planets of 1 Jupiter (MJ) mass. In case of self-luminous planets observations are possible further out e.g. at the separation limit of JWST of ~ 0.7", METIS will detect planets >~5MJ. This allows to derive a census of all such exo-planets by means of thermal imaging in a volume limited sample of up to 6pc. In addition, METIS will provide the possibility to study the chemical composition of atmospheres of exo-planets using spectroscopy at moderate spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ~ 100) for the brightest targets. Based on detailed performance and sensitivity estimates, we demonstrate that a mid-infrared instrument on an ELT is perfectly suited to observe gravitationally created structures such as gaps in proto- and post- planetary discs, in a complementary way to space missions (e.g. JWST, SOFIA) and ALMA which can only probe the cold dust emission further out.

  16. Exozodiacal Dust and Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets means contending with dust from extrasolar asteroids and comets. This 'exozodiacal dust' creates a structured background light that can easily outshine the light from an exoEarth and confuse a planet-search mission like TPF or TOPS. But exozodiacal dust can be both friend and foe: planets can stir dust clouds into patterns that reveal the presence of the planet and constrain its mass and orbit. I'll describe some recent research on this topic: 3-D dynamical models of dust clouds with planets and searches for exozodiacal dust with the Keck Interferometer. The author also offers a prediction for the typical zodiacal dust background found around solar analogs, based on seafloor sediment data.

  17. Planet Diversity Yields with Space-based Direct Imaging Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Hébrard, Eric; Stark, Chris; Robinson, Tyler D.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael W.; Clampin, Mark; Meadows, Victoria; Arney, Giada; Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope Science Team, Exoplanet Climate Group

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we will estimate the yield for a diversity of planets from future space-based flagship telescopes. We first divvy up planets into categories that are based on current observables, and that should impact the spectra we hope to observe in the future. The two main classification parameters we use here are the size of a planet and the energy flux into the planet's atmosphere. These two parameters are measureable or inferable from present-day observations, and should have a strong influence on future spectroscopy observations from JWST, WFIRST (with a coronagraph and/or starshade), and concept flagship missions that would fly some time after WFIRST. This allows us to calculate "ηplanet" values for each kind of planet. These η values then allow calculations of the expected yields from direct imaging missions, by leveraging the models and prior work by Stark and colleagues (2014, 2015). That work estimated the yields for potentially Earth-like worlds (i.e. of a size and stellar irradiation consistent with definitions of the habitable zone) for telescopes with a variety of observational parameters. We will do the same thing here, but for a wider variety of planets. This will allow us to discuss the implications of architecture and instrument properties on the diversity of worlds that future direct imaging missions would observe.

  18. Project Gemini online digital archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    An archive containing the first high-resolution digital scans of the original flight films from Project Gemini, the second U.S. human spaceflight program, was unveiled by the NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University's (ASU) School of Earth and Space Exploration on 6 January. The archive includes images from 10 flights. Project Gemini, which ran from 1964 to 1966, followed Project Mercury and preceded the Apollo spacecraft. Mercury and Apollo imagery are also available through ASU. For more information, see http://tothemoon.ser.asu.edu/gallery/gemini and http://apollo.sese.asu.edu/index.html.

  19. Deep Thermal Infrared Imaging of HR 8799 bcde: New Atmospheric Constraints and Limits on a Fifth Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Cloutier, Ryan; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Jayawardhana, Ray; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-01

    We present new L' (3.8 μm) and Brα (4.05 μm) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >~ 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, "HR 8799 f," at r < 15 AU at a 5σ confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 MJ (7 MJ ), 7 MJ (10 MJ ), or 12 MJ (13 MJ ) at r proj ~ 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' - [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  20. Deep thermal infrared imaging of HR 8799 bcde: new atmospheric constraints and limits on a fifth planet

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-10

    We present new L' (3.8 μm) and Brα (4.05 μm) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≳ 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, 'HR 8799 f', at r < 15 AU at a 5σ confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 M{sub J} (7 M{sub J} ), 7 M{sub J} (10 M{sub J} ), or 12 M{sub J} (13 M{sub J} ) at r {sub proj} ∼ 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' – [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  1. Planet formation imager (PFI): introduction and technical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, John D.; Kraus, Stefan; Buscher, David; Berger, J.-P.; Haniff, Christopher; Ireland, Michael; Labadie, Lucas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Le Coroller, Herve; Petrov, Romain G.; Pott, JoÌrg-Uwe; Ridgway, Stephen; Surdej, Jean; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Tuthill, Peter; van Belle, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Complex non-linear and dynamic processes lie at the heart of the planet formation process. Through numerical simulation and basic observational constraints, the basics of planet formation are now coming into focus. High resolution imaging at a range of wavelengths will give us a glimpse into the past of our own solar system and enable a robust theoretical framework for predicting planetary system architectures around a range of stars surrounded by disks with a diversity of initial conditions. Only long-baseline interferometry can provide the needed angular resolution and wavelength coverage to reach these goals and from here we launch our planning efforts. The aim of the Planet Formation Imager" (PFI) project is to develop the roadmap for the construction of a new near-/mid-infrared interferometric facility that will be optimized to unmask all the major stages of planet formation, from initial dust coagulation, gap formation, evolution of transition disks, mass accretion onto planetary embryos, and eventual disk dispersal. PFI will be able to detect the emission of the cooling, newlyformed planets themselves over the first 100 Myrs, opening up both spectral investigations and also providing a vibrant look into the early dynamical histories of planetary architectures. Here we introduce the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) Project (www.planetformationimager.org) and give initial thoughts on possible facility architectures and technical advances that will be needed to meet the challenging top-level science requirements.

  2. Speckle Imaging of Kepler Exo-planet Transit Candidate Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott; Sherry, William

    2009-08-01

    The NASA Kepler mission was successfully launched on 6 March 2009 and will begin science operations near 1 May. At the present time, commissioning tests are being performed and all spacecraft and science instruments are nominal. Kepler's main science focus is to discover Earth-like exo-planets via photometric transit detection. ``Hot Jupiters" will be found by the hundreds (using current ground-based statistics) but Earth-sized planets (up to 2.5 Earth radii) will be more difficult, yet are the holy grail of the mission. To take the list of candidate transiting planets found by Kepler and move them to probable or certain exo-planet detections, a decision tree of false positive elimination will occur. While earth-sized exo-planets can not currently be confirmed from the ground, many of the false positive eliminations steps can be performed. This proposal aims to obtain high resolution speckle imaging to 1) finish the characterization of ~500 comparison sample stars in the Kepler field of view prior to any transit information as a sample to place planet host stars in context with and to 2) observe Kepler exo-planet transit candidates in order to eliminate the largest false positive contributor in any transit search - background eclipsing binary stars or faint companion stars.

  3. eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: Overview and status

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Bauman, B; Evans, J W; Graham, J; Lockwood, C; Poyneer, L; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Green, J; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Sommargren, G; Soumer, R; Troy, M; Wallace, K; Wishnow, E

    2004-08-18

    As adaptive optics (AO) matures, it becomes possible to envision AO systems oriented towards specific important scientific goals rather than general-purpose systems. One such goal for the next decade is the direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. An 'extreme' adaptive optics (ExAO) system optimized for extrasolar planet detection will have very high actuator counts and rapid update rates - designed for observations of bright stars - and will require exquisite internal calibration at the nanometer level. In addition to extrasolar planet detection, such a system will be capable of characterizing dust disks around young or mature stars, outflows from evolved stars, and high Strehl ratio imaging even at visible wavelengths. The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics has carried out a detailed conceptual design study for such an instrument, dubbed the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager or XAOPI. XAOPI is a 4096-actuator AO system, notionally for the Keck telescope, capable of achieving contrast ratios >10{sup 7} at angular separations of 0.2-1'. ExAO system performance analysis is quite different than conventional AO systems - the spatial and temporal frequency content of wavefront error sources is as critical as their magnitude. We present here an overview of the XAOPI project, and an error budget highlighting the key areas determining achievable contrast. The most challenging requirement is for residual static errors to be less than 2 nm over the controlled range of spatial frequencies. If this can be achieved, direct imaging of extrasolar planets will be feasible within this decade.

  4. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular cluster systems in five early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faifer, Favio R.; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Bridges, Terry; Forbes, Duncan A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Mike; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present deep high-quality photometry of globular cluster systems (GCSs) belonging to five early-type galaxies, covering a range of mass and environment. Photometric data were obtained with the Gemini North and Gemini South telescopes in the filter passbands g', r' and i'. The combination of these filters with good seeing conditions allows an excellent separation between globular cluster (GC) candidates and unresolved field objects. In fact, our previously published spectroscopic data indicate a contamination level of only ˜10 per cent in our sample of GC candidates. Bimodal GC colour distributions are found in all five galaxies. Most of the GCSs appear bimodal even in the (g'-r') versus (r'-i') plane. A population of resolved/marginally resolved GC and ultracompact dwarf candidates was found in all the galaxies. A search for the so-called 'blue tilt' in the colour-magnitude diagrams reveals that NGC 4649 clearly shows this phenomenon, although no conclusive evidence was found for the other galaxies in the sample. This 'blue tilt' translates into a mass-metallicity relation given by Z∝M0.28 ±0.03. This dependence was found using a new empirical (g'-i') versus [Z/H] relation, which relies on an homogeneous sample of GC colours and metallicities. In this paper, we also explore the radial trends in both colour and surface density for the blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations. As usual, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. Evidence of galactocentric colour gradients is found in some of the GCSs, which is more significant for the two S0 galaxies in the sample. Red GC subpopulations show similar colours and gradients to the galaxy halo stars in their inner region. A GC mean colour-galaxy luminosity relation, consistent with [Z/H]∝L0.26 ±0.08B, is present for the red GCs. Estimates of the total GC populations and specific frequency SN values are presented for NGC 3115, 3923 and 4649. Based on

  5. Direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets with ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2015-12-01

    While the ~1e10 reflected light contrast between Earth-like planets and Sun-like stars is extremely challenging to overcome for ground-based telescopes, habitable planets around lower-mass stars can be "only" a 10 million times fainter than their host stars. Thanks to the small angular resolution offered by upcoming extremely large telescopes (ELTs) and recent advances in wavefront control and coronagraphic techniques, direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable planets will be possible around nearby M-type stars. Deep (~1e-8) contrast can be achieved by combining (1) sensitive fast visible light wavefront sensing (extreme-AO) with (2) kHz speckle control in the near-IR and (3) high efficiency coronagraphy. Spectroscopy will measure abundances of water, oxygen and methane, measure the planet rotation period, orbit, and identify main surface features through time-domain spectrophotometry.The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system is a technology precursor to such a habitable planet imager for ELTs, and is currently under active development. By combining small inner working angle coronagraphy, visible-WFS based extreme-AO and fast speckle control, it will include the key elements of a future ELT system able to image and characterize habitable planets. We describe a technical plan to evolve SCExAO into a habitable planet imager for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), which is aimed at providing such scientific capability during the 2020 decade, and inform the design, deployment and scientific operation of a more capable Extreme-AO instrument.

  6. Entry pupil processing approaches for exo-planet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, David C.

    2005-08-01

    In contrast to standard Michelson interferometry, the idea of entry pupil processing is to somehow convert light gathered at each telescope (of a multi-spacecraft array) into data, then process the data from several telescopes to compute the mutual coherence values needed for image reconstruction. Some advantages are that weak beams of collected light do not have to be propagated to combiners, extreme precision relative path length control among widely separated spacecraft is unnecessary, losses from beam splitting are eliminated, etc. This paper reports our study of several entry pupil processing approaches, including direct electric field reconstruction, optical heterodyne systems and intensity correlation interferometry using the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect. For all these cases and for amplitude interferometry, we present image plane signal-to-noise (SNR) results for exo-planet imaging, both in the case of planet emissions and for imaging the limb of planets executing a transit across their stars. We particularly consider terrestrial-class planets at a range of 15 pc or less. Using the SNR and related models, we assess the relative advantages and drawbacks of all methods with respect to necessary aperture sizes, imager sensitivity, performance trends with increasing number of measurement baselines, relative performance in visible and in IR, relative positioning and path length control requirements and metrology requirements. The resulting comparisons present a picture of the performance and complexity tradeoffs among several imaging system architectures. The positive conclusion of this work is that, thanks to advances in optoelectronics and signal processing, there exist a number of promising system design alternatives for exo- planet imaging.

  7. The science case for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Stefan; Monnier, John; Harries, Tim; Dong, Ruobing; Bate, Matthew; Whitney, Barbara; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Buscher, David; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Haniff, Chris; Ireland, Mike; Labadie, Lucas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Petrov, Romain; Ridgway, Steve; Surdej, Jean; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Tuthill, Peter; van Belle, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Among the most fascinating and hotly-debated areas in contemporary astrophysics are the means by which planetary systems are assembled from the large rotating disks of gas and dust which attend a stellar birth. Although important work has already been, and is still being done both in theory and observation, a full understanding of the physics of planet formation can only be achieved by opening observational windows able to directly witness the process in action. The key requirement is then to probe planet-forming systems at the natural spatial scales over which material is being assembled. By definition, this is the so-called Hill Sphere which delineates the region of influence of a gravitating body within its surrounding environment. The Planet Formation Imager project (PFI; http://www.planetformationimager.org) has crystallized around this challenging goal: to deliver resolved images of Hill-Sphere-sized structures within candidate planethosting disks in the nearest star-forming regions. In this contribution we outline the primary science case of PFI. For this purpose, we briefly review our knowledge about the planet-formation process and discuss recent observational results that have been obtained on the class of transition disks. Spectro-photometric and multi-wavelength interferometric studies of these systems revealed the presence of extended gaps and complex density inhomogeneities that might be triggered by orbiting planets. We present detailed 3-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of disks with single and multiple embedded planets, from which we compute synthetic images at near-infrared, mid-infrared, far-infrared, and sub-millimeter wavelengths, enabling a direct comparison of the signatures that are detectable with PFI and complementary facilities such as ALMA. From these simulations, we derive some preliminary specifications that will guide the array design and technology roadmap of the facility.

  8. Gemini Space Program emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  9. Direct Imaging Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Pleiades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Kodai; Matsuo, Taro; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Konishi, Mihokko; Sudo, Jun; Tanii, Ryoko; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyn; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E,; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; McElwain, Mike; Serabyn, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the H and K(sub S) bands using HiCIAO combined with adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the H band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch images, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was a background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second-epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining two were confirmed to be 60 M(sub J) brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5), respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the H band beyond 1.'' 5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50–1000 AU. For this reason we extrapolated the distribution of the planet mass and the semi-major axis derived from radial velocity observations, and adopted the planet evolution model Baraffe et al. (2003, A&A, 402, 701). Since there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% (2 sigma) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.

  10. Geometric processing of digital images of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    New procedures and software have been developed for geometric transformation of images to support digital cartography of the planets. The procedures involve the correction of spacecraft camera orientation of each image with the use of ground control and the transformation of each image to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area map projection with an algorithm which allows the number of transformation calculations to vary as the distortion varies within the image. When the distortion is low in an area of an image, few transformation computations are required, and most pixels can be interpolated. When distortion is extreme, the location of each pixel is computed. Mosaics are made of these images and stored as digital databases. Completed Sinusoidal databases may be used for digital analysis and registration with other spatial data. They may also be reproduced as published image maps by digitally transforming them to appropriate map projections.

  11. Outer planet Pioneer imaging communications system study. [data compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The effects of different types of imaging data compression on the elements of the Pioneer end-to-end data system were studied for three imaging transmission methods. These were: no data compression, moderate data compression, and the advanced imaging communications system. It is concluded that: (1) the value of data compression is inversely related to the downlink telemetry bit rate; (2) the rolling characteristics of the spacecraft limit the selection of data compression ratios; and (3) data compression might be used to perform acceptable outer planet mission at reduced downlink telemetry bit rates.

  12. GEOMETRIC PROCESSING OF DIGITAL IMAGES OF THE PLANETS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    New procedures and software have been developed for geometric transformations of images to support digital cartography of the planets. The procedures involve the correction of spacecraft camera orientation of each image with the use of ground control and the transformation of each image to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area map projection with an algorithm which allows the number of transformation calculations to vary as the distortion varies within the image. When the distortion is low in an area of an image, few transformation computations are required, and most pixels can be interpolated. When distortion is extreme, the location of each pixel is computed. Mosaics are made of these images and stored as digital databases.

  13. Confirmation of the Planet around HD 95086 by Direct Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Meshkat, T.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Currie, T.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J. H.; Bonnefoy, M.; Kenworthy, M.

    2013-12-01

    VLT/NaCo angular differential imaging at L' (3.8 μm) revealed a probable giant planet comoving with the young and early-type HD 95086, also known to harbor an extended debris disk. The discovery was based on the proper motion analysis of two datasets spanning 15 months. However, the second dataset suffered from bad atmospheric conditions, which limited the significance of the re-detection at the 3σ level. In this Letter, we report new VLT/NaCo observations of HD 95086 obtained on 2013 June 26 and 27 at L' to recover the planet candidate. We unambiguously re-detect the companion HD 95086 b with multiple independent pipelines at a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 5. Combined with previously reported measurements, our astrometry decisively shows that the planet is comoving with HD 95086 and inconsistent with a background object. With a revised mass of 5 ± 2 Jupiter masses, estimated from its L' photometry and "hot-start" models at 17 ± 4 Myr, HD 95086 b becomes a new benchmark for further physical and orbital characterization of young giant planets. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programs number 291.C-5023.

  14. CONFIRMATION OF THE PLANET AROUND HD 95086 BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Currie, T.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J. H.; Bonnefoy, M.

    2013-12-20

    VLT/NaCo angular differential imaging at L' (3.8 μm) revealed a probable giant planet comoving with the young and early-type HD 95086, also known to harbor an extended debris disk. The discovery was based on the proper motion analysis of two datasets spanning 15 months. However, the second dataset suffered from bad atmospheric conditions, which limited the significance of the re-detection at the 3σ level. In this Letter, we report new VLT/NaCo observations of HD 95086 obtained on 2013 June 26 and 27 at L' to recover the planet candidate. We unambiguously re-detect the companion HD 95086 b with multiple independent pipelines at a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 5. Combined with previously reported measurements, our astrometry decisively shows that the planet is comoving with HD 95086 and inconsistent with a background object. With a revised mass of 5 ± 2 Jupiter masses, estimated from its L' photometry and ''hot-start'' models at 17 ± 4 Myr, HD 95086 b becomes a new benchmark for further physical and orbital characterization of young giant planets.

  15. UMBRAS: a matched occulter and telescope for imaging extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Jordan, Ian J.; Kochte, Mark; Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Bruhweiler, Fred; Hollis, Jan M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; DiSanti, Mike A.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Leitner, Jesse; Burns, Richard D.; Starin, Scott R.; Rodrigue, Melodi; Fadali, M. S.; Skelton, Dennis L.; Hart, Helen M.; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Cheng, Kwang-Ping

    2003-02-01

    We describe a 1-meter space telescope plus free-flying occulter craft mission that would provide direct imaging and spectroscopic observations of Jovian and Uranus-sized planets about nearby stars not detectable by Doppler techniques. The Doppler technique is most sensitive for the detection of massive, close-in extrasolar planets while the use of a free-flying occulter would make it possible to image and study stellar systems with planets comparable to our own Solar System. Such a mission with a larger telescope has the potential to detect earth-like planets. Previous studies of free-flying occulters reported advantages in having the occulting spot outside the telescope compared to a classical coronagraph onboard a space telescope. Using an external occulter means light scatter within the telescope is reduced due to fewer internal obstructions and less light entering the telescope and the polishing tolerances of the primary mirror and the supporting optics can be less stringent, thereby providing higher contrast and fainter detection limits. In this concept, the occulting spot is positioned over the star by translating the occulter craft, at distances of 1,000 to 15,000 kms from the telescope, on the sky instead of by moving the telescope. Any source within the telescope field-of-view can be occulted without moving the telescope. In this paper, we present our current concept for a 1-m space telescope matched to a free-flying occulter, the Umbral Missions Blocking Radiating Astronomical Sources (UMBRAS) space mission. An UMBRAS space mission consists of a Solar Powered Ion Driven Eclipsing Rover (SPIDER) occulter craft and a matched (apodized) telescope. The occulter spacecraft would be semi-autonomous, with its own propulsion systems, internal power (solar cells), communications, and navigation capability. Spacecraft rendezvous and formation flying would be achieved with the aid of telescope imaging, RF or laser ranging, celestial navigation inputs, and formation

  16. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics Ks-band Imaging of the Galaxy Clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Pessev, P.; Garrel, V.; Winge, C.; Neichel, B.; Vidal, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed two of the six Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744, using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). With 0.″ 08-0.″ 10 FWHM our data are nearly diffraction-limited over a 100\\prime\\prime × 100\\prime\\prime wide area. GeMS/GSAOI complements the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) redwards of 1.6 μm with twice the angular resolution. We reach a 5σ depth of {{K}s}˜ 25.6 mag (AB) for compact sources. In this paper, we describe the observations, data processing, and initial public data release. We provide fully calibrated, co-added images matching the native GSAOI pixel scale as well as the larger plate scales of the HST release, adding to the legacy value of the Frontier Fields. Our work demonstrates that even for fields at high galactic latitude where natural guide stars are rare, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8 m telescopes has opened a new window on the distant universe. Observations of a third Frontier Field, Abell 370, are planned. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile.

  17. High S/N Keck and Gemini AO imaging of Uranus during 2012-2014: New cloud patterns, increasing activity, and improved wind measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; de Pater, I.; Fry, P. M.; Hammel, H. B.; Marcus, P.

    2015-09-01

    We imaged Uranus in the near infrared from 2012 into 2014, using the Keck/NIRC2 camera and Gemini/NIRI camera, both with adaptive optics. We obtained exceptional signal to noise ratios by averaging 8-16 individual exposures in a planet-fixed coordinate system. These noise-reduced images revealed many low-contrast discrete features and large scale cloud patterns not seen before, including scalloped waveforms just south of the equator, and an associated transverse ribbon wave near 6°S. In all three years numerous small (600-700 km wide) and mainly bright discrete features were seen within the north polar region (north of about 55°N). Two small dark spots with bright companions were seen at middle latitudes. Over 850 wind measurements were made, the vast majority of which were in the northern hemisphere. Winds at high latitudes were measured with great precision, revealing an extended region of solid body rotation between 62°N and at least 83°N, at a rate of 4.08 ± 0.015°/h westward relative to the planet's interior (radio) rotation of 20.88°/h westward. Near-equatorial speeds measured with high accuracy give different results for waves and small discrete features, with eastward drift rates of 0.4°/h and 0.1°/h respectively. The region of polar solid body rotation is a close match to the region of small-scale polar cloud features, suggesting a dynamical relationship. The winds from prior years and those from 2012-2014 are consistent with a mainly symmetric wind profile up to middle latitudes, with a small asymmetric component of ∼0.09°/h peaking near ±30°, and about 60% greater amplitude if only prior years are included, suggesting a declining mid-latitude asymmetry. While winds at high southern latitudes (50-90°S) are unconstrained by groundbased observations, a recent reanalysis of 1986 Voyager 2 observations by Karkoschka (Karkoschka [2015]. Icarus 250, 294-307) has revealed an extremely large north-south asymmetry in this region, which might be

  18. Predictions for shepherding planets in scattered light images of debris disks

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  19. High Contrast Imaging Testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowmman, Andrew E.; Trauger, John T.; Gordon, Brian; Green, Joseph J.; Moody, Dwight; Niessner, Albert F.; Shi, Fang

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission is planning to launch a visible coronagraphic space telescope in 2014. To achieve TPF science goals, the coronagraph must have extreme levels of wavefront correction (less than 1 Angstrom rms over controllable spatial frequencies) and stability to get the necessary suppression of diffracted starlight (approximately l0(exp -10)) contrast at an angular separation approximately 4 (lamda)/D). TPF Coronagraph's primary platform for experimentation is the High Contrast Imaging Testbed, which will provide laboratory validation of key technologies as well as demonstration of a flight-traceable approach to implementation. Precision wavefront control in the testbed is provided by a high actuator density deformable mirror. Diffracted light control is achieved through use of occulting or apodizing masks and stops. Contrast measurements will establish the technical feasibility of TPF requirements, while model and error budget validation will demonstrate implementation viability. This paper describes the current testbed design, development approach, and recent experimental results.

  20. Pupil phase apodization for achromatic imaging of extra- solar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weidong

    2004-09-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in the visible and infrared region has generated great interest among scientists and the general public as well. However, this is a challenging problem. Difficulties of detecting a planet (faint source) are caused, mostly, by two factors: sidelobes caused by starlight diffraction from the edge of the pupil and the randomly scattered starlight caused by the phase errors from the imperfections in the optical system. While the latter difficulty can be corrected by high density active deformable mirrors with advanced phase sensing and control technology, the optimized strategy for suppressing the diffraction sidelobes is still an open question. In this thesis, I present a new approach to the sidelobe reduction problem: pupil phase apodization. It is based on a discovery that an anti-symmetric spatial phase modulation pattern imposed over a pupil or a relay plane causes diffracted starlight suppression sufficient for imaging of extra-solar planets. Numerical simulations with specific square pupil (side D) phase functions, such as f(x,y)=a[ln ((1+3)+ 2x/D)/((1+3)-2x/D) . ((1+3)+2y/D)/((1+3)-2y/D)] demonstrate annulling in at least one quadrant of the diffraction plane to the contrast level of better than 10-12 with an inner working angle down to 3.5λ/D (with a = 3 and 3 = 10-3). Furthermore, our computer experiments show that phase apodization remains effective throughout a broad spectrum (60% of the central wavelength) covering the entire visible light range. In addition to the specific phase functions that can yield deep sidelobe reduction on one quadrant; we also found that a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can help to find small sized (101 x 101 element) discrete phase functions if regional sidelobe reduction is desired. Our simulation shows that a 101 x 101 segmented but gapless active mirror can also generate a dark region with Inner Working Distance about 2.8λ/D in one quadrant. Phase-only modulation has the additional

  1. Study of spin-scan imaging for outer planets missions. [imaging techniques for Jupiter orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, E. E.; Chandos, R. A.; Kodak, J. C.; Pellicori, S. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The constraints that are imposed on the Outer Planet Missions (OPM) imager design are of critical importance. Imager system modeling analyses define important parameters and systematic means for trade-offs applied to specific Jupiter orbiter missions. Possible image sequence plans for Jupiter missions are discussed in detail. Considered is a series of orbits that allow repeated near encounters with three of the Jovian satellites. The data handling involved in the image processing is discussed, and it is shown that only minimal processing is required for the majority of images for a Jupiter orbiter mission.

  2. Grand Tour outer planet missions definition phase. Part 1: Quantitative imaging of the outer planets and their satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, M. J. S.; Aksnes, K.; Davies, M. E.; Hartmann, W. K.; Millis, R. L.; Owen, T. C.; Reilly, T. H.; Sagan, C.; Suomi, V. E.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A recommended imaging system is outlined for use aboard the Outer Planet Grand Tour Explorer. The system features the high angular resolution capacity necessary to accommodate large encounter distances, and to satisfy the demand for a reasonable amount of time coverage. Specifications for all components within the system are provided in detail.

  3. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James; Oppenheimer, Ben; Poyneer, Lisa; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today - the realm of "Extreme" adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order "woofer" mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  4. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J R; Oppenheimer, B; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Veran, J

    2005-11-18

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-10-20

    A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ∼1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ∼50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ∼10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ∼10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

  6. Occulter Based Missions of Different Scales for Terrestrial Planet Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Vanderbei, R.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D. P.; Savransky, D.; Cady, E.; Soummer, R.

    2010-10-01

    Free flying occulters are an attractive option as a space mission architecture for imaging exosolar planets, particular ones in the habitable zone. Their appeal is two-fold: the inner working angle is largely decoupled from telescope diameter and, because they suppress starlight before entering the telescope, there is no need for wavefront control. We present the basic operating principles of occulters for high-contrast, including preliminary stationkeeping simulations, and a manufacturing approach being studied as part of NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions. Our main focus is a comparison of mission architectures employing occulters at varying scales: large flagship observatories (THEIA, NWO), existing large aperture telescopes (JWST), small dedicated telescopes (O3), and small general purpose telescopes (such as a dark energy mission like EUCLID). THEIA, the Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy, is a multi-instrument space-telescope concept employing a 4-m diffraction-limited telescope operating at UV and Visible wavelengths that was developed as part of NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Studies in 2009 and presented to the US Academy's decadal survey review, Astro2010. By combining the telescope with a roughly 40 m occulter, operating at two different telescope-occulter separations, planets as small as Earth can be characterized over a broad band, including R>70 spectra. O3, the Occulting Ozone Observatory, is a smaller mission costing less than 1B that uses a 1 to 2 m telescope combined with a roughly 30 m occulter. O3 is capable of time-resolved photometry over 8 bands, focusing on biomarkers, such as detecting the strong ozone feature, and surface characterization. It also provides the capability for enough repeat visits to support orbit determination. We will compare the science yield and architecture and how different coronagraph and occulter approaches perform at these different mission

  7. High-resolution multi-band imaging for validation and characterization of small Kepler planets

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Horch, Elliott P.; Crepp, Justin R.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution ground-based optical speckle and near-infrared adaptive optics images are taken to search for stars in close angular proximity to host stars of candidate planets identified by the NASA Kepler Mission. Neighboring stars are a potential source of false positive signals. These stars also blend into Kepler light curves, affecting estimated planet properties, and are important for an understanding of planets in multiple star systems. Deep images with high angular resolution help to validate candidate planets by excluding potential background eclipsing binaries as the source of the transit signals. A study of 18 Kepler Object of Interest stars hosting a total of 28 candidate and validated planets is presented. Validation levels are determined for 18 planets against the likelihood of a false positive from a background eclipsing binary. Most of these are validated at the 99% level or higher, including five newly validated planets in two systems: Kepler-430 and Kepler-431. The stellar properties of the candidate host stars are determined by supplementing existing literature values with new spectroscopic characterizations. Close neighbors of seven of these stars are examined using multi-wavelength photometry to determine their nature and influence on the candidate planet properties. Most of the close neighbors appear to be gravitationally bound secondaries, while a few are best explained as closely co-aligned field stars. Revised planet properties are derived for each candidate and validated planet, including cases where the close neighbors are the potential host stars.

  8. Directly Imaged Giant Planets: What Do We Hope to Learn?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As we move into an era when GPI and SPHERE are (hopefully) discovering and characterizing new young giant planets, it is worthwhile to step back and review our science goals for young giant planets. Of course for individual planets we ideally would hope to measure mass, radius, atmospheric composition, temperature, and cloud properties, but how do these characteristics fit into our broader understanding of planetary system origin and evolution theories? In my presentation I will review both the specifics of what we hope to learn from newly discovered young worlds as well as how these characteristics inform our broader understanding of giant planets and planetary systems. Finally I will consider the limitations realistic datasets will place on our ability to understand newly discovered planets, illustrating with data from any new such worlds that are available by the conference date.

  9. FIB machining of occulting masks for imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Shilpa N.; Aziz, Michael J.; Foley, James W.; Tolls, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We are developing the ability for Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machining of occulting masks for use in coronagraphs. These masks will be used as soft-edged Lyot stops to suppress light from stars and allow direct imaging of extrasolar planets. The FIB approach is attractive because it has the potential for higher precision than mechanical machining and for larger volumes than electron-beam lithography. The mask fabrication process is trifold: 1) a transparent material-currently, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-is doped with dyes; 2) the mask shape is FIB milled into the material; and 3) the mask is coated with another layer of index-matching transparent absorber. Using a Zeiss NVision 40 FIB system, we have fabricated conical-shaped masks of various slopes in dye-doped PMMA. Inherent in this process is the advantage of control of the features through programming the ion beam track. We have also optically characterized these masks as well as the dye-doped absorbing material. We have found that the dye-doped PMMA has a very high absorbance, >1 OD.

  10. Design and Verification of External Occulters for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An occulter is an optical element which is placed in front of the telescope to block most of the light from a star before it reaches the optics inside, without blocking the planet.In our case, we use two spacecraft ying in formation: First has its edge shaped to cancel the starlight Second is the telescope which images the star and planet

  11. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets with an Ultra-Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Origins Program is directed toward two main goals: Imaging of galactic evolution in the early universe, and searching for planets orbiting nearby stars. The Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), operating at low temperature with an 8-m aperture, is well designed to meet the first goal. The goal of imaging planets orbiting nearby stars is more problematic. One line of investigation has been the ULTIMA concept (Ultra-Large Telescope, Integrated Missions in Astronomy). In this report, I will lay out the resolution requirements for telescopes to achieve the imaging of extrasolar planets, and describe a modeling tool created to investigate the requirements for imaging a planet when it is very near a much brighter star.

  12. Gemini IRAF: Data reduction software for the Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemini Observatory; AURA

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini IRAF package processes observational data obtained with the Gemini telescopes. It is an external package layered upon IRAF and supports data from numerous instruments, including FLAMINGOS-2, GMOS-N, GMOS-S, GNIRS, GSAOI, NIFS, and NIRI. The Gemini IRAF package is organized into sub-packages; it contains a generic tools package, "gemtools", along with instrument-specific packages. The raw data from the Gemini facility instruments are stored as Multi-Extension FITS (MEF) files. Therefore, all the tasks in the Gemini IRAF package, intended for processing data from the Gemini facility instruments, are capable of handling MEF files.

  13. Millimeter image of the HL Tau Disk: gaps opened by planets?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui

    2015-10-20

    Several observed features which favor planet-induced gaps in the disk are pointed out. Parameters of a two-fluid simulation model are listed, and some model results are shown. It is concluded that (1) interaction between planets, gas, and dust can explain the main features in the ALMA observation; (2) the millimeter image of a disk is determined by the dust profile, which in turn is influenced by planetary masses, viscosity, disk self-gravity, etc.; and (3) models that focus on the complex physics between gas and dust (and planets) are crucial in interpreting the (sub)millimeter images of disks.

  14. Interpreting the photometry and spectroscopy of directly imaged planets: a new atmospheric model applied to β Pictoris b and SPHERE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudino, J.-L.; Bézard, B.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Galicher, R.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Since the end of 2013 a new generation of instruments optimized to image young giant planets around nearby stars directly is becoming available on 8-m class telescopes, both at Very Large Telescope and Gemini in the southern hemisphere. Beyond the achievement of high contrast and the discovery capability, these instruments are designed to obtain photometric and spectral information to characterize the atmospheres of these planets. Aims: We aim to interpret future photometric and spectral measurements from these instruments, in terms of physical parameters of the planets, with an atmospheric model using a minimal number of assumptions and parameters. Methods: We developed the Exoplanet Radiative-convective Equilibrium Model (Exo-REM) to analyze the photometric and spectroscopic data of directly imaged planets. The input parameters are a planet's surface gravity (g), effective temperature (Teff), and elemental composition. The model predicts the equilibrium temperature profile and mixing ratio profiles of the most important gases. Opacity sources include the H2-He collision-induced absorption and molecular lines from eight compounds (including CH4 updated with the Exomol line list). Absorption by iron and silicate cloud particles is added above the expected condensation levels with a fixed scale height and a given optical depth at some reference wavelength. Scattering was not included at this stage. Results: We applied Exo-REM to photometric and spectral observations of the planet β Pictoris b obtained in a series of near-infrared filters. We derived Teff = 1550 ± 150 K, log (g) = 3.5 ± 1, and radius R = 1.76 ± 0.24 RJup (2σ error bars from photometric measurements). These values are comparable to those found in the literature, although with more conservative error bars, consistent with the model accuracy. We were able to reproduce, within error bars, the J- and H-band spectra of β Pictoris b. We finally investigated the precision to which the above

  15. Drag-o-llision Models of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2009-01-01

    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris disk around Fomalhaut; probably many other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks---difficult processes to model simultaneously. The author describes new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics, Drag-o-llision models, that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time. The author also discusses the implications of these models for coronagraphic imaging with Gemini and other telescopes.

  16. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys.Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss several KOIs of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are ``coincident multiple'' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we will discuss and update the 98%-confidence evidence from our survey that third bodies in star/planet systems produce an excess of close-in giant planets.

  17. Two-temperature Debris Disks: Signposts for Directly Imaged Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This work considers debris disks whose spectra can be modelled by dust emission at two different temperatures. These disks are typically assumed to be a sign of multiple belts, but only a few cases have been confirmed via high resolution observations. We derive the properties of a sample of two-temperature disks, and explore whether this emission can arise from dust in a single narrow belt. While some two-temperature disks arise from single belts, it is probable that most have multiple spatial components. These disks are plausibly similar to the outer Solar System's configuration of Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts separated by giant planets. Alternatively, the inner component could arise from inward scattering of material from the outer belt, again due to intervening planets. For either scenario, the ratio of warm/cool component temperatures is indicative of the scale of outer planetary systems, which typically span a factor of about ten in radius.

  18. Planet Formation Instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Troy, M; Graham, J; Doyon, R

    2006-02-22

    In the closing years of the 20th Century humankind began its exploration of the planetary systems in the solar neighborhood. Precision radial velocity measurements have now yielded the discovery of over 160 planets. Direct imaging of these planets, as opposed to detection of the effects of orbital motion on their parent star, is now feasible, and the first young planet in a wide orbit may have been detected using adaptive optics systems. Gemini and the VLT are building the first generation of high contrast adaptive optics systems, which deliver planet-imaging performance within few Airy rings of the host star. These systems will make the first surveys of the outer regions of solar systems by detecting the self-luminous radiation of young planets. These instruments will establish whether Jovian planets form predominantly through 'top-down' (global gravitational instability) or 'bottom-up' (core accretion) processes. The 8-m 'extreme' AO systems cannot see close enough to the host stars to image Doppler planets, and they cannot reach the relatively distant, young clusters and associations where planets are forming. The Planet Formation Instrument will use the nearly four-fold improved angular resolution of TMT to peer into the inner solar systems of Doppler-planet bearing stars to yield a unified sample of planets with known Keplerian orbital elements and atmospheric properties. In star formation regions, where T Tauri stars (young solar type stars) are found in abundance, PFI can see into the snow line, where the icy cores of planets like Jupiter must have formed. Thus, TMT will be the first facility to witness the formation of new planets.

  19. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W

    2006-08-18

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} at angles of 4-24 {lambda}/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10{sup -8} contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and flat mirror

  20. THE SEEDS DIRECT IMAGING SURVEY FOR PLANETS AND SCATTERED DUST EMISSION IN DEBRIS DISK SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy D.; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Usuda, Tomonori; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, Sebastian; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph C.; Goto, Miwa; Currie, Thayne; McElwain, M. W.; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Crepp, Justin; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; and others

    2013-08-10

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris-disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here, we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that {beta} Pic b-like planets ({approx}10 M{sub jup} planets around G-A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15%-30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than {beta} Pic b.

  1. The SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets and Scattered Dust Emission in Debris Disk Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Usuda, Tomonori; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph C.; Goto, Miwa; Currie, Thayne; McElwain, M. W.; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Crepp, Justin; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Egner, Sebastian; Fedlt, Markus; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Saeko

    2013-01-01

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that beta Pic b-like planets (approximately 10M(sub jup) planets around G-A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15-30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than beta Pic b.

  2. Legacy of Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    In the perspective of a single composite mission, this documentary illustrates the major accomplishments of the Gemini two man space flights and the significance of these flights to the Apollo Program. This film includes outstanding photography of the Earth and man in space.

  3. Direct imaging search for planets around low-mass stars and spectroscopic characterization of young exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan Peter

    Low--mass stars between 0.1--0.6 M⊙ are the most abundant members our galaxy and may be the most common sites of planet formation, but little is known about the outer architecture of their planetary systems. We have carried out a high-contrast adaptive imaging search for gas giant planets between 1--13 MJup around 122 newly identified young M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood ( ≲ 35 pc). Half of our targets are younger than 145 Myr, and 90% are younger than 580 Myr. After removing 39 resolved stellar binaries, our homogeneous sample of 83 single young M dwarfs makes it the largest imaging search for planets around low--mass stars to date. Our H- and K- band coronagraphic observations with Subaru/HiCIAO and Keck/NIRC2 achieve typical contrasts of 9--13 mag and 12--14 mag at 100, respectively, which corresponds to limiting masses of ˜1--10 M Jup at 10--30 AU for most of our sample. We discovered four brown dwarfs with masses between 25--60 MJup at projected separations of 4--190 AU. Over 100 candidate planets were discovered, nearly all of which were found to be background stars from follow-up second epoch imaging. Our null detection of planets nevertheless provides strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. Assuming circular orbits and a logarithmically-flat power law distribution in planet mass and semi--major axis of the form d 2N=(dloga dlogm) infinity m0 a0, we measure an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 8.8% and 12.6% for 1--13 MJup companions between 10--100 AU for hot start and cold start evolutionary models, respectively. For massive gas giant planets in the 5--13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799, GJ 504, and beta Pictoris, we find that fewer than 5.3% (7.8%) of M dwarfs harbor these planets between 10--100 AU for a hot start (cold start) formation scenario. Our best constraints are for brown dwarf companions; the frequency of 13--75 MJup companions between (de--projected) physical

  4. ON THE MISALIGNMENT OF THE DIRECTLY IMAGED PLANET {beta} PICTORIS b WITH THE SYSTEM'S WARPED INNER DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2011-12-10

    The vertical warp in the debris disk {beta} Pictoris-an inclined inner disk extending into a flat outer disk-has long been interpreted as the signpost of a planet on an inclined orbit. Direct images spanning 2004-2010 have revealed {beta} Pictoris b, a planet with a mass and orbital distance consistent with this picture. However, it was recently reported that the orbit of planet b is aligned with the flat outer disk, not the inclined inner disk, and thus lacks the inclination to warp the disk. We explore three scenarios for reconciling the apparent misalignment of the directly imaged planet {beta} Pictoris b with the warped inner disk of {beta} Pictoris: observational uncertainty, an additional planet, and damping of planet b's inclination. We find that, at the extremes of the uncertainties, the orbit of {beta} Pictoris b has the inclination necessary to produce the observed warp. We also find that if planet b were aligned with the flat outer disk, it would prevent another planet from creating a warp with the observed properties; therefore planet b itself must be responsible for the warp. Finally, planet b's inclination could have been damped by dynamical friction and still produce the observed disk morphology, but the feasibility of damping depends on disk properties and the presence of other planets. More precise observations of the orbit of planet b and the position angle of the outer disk will allow us to distinguish between the first and third scenarios.

  5. Visible and Near-IR Imaging of Giant Planets: Outer Manifestations of Deeper Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.

    1996-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared imaging of the giant planets -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune -- probes the outermost layers of clouds in these gaseous atmospheres. Not only are the images beautiful and striking in their color and diversity of detail, they also provide quantitative clues to the dynamical and chemical processes taking place both at the cloud tops and deeper in the interior: zonal wind profiles can be extracted; wavelength-dependent center-to-limb brightness variations yield valuable data for modeling vertical aerosol structure; the presence of planetary-scale atmospheric waves can sometimes be deduced; variations of cloud color and brightness with latitude provide insight into the underlying mechanisms driving circulation; development and evolution of discrete atmospheric features trace both exogenic and endogenic events. During the 1980's, our understanding of the giant planets was revolutionized by detailed visible-wavelength images taken by the Voyager spacecraft of these planets' atmospheres. However, those images were static: brief snapshots in time of four complex and dynamic atmospheric systems. In short, those images no longer represent the current appearance of these planets. Recently, our knowledge of the atmospheres of the gas giant planets has undergone major new advances, due in part to the excellent imaging capability and longer-term temporal sampling of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Galileo Mission to Jupiter. In this talk, I provide an update on our current understanding of the gas giants based on recent visible and near-infrared imaging, highlighting results from the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, Saturn's White Spots, intriguing changes in the atmosphere of Uranus, and Neptune's peripatetic clouds.

  6. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging and Modeling of Planets and Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, P.; Weinberger, A. J.; Close, L. M.; Debes, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks, leaving behind planetesimals that collide to produce dusty debris disks. Characterizing the architectures of planetary systems, along with the structures and compositions of debris disks, can therefore help answer questions about how planets form. In this talk, I will present the results of five papers concerning the properties of extrasolar planetary systems and their circumstellar environments. First I will discuss bias affecting radial velocity (RV) orbital eccentricity. For years astronomers have been puzzled about the large number of RV-detected planets that have eccentric orbits (e > 0.1). I will show that this problem can partially be explained by showing that two circular-orbit planets can masquerade as a single planet on an eccentric orbit. I use this finding to predict that planets with mildly eccentric orbits are the most likely to have massive companions on wide orbits, potentially detectable by future direct imaging observations. Next I will present recent high-contrast 2-4 μm imaging studies of the edge-on debris disks around HD 15115 and HD 32297. HD 15115’s color is found to be gray, implying large grains 1-10 μm in size reside in stable orbits in the disk. HD 32297’s disk color is red from 1-4 μm. Cometary material (carbon, silicates, and porous water ice) are a good match at 1-2 μm but not at L‧. Tholins, organic material that is found in outer solar system bodies, or small silicates can explain the disk’s red color but not the short wavelength data. I will then present my work on the dynamics of dust grains in the presence of massive planets. I will show that the width of a debris disk increases proportionally with the mass of its shepherding planet. I use this result to make predictions for the masses and orbits of putative planets in five well-known disks. Finally, I will present recent MagAO/Clio near-infrared imaging results on the debris disk around HR4796A spanning the 0.5-4 um

  7. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Nofi, Larissa; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-12-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets. We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo-AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for 3 years and a higher-contrast Robo-AO system is being developed for the 2.2-m UH telescope on Maunakea.

  8. Gemini facility calibration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Harris, John W.; Gostick, David C.; Laidlaw, Ken; Kidd, Norrie; Strachan, Mel; Wilson, Ken

    2000-08-01

    High-quality, efficient calibration instruments is a pre- requisite for the modern observatory. Each of the Gemini telescopes will be equipped with identical facility calibration units (GCALs) designed to provide wavelength and flat-field calibrations for the suite of instruments. The broad range of instrumentation planned for the telescopes heavily constrains the design of GCAL. Short calibration exposures are required over wavelengths from 0.3micrometers to 5micrometers , field sizes up to 7 arcminutes and spectral resolution from R-5 to 50,000. The output from GCAL must mimic the f-16 beam of the telescope and provide a uniform illumination of the focal plane. The calibration units are mounted on the Gemini Instrument Support Structure, two meters from the focal pane, necessitating the use of large optical components. We will discuss the opto-mechanical design of the Gemini calibration unit, with reference to those feature which allow these stringent requirements to be met. A novel reflector/diffuser unit replaces the integration sphere more normally found in calibration systems. The efficiency of this system is an order of magnitude greater than for an integration sphere. A system of two off-axis mirrors reproduces the telescope pupil and provides the 7 foot focal plane. The results of laboratory test of the uniformity and throughput of the GCAL will be presented.

  9. Gemini Scout Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton Hobart, Justin Garretson

    2010-11-23

    The Gemini Scout Control Software consists of two Windows applications that allow the Gemini Scout vehicle to be controlled by an operator. The Embedded application runs on the vehicle's Gemini Scout Control Software onboard computer and controls the vehicle's various motors and sensors. This application reports the vehicle's status and receives vehicle commands overthe local-area-network. The Embedded applicationalso allows the user to control the vehicle using a USB game-pad connected directly to the vehicle. The Operator Control Unit (OCU) application runs on an external PC and communicates with the vehicle via an Ethernet connection. The OCU application sends commands to and receives data from the Embedded application running on the vehicle. The OCU application also communicates directly with the digital video encoders and radios in order to display video from the vehicle's cameras and the status of the radio link. The OCU application has a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the vehicle's status and allows the user to change various vehicle settings. Finally, the OCU application receives input from a USB game-pad connected to the PC in order to control the vehicle's functions.

  10. Gemini Scout Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-11-23

    The Gemini Scout Control Software consists of two Windows applications that allow the Gemini Scout vehicle to be controlled by an operator. The Embedded application runs on the vehicle's Gemini Scout Control Software onboard computer and controls the vehicle's various motors and sensors. This application reports the vehicle's status and receives vehicle commands overthe local-area-network. The Embedded applicationalso allows the user to control the vehicle using a USB game-pad connected directly to the vehicle. Themore » Operator Control Unit (OCU) application runs on an external PC and communicates with the vehicle via an Ethernet connection. The OCU application sends commands to and receives data from the Embedded application running on the vehicle. The OCU application also communicates directly with the digital video encoders and radios in order to display video from the vehicle's cameras and the status of the radio link. The OCU application has a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the vehicle's status and allows the user to change various vehicle settings. Finally, the OCU application receives input from a USB game-pad connected to the PC in order to control the vehicle's functions.« less

  11. SPHERE: exo-planets science with the new frontier of high contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudi, R.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Feldt, M.; Mouillet, D.; Dohlen, K.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Baruffolo, A.; Charton, J.; Antichi, J.; Boccaletti, A.; Desidera, S.; Fusco, T.; Gratton, R.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Pragt, J.; Raboub, P.; Roelfsema, R.; Saisse, M.; Schmid, H.-M.; Turatto, M.; Moutou, C.; Henning, T.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT High contrast imaging will be the new frontier of exoplanets search providing the opportunity to have at once a deep glance in the neighborhood of the target star. In addition, coupling integral field spectrographs to extreme adaptive optics module at the focus of 8m telescope class and in future to ELTs, gives also the possibility to have a first order characterization of the exoplanets itself. SPHERE, second generation instrument for VLT, is an exo-solar planet imager, which goal is to detect giant exo-solar planets in the vicinity of bright stars and to characterize them through spectroscopic and polarimetric observations. It is a complete system with a core made of an extreme-Adaptive Optics (AO) turbulence correction, pupil tracker and interferential coronagraphs. At its back end, a differential dual imaging camera (IRDIS) and an integral field spectrograph (IFS) work in the Near Infrared (NIR) Y, J, H and Ks bands (0.95-2.32 μm) and a high resolution polarization camera (ZIMPOL) covers the visible (0.6 - 0.9 μm). The three instruments could work simultaneously. As matter of fact, as the instrument has been thought and designed, It should be considered more like an experiment than a typical ancillary instrumentation. The prime objective of SPHERE is the discovery and study of new planets orbiting stars by direct imaging of the circumstellar environment. The challenge consists in the very large contrast of luminosity between the star and the planet (larger than " 12.5 magnitudes or " 105 flux ratio), at very small angular separations, typically inside the seeing halo. The whole design of SPHERE is therefore optimized towards high contrast performance in a limited field of view and at short distances from the central star. Both evolved and young planetary systems will be detected, respectively through their reflected light (mostly by ZIMPOL) and through the intrinsic planet emission (IRDIS+IFS modes). Both components of the near-infrared arm of SPHERE

  12. Near-Term Prospects for Extra-Solar Planet Detection: The Astrometric Imaging Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Levy, Eugene H.; Gatewood, George D.

    The Astrometric Imaging Telescope (AIT) is a 1.5 to 2 meter diameter space-based telescope designed to carry out a comprehensive program of direct and indirect extra-solar planet detection. The telescope consists of two separate instruments, an astrometric experiment to measure the reflex motion of the parent stars and an imaging coronagraph to directly image planets and the circumstellar region. The astrometric technique utilizes the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) which passes a Ronchi ruling over a field of stars and measures the centroid of the stars in two orthogonal observations. Used above the Earth's atmosphere this will be about two orders of magnitude more accurate than any existing astrometric instrument and will achieve an accuracy of about 10 microarcseconds. This will allow detection and study of Uranus-size or larger planets in Jovian orbits around several hundred nearby stars. The astrometric study of a parent star of a planetary system will lead to an accurate determination of its distance. The distance is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the annual parallactic motion. The same study yields the major characteristics of the individual bodies within the planetary system. The periods of the orbits are obtained from the analysis of the motions of the central star. Thy are directly related to the distances between the individual planets in the system and the system's sun. The distances in turn determine the thermal radiation level, or effective temperature, at the planet's orbit. With sufficient precision and time, the analysis of the apparent motion of the target star will also yield the eccentricities and the relative inclinations of the orbits of each of the planetary bodies. Assuming the mass of the primary star can be accurately estimated, the study will also yield the mass of each planet.

  13. Direct and interferometric imaging approaches for detecting earth-like extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J.; Van Zyl, J.; Jones, D. L.; Tubbs, E.; Wright, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses functional requirements of space-based observational systems with sufficient sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range to image earth-like extrasolar planets within a search radius of 10 parsecs from the sun. Both direct and interferometric systems operating at visible and infrared wavelengths are evaluated, and the methods used to establish the system tolerances are presented. Due to the more favorable star/planet contrast ratio in the infrared, optical tolerance requirements are less stringent than in the visible. However, reduction of thermal radiation from the telescope requires cooling of the primary optics. Other tradeoffs between various approaches are enumerated.

  14. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy with high contrast imaging: Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snellen, I.; de Kok, R.; Birkby, J. L.; Brandl, B.; Brogi, M.; Keller, C.; Kenworthy, M.; Schwarz, H.; Stuik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Ground-based high-dispersion (R ~ 100 000) spectroscopy (HDS) is proving to be a powerful technique with which to characterize extrasolar planets. The planet signal is distilled from the bright starlight, combining ral and time-differential filtering techniques. In parallel, high-contrast imaging (HCI) is developing rapidly, aimed at spatially separating the planet from the star. While HDS is limited by the overwhelming noise from the host star, HCI is limited by residual quasi-static speckles. Both techniques currently reach planet-star contrast limits down to ~10-5, albeit for very different types of planetary systems. Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine HDS and HCI (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~10-5 × 10-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. In contrast to current direct imaging techniques, such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging, it will work well at small working angles and is much less sensitive to speckle noise. For the discovery of previously unknown planets HDS+HCI requires a high-contrast adaptive optics system combined with a high-dispersion R ~ 100 000 integral field spectrograph (IFS). This combination currently does not exist, but is planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the

  15. WFIRST Exoplanet Imaging: Can Broadband Colors Efficiently Descriminate Planets from the Background?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Margaret C.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Gallagher, John S.; Merrelli, Aronne; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Fu, Guangwei; Hu, Renyu

    2016-01-01

    As part of the WFIRST Preparatory Science program, we have begun exploring the broadband color combinations for WFIRST that will most efficiently (1) descriminate planets from background sources in a single image and (2) shed some light on the nature of those planets. This is a first look at the color-color space, and color-magnitude space, occupied by planets orbiting nearby K-F main sequence stars. We explore (1) Solar System analog planets, (2) a variety of Earths/Super-Earths having optically thin or partially cloudy Earth-like atmospheres over desert/forest/ocean/icey surfaces, and (3) mini-Neptunes through Jupiter-mass planets at a range of temperatures where they would potentially be detectable to WFIRST. These colors are compared to the expected Galactic and extragalactic background sources for the Galactic coordinates of high priority targets. We offer some preliminary conclusions about the expected background contamination in these fields and how well color information can be used to mitigate that threat to WFIRST's exoplanet science.

  16. Scattered light images of spiral arms in marginally gravitationally unstable discs with an embedded planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, A.; Pinilla, P.; Benisty, M.; Ataiee, S.; Juhász, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Van Boekel, R.; Henning, T.

    2015-10-01

    Scattered light images of transition discs in the near-infrared often show non-axisymmetric structures in the form of wide-open spiral arms in addition to their characteristic low-opacity inner gap region. We study self-gravitating discs and investigate the influence of gravitational instability on the shape and contrast of spiral arms induced by planet-disc interactions. Two-dimensional non-isothermal hydrodynamical simulations including viscous heating and a cooling prescription are combined with three-dimensional dust continuum radiative transfer models for direct comparison to observations. We find that the resulting contrast between the spirals and the surrounding disc in scattered light is by far higher for pressure scaleheight variations, i.e. thermal perturbations, than for pure surface density variations. Self-gravity effects suppress any vortex modes and tend to reduce the opening angle of planet-induced spirals, making them more tightly wound. If the disc is only marginally gravitationally stable with a Toomre parameter around unity, an embedded massive planet (planet-to-star mass ratio of 10-2) can trigger gravitational instability in the outer disc. The spirals created by this instability and the density waves launched by the planet can overlap resulting in large-scale, more open spiral arms in the outer disc. The contrast of these spirals is well above the detection limit of current telescopes.

  17. Beyond Kepler: Direct Imaging of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Is there another Earth out there? Is there life on it? People have been asking these questions for over two thousand years, and we finally stand on the verge of answering them. The Kepler space telescope is NASA's first mission designed to study Earthlike exoplanets (exo-Earths), and it will soon tell us how often exo-Earths occur in the habitable zones of their stars. The next natural step after Kepler is spectroscopic characterization of exo-Earths, which would tell us whether they possess an atmosphere, oxygen, liquid water, as well as other biomarkers. In order to do this, directly imaging an exo-Earth may be necessary (at least for Sun-like stars). Directly imaging an exo-Earth is challenging and likely requires a flagship-size optical space telescope with an unprecedented imaging system capable of achieving contrasts of 1(exp 10) very close to the diffraction limit. Several coronagraphs and external occulters have been proposed to meet this challenge and are in development. After first overviewing the history and current state of the field, my talk will focus on the work proceeding at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) at the NASA Ames Research Center, where we are developing the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph in a collaboration with JPL. PIAA is a powerful technique with demonstrated aggressive performance that defines the state of the art at small inner working angles. At ACE, we have achieved contrasts of 2(exp -8) with an inner working angle of 2 lambda/D and 1(exp -6) at 1.4 lambda/D. On the path to exo-Earth imaging, we are also pursuing a smaller telescope concept called EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), which was recently selected for technology development (Category III) by NASA's Explorer program. EXCEDE will do fundamental science on debris disks as well as serve as a technological and scientific pathfinder for an exo-Earth imaging mission.

  18. How to Directly Image a Habitable Planet Around Alpha Centauri with a 30cm Space Telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, R.; Bendek, E.; Thomas, S.; Black, D.

    2014-12-01

    More than 1,700 exoplanets have been discovered to date, including a handful of potentially habitable ones. There is on average more than one planet per star, and estimates of occurrence rates for potentially habitable planets (eta_Earth) from the Kepler mission range between 5 and 50%. Several mission concepts have been studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. Direct imaging enables spectroscopic detection of biomarkers such as atmospheric oxygen and methane, which would be highly suggestive of extraterrestrial life. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet requires telescopes with apertures of at least 1m, costing at least $1B, and launching no earlier than the 2020s. A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri. The system contains two Sun-like stars with a wide separation that allows dynamically stable habitable zones around either star. Habitable zones span about 0.5-1" in stellocentric angle, 3x wider than around any other FGKM star. A 30cm visible light space telescope is sufficient to resolve the habitable zone and detect a potentially habitable planet in minutes with ideal components, or days with realistic ones. We are developing a mission concept called ACEND (Alpha Centauri Direct Imager) consisting of a 30cm primary, a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph, and a wavefront control system. It is designed to suppress the light leak from both stars and directly image their planetary systems in 3 color channels, including the capability to detect potentially habitable planets. Color imaging is sufficient to differentiate Venus-like, Earth-like, and Mars-like planets from each other and establish the presence of Earth-pressure atmosphere through Rayleigh scattering. Two factors make it possible to realize the requirements of ACEND (most notably 10^10 contrast) on a small budget and fast schedule: (a) ACEND will collect a long continuous sequence of images on Alpha Centauri A and B for 2 years

  19. Sky Background Variability Measured on Maunakea at Gemini North Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam B.; Roth, Katherine; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Gemini North has recently implemented a Quality Assessment Pipeline (QAP) that automatically reduces images in realtime to determine sky condition quantities, including background sky brightness from the optical to near-infrared. Processing archived images through the QAP and mining the results allows us to look for trends and systematic issues with the instruments and optics during the first decade of Gemini.Here we present the results of using the QAP calculated values to quantify how airglow affects the background sky brightness of images taken with Gemini's imaging instruments, GMOS and NIRI, as well as searching for other factors that may cause changes in the sky brightness. By investigating the dependence of measured sky brightness as a function of a variety of variables, including time after twilight, airmass, season, distance from the moon, air temperature, etc., we quantify the effect of sky brightness and its impact on the sensitivity of Gemini optical and near-infrared imaging data. These measurements will be used to determine new sky background relationships for Maunakea, and to improve the Gemini Integration Time Calculators (ITCs).

  20. The Subaru SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets of Early-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Kellen D.; Carson, Joseph; Thalmann, Christian; Seeds Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the Subaru SEEDS sub-program to search for extrasolar planets around early-type (mostly A-type) stars. SEEDS, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, is a multi-year, direct-imaging survey to explore the link between planets and disks, and the evolution of protoplanetary systems and debris disks. With first observations carried out in 2009, the early-type star sub-program uses the Subaru 8-meter Telescope, the AO188 adaptive optics system, the HiCIAO near infrared science camera, and an Angular Differential Imaging observing procedure to distinguish faint orbiting companions from the overwhelming light of the parent star. We summarize progress to date, including the nature of our data processing techniques, improved software sensitivities, and our prior discovery of the 'Super-Jupiter' Kappa Andromedae b.

  1. PVOL: The Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory. An online database of the Outer Planets images.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, A.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Rojas, J. F.; Hueso, R.

    2005-08-01

    The collaboration between amateurs astronomers and the professional community has been fruitful on many areas of astronomy. The development of the Internet has allowed a better than ever capability of sharing information worldwide and access to other observers data. For many years now the International Jupiter Watch (IJW) Atmospheric discipline has coordinated observational efforts for long-term studies of the atmosphere of Jupiter. The International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) has extended its labours to the four Outer Planets. Here we present the Planetary Virtual Observatory & Laboratory (PVOL), a website database where we integer IJW and IOPW images. At PVOL observers can submit their data and professionals can search for images under a wide variety of useful criteria such as date and time, filters used, observer, or central meridian longitude. PVOL is aimed to grow as an organized easy to use database of amateur images of the Outer Planets. The PVOL web address is located at http://www.pvol.ehu.es/ and coexists with the traditional IOPW site: http://www.ehu.es/iopw/ Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MCYT PNAYA2003-03216, fondos FEDER and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  2. High-resolution imaging of Kepler planet host candidates. A comprehensive comparison of different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The Kepler mission has discovered thousands of planet candidates. Currently, some of them have already been discarded; more than 200 have been confirmed by follow-up observations (most by radial velocity and few by other methods), and several hundreds have been validated. However, the large majority of the candidates are still awaiting for confirmation. Thus, priorities (in terms of the probability of the candidate being a real planet) must be established for subsequent radial velocity observations. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide a set of isolated (good) host candidates to be further tested by other techniques that allow confirmation of the planet. As a complementary goal, we aim to identify close companions of the candidates that could have contaminated the light curve of the planet host due to the large pixel size of the Kepler CCD and its typical PSF of around 6 arcsec. Both goals can also provide robust statistics about the multiplicity of the Kepler hosts. Methods: We used the AstraLux North instrument located at the 2.2 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Almería, Spain) to obtain diffraction-limited images of 174 Kepler objects of interest. A sample of demoted Kepler objects of interest (with rejected planet candidates) is used as a control for comparison of multiplicity statistics. The lucky-imaging technique used in this work is compared to other adaptive optics and speckle imaging observations of Kepler planet host candidates. To that end, we define a new parameter, the blended source confidence level (BSC), to assess the probability of an object to have blended non-detected eclipsing binaries capable of producing the detected transit. Results: We find that 67.2% of the observed Kepler hosts are isolated within our detectability limits, and 32.8% have at least one visual companion at angular separations below 6 arcsec. Indeed, we find close companions (below 3 arcsec) for the 17.2% of the sample. The planet properties of

  3. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.-L.; Skemer, A. J.; Hinz, P. M.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Marzari, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Biller, B. A.; Defrère, D.; Bailey, V. P.; Leisenring, J. M.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Buenzli, E.; Claudi, R. U.; Close, L. M.; Crepp, J. R.; De Rosa, R. J.; Eisner, J. A.; Fortney, J. J.; Henning, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kopytova, T. G.; Males, J. R.; Mesa, D.; Morzinski, K. M.; Oza, A.; Patience, J.; Pinna, E.; Rajan, A.; Schertl, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vaz, A.; Ward-Duong, K.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the Large Binocular Telescope is being used for the LBT Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band (3.8 μm), including their system architectures. Aims: We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed for the system, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet inside the known planets. Methods: We use observations of HR 8799 and the Θ1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results: We first characterize the distortion of LMIRCam. We determine a platescale and a true north orientation for the images of 10.707 ± 0.012 mas/pix and -0.430 ± 0.076°, respectively. The errors on the platescale and true north orientation translate into astrometric accuracies at a separation of 1'' of 1.1 mas and 1.3 mas, respectively. The measurements for all planets agree within 3σ with a predicted ephemeris. The orbital fitting based on the new astrometric measurements favors an architecture for the planetary system based on 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance. The detection limits allow us to exclude a fifth planet slightly brighter or more massive than HR 8799 b at the location of the 2:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~9.5 AU) and about twice as bright as HR 8799 cde at the location of the 3:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~7.5 AU). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT

  4. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES. II. 12 KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST AND 15 CONFIRMED TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Kulesa, C.; McCarthy, D.

    2013-07-01

    All transiting planet observations are at risk of contamination from nearby, unresolved stars. Blends dilute the transit signal, causing the planet to appear smaller than it really is, or producing a false positive detection when the target star is blended with an eclipsing binary. High spatial resolution adaptive optics images are an effective way of resolving most blends. Here we present visual companions and detection limits for 12 Kepler planet candidate host stars, of which 4 have companions within 4''. One system (KOI 1537) consists of two similar-magnitude stars separated by 0.''1, while KOI 174 has a companion at 0.''5. In addition, observations were made of 15 transiting planets that were previously discovered by other surveys. The only companion found within 1'' of a known planet is the previously identified companion to WASP-2b. An additional four systems have companions between 1'' and 4'': HAT-P-30b (3.''7, {Delta}Ks = 2.9), HAT-P-32b (2.''9, {Delta}Ks = 3.4), TrES-1b (2.''3, {Delta}Ks = 7.7), and WASP-P-33b (1.''9, {Delta}Ks = 5.5), some of which have not been reported previously. Depending on the spatial resolution of the transit photometry for these systems, these companion stars may require a reassessment of the planetary parameters derived from transit light curves. For all systems observed, we report the limiting magnitudes beyond which additional fainter objects located 0.''1-4'' from the target may still exist.

  5. Planet Masses from Disk Spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    observations of protoplanetary disks: this would give us the ability to measure the mass of a planet in a disk without ever needing to directly observe the planet itself!Modeling ObservationsFung and Dong confirm their models by additionally running 3D simulations, which yield very similar outcomes. From these simulation results, they then synthesize scattered-light images similar to what we would expect to be able to observe with telescopes like the VLT, Gemini, or Subaru. The authors demonstrate that from these scattered-light images, they can correctly retrieve the planets mass to within 30%.Finally, as a proof-of-concept, the authors apply this modeling to an actual system: SAO 206462, a nearly face-on protoplanetary disk with an observed two-armed spiral within it. From the measured azimuthal separation of the two arms, the authors estimate that it contains a planet of about 6 Jupiter masses.CitationJeffrey Fung () and Ruobing Dong () 2015 ApJ 815 L21. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/815/2/L21

  6. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-based High-contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, β Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether multiple

  7. ESTIMATES OF THE PLANET YIELD FROM GROUND-BASED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OBSERVATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, {beta} Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether

  8. Connecting Young Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Gas-Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Allers, Katelyn; Aller, Kimberly; Best, William; Magnier, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Direct detections of gas-giant exoplanets and discoveries of young (~10-100 Myr) field brown dwarfs from all-sky surveys are strengthening the link between the exoplanet and brown dwarf populations, given the overlapping ages, masses, temperatures, and surface gravities. In light of the relatively small number of directly imaged planets and the modest associated datasets, the large census of young field brown dwarfsprovides a compelling laboratory for enriching our understanding of both classes of objects. However, work to date on young field objects has typically focused on individual discoveries.We present a large comprehensive study of the youngest field brown dwarfs, comprising both previously known objects and our new discoveries from the latest wide-field surveys (Pan-STARRS-1 and WISE). With masses now extending down to ~5 Jupiter masses, these objects have physical properties that largely overlap young gas-giant planets and thus are promising analogs for studying exoplanet atmospheres at unparalleled S/N, spectral resolution, and wavelength coverage. We combine high-quality spectra and parallaxes to determine spectral energy distributions, luminosities, temperatures, and ages for young field objects. We demonstrate that this population spans a continuum in the color-magnitude diagram, thereby forming a bridge between the hot and cool extremes of directly imaged planets. We find that the extremely dusty properties of the planets around 2MASS J1207-39 and HR 8799 do occur in some young brown dwarfs, but these properties do not have a simple correspondence with age, perhaps contrary to expectations. We find young field brown dwarfs can have unusually low temperatures and suggest a new spectral type-temperature scale appropriate for directly imaged planets.To help provide a reference for extreme-contrast imaging surveys, we establish a grid of spectral standards and benchmarks, based on membership in nearby young moving groups, in order to calibrate gravity

  9. Imaging the Sources and Full Extent of the Sodium Tail of the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wilson, Jody; Mendillo, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Observations of sodium emission from Mercury can be used to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of sources and sinks in the planet s surface-boundary-exosphere. We report on new data sets that provide the highest spatial resolution of source regions at polar latitudes, as well as the extraordinary length of a tail of escaping Na atoms. The tail s extent of approx.1.5 degrees (nearly 1400 Mercury radii) is driven by radiation pressure effects upon Na atoms sputtered from the surface in the previous approx.5 hours. Wide-angle filtered-imaging instruments are thus capable of studying the time history of sputtering processes of sodium and other species at Mercury from ground-based observatories in concert with upcoming satellite missions to the planet. Plasma tails produced by photo-ionization of Na and other gases in Mercury s neutral tails may be observable by in-situ instruments.

  10. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  11. A Laboratory Demonstration of the Capability to Image an Earth-like Extrasolar Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.; Wesley, A. Traub

    2007-01-01

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 times 10-10 times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 times 10-10 times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 times 10-10. This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star.

  12. Spiral arms in scattered light images of protoplanetary discs: are they the signposts of planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhász, A.; Benisty, M.; Pohl, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Dominik, C.; Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2015-08-01

    One of the striking discoveries of protoplanetary disc research in recent years are the spiral arms seen in several transitional discs in polarized scattered light. An interesting interpretation of the observed spiral features is that they are density waves launched by one or more embedded (proto)planets in the disc. In this paper, we investigate whether planets can be held responsible for the excitation mechanism of the observed spirals. We use locally isothermal hydrodynamic simulations as well as analytic formulae to model the spiral waves launched by planets. Then H-band scattered light images are calculated using a 3D continuum radiative transfer code to study the effect of surface density and pressure scaleheight perturbation on the detectability of the spirals. We find that a relative change of ˜3.5 in the surface density (δΣ/Σ) is required for the spirals to be detected with current telescopes in the near-infrared for sources at the distance of typical star-forming regions (140 pc). This value is a factor of 8 higher than what is seen in hydrodynamic simulations. We also find that a relative change of only 0.2 in pressure scaleheight is sufficient to create detectable signatures under the same conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the spiral arms observed to date in protoplanetary discs are the results of changes in the vertical structure of the disc (e.g. pressure scaleheight perturbation) instead of surface density perturbations.

  13. The trends high-contrast imaging survey. IV. The occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-20

    Doppler-based planet surveys have discovered numerous giant planets but are incomplete beyond several AU. At larger star-planet separations, direct planet detection through high-contrast imaging has proven successful, but this technique is sensitive only to young planets and characterization relies upon theoretical evolution models. Here we demonstrate that radial velocity measurements and high-contrast imaging can be combined to overcome these issues. The presence of widely separated companions can be deduced by identifying an acceleration (long-term trend) in the radial velocity of a star. By obtaining high spatial resolution follow-up imaging observations, we rule out scenarios in which such accelerations are caused by stellar binary companions with high statistical confidence. We report results from an analysis of Doppler measurements of a sample of 111 M-dwarf stars with a median of 29 radial velocity observations over a median time baseline of 11.8 yr. By targeting stars that exhibit a radial velocity acceleration ({sup t}rend{sup )} with adaptive optics imaging, we determine that 6.5% ± 3.0% of M-dwarf stars host one or more massive companions with 1 < m/M{sub J} < 13 and 0 < a < 20 AU. These results are lower than analyses of the planet occurrence rate around higher-mass stars. We find the giant planet occurrence rate is described by a double power law in stellar mass M and metallicity F ≡ [Fe/H] such that f(M,F)=0.039{sub −0.028}{sup +0.056}M{sup 0.8{sub −}{sub 0}{sub .}{sub 9}{sup +{sup 1{sup .{sup 1}}}}}10{sup (3.8±1.2)F}. Our results are consistent with gravitational microlensing measurements of the planet occurrence rate; this study represents the first model-independent comparison with microlensing observations.

  14. Shape model and rotational state of dwarf planet Ceres from Dawn FC stereo images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, T.; Elgner, S.; Jaumann, R.; Joy, S. P.; Polanskey, C. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, the Dawn mission completed its 14-month observation campaign at asteroid (4) Vesta and entered in March 2015 successfully into the orbit around its final target - the dwarf planet Ceres. Similar to the mapping strategy at Vesta, Ceres will be imaged in three different altitude orbits [1] Survey, High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO), and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) using the onboard camera Dawn FC [2]. In June 2015 Dawn is going to start its Survey orbit and will acquire about 920 clear filter images with a resolution of about 400 m/pixel in eight different cycles. In each cycle Ceres will be mapped completely under similar illumination conditions (Sun elevation and azimuth), but different viewing conditions (by slewing the spacecraft offnadir). This will allow us to analyze the images stereoscopically and to construct stereo topographic maps. The topography is particularly important because it is essential for derivation of physical properties of Ceres, precise ortho-image registration, mosaicking, and map generation of monochrome/color FC images and VIR images [3]. Furthermore we will determine a precise description of the rotational state of Ceres.

  15. Index maps for Gemini earth photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Index maps for the Gemini missions are presented; these are for the Gemini 3 through Gemini 12 missions. The maps are divided into four sections: the whole earth; the Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific Ocean; Africa, India, and the Near East; and Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean.

  16. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  17. An auroral imager for KuaFu and missions to the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, M.; Bannister, N.; Bunce, E. J.; Fraser, G. W.; Martindale, A.; Milan, S. E.; Molyneux, P. M.; Willingale, R.; Yates, H.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-04-01

    Auroral imagery from space has proved to be a major key to the understanding of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetospheres. For example, global auroral imaging can quantify the amount of open magnetic flux in the polar cap, the variability of which is a direct measure of the dynamics of the magnetosphere. Furthermore, imaging of localised features at UV wavelengths from space - the magnetospheric cusps on the dayside and the substorm initiation region on the nightside - provides information which is difficult or indeed impossible to obtain from the ground. We report here the continuing development of a compact far-UV auroral imager based on square-pore microchannel plate (MCP) optics. Going forward from initial design reported by Bannister et al. (Annales Geophysicae, 26, 519 - 532, 2007) we have now measured angular resolutions at 121nm which are compatible with the science goals of the KuaFu mission. Our demonstration of a photon-counting MCP detector with a convex input surface matched to the square-pore optic will make possible global imaging of the aurora from altitudes much lower than previously required. Finally, we discuss the potential of the new instrument for imaging the aurorae of other planets, in particular Jupiter and Saturn, where the physics controlling the auroral dynamics and morphology is different from that at Earth.

  18. High Contrast Imaging with Spitzer: Constraining the Frequency of Giant Planets out to 1000 au Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Stephen; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    We report results of a re-analysis of archival Spitzer IRAC direct imaging surveys encompassing a variety of nearby stars. Our sample is generated from the combined observations of 73 young stars (median age, distance, spectral type = 85 Myr, 23.3 pc, G5) and 48 known exoplanet host stars with unconstrained ages (median distance, spectral type = 22.6 pc, G5). While the small size of Spitzer provides a lower resolution than 8 m class AO-assisted ground-based telescopes, which have been used for constraining the frequency of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 10–102 au, its exquisite infrared sensitivity provides the ability to place unmatched constraints on the planetary populations at wider separations. Here we apply sophisticated high-contrast techniques to our sample in order to remove the stellar point-spread function and to open up sensitivity to planetary mass companions down to 5″ separations. This enables sensitivity to 0.5–13 M J planets at physical separations on the order of 102–103 au, allowing us to probe a parameter space that has not previously been systematically explored to any similar degree of sensitivity. Based on a color and proper motion analysis, we do not record any planetary detections. Exploiting this enhanced survey sensitivity, employing Monte Carlo simulations with a Bayesian approach, and assuming a mass distribution of {dn}/{dm}\\propto {m}-1.31, we constrain (at 95% confidence) a population of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 100–1000 au with an upper frequency limit of 9%.

  19. Hole-y Debris Disks, Batman! Where are the planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V.; Meshkat, T.; Hinz, P.; Kenworthy, M.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2014-03-01

    Giant planets at wide separations are rare and direct imaging surveys are resource-intensive, so a cheaper marker for the presence of giant planets is desirable. One intriguing possibility is to use the effect of planets on their host stars' debris disks. Theoretical studies indicate giant planets can gravitationally carve sharp boundaries and gaps in their disks; this has been seen for HR 8799, β Pic, and tentatively for HD 95086 (Su et al. 2009, Lagrange et al. 2010, Moor et al. 2013). If more broadly demonstrated, this link could help guide target selection for next generation direct imaging surveys. Using Spitzer MIPS/IRS spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we identify several dozen systems with two-component and/or large inner cavity disks (aka Hole-y Debris Disks). With LBT/LBTI, VLT/NaCo, GeminiS/NICI, MMT/Clio and Magellan/Clio, we survey a subset these SEDselected targets (~20). In contrast to previous disk-selected planet surveys (e.g.: Janson et al. 2013, Wahhaj et al. 2013) we image primarily in the thermal IR (L'-band), where planet-to-star contrast is more favorable and background contaminants less numerous. Thus far, two of our survey targets host planet-mass companions, both of which were discovered in L'-band after they were unrecognized or undetectable in H-band. For each system in our sample set, we will investigate whether the known companions and/or companions below our detection threshold could be responsible for the disk architecture. Ultimately, we will increase our effective sample size by incorporating detection limits from surveys that have independently targeted some of our systems of interest. In this way we will refine the conditions under which disk SED-based target selection is likely to be useful and valid.

  20. Gemini-IFU Spectroscopy of HH 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig-Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5\\prime\\prime × 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  1. GAPS IN THE HD 169142 PROTOPLANETARY DISK REVEALED BY POLARIMETRIC IMAGING: SIGNS OF ONGOING PLANET FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Avenhaus, Henning; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin; Buenzli, Esther; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-03-20

    We present H-band Very Large Telescope/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as {approx}0.''1 to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to {approx}1.''7 ({approx}250 AU) and reveal distinct substructures for the first time: (1) the inner disk ({approx}<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; (2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at {approx}25 AU; (3) an annular gap extends from {approx}40 to 70 AU; (4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting, but yet to be proven, one. Outside of {approx}85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly {proportional_to}r {sup -3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU and 120-250 AU separately with power laws {proportional_to}r {sup -2.6} and {proportional_to}r {sup -3.9} provides a better fit hinting toward another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk-integrated polarized light and the central star is {approx}4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. Finally, combining our results with those from the literature, {approx}40% of the scattered light in the H band appears to be polarized. Our results emphasize that HD 169142 is an interesting system for future planet formation or disk evolution studies.

  2. Direct imaging and spectroscopy of terrestrial planets with JWST and a starsahde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, R.; Valenti, J.; Brown, R. A.; Seager, S.; Tumlinson, J.; Cash, W.; Jordan, I.; Postman, M.; Mountain, M.; Glassman, T.; Pueyo, L.; Roberge, A.; NWP Team

    2010-10-01

    We present a study for using a starshade with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This concept would enable imaging and spectroscopy of a planet similar to the Earth, the study of its habitability, and the search for signs of alien life. JWST was not specifically designed to observe with a starshade, but its instrumentation and its great sensitivity make it capable of achieving major results in the study of terrestrial-mass exoplanets. However, there are some challenges for the starshade designs mainly due to the very large wavelength sensitivity of the HgCdTe detectors. We discuss the combination of a starshade with internal filters in NIRCam and NIRSpec to optimize both science return and starshade performance. We discuss a possible filter upgrade to enable feasible observations of Earth-like planets and in particular spectroscopic characterization in the near infrared. The new filter would not affect NIRSpec's scientific performance nor its operations, but it would dramatically reduce the risk of adding a starshade to JWST in the future and enhance the performance of any starshade that is built.

  3. Mars ultraviolet imaging spectrometer experiment on the planet-B mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Watanabe, S.; Taguchi, M.; Okano, S.; Takahashi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    An ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVS) has been developed for the PLANET-B spacecraft. The UVS instrument is composed of a grating spectrometer (UVS-G) and a D/H absorption cell photometer (UVS-P). The UVS-G is a flat-field type spectrometer measuring optical emissions in the FUV and MUV range between 115 nm and 310 nm with a spectral resolution of 2 - 3 nm. The UVS-P is a photometer detecting hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) Lyman α emissions separately by an absorption cell technique. Scientific targets of the UVS experiment are the investigation of (1) hydrogen and oxygen coronas around Mars, (2) the D/H ratio in the upper atmosphere, (3) dayglow, (4) aurora and nightglow, (5) dust, clouds and ozone, and (6) the surface composition of Phobos and Deimos.

  4. The Planet Pipeline: enabling data mining and citizen science with Hubble images of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutchler, M.; Wong, M. H.; Higgins, J.; Gay, P. L.; Conti, A.; Deustua, S.; Golombek, D.; Grunsfeld, J.; Lerner, T.

    2011-10-01

    In 15 years of service, the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained over 10,000 frames of Solar System data. Since standard data reduction pipelines are typically not optimized for movingtarget data, our "planet pipeline" will uniformly reprocess and catalog this WFPC2 image collection to make it more immediately science-ready. Some of our processing steps will utilize citizen scientists to perform visual inspections. Our corresponding database will enable robust queries which are more specific to planetary science, helping archival researchers quickly find and utilize the prepared images within our collection for a wide range of scientific analyses. We welcome suggestions (especially from veteran WFPC2 users) on the optimal treatment and organization of this data collection, and also to identify a broad range of analyses that might only be possible with visual inspections by citizen scientists. Our processed images and associated catalogs will be made available as High Level Science Products (HLSP) in the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST): http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/planetpipeline

  5. Direct imaging and spectroscopy of habitable planets using JWST and a starshade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Rémi; Valenti, Jeff; Brown, Robert A.; Seager, Sara; Tumlinson, Jason; Cash, Webster; Jordan, Ian; Postman, Marc; Mountain, Matt; Glassman, Tiffany; Pueyo, Laurent; Roberge, Aki

    2010-07-01

    A starshade with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the only possible path forward in the next decade to obtain images and spectra of a planet similar to the Earth, to study its habitability, and search for signs of alien life. While JWST was not specifically designed to observe using a starshade, its near-infrared instrumentation is in principle capable of doing so and could achieve major results in the study of terrestrialmass exoplanets. However, because of technical reasons associated with broadband starlight suppression and filter red-leak, NIRSpec would need a slight modification to one of its target acquisition filters to enable feasible observations of Earth-like planets. This upgrade would 1) retire the high risk associated with the effects of the current filter red leak which are difficult to model given the current state of knowledge on instrument stray light and line spread function at large separation angles, 2) enable access to the oxygen band at 0.76 μm in addition to the 1.26 μm band, 3) enable a smaller starshade by relaxing requirements on bandwidth and suppression 4) reduce detector saturation and associated long recovery times. The new filter would not affect neither NIRSpecs scientific performance nor its operations, but it would dramatically reduce the risk of adding a starshade to JWST in the future and enhance the performance of any starshade that is built. In combination with a starshade, JWST could be the most capable and cost effective of all the exoplanet hunting missions proposed for the next decade, including purpose built observatories for medium-size missions.

  6. Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base (PlCTURE B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Supriya

    We propose PICTURE B, the Planet Imaging Coronagraphic Technology Using a Reconfigurable Experimental Base. PICTURE B is a sub-orbital research program to fly the PICTURE experiment as a sounding rocket (flight 1 early in 2014 to observe epsilon Eridani) in order to measure exozodiacal light and debris disks around those stars. PICTURE works in to very small (1.5 lambda/D) inner working angles (IWA) and thus matches or exceeds the ability of current space based systems nearly five times its size. The first objective of the PICTURE B effort will be to fly PICTURE on a sounding rocket to image the debris disk around epsilon Eridani. PICTURE has been designed, qualified, and survived flight (36.225UG) and recovery in a sounding rocket environment. Unfortunately, a NASA telemetry failure during its maiden flight prevented us from obtaining data from the science cameras. As a result, while we know that the instrument survived the flight and that the tracking system stabilized the target to ~3 milliarcseconds (mas) - the tracking data was on a different telemetry link - we do not have in-flight science data from the instrument. Our first task will be to collect the science data that so much effort has been invested in. This will also allow us to raise several key technologies -- particularly nullers and deformable mirrors (DMs) and their control systems -- to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. These images of exoplanetary systems will allow us to assess the exozodiacal background against which all other exoplanet observations will have to be made. This is a key driving parameter of the design of all exoplanet imaging missions yet it remains unknown.

  7. Obtaining coincident image observations for Mission to Planet Earth science data return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Folta, David C.; Farrell, James P.

    1994-01-01

    One objective of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) program involves comparing data from various instruments on multiple spacecraft to obtain a total picture of the Earth's systems. To correlate image data from instruments on different spacecraft, these spacecraft must be able to image the same location on the Earth at approximately the same time. Depending on the orbits of the spacecraft involved, complicated operational details must be considered to obtain such observations. If the spacecraft are in similar orbits, close formation flying or synchronization techniques may be used to assure coincident observations. If the orbits are dissimilar, the launch time of the second satellite may need to be restricted in order to align its orbit with that of the first satellite launched. This paper examines strategies for obtaining coincident observations for spacecraft in both similar and dissimilar orbits. Although these calculations may be performed easily for coplanar spacecraft, the non-coplanar case involves additional considerations which are incorporated into the algorithms presented herein.

  8. The performance evaluation test for prototype model of Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR) onboard PLANET-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi

    The PLANET-C mission, which is one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four imagers at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and radio occultation experiments will provide vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. These systematic, continuous remote observations will provide us with an unprecedented large data set of the Venusian atmospheric dynamics. The Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR), which mounts a commercial uncooled micro-bolometer array (UMBA), is one of four imagers onboard the spacecraft and detects thermal emission from the top of the sulfur dioxide cloud in a rather wide wavelength region of 8-12 µm to map the cloud-top temperature which is typically as low as 230 K. Unlike other imagers, LIR is able to take images of both dayside and nightside with equal quality and accuracy. The cloud-top temperature map will reflect the cloud height distribution in which a few hundred meters of difference in cloud height corresponds to temperature difference of 0.3 K. In order to detect the cloud height difference of a few hundred meters, LIR requires a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 0.3 K. The commercial UMBA camera is typically used for observing room-temperature targets, and thus the electronics and the driving parameters have been optimized for low temperature-targets. Images of blackbody targets in room temperature (˜300 K) and low temperature (˜230 K) have been acquired in a vacuum environment using a prototype model of LIR, showing that the NETD of 0.2 K and 0.8 K are achieved in room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Although the NETD at the low temperature is 4 times worse than the case for the room temperature, we expect that the requirement of N ET D < 0.3 K for a low-temperature target will be achieved by averaging several tens of images

  9. Careers and interactive technologies at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2008-06-01

    Gemini feels it is important to let the public know that there is a wide range of astronomy related careers that most people are not aware of. We hope to accomplish this by providing a video that profiles the different job opportunities available at Gemini. The video will be included on our next CD-ROM/internet-based Virtual Tour and will also eventually be available over Gemini's website.

  10. Effects of latent heating on driving atmospheric circulation of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Growing observations of brown dwarfs (BDs) and directly imaged extrasolar giant planets (EGPs), such as brightness variability and surface maps have provided evidence for strong atmospheric circulation on these worlds. Previous studies that serve to understand the atmospheric circulation of BDs include modeling of convection from the interior and its interactions with stably stratified atmospheres. These models show that such interactions can drive an atmospheric circulation, forming zonal jets and/or vortices. However, these models are dry, not including condensation of various chemical species. Latent heating from condensation of water has previously been shown to play an important role on driving the zonal jets on four giant planets in our solar system. As such, condensation cycles of various chemical species are believed to be an important source in driving the atmospheric circulation of BDs and directly imaged EGPs. Here we present results from three-dimensional simulations for the atmospheres of BDs and EGPs based on a general circulation model that includes the effect of a condensate cycle. Large-scale latent heating and molecular weight effect due to condensation of a single species are treated explicitly. We examine the circulation patterns caused by large-scale latent heating which results from condensation of silicate vapor in hot dwarfs and water vapor in the cold dwarfs. By varying the abundance of condensable vapor and the radiative timescale, we conclude that under normal atmospheric conditions of BDs (hot and thus with relatively short radiative timescale), latent heating alone by silicate vapor is unable to drive a global circulation, leaving a quiescent atmosphere, because of the suppression to moist instability by downward transport of dry air. Models with relatively long radiative timescale, which may be the case for cooler bodies, tend to maintain an active hydrological cycle and develop zonal jets. Once condensation happens, storms driven by

  11. Jets estelares observados con GSAOI/GEMINI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Gómez, M.; Gunthard, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution we present H (2.122 m) and K (2.2 m) images of the Herbig-Haro object HH 137 and the stellar jet MHO 1502, taken with GSAOI+GeMS/GEMINI. The high resolution of GSAOI allows us to identify, with great definition, new internal structures not previously reported in the literature. We perform a detailed morphological description of each object. We detect the near-infrared counterpart of HH 137, that shows a bow shock-like terminal structure and an irregular profile. MHO 1502 shows a gentle ``S-shape'' as well as several nearby nebular (H) regions, probably not associated with this object, with bow shock-like shapes, not previously cataloged.

  12. Bringing "The Moth" to Light: A Planet-Perturbed Disk Scenario for the HD 61005 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul G.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The HD 61005 debris disk ("The Moth") is notable for its unusual swept-back "wing" morphology, brightness asymmetries, dust ring offset, and a cleared region inside of ~50 AU. Here we present Gemini Planet Imager data that reveal this disk in scattered light down to Jupiter-like separations of <10 AU. Complementary W.M. Keck NIRC2/AO J,H,K imaging shows the disk's outer regions with high angular resolution. Based on these data, we propose a new explanation for the disk's features: that of an unseen planet on an inclined, eccentric orbit perturbing the disk material. To test this scenario, we used secular perturbation theory to construct 3-D dust distributions that informed 2-D scattered-light models, which we then compared with the data via an MCMC analysis. We found that the best-fit models reproduced morphological disk features similar to those observed, indicating that the perturber scenario is plausible for this system.

  13. Dwarf planet Ceres: Ellipsoid dimensions and rotational pole from Keck and VLT adaptive optics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Merline, W. J.; Dumas, C.; Hammel, H.; Erard, S.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Chapman, C. R.

    2014-07-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, is the target of the NASA Dawn mission, and we seek a comprehensive description of the spin-axis orientation and dimensions of Ceres in order to support the early science operations at the rendezvous in 2015. We have obtained high-angular resolution images using adaptive optics cameras at the W.M. Keck Observatory and the ESO VLT over ten dates between 2001 and 2010, confirming that the shape of Ceres is well described by an oblate spheroid. We derive equatorial and polar diameters of 967 ± 10 km and 892 ± 10 km, respectively, for a model that includes fading of brightness towards the terminator, presumably linked to limb darkening. These dimensions lie between values derived from a previous analysis of a subset of these images obtained at Keck by Carry et al. (Carry et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 478 (4), 235-244) and a study of Hubble Space Telescope observations (Thomas et al. [2005]. Nature 437, 224-226). Although the dimensions are 1-2% smaller than those found from the HST, the oblateness is similar. We find the spin-vector coordinates of Ceres to lie at (287°, +64°) in equatorial EQJ2000 reference frame (346°, +82° in ecliptic ECJ2000 coordinates), yielding a small obliquity of 3°. While this is in agreement with the aforementioned studies, we have improved the accuracy of the pole determination, which we set at a 3° radius.

  14. The Atmospheres of Directly Imaged Planets: Where Has All the Methane Gone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Methane and ammonia both first appear at lower effective temperatures in brown dwarf atmospheres than equilibrium chemistry models would suggest. This has traditionally been understood as a consequence of vertical mixing timescales being shorter than chemical equilibration timescales in brown dwarf photospheres. Indeed the eddy diffusivity, a variable accounting for the vigor of vertical mixing, has become a standard part of the description of brown dwarf atmosphere models, along with Teff and log g. While some models have suggested that methane is less favored at lower gravity, the almost complete absence of methane in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, such as those orbiting HR 8799, even at effective temperatures where methane is readily apparent in brown dwarf spectra, has been puzzling. To better understand the paucity of methane in low gravity atmospheres we have revisited the problem of methane chemistry and mixing. We employed a 1-D atmospheric chemistry code augmented with an updated and complete network of the chemical reactions that link CO to CH4. We find the methane abundance at altitudes at or above the effective photosphere is a strong function of surface gravity because higher g shifts the p-T structure to higher pressures (i.e., a given optical depth is proportional to p/g, a relation mitigated somewhat by pressure broadening). Thus quenching in more massive brown dwarfs occurs at a lower temperature and higher pressure, both favoring CH4. We predict that in the lowest mass young giant planets, methane will appear very late, at effective temperatures as low as 600 K rather than the 1200 K seen among field brown dwarfs. This methane deficiency has important implications for the interpretation of spectra as well as methane-based planetary companion searches, such as the NICI survey. The GPI and SPHERE surveys will test these ideas and probe atmospheric chemistry and composition in an entire new range of parameter space. A caveat is that

  15. Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10-10 level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements.

  16. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  17. Understanding the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b: Do Photochemical Hazes Cloud the Planets Spectrum?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Zahnle, Kevin; Moses, J.; Morley, C.

    2015-01-01

    The first young giant planet to be discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager was the (is) approximately 2MJ planet 51 Eri b. This approximately 20 Myr old young Jupiter is the first directly imaged planet to show unmistakable methane in H band. To constrain the planet's mass, atmospheric temperature, and composition, the GPI J and H band spectra as well as some limited photometric points were compared to the predictions of substellar atmosphere models. The best fitting models reported in the discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) relied upon a combination of clear and cloudy atmospheric columns to reproduce the data. However for an object as cool as 700 K, the origin of the cloud coverage is somewhat puzzling, as the global silicate and iron clouds would be expected to have sunk well below the photosphere by this effective temperature. While strong vertical mixing in these low gravity atmospheres remains a plausible explanation, we have explored whether atmospheric photochemistry, driven by the UV flux from the primary star, may yield hazes that also influence the observed spectrum of the planet. To explore this possibility we have modeled the atmospheric photochemistry of 51 Eri b using two state-of-the-art photochemical models, both capable of predicting yields of complex hydrocarbons under various atmospheric conditions. In our presentation we will summarize the modeling approach employed to characterize 51 Eri b, explaining constraints on the planet's effective temperature, gravity, and atmospheric composition and also present results of our studies of atmospheric photochemistry. We will discuss whether photochemical hazes could indeed be responsible for the particulate opacity that apparently sculpts the spectrum of the planet.

  18. Revision of Earth-sized Kepler Planet Candidate Properties with High Resolution Imaging by Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Kimberly Michelle; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present the first results of our HST GO/SNAP program GO-12893 and describe how our image analysis using STScI's DrizzlePac software combined with our own empirical point spread function definition were used to re-evaluate the habitability of some of the most interesting Kepler planet candidates. We used our high resolution imaging to calibrate Kp to the F555W and F775W filters on WFC3/UVIS, and spatially resolved the stellar multiplicity of KOI-1422, KOI-2626, and KOI-3049. We found KOI-1422 to be a tight binary star system with a projected separation of 0.217’’ 90 AU). We found KOI-2626 to be a triple star system with a projected separation of 0.201’’ 110 AU) between the primary and secondary components and 0.161’’ 90 AU) between the primary and tertiary components. We found KOI-3049 to be a binary star system with a projected separation of 0.464’’ 330 AU). Using theoretical isochrones from the Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database, we performed hierarchical fitting using our derived photometry and the synthetic photometry from the isochrones. Revised stellar parameters for the individual components of the systems show that the stars in these systems range from early-K dwarf to early-M dwarf spectral types. We report with high confidence that all three systems are bound and co-eval based on the tight isochrone fitting and false positive analysis. Using our best-fit stellar parameters from the isochrone matches, we solved for the properties of the planets in the three systems and found that the planets range in size from ~2REarth to ~4 REarth, placing them in the Super Earth/mini-Neptune range. Some planets analyzed here are potentially habitable depending on their stellar host and greenhouse effect level.

  19. Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Twins; abbrev. Gem, gen. Geminorum; area 514 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Auriga and Canis Minor, and culminates at midnight in early January. It represents Castor and Pollux, the twin sons of Leda, Queen of Sparta, in Greek mythology, whose brotherly love was rewarded by a place among the stars. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) ...

  20. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light Years from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Chiang, Eugene; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark; Kite, Edwin S.; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Marois, Christian; Krist, John

    2008-01-01

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsecs (25 light years) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star and 18 AU from the dust belt, matching predictions. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 m is also consistent with that of a planet with mass no greater than a few times that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 micron and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 micron.

  1. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsec (25 light year) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate. Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star, and within 18 All of the dust belt. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 micron flux is also consistent with that of a planet with mass a few limes that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 microns and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 microns.

  2. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light Years from Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, P; Graham, J R; Chiang, E; Fitzgerald, M P; Clampin, M; Kite, E S; Stapelfeldt, K; Krist, J

    2008-11-12

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsec (25 light years) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star, and within 18 AU of the dust belt. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 {micro}m is also consistent with that of a planet with mass no greater than a few times that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 {micro}m and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 {micro}m.

  3. Optical images of an exosolar planet 25 light-years from Earth.

    PubMed

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R; Chiang, Eugene; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Clampin, Mark; Kite, Edwin S; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Marois, Christian; Krist, John

    2008-11-28

    Fomalhaut, a bright star 7.7 parsecs (25 light-years) from Earth, harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b lies about 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star and 18 AU of the dust belt, matching predictions of its location. Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years reveal counterclockwise orbital motion. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter; a higher mass would lead to gravitational disruption of the belt, matching predictions of its location. The flux detected at 0.8 mum is also consistent with that of a planet with mass no greater than a few times that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 mum and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observe variability of unknown origin at 0.6 mum. PMID:19008414

  4. Planets and Brown Dwarfs and Stars, Oh My! --- Companions Along the Road to the Nearest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Davison, C. L.; Dieterich, S. B.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W. C.; Koerner, D. W.; Subasavage, J. P.; Tanner, A. M.; White, R. J.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    RECONS (www.recons.org, REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars) has been using astrometric techniques since 1999 to search for massive planets orbiting more than 130 nearby red and white dwarfs. Because of their proximity, nearby stars are natural locations to search for other solar systems --- the stars provide increased fluxes, larger astrometric perturbations, and higher probabilities for eventual resolution of planets than similar stars at larger distances. Unlike radial velocity searches, our astrometric effort is most sensitive to Jovian planets in Jovian orbits, i.e. those that span decades. We have discovered stellar companions with masses of a few hundred Jupiters, brown dwarf companions with masses of a few tens of Jupiters, and are now pushing into the realm of planets with masses of a few Jupiters around the nearest red dwarfs. Several previously unknown companions have been imaged via Gemini-AO observations, but we have also detected perturbations caused by enigmatic companions that elude direct detection. As we sweep through the mass regimes of stars to exoplanets for companions, we are now able to assess the various populations --- stars are common as companions, whereas brown dwarfs and massive planets are rare. We outline what we have discovered so far and place our exoplanet search results in context with an overview of the census of more than 60 stars with exoplanets known within 25 pc. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST-0908402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  5. Toward Direct Imaging of Low-mass Gas-Giant Planets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, J. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Meyer, M. R.; Greene, T.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have identified new members of the nearby, young M dwarf sample and compiled an up to date list of these stars. Here we summarize our efforts to identify young M dwarfs, describe the current sample, and detail its demographics in the context of direct planet imaging. We also describe our investigations of the unprecedented sensitivity of the JWST when imaging nearby, young M dwarfs. The JWST is the only near term facility capable of routinely pushing direct imaging capabilities around M dwarfs to sub-Jovian masses and will provide key insight into questions regarding low-mass gas-giant properties, frequency, formation, and architectures.

  6. Schirra, Stafford and Gemini on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Walter H. Schirra Jr. (on right), Command pilot, climbs from his Gemini VI spacecraft as he and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (not in view) arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. They are assisted by various McDonell Douglas technicians. The Gemini VI spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recover area at 10:29 a.m. (EST) December 16, 1965, after a successful 25 hr. 52 minute mission in space.

  7. How to Directly Image a Habitable Planet Around Alpha Centauri with a 30-45 cm Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Several mission concepts are being studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet around a Sun-like star requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 1m. A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri (A and B), which is an extreme outlier among FGKM stars in terms of apparent habitable zone size: the habitable zones are approximately 3x wider in apparent size than around any other FGKM star. This enables a approximately 30-45cm visible light space telescope equipped with a modern high performance coronagraph or star shade to resolve the habitable zone at high contrast and directly image any potentially habitable planet that may exist in the system. The raw contrast requirements for such an instrument can be relaxed to 1e-8 if the mission spends 2 years collecting tens of thousands of images on the same target, enabling a factor of 500-1000 speckle suppression in post processing using a new technique called Orbital Difference Imaging (ODI). The raw light leak from both stars is controllable with a special wave front control algorithm known as Multi-Star Wave front Control (MSWC), which independently suppresses diffraction and aberrations from both stars using independent modes on the deformable mirror. This paper will present an analysis of the challenges involved with direct imaging of Alpha Centauri with a small telescope and how the above technologies are used together to solve them. We also show an example of a small coronagraphic mission concepts to take advantage of this opportunity called "ACESat: Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite" submitted to NASA's small Explorer (SMEX) program in December of 2014.

  8. Gemini-IFU spectroscopy of HH 111

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5{sup ′′}×3.{sup ′′}5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks.

  9. Radio-interferometric imaging of the subsurface emissions from the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. O.; Zeilik, M.; Gisler, G. R.; Borovsky, J. E.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.

  10. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  11. Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeg, Hans; Belmonte, Juan Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Extrasolar planet detection methods Laurance R. Doyle; 2. Statistical properties of exoplanets Stéphane Udry; 3. Characterizing extrasolar planets Timothy M. Brown; 4. From clouds to planet systems: formation and evolution of stars and planets Günther Wuchterl; 5. Abundances in stars with extrasolar planetary systems Garik Israelian; 6. Brown dwarfs: the bridge between stars and planets Rafael Rebolo; 7. The perspective: a panorama of the Solar System Agustín Sánchez-Lavega; 8. Habitable planets around the Sun and other stars James F. Kasting; 9. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability Franck Selsis, Jimmy Paillet and France Allard; Index.

  12. The medical legacy of Gemini.

    PubMed

    Berry, C A

    1968-01-01

    The Mercury and Gemini space flights have provided approximately 2,000 manhours of weightless exposure which can be used in comparing flight results with the predicted effects of manned space flight. In general the environmental hazards and the effects upon man appear to be of less magnitude than originally anticipated. The effects noted on the various body systems are summarized. The principal physiologic changes noted were orthostatism for some 50 hours post-flight, reduced red cell mass, and reduced X-ray density in the os calcis and the small finger. Much was learned about man's ability to work in a pressurized suit in the extravehicular condition. Early biochemical findings have pointed the way to future investigations. All of these findings are of importance in relation to the planning for future long duration missions. Although much remains to be learned, it does appear from an overview of this medical legacy that if man is properly supported and evaluated his limitations will not be a barrier to the exploration of the universe. PMID:11982022

  13. IBIS: An Interferometer-Based Imaging System for Detecting Extrasolar Planets with a Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The direct detection of extrasolar planetary systems is a challenging observational objective. The observing system must be able to detect faint planetary signals against the background of diffracted and scattered starlight, zodiacal light, and in the IR, mirror thermal radiation. As part of a JPL study, we concluded that the best long-term approach is a 10-20 m filled-aperture telescope operating in the thermal IR (10-15 microns). At these wavelengths, the star/planet flux ratio is on the order of 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8). Our study supports the work of Angel et al., who proposed a cooled 16-m IR telescope and a special apodization mask to suppress the stellar light within a limited angular region around the star. Our scheme differs in that it is capable of stellar suppression over a much broader field-of- view, enabling more efficient planet searches. To do this, certain key optical signal-processing components are needed, including a coronagraph to apodize the stellar diffraction pattern, an infrared interferometer to provide further starlight suppression, a complementary visible-wavelength interferometer to sense figure errors in the telescope optics, and a deformable mirror to adaptively compensate for these errors. Because of the central role of interferometry we have designated this concept the Interferometer-Based Imaging System (IBIS). IBIS incorporates techniques originally suggested by Ken Knight for extrasolar planet detection at visible wavelengths. The type of telescope discussed at this workshop is well suited to implementation of the IBIS concept.

  14. Women Astronomers at Gemini: A Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Jorgensen, I.; Barker, N.; Edwards, M.; Trancho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gemini Observatory has been very successful at attracting, hiring and retaining female Scientists. We present data on the growth of the scientific staff since the start of the Observatory, and science fellow recruiting from 2006-2008. At Gemini 31% of the Science Staff holding PhDs are female compared with 13.9% within the United States. The Science Management is 75% female, as is 50% of the Gemini Directorate. This critical mass of female representation within the science staff and management appears to have had a positive effect on female recruitment and hiring. The science fellow recruitment during the past 3 years has attracted 21-38% female applicants and 57% of new hires during this period have been female scientists. Perhaps even more significant, the retention rate of female science staff at Gemini is 88%, compared to 64% for male science staff. There are likely many factors that contribute to this success, but the conclusion is that Gemini has earned a reputation in the scientific community as a place where female scientists are valued and can be successful.

  15. The Client Server Design of the Gemini Data Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Norman; Gaudet, Séverin; Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Cockayne, Steve

    The Gemini Telescopes Data Handling System (DHS) developed by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) has diverse requirements to support the operation of the Gemini telescopes. The DHS is implemented as a group of servers, where each performs separate functions. The servers use a client server model to communicate between themselves and with other Gemini software systems. This paper describes the client server model of the Gemini Data Handling System.

  16. The First H-band Spectrum of the Giant Planet β Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James E.; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Rémi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have obtained the first H-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star β Pictoris. GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter-sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. These observations were taken covering the H band (1.65 μm). The spectrum has a resolving power of ~45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). These values agree well with "hot-start" predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 M Jup and age between 10 and 20 Myr.

  17. THE FIRST H-BAND SPECTRUM OF THE GIANT PLANET β PICTORIS b

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, Jeffrey; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Larkin, James E.; Barman, Travis; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Macintosh, Bruce; Ingraham, Patrick; Bauman, Brian; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Goodsell, Stephen J.; and others

    2015-01-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we have obtained the first H-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star β Pictoris. GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter-sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. These observations were taken covering the H band (1.65 μm). The spectrum has a resolving power of ∼45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity. Using atmospheric models, we find an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). These values agree well with ''hot-start'' predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 M {sub Jup} and age between 10 and 20 Myr.

  18. High-cadence, High-contrast Imaging for Exoplanet Mapping: Observations of the HR 8799 Planets with VLT/SPHERE Satellite-spot-corrected Relative Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, Dániel; Kasper, Markus; Skemer, Andrew; Hanson, Jake R.; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Vigan, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Time-resolved photometry is an important new probe of the physics of condensate clouds in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Extreme adaptive optics systems can directly image planets, but precise brightness measurements are challenging. We present VLT/SPHERE high-contrast, time-resolved broad H-band near-infrared photometry for four exoplanets in the HR 8799 system, sampling changes from night to night over five nights with relatively short integrations. The photospheres of these four planets are often modeled by patchy clouds and may show large-amplitude rotational brightness modulations. Our observations provide high-quality images of the system. We present a detailed performance analysis of different data analysis approaches to accurately measure the relative brightnesses of the four exoplanets. We explore the information in satellite spots and demonstrate their use as a proxy for image quality. While the brightness variations of the satellite spots are strongly correlated, we also identify a second-order anti-correlation pattern between the different spots. Our study finds that KLIP reduction based on principal components analysis with satellite-spot-modulated artificial-planet-injection-based photometry leads to a significant (˜3×) gain in photometric accuracy over standard aperture-based photometry and reaches 0.1 mag per point accuracy for our data set, the signal-to-noise ratio of which is limited by small field rotation. Relative planet-to-planet photometry can be compared between nights, enabling observations spanning multiple nights to probe variability. Recent high-quality relative H-band photometry of the b-c planet pair agrees to about 1%.

  19. The Original Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The original Gemini 9 prime crew, astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot, in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them. On February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T-38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building in which the Gemini spacecraft were being manufactured. They were on final approach to Lambert-Saint Louis Municipal Airport when bad weather conditions hampered pilot See's ability to make a good visual contact with the runway. Noticing the building at the last second as he came out of the low cloud cover, See went to full afterburner and attempted to nose-up the aircraft in an attempt to miss the building. He clipped it and his plane crashed.

  20. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  1. Gemini 12 Liftoff Via Titan Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 12 astronauts James Lovell and Edwin Aldrin lifted off aboard a Titan launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center on November 11, 1966, an hour and a half after their Agena target vehicle was orbited by an Atlas rocket. Launched atop an Atlas booster, the Agena target vehicle (ATV) was a spacecraft used by NASA to develop and practice orbital space rendezvous and docking techniques in preparation for the Apollo program lunar missions. The objective was for Agena and Gemini to rendezvous in space and practice docking procedures. An intermediate step between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program, the Gemini Program's major objectives were to subject two men and supporting equipment to long duration flights, to perfect rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles, methods of reentry, and landing of the spacecraft.

  2. Gemini Augmented Target Docking Adapter during pre-flight checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) during pre-flight checkout in the Kennedy Space Center's Cryogenic Building. The ATDA is being used because the Agena Target Vehicle failed to achieve orbit on May 17th, 1966, causing the postponement of the Gemini 9 mission. The mission (renamed Gemini 9-A) has been rescheduled for May 31st.

  3. Innovation without Boundaries: The Gemini. Assistive Technology. Associate Editor's Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Tamarah M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Gemini, an augmentative and alternative communication device that is also a full-featured Macintosh computer. The Gemini is designed to help individuals of all ages with learning, communication, or computer access difficulties to lead more independent lives. The benefits of Gemini are highlighted, including its weight of…

  4. The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

  5. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  6. A first-look atmospheric modeling study of the young directly imaged planet-mass companion, ROXS 42Bb

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Daemgen, Sebastian; Burrows, Adam

    2014-06-01

    We present and analyze JK{sub s}L' photometry and our previously published H-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy for ROXs 42Bb, an object Currie et al. first reported as a young directly imaged planet-mass companion. ROXs 42Bb exhibits IR colors redder than field L dwarfs but consistent with other planet-mass companions. From the H{sub 2}O-2 spectral index, we estimate a spectral type of L0 ± 1; weak detections/non-detections of the CO bandheads, Na I, and Ca I support evidence for a young, low surface gravity object primarily derived from the H{sub 2}(K) index. ROXs 42Bb's photometry/K-band spectrum are inconsistent with limiting cases of dust-free atmospheres (COND) and marginally inconsistent with the AMES/DUSTY models and the BT-SETTL models. However, ROXS 42Bb data are simultaneously fit by atmosphere models incorporating several micron-sized dust grains entrained in thick clouds, although further modifications are needed to better reproduce the K-band spectral shape. ROXs 42Bb's best-estimated temperature is T {sub eff} ∼ 1950-2000 K, near the low end of the empirically derived range in Currie et al. For an age of ∼1-3 Myr and considering the lifetime of the protostar phase, ROXs 42Bb's luminosity of log(L/L {sub ☉}) ∼ –3.07 ± 0.07 implies a mass of 9{sub −3}{sup +3} M{sub J} , making it one of the lightest planetary-mass objects yet imaged.

  7. A First-look Atmospheric Modeling Study of the Young Directly Imaged Planet-mass Companion, ROXs 42Bb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Daemgen, Sebastian

    2014-06-01

    We present and analyze JKsL' photometry and our previously published H-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy for ROXs 42Bb, an object Currie et al. first reported as a young directly imaged planet-mass companion. ROXs 42Bb exhibits IR colors redder than field L dwarfs but consistent with other planet-mass companions. From the H2O-2 spectral index, we estimate a spectral type of L0 ± 1; weak detections/non-detections of the CO bandheads, Na I, and Ca I support evidence for a young, low surface gravity object primarily derived from the H2(K) index. ROXs 42Bb's photometry/K-band spectrum are inconsistent with limiting cases of dust-free atmospheres (COND) and marginally inconsistent with the AMES/DUSTY models and the BT-SETTL models. However, ROXS 42Bb data are simultaneously fit by atmosphere models incorporating several micron-sized dust grains entrained in thick clouds, although further modifications are needed to better reproduce the K-band spectral shape. ROXs 42Bb's best-estimated temperature is T eff ~ 1950-2000 K, near the low end of the empirically derived range in Currie et al. For an age of ~1-3 Myr and considering the lifetime of the protostar phase, ROXs 42Bb's luminosity of log(L/L ⊙) ~ -3.07 ± 0.07 implies a mass of 9^{+3}_{-3} MJ , making it one of the lightest planetary-mass objects yet imaged.

  8. Study of spin-scan imaging for outer planets missions: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, E. E.; Chandos, R. A.; Kodak, J. C.; Pellicori, S. F.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of spin-scan imagers for interplanetary exploration are discussed. The spin-scan imaging photopolarimeter instruments of Pioneer 10 and 11 are described. In addition to the imaging function, the instruments are also used in a faint-light mode to take sky maps in both radiance and polarization. The performance of a visible-infrared spin-scan radiometer (VISSR), which operates in both visible and infrared wavelengths, is reported.

  9. Synthesis of Novel Organosilicon Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Li, L. J.; Wang, E. F.

    A series of organosilicon gemini surfactants was synthesized from γ-(2. 3-epoxypropoxy) propytrimethoxysilane. hexametliyldisiloxane and polyethylene glycol. The target compounds were confirmed by IR. 1H NMR. Surface properties of the target compounds were measured. The critical micelle concentration values of 1-3 were 8mmol, 5mmol, and 3 mmol, respectively.

  10. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.