Sample records for gemini planet imager

  1. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  2. First light of the Gemini Planet imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-? contrast of 10(6) at 0.75 arcseconds and 10(5) at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of [Formula: see text] near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  3. The Gemini Planet Imager: First Light

    E-print Network

    Macintosh, Bruce; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul G; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, Dave; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-sigma contrast of $10^6$ at 0.75 arcseconds and $10^5$ at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-second exposure with minimal post-processing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of $434 \\pm 6$ milli-arcseconds and position angle $211.8 \\pm 0.5$ deg. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of three improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet ...

  4. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  5. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  6. GPI Pipeline: Gemini Planet Imager Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GPI instrument Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The GPI data pipeline allows users to reduce and calibrate raw GPI data into spectral and polarimetric datacubes, and to apply various PSF subtraction methods to those data. Written in IDL and available in a compiled version, the software includes an integrated calibration database to manage reference files and an interactive data viewer customized for high contrast imaging that allows exploration and manipulation of data.

  7. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  8. The integral field spectrograph for the Gemini planet imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, James E.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Aliado, Theodore; Bauman, Brian J.; Brims, George; Canfield, John M.; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson, Christopher A.; Kress, Evan; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Magnone, Kenneth G.; Maire, Jerome; McLean, Ian S.; Palmer, David; Perrin, Marshall D.; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Serio, Andrew; Thibault, Simon; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Vallee, Philippe; Weiss, Jason L.

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a complex optical system designed to directly detect the self-emission of young planets within two arcseconds of their host stars. After suppressing the starlight with an advanced AO system and apodized coronagraph, the dominant residual contamination in the focal plane are speckles from the atmosphere and optical surfaces. Since speckles are diffractive in nature their positions in the field are strongly wavelength dependent, while an actual companion planet will remain at fixed separation. By comparing multiple images at different wavelengths taken simultaneously, we can freeze the speckle pattern and extract the planet light adding an order of magnitude of contrast. To achieve a bandpass of 20%, sufficient to perform speckle suppression, and to observe the entire two arcsecond field of view at diffraction limited sampling, we designed and built an integral field spectrograph with extremely low wavefront error and almost no chromatic aberration. The spectrograph is fully cryogenic and operates in the wavelength range 1 to 2.4 microns with five selectable filters. A prism is used to produce a spectral resolution of 45 in the primary detection band and maintain high throughput. Based on the OSIRIS spectrograph at Keck, we selected to use a lenslet-based spectrograph to achieve an rms wavefront error of approximately 25 nm. Over 36,000 spectra are taken simultaneously and reassembled into image cubes that have roughly 192x192 spatial elements and contain between 11 and 20 spectral channels. The primary dispersion prism can be replaced with a Wollaston prism for dual polarization measurements. The spectrograph also has a pupil-viewing mode for alignment and calibration.

  9. Calibrating IR optical densities for the Gemini Planet Imager Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronagraph apodizers

    E-print Network

    Calibrating IR optical densities for the Gemini Planet Imager Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronagraph. INTRODUCTION Astronomy is at a new frontier of comparative planetary science. Recent advances in adaptive optics (or AO, which corrects atmospheric disturbances to stellar light in real-time), combined

  10. A Gemini Planet Imager investigation of the atmosphere of the HD 95086b planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Robert J.; Pueyo, Laurent; Patience, Jenny; Graham, James R.; Gemini Planet Imager Team

    2015-01-01

    We present Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) near-infrared observations of the ~5 Mjup companion to the young, dusty A-type star HD 95086, observed during the course of the verification and commissioning of the instrument. By combining binned low-resolution H and K-band IFS spectra from GPI, with literature near and mid-IR photometry, we have undertaken the most comprehensive analysis of the spectral energy distribution of HD 95086 b to-date. Comparing these observational results with atmospheric models, we constrain key parameters such as the effective temperature and surface gravity, and place the results in the context of analyses of other directly imaged planetary-mass companions (e.g. HR 8799 bcde, ? Pic b), and other substellar companions at a similar age (e.g. HD 106906 b, GQ Lup b). We also comment on the sensitivity of companions interior and exterior to HD 95086 b. Lastly, we present the color-corrections derived during the course of this study that are required to transform photometry obtained with GPI in the K1 and K2 filters into both the MKO and 2MASS photometric systems, essential for the propoer interpretation of K-band photometry measurements obtained with GPI.

  11. Automated alignment and on-sky performance of the Gemini planet imager coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Dunn, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Sadakuni, Naru; Dillon, Daren; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Cardwell, Andrew; Serio, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation, facility instrument currently being commissioned at the Gemini South observatory. GPI combines an extreme adaptive optics system and integral field spectrograph (IFS) with an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) producing an unprecedented capability for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. GPI's operating goal of 10-7 contrast requires very precise alignments between the various elements of the coronagraph (two pupil masks and one focal plane mask) and active control of the beam path throughout the instrument. Here, we describe the techniques used to automatically align GPI and maintain the alignment throughout the course of science observations. We discuss the particular challenges of maintaining precision alignments on a Cassegrain mounted instrument and strategies that we have developed that allow GPI to achieve high contrast even in poor seeing conditions.

  12. Development and Commissioning of the Integral Field Spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, J. E.; Planet Imager instrument, Gemini; science Teams

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is one of a new generation of instruments being built to directly image extrasolar planets in the outer solar systems of young main sequence stars. By combining a 1700-actuactor adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision interferometric infrared wavefront sensor, and an integral field spectrograph (IFS), GPI’s goal is more than an order of magnitude improvement in contrast compared to existing high contrast systems. This presentation focuses on the performance and characterization of the GPI IFS which is based on concepts from the OSIRIS instrument employed at Keck. Like OSIRIS, the IFS utilizes an infrared transmissive lenslet array to sample an approximate 2.7 x 2.7 arcsecond field of view at the diffraction limit of the Gemini Telescopes. The IFS provides over 36,000 simultaneous low-resolution (R ~ 45) spectra across five bands between 1 and 2.5?m. Alternatively, the dispersing element can be replaced with a Wollaston prism to provide broadband polarimetry of the same five filter bands. The IFS construction was based at the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the Université de Montreal, Immervision and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IFS was integrated with the other components of GPI in the fall of 2011. GPI has recently finished Integration & Testing at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and has been shipped to Gemini South where it is undergoing post delivery acceptance testing.

  13. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VIII: characterization and role of satellite spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jason J.; Rajan, Abhijith; Graham, James R.; Savransky, Dmitry; Ingraham, Patrick J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Patience, Jennifer; De Rosa, Robert J.; Bulger, Joanna; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Sadakuni, Naru; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Kalas, Paul; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) combines extreme adaptive optics, an integral field spectrograph, and a high performance coronagraph to directly image extrasolar planets in the near-infrared. Because the coronagraph blocks most of the light from the star, it prevents the properties of the host star from being measured directly. Instead, satellite spots, which are created by diffraction from a square grid in the pupil plane, can be used to locate the star and extract its spectrum. We describe the techniques implemented into the GPI Data Reduction Pipeline to measure the properties of the satellite spots and discuss the precision of the reconstructed astrometry and spectrophotometry of the occulted star. We find the astrometric precision of the satellite spots in an H-band datacube to be 0.05 pixels and is best when individual satellite spots have a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of > 20. In regards to satellite spot spectrophotometry, we find that the total flux from the satellite spots is stable to ~7% and scales linearly with central star brightness and that the shape of the satellite spot spectrum varies on the 2% level.

  14. Gemini Planet imager Observational Calibrations X: Non-Redundant Masking on GPI

    E-print Network

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Tuthill, Peter; Norris, Barnaby; Pueyo, Laurent; Sadakuni, Naru; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Serio, Andrew; Cardwell, Andrew; Poyneer, Lisa; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Perrin, Marshall D; Wolff, Schuyler; Ingraham, Patrick; Thomas, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Extreme Adaptive Optics Coronograph contains an interferometric mode: a 10-hole non-redundant mask (NRM) in its pupil wheel. GPI operates at $Y, J, H$, and $K$ bands, using an integral field unit spectrograph (IFS) to obtain spectral data at every image pixel. NRM on GPI is capable of imaging with a half resolution element inner working angle at moderate contrast, probing the region behind the coronagraphic spot. The fine features of the NRM PSF can provide a reliable check on the plate scale, while also acting as an attenuator for spectral standard calibrators that would otherwise saturate the full pupil. NRM commissioning data provides details about wavefront error in the optics as well as operations of adaptive optics control without pointing control from the calibration system. We compare lab and on-sky results to evaluate systematic instrument properties and examine the stability data in consecutive exposures. We discuss early on-sky performance, comparing images from integ...

  15. Calibrating IR optical densities for the Gemini Planet Imager extreme adaptive optics coronagraph apodizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Carr, G. Lawrence; Dorrer, Christophe; Bolognesi, Allen; Zimmerman, Neil; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2009-08-01

    High contrast imaging sometimes uses apodized masks in coronagraphs to suppress diffracted starlight from a bright source in order to observe its environs. Continuously graded opacity material and metallic half-tone dots are two possible apodizers fabrication techniques. In the latter approach if dot sizes are comparable to the wavelength of the light, surface plasmon effects can complicate the optical density (OD) vs. superficial dot density relation. OD can also be a complicated function of wavelength. We measured half-tone microdot screens' and continuous materials' transmissions. Our set-up replicated the f/ 64 optical configuration of the Gemini Planet Imager's Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph pupil plane, where we plan to place our pupil plane masks. Our half-tone samples were fabricated with 2, 5, and 10 micron dot sizes, our continuous greyscale was High Energy Electron Beam Sensitive (HEBS) glass (Canyon Materials Inc.). We present optical density (OD) vs. wavelength curves for our half-tone and continuous greyscale samples 1.1 - 2.5 ?m wavelength range. Direct measurements of the beam intensity in the far field using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrograph on Beamline U4IR at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) provided transmission spectra of test patches and apodizers. We report the on-axis IR transmission spectra through screens composed of metallic dots that are comparable in size with the wavelength of the light used, over a range of optical densities. We also measured departures from simple theory describing the array of satellite spots created by thin periodic grids in the pupil of the system. Such spots are used for photometry and astrometry in coronagraphic situations. Our results pertain to both ground and space based coronagraphs that use spatially variable attenuation, typically in focal plane or pupil plane masks.

  16. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, Beta Pictoris b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc J.; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-01-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet Beta Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While Beta Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects-i.e., ? And b and 1RXJ 1609B-match Beta Pic b's JHKsL photometry and its 3.1 micron and 5 micron photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (approx. 60 micron)dust grains fail to reproduce the Beta Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found forHR8799 bcde, but also with small (a fewmicrons) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (a = 4 micron), we derive atmosphere parameters of log(g) = 3.8 +/- 0.2 and Teff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7+4 -3 MJ, and a luminosity of log(L/L) approx. -3.80 +/- 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, is approx. equal to 1.65 +/- 0.06 RJ, is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if Beta Pic b is younger than is approx. equal to 7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth approx. 12+8 -4 Myr ago.

  17. A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, ? Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Burrows, Adam; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fukagawa, Misato; Girard, Julien H.; Dawson, Rebekah; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Kenyon, Scott; Kuchner, Marc; Matsumura, Soko; Jayawardhana, Ray; Chambers, John; Bromley, Ben

    2013-10-01

    We analyze new/archival VLT/NaCo and Gemini/NICI high-contrast imaging of the young, self-luminous planet ? Pictoris b in seven near-to-mid IR photometric filters, using advanced image processing methods to achieve high signal-to-noise, high precision measurements. While ? Pic b's near-IR colors mimic those of a standard, cloudy early-to-mid L dwarf, it is overluminous in the mid-infrared compared to the field L/T dwarf sequence. Few substellar/planet-mass objects—i.e., ? And b and 1RXJ 1609B—match ? Pic b's JHKsL' photometry and its 3.1 ?m and 5 ?m photometry are particularly difficult to reproduce. Atmosphere models adopting cloud prescriptions and large (~60 ?m) dust grains fail to reproduce the ? Pic b spectrum. However, models incorporating thick clouds similar to those found for HR 8799 bcde, but also with small (a few microns) modal particle sizes, yield fits consistent with the data within the uncertainties. Assuming solar abundance models, thick clouds, and small dust particles (langarang = 4 ?m), we derive atmosphere parameters of log (g) = 3.8 ± 0.2 and T eff = 1575-1650 K, an inferred mass of 7^{+4}_{-3} MJ , and a luminosity of log(L/L ?) ~-3.80 ± 0.02. The best-estimated planet radius, ?1.65 ± 0.06 RJ , is near the upper end of allowable planet radii for hot-start models given the host star's age and likely reflects challenges constructing accurate atmospheric models. Alternatively, these radii are comfortably consistent with hot-start model predictions if ? Pic b is younger than ?7 Myr, consistent with a late formation well after its host star's birth ~12^{+8}_{-4} Myr ago.

  18. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the range 25-200 AU is 0.018{sub -0.014}{sup +0.078}, with a 95% confidence level. The observations made as part of this survey have resolved the stars HD 14802, HD 135363, HD 160934, HD 166181, and HD 213845 into close binaries for the first time.

  19. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 ?m). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  20. Final A&T stages of the Gemini Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Markus; Macintosh, Bruce; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dimitri; Gavel, Donald; Palmer, Dave; Thomas, Sandrine; Dillon, Daren; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Ingraham, Patrick; Sadakuni, Naru; Wallace, Kent; Perrin, Marshall; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Saddlemyer, Les; Goodsell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Finder (GPI) is currently in its final Acceptance & Testing stages at the University of Santa Cruz, California. GPI is an XAO system based on a tweeter & woofer architecture (43 & 9 actuators across the pupil), with the tweeter being a Boston Michromachines 64^2 MEMS device. The XAO AO system is tightly integrated with a Lyot apodizing coronagraph. Acceptance has started in February 2013. After the conclusive acceptance review shipment is scheduled mid 2013 to ensure readiness for commissioning at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon, Chile, end of 2013, matching the summer window of the southern hemisphere. According to current estimates the 3 year (~800 allocated hours) planet finding campaign might discover, image, and spectroscopically analyze 20 to 40 new exo-planets.Final acceptance testing of the integrated instrument can always emerge a number of unforeseen challenges as we are eventually using cold chamber and flexure rig installations. The latest developments will be reported. Also, we will give an overview of GPI's lab performance, the interplay between subsystems such as the calibration unit (CAL) with the AO bench. (The CAL principal purpose is to maintain a clean and centered XAO PSF on the coronagraph.) We report on-going optimizations on the AO controler loop to filter vibrations and last but not least achieved contrast performance applying speckle nulling. Furthermore, we will give an outlook of possible but challenging future upgrades as the implementation of a predictive controler or exchanging the conventional 48x48 SH WFS with a pyramid. With the ELT area arising, GPI will proof as a versatile and path-finding testbed for AO technologies on the next generation of ground-based telescopes.

  1. The Gemini Planet-finding Campaign: The Frequency Of Giant Planets around Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-08-01

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known ? Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a >=5 M Jup planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d 2 N/dMdavpropm ? a ?, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a max). We find that ? < -0.8 and/or ? > 1.7. Likewise, we find that ? < -0.8 and/or a max < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass (? > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M Jup, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the ? Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet beyond 10 AU, and ? < -0.8 and/or ? < -1.5. Likewise, ? < -0.8 and/or a max < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet frequency on stellar host mass. Studies of transition disks have suggested that about 20% of stars are undergoing planet formation; our non-detections at large separations show that planets with orbital separation >40 AU and planet masses >3 M Jup do not carve the central holes in these disks. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  2. Results from the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark R.; Close, Laird M.; Ftaclas, Christ; Males, Jared R.; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. N.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan A.; Clarke, Fraser; Toomey, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 December to 2012 September, the NICI (Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager at the Gemini-South 8.1-m) Planet-Finding Campaign (Liu et al. 2010) obtained deep, high-contrast AO imaging of a carefully selected sample of over 200 young, nearby stars. In the course of the campaign, we discovered four co-moving brown dwarf companions: PZ Tel B (36+/-6 MJup, 16.4+/-1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31+/-8 MJup, 67+/-4 AU), HD 1160B (33+12 -9 MJup, 81+/- AU), and HIP 79797Bb (55+20-19MJup, 3 AU from the previously known brown dwarf companion HIP 79797Ba), as well as numerous stellar binaries. Three survey papers have been published to date, covering: 1) high mass stars (Nielsen et al. 2013), 2) debris disk stars (Wahhaj et al. 2013), and 3) stars which are members of nearby young moving groups (Biller et al. 2013). In addition, the Campaign has yielded new orbital constraints for the ~8-10 MJup planet Pic ? (Nielsen et al. 2014) and a high precision measurement of the star-disk offset for the well-known disk around HR 4796A (Wahhaj et al. 2014). Here we discuss constraints placed on the distribution of wide giant exoplanets from the NICI Campaign, new substellar companion discoveries, and characterization both of exoplanets and circumstellar disks.

  3. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: Planet Frequency for Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, M. C.; Wahhaj, Z.; Nielsen, E. L.; Hayward, T. L.; Close, L. M.; Chun, M.; Ftaclas, C.; Toomey, D. W.; Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign Team

    2013-01-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets of a sample of 79 young FGK stars which are members of the ? Pic, TW Hya, AB Dor, Tucana-Horologium, or Hercules-Lyra moving groups and were observed as part of the Gemini-NICI Planet Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ?(mag)=14.0 mag at 1'' in in combined ADI+SDI mode. We found numerous candidate companions in our survey images. The vast majority of these candidates were eliminated as background objects either from archival observations or NICI followup. However, four co-moving brown dwarf or stellar companions were discovered in the moving group sample, including PZ Tel B and CD -35 2722B. From a Bayesian analysis for a wide range of parameters and power-law models of planet distributions, we restrict the planet frequency for 1-20 M_{Jup} objects at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <10.5% or less at a 98% confidence level. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young Moving Group stars.

  4. Imaging planets around white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Matt; Clarke, Fraser; Hodgkin, Simon

    White dwarfs should retain planetary systems in wide orbits (>?5AU). Evolutionary models for Jovian planets show that infra-red imaging of suitable nearby white dwarfs should allow us to resolve and detect companions >?5 Mtiny JUP. We have instigated programmes with both the 8m Gemini North (using NIRI), Gemini South (using Flamingos) and with the NAOMI Adaptive Optics system on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope to search for such objects, which will share the large proper motions of their white dwarf hosts.

  5. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Companion Detection Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  6. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The companion detection pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Biller, Beth A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Close, Laird M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Toomey, Douglas W. [Mauna Kea Infrared, LLC, 21 Pookela St., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.

  7. The Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Frequency of Planets around Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, B.; Liu, M.; Wahhaj, Z.; Nielsen, E.; NICI Campaign Team

    2014-03-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the ? Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ?H = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ?H = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 MJup, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CDñ35 2722B (31 ± 8 M Jup, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M., 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M., 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 MJup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars.

  8. Imaging Extrasolar Planets Around Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, M.; Clarke, F.; Hodgkin, S.

    White dwarfs should retain planetary systems in wide orbits (greater than about 5 AU). Evolutionary models for jovian planets show that infrared imaging of suitable nearby white dwarfs should allow us to resolve and detect companions of mass greater than about 5 Jupiter masses. We have instigated programs with both the 8m Gemini North (using NIRI), Gemini South (using Flamingos) and with the NAOMI Adaptive Optics system on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope to search for such objects, which will share the large proper motions of their white dwarf hosts.

  9. The Gemini NICI planet-finding campaign: The offset ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-07-01

    We present J,H, CH4 short (1.578 ?m), CH4 long (1.652 ?m) and Ks-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 ± 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 ± 3°, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 ± 0.04°. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 MJup so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Tables 5 and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. The Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Frequency of Planets around Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Hartung, Markus; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Toomey, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the ? Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ?H = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ?H = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M Jup, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31 ± 8 M Jup, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M ?, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M ?, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Offset Ring of HR 4796 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    We present J, H, CH4 short (1.578 micrometers), CH4 long (1.652 micrometers) and K(sub s)-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 m Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7 +/- 1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26 +/- 3deg, along the PA of the ring, 26.47 +/- 0.04deg. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHKs filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and the Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 Jup mass so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring.

  12. Stable flexure mounting of a MEMS deformable mirror for the GPI Planet Imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis Hill; Darren Erickson; Joeleff Fitzsimmons; Paul Bierden; Steven Cornelissen; Dave Palmer

    2008-01-01

    Small deformable mirrors (DMs) produced using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques have been used in thermally stable, bench-top laboratory environments. With advances in MEMS DM technology, a variety of field applications are becoming more common, such as the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) adaptive optics system. Instruments at the Gemini Observatory operate in conditions where fluctuating ambient temperature, varying gravity orientations and

  13. Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799

    E-print Network

    C. Marois; B. Macintosh; T. Barman; B. Zuckerman; I. Song; J. Patience; D. Lafreniere; R. Doyon

    2008-11-16

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  14. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Orbit of the Young Exoplanet ? Pictoris b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-10-01

    We present new astrometry for the young (12-21 Myr) exoplanet ? Pictoris b taken with the Gemini/NICI and Magellan/MagAO instruments between 2009 and 2012. The high dynamic range of our observations allows us to measure the relative position of ? Pic b with respect to its primary star with greater accuracy than previous observations. Based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, we find the planet has an orbital semi-major axis of 9.1+5.3-0.5 AU and orbital eccentricity <0.15 at 68% confidence (with 95% confidence intervals of 8.2-48 AU and 0.00-0.82 for semi-major axis and eccentricity, respectively, due to a long narrow degenerate tail between the two). We find that the planet has reached its maximum projected elongation, enabling higher precision determination of the orbital parameters than previously possible, and that the planet's projected separation is currently decreasing. With unsaturated data of the entire ? Pic system (primary star, planet, and disk) obtained thanks to NICI's semi-transparent focal plane mask, we are able to tightly constrain the relative orientation of the circumstellar components. We find the orbital plane of the planet lies between the inner and outer disks: the position angle (P.A.) of nodes for the planet's orbit (211.8 ± 0.°3) is 7.4? greater than the P.A. of the spine of the outer disk and 3.2? less than the warped inner disk P.A., indicating the disk is not collisionally relaxed. Finally, for the first time we are able to dynamically constrain the mass of the primary star ? Pic to 1.76+0.18-0.17 M ?.

  15. Image resolutions for ERTS, SKYLAB and GEMINI/APOLLO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1972-01-01

    Early in 1972 the first Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS-A) is scheduled for launch in near-polar orbit. It will carry three return-beam-vidicon (RBV) TB cameras and a multispectral scanner (MSS). In 1973 a post-Apollo manned space flight called SKYLAB will orbit the earth at an inclination of 50° to the Equator. In addition to other sensors it will carry a battery of six multispectral cameras identified as experiment S190. This paper compares the images expected from ERTS and SKYLAB with those already obtained from GEMINI/APOLLO, all in terms of the photographic criterion of resolution. Recently provided data have led to several changes in the resolution of ERTS-A forecast a year ago (Colvocoresses, 1970).

  16. Handling Chunks of Image Data in the Gemini Data Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Jaeger, Shannon; Hill, Norm; Gaudet, Séverin; Cockayne, Steve

    The Data Handling System (DHS), developed for the Gemini project by the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, accepts observational data from multiple source s. There may be data descriptions, image data in chunks (to be composed into a single image), and multiple images for one dataset, all being received at diffe rent times. All information for a single dataset is written to one Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) file. The methods developed for handling and assembling data chunks are presented.

  17. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  18. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets around White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Matt R.; Clarke, Fraser

    In Burleigh Clarke and Hodgkin (2002 MNRAS 331 L41) we showed that Jovian planets in initially wide orbits (>5AU) should survive the final stages of stellar evolution and migrate outwards to orbit the resultant white dwarfs at separations of up to >100AU. Using evolutionary models for massive Jupiters we also showed that such planets should be detectable around a variety of suitable white dwarfs within 20pc of the Sun. Based on these predictions we have been searching for planets >5Mjup around nearby white dwarfs using direct imaging in the near infra-red. We will present results from our observational programmes with the two 8m Gemini Telescopes and with the NAOMI Adaptive Optics programme on the 4m William Herschell Telescope on La Palma. Detection of massive planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs would prove that such objects can survive the final stages of stellar evolution place constraints on the frequency of main sequence stars with planetary systems dynamically similar to our own and allow direct spectroscopic investigation of their composition and structure.

  19. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge is to identify and subtract as accurately as possible the bright stellar halo," explains Lagrange. "We were able to achieve this after a precise and drastic selection of the best images recorded during our observations." The strategy proved very rewarding, as the astronomers were able to discern a feeble, point-like glow well inside the star's halo. To eliminate the possibility that this was an artefact and not a real object, a battery of tests was conducted and several members of the team, using three different methods, did the analysis independently, always with the same success. Moreover, the companion was also discovered in other data sets, further strengthening the team's conclusion: the companion is real. "Our observations point to the presence of a giant planet, about 8 times as massive as Jupiter and with a projected distance from its star of about 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, which is about the distance of Saturn in our Solar System [2]," says Lagrange. "We cannot yet rule out definitively, however, that the candidate companion could be a foreground or background object," cautions co-worker Gael Chauvin. "To eliminate this very small possibility, we will need to make new observations that confirm the nature of the discovery." The team also dug into the archives of the Hubble Space Telescope but couldn't see anything, "while most possible foreground or background objects would have been detected", remarks another team member, David Ehrenreich. The fact that the candidate companion lies in the plane of the disc also strongly implies that it is bound to the star and its proto-planetary disc. "Moreover, the candidate companion has exactly the mass and distance from its host star needed to explain all the disc's properties. This is clearly another nail in the coffin of the false alarm hypothesis," adds Lagrange. When confirmed, this candidate companion will be the closest planet from its star ever imaged. In particular, it will be located well inside the orbits of

  20. High Contrast Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    John H. Debes; Jian Ge

    2003-01-03

    Gaussian aperture pupil masks (GAPMs) can in theory achieve the contrast requisite for directly imaging an extrasolar planet. We use lab tests and simulations to further study their possible place as a high contrast imaging technique. We present lab comparisons with traditional Lyot coronagraphs and simulations of GAPMs and other high contrast imaging techniques on HST.

  1. Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2005-04-11

    One of the most exciting scientific discoveries in the last decade of the twentieth century was the first detection of planets orbiting a star other than our own. By now more than 130 extrasolar planets have been discovered indirectly, by observing the gravitational effects of the planet on the radial velocity of its parent star. This technique has fundamental limitations: it is most sensitive to planets close to their star, and it determines only a planet's orbital period and a lower limit on the planet's mass. As a result, all the planetary systems found so far are very different from our own--they have giant Jupiter-sized planets orbiting close to their star, where the terrestrial planets are found in our solar system. Such systems have overturned the conventional paradigm of planet formation, but have no room in them for habitable Earth-like planets. A powerful complement to radial velocity detections of extrasolar planets will be direct imaging--seeing photons from the planet itself. Such a detection would allow photometric measurements to determine the temperature and radius of a planet. Also, direct detection is most sensitive to planets in wide orbits, and hence more capable of seeing solar systems resembling our own, since a giant planet in a wide orbit does not preclude the presence of an Earth-like planet closer to the star. Direct detection, however, is extremely challenging. Jupiter is roughly a billion times fainter than our sun. Two techniques allowed us to overcome this formidable contrast and attempt to see giant planets directly. The first is adaptive optics (AO) which allows giant earth-based telescopes, such as the 10 meter W.M. Keck telescope, to partially overcome the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence. The second is looking for young planets: by searching in the infrared for companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm with the heat of their formation. Together with a UCLA team that leads the field of young-star identification, we carried out a systematic near-infrared search for young planetary companions to {approx}200 young stars. We also carried out targeted high-sensitivity observations of selected stars surrounded by circumstellar dust rings. We developed advanced image processing techniques to allow detection of even fainter sources buried in the noisy halo of scattered starlight. Even with these techniques, around most of our targets our search was only sensitive to planets in orbits significantly wider than our solar system. With some carefully selected targets--very young dusty stars in the solar neighborhood--we reach sensitivities sufficient to see solar systems like our own. Although we discovered no unambiguous planets, we can significantly constrain the frequency of such planets in wide (>50 AU) orbits, which helps determine which models of planet formation remain plausible. Successful modeling of our observations has led us to the design of a next-generation AO system that will truly be capable of exploring solar systems resembling our own.

  2. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: asymmetries in the HD 141569 disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Rice, Ken; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric; Hayward, Thomas; Kuchner, Marc J.; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2015-07-01

    We report here the highest resolution near-IR imaging to date of the HD 141569A disc taken as part of the NICI (near infrared coronagraphic imager) Science Campaign. We recover four main features in the NICI images of the HD 141569 disc discovered in previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging: (1) an inner ring/spiral feature. Once deprojected, this feature does not appear circular. (2) An outer ring which is considerably brighter on the western side compared to the eastern side, but looks fairly circular in the deprojected image. (3) An additional arc-like feature between the inner and outer ring only evident on the east side. In the deprojected image, this feature appears to complete the circle of the west side inner ring and (4) an evacuated cavity from 175 au inwards. Compared to the previous HST imaging with relatively large coronagraphic inner working angles (IWA), the NICI coronagraph allows imaging down to an IWA of 0.3 arcsec. Thus, the inner edge of the inner ring/spiral feature is well resolved and we do not find any additional disc structures within 175 au. We note some additional asymmetries in this system. Specifically, while the outer ring structure looks circular in this deprojection, the inner bright ring looks rather elliptical. This suggests that a single deprojection angle is not appropriate for this system and that there may be an offset in inclination between the two ring/spiral features. We find an offset of 4 ± 2 au between the inner ring and the star centre, potentially pointing to unseen inner companions.

  3. Gemini multiobject spectrographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Murowinski; Tim Bond; David Crampton; Timothy J. Davidge; J. M. Fletcher; Brian Leckie; Christopher L. Morbey; Scott Roberts; Leslie Saddlemyer; Jerry Sebesta; James R. Stilburn; Kei Szeto; Jeremy R. Allington-Smith; Roger L. Davies; G. N. Dodsworth; Roger Haynes; David J. Robinson; David J. Robertson; J. Webster; David Lee; Steven M. Beard; Colin G. Dickson; Dennis Kelly; R. Bennet; Maureen A. Ellis; Peter R. Hastings; Phil R. Williams

    1998-01-01

    As the only two optical instruments appearing in its first fleet of instrumentation, the GEMINI MultiObject Spectrograph (GMOS) are indeed being developed as workhorse instruments. One GMOS will be located at each of the GEMINI telescopes to perform: (1) exquisite direct imaging, (2) 5.5 arcminute longslit spectroscopy, (3) up to 600 object multislit spectroscopy, and (4) about 2000 element integral

  4. Spaceprobe images and the Terrestrial Planets Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Day

    1981-01-01

    With the formation of a new grouping within the Association - the Terrestrial Planets Section - there is scope for a fresh approach to BAA studies of Mercury, Venus and Mars, incorporating both Earth-based and spacecraft-derived information. Printing Options Send high resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution image to Level 2 Postscript Printer Send low resolution

  5. Imaging of the outer planets and satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    Imaging is the most widely applicable single means of exploring the outer planets and their satellites and also complements other planet-oriented instruments. Photography of Jupiter from terrestrial telescopes has revealed features which were neither predictable or predicted. Close-up imaging from fly-bys and orbiters affords the opportunity for discovery of atmospheric phenomena on the outer planets forever beyond the reach of terrestrial laboratories and intuition. On the other hand, a large number of specific applications of close-up imaging to study the giant planets are suggested by experience in photography from Earth and Mars orbit, and by ground-based telescopic studies of Jupiter and Saturn. The satellites of the outer planets actually constitute three distinct classes: lunar-sized objects, asteroidal-sized objects, and particulate rings. Imaging promises to be the primary observational tool for each category with results that could impact scientific thinking in the late 70's and 80's as significantly as has close-up photography of Mars and the Moon in the last 10 yr.

  6. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  7. Imaging Spectroscopy for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William B. Sparks; Holland C. Ford

    2002-01-01

    Coronagraphic imaging in combination with moderate to high spectral\\u000aresolution may prove more effective in both detecting extrasolar planets and\\u000acharacterizing them than a standard coronagraphic imaging approach. We envisage\\u000aan integral-field spectrograph coupled to a coronagraph to produce a 3D\\u000adatacube. For the idealised case where the spectrum of the star is well-known\\u000aand unchanging across the field, we

  8. Gemini/GMOS Imaging of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    E-print Network

    Duncan A. Forbes; Favio Raul Faifer; Juan Carlos Forte; Terry Bridges; Michael A. Beasley; Karl Gebhardt; David A. Hanes; Ray Sharples; Stephen E. Zepf

    2004-08-23

    We present Sloan g and i imaging from the GMOS instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 sq. arcmins. We detect 2,151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs that is greater than 90% complete to a magnitude of i = 23.6, with little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be A_V GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs.

  9. Gemini surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton J. Rosen; David J. Tracy

    1998-01-01

    The literature, including patents, describing the emerging area of gemini surfactants is reviewed. The differences in structure\\/property\\u000a relationships between gemini and comparable conventional surfactants are described and discussed in terms of their predicted\\u000a performance properties. Supportive performance data are enumerated.

  10. The M31 Dwarf Spheroidal Companion And V: g', r', and i' Imaging with GMOS on Gemini North

    E-print Network

    T. J. Davidge; G. S. Da Costa; I. Jorgensen; J. R. Allington-Smith

    2002-07-04

    g', r', and i' images obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini North are used to investigate the metallicity and stellar content of the M31 dwarf spheroidal companion galaxy And V. Red giant branch (RGB) stars are traced out to radii in excess of 126 arcsec from the galaxy center, indicating that And V extends over a diameter approaching 1 kpc. The mean g'-i' color of the RGB does not change with radius. Based on the slope of the RGB in the (i', g'-i') color-magnitude diagram we conclude that [Fe/H] = -2.2 +/- 0.1. This metallicity is lower than earlier estimates, and places And V squarely on the relation between metallicity and integrated brightness defined by other dwarf spheroidal and dwarf elliptical galaxies. We also fail to find a statistically significant population of luminous asymptotic giant branch stars near the center of the galaxy.

  11. New, Near-to-Mid Infrared High-Contrast Imaging of the Young Extrasolar Planets, HR 8799 bcde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Burrows, Adam Seth; Girard, Julien; Cloutier, Ryan; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc J.; Kenyon, Scott; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Jayawardhana, Ray; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We present new thermal IR imaging for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo and Subaru/IRCS. We easily detect all four HR 8799 planets but fail to identify a fifth planet, "HR 8799 f", at r < 15 AU at a 5-sigma confidence level. We rule out an HR 8799 f with mass of 5 MJ (7 MJ), 7 MJ (10 MJ), and 12 MJ (13 MJ) at rproj ? 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L? - [4.05] colors. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 bc's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 de's photometry is weaker. Pending execution of upcoming observations, we will also present unpublished imaging of HR 8799 with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project (SCExAO): two of a new generation of dedicated extreme-AO facilities.

  12. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging of a Field in the Outer Disk of M82 with the Altair Adaptive Optics System on Gemini-North

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Davidge; J. Stoesz; F. Rigaut; J.-P. Veran; G. Herriot

    2004-01-01

    Deep H and K' images recorded with the Altair adaptive optics system and Near-Infrared Imager on Gemini-North are used to probe the red stellar content in a field with a projected distance of 1 kpc above the disk plane of the starburst galaxy M82. The data have an angular resolution of 0.08\\

  13. A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF 118 STARS WITH HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING: LONG-PERIOD EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS ARE RARE AROUND SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M., E-mail: enielsen@as.arizona.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2010-07-10

    We expand on the results of Nielsen et al., using the null result for giant extrasolar planets around the 118 target stars from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) NACO H- and Ks-band planet search (conducted by Masciadri and collaborators in 2003 and 2004), the VLT and MMT Simultaneous Differential Imager survey, and the Gemini Deep Planet Survey to set constraints on the population of giant extrasolar planets. Our analysis is extended to include the planet luminosity models of Fortney et al., as well as the correlation between stellar mass and frequency of giant planets found by Johnson et al. Doubling the sample size of FGKM stars strengthens our conclusions: a model for extrasolar giant planets with power laws for mass and semimajor axis as given by Cumming et al. cannot, with 95% confidence, have planets beyond 65 AU, compared to the value of 94 AU reported by Nielsen et al., using the models of Baraffe et al. When the Johnson et al. correction for stellar mass (which gives fewer Jupiter-mass companions to M stars with respect to solar-type stars) is applied, however, this limit moves out to 82 AU. For the relatively new Fortney et al. models, which predict fainter planets across most of parameter space, these upper limits, with and without a correction for stellar mass, are 182 and 234 AU, respectively.

  14. Planet signatures in collisionally active debris discs: scattered light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Ertel, S.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Planet perturbations have been often invoked as a potential explanation for many spatial structures that have been imaged in debris discs. So far this issue has been mostly investigated with pure N-body numerical models, which neglect the crucial effect collisions within the disc can have on the disc's response to dynamical perturbations. Aims: We numerically investigate how the coupled effect of collisions and radiation pressure can affect the formation and survival of radial and azimutal structures in a disc perturbed by a planet. We consider two different set-ups: a planet embedded within an extended disc and a planet exterior to an inner debris ring. One important issue we want to address is under which conditions a planet's signature can be observable in a collisionally active disc. Methods: We use our DyCoSS code, which is designed to investigate the structure of perturbed debris discs at dynamical and collisional steady-state, and derive synthetic images of the system in scattered light. The planet's mass and orbit, as well as the disc's collisional activity (parameterized by its average vertical optical depth ?0) are explored as free parameters. Results: We find that collisions always significantly damp planet-induced spatial structures. For the case of an embedded planet, the planet's signature, mostly a density gap around its radial position, should remain detectable in head-on images if Mplanet ? MSaturn. If the system is seen edge-on, however, inferring the presence of the planet is much more difficult, as only weak asymmetries remain in a collisionally active disc, although some planet-induced signatures might be observable under very favourable conditions. For the case of an inner ring and an external planet, planetary perturbations cannot prevent collision-produced small fragments from populating the regions beyond the ring. The radial luminosity profile exterior to the ring is in most cases close to the one it should have in the absence of the external planet. The most significant signature left by a Jovian planet on a circular orbit are precessing azimutal structures that can be used to indirectly infer its presence. For a planet on an eccentric orbit, we show that the ring becomes elliptic and that the well known pericentre glow effect is visible despite of collisions and radiation pressure, but that detecting such features in observed discs is not an unambiguous indicator of the presence of an outer planet. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. FLAMINGOS-2: The Facility Near-Infrared Wide-field Imager & Multi-Object Spectrograph for Gemini

    E-print Network

    Eikenberry, S; Bennett, J G; Bessoff, A; Branch, M; Corley, R; Dunn, J; Elston, R; Eriksen, J D; Fletcher, M; Frommeyer, S; Gardhouse, W R; González, A; Hanna, K; Hardy, T; Herlevich, M; Hon, D; Julian, J; Julian, R; Leckie, B; Marin-Franch, A; Martí, J; Murphey, C; Raines, S N; Rashkin, D; Warner, C; Wooff, R; Bessoff, Aaron; Branch, Matt; Corley, Richard; Dunn, Jennifer; Eikenberry, Stephen; Elston, Richard; Eriksen, John-David; Fletcher, Murray; Frommeyer, Skip; Gonzalez, Anthony; Hanna, Kevin; Hardy, Tim; Herlevich, Michael; Hon, David; Julian, Jeff; Julian, Roger; Leckie, Brian; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Marti, Jose; Murphey, Charlie; Rashkin, David; Warner, Craig; Wooff, Robert

    2006-01-01

    We report on the design and status of the FLAMINGOS-2 instrument - a fully-cryogenic facility near-infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph for the Gemini 8-meter telescopes. FLAMINGOS-2 has a refractive all-spherical optical system providing 0.18-arcsecond pixels and a 6.2-arcminute circular field-of-view on a 2048x2048-pixel HAWAII-2 0.9-2.4 mm detector array. A slit/decker wheel mechanism allows the selection of up to 9 multi-object laser-machined plates or 3 long slits for spectroscopy over a 6x2-arcminute field of view, and selectable grisms provide resolutions from $\\sim$ 1300 to $\\sim $3000 over the entire spectrograph bandpass. FLAMINGOS-2 is also compatible with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system, providing multi-object spectroscopic capabilities over a 3x1-arcminute field with high spatial resolution (0.09-arcsec/pixel). We review the designs of optical, mechanical, electronics, software, and On-Instrument WaveFront Sensor subsystems. We also present the current status of the pro...

  16. Exozodiacal Dust and Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets means contending with dust from extrasolar asteroids and comets. This 'exozodiacal dust' creates a structured background light that can easily outshine the light from an exoEarth and confuse a planet-search mission like TPF or TOPS. But exozodiacal dust can be both friend and foe: planets can stir dust clouds into patterns that reveal the presence of the planet and constrain its mass and orbit. I'll describe some recent research on this topic: 3-D dynamical models of dust clouds with planets and searches for exozodiacal dust with the Keck Interferometer. The author also offers a prediction for the typical zodiacal dust background found around solar analogs, based on seafloor sediment data.

  17. An Imaging Nulling Interferometer to Study Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. P. Angel; N. J. Woolf

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric techniques oÜer two advantages for the detection and analysis of thermal radiation from planets: destructive interference to strongly suppress the stellar emission, and the possibility of high-resolution imaging to resolve planets and distinguish them from dust emission. This paper presents a new interferometric con—guration in which the con—icting requirements for these goals are reconciled. It realizes a very strong,

  18. eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager: Overview and status

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Bauman, B; Evans, J W; Graham, J; Lockwood, C; Poyneer, L; Dillon, D; Gavel, D; Green, J; Lloyd, J; Makidon, R; Olivier, S; Palmer, D; Perrin, M; Severson, S; Sheinis, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Sommargren, G; Soumer, R; Troy, M; Wallace, K; Wishnow, E

    2004-08-18

    As adaptive optics (AO) matures, it becomes possible to envision AO systems oriented towards specific important scientific goals rather than general-purpose systems. One such goal for the next decade is the direct imaging detection of extrasolar planets. An 'extreme' adaptive optics (ExAO) system optimized for extrasolar planet detection will have very high actuator counts and rapid update rates - designed for observations of bright stars - and will require exquisite internal calibration at the nanometer level. In addition to extrasolar planet detection, such a system will be capable of characterizing dust disks around young or mature stars, outflows from evolved stars, and high Strehl ratio imaging even at visible wavelengths. The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics has carried out a detailed conceptual design study for such an instrument, dubbed the eXtreme Adaptive Optics Planet Imager or XAOPI. XAOPI is a 4096-actuator AO system, notionally for the Keck telescope, capable of achieving contrast ratios >10{sup 7} at angular separations of 0.2-1'. ExAO system performance analysis is quite different than conventional AO systems - the spatial and temporal frequency content of wavefront error sources is as critical as their magnitude. We present here an overview of the XAOPI project, and an error budget highlighting the key areas determining achievable contrast. The most challenging requirement is for residual static errors to be less than 2 nm over the controlled range of spatial frequencies. If this can be achieved, direct imaging of extrasolar planets will be feasible within this decade.

  19. Gemini Space Program emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  20. GMOS: the GEMINI Multiple Object Spectrographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger L. Davies; Jeremy R. Allington-Smith; P. Bettess; E. Chadwick; G. N. Dodsworth; Roger Haynes; D. Lee; Ian J. Lewis; J. Webster; E. Atad; Steven M. Beard; M. Ellis; Peter R. Hastings; Phil R. Williams; Tim Bond; David Crampton; Timothy J. Davidge; Murray Fletcher; Brian Leckie; Christopher L. Morbey; Richard G. Murowinski; Scott Roberts; Leslie K. Saddlemyer; Jerry Sebesta; James R. Stilburn; Kei Szeto

    1997-01-01

    The two Gemini multiple object spectrographs (GMOS) are being designed and built for use with the Gemini telescopes on Mauna Kea and Cerro Pachon starting in 1999 and 2000 respectively. They have four operating modes: imaging, long slit spectroscopy, aperture plate multiple object spectroscopy and area (or integral field) spectroscopy. The spectrograph uses refracting optics for both the collimator and

  1. The lowest mass giant planet ever imaged around a star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Delorme, P.; Desidera, S.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Dumas, C.; Bonavita, M.

    2013-09-01

    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in astronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planetstar contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a yeartime-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation which is not straightforward assuming standard mechanisms. This planet will be of great interest for future planets imagers to search for additional close-in and lower mass companions but also for spectral characterization.

  2. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics Ks-band Imaging of the Galaxy Clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Pessev, P.; Garrel, V.; Winge, C.; Neichel, B.; Vidal, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed two of the six Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744, using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). With 0.? 08–0.? 10 FWHM our data are nearly diffraction-limited over a 100\\prime\\prime × 100\\prime\\prime wide area. GeMS/GSAOI complements the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) redwards of 1.6 ?m with twice the angular resolution. We reach a 5? depth of {{K}s}? 25.6 mag (AB) for compact sources. In this paper, we describe the observations, data processing, and initial public data release. We provide fully calibrated, co-added images matching the native GSAOI pixel scale as well as the larger plate scales of the HST release, adding to the legacy value of the Frontier Fields. Our work demonstrates that even for fields at high galactic latitude where natural guide stars are rare, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8 m telescopes has opened a new window on the distant universe. Observations of a third Frontier Field, Abell 370, are planned. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile.

  3. Geometric processing of digital images of the planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K.

    1987-09-01

    New procedures and software have been developed for geometric transformation of images to support digital cartography of the planets. The procedures involve the correction of spacecraft camera orientation of each image with the use of ground control and the transformation of each image to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area map projection with an algorithm which allows the number of transformation calculations to vary as the distortion varies within the image. When the distortion is low in an area of an image, few transformation computations are required, and most pixels can be interpolated. When distortion is extreme, the location of each pixel is computed. Mosaics are made of these images and stored as digital databases. Completed Sinusoidal databases may be used for digital analysis and registration with other spatial data. They may also be reproduced as published image maps by digitally transforming them to appropriate map projections.

  4. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Anderson

    2011-04-07

    What planets are in our solar system? Today, we are going to learn about the eight planets in our solar system. While learning, we're going to try to answer the question: What planets are in our solar system? Use this Planet Organizer to fill in information about the solar system that you learn on your journey! First, we're going to find ...

  5. GEOMETRIC PROCESSING OF DIGITAL IMAGES OF THE PLANETS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    New procedures and software have been developed for geometric transformations of images to support digital cartography of the planets. The procedures involve the correction of spacecraft camera orientation of each image with the use of ground control and the transformation of each image to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area map projection with an algorithm which allows the number of transformation calculations to vary as the distortion varies within the image. When the distortion is low in an area of an image, few transformation computations are required, and most pixels can be interpolated. When distortion is extreme, the location of each pixel is computed. Mosaics are made of these images and stored as digital databases.

  6. Wide Field Imager in Space for Dark Energy and Planets

    E-print Network

    Gould, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A wide-field imager in space could make remarkable progress in two very different frontiers of astronomy: dark energy and extra-solar planets. Embedding such an imager on a much larger and more complicated DE mission would be a poor science-approach under any circumstances and is a prescription for disaster in the present fiscal climate. The 2010 Decadal Committee must not lead the lemming stampede that is driving toward a DE mega-mission, but should stand clearly in its path.

  7. Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    bhanks

    2006-11-02

    The purpose of this project is to gather information and learn interesting facts about the planets in our solar sytem to complete a research project for Mrs. Hutchinson\\'s class. Begin by taking a quiz to measure your knowledge. Click this link for information and quiz. Quiz Next, you will choose two of the following sites and search for information on the planets in our solar system. Fill in the questions on your work sheet as you go to each site. Factmonster Planets Kids Astronomy 9 planets for kids Windows to the Universe Just for ...

  8. Influence of Stellar Multiplicity On Planet Formation. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Kepler Stars With Gas Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Horch, Elliott P.; Xie, Ji-Wei

    2015-06-01

    As hundreds of gas giant planets have been discovered, we study how these planets form and evolve in different stellar environments, specifically in multiple stellar systems. In such systems, stellar companions may have a profound influence on gas giant planet formation and evolution via several dynamical effects such as truncation and perturbation. We select 84 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with gas giant planet candidates. We obtain high-angular resolution images using telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems. Together with the AO data, we use archival radial velocity data and dynamical analysis to constrain the presence of stellar companions. We detect 59 stellar companions around 40 KOIs for which we develop methods of testing their physical association. These methods are based on color information and galactic stellar population statistics. We find evidence of suppressive planet formation within 20 AU by comparing stellar multiplicity. The stellar multiplicity rate (MR) for planet host stars is {0}-0+5% within 20 AU. In comparison, the stellar MR is 18% ± 2% for the control sample, i.e., field stars in the solar neighborhood. The stellar MR for planet host stars is 34% ± 8% for separations between 20 and 200 AU, which is higher than the control sample at 12% ± 2%. Beyond 200 AU, stellar MRs are comparable between planet host stars and the control sample. We discuss the implications of the results on gas giant planet formation and evolution.

  9. Microemulsions based on anionic gemini surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Magdassi; M Ben Moshe; Y Talmon; D Danino

    2003-01-01

    Oil in water microemulsions were prepared using didodecyldiphenylether disulfonate gemini-type surfactant (C12-DADS), water, oil (toluene) and a co-solvent (short chain alcohol such as 1-propanol). The phase diagrams for microemulsions with gemini surfactants were determined and compared to those of structurally related surfactants, monododecyldiphenylether disulfonate (C12-MADS) and monododecyldiphenylether monosulfonate (C12-MAMS). Conductivity measurements and direct imaging by cryo-TEM were performed to characterize

  10. Searching for, Finding, and Imaging Young Extrasolar Planets with HST\\/NICMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schneider; I. Song; J. Farihi; B. Zuckerman; E. Becklin; P. Lowrance; B. Macintosh; M. Bessell

    Imaging discovery and subsequent characterization of extrasolar planet (EP) mass companions to stars has been observationally challenging due to the severe planet-to-star contrast ratios. Since the detection of the extrasolar giant planet (EGP) companion to 51 Peg (1), continuing discoveries of 1 - 10 Jupiter mass companions by indirect methods have revealed an unanticipated diversity in mass ranges, dynamical properties,

  11. Accepted for publication in ApJ, October 2002 Imaging Spectroscopy for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    E-print Network

    Accepted for publication in ApJ, October 2002 Imaging Spectroscopy for Extrasolar Planet Detection the outset may prove more e#ective in both detect­ ing extrasolar planets and characterizing them than­correlation to seek the extraso­ lar planet signal, and describe a mathematical approach to completely eliminate stray

  12. A dispersed heterodyne design for the planet formation imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Michael J.; Monnier, John D.

    2014-07-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) is a future world facility that will image the process of planetary formation. It will have an angular resolution and sensitivity sufficient to resolve sub-Hill sphere structures around newly formed giant planets orbiting solar-type stars in nearby star formation regions. We present one concept for this design consisting of twenty-seven or more 4m telescopes with kilometric baselines feeding a mid-infrared spectrograph where starlight is mixed with a frequency-comb laser. Fringe tracking will be undertaken in H-band using a fiber-fed direct detection interferometer, meaning that all beam transport is done by communications band fibers. Although heterodyne interferometry typically has lower signal-to-noise than direct detection interferometry, it has an advantage for imaging fields of view with many resolution elements, because the signal in direct detection has to be split many ways while the signal in heterodyne interferometry can be amplified prior to combining every baseline pair. We compare the performance and cost envelope of this design to a comparable direct-detection design.

  13. Predictions for shepherding planets in scattered light images of debris disks

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Malhotra, Renu, E-mail: rodigas@as.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  14. Predictions for Shepherding Planets in Scattered Light Images of Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Malhotra, Renu; Hinz, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Planets can affect debris disk structure by creating gaps, sharp edges, warps, and other potentially observable signatures. However, there is currently no simple way for observers to deduce a disk-shepherding planet's properties from the observed features of the disk. Here we present a single equation that relates a shepherding planet's maximum mass to the debris ring's observed width in scattered light, along with a procedure to estimate the planet's eccentricity and minimum semimajor axis. We accomplish this by performing dynamical N-body simulations of model systems containing a star, a single planet, and an exterior disk of parent bodies and dust grains to determine the resulting debris disk properties over a wide range of input parameters. We find that the relationship between planet mass and debris disk width is linear, with increasing planet mass producing broader debris rings. We apply our methods to five imaged debris rings to constrain the putative planet masses and orbits in each system. Observers can use our empirically derived equation as a guide for future direct imaging searches for planets in debris disk systems. In the fortuitous case of an imaged planet orbiting interior to an imaged disk, the planet's maximum mass can be estimated independent of atmospheric models.

  15. Gemini Detective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A collaborative effort of the laboratories of Dr. Judith Brown (University of Arizona) and Dr. Stephen D. Wyatt (Washington State University), this Website serves as a hub of information on whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses in the genus Begomoviridae. Resources provided at the site include Begomovirus descriptive information (general information; worldwide distribution; a hyperlinked list of Begomovirus; and a searchable database of begomovirus isolates by geographic location, virus/ isolate name, symptom, and host) and Core Coat Protein Sequence Database (including PCR sequence technical information and Mini-Blast search). In addition to text, several small color images provide illustrations of the effect (symptoms) of geminivirus-related disease on hosts.

  16. On the Misalignment of the Directly Imaged Planet ? Pictoris b with the System's Warped Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2011-12-01

    The vertical warp in the debris disk ? Pictoris—an inclined inner disk extending into a flat outer disk—has long been interpreted as the signpost of a planet on an inclined orbit. Direct images spanning 2004-2010 have revealed ? Pictoris b, a planet with a mass and orbital distance consistent with this picture. However, it was recently reported that the orbit of planet b is aligned with the flat outer disk, not the inclined inner disk, and thus lacks the inclination to warp the disk. We explore three scenarios for reconciling the apparent misalignment of the directly imaged planet ? Pictoris b with the warped inner disk of ? Pictoris: observational uncertainty, an additional planet, and damping of planet b's inclination. We find that, at the extremes of the uncertainties, the orbit of ? Pictoris b has the inclination necessary to produce the observed warp. We also find that if planet b were aligned with the flat outer disk, it would prevent another planet from creating a warp with the observed properties; therefore planet b itself must be responsible for the warp. Finally, planet b's inclination could have been damped by dynamical friction and still produce the observed disk morphology, but the feasibility of damping depends on disk properties and the presence of other planets. More precise observations of the orbit of planet b and the position angle of the outer disk will allow us to distinguish between the first and third scenarios.

  17. MEMS-based extreme adaptive optics for planet detection

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B A; Graham, J R; Oppenheimer, B; Poyneer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Veran, J

    2005-11-18

    The next major step in the study of extrasolar planets will be the direct detection, resolved from their parent star, of a significant sample of Jupiter-like extrasolar giant planets. Such detection will open up new parts of the extrasolar planet distribution and allow spectroscopic characterization of the planets themselves. Detecting Jovian planets at 5-50 AU scale orbiting nearby stars requires adaptive optics systems and coronagraphs an order of magnitude more powerful than those available today--the realm of ''Extreme'' adaptive optics. We present the basic requirements and design for such a system, the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI.) GPI will require a MEMS-based deformable mirror with good surface quality, 2-4 micron stroke (operated in tandem with a conventional low-order ''woofer'' mirror), and a fully-functional 48-actuator-diameter aperture.

  18. Project Gemini: A Chronology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Grimwood

    This internet version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication contains information about Project Gemini, which laid the groundwork for the Apollo missions. The history of this project is told in three parts. Part I, Concept and Design, discusses the formal initiation of Project Gemini (first designated the Mercury Mark II project). Part II, Chronology, Development and Qualification, spans the years 1963 and 1964 when the main task became translating Gemini designs into working machinery reliable enough for manned space flight. Part III, Flight Tests, chronicles the events of 1965 and 1966, dominated by the 10 manned missions which constitute the main part of the Gemini program. To round out this volume, there are several appendices which summarize, tabulate, and make easily accessible some major aspects of Project Gemini.

  19. ONE-SIDED ACHROMATIC PHASE APODIZATION FOR IMAGING OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Weidong Yang and Alexander B. Kostinski

    E-print Network

    Kostinski, Alex

    ONE-SIDED ACHROMATIC PHASE APODIZATION FOR IMAGING OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Weidong Yang and Alexander to direct imaging of extrasolar planets: one-sided phase apodization. It is based on a discovery suppression sufficient for imaging of extrasolar planets. Calculations with specific square-pupil (side D

  20. A High Dynamic Range Dual Imaging Polarimetric Survey of Circumstellar Disks around Young Stars using Gemini North with Hokupa`a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, D.; Baudoz, P.; Guyon, O.; Brandner, W.; Close, L.; Graves, J. E.; Northcott, M.

    2001-05-01

    We present results from a survey of circumstellar disks around young stars in the Taurus star-forming region and in the TW Hydrae association using a dual imaging polarimetric technique with adaptive optics. This technique suppresses speckle noise, which improves our sensitivity in detecting polarized light near bright stars. We present high resolution (75 mas) H-band polarimetry maps of circumstellar disks found around TW Hydrae, LkCa 15, GM Aur, and GG Tau and will discuss techniques used to extract physical properties of these disks from the polarization measurements. These observations were obtained with the University of Hawaii curvature sensing adaptive optics system, Hokupa`a, at the Gemini North 8m telescope. This research acknowledges support by the National Science Foundation.

  1. Occulter Based Missions of Different Scales for Terrestrial Planet Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Spergel, D. N.; Vanderbei, R.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D. P.; Savransky, D.; Cady, E.; Soummer, R.

    2010-10-01

    Free flying occulters are an attractive option as a space mission architecture for imaging exosolar planets, particular ones in the habitable zone. Their appeal is two-fold: the inner working angle is largely decoupled from telescope diameter and, because they suppress starlight before entering the telescope, there is no need for wavefront control. We present the basic operating principles of occulters for high-contrast, including preliminary stationkeeping simulations, and a manufacturing approach being studied as part of NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions. Our main focus is a comparison of mission architectures employing occulters at varying scales: large flagship observatories (THEIA, NWO), existing large aperture telescopes (JWST), small dedicated telescopes (O3), and small general purpose telescopes (such as a dark energy mission like EUCLID). THEIA, the Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy, is a multi-instrument space-telescope concept employing a 4-m diffraction-limited telescope operating at UV and Visible wavelengths that was developed as part of NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Studies in 2009 and presented to the US Academy's decadal survey review, Astro2010. By combining the telescope with a roughly 40 m occulter, operating at two different telescope-occulter separations, planets as small as Earth can be characterized over a broad band, including R>70 spectra. O3, the Occulting Ozone Observatory, is a smaller mission costing less than 1B that uses a 1 to 2 m telescope combined with a roughly 30 m occulter. O3 is capable of time-resolved photometry over 8 bands, focusing on biomarkers, such as detecting the strong ozone feature, and surface characterization. It also provides the capability for enough repeat visits to support orbit determination. We will compare the science yield and architecture and how different coronagraph and occulter approaches perform at these different mission scales.

  2. Design and Verification of External Occulters for Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An occulter is an optical element which is placed in front of the telescope to block most of the light from a star before it reaches the optics inside, without blocking the planet.In our case, we use two spacecraft ying in formation: First has its edge shaped to cancel the starlight Second is the telescope which images the star and planet

  3. Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets Eric Pantina, Ralf Siebenmorgenb, Celine Cavarroca, Michael F. Sterzikc

    E-print Network

    Liske, Jochen

    Direct thermal imaging of circumstellar discs and exo-planets Eric Pantina, Ralf Siebenmorgenb drivers of METIS are: a) direct thermal imaging of exo­planets and b) characterization of circumstellar window (N band) require a contrast ratio between stellar light and emitted photons from the exo-planet

  4. On the Misalignment of the Directly Imaged Planet ? Pictoris b with the System's Warped Inner Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene; Murray-Clay, R. A.; Fabrycky, D. C.

    2012-05-01

    The vertical warp in the debris disk ? Pictoris —an inclined inner disk extending into a flat outer disk— has long been interpreted as the signpost of a planet on an inclined orbit. Direct images spanning 2004-2010 have revealed ? Pictoris b, a planet with a mass and orbital distance consistent with this picture. However, it was recently reported that the orbit of planet b is aligned with the flat outer disk, not the inclined inner disk, and thus lacks the inclination to warp the disk. We explore three scenarios for reconciling the apparent misalignment of the directly imaged planet ? Pictoris b with the warped inner disk of ? Pictoris: observational uncertainty, an additional planet, and damping of planet b's inclination. We find that, at the extremes of the uncertainties, the orbit of ? Pictoris b has the inclination necessary to produce the observed warp. We also find that if planet b were aligned with the flat outer disk, it would prevent another planet from creating a warp with the observed properties; therefore planet b itself must be responsible for the warp. Finally, planet b's inclination could have been damped by dynamical friction and still produce the observed disk morphology, but the feasibility of damping depends on disk properties and the presence of other planets. More precise observations of the orbit of planet b and the position angle of the outer disk will allow us to distinguish between the first and third scenarios. R.I.D. acknowledges support by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship DGE-1144152 and D.C.F. by NASA Hubble Fellowship HF-51272.01.

  5. Imaging Extra-Solar Planets with an Ultra-Large Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Origins Program is directed toward two main goals: Imaging of galactic evolution in the early universe, and searching for planets orbiting nearby stars. The Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), operating at low temperature with an 8-m aperture, is well designed to meet the first goal. The goal of imaging planets orbiting nearby stars is more problematic. One line of investigation has been the ULTIMA concept (Ultra-Large Telescope, Integrated Missions in Astronomy). In this report, I will lay out the resolution requirements for telescopes to achieve the imaging of extrasolar planets, and describe a modeling tool created to investigate the requirements for imaging a planet when it is very near a much brighter star.

  6. Recent progress on external occulter technology for imaging exosolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Vanderbei, R. J.; Sirbu, D.; Samuels, J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Cady, E.; Martin, S.

    Imaging planets orbiting nearby stars requires a system for suppressing the host starlight by at least ten orders of magnitude. One such approach uses an external occulter, a satellite flying far from the telescope and employing a large screen, or starshade, to suppress the incoming starlight. This trades the added complexity of building the precisely shaped starshade and flying it in formation against simplifications in the telescope since extremely precise wavefront control is no longer necessary. Much progress has been made recently in designing, testing and manufacturing starshade technology. In this paper we describe the design of starshades and report on recent accomplishments in manufacturing and measuring a prototype occulter petal as part of NASA's first Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program. We demonstrate that the as-built petal is consistent with a full-size occulter achieving better than 10-10 contrast. We also discuss laboratory testing at the Princeton Occulter Testbed. These experiments use sub-scale, long-distance beam propagation to verify the diffraction analysis associated with occulter starlight suppression. We demonstrate roughly 10-10 suppression in the laboratory and discuss the important challenges and limitations.

  7. Adaptive Optics for the Gemini Telescopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ridgway

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive optics will play a critical role in achieving the highest possible image quality for the Gemini telescopes. An Adaptive Optics Working Group (R. Racine - chair, B. Ellerbroek, E. Kibblewhite, D. McCarthy, R. Myers, S. Ridgway, F. Roddier) is preparing to recommend an implementation strategy. The recommendations are still under discussion (the prospects for laser beacons are evolving rapidly).

  8. Directly Imaged Giant Planets: What Do We Hope to Learn?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As we move into an era when GPI and SPHERE are (hopefully) discovering and characterizing new young giant planets, it is worthwhile to step back and review our science goals for young giant planets. Of course for individual planets we ideally would hope to measure mass, radius, atmospheric composition, temperature, and cloud properties, but how do these characteristics fit into our broader understanding of planetary system origin and evolution theories? In my presentation I will review both the specifics of what we hope to learn from newly discovered young worlds as well as how these characteristics inform our broader understanding of giant planets and planetary systems. Finally I will consider the limitations realistic datasets will place on our ability to understand newly discovered planets, illustrating with data from any new such worlds that are available by the conference date.

  9. Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani

    E-print Network

    A. N. Heinze; Philip M. Hinz; Matthew Kenworthy; Douglas Miller; Suresh Sivanandam

    2008-07-24

    We have obtained deep Adaptive Optics (AO) images of Vega and epsilon Eri to search for planetary-mass companions. We observed at the MMT in the L' (3.8 micron) and M (4.8 micron) bands using Clio, a recently commissioned imager optimized for these wavelengths. Observing at these long wavelengths represents a departure from the H band (1.65 microns) more commonly used for AO imaging searches for extrasolar planets. The long wavelengths offer better predicted planet/star flux ratios and cleaner (higher Strehl) AO images, at the cost of lower diffraction limited resolution and higher sky background. We have not detected any planets or planet candidates around Vega or epsilon Eri. We report the sensitivities obtained around both stars, which correspond to upper limits on any planetary companions which may exist. The sensitivities of our L' and M band observations are comparable to those of the best H-regime observations of these stars. For epsilon Eri our M band observations deliver considerably better sensitivity to close-in planets than any previously published results, and we show that the M band is by far the best wavelength choice for attempts at ground-based AO imaging of the known planet epsilon Eri b. The Clio camera itself with MMTAO may be capable of detecting epsilon Eri b at its 2010 apastron, given a multi-night observing campaign. Clio appears to be the only currently existing AO imager that has a realistic possibility of detecting epsilon Eri b.

  10. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging of a Field in the Outer Disk of M82 with the ALTAIR Adaptive Optics System on Gemini North

    E-print Network

    T. J. Davidge; J. Stoesz; F. Rigaut; J-P Veran; G. Herriot

    2003-12-10

    Deep H and K' images, recorded with the ALTAIR adaptive optics system and NIRI imager on Gemini North, are used to probe the red stellar content in a field with a projected distance of 1 kpc above the disk plane of the starburst galaxy M82. The data have an angular resolution of 0.08 arcsec FWHM, and individual AGB and RGB stars are resolved. The AGB extends to at least 1.7 mag in K above the RGB-tip, which occurs at K = 21.7. The relative numbers of bright AGB stars and RGB stars are consistent with stellar evolution models, and one of the brightest AGB stars has an H-K color and K brightness that is consistent with it being a C star. The brightnesses of the AGB stars suggest that they formed during intermediate epochs, possibily after the last major interaction with M81. Therefore, star formation in M82 during intermediate epochs may not have been restricted to the plane of the disk.

  11. Deep Near-Infrared Imaging of a Field in the Outer Disk of M82 with the ALTAIR Adaptive Optics System on Gemini North

    E-print Network

    Davidge, T J; Rigaut, F; Veran, J P; Herriot, G

    2003-01-01

    Deep H and K' images, recorded with the ALTAIR adaptive optics system and NIRI imager on Gemini North, are used to probe the red stellar content in a field with a projected distance of 1 kpc above the disk plane of the starburst galaxy M82. The data have an angular resolution of 0.08 arcsec FWHM, and individual AGB and RGB stars are resolved. The AGB extends to at least 1.7 mag in K above the RGB-tip, which occurs at K = 21.7. The relative numbers of bright AGB stars and RGB stars are consistent with stellar evolution models, and one of the brightest AGB stars has an H-K color and K brightness that is consistent with it being a C star. The brightnesses of the AGB stars suggest that they formed during intermediate epochs, possibily after the last major interaction with M81. Therefore, star formation in M82 during intermediate epochs may not have been restricted to the plane of the disk.

  12. Probing the Impact of Stellar Duplicity on Planet Occurrence with Spectroscopic and Imaging Observations

    E-print Network

    A. Eggenberger; S. Udry

    2007-05-22

    Although it is commonly agreed that the presence of a close stellar companion is likely to affect planet formation and evolution, the precise effects and their actual impact on planet occurrence and properties are still debated. In particular, observational constraints are sparse, a consequence of the discrimination against close binaries in Doppler planet searches. To bring observational constraints on the occurrence and properties of planets in binaries and multiple stars, we have been conducting two dedicated observing programs using both adaptive optics imaging and radial-velocity monitoring. In this chapter we explain our approach and present preliminary results from these two programs. A simplified statistical analysis of the data from our VLT/NACO imaging survey brings the first observational evidence that the occurrence of planets is reduced in binaries closer than ~120 AU. On the radial-velocity side, current results confirm that the use of two-dimensional correlation allows to search for circumprimary giant planets in many types of spectroscopic binaries. Definitive results from our ongoing planet search in spectroscopic binaries should yield important constraints on the closest binaries susceptible of hosting circumprimary giant planets.

  13. Computer vision applications for coronagraphic optical alignment and image processing

    E-print Network

    Savransky, Dmitry; Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A; 10.1364/AO.52.003394

    2013-01-01

    Modern coronagraphic systems require very precise alignment between optical components and can benefit greatly from automated image processing. We discuss three techniques commonly employed in the fields of computer vision and image analysis as applied to the Gemini Planet Imager, a new facility instrument for the Gemini South Observatory. We describe how feature extraction and clustering methods can be used to aid in automated system alignment tasks, and also present a search algorithm for finding regular features in science images used for calibration and data processing. Along with discussions of each technique, we present our specific implementation and show results of each one in operation.

  14. Planet Formation Instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Troy, M; Graham, J; Doyon, R

    2006-02-22

    In the closing years of the 20th Century humankind began its exploration of the planetary systems in the solar neighborhood. Precision radial velocity measurements have now yielded the discovery of over 160 planets. Direct imaging of these planets, as opposed to detection of the effects of orbital motion on their parent star, is now feasible, and the first young planet in a wide orbit may have been detected using adaptive optics systems. Gemini and the VLT are building the first generation of high contrast adaptive optics systems, which deliver planet-imaging performance within few Airy rings of the host star. These systems will make the first surveys of the outer regions of solar systems by detecting the self-luminous radiation of young planets. These instruments will establish whether Jovian planets form predominantly through 'top-down' (global gravitational instability) or 'bottom-up' (core accretion) processes. The 8-m 'extreme' AO systems cannot see close enough to the host stars to image Doppler planets, and they cannot reach the relatively distant, young clusters and associations where planets are forming. The Planet Formation Instrument will use the nearly four-fold improved angular resolution of TMT to peer into the inner solar systems of Doppler-planet bearing stars to yield a unified sample of planets with known Keplerian orbital elements and atmospheric properties. In star formation regions, where T Tauri stars (young solar type stars) are found in abundance, PFI can see into the snow line, where the icy cores of planets like Jupiter must have formed. Thus, TMT will be the first facility to witness the formation of new planets.

  15. Models of gemini surfactants

    E-print Network

    Haim Diamant; David Andelman

    2003-02-10

    Gemini (dimeric) surfactants are composed of two monomeric surfactant molecules linked by a spacer chain. Their self-assembly behavior differs qualitatively from that of monomeric surfactants. We review the various theoretical attempts to account for the behavior of this new class of amphiphilic molecules.

  16. Gemini Wives on Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The wives of Gemini 4 astronauts James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White II visited the Mission Control in Houston. Left to right are: Mrs. Patricia McDivitt,and Mrs. Patricia White. The wives were taking the opportunity to speak to their astronaut husbands as they passed over the United States.

  17. Ground-based direct imaging of extra-solar planets supported by AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, Elena; Geissler, Kerstin; Kellner, Stephan; Brandner, Wolfgang; Henning, Thomas; Mundt, Reinhard; Close, Laird; Biller, Beth; Raga, Alejandro

    The detection of extra-solar planets made by direct imaging is an extremely challenging goal for astronomers due to the possibility to access the physical properties of planets and not only their existence. Using 8 m class telescopes joint with dedicated techniques (such as Simultaneous Differential Imaging aiming to suppress the speckle noise) it is possible, at present, to attain detection limit of 9-11 mag at 0.5 arcsec i.e. to access 3-10 MJ planets orbiting around young (100-200 Myr) nearby and late type stars. Searches for extra-solar planets carried out with the present technology are quite fundamental and critical not only for discovery of planets but also because it permits us to put constraints on theories of planets formation and migration. Besides, our understandings of the performances of sophisticated techniques such as the SDI is fundamental to plan new observational strategies, new generation instruments and telescopes. Speckles noise is, indeed, the main source of noise for observations in the NIR and visible and our ability in suppressing it is not so easily scaled at different parameters space. In this contribution I will present the main results that we obtained in on-going searches for planets carried out with NACO and NACO/SDI in the last years. A particular attention will be dedicated in comparing different observational strategies and in the employment of image processing techniques for recognizing, in an automatic way, planet features in deep images obtained with ground-based telescopes and AO facilities.

  18. Imaging Extrasolar Planets by Stellar Halo Suppression in Separately Corrected Color Bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanan L. Codona; Roger Angel

    2004-01-01

    Extrasolar planets have not been imaged directly with existing ground or space telescopes because they are too faint to be seen against the halo of the nearby bright star. Most techniques being explored to suppress the halo are achromatic, with separate correction of diffraction and wave-front errors. Residual speckle structure may be subtracted by differencing images taken through narrowband filters,

  19. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    E-print Network

    Dong, Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Stone, James

    2015-01-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6 MJ planet in a typical disk around a 1 M_sun star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m=2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ~10-15 degrees pitch angles, (3) ~180-270 degrees extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ~150% surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1 MJ planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density wa...

  20. Mid-infrared instruments on the Gemini 8-m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The mid-infrared instruments, operating in the 10 and 20 ?m atmospheric windows, on the Gemini 8-m telescopes are described. The advantages and disadvantages of ground-based telescopes compared to satellite observatories are briefly discussed. On Gemini-N, Michelle, a cryogenic imager and grating and echelle spectrometer built at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh offers imaging, long-slit spectroscopy and polarimetry. Spectral resolving powers between 200 and 20,000 are available by selecting one of five interchangeable gratings held in the cold grating drum. The Thermal Region Camera-Spectrometer (TReCS) is undergoing final tests at the University of Florida before delivery to Gemini-S. It offers imaging and low or moderate resolving power ( R<1000) spectroscopy. Even with the excellent image quality and low-emissivity of the Gemini telescopes, the thermal background from the sky, telescope and instrument windows are many orders of magnitude greater than the mid-infrared background emission in space. The main advantages of the Gemini instruments are the high spatial resolution available from large aperture ground-based telescopes (FWHM ˜ ?/ D=0.3 arcsec at 12 ?m), the versatile instrumentation and the high spectral resolution, which coupled with the 50 m 2 collecting area, gives good spectroscopic performance. Some initial performance figures and results are given.

  1. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W

    2006-08-18

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} at angles of 4-24 {lambda}/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10{sup -8} contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and flat mirror demonstrating that the testbed can operate in the necessary contrast regime. Wavefront measurements and simulations indicate that contrast is limited by wavefront error, not diffraction. I demonstrate feasibility of the MEMS deformable mirror for meeting the stringent residual wavefront error requirements of an extrasolar planet imager with closed-loop results of 0.54 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Individual contributors to final wavefront quality have been identified and characterized. I also present contrast measurements of 2 x 10{sup -7} made with the MEMS device and identify amplitude errors as the limiting error source. Closed-loop performance and simulated far-field measurements using a Kolmogorov phase plate to introduce atmosphere-like optical errors are also presented.

  2. Direct Imaging of Jupiter and Saturn-mass planets in wide orbit around nearby young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigau, Etienne; Lafreniere, David; Baron, Frederique; Malo, Lison; Doyon, Rene; Beichman, Charles; Delorme, Philippe; Rameau, Julien; Janson, Markus; Gagne, Jonathan; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic

    2014-12-01

    The recent discovery of planetary-mass objects on very wide orbits (hundreds of AU and more) around young stars (e.g. Naud et al. 2014) demonstrates that planets can be found even with arcsecond-level resolution imaging. These massive ( 10MJup) companions are likely formed in-situ via hierarchical collapse and it is not yet known whether this mechanism can form lighter objects. However, dynamical modelling of young planetary systems (Veras et al. 2009) and the relatively large fraction of massive planets in eccentric orbits found by radial velocity surveys suggest that a few percent of planetary systems should host planets, comparable in mass to Jupiter and Saturn, on orbits wide enough to be imaged as isolated objects. We propose to obtain deep IRAC observations combined with J-band imaging gathered by our team to search for such planets around all known nearby young stars (< 70 pc, < 120Myr; 172 stellar systems). This survey will be sensitive to planets down to the mass of Jupiter for all systems and down to the mass of Saturn for 80 of them. Planets lighter than 2MJup are much too faint in the near-infrared to be identified from the ground; Spitzer is the only facility where such a survey can be undertaken. This survey is a unique opportunity to bring direct imaging in a new era with the detection of analogs to our own Solar System Giants, is complementary to the work done on the ground with high-contrast imagers such as GPI and Sphere, and is critical to identify new planets that will be optimally characterized with JWST.

  3. THE SEEDS DIRECT IMAGING SURVEY FOR PLANETS AND SCATTERED DUST EMISSION IN DEBRIS DISK SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Moro-Martin, Amaya [Department of Astrophysics, CAB (INTA-CSIC), Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial, Torrejonde Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Usuda, Tomonori; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Egner, Sebastian [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Thalmann, Christian [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, M5S 3H4 Toronto, ON (Canada); McElwain, M. W. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 2071 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Crepp, Justin [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7239, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus, E-mail: janson@astro.princeton.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2013-08-10

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris-disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here, we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that {beta} Pic b-like planets ({approx}10 M{sub jup} planets around G-A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15%-30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than {beta} Pic b.

  4. The SEEDS Direct Imaging Survey for Planets and Scattered Dust Emission in Debris Disk Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Markus; Brandt, Timothy; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Usuda, Tomonori; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph C.; Goto, Miwa; Currie, Thayne; McElwain, M. W.; Itoh, Yoichi; Fukagawa, Misato; Crepp, Justin; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Egner, Sebastian; Fedlt, Markus; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Saeko

    2013-01-01

    Debris disks around young main-sequence stars often have gaps and cavities which for a long time have been interpreted as possibly being caused by planets. In recent years, several giant planet discoveries have been made in systems hosting disks of precisely this nature, further implying that interactions with planets could be a common cause of such disk structures. As part of the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey, we are surveying a population of debris disk-hosting stars with gaps and cavities implied by their spectral energy distributions, in order to attempt to spatially resolve the disk as well as to detect any planets that may be responsible for the disk structure. Here we report on intermediate results from this survey. Five debris disks have been spatially resolved, and a number of faint point sources have been discovered, most of which have been tested for common proper motion, which in each case has excluded physical companionship with the target stars. From the detection limits of the 50 targets that have been observed, we find that beta Pic b-like planets (approximately 10M(sub jup) planets around G-A-type stars) near the gap edges are less frequent than 15-30%, implying that if giant planets are the dominant cause of these wide (27 AU on average) gaps, they are generally less massive than beta Pic b.

  5. A Moon Based Telescope To Detect and Image Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kondo; R. J. Oliversen; P. Lowman; P. C. Chen

    2001-01-01

    A Moon-based telescope, suitably configured and equipped, can be employed as a low cost precursor to the Terrestrial Planet Finder mission. The concept is based in part on the ideas of Nisenson and Papaliolios (ApJ. Lett. 548:L201-205, 2001). The Moon is a highly stable observing platform. An advanced non-contact cryogenic bearing mechanism can provide super precise tracking and pointing. The

  6. Visible and Near-IR Imaging of Giant Planets: Outer Manifestations of Deeper Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.

    1996-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared imaging of the giant planets -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune -- probes the outermost layers of clouds in these gaseous atmospheres. Not only are the images beautiful and striking in their color and diversity of detail, they also provide quantitative clues to the dynamical and chemical processes taking place both at the cloud tops and deeper in the interior: zonal wind profiles can be extracted; wavelength-dependent center-to-limb brightness variations yield valuable data for modeling vertical aerosol structure; the presence of planetary-scale atmospheric waves can sometimes be deduced; variations of cloud color and brightness with latitude provide insight into the underlying mechanisms driving circulation; development and evolution of discrete atmospheric features trace both exogenic and endogenic events. During the 1980's, our understanding of the giant planets was revolutionized by detailed visible-wavelength images taken by the Voyager spacecraft of these planets' atmospheres. However, those images were static: brief snapshots in time of four complex and dynamic atmospheric systems. In short, those images no longer represent the current appearance of these planets. Recently, our knowledge of the atmospheres of the gas giant planets has undergone major new advances, due in part to the excellent imaging capability and longer-term temporal sampling of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Galileo Mission to Jupiter. In this talk, I provide an update on our current understanding of the gas giants based on recent visible and near-infrared imaging, highlighting results from the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, Saturn's White Spots, intriguing changes in the atmosphere of Uranus, and Neptune's peripatetic clouds.

  7. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging and Modeling of Planets and Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, P.; Weinberger, A. J.; Close, L. M.; Debes, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks, leaving behind planetesimals that collide to produce dusty debris disks. Characterizing the architectures of planetary systems, along with the structures and compositions of debris disks, can therefore help answer questions about how planets form. In this talk, I will present the results of five papers concerning the properties of extrasolar planetary systems and their circumstellar environments. First I will discuss bias affecting radial velocity (RV) orbital eccentricity. For years astronomers have been puzzled about the large number of RV-detected planets that have eccentric orbits (e > 0.1). I will show that this problem can partially be explained by showing that two circular-orbit planets can masquerade as a single planet on an eccentric orbit. I use this finding to predict that planets with mildly eccentric orbits are the most likely to have massive companions on wide orbits, potentially detectable by future direct imaging observations. Next I will present recent high-contrast 2-4 ?m imaging studies of the edge-on debris disks around HD 15115 and HD 32297. HD 15115’s color is found to be gray, implying large grains 1-10 ?m in size reside in stable orbits in the disk. HD 32297’s disk color is red from 1-4 ?m. Cometary material (carbon, silicates, and porous water ice) are a good match at 1-2 ?m but not at L?. Tholins, organic material that is found in outer solar system bodies, or small silicates can explain the disk’s red color but not the short wavelength data. I will then present my work on the dynamics of dust grains in the presence of massive planets. I will show that the width of a debris disk increases proportionally with the mass of its shepherding planet. I use this result to make predictions for the masses and orbits of putative planets in five well-known disks. Finally, I will present recent MagAO/Clio near-infrared imaging results on the debris disk around HR4796A spanning the 0.5-4 um wavelength range. These images reveal the disk at unprecedented detail, allowing detailed compositional and morphological modeling of the dust.

  8. Imaging the sources and full extent of the sodium tail of the planet Jeffrey Baumgardner,1

    E-print Network

    Mendillo, Michael

    and the use of sophisticated radiative transfer codes, as the peak number density of the sodium atoms can the observed brightness is com- plicated by the fact that each sodium atom in the column ``sees'' a differentImaging the sources and full extent of the sodium tail of the planet Mercury Jeffrey Baumgardner,1

  9. Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Guyon

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative to classical pupil apodization techniques (use of an amplitude pupil mask) is proposed. It is shown that an achromatic apodized pupil suitable for imaging of extrasolar planets can be obtained by reflection of an unapodized flat wavefront on two mirrors. By carefully choosing the shape of these two mirrors, it is possible to obtain a

  10. Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani

    E-print Network

    Heinze, A N; Kenworthy, Matthew; Miller, Douglas; Sivanandam, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained deep Adaptive Optics (AO) images of Vega and epsilon Eri to search for planetary-mass companions. We observed at the MMT in the L' (3.8 micron) and M (4.8 micron) bands using Clio, a recently commissioned imager optimized for these wavelengths. Observing at these long wavelengths represents a departure from the H band (1.65 microns) more commonly used for AO imaging searches for extrasolar planets. The long wavelengths offer better predicted planet/star flux ratios and cleaner (higher Strehl) AO images, at the cost of lower diffraction limited resolution and higher sky background. We have not detected any planets or planet candidates around Vega or epsilon Eri. We report the sensitivities obtained around both stars, which correspond to upper limits on any planetary companions which may exist. The sensitivities of our L' and M band observations are comparable to those of the best H-regime observations of these stars. For epsilon Eri our M band observations deliver considerably better sensitivi...

  11. Direct and interferometric imaging approaches for detecting earth-like extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, D. J.; Van Zyl, J.; Jones, D. L.; Tubbs, E.; Wright, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses functional requirements of space-based observational systems with sufficient sensitivity, resolution, and dynamic range to image earth-like extrasolar planets within a search radius of 10 parsecs from the sun. Both direct and interferometric systems operating at visible and infrared wavelengths are evaluated, and the methods used to establish the system tolerances are presented. Due to the more favorable star/planet contrast ratio in the infrared, optical tolerance requirements are less stringent than in the visible. However, reduction of thermal radiation from the telescope requires cooling of the primary optics. Other tradeoffs between various approaches are enumerated.

  12. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy with high contrast imaging: Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snellen, I.; de Kok, R.; Birkby, J. L.; Brandl, B.; Brogi, M.; Keller, C.; Kenworthy, M.; Schwarz, H.; Stuik, R.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Ground-based high-dispersion (R ~ 100 000) spectroscopy (HDS) is proving to be a powerful technique with which to characterize extrasolar planets. The planet signal is distilled from the bright starlight, combining ral and time-differential filtering techniques. In parallel, high-contrast imaging (HCI) is developing rapidly, aimed at spatially separating the planet from the star. While HDS is limited by the overwhelming noise from the host star, HCI is limited by residual quasi-static speckles. Both techniques currently reach planet-star contrast limits down to ~10-5, albeit for very different types of planetary systems. Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine HDS and HCI (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~10-5 × 10-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. In contrast to current direct imaging techniques, such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging, it will work well at small working angles and is much less sensitive to speckle noise. For the discovery of previously unknown planets HDS+HCI requires a high-contrast adaptive optics system combined with a high-dispersion R ~ 100 000 integral field spectrograph (IFS). This combination currently does not exist, but is planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the baseline parameters of the E-ELT and METIS instrument, with the latter combining extreme adaptive optics with an R = 100 000 IFS. We include realistic models of the adaptive optics performance and atmospheric transmission and emission. For the optical simulation we also assume R = 100 000 IFS with adaptive optics capabilities at the E-ELT. Results: One night of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT at 4.8 ?m (?? = 0.07 ?m) can detect a planet orbiting ? Cen A with a radius of R = 1.5 Rearth and a twin-Earth thermal spectrum of Teq = 300 K at a signal-to-noise (S/N) of 5. In the optical, with a Strehl ratio performance of 0.3, reflected light from an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of Proxima Centauri can be detected at a S/N of 10 in the same time frame. Recently, first HDS+HCI observations have shown the potential of this technique by determining the spin-rotation of the young massive exoplanet ? Pictoris b. Conclusions: The exploration of the planetary systems of our neighbor stars is of great scientific and philosophical value. The HDS+HCI technique has the potential to detect and characterize temperate rocky planets in their habitable zones. Exoplanet scientists should not shy away from claiming a significant fraction of the future ELTs to make such observations possible.

  13. A multi-wavelength study of the 2009 impact on Jupiter: Comparison of high resolution images from Gemini, Keck and HST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imke de Pater; Leigh N. Fletcher; Santiago Pérez-Hoyos; Heidi B. Hammel; Glenn S. Orton; Michael H. Wong; Statia Luszcz-Cook; Agustin Sánchez-Lavega; Mark Boslough

    2010-01-01

    Within several days of A. Wesley’s announcement that Jupiter was hit by an object on UT 19 July 2009, we observed the impact site with (1) the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at UV through visible (225–924nm) wavelengths, (2) the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope in the near-infrared (1–5?m), and (3) the 8-m Gemini-North telescope in the mid-infrared (7.7–18?m). All observations

  14. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    E-print Network

    Maire, A -L; Hinz, P M; Desidera, S; Esposito, S; Gratton, R; Marzari, F; Skrutskie, M F; Biller, B A; Defrère, D; Bailey, V P; Leisenring, J M; Apai, D; Bonnefoy, M; Brandner, W; Buenzli, E; Claudi, R U; Close, L M; Crepp, J R; De Rosa, R J; Eisner, J A; Fortney, J J; Henning, T; Hofmann, K -H; Kopytova, T G; Males, J R; Mesa, D; Morzinski, K M; Oza, A; Patience, J; Pinna, E; Rajan, A; Schertl, D; Schlieder, J E; Su, K Y L; Vaz, A; Ward-Duong, K; Weigelt, G; Woodward, C E

    2014-01-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly-imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly-imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the LBT is being used for the LEECH survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band, including their system architectures. Aims. We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed by Go\\'zdziewski & Migaszewski, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet interior to the known planets. Methods. We use observations of HR 8799 and the Theta1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results. We first chara...

  15. Brown dwarfs or planets? . Some direct imaging detections that blur the border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Gagné, J.; Lannier, J.; Lagrange, A. M.; Chauvin, G.

    We have been conducting an adaptive optic imaging survey to search for planetary-mass companions of young M dwarfs in the solar neigbourhood, in order to probe different initial conditions of planetary formation. We report here the direct-imaging discovery of 2MASS J01033563- 5515561(AB)b, a 12-14 M_Jup companion at a projected separation of 84 AU from a pair of young late-M stars, with which it shares proper motion. This young L-type object at the planet/brown dwarf mass boundary is the first ever imaged around a binary system at a separation compatible with formation in a disc.

  16. Beyond Kepler: Direct Imaging of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Is there another Earth out there? Is there life on it? People have been asking these questions for over two thousand years, and we finally stand on the verge of answering them. The Kepler space telescope is NASA's first mission designed to study Earthlike exoplanets (exo-Earths), and it will soon tell us how often exo-Earths occur in the habitable zones of their stars. The next natural step after Kepler is spectroscopic characterization of exo-Earths, which would tell us whether they possess an atmosphere, oxygen, liquid water, as well as other biomarkers. In order to do this, directly imaging an exo-Earth may be necessary (at least for Sun-like stars). Directly imaging an exo-Earth is challenging and likely requires a flagship-size optical space telescope with an unprecedented imaging system capable of achieving contrasts of 1(exp 10) very close to the diffraction limit. Several coronagraphs and external occulters have been proposed to meet this challenge and are in development. After first overviewing the history and current state of the field, my talk will focus on the work proceeding at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) at the NASA Ames Research Center, where we are developing the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph in a collaboration with JPL. PIAA is a powerful technique with demonstrated aggressive performance that defines the state of the art at small inner working angles. At ACE, we have achieved contrasts of 2(exp -8) with an inner working angle of 2 lambda/D and 1(exp -6) at 1.4 lambda/D. On the path to exo-Earth imaging, we are also pursuing a smaller telescope concept called EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), which was recently selected for technology development (Category III) by NASA's Explorer program. EXCEDE will do fundamental science on debris disks as well as serve as a technological and scientific pathfinder for an exo-Earth imaging mission.

  17. High-contrast imaging constraints on gas giant planet formation—The Herbig Ae/Be star opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quanz, Sascha P.

    2015-06-01

    Planet formation studies are often focused on solar-type stars, implicitly considering our Sun as reference point. This approach overlooks, however, that Herbig Ae/Be stars are in some sense much better targets to study planet formation processes empirically, with their disks generally being larger, brighter and simply easier to observe across a large wavelength range. In addition, massive gas giant planets have been found on wide orbits around early type stars, triggering the question if these objects did indeed form there and, if so, by what process. In the following I briefly review what we currently know about the occurrence rate of planets around intermediate mass stars, before discussing recent results from Herbig Ae/Be stars in the context of planet formation. The main emphasis is put on spatially resolved polarized light images of potentially planet forming disks and how these images—in combination with other data—can be used to empirically constrain (parts of) the planet formation process. Of particular interest are two objects, HD100546 and HD169142, where, in addition to intriguing morphological structures in the disks, direct observational evidence for (very) young planets has been reported. I conclude with an outlook, what further progress we can expect in the very near future with the next generation of high-contrast imagers at 8-m class telescopes and their synergies with ALMA.

  18. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  19. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.-L.; Skemer, A. J.; Hinz, P. M.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Marzari, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Biller, B. A.; Defrère, D.; Bailey, V. P.; Leisenring, J. M.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Buenzli, E.; Claudi, R. U.; Close, L. M.; Crepp, J. R.; De Rosa, R. J.; Eisner, J. A.; Fortney, J. J.; Henning, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kopytova, T. G.; Males, J. R.; Mesa, D.; Morzinski, K. M.; Oza, A.; Patience, J.; Pinna, E.; Rajan, A.; Schertl, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vaz, A.; Ward-Duong, K.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the Large Binocular Telescope is being used for the LBT Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band (3.8 ?m), including their system architectures. Aims: We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed for the system, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet inside the known planets. Methods: We use observations of HR 8799 and the ?1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results: We first characterize the distortion of LMIRCam. We determine a platescale and a true north orientation for the images of 10.707 ± 0.012 mas/pix and -0.430 ± 0.076°, respectively. The errors on the platescale and true north orientation translate into astrometric accuracies at a separation of 1'' of 1.1 mas and 1.3 mas, respectively. The measurements for all planets agree within 3? with a predicted ephemeris. The orbital fitting based on the new astrometric measurements favors an architecture for the planetary system based on 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance. The detection limits allow us to exclude a fifth planet slightly brighter or more massive than HR 8799 b at the location of the 2:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~9.5 AU) and about twice as bright as HR 8799 cde at the location of the 3:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~7.5 AU). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  20. ESTIMATES OF THE PLANET YIELD FROM GROUND-BASED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OBSERVATIONS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: jcrepp@astro.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into consideration the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of stars in the solar neighborhood, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys, both biased and unbiased, and express the resulting planet yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date (i.e., HR 8799, {beta} Pic). Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of gas-giant planets from radial velocity (RV) surveys, our simulations indicate that naive extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to semimajor axes accessible to high-contrast instruments provides an excellent agreement between simulations and observations using present-day contrast levels. In addition to being intrinsically young and sufficiently bright to serve as their own beacon for adaptive optics correction, A-stars have a high planet occurrence rate and propensity to form massive planets in wide orbits, making them ideal targets. The same effects responsible for creating a multitude of detectable planets around massive stars conspire to reduce the number orbiting low-mass stars. However, in the case of a young stellar cluster, where targets are approximately the same age and situated at roughly the same distance, MK-stars can easily dominate the number of detections because of an observational bias related to small number statistics. The degree to which low-mass stars produce the most planet detections in this special case depends upon whether multiple formation mechanisms are at work. Upon relaxing our assumption that planets in ultra-wide (a > 100 AU) orbits resemble the RV sample, our simulations suggest that the companions found orbiting late-type stars (AB Pic, 1RXSJ1609, GSC 06214, etc.) are consistent with a formation channel distinct from that of RV planets. These calculations explain why planets have thus far been imaged preferentially around A-stars and K-, M-stars, but no spectral types in between, despite concerted efforts targeting F-, G-stars.

  1. How Do Images Help Us Learn About Our Planet Earth?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nighttime light patterns on Earth have been recorded using NASA satellites. In this investigation, students will correlate those patterns of lights with the distribution of human populations, and then determine if related statements included in the activity are true or false. Additionally, students will use a world atlas to investigate the physical features and climate of both the populated and unpopulated areas and then use that information to explain the population patterns. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 3 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 3 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 3, while related, can be done independently. Please see Investigation 1 of this module for a two-page module overview and list of all standards addressed.

  2. Current and future facility instruments at the Gemini Observatory Joseph B. Jensen, Scot J. Kleinman, Douglas A. Simons,

    E-print Network

    Bifano, Thomas

    ,4,5,6,7,8 On the Gemini-North telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Gemini operates the GMOS optical multi-object imaging access to the southern version of GMOS and the T-ReCS mid-IR thermal imager and spectrograph18 . NOAO

  3. Gemini G.E.L. online catalogue raisonne

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Gallery of Art presents the Gemini G.E.L. (Graphic Editions Limited) online catalogue raisonne, a listing of prints produced at this Los Angeles studio from 1966 through 1996. At Gemini, artists including Robert Rauschenberg, Ellsworth Kelly, Jasper Johns, David Hockney, Sam Francis, Roy Lichtenstein, Jonathan Borofsky, and Richard Serra worked with master printers to produce editions of prints. Initially the online catalogue raisonne seems difficult to browse, but the search area provides drop-down boxes for artists' names, dates, and series titles, so without prior knowledge that Frank Stella worked at Gemini, one can still retrieve 93 Stella prints. In the essay section, users can read a series of illustrated sections on the history of Gemini, individual artists, and decades, and link to larger images. The guide section explains the metadata fields in each catalog record, such as artist, series, title, and less obvious aspects such as "support," which refers to the support each print is on, almost always paper, or start date (year the artists began collaborating with Gemini) vs. signature date (year the artist signed the edition) vs. publication date (year the edition was made available).

  4. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES. II. 12 KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST AND 15 CONFIRMED TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Dupree, A. K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kulesa, C.; McCarthy, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    All transiting planet observations are at risk of contamination from nearby, unresolved stars. Blends dilute the transit signal, causing the planet to appear smaller than it really is, or producing a false positive detection when the target star is blended with an eclipsing binary. High spatial resolution adaptive optics images are an effective way of resolving most blends. Here we present visual companions and detection limits for 12 Kepler planet candidate host stars, of which 4 have companions within 4''. One system (KOI 1537) consists of two similar-magnitude stars separated by 0.''1, while KOI 174 has a companion at 0.''5. In addition, observations were made of 15 transiting planets that were previously discovered by other surveys. The only companion found within 1'' of a known planet is the previously identified companion to WASP-2b. An additional four systems have companions between 1'' and 4'': HAT-P-30b (3.''7, {Delta}Ks = 2.9), HAT-P-32b (2.''9, {Delta}Ks = 3.4), TrES-1b (2.''3, {Delta}Ks = 7.7), and WASP-P-33b (1.''9, {Delta}Ks = 5.5), some of which have not been reported previously. Depending on the spatial resolution of the transit photometry for these systems, these companion stars may require a reassessment of the planetary parameters derived from transit light curves. For all systems observed, we report the limiting magnitudes beyond which additional fainter objects located 0.''1-4'' from the target may still exist.

  5. The Nine Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the planet Mars. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results from exploration spacecraft. Phobos and Deimos (Mars satellites) are also covered in depth. The site provides links to more images, movies, and facts about Mars and its moons, and discusses unanswered questions about the planet.

  6. A Laboratory Demonstration of the Capability to Image an Earth-like Extrasolar Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trauger, John T.; Wesley, A. Traub

    2007-01-01

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 times 10-10 times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 times 10-10 times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 times 10-10. This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star.

  7. A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Trauger, John T; Traub, Wesley A

    2007-04-12

    The detection and characterization of an Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star requires a telescope with an extraordinarily large contrast at small angular separations. At visible wavelengths, an Earth-like planet would be 1 x 10(-10) times fainter than the star at angular separations of typically 0.1 arcsecond or less. There are several proposed space telescope systems that could, in principle, achieve this. Here we report a laboratory experiment that reaches these limits. We have suppressed the diffracted and scattered light near a star-like source to a level of 6 x 10(-10) times the peak intensity in individual coronagraph images. In a series of such images, together with simple image processing, we have effectively reduced this to a residual noise level of about 0.1 x 10(-10). This demonstrates that a coronagraphic telescope in space could detect and spectroscopically characterize nearby exoplanetary systems, with the sensitivity to image an 'Earth-twin' orbiting a nearby star. PMID:17429394

  8. The Planet Pipeline: Enabling Data Mining and Citizen Science with Hubble Space Telescope Solar System Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, S.; Mutchler, M.; Conti, A.; Viana, A.; Wong, M. H.; Gay, P.

    2012-12-01

    In 15 years of service, the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained over 10,000 frames of Solar System data. Since HST's standard data reduction pipelines are not optimized for moving target data, our "planet pipeline" will uniformly reprocess and catalog this WFPC2 image collection to make it more immediately science-ready. Some of our processing steps will utilize citizen scientists to perform visual inspections. Our "Planet Investigators" website, built on CosmoQuest infrastructure, will allow people to assist us in verifying our artifact rejections and assemble object catalogs. It is now easily possible to have each image inspected multiple times, and set up iterative processes that can converge on the optimal output with greater confidence. Our corresponding database will enable robust queries which are more specific to planetary science, helping archival researchers quickly find and utilize the prepared images within our collection for a wide range of scientific analyses. Our processed images and associated catalogs will be made available as High Level Science Products (HLSP) in the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST): http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/planetpipeline

  9. How to Directly Image a Habitable Planet Around Alpha Centauri with a ~30cm Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Acend Team, Acesat Team

    2015-01-01

    Several mission concepts are being studied to directly image planets around nearby stars. Direct imaging enables spectroscopic detection of biomarkers such as atmospheric oxygen and methane, which would be highly suggestive of extraterrestrial life. It is commonly thought that directly imaging a potentially habitable exoplanet requires telescopes with apertures of at least 1m, costing at least 1B, and launching no earlier than the 2020s.A notable exception to this is Alpha Centauri (A and B), which is an extreme outlier among FGKM stars in terms of apparent habitable zone size. Specifically, Alpha Centauri habitable zones span about 0.5-1' in stellocentric angle, ~3x wider than around any other FGKM star. This enables a ~30cm visible light space telescope equipped with a modern high performance coronagraph or starshade to resolve the habitable zone at high contrast and directly image any potentially habitable planet that may exist in the system. Due to the extreme apparent brightness of the stars, exposure times can be as short as minutes with ideal components, or days with realistic ones. This makes it possible to do color photometry on potentially habitable planets sufficient to differentiate Venus-like, Earth-like, and Mars-like planets from each other and establish the presence of Earth-pressure atmosphere through Rayleigh scattering.The raw contrast requirements for such an instrument can be relaxed to 1e-8 if the mission spends 2 years collecting tens of thousands of images on the same target, enabling a factor of 500-1000 speckle suppression in post processing. The light leak from both stars is controllable with a special wavefront control algorithm known as Multi-Star Wavefront Control (MSWC), which independently suppresses diffraction and aberrations from both stars using independent modes on the deformable mirror (see Thomas et al. at this conference).The presentation will describe the general studies and calculations in more detail and briefly present examples of small coronagraphic mission concepts currently being developed to take advantage of this opportunity. (For more detail about one such concept, see Bendek et al. at this conference).

  10. High-contrast imaging constraints on gas giant planet formation - The Herbig Ae/Be star opportunity

    E-print Network

    Quanz, Sascha P

    2015-01-01

    Planet formation studies are often focused on solar-type stars, implicitly considering our Sun as reference point. This approach overlooks, however, that Herbig Ae/Be stars are in some sense much better targets to study planet formation processes empirically, with their disks generally being larger, brighter and simply easier to observe across a large wavelength range. In addition, massive gas giant planets have been found on wide orbits around early type stars, triggering the question if these objects did indeed form there and, if so, by what process. In the following I briefly review what we currently know about the occurrence rate of planets around intermediate mass stars, before discussing recent results from Herbig Ae/Be stars in the context of planet formation. The main emphasis is put on spatially resolved polarized light images of potentially planet forming disks and how these images - in combination with other data - can be used to empirically constrain (parts of) the planet formation process. Of par...

  11. Gemini Titan II Booster Electrical System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman E. Sitter

    1966-01-01

    A description of the Gemini Titan II Launch Vehicle's redundant electrical system and differences between the electrical systems of the Titan II and Gemini Titan II Launch Vehicles are presented. Also described are the interfaces with the guidance\\/flight control, malfunction detection, range safety, hydraulic and instrumentation systems, and the interface of the launch vehicle and Gemini spacecraft. Principal electrical component

  12. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  13. Index maps for Gemini earth photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Index maps for the Gemini missions are presented; these are for the Gemini 3 through Gemini 12 missions. The maps are divided into four sections: the whole earth; the Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific Ocean; Africa, India, and the Near East; and Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean.

  14. The trends high-contrast imaging survey. IV. The occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Montet, Benjamin T. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W., E-mail: btm@astro.caltech.edu [B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Doppler-based planet surveys have discovered numerous giant planets but are incomplete beyond several AU. At larger star-planet separations, direct planet detection through high-contrast imaging has proven successful, but this technique is sensitive only to young planets and characterization relies upon theoretical evolution models. Here we demonstrate that radial velocity measurements and high-contrast imaging can be combined to overcome these issues. The presence of widely separated companions can be deduced by identifying an acceleration (long-term trend) in the radial velocity of a star. By obtaining high spatial resolution follow-up imaging observations, we rule out scenarios in which such accelerations are caused by stellar binary companions with high statistical confidence. We report results from an analysis of Doppler measurements of a sample of 111 M-dwarf stars with a median of 29 radial velocity observations over a median time baseline of 11.8 yr. By targeting stars that exhibit a radial velocity acceleration ({sup t}rend{sup )} with adaptive optics imaging, we determine that 6.5% ± 3.0% of M-dwarf stars host one or more massive companions with 1 < m/M{sub J} < 13 and 0 < a < 20 AU. These results are lower than analyses of the planet occurrence rate around higher-mass stars. We find the giant planet occurrence rate is described by a double power law in stellar mass M and metallicity F ? [Fe/H] such that f(M,F)=0.039{sub ?0.028}{sup +0.056}M{sup 0.8{sub ?}{sub 0}{sub .}{sub 9}{sup +{sup 1{sup .{sup 1}}}}}10{sup (3.8±1.2)F}. Our results are consistent with gravitational microlensing measurements of the planet occurrence rate; this study represents the first model-independent comparison with microlensing observations.

  15. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets with stationary occultations viewed by a space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a telescope in space to detect planets outside the solar system by means of imaging at optical wavelengths is discussed. If the 'black' limb of the moon is utilized as an occulting edge, a hypothetical Jupiter-Sun system could be detected at a distance as great as 10 pc, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 9 could be achieved in less than 20 min with a 2.4 m telescope in space. An orbit for the telescope is proposed; this orbit could achieve a stationary lunar occultation of any star for a period of nearly two hours.

  16. The Nine Planets: Pluto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets contains details about the planet Pluto. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and information about Pluto's moon, Charon. Unanswered questions are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are provided.

  17. The Nine Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Venus. Information includes planet mass, distance from the Sun, diameter, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on the planet, and results of exploration spacecraft. Includes links to images, movies, and additional facts. Discusses unanswered questions about Venus as well.

  18. ACS Imaging of Fomalhaut: A Rosetta Stone for Debris Disks Sculpted by Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul

    2005-07-01

    The Sun and roughly 15% of stars are surrounded by dust disks collisionally replenished by asteroids and comets. Disk structure can be directly tied to the dynamical influence of more massive bodies such as planets. For example, planetary perturbations offset the center of our zodiacal dust disk 0.01 AU away from the Sun and also maintain a 40 AU radius inner edge to our Kuiper Belt. Here we propose follow-up observation to the first optical detection of reflected light from dust grains surrounding the nearby star Fomalhaut using HST/ACS. We find a belt of material between 133 and 158 AU radius that has a center position offset 15 AU from the stellar position, and with a sharp inner edge. A tenuous dust component interior to the belt is also detected in the southeast. Given Fomalhaut's proximity to the Sun {7.7 pc}, these images represent the closest and highest angular resolution view of an extrasolar analog to our Kuiper Belt. The center of symmetry offset and the sharp inner edge of Fomalhaut's belt are evidence for planet-mass objects orbiting the star as predicted by dynamical theory and simulations. We propose comprehensive follow-up ACS imaging to fully exploit this discovery and map the disk around its entire circumference with higher signal-to-noise and at multiple wavelengths. HST/ACS is certainly the only facility capable of performing this relatively wide field optical study at high contrast ratios and diffraction-limited resolution. The Cycle 14 data will provide key measurements of belt width as a function of azimuth, the scattered light color of the belt versus the inner dust component, and the azimuthal structure of the belt. These data will be used to constrain dynamical models of resonances and shepherding that ultimately elucidate the dynamical properties of planet-mass objects in the system.

  19. The Nine Planets: Neptune

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This Nine Planets page contains details about the gas giant planet Neptune and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Neptune's moons and rings are also detailed, including Nereid, Triton, Proteus, and many others. Unanswered questions about the planet and its moons are covered, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

  20. The Nine Planets: Saturn

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of Nine Planets contains details about the gas giant planet Saturn and its moons. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered are planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, surface temperature, and results of spacecraft exploration. Saturn's moons and rings are also detailed, including Titan, Iapetus, Tethys, Rhea, Dione, and others. Unanswered questions about the planet are discussed, and links to more images, movies, and facts are given.

  1. GAPS IN THE HD 169142 PROTOPLANETARY DISK REVEALED BY POLARIMETRIC IMAGING: SIGNS OF ONGOING PLANET FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Avenhaus, Henning; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Buenzli, Esther [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wolf, Sebastian, E-mail: sascha.quanz@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    We present H-band Very Large Telescope/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as {approx}0.''1 to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to {approx}1.''7 ({approx}250 AU) and reveal distinct substructures for the first time: (1) the inner disk ({approx}<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; (2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at {approx}25 AU; (3) an annular gap extends from {approx}40 to 70 AU; (4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting, but yet to be proven, one. Outside of {approx}85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly {proportional_to}r {sup -3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU and 120-250 AU separately with power laws {proportional_to}r {sup -2.6} and {proportional_to}r {sup -3.9} provides a better fit hinting toward another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk-integrated polarized light and the central star is {approx}4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. Finally, combining our results with those from the literature, {approx}40% of the scattered light in the H band appears to be polarized. Our results emphasize that HD 169142 is an interesting system for future planet formation or disk evolution studies.

  2. Gemini 10 prime crew in suiting trailer during Gemini 10 prelaunch countdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 10 prime crew, Astronauts John W. Young (background), command pilot, and Michael Collins (foreground), pilot, relax in Launch Complex 16 suiting trailer during the Gemini 10 prelaunch countdown.

  3. ALTAIR performance and updates at Gemini North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Julian C.; Neichel, Benoit; Rigaut, Francois; Sheehan, Michael; McDermid, Richard M.; Trancho, Gelys; Trujillo, Chadwick; Walls, Brian

    2010-07-01

    We present up-to-date performance characteristics for natural guide star (NGS) operation of the ALTAIR adaptive optics system at the Gemini N. 8m telescope. These results are obtained from a nightly performance monitoring campaign where we obtain a consistent set of point spread functions (PSFs) over a broad range of observing conditions. These results are compared with system modelling and circular buffer information from the Altair adaptive optics (AO) system. The latter show residual tip-tilt errors with a median rms ~ 18.5 mas. We also present preliminary results from a new operational mode of the laser guide star (LGS) AO which will eventually yield all-sky access with image FWHM ~ 0.1" - 0.2".

  4. ExSPO: A Discovery Class Apodized Square Aperture (ASA) Expo-Planet Imaging Space Telescope Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D.; Harwit, M.; Lyon, R.; Melnick, G.; Papaliolos, G.; Ridgeway, S.; Woodruff, R.; Nisenson, P.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ExSPO is a Discovery Class (approx. 4 meter) apodized square aperture (ASA) space telescope mission designed for direct imaging of extrasolar Earth-like planets, as a precursor to TPF. The ASA telescope concept, instrument design, capabilities, mission plan and science goals are described.

  5. HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SEARCH FOR PLANETS AND BROWN DWARFS AROUND THE MOST MASSIVE STARS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Klahr, Hubert [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Lafreniere, David [Department of Physics, University of Montreal, Montreal, ON (Canada); Zinnecker, Hans, E-mail: janson@astro.utoronto.ca [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-08-01

    There has been a long-standing discussion in the literature as to whether core accretion or disk instability is the dominant mode of planet formation. Over the last decade, several lines of evidence have been presented showing that core accretion is most likely the dominant mechanism for the close-in population of planets probed by radial velocity and transits. However, this does not by itself prove that core accretion is the dominant mode for the total planet population, since disk instability might conceivably produce and retain large numbers of planets in the far-out regions of the disk. If this is a relevant scenario, then the outer massive disks of B-stars should be among the best places for massive planets and brown dwarfs to form and reside. In this study, we present high-contrast imaging of 18 nearby massive stars of which 15 are in the B2-A0 spectral-type range and provide excellent sensitivity to wide companions. By comparing our sensitivities to model predictions of disk instability based on physical criteria for fragmentation and cooling, and using Monte Carlo simulations for orbital distributions, we find that {approx}85% of such companions should have been detected in our images on average. Given this high degree of completeness, stringent statistical limits can be set from the null-detection result, even with the limited sample size. We find that <30% of massive stars form and retain disk instability planets, brown dwarfs, and very low mass stars of <100 M{sub jup} within 300 AU, at 99% confidence. These results, combined with previous findings in the literature, lead to the conclusion that core accretion is likely the dominant mode of planet formation.

  6. Design for a phase 0 network Gemini Preprint #86

    E-print Network

    Office, 950 North Cherry, Tucson, AZ 85719 Shane Walker Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, cGemini Observatory, Tucson Project Office, 950 North Cherry, Tucson, AZ 85719 bGemini Observatory, Southern

  7. Gemini North Laser Adaptive Optics Performance: First Science Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chadwick A. Trujillo; F. Rigaut; D. Gratadour; M. Bec; T. Beck; S. Chan; A. Matulonis; G. Trancho; B. Walls; A. Stephens; M. Boccas; K. Grace; P. Gundu; C. d'Orgeville; M. Sheehan; J. White; K. White; R. Wyman; G. Herriot; J. Veran

    2006-01-01

    The Gemini North Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system, Altair\\/LGS, has been offered for science use in semesters 2006B and 2007A with both NIRI (near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy) and NIFS (near-infrared integrated field unit spectroscopy). Altair\\/LGS uses a 589 nm laser beacon projected into the sodium layer at roughly 90 km altitude to sense and correct high-order atmospheric turbulence and

  8. Mercury Sodium Atmosphere Spectral Imager (MSASI) - taking High Resolution Interferometry to the Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Kameda, Shingo; Korablev, Oleg; Rees, David

    The Mercury Sodium Atmosphere Spectral Imager (MSASI) on the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of the JAXA / ESA Bepi-Colombo (BC) Mission will address a range of fundamental scientific questions pertaining to Mercury's exosphere. The measurements will provide new information on regolith-exosphere-magnetosphere coupling as well as new understanding of the dynamics governing the exosphere bounded by the planetary surface, the solar wind and interplanetary space. MSASI is a high-dispersion visible spectrometer working in the spectral region near the sodium D2 emission (589 nm), a major constituent of the Mercury exosphere. A single high-resolution Fabry-Perot etalon is used in combination with a narrow-band interference filter to achieve a compact and efficient instrument design. The etalon and filter are extremely stable with respect to long-term ageing and temperature variations. Full-disk images of the planet are obtained by means of a single-axis scanning mirror in combination with the spin of the MMO spacecraft . This paper presents an overview of the MSASI and the design of the Fabry- Perot interferometer used as its spectral analyser. It is concluded that: (1) The MSASI optical design is practical and can be implemented without new or critical technology developments; (2) The thermally-stable etalon design is based on concepts, designs and materials that have a good space heritage. (3) The MSASI instrument will achieve a high SNR (˜10) in the range of 2K-10M Rayleigh.

  9. Obtaining coincident image observations for Mission to Planet Earth science data return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft; Folta, David C.; Farrell, James P.

    1994-01-01

    One objective of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) program involves comparing data from various instruments on multiple spacecraft to obtain a total picture of the Earth's systems. To correlate image data from instruments on different spacecraft, these spacecraft must be able to image the same location on the Earth at approximately the same time. Depending on the orbits of the spacecraft involved, complicated operational details must be considered to obtain such observations. If the spacecraft are in similar orbits, close formation flying or synchronization techniques may be used to assure coincident observations. If the orbits are dissimilar, the launch time of the second satellite may need to be restricted in order to align its orbit with that of the first satellite launched. This paper examines strategies for obtaining coincident observations for spacecraft in both similar and dissimilar orbits. Although these calculations may be performed easily for coplanar spacecraft, the non-coplanar case involves additional considerations which are incorporated into the algorithms presented herein.

  10. Dwarf planet Ceres: Ellipsoid dimensions and rotational pole from Keck and VLT adaptive optics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Merline, W. J.; Dumas, C.; Hammel, H.; Erard, S.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Chapman, C. R.

    2014-07-01

    The dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the largest object between Mars and Jupiter, is the target of the NASA Dawn mission, and we seek a comprehensive description of the spin-axis orientation and dimensions of Ceres in order to support the early science operations at the rendezvous in 2015. We have obtained high-angular resolution images using adaptive optics cameras at the W.M. Keck Observatory and the ESO VLT over ten dates between 2001 and 2010, confirming that the shape of Ceres is well described by an oblate spheroid. We derive equatorial and polar diameters of 967 ± 10 km and 892 ± 10 km, respectively, for a model that includes fading of brightness towards the terminator, presumably linked to limb darkening. These dimensions lie between values derived from a previous analysis of a subset of these images obtained at Keck by Carry et al. (Carry et al. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 478 (4), 235-244) and a study of Hubble Space Telescope observations (Thomas et al. [2005]. Nature 437, 224-226). Although the dimensions are 1-2% smaller than those found from the HST, the oblateness is similar. We find the spin-vector coordinates of Ceres to lie at (287°, +64°) in equatorial EQJ2000 reference frame (346°, +82° in ecliptic ECJ2000 coordinates), yielding a small obliquity of 3°. While this is in agreement with the aforementioned studies, we have improved the accuracy of the pole determination, which we set at a 3° radius.

  11. Welcome to the Gemini Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michaud, Peter

    This site covers many aspects of the Gemini Observatory. It discusses where it is located, what it observes, what pictures it takes, and certain issues that pertain to it. In addition, it allows users to take a virtual tour of the campus. In a Quicktime format, a 360 degree picture is taken of the observatory and the surrounding landscape. Users can virtually move about and see the impressive, and the impressively beautiful, landscape. The site also provides links to newsletters, press releases and the clips of the observatory in the news. This is a nice look at the different goals and features of a prominent observatory.

  12. Gemini near-infrared integral field spectrograph (NIFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Peter J.; Hart, John; Conroy, Peter G.; Pfitzner, Murray L.; Bloxham, Gabe J.; Jones, Damien J.; Downing, Mark D.; Dawson, Murray; Young, Peter; Jarnyk, Mark; Van Harmelen, Jan

    2003-03-01

    NIFS is a near-infrared integral field spectrograph designed for near diffraction-limited imaging spectroscopy with the ALTAIR facility adaptive optics system on Gemini North. NIFS is currently under construction at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University. Commissioning is planned for 2003. NIFS uses a reflective concentric integral field unit to reformat its 3.0"x3.0" field-of-view into 29 slitlets each 0.1" wide with 0.04" sampling along each slitlet. The NIFS spectrograph has a resolving power of ~ 5300, which is large enough to significantly separate terrestrial airglow emission lines and resolve velocity structure in galaxies. The output format is matched to a 2048x2048 pixel Rockwell HAWAII-2 detector. The detector is read out through a SDSU-2 detector controller connected via a VME interface to the Gemini Data Handling System. NIFS is a fast-tracked instrument that reuses many of the designs of the Gemini Near-InfraRed Imager (NIRI); the cryostat, On-Instrument Wave Front Sensor, control system, and control software are largely duplicates.

  13. Gemini's instrumentation program: latest results and long-range plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccas, Maxime; Kleinman, S. J.; Goodsell, Stephen; Tollestrup, Eric; Adamson, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Christou, Julian; Gonzalez, Patricio; Hanna, Kevin; Hartung, Markus; Lazo, Manuel; Mason, Rachel; Neichel, Benoît; Perez, Gabriel; Simons, Doug; Walls, Brian; White, John

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Observatory is going through an extraordinary time with astronomical instrumentation. New powerful capabilities are delivered and are soon entering scientific operations. In parallel, new instruments are being planned and designed to align the strategy with community needs and enhance the competitiveness of the Observatory for the next decade. We will give a broad overview of the instrumentation program, focusing on achievements, challenges and strategies within a scientific, technical and management perspective. In particular we will discuss the following instruments and projects (some will have dedicated detailed papers in this conference): GMOS-CCD refurbishment, FLAMINGOS-2, GeMS (MCAO system and imager GSAOI), GPI, new generation of A&G, GRACES (fiber feed to CFHT ESPaDOnS) and GHOS (Gemini High-resolution Optical Spectrograph), and provide some updates about detector controllers, mid-IR instruments, Altair, GNIRS, GLAO and future workhorse instruments.

  14. The Nine Planets: Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page contains details about the planet Earth. Information includes planet diameter, mass, distance from the Sun, orbit, and mythology. Also covered is planet composition, surface features, atmosphere and magnetic field data, temperature on planet, and data on its satellite: the Moon. Links are provided to more images, movies, and information about the Earth and Moon. This site discusses unanswered questions about Earth as well.

  15. Detection and characterization of the atmospheres of the HR 8799 b and c planets with high contrast HST/WFC3 imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Abhijith; Barman, Travis; Soummer, Remi; Pueyo, Laurent; Patience, Jenny; Brendan Hagan, J.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from our Hubble Space Telescope program to characterize the atmospheres of two planets, b and c, in the HR8799 system, the only directly imaged multi-planet system currently known. Images were taken in three near-infrared medium-band filters -- F098M, F127M and F137M -- using the Wide Field Camera 3. One of the three filters is sensitive to water absorption bands inaccessible from ground-based observations, providing a unique probe of the thermal emission from the atmospheres of these young, warm giant planets. To enable the detections, we utilized the exquisite pointing accuracy of HST in combination with an innovative pipeline designed to combine the dithered, angular differential imaging data which improved the image resolution while accurately capturing the photometric information. The program spanned 15 orbits and the full data set was analyzed with the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) routine, an advanced image processing algorithm designed specifically to work with HST data. The results include the first images of the outer-most planet HR 8799 b in the water-band filter, and both the two outer planets in the J-band peak. By probing in regions of the planet spectral energy distribution previously unobservable, we place unique constraints on their atmospheric properties.

  16. Imaging power of multi-fibered nulling telescopes for extra-solar planet characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, François

    2011-10-01

    In this paper are discussed the nulling and imaging properties of monolithic pupil telescopes equipped with a focal plane waveguide array, which could be envisaged as precursor space missions for future nulling interferometers or coronagraphs searching for habitable planets outside of our solar system. Three different concepts of nulling telescopes are reviewed, namely the Super-Resolving Telescope (SRT) having multiple, non-overlapping exit sub-apertures and the Sheared-Pupil Telescope (SPT), either unmasked or masked with a Lyot stop placed at its exit pupil plane. For each case simple theoretical relationships allowing to estimate the nulling rate, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Inner Working Angle (IWA) of the telescope are established or recalled, and numerical simulations are conducted. The preliminary results of this study show that the most promising designs should either be a SRT of high radiometric efficiency associated with an adequate leakage calibration procedure, or a masked SPT with potentially deeper nulling rates but lower SNR, depending on what kind of performance is to be preferred.

  17. The Atmospheres of Directly Imaged Planets: Where Has All the Methane Gone?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Methane and ammonia both first appear at lower effective temperatures in brown dwarf atmospheres than equilibrium chemistry models would suggest. This has traditionally been understood as a consequence of vertical mixing timescales being shorter than chemical equilibration timescales in brown dwarf photospheres. Indeed the eddy diffusivity, a variable accounting for the vigor of vertical mixing, has become a standard part of the description of brown dwarf atmosphere models, along with Teff and log g. While some models have suggested that methane is less favored at lower gravity, the almost complete absence of methane in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, such as those orbiting HR 8799, even at effective temperatures where methane is readily apparent in brown dwarf spectra, has been puzzling. To better understand the paucity of methane in low gravity atmospheres we have revisited the problem of methane chemistry and mixing. We employed a 1-D atmospheric chemistry code augmented with an updated and complete network of the chemical reactions that link CO to CH4. We find the methane abundance at altitudes at or above the effective photosphere is a strong function of surface gravity because higher g shifts the p-T structure to higher pressures (i.e., a given optical depth is proportional to p/g, a relation mitigated somewhat by pressure broadening). Thus quenching in more massive brown dwarfs occurs at a lower temperature and higher pressure, both favoring CH4. We predict that in the lowest mass young giant planets, methane will appear very late, at effective temperatures as low as 600 K rather than the 1200 K seen among field brown dwarfs. This methane deficiency has important implications for the interpretation of spectra as well as methane-based planetary companion searches, such as the NICI survey. The GPI and SPHERE surveys will test these ideas and probe atmospheric chemistry and composition in an entire new range of parameter space. A caveat is that these calculations presume that the C to O ratio is comfortably less than one; the behavior is quite different if C and O are equally abundant, and of course CH4 is always present if C exceeds O.

  18. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy (HDS) with high contrast imaging (HCI): Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors

    E-print Network

    Snellen, Ignas; Birkby, Jayne; Brandl, Bernhard; Brogi, Matteo; Keller, Christoph; Kenworthy, Matthew; Schwarz, Henriette; Stuik, Remko

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine High Dispersion Spectroscopy and High Contrast Imaging (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~1e-5 x 1e-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the baseline parameters of the E-ELT and METIS instrument, with the latter combining extreme adaptive optics with an R=100,...

  19. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. PMID:24238395

  20. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Rindlisbacher

    2006-10-04

    The students will learn about the planets and about their attributes. What do they need to support human life? What are the names of the planets in the solar system? The Nine Planets What are the physical properties of each planet? The Solar System - Pictures of the planets Now you can make your own planet! Make Your Own Planet ...

  1. Band-limited image plane masks for the Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph: materials and designs for broadband performance.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2008-01-10

    Coronagraphs for detection and characterization of exosolar earthlike planets require accurate masks with broadband performance in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Design and fabrication of image plane masks capable of suppressing broadband starlight to 10(-10) level contrast presents technical challenges. We discuss basic approaches, material choices, designs, and fabrication options for image plane masks with particular focus on material properties to obtain adequate spectral performance. Based on theoretical analysis, we show that metals such as Pt and Ni, and alloys such as Inconel, may be employed as promising mask materials that can meet broadband performance requirements. PMID:18188191

  2. Spiral arms in scattered light images of protoplanetary discs: are they the signposts of planets?

    E-print Network

    Juhász, A.; Benisty, M.; Pohl, A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Dominik, C.; Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2015-06-05

    , can be calculated by decomposing the po- tential of the planet into Fourier harmonics azimuthally and solving the resulting ordinary differential equations for the linear perturba- tions numerically (e.g. Korycansky & Pollack 1993). The resulting...

  3. Schirra, Stafford and Gemini on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Walter H. Schirra Jr. (on right), Command pilot, climbs from his Gemini VI spacecraft as he and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (not in view) arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. They are assisted by various McDonell Douglas technicians. The Gemini VI spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recover area at 10:29 a.m. (EST) December 16, 1965, after a successful 25 hr. 52 minute mission in space.

  4. A Survey of Massive Planets by Direct Imaging with Advanced Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.

    2003-01-01

    The observations are completed. The observing that has been done essentially on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with the PUEO adaptive optics system, is sufficient to identify approximately 10 Jupiter masses objects around the selected targets. A small amount of data was also collected on the Gemini Telescope with the Hokupa'a adaptive optics system. For most of the stars of the sample, about 30mn of exposure time was collected per epoch, with at least 2 epochs. About 15% of the stars of the sample did not meet these requirements, due to observing difficulties listed below: (1) Guide star is too faint for the AO system; (2) The guide star is a close double (about 0.5 to 1 inch separation), which makes it unsuitable for AO guiding; (3) For a few stars, weather and observing constraints could not allow observations.

  5. Which Planet Shall We Visit?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learners will compare images of planets and select one planet to visit and tell the tale of their visit through a comic strip. This is activity 9 of 9 in Mars and Earth: Science Learning Activities for After School.

  6. USGS Map-a-Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Astrogeology

    Explore global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons.

  7. Extrasolar Planets! Solar System Planets!

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Richard

    Extrasolar Planets! #12;Solar System Planets! #12;Small, rocky planets on the inside Large, gas-giant and ice-giant planets on the outside ! #12;Relative sizes of Solar System planets! #12;Relative sizes of Sun and planets The Sun is ~ 1000 times more massive than Jupiter Jupiter is ~ 300 times more massive

  8. Future Gemini Instrumentation F.C. Gillett and C.M. Mountain

    E-print Network

    Guide Star/Laser Beacon Adaptive Optics (AO) system at Cerro Pachon, and laser beacon capability­IR Imager 5 � NGS Adaptive Optics System (Altair) 6 � Near IR High Resolution Spectrometer (Phoenix) 8 wavelengths, on both Gemini telescopes. The implementation of adaptive optics (AO) was considered of paramount

  9. A novel L-band imaging search for giant planets in the Tucana and Beta Pictoris moving groups

    E-print Network

    Markus Kasper; Daniel Apai; Markus Janson; Wolfgang Brandner

    2007-06-01

    The paper presents results from a small survey of 22 young, nearby stars that was designed to detect substellar companions and ultimately giant extrasolar planets down to Jupiter masses. The targets are members of the Tucana and Beta Pictoris moving groups apart from the somewhat older star HIP 71395 that has a radial velocity trend suggesting a massive planet in large orbit. The survey was carried out in the L-band using adaptive optics assisted imaging with NAOS-CONICA (NACO) at the VLT. The chosen observation wavelength is well suited to search for close companions around young stars and delivers unprecedented detection limits. The presented technique reaches some of the best sensitivities as of today and is currently the most sensitive method for the contrast limited detection of substellar companions that are cooler than about 1000K. The companion to 51 Eri, GJ 3305, was found to be a very close binary on an eccentric orbit. No substellar companions were found around the target stars, although the method permitted to detect companions down to a few Jupiter masses at orbital distances of typically 5 astronomical units. A planet with a mass >1 M_Jup at distances >5 AU around AU Mic can be excluded at the time of our observations. The absence of detected planets sets constraints on the frequency distribution and maximum orbital distance of giant exoplanets. For example, a radial distribution power law index of 0.2 in combination with a maximum orbital radius exceeding 30 AU can be rejected at a 90% confidence level.

  10. Characterization of Gemini NearIR Arrays W. Harrison

    E-print Network

    Characterization of Gemini Near­IR Arrays W. Harrison Gemini 8m Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 W. Ball, A.M. Fowler National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 N. Cherry Ave

  11. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light Years from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Chiang, Eugene; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark; Kite, Edwin S.; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Marois, Christian; Krist, John

    2008-01-01

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsecs (25 light years) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star and 18 AU from the dust belt, matching predictions. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 m is also consistent with that of a planet with mass no greater than a few times that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 micron and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 micron.

  12. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light Years from Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, P; Graham, J R; Chiang, E; Fitzgerald, M P; Clampin, M; Kite, E S; Stapelfeldt, K; Krist, J

    2008-11-12

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsec (25 light years) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star, and within 18 AU of the dust belt. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 {micro}m is also consistent with that of a planet with mass no greater than a few times that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 {micro}m and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 {micro}m.

  13. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Fomalhaut is a bright star 7.7 parsec (25 light year) from Earth that harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate. Fomalhaut b. In the plane of the belt, Fomalhaut b lies approximately 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star, and within 18 All of the dust belt. We detect counterclockwise orbital motion using Hubble Space Telescope observations separated by 1.73 years. Dynamical models of the interaction between the planet and the belt indicate that the planet's mass is at most three times that of Jupiter for the belt to avoid gravitational disruption. The flux detected at 0.8 micron flux is also consistent with that of a planet with mass a few limes that of Jupiter. The brightness at 0.6 microns and the lack of detection at longer wavelengths suggest that the detected flux may include starlight reflected off a circumplanetary disk, with dimension comparable to the orbits of the Galilean satellites. We also observed variability of unknown origin at 0.6 microns.

  14. Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Kalas; James R. Graham; Eugene Chiang; Michael P. Fitzgerald; Mark Clampin; Edwin S. Kite; Karl Stapelfeldt; Christian Marois; John Krist

    2008-01-01

    Fomalhaut, a bright star 7.7 parsecs (25 light-years) from Earth, harbors a belt of cold dust with a structure consistent with gravitational sculpting by an orbiting planet. Here, we present optical observations of an exoplanet candidate, Fomalhaut b. Fomalhaut b lies about 119 astronomical units (AU) from the star and 18 AU of the dust belt, matching predictions of its

  15. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-01-01

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http:\\/\\/www.kgs.ukans.edu\\/Gemini\\/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based

  16. The interfacial tension between oil and gemini surfactant solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Chen; Lijuan Han; Pingya Luo; Zhongbin Ye

    2004-01-01

    The interfacial tensions between oil and solution of cationic gemini surfactants have been measured. It is found that gemini surfactants are more effective and efficient than corresponding conventional surfactants in reducing the interfacial tension and can lower the tension of kerosene–water interface to ultra-low at very low concentration without other additives. It is also found that gemini surfactants can reduce

  17. Gemini 11 prime crew in Launch Complex 16 suiting trailer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot of the Gemini 11 mission, reclines on a couch as he adjusts his spacesuit in the Launch Complex 16 suiting trailer during the Gemini 11 prelaunch countdown. He is already wearing the full suit and helmet (50725); Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot of the Gemini 11 space flight, relaxes in suiting trailer during prelaunch countdown (50726).

  18. Astronaut Thomas Stafford in suiting trailer during Gemini 6 prelaunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (foreground), Gemini 6 prime crew pilot, and Alan B. Shepard Jr., Chief, Astronaut Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, look over a Gemini mission chart in the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 during the Gemini 6 prelaunch countdown.

  19. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczy?ski, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi. PMID:23827647

  20. The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

  1. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  2. Studying Extrasolar Planets with WFIRST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David N.

    2014-06-01

    The WFIRST mission will be a powerful tool for studying extrasolar planets. Through observations of gravitational microlensing, the mission will probe the demographics of extrasolar planetary systems. Its coronagraph will enable imaging and spectroscopic study of nearby planets. It will also be able to complement GAIA's astrometric measurements of masses and orbits of nearby planets.

  3. Remote monitoring: An implementation on the Gemini System

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, R.; Ondrik, M.; Kadner, S.; Resnik, W. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Corbell, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Gemini System consists of a sophisticated, digital surveillance unit and a high performance review system. Due to the open architectural design of the Gemini System, it provides an excellent hardware and software platform to support remote monitoring. The present Gemini System provides the user with the following Remote Monitoring features, via a modem interface and powerful support software: state-of-health reporting, alarm reporting, and remote user interface. Future enhancements will contribute significantly to the Gemini`s ability to provide a broader spectrum of network interfaces and remote review.

  4. Blue Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site is a companion to the Discovery Channel/ BBC television series Blue Planet: Seas of Life. The Web site includes images, games, and expeditions all related to oceanography and marine biology. One feature that is particularly interesting is Ocean Alert, an interactive, current events feature where users can identify the topics that most interest them. News headlines, with links to more complete stories, are organized into twelve topics; users select the topics and area of the world of interest from a rotating map. This site is fun to use and informative, and users may appreciate the options to explore only as in-depth as they choose.

  5. IBIS: An Interferometer-Based Imaging System for Detecting Extrasolar Planets with a Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.

    1989-01-01

    The direct detection of extrasolar planetary systems is a challenging observational objective. The observing system must be able to detect faint planetary signals against the background of diffracted and scattered starlight, zodiacal light, and in the IR, mirror thermal radiation. As part of a JPL study, we concluded that the best long-term approach is a 10-20 m filled-aperture telescope operating in the thermal IR (10-15 microns). At these wavelengths, the star/planet flux ratio is on the order of 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8). Our study supports the work of Angel et al., who proposed a cooled 16-m IR telescope and a special apodization mask to suppress the stellar light within a limited angular region around the star. Our scheme differs in that it is capable of stellar suppression over a much broader field-of- view, enabling more efficient planet searches. To do this, certain key optical signal-processing components are needed, including a coronagraph to apodize the stellar diffraction pattern, an infrared interferometer to provide further starlight suppression, a complementary visible-wavelength interferometer to sense figure errors in the telescope optics, and a deformable mirror to adaptively compensate for these errors. Because of the central role of interferometry we have designated this concept the Interferometer-Based Imaging System (IBIS). IBIS incorporates techniques originally suggested by Ken Knight for extrasolar planet detection at visible wavelengths. The type of telescope discussed at this workshop is well suited to implementation of the IBIS concept.

  6. Exploring the Planets Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based upon the Exploring the Planets gallery at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, this site provides information about our solar system and its exploration. The gallery begins with a Discovery Section, which explores the development of astronomical thought, beginning with the Greeks, the Renaissance, and Galileo, and ending with satellites and the discovery of new planets. A section on Exploration Tools investigates the past, present and future of earth-based exploration, telescopes, spacecraft, landers, orbiters and rovers. The Planetary Comparisons section discusses similarities and differences between planets such as their atmospheres and geography. An entire section is devoted to the planets themselves with data sets showing statistics on size, mass, orbits, satellites and more. Each planet and the asteroids have their own page with images, exploration facts and other data. There is also a section about comets discussing their discovery, history, observations, anatomy and images.

  7. Gemini alkylammonium salts as biodeterioration inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brycki, Bogumi?

    2010-01-01

    To protect materials against biodeterioration, physical, biological or chemical methods can be used. Chemical inhibitors of biodeterioration are the most common and effective. A new class of chemical inhibitors-gemini alkylammonium salts-shows excellent biocidal properties and good ecological profile. These compounds can be applied as biodeterioration inhibitors in a wide variety of materials. PMID:21466039

  8. Gemini MCAO Control System , J. Sebag1

    E-print Network

    as a facility instrument for the Gemini-South telescope. The system will include 5 Laser Guide Stars, 3 Natural System itself at a rate of 800 frames per second and the control of the safety system. The control system and the safety system. Keywords: Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics, Control System, Real Time System

  9. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  10. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton; John R. Victorine; Goeffrey C. Bohling; Saibal Bhattacharya; Alan P. Byers; Timothy R. Carr; Martin K. Dubois; Glen Gagnon; Willard J. Guy; Kurt Look; Mike Magnuson; Melissa Moore; Ricardo Olea; Jayprakash Pakalapadi; Ken Stalder; David R. Collins

    2002-01-01

    GEMINI will resolve reservoir parameters that control well performance; characterize subtle reservoir properties important in understanding and modeling hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; expedite recognition of bypassed, subtle, and complex oil and gas reservoirs at regional and local scale; differentiate commingled reservoirs; build integrated geologic and engineering model based on real-time, iterate solutions to evaluate reservoir management options for

  11. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Doveton; W. Lynn Watney

    2003-01-01

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  12. Welcome to the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of the best images from NASA's planetary exploration program includes descriptions of images with an audio format, planet profiles with data sets, spacecraft exploration information, and a zoom-in feature to view the image at closer range. There is also a glossary with hundreds of entries, and an explorer section to learn about past and future space missions.

  13. Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Butler

    2003-01-01

    None of the roughly one hundred hundred extrasolar planets found to date closely resembles the Solar System. Unlike the Solar System, most extrasolar planets are in eccentric orbits. The giant planets in the Solar System all orbit beyond 5 AU, while the known extrasolar planets (with one exception) all orbit within 4 AU, with several in extraordinarily small orbits with

  14. The software design of the Gemini 8m telescopes Stephen Wampler

    E-print Network

    The software design of the Gemini 8m telescopes Stephen Wampler Gemini 8m Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85726 ABSTRACT The design of the software for the Gemini 8m Telescopes is nearly. Keywords: telescope software design, design processes, Gemini software 1. INTRODUCTION The Gemini 8m

  15. Observations Of The LCROSS Impact With NIFS On The Gemini North Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine; Stephens, A. W.; Trujillo, C. A.; McDermid, R. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Walls, B. D.; Coulson, D. M.; Matulonis, A. C.; Ball, J. G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted a permanently shadowed crater near the south pole of the Moon at 11:31 UTC 2009 October 09. Gemini, one of several telescopes in a coordinated network observing the impact, conducted observations using NIFS to obtain 3D K-band imaging spectroscopy to detect water ice in the ejected plume of material. The spectral slope of the NIFS data can constrain the grain size and height distribution as the plume evolves, measuring the total mass and the water ice concentration in the plume. These observations provided an engineering challenge for Gemini, including the need to track non-sidereal with constantly changing track rates and guide on small bright moon craters, in order to keep the impact site within the NIFS field-of-view. High quality images taken by GMOS-N, NIRI and the acquisition camera during engineering periods at specific lunar libration and illumination were also used by the LCROSS ground based observing team to supplement slit positioning and offset plans for other ground based observatories. LCROSS mission support and engineering has resulted in improved telescope functionality for non-sidereal targets, including the ability to upload and import target ephemerides directly into the TCS, starting in semester 2010B. In this poster we present the engineering results and observing improvements which will facilitate enhanced user capabilities of the Gemini telescopes arising from the intensive LCROSS support challenge. Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the STFC (United Kingdom), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). In part this research was supported by NASA through contracts to SWRI and NSF grant AST-0706980 to the U. Minnesota.

  16. Gemini/Hokupa`a Adaptive Optics Observations of Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, D.; Baudoz, P.; Brandner, W.; Close, L.; Graves, B.; Guyon, O.; Northcott, M.

    2000-12-01

    We present broad- and narrowband imaging and polarimetric data of young stellar objects with spatially resolved circumstellar disks. The data have been obtained with the University of Hawaii Curvature Sensing Adaptive Optics System Hokupa`a at the Northern Gemini 8m telescope. The objects studied include the edge-on circumstellar disk sources HV Tau C and HK Tau/C, the circumbinary disk source GG Tau, and the massive outflow source MWC 1080. Polarimetric maps combined with model simulations provide insights into the geometrical structure of the circumstellar material. In particular, our observations of HK Tau/C show evidence that the inner region of the disk is largely void of circumstellar material. Estimates of the physical parameters of HV Tau C and GG Tau disks will be presented as well. This research acknowledges support by the National Science Foundation.

  17. FLOW GEMINI personnel assurance system (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, W.; Satko, D.; Baley-Downes, S.

    1988-01-01

    The FLOW GEMINI Personnel ASsurance System (PASS) is a computer-based software system designed to support personnel hiring, assignment and evaluation decisions in organizations where it is critically important to protect against insider threats. PASS consists of a pre-defined data base, standard system and several tools for tailoring the standard system and developing additional reports and queries. A description of PASS's use in the employment application review process illustrates the system's overall approach to automating personnel assessment functions.

  18. The Gemini 8M Telescopes Project M. Mountain, F. Gillett, R. Kurz

    E-print Network

    . Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 Gemini Preprint # 5 #12; The Gemini 8­M Telescopes Project Matt Mountain, Fred Gillett, Richard Kurz Gemini 8­M Telescopes Project P. O. Box 26732 Tucson, AZ 85726­6732 ABSTRACT

  19. Gemini Observatory, transition to base facility science operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Michael; Trancho, Gelys; Coulson, Dolores; Lopez, Ariel; Walls, Brian

    2011-03-01

    The Gemini Observatory is entering the planning stage of transferring full science operations from the summit facilities to the base facilities for both the both the Gemini North telescope at Mauna Kea Hawaii and the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon Chile. We present the state of our current capabilities for base facility operation, some known system upgrade requirements and the process we intend to use to identify all all remaining upgrades necessary to achieve safe, efficient and continuous base facility science operations.

  20. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  1. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2010-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one -- possibly two-- faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit(possible) detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 758B has a H-L'color redder than nearly all known L--T8 dwarfs. Based on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 758B has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx. 10-20 Mj if it is approx. 1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 758B is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 758B is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  2. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one - possibly two - faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 7588 has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. 8ased on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 7588 has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx.10-20 Mj if it is approx.1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 7588 is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 7588 is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  3. Cross-linking of micelles by gemini surfactants

    E-print Network

    Prabal K. Maiti; Kurt Kremer; Oliver Flimm; Debashish Chowdhury; Dietrich Stauffer

    2000-04-12

    We investigate the effects of gemini surfactants, telechelic chain and lipids on the nature of micelles formed by conventional single-tail surfactants in water by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations. In a mixture of gemini and single-tail surfactants in water we find direct evidence of micelles of predominantly single-tail surfactants some of which are dynamically cross-linked by gemini surfactants when the concentrations of the geminis is only a few mole percent and their spacers are {\\it hydrophilic}. In contrast, mixtures of lipids and single-tail surfactants in water form only isolated micelles, each consisting of a mixture of both species, without cross-links.

  4. Mass-Radius Relationships for Low-Mass Planets: From Iron Planets to Water Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Transit observations, and radial velocity measurements, have begun to populate the mass radius diagram for extrasolar planets; fubture astrometric measurements and direct images promise more mass and radius information. Clearly, the bulk density of a planet indicates something about a planet s composition--but what? I will attempt to answer this question in general for low-mass planets (planets obey a kind of universal mass-radius relationship: an expansion whose first term is M approx. R(sup 3).

  5. The Planet Pluto

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This series of webpages is part of a course called Astronomy 161: The Solar System, offered by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Tennessee. This section covers the general features of Pluto, including information on whether it is the eighth or ninth planet from the Sun, and whether there are additional planets beyond Pluto. There are also subsections on the surface of Pluto and its moon, Charon, including Hubble Space Telescope images.

  6. Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    _Ocean Planet_ is a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition that now has a companion on-line exhibition. It covers varied topics associated with the ocean, such as the science of the ocean, the animals, people, and communities who use the ocean, and pollution problems currently endangering ocean resources. The exhibit features all of the text and a good portion of the images from the traveling exhibit. The curator of this exhibit has put together six special interest tours including Biodiversity, Women and the Sea, and Pollution. Users can also build their own special tour from a list of key words. The current list contains only four words, but is expected to grow in the future. Visitors can also consult a comprehensive list of educational materials and ocean resources.

  7. Planet migration

    E-print Network

    Edward W. Thommes; Jack J. Lissauer

    2002-09-19

    A planetary system may undergo significant radial rearrangement during the early part of its lifetime. Planet migration can come about through interaction with the surrounding planetesimal disk and the gas disk--while the latter is still present--as well as through planet-planet interactions. We review the major proposed migration mechanisms in the context of the planet formation process, in our Solar System as well as in others.

  8. Extrasolar planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. C. Perryman

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet surrounding a main-sequence star was announced in 1995, based on very precise radial velocity (Doppler) measurements. A total of 34 such planets were known by the end of March 2000, and their numbers are growing steadily. The newly discovered systems confirm some of the features predicted by standard theories of star and planet

  9. Skeletal Structures in the Images of Cosmic Dust Clouds and Solar System Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentin A. Rantsev-Kartinov

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel dynamical contrasting of cosmic dust cloud images reveals the presence of skeletallike structures that are similar to those found in various electrical discharges and in space plasmas. These results, which are concentric cylinders in interstellar space, corroborate the discovery of interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) emission spectra that are recorded in radio astronomy from low- and high-velocity intergalactic clouds in

  10. The Astrometric Imaging Telescope - A space-based observatory for extra-solar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the objectives, techniques, instrumentation, and mission of the planned Astrometric Imaging Telescope. This space-based observatory is designed to detect and characterize extra-solar planetary systems. Results will contribute to the understanding of the astrophysics of stellar and planetary formation and provide an impetus for the study of exobiology.

  11. Information extraction from digital images of the earth and the planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Green

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of recent developments at the JPL Image Processing Laboratory which emphasize the utilization of a digital computer to automate the process of information extraction from digital imagery. Consideration is given to: (1) the analysis of Viking Orbiter stereo imagery to determine elevation profiles of the Mars surface, (2) the use of Viking Lander stereo imagery to

  12. Calibration of photometry from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North

    E-print Network

    Inger Jorgensen

    2008-11-07

    All available observations of photometric standard stars obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North in the period from August 2001 to December 2003 have been used to establish the calibrations for photometry obtained with the instrument. The calibrations presented in this paper are based on significantly more photometric standard star observations than usually used by the individual users. Nightly photometric zero points as well as color terms are determined. The color terms are expected to be valid for all observations taken prior to UT 2004 November 21 at which time the Gemini North primary mirror was coated with silver instead of aluminum. While the nightly zero points are accurate to 0.02 mag or better (random errors), the accuracy of the calibrations is limited by systematic errors from so-called "sky concentration", an effect seen in all focal reducer instruments. We conclude that an accuracy of 0.035 to 0.05 mag can be achieved by using calibrations derived in this paper. The color terms are strongest for very red objects, e.g. for objects with (r'-z')=3.0 the resulting z' magnitudes will be ~0.35 mag too bright if the color term is ignored. The calibrations are of importance to the large Gemini user community with data obtained prior to UT 2004 November 21, as well as future users of achive data from this period in time.

  13. Gemini 4 prime crew in elevator at Pad 19 preparing to enter Gemini capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Edward H. White II and James A. McDivitt are shown in the elevator on their way to the white room as they prepare to enter the Gemini 4 spacecraft atop the Titan launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

  14. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  15. Optomechanical design of Altair, the Gemini adaptive optics system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Roberts; Gurjeet Singh

    1998-01-01

    Altair, the Gemini Adaptive Optics System, is currently being developed for use a the Cassegrain focus of the northern Gemini 8-meter Telescope, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The Altair mechanical design must meet strict mass, center of gravity and volume constraints while providing a highly stable optical bench assembly, and housing and thermally controlling a large set of electronics. The

  16. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Sean T; Hudson, Amanda G; Allen, Michael H; Pole, Sandeep S; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2014-06-14

    Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkanes quantitatively react with excess 1-bromododecane to prepare novel phosphonium gemini surfactants with spacer lengths ranging from 2 to 4 methylenes (12-2/3/4-12P). Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DTPP), a monomeric surfactant analog, was readily water soluble, however, in sharp contrast, phosphonium gemini surfactants were poorly soluble in water due to two hydrophobic tails and relatively hydrophobic cationic head groups containing phenyl substituents. Isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal a measurable critical micelle concentration for the 12-2-12P phosphonium gemini surfactant in water at 25 °C. Subsequent studies in 50/50 v/v water-methanol at 25 °C showed a CMC of 1.0 mM for 12-2-12P. All phosphonium gemini surfactants effectively complexed nucleic acids, but failed to deliver nucleic acids in vitro to HeLa cells. The solution behavior of phosphonium gemini surfactants was investigated in chloroform, which is an organic solvent where reverse micellar structures are favored. Solution rheology in chloroform explored the solution behavior of the phosphonium gemini surfactants compared to DTPP. The 12-2-12P and 12-3-12P gemini surfactants were successfully electrospun from chloroform to generate uniform fibers while 12-4-12P gemini surfactant and DTPP only electrosprayed to form droplets. PMID:24733359

  17. Micelle formation and CMC of gemini surfactants: a thermodynamic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri A. Camesano; R. Nagarajan

    2000-01-01

    Gemini surfactants possess a structure resembling a pair of conventional single chain surfactants covalently connected by a spacer. The spacer can vary in length and chemical structure. In this paper, the aggregation behavior of gemini surfactants is examined on the basis of a free energy model developed by extending our theory for conventional surfactants. Free energy contributions beyond those considered

  18. Compaction of DNA by Gemini Surfactants: Effects of Surfactant Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Karlsson; Marcel C. P. van Eijk; Olle Söderman

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between bacteriophage T4 DNA and cationic gemini surfactants was studied by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Upon addition of surfactant, DNA undergoes a transition from random coil to globule, with an intermediate coexistence region. The state behavior of a DNA–gemini surfactant system was found to depend on spacer length, valency, head group size, and tail length. A series

  19. Individual and collective driver information: The GEMINI twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sommerville; L. McGrath

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI project, as part of the European Commission's DRIVE II program, is developing an integrated driver information system linking the Radio Data System Travel Message Channel (RDS-TMC) broadcast service with roadside variable message signs (VMS). Progress on this project and its planned trials in two European countries are described. Trials of GEMINI will take place in the UK, and

  20. Analysis of Topology-Dependent MPI Performance on Gemini Networks

    E-print Network

    Balaji, Pavan

    Analysis of Topology-Dependent MPI Performance on Gemini Networks Antonio J. Peña, Ralf G. Correa and communication charac- teristics. MPI normalizes these interconnects with a com- mon interface used by most HPC and Design--Network topology General Terms Design, Performance Keywords MPI, Interconnection Network, Gemini

  1. The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Bec; Francois J. Rigaut; Ramon Galvez; Gustavo Arriagada; Maxime Boccas; Gaston Gausachs; Damien Gratadour; Eric James; Roberto Rojas; Rolando Rogers; Michael P. Sheehan; Gelys Trancho; Tomislav Vucina

    2008-01-01

    We present Canopus, the AO bench for Gemini's Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GEMS), a unique facility for the Gemini South telescope located at Cerro Pachon in Chile. The MCAO system uses five laser beacons in conjunction with different natural guide stars configurations. A deployable fold mirror located in the telescope Acquisition and Guiding Unit (A&G) sends the telescope beam

  2. Microlensing Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS Scientific Frontiers in Research on Extrasolar Planets, June 19, 2002 #12;Microlensing and PlanetsMicrolensing and Planets Microlensing Searches

  3. Antibacterial activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Guz-Regner, Katarzyna; Dworniczek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium salts (chlorides and bromides), with various hydrocarbon chain and spacer lengths, were tested. These compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were not mutagenic. The strongest antibacterial effect was observed for TMPG-10 Cl (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and TMPG-12 Br (against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and clinical ESBL(+) isolate 434) surfactants. These compounds inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 to a polystyrene surface and eradicated biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa PAO1. The activity of studied compounds was dependent on hydrocarbon chain length. PMID:24236547

  4. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  5. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review I: Design, trade-offs and integration

    E-print Network

    Rigaut, Francois; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Arriagada, Gustavo; Fesquet, Vincent; Galvez, Ramon L; Gausachs, Gaston; Cavedoni, Chad; Ebbers, Angelic W; Karewicz, Stan; James, Eric; Lührs, Javier; Montes, Vanessa; Perez, Gabriel; Rambold, William N; Rojas, Roberto; Walker, Shane; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; Sheehan, Michael; Irarrazaval, Benjamin; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Flicker, Ralf; Gratadour, Damien; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Daruich, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pach{\\'o}n is the first sodium-based multi-Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics system. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors to measure and compensate for atmospheric distortions. The GeMS project started in 1999, and saw first light in 2011. It is now in regular operation, producing images close to the diffraction limit in the near infrared, with uniform quality over a field of view of two square arcminutes. The present paper (I) is the first one in a two-paper review of GeMS. It describes the system, explains why and how it was built, discusses the design choices and trade-offs, and presents the main issues encountered during the course of the project. Finally, we briefly present the results of the system first light.

  6. Information extraction from digital images of the earth and the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of recent developments at the JPL Image Processing Laboratory which emphasize the utilization of a digital computer to automate the process of information extraction from digital imagery. Consideration is given to: (1) the analysis of Viking Orbiter stereo imagery to determine elevation profiles of the Mars surface, (2) the use of Viking Lander stereo imagery to determine nonhazardous surface sample acquisition strategies, (3) the correlation of Landsat imagery with geographically referenced cultural data to determine land use trends, and (4) the generation of mosaics using digital computer techniques.

  7. Nine Planets: Planetary Picture List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This section of The Nine Planets provides links to internet solar system images of the nine planets and their moons. Images include the Sun, Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Moon, Mars (Phobos, Deimos), Jupiter (Amalthea, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), Saturn (Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Epimetheus, Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe), Uranus (Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon), Neptune (Triton, Proteus), and Pluto with Charon. Miscellanous images include asteroids, comets, meteorites, and spacecraft.

  8. Shallow Cavities in Multiple-planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; Dong, Ruobing

    2015-03-01

    Large cavities are often observed in protoplanetary disks, which might suggest the presence of planets opening gaps in the disk. Multiple planets are necessary to produce a wide cavity in the gas. However, multiple planets may also be a burden to the carving out of very deep gaps. When additional planets are added to the system, the time-dependent perturbations from these additional satellites can stir up gas in the gap, suppressing cavity opening. In this study, we perform two-dimensional numerical hydro calculations of gap opening for single and multiple planets, showing the effect that additional planets have on the gap depths. We show that multiple planets produce much shallower cavities than single planets, so that more massive planets are needed in the multiple-planet case to produce an equivalent gap depth as in the single-planet case. To deplete a gap by a factor of 100 for the parameters chosen in this study, one only requires Mp ? 3.5 MJ in the single-planet case, but much more massive planets, Mp ? 7 MJ are required in the multiple-planet case. This requirement of high-mass planets implies that such planets may be detectable in the next generation of direct imaging projects, in gaps whose depths are constrained to be sufficiently deep by ALMA.

  9. Self-Assembly of Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yethiraj, Arun; Mondal, Jagannath; Mahanthappa, Mahesh

    2013-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of Gemini (dimeric or twin-tail) dicarboxylate disodium surfactants is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. This gemini architecture, in which two single tailed surfactants are joined through a flexible hydrophobic linker, has been shown to exhibit concentration-dependent aqueous self-assembly into lyotropic phases including hexagonal, gyroid, and lamellar morphologies. Our simulations reproduce the experimentally observed phases at similar amphiphile concentrations in water, including the unusual ability of these surfactants to form gyroid phases over unprecedentedly large amphiphile concentration windows. We demonstrate quanitative agreement between the predicted and experimentally observed domain spacings of these nanostructured materials. Through careful conformation analyses of the surfactant molecules, we show that the gyroid phase is electrostatically stabilized related to the lamellar phase. By starting with a lamellar phase, we show that decreasing the charge on the surfactant headgroups by carboxylate protonation or use of a bulkier tetramethyl ammonium counterion in place of sodium drives the formation of a gyroid phase.

  10. The Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tool allows users to find when planets are visible in a given year. The years covered by this site are 1900 to 2100. The positions given are for the 1st of the month, at 9 pm, and generally hold true for the entire month. Positions are noted by which constellation the planet is located in. The planets given are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto. Additional comments for Venus and Mars note their location and viewing times.

  11. Planet X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked out orbits for a large tenth planet wh...

  12. Mystery Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-04-03

    This activity is about the study of planetary samples. Learners will use samples of crustal material to sort, classify, and make observations about an unknown planet. From their observations, students will interpret the geologic history of their mystery planet and make inferences about past life or the potential for life on the "Mystery" planet. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

  13. Extreme Contrast Direct Imaging of Planets and Debris disks with the Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System and the Vector Vortex Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Matthew; Metchev, S. A.; Patel, R.; Serabyn, G.; PALM-3000 Adaptive Optics Team

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from using the PALM-3000 extreme adaptive optics system and imaging camera on the Hale 5m telescope. Observations using the vector vortex coronagraph have given us direct detections of the planets in the HR8799 system and the dusty debris disk around the star HD141569A. Due to the unprecedented inner working angle of the VVC, the data show a clearing within the inner ring inwards to ~20AU along the projected semi-major axis. Our observations of the disk in the K band (2.2 ?m) demonstrate the power of the next generation of adaptive optics systems coupled with phase mask coronagraphy. We also show a comparison of the data reduction techniques currently being implemented in the direct imaging field. Specifically, the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) and the Karhunen-Loeve Image Processing (KLIP) algorithms, the latter being a more robust method for resolving debris disks.

  14. Michelle Edict midinfrared control and data acquisition system for use on UKIRT and Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Joel; Bridger, Alan; Pickup, David A.

    1997-09-01

    The Michelle Edict array control system is being built for use with the Michelle mid-infrared spectrometer/imager on UKIRT and Gemini. It will drive large format arrays, such as the Boeing/Rockwell 256 by 256 BIB and Raytheon/SBRC 320 by 240 IBC hybrid SiAs devices. It provides for rapid real-time processing and export to a host computer, storage and quick- look display of the data. To limit critical heat dissipation and mass, the system uses a minimum of front-end electronics at the telescope linked via digital fiber optics to custom- built PCI mezzanine cards. These are installed on several Heurikon Baja 4700 VME cards in an off telescope enclosure. This distributed architecture has small electrical infrastructure requirements and allows Michelle to be moved quickly between operation on UKIRT and Gemini with little impact on other instruments. The use of VxWorks on the Baja processors and the PCI standard allows the system to be easily ported to other VME processor boards supporting the PCI interface. Alongside a cryostat control system, edict interfaces to the data handling systems and the EPICS-based Gemini telescope control. On UKIRT, it will function under a UNIX-based observation control system that is being built to replace the existing VAX/VMS-based ADAM system.

  15. Extreme Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the pulsar planet system discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan in 1992. Wolszczan used the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico to find three planets - the first of any kind ever found outside our solar system - circling a pulsar called PSR B1257+12. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars, which are the collapsed cores of exploded massive stars. They spin and pulse with radiation, much like a lighthouse beacon. Here, the pulsar's twisted magnetic fields are highlighted by the blue glow.

    All three pulsar planets are shown in this picture; the farthest two from the pulsar (closest in this view) are about the size of Earth. Radiation from charged pulsar particles would probably rain down on the planets, causing their night skies to light up with auroras similar to our Northern Lights. One such aurora is illustrated on the planet at the bottom of the picture.

    Since this landmark discovery, more than 160 extrasolar planets have been observed around stars that are burning nuclear fuel. The planets spotted by Wolszczan are still the only ones around a dead star. They also might be part of a second generation of planets, the first having been destroyed when their star blew up. The Spitzer Space Telescope's discovery of a dusty disk around a pulsar might represent the beginnings of a similarly 'reborn' planetary system.

  16. Planet X

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A name given to a hypothetical tenth major planet once believed to exist in the outer solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune. The `X', which stood for `unknown', was also appropriate as the roman numeral for `ten'. The label `Planet X' was originated by Percival Lowell. From the late nineteenth century, he and others, including William H Pickering, worked

  17. Planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack J. Lissauer

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the

  18. Ocean Planet Exhibition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This virtual tour of the Smithsonian Institution's Ocean Planet exhibit can be navigated by clicking on the floor plan which is pictured, or it can be searched by image, subject, or topic outline. Links to educational materials and to a special curator's tour are also included.

  19. Binary Minor Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek C. Richardson; Kevin J. Walsh

    2006-01-01

    A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution.

  20. FIRST LIGHT LBT AO IMAGES OF HR 8799 bcde AT 1.6 AND 3.3 {mu}m: NEW DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN YOUNG PLANETS AND OLD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Close, Laird; McCarthy, Don; Kulesa, Craig; Apai, Daniel; Bailey, Vanessa [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Esposito, Simone; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Mannucci, Filippo; Agapito, Guido; Argomedo, Javier; Briguglio, Runa [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astronomy, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Skrutskie, Michael [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Desidera, Silvano; Mesa, Dino [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Boutsia, Konstantina [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    As the only directly imaged multiple planet system, HR 8799 provides a unique opportunity to study the physical properties of several planets in parallel. In this paper, we image all four of the HR 8799 planets at H band and 3.3 {mu}m with the new Large Binocular Telescope adaptive optics system, PISCES, and LBTI/LMIRCam. Our images offer an unprecedented view of the system, allowing us to obtain H and 3.3 {mu}m photometry of the innermost planet (for the first time) and put strong upper limits on the presence of a hypothetical fifth companion. We find that all four planets are unexpectedly bright at 3.3 {mu}m compared to the equilibrium chemistry models used for field brown dwarfs, which predict that planets should be faint at 3.3 {mu}m due to CH{sub 4} opacity. We attempt to model the planets with thick-cloudy, non-equilibrium chemistry atmospheres but find that removing CH{sub 4} to fit the 3.3 {mu}m photometry increases the predicted L' (3.8 {mu}m) flux enough that it is inconsistent with observations. In an effort to fit the spectral energy distribution of the HR 8799 planets, we construct mixtures of cloudy atmospheres, which are intended to represent planets covered by clouds of varying opacity. In this scenario, regions with low opacity look hot and bright, while regions with high opacity look faint, similar to the patchy cloud structures on Jupiter and L/T transition brown dwarfs. Our mixed-cloud models reproduce all of the available data, but self-consistent models are still necessary to demonstrate their viability.

  1. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W. Lynn; Doveton, John H.; Victorine, John R.; Bohling, Goeffrey C.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Byers, Alan P.; Carr, Timothy R.; Dubois, Martin K.; Gagnon, Glen; Guy, Willard J.; Look, Kurt; Magnuson, Mike; Moore, Melissa; Olea, Ricardo; Pakalapadi, Jayprakash; Stalder, Ken; Collins, David R.

    2002-06-25

    GEMINI will resolve reservoir parameters that control well performance; characterize subtle reservoir properties important in understanding and modeling hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; expedite recognition of bypassed, subtle, and complex oil and gas reservoirs at regional and local scale; differentiate commingled reservoirs; build integrated geologic and engineering model based on real-time, iterate solutions to evaluate reservoir management options for improved recovery; provide practical tools to assist the geoscientist, engineer, and petroleum operator in making their tasks more efficient and effective; enable evaluations to be made at different scales, ranging from individual well, through lease, field, to play and region (scalable information infrastructure); and provide training and technology transfer to evaluate capabilities of the client.

  2. Progress toward a third Gemini M2 mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland; Ruch, Eric; Primet, Serge; Chaussat, Giles

    2005-09-01

    This paper is intended to give a report after the successful lightweighting of a mirror substrate dedicated to become a third spare secondary mirror for the Gemini 8-m telescopes installed one in Chili and one Hawaii.

  3. GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Douglas E. Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert C. Moore; Douglas B. Moran

    1993-01-01

    Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. This paper describes the details of the system, and includes relevant measurements of size, efficiency, and performance of each of its sub-components in detail.

  4. Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  5. Structural Characterization of Novel Gemini Non-viral DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Foldvari,M.; Badea, I.; Wettig, S.; Verrall, R.; Bagonluri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The structural and physicochemical properties of novel cationic lipid-based DNA complexes have been investigated for the purpose of designing micro/nano-scale self-assembling delivery systems for cutaneous gene therapy. DNA/gemini surfactant (spacer n = 3-16; chain m = 12 or 16) complexes (1 : 10 charge ratio), with or without dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DOPE), designed for cellular transfection, were generally in the range of 100-200 nm as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and particle size analysis. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements indicated that the DNA/gemini complexes lacked long-range order, whereas DNA/gemini/DOPE complexes exhibited lamellar and polymorphic phases other than hexagonal. Correlation studies using transfection efficiency data in PAM 212 keratinocytes and in vitro skin absorption indicated that formulations containing gemini surfactants having the ability to induce structures other than lamellar in the resulting complexes, generally exhibited greater transfection activity and cutaneous absorption.

  6. Gemini 9 astronauts leave suiting trailer for launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the Gemini 9-A space flight, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (front), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 in full space suits during prelaunch countdown.

  7. Gemini (dimeric) surfactant perturbation of the human erythrocyte*.

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    Gemini (dimeric) surfactant perturbation of the human erythrocyte*. Martina Dubnièková1, 2000; accepted: 31 July, 2000 Key words: cationic amphiphile, detergent, human erythrocyte, shape erythrocytes, and to protect erythrocytes against hypotonic haemolysis. At high sublytic concentrations the Di

  8. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of the earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles.

  9. OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb: a Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf with the Mass Constrained by Subaru AO imaging

    E-print Network

    Fukui, A; Sumi, T; Bennett, D P; Bond, I A; Han, C; Suzuki, D; Beaulieu, J -P; Batista, V; Udalski, A; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Hundertmark, M; Abe, F; Freeman, M; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Koshimoto, N; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Philpott, L C; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Christie, G W; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C U; McCormick, J; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shin, I-G; Tan, T -G; Yee, J C; Szyma?ski, M K; Pietrzy?ski, G; Soszy?ski, I; Poleski, R; Koz?owski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Bramich, ? Wyrzykowski D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb with the planet-star mass ratio ~1 x 10^{-3}. Intensive photometric observations of a high-magnification microlensing event allow us to detect a clear signal of the planet. Although no parallax signal is detected in the light curve, we instead succeed at detecting the flux from the host star in high-resolution JHK'-band images obtained by the Subaru/AO188 and IRCS instruments, allowing us to constrain the absolute physical parameters of the planetary system. With the help of a spectroscopic information of the source star obtained during the high-magnification state by Bensby et al. (2013), we find that the lens system is located at 1.3^{+0.6}_{-0.8} kpc from us, and consists of an M dwarf (0.34^{+0.12}_{-0.20} M_sun) orbited by a Saturn-mass planet (0.39^{+0.14}_{-0.23} M_Jup) at the projected separation of 0.74^{+0.26}_{-0.42} AU (close model) or 4.3^{+1.5}_{-2.5} AU (wide model). The probability of contamination in the host star's flux...

  10. Strange Planets Planetarium Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This planetarium show is designed to engage visitors directly in activities and demonstrations, and is optimized for group sizes of 25 to 70 people. Show content includes general planet-finding techniques (Doppler, astrometric, etc.), an audience activity about the transit method of extrasolar planet discovery, NASA Kepler mission, and Johannes Kepler's work. It is 50-minutes long, but modular, so that it can be adjusted for shorter lengths (suggestions for 30-minute and 40-minute versions are provided in the script). The script, images, movies and music are available for free download at the website provided.

  11. Gemini-north multiobject spectrograph integration, test, and commissioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isobel Hook; Jeremy R. Allington-Smith; Steven M. Beard; David Crampton; Roger L. Davies; Colin G. Dickson; Angelic W. Ebbers; J. Murray Fletcher; Inger Jorgensen; I. Jean; S. Juneau; Richard G. Murowinski; Robert Nolan; Ken Laidlaw; Brian Leckie; G. E. Marshall; Terry Purkins; Ian M. Richardson; Scott C. Roberts; Douglas A. Simons; Malcolm J. Smith; James R. Stilburn; Kei Szeto; Chris Tierney; Richard J. Wolff; Robert Wooff

    2003-01-01

    The first of two Gemini Multi Object Spectrographs (GMOS) has recently begun operation at the Gemini-North 8m telescope. In this presentation we give an overview of the instrument and describe the overall performance of GMOS-North both in the laboratory during integration, and at the telescope during commissioning. We describe the development process which led to meeting the demanding reliability and

  12. Upgrading the Gemini secondary mirror micro-controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathew J. Rippa; Jose Soto; Mike Sheehan; Christopher J. Carter; Gabriel Perez; Eric James; Robert Wyman; Cooper Nakayama; Chris Yamasaki

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Observatory is continuing in the preliminary design stages of upgrading the micro-controller and related data acquisition components for the Secondary Mirror Tip\\/tilt System (M2TS). The Gemini North M2TS has surpassed a decade of service in the scientific community, yet the designs at both sites are nearly twenty years old and maintenance costs continue to increase. The next generation

  13. Planet Pals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gorgone, Judith.

    Created by designer, illustrator, and educator Judith Ann Gorgone, the Planet Pals Web site provides good material for young kids related to the health of the planet. The colorful pages contain basic information about the earth, energy, recycling, water conservation, pollution, and more. The fun and interactive Meet the Planet Pals area is especially interesting, where kids can listen to animated cartoons talk about various aspects of conservation. Even though the site is geared towards young children, they may have difficulty finding the educational specific pages by themselves; so, a parent's or teacher's assistance would most likely be helpful.

  14. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems. PMID:25513958

  15. Altair at Gemini North: Full Sky Coverage Laser AO Correction at Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Chadwick; Ball, Jesse; Boccas, Maxime; Cavedoni, Chas; Christou, Julian; Coulson, Dolores; Ebbers, Angelic; Emig, Kimberly; Jorgensen, Inger; Kang, Stacy; Lai, Olivier; Matulonis, Anthony; McDermid, Richard; Miller, Bryan; Neichel, Benoit; Oram, Richard; Rigaut, François; Roth, Kathy; Schneider, Thomas; Stephens, Andy; Trancho, Gelys; Walls, Brian; White, John; Gemini Software Team

    2013-12-01

    We present two recent upgrades to the Gemini North Adaptive Optics(AO) system, Altair. These two upgrades provide 100% sky coverage forlow performance AO suitable for improving the natural seeing byfactors of 2 to 3 from blue visible wavelengths (350 nm) through thenear infrared (2.5 micron wavelengths). The first upgrade, dubbed LGS + P1 "Super Seeing" mode allowscorrection of high order aberrations with an on-axis Laser Guide Star(LGS) while tip/tilt correction is performed with a more distantperipheral wavefront sensor (P1). Most currently operating LGS AOsystems are limited in their sky coverage, primarily due to tip/tiltstar availability. Although P1 provides sub-optimal tip/tiltcorrection due to its distance from the science source, its patrolradius allows operation in LGS + P1 mode anywhere in the sky fromdeclinations of +70 degrees to -30 degrees. This mode was offered forscience use at Gemini North in 2013A. We will present typicalperformance and use from its first semester in science operation,where we expect to improve image quality by a factor 2 to 3 overseeing limited images. The second upgrade is the commissioning of the AO system to correct atvisible wavelengths, which is expected to be completed in late 2013.In this mode, Altair will feed the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph(GMOS), which is an optical imager as well as a long-slit, multi-slitand integral field unit spectrograph. We intend to replace thecurrent Altair science dichroic with a sodium notch filter, passingonly the 589nm wavelength light from the LGS to the AO system. Therest of the spectrum from 400 nm to the GMOS red cutoff at 1.1 micronsis intended as science capable light. Tip/tilt correction will beperformed close to the science target with the GMOS on-instrumentwavefront sensor or with P1 as in the P1+LGS mode discussed above. Weexpect an image quality improvement of roughly a factor 2 in this modeover seeing limited observations. Since exposure time to reach a given signal-to-noise ratio scalesroughly as the square of the image quality, these two upgradesrepresent a substantial efficiency improvement which is available tonearly all targets normally observed at Gemini North.

  16. Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized and Shaped Pupil Coronagraphs

    E-print Network

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    Extrasolar Planet Finding via Optimal Apodized and Shaped Pupil Coronagraphs N. Jeremy Kasdin Dept examine several different apodization approaches to achieving high-contrast imaging of extrasolar planets extrasolar planets discovered to date, interest in planet finding is becom- ing intense. Both the scientific

  17. Glucamine-based gemini surfactants II: Gemini surfactants from long-chain N -alkyl glucamines and epoxy resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Warwel; F. Brüse

    2004-01-01

    Gemini surfactants were synthesized by reaction of long-chain N-alkyl glucamines with epoxy resins. Analogous to the synthesis of gemini surfactns from long-chain N-alkyl glucamines and ?, ?-diepoxides (1), the reaction in methanol at 70C could be used to convert the starting materials\\u000a selectively and almost quantitatively. N-Octyl glucamine, N-decyl glucamine, and N-dodecyl glucamine were combined with several epoxy resins, mainly

  18. Glucamine-based gemini surfactants I: Gemini surfactants from long-chain N -alkyl glucamines and ?,?-diepoxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Warwel; F. Brüse; H. Schier

    2004-01-01

    N-Alkyl glucamines can be reacted with ?,?-diepoxides to yield gemini (dimeric) surfactants similarly to the reaction of glucamine\\u000a with terminal epoxides. Under the conditions chosen for this work, epoxides were quantitatively converted in the presence\\u000a of an equimolar amount of amine to gemini surfactants. Reactions could be carried out under mild conditions (70C) in methanol,\\u000a and products were obtained quantitatively

  19. Direct Imaging Of Long Period Radial Velocity Targets With NICI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Graeme S.; Tinney, Chris G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Jenkins, James S.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; O'Toole, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    We are finally entering an era where radial velocity and direct imaging parameter spaces are starting to overlap. Radial velocity measurements provide us with a minimum mass for an orbiting companion (the mass as a function of the inclination of the system). By following up these long period radial velocity detections with direct imaging we can determine whether a trend seen is due to an orbiting planet at low inclination or an orbiting brown dwarf at high inclination. In the event of a non-detection we are still able to put a limit on the maximum mass of the orbiting body. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search is one of the longest baseline radial velocity planet searches in existence, amongst its targets are many that show long period trends in the data. Here we present our direct imaging survey of these objects with our results to date. ADI Observations have been made using NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) on Gemini South and analysed using an in house, LOCI-like, post processing.

  20. Planet Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Quinn

    2005-01-01

    Motivating the study of planet formation is not difficult for any curious audience. One of the fundamental human questions\\u000a is that of origins: “where did I come from?„. Breaking this down into constituents produces a series of questions. How did\\u000a the Universe begin? How did stars form? How did planets form? How did life begin? How did intelligent life develop?

  1. Planet Party

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-26

    Learners and their families are encouraged to go outside on a clear evening and view the sky to see the planets for themselves. Using sky charts and other resources, and possibly in partnership with a local astronomical society, children navigate the night sky and view planets with the naked eye and binoculars or telescopes. This activity is part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  2. Practical experience with AO PSF reconstruction at the Keck and Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolissaint, Laurent; Neyman, Chris; Wizinowich, Peter; Christou, Julian

    2011-09-01

    Estimating the point spread function across the imaged field, for a given AO run, is critical for AO data reduction. In this talk I will describe our recent progress (Summer 2011) on PSF reconstruction for the Gemini North (ALTAIR) and Keck NGS based AO systems. I will shortly re-introduce the basic theory, but will put the emphasize on practical implementation issues we are facing at this two facilities, in particular how we handle and determine/calibrate the non-turbulent aberrations (telescope, instrument optics) whose amplitude can be as large as the turbulent aberrations.

  3. Infrared and the search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.

    1991-01-01

    Search for evidence concerning the existence of extrasolar planets will involve both indirect detection as well as direct (imaging). Indirect detection may be possible using ground based instrumentation on the Keck telescope, Imaging probably will require an orbiting system. Characterizing other planets for complex molecules will require a large orbiting or lunar-based telescope or inteferometer. Cryogenic infrared techniques appear to be necessary. Planning for a NASA ground and space-based program, Toward Other Planet Systems (TOPS), is proceeding.

  4. Astronaut James Lovell walks to elevator on Pad 19 before Gemini 7 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, walks to the elevator at Pad 19 one hour and forty minutes before launch of the spacecraft. He is dressed in the new Gemini space suit.

  5. Exploring the Planets: Venus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains most of the up-to-date information known about the planet Venus, including mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), and diameter. Many discoveries about Venus have been made using Earth-based radio telescopes, however the images of Venus in this exhibit were collected by the Magellan spacecraft. Magellan used radar to produce the first high-resolution global map of Venus. Since Venus has no water erosion and little wind, volcanic eruptions are a major force reshaping the landscape. Geologic forces at work beneath the crust create mountains, rifts, and patterns of fractures, while the sluggish winds sculpt the surface in subtler ways but many mysteries remain. This site includes numerous images of the planet.

  6. EXTREME OPTICS AND THE SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    E-print Network

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    EXTREME OPTICS AND THE SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ROBERT J. VANDERBEI Operations Research of imaging Earth-like planets around nearby stars. Because of limitations inherent in the wave nature needed to image a faint planet positioned very close to its much brighter star. I will describe

  7. A New Family of Planets ? "Ocean Planets"

    E-print Network

    A. Leger; F. Selsis; C. Sotin; T. Guillot; D. Despois; H. Lammer; M. Ollivier; F. Brachet; A. Labeque; C. Valette

    2003-08-19

    A new family of planets is considered which is between rochy terrestrial planets and gaseous giant ones: "Ocean-Planets". We present the possible formation, composition and internal models of these putative planets, including that of their ocean, as well as their possible Exobiology interest. These planets should be detectable by planet detection missions such as Eddington and Kepler, and possibly COROT (lauch scheduled in 2006). They would be ideal targets for spectroscopic missions such as Darwin/TPF.

  8. Planet Jargon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Moeai

    2007-05-07

    Planet Jargon is a fun way to learn about computer jargon. Students will do research on vocabulary, parts of a computer, history of a computer, as well as interpreting the words through illustrations. Students will create a PowerPoint to show their findings. INTRODUCTION! You have landed on the Planet Jargon. The inhabitants use very strange words to communicate with each other. Some of the words are familiar computer terms to you, but others are completely alien. You will need to discover the meanings of the computer jargon in order to ...

  9. The Nine Planets: The Sun

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Arnett

    This page of the Nine Planets gives detailed data about the Sun, including diameter, mass, temperature, how energy is made, mythology, composition, and recent data collected from spacecraft. Layers of the Sun are discussed, including the corona, chromosphere, and photosphere. Images and links to additional images and movies are provided, as well as questions still unanswered about the sun.

  10. Effects of Inorganic and Organic Salts on Aggregation Behavior of Cationic Gemini Surfactants

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Effects of Inorganic and Organic Salts on Aggregation Behavior of Cationic Gemini Surfactants) values of the cationic gemini surfactants. The ability to promote the surfactant aggregation decreases the aggregation of surfactants in quite different ways. In recent years, gemini surfactants have attracted great

  11. The research on the vesicle formation and transformation in novel Gemini surfactant systems

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    The research on the vesicle formation and transformation in novel Gemini surfactant systems Zhangyi systems. # 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Gemini surfactant; Vesicle; Monolayer; p attentions [4Á/7]. In the mean time, some new types of surfactants, such as Gemini [8] and Bola [9], were

  12. Effect of Hydrotropic Salt on the Assembly Transitions and Rheological Responses of Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    ReceiVed: August 17, 2007; In Final Form: NoVember 18, 2007 Cationic gemini surfactant dimethylene-1 of sodium salicylate (NaSal) on the assembly formation and transition of this cationic gemini surfactant to explore the interaction between gemini surfactants and hydrotropic salts. The rich aggregation behavior

  13. Effect of the Hydrophilic Size on the Structural Phases of Aqueous Nonionic Gemini Surfactant Solutions

    E-print Network

    Colby, Ralph H.

    Effect of the Hydrophilic Size on the Structural Phases of Aqueous Nonionic Gemini Surfactant there is no direct evidence for the presence of micelles. Introduction Gemini surfactants are composed of two or more surfactants with the same hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. As a result, smaller amounts of Gemini

  14. Models of Gemini Surfactants HAIM DIAMANT and DAVID ANDELMAN Tel Aviv University,

    E-print Network

    Andelman, David

    3 Models of Gemini Surfactants HAIM DIAMANT and DAVID ANDELMAN Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel I. INTRODUCTION Gemini surfactants are composed of two monomeric surfactant molecules linked. Since their first systematic studies over a decade ago, gemini surfactants have been the subject

  15. User Interface for the Control of the Gemini Telescopes S. S. Smith and K. Gillies

    E-print Network

    to follow the ESO Graphical User Interface Common Conventions.2 Although several graphical user interfaceUser Interface for the Control of the Gemini Telescopes S. S. Smith and K. Gillies Gemini 8-M operator user interface developed for the Gemini 8-m Telescopes is presented. Topics include the use

  16. Gemini Instrumentation Program Overview D. A. Simons, F. C. Gillett, R. J. McGonegal

    E-print Network

    Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 Gemini Preprint # 15 #12;Gemini instrumentation program overview Douglas A. Simons, F. C. Gillett, Richard J. McGonegal Gemini 8 m Telescopes Project 950 North Cherry Avenue Tucson, Arizona 85719 ABSTRACT Exploiting instrument platforms like the current

  17. Gemini Instrumentation Program Overview D. A. Simons, F. C. Gillett, R. J. McGonegal

    E-print Network

    Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 Gemini Preprint # 15 #12; Gemini instrumentation program overview Douglas A. Simons, F. C. Gillett, Richard J. McGonegal Gemini 8 m Telescopes Project 950 North Cherry Avenue Tucson, Arizona 85719 ABSTRACT Exploiting instrument platforms like the current

  18. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance

    E-print Network

    Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Garrel, Vincent; Carrasco, Eleazar Rodrigo; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Arriagada, Gustavo; Serio, Andrew; Fesquet, Vincent; Rambold, William N; Lührs, Javier; Moreno, Cristian; Gausachs, Gaston; Galvez, Ramon L; Montes, Vanessa; Vucina, Tomislav B; Marin, Eduardo; Urrutia, Cristian; Lopez, Ariel; Diggs, Sarah J; Marchant, Claudio; Ebbers, Angelic W; Trujillo, Chadwick; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; McGregor, Peter; Young, Peter J; Colazo, Felipe; Edwards, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System - GeMS, a facility instrument mounted on the Gemini South telescope, delivers a uniform, near diffraction limited images at near infrared wavelengths (0.95 microns- 2.5 microns) over a field of view of 120 arc seconds. GeMS is the first sodium layer based multi laser guide star adaptive optics system used in astronomy. It uses five laser guide stars distributed on a 60 arc seconds square constellation to measure for atmospheric distortions and two deformable mirrors to compensate for it. In this paper, the second devoted to describe the GeMS project, we present the commissioning, overall performance and operational scheme of GeMS. Performance of each sub-system is derived from the commissioning results. The typical image quality, expressed in full with half maximum, Strehl ratios and variations over the field delivered by the system are then described. A discussion of the main contributor to performance limitation is carried-out. Finally, overheads and future ...

  19. Planet Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juergen Giesen

    This Java applet calculates three views of the bright planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) and the Moon. It displays a diagram showing rise and set times over the year, a view at local horizon, and a view of the ecliptic plane.

  20. Planet Surfing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this astronomy activity (page 6 of the PDF), learners will compare and contrast two planets in the solar system using data obtained from the internet. They will convert distances from light years to miles and vice versa. Although this activity was created as a post visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of glucosamide-based trisiloxane gemini surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Han; Gaoyong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    A new family of glucosamide-based trisiloxane gemini surfactants of the general formula (CH2OCH2)n (Me3SiOSiMeR1OSiMe3)2 (where R1=(CH2)3NR2(CH2)2NHCO (CHOH)4CH2OH; R2=CH2CH(OH)CH2OCH2; and n=0, 1, or 2) was prepared and characterized, both structurally and as aqueous surfactants. The monomer was prepared\\u000a by amidation of the precursor amine functional trisiloxane with d-gluconic acid ?-lactone. Gemini surfactants were then prepared by the alkylation of the precursor

  2. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  3. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  4. Comparing the Planets: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

  5. Quick-MESS: A Fast Statistical Tool for Exoplanet Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonavita, M.; de Mooij, E. J. W.; Jayawardhana, R.

    2013-07-01

    Several tools have been developed in the past few years for the statistical analysis of the exoplanet search surveys, mostly using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations or a Bayesian approach. Here we present Quick-MESS, a grid-based, non-Monte Carlo tool aimed to perform statistical analyses on results from direct imaging surveys, as well as help with the planning of these surveys. Quick-MESS uses the (expected) contrast curves for direct imaging surveys to assess for each target the probability that a planet of a given mass and semimajor axis can be detected. By using a grid-based approach, Quick-MESS is typically more than an order of magnitude faster than tools based on Monte Carlo sampling of the planet distribution. In addition, Quick-MESS is extremely flexible, enabling the study of a large range of parameter space for the mass and semimajor axes distributions without the need of resimulating the planet distribution. In order to show examples of the capabilities of Quick-MESS, we present the analysis of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey and the predictions for upcoming surveys with extreme-AO instruments.

  6. Observing with a 21st Century GroundBased Telescope or How to do Unique Science with the Gemini Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Telescopes P. Puxley Gemini Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 Gemini Preprint # 13 #12 telescopes Phil Puxley Gemini 8m Telescopes Project 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85741 Todd Boroson US Gemini Project Office 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85741 ABSTRACT The new generation of ground

  7. Observing with a 21st Century Ground-Based Telescope -or How to do Unique Science with the Gemini Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Telescopes P. Puxley Gemini Telescopes Project, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ 85719 Gemini Preprint # 13 #12 telescopes Phil Puxley Gemini 8m Telescopes Project 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85741 Todd Boroson US Gemini Project Office 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85741 ABSTRACT The new generation of ground

  8. Coronagraphic Imaging Survey of a New Spitzer Debris Disk Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; Mawet, Dimitri; Plavchan, Peter; Koerner, David

    2010-02-01

    Debris disks are the signposts of planetary systems: collisions among asteroidal and cometary parent bodies maintain the observed dust population against losses to radiation pressure and P-R drag. Since dust production is enhanced by gravitational stirring, debris disks systems are natural targets for imaging searches for giant planet and brown dwarf companions. Both stars with extrasolar planets directly imaged in 2008, Fomalhaut and HR 8799, host prominent debris disk systems. During its cryogenic mission, we have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to survey hundreds of nearby stars for far-infrared excess indicative of debris dust. As of 2009 this work has now completed, and our group has submitted two papers presenting the last significant sample of new, nearby debris disks found with Spitzer. We propose NICI coronagraphic imaging of 16 stars from these lists that are observable from Gemini S in 2010A. Our goal is to discover or place limits on substellar companions that could be stirring or sculpting these disks. Imaging detection of the disks themselves is possible for a subset of our targets if the disks are presented edge-on or are radially confined to narrow rings. The results will provide the first imaging characterization of these new, nearby planetary systems.

  9. Antibacterial activity and characteristics of modified ferrite powder coated with a gemini pyridinium salt molecule.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Akihiro; Maeda, Takuya; Ohkita, Motoaki; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kourai, Hiroki

    2007-09-01

    This report describes the synthesis of an antibacterial material consisting of a gemini quaternary ammonium salt (gemini-QUAT) immobilized on ferrite powder, and its antibacterial activity. A gemini-QUAT containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 4,4'-[1,3-(2,2-dihydroxylmethyl-1,3-dithiapropane)]bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide), was immobilized on ferrite powder by a reaction between the hydroxyl group of the QUAT and trimethoxysilane. Immobilization of the gemini-QUAT on ferrite (F-gemini-QUAT) was confirmed when the dye, bromophenol blue, was released from F-gemini-QUAT-dye after contact between ferrite and the dye. Elemental analysis of the QUAT-ferrite determined the molar amount of QUAT on the ferrite. The antibacterial effect of the ferrite was investigated using a batch treatment system, and this effect was compared with that of another QUAT-ferrite (F-mono-QUAT) binding a mono-QUAT, which possesses one pyridinium residue, prepared by the same immobilization method as F-gemini-QUAT. Results indicated the F-gemini QUAT possessed a higher bactericidal potency and broader antibacterial spectrum compared to F-mono-QUAT. In addition, this study suggested that gemini-QUATs possessed high bactericidal potency without being influenced by immobilization to materials, and the antibacterial activity and characteristics of F-gemini-QUAT could be attributed to the unique structure of the immobilized gemini-QUAT. PMID:17927048

  10. Lonely Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "Don't worry about whether your trip will work out. Just go!" This is the travel philosophy of Lonely Planet, one of the most respected publishers of off-the-beaten-path travel guidebooks worldwide. Whether you already know where you're going, or are looking for suggestions for your next trip, Lonely Planet's site is packed with information that you can actually use to plan your trip. Search or browse the section "DestiNATIONS" to find maps, facts and figures, and information on local history, culture, and transportation for 8 world regions, over 80 countries, and 20 different cities. Much of the health information found in LP's print guides is also now available here. In addition, there are links to destination-related newsgroups, tips on travel photography, and "Postcards," a forum in which travelers share experiences and give advice.

  11. Studying the Sky/Planets Can Drown You in Images: Machine Learning Solutions at JPL/Caltech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, U. M.

    1995-01-01

    JPL is working to develop a domain-independent system capable of small-scale object recognition in large image databases for science analysis. Two applications discussed are the cataloging of three billion sky objects in the Sky Image Cataloging and Analysis Tool (SKICAT) and the detection of possibly one million small volcanoes visible in the Magellan synthetic aperture radar images of Venus (JPL Adaptive Recognition Tool, JARTool).

  12. Planet Oobleck

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2011-01-01

    Learners imagine a world covered in a mysterious substance called Oobleck. Learners make this substance and investigate its properties. Using an online program, they then design a spacecraft that can land on the planet, collect a sample, and return to Earth. A chart shows how their design compares to others' designs. Additionally, learners can build their spacecraft and test it. This activity presents a great engineering extension to other Oobleck-related activities posted elsewhere.

  13. Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxime Boccas; Francois Rigaut; Matthieu Bec; Benjamin Irarrazaval; Eric James; Angelic Ebbers; Celine d'Orgeville; Kenny Grace; Gustavo Arriagada; Stan Karewicz; Mike Sheehan; John White; Simon Chan

    2006-01-01

    Altair is the general-purpose Adaptive Optics bench installed on Gemini North that has operated successfully with Natural Guide Star (NGS) since 2003. The original design and fabrication included an additional WaveFront Sensor (WFS) to enable operation with Laser Guide Star (LGS). Altair has been recently upgraded and functional commissioning was performed between June and November 2005. The insertion of a

  14. Adsorption Properties of Novel Gemini Surfactants with Nonidentical Head Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Alami; K. Holmberg; J. Eastoe

    2002-01-01

    Novel environmentally friendly gemini surfactants, each with two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic groups, have been synthesized and their physicochemical properties investigated. One of the hydrophilic groups is a methyl-capped polyoxyethylene chain with mol wt 350, 550, and 750 g\\/mol, respectively, and the other is a sulfate group; the hydrophobic part of the surfactant is made from oleylnitrile. This nitrile derivative

  15. Partitioning of naphthalene to gemini surfactant-treated alumina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Neupane; Jae-Woo Park

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning of naphthalene to anionic surfactants adsorbed on alumina in the aqueous phase was studied for immobilization of the contaminant in the subsurface. Three anionic surfactants with different molecular structures were used: a conventional (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, SDDBS), a gemini (dialkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide with alkyl chain length of 12, DADS-C12), and a dianionic (monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide with alkyl

  16. Simulating the Self-Assembly of Gemini (Dimeric) Surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karaborni; K. Esselink; P. A. J. Hilbers; B. Smit; J. Karthauser; N. M. van Os; R. Zana

    1994-01-01

    The morphologies and dynamics of aggregates formed by surfactant molecules are known to influence strongly performance properties spanning biology, household cleaning, and soil cleanup. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the morphology and dynamics of a class of surfactants, the gemini or dimeric surfactants, that are of potential importance in several industrial applications. Simulation results show that these surfactants

  17. Gemini Surfactants: New Synthetic Vectors for Gene Transfection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Kirby; Patrick Camilleri; Jan B. F. N. Engberts; Martin C. Feiters; Roeland J. M. Nolte; Olle Söderman; Mark Bergsma; Paul C. Bell; Matthew L. Fielden; Cristina L. García Rodríguez; Philippe Guédat; Andreas Kremer; Caroli McGregor; Christele Perrin; Gaël Ronsin; Marcel C. P. van Eijk

    2003-01-01

    The superior surfactant properties of cationic gemini surfactants are applied to the complex problem of introducing genes into cells. Of almost 250 new compounds tested, of some 20 different structural types, a majority showed very good transfection activity in vitro. The surfactant is shown to bind and compact DNA efficiently, and struc- tural studies and calculations provide a working picture

  18. Gemini Series Experiment Data Reduction and Storage Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berglin

    2011-11-01

    The presentation covers data formats expected from Gemini experiments; data quick look vs. in-depth analysis; iPDV object-oriented data storage; iPDV's traceability of analysis results; optimizing object memory usage in iPDV; and long-term archival of data objects by iPDV.

  19. Gemini 4 prime crew during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Gemini-Titan 4 prime crew, Astronauts Edward H. White II (center), pilot, and James A. McDivitt (left), command pilot, is shown aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico suiting up for water egress training (22655); White (left) and McDivit (right) in flight suits on ship in Gulf of Mexico (22656).

  20. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  1. Exceptional Swift and Fermi GRBs: Gemini North Targets of Opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bethany Cobb; Joshua Bloom; Brad Cenko; Daniel Perley; Hsiao-Wen Chen; Jason X. Prochaska; Karl Glazebrook; Chris Matzner; Sebastian Lopez; Max Pettini; Andrew Bunker; Adam Morgan; Maryam Modjaz; Dovi Poznanski; Charles Bailyn; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Nat Butler; Adam Miller

    2010-01-01

    Swift and Fermi have led a renaissance in the study of GRBs, discovering an unprecedented number of events and promptly alerting the community to accurate localizations. However, it is in the follow-up, particularly at optical\\/infrared (OIR) wavebands, where the full scientific potential of these missions is realized. We propose to use the OIR instrument suite on both Gemini telescopes in

  2. Gemini photographs of the world: A complete index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The most authoritative catalogs of photographs of all Gemini missions are assembled. Included for all photographs are JSC (Johnson Space Center) identification number, percent cloud cover, geographical area in sight, and miscellaneous information. In addition, details are given on cameras, filters, films, and other technical details.

  3. Illustration of relative sizes of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Artist concept illustrating the relative sizes of the one-man Mercury spacecraft, the two-man Gemini spacecraft, and the three-man Apollo spacecraft. Also shows line drawing of launch vehichles to show their relative size in relation to each other.

  4. Outer Planet Auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M.

    Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10 years in studies of auroral processes on the outer, gas-giant planets and their satellites via the dramatic imaging provided by ground-based observations in the infrared (e.g., Satoh and Connerney, 1999, Icarus, 141, 236); by the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet (e.g., Clarke et al. 2002, Nature, 415, 997); by the Galileo spacecraft at visible wavelengths (e.g., Vasavada et al. 1999, JGR, 104, 27133); and by the Chandra Xray Observatory in the xray (e.g., Gladstone et al. 2002, Nature, 415, 1000). This talk will provide a brief overview of the recent observations, the accompanying modeling, and a short discussion of the contrast between outer planet and Earth auroral processes.

  5. Photometry and Dynamics of the Minor Merger AM1219-430 with Gemini GMOS-S

    E-print Network

    Hernandez-Jimenez, J A; Rodrigues, I; Krabbe, A C; Winge, Cláudia; Bonatto, C

    2013-01-01

    We present an observational study of the interaction effect on the dynamics and morphology of the minor merger AM1219-430. This work is based on r' and g' images and long-slit spectra obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini South Telescope. We detected a tidal tail in the main galaxy (AM1219A) and a bridge of material connecting the galaxies. In luminosity, AM1219A is about 3.8 times brighter than the secondary (AM1219B). The surface brightness profile of AM1219A was decomposed into bulge and disc components. The profile shows a light excess of ~ 53 % due to the contribution of star-forming regions, which is typical of starburst galaxies. On the other hand, the surface brightness profile of AM1219B shows a lens structure in addition to the bulge and disc. The scale lengths and central magnitudes of the disc structure of both galaxies agree with the average values derived for galaxies with no sign of ongoing interaction or disturbed morphology. The S\\'ersic index (n<2), the effectiv...

  6. Quaternary ammonium-type gemini surfactants synthesized from oleic acid: aqueous solution properties and adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Saito, Yuki; Uka, Akihito; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Endo, Takeshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants having a quaternary ammonium headgroup have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an amide bond, while the quaternary ammonium headgroup is introduced onto the cis double bond of oleic acid. The Krafft temperature of these surfactants drops below room temperature (ca. 25°C) when the counterion is exchanged from Br? to Cl?. The aqueous solution properties of the Cl series of surfactants have been assessed by means of pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and static surface tension measurements. An increased hydrocarbon chain length results in a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and a higher adsorption efficiency at the air/aqueous solution interface. Surface tension measurements suggest the formation of premicelles at concentrations below cmc, whereas, above cmc, DLS indicates the formation of micellar aggregates whose diameter ranges from 5 to 10 nm. We, furthermore, characterized the adsorption of these surfactants to the silica/aqueous solution interface and observed their spontaneous adsorption to the solid surface by electrostatic and intermolecular hydrophobic interactions. The combination of soft-contact imaging atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force-curve data suggests bilayer formation above cmc, which is reflective of the large packing parameter of the gemini surfactants. Interestingly, we found the repulsive interaction observed during compression of the adsorbed layer to be relatively weak, as a result of the low adsorption density and/or the loose molecular packing arrangement, which arises from the asymmetric structure. PMID:23823915

  7. Completing the follow-ups of the 300 stars International Deep Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Zuckerman, Ben; Barman, Travis; Doyon, Rene; Lafreniere, David; Song, Inseok; Patience, Jenny

    2012-08-01

    The International Deep Planet Survey has already provided exciting results with the first detection of a four-planet system orbiting the young star HR 8799. Over the course of the IDPS we have surveyed 300 stars, using several AO systems such as ALTAIR/NIRI (Gemini North), NICI (Gemini South), NIRC2 (Keck), and NACO (VLT). The entire campaign was fully reduced and analyzed over the last year and we found a total of 250 planet candidates at less than 200AU projected separation. Using our own data as well as archive data from other programs, we have already confirmed most of the candidates as background objects. However, 48 stars having 100 Jupiter-like planet candidates orbiting at less than 200AU still remain to be followed. We need follow-up observations to distinguish between true planets and background objects using a parallax and proper motion analysis. A statistical study of the actual sample and colour measurements of some candidates let us believe that there is a high probability that a few of the remaining candidates are true planets. Assuming good weather, this is the second to last IDPS proposal. A small proposal will be submitted for 2013A to complete the follow-ups for 5 stars that are not accessible in 2012B

  8. Make a Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Make your own planet on this website! You can change the color of your planet and add land, water, trees, and weather. You can then name your planet and write a short story about it. For even more fun, compare the planets in our solar system with your planet!

  9. Extreme Planet Makeover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Institute of Technology

    A multimedia, web-based interactive game from NASA and CalTech scientists lets you create your own planet by varying parameters such as star type, distance from star, planet size, and planet age. You get a descripion of how each parameter might affect habitability on your planet, you can then download the planet you create.

  10. FURTHER EVIDENCE OF THE PLANETARY NATURE OF HD 95086 b FROM GEMINI/NICI H-BAND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkat, T.; Kenworthy, M. [Sterrewacht Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Sterrewacht Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bailey, V.; Su, K. Y. L. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France)] [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Bonnefoy, M. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomy, Königsthul 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute für Astronomy, Königsthul 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boccaletti, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and University Denis Diderot Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)] [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and University Denis Diderot Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Mamajek, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Currie, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A1 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    We present our analysis of the Gemini/NICI H-band data of HD 95086, following the discovery of the planet HD 95086 b in L'. The H-band data reach a contrast of 12.7 mag relative to the host star at 5? levels in the location of HD 95086 b, and no point source is found. Our non-detection and H – L' color limit rules out the possibility that the object is a foreground L/T dwarf and that, if it is bound to HD 95086, it is a genuine planetary mass object. We estimate a new pre-main-sequence isochronal age for HD 95086 of 17 ± 4 Myr, which is commensurate with previous mean age estimates for the Lower Cen-Crux subgroup. Adopting an age of 17 Myr, the color limit is inconsistent with the COND model, marginally consistent with the BT-SETTL model, and consistent with the DUSTY model.

  11. The Microlensing Planet Finder: Completing the Census of Extrasolar Planets in the Milky Way

    E-print Network

    D. P. Bennett; I. Bond; E. Cheng; S. Friedman; P. Garnavich; B. Gaudi; R. Gilliland; A. Gould; M. Greenhouse; K. Griest; R. Kimble; J. Lunine; J. Mather; D. Minniti; M. Niedner; B. Paczynski; S. Peale; B. Rauscher; M. Rich; K. Sahu; D. Tenerelli; A. Udalski; N. Woolf; P. Yock

    2004-09-09

    The Microlensing Planet Finder (MPF) is a proposed Discovery mission that will complete the first census of extrasolar planets with sensitivity to planets like those in our own solar system. MPF will employ a 1.1m aperture telescope, which images a 1.3 sq. deg. field-of-view in the near-IR, in order to detect extrasolar planets with the gravitational microlensing effect. MPF's sensitivity extends down to planets of 0.1 Earth masses, and MPF can detect Earth-like planets at all separations from 0.7AU to infinity. MPF's extrasolar planet census will provide critical information needed to understand the formation and frequency of extra solar planetary systems similar to our own.

  12. Extrasolar planet detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, R. P.; Diner, D. J.; Tubbs, E. F.; Gaiser, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of extrasolar planet detection using a large-aperture infared imaging telescope. Coronagraphic stellar apodization techniques are less efficient at infrared wavelengths compared to the visible, as a result of practical limitations on aperture dimensions, thus necessitating additional starlight suppression to make planet detection feasible in this spectral domain. We have been investigating the use of rotational shearing interferometry to provide up to three orders of magnitude of starlight suppression over broad spectral bandwidths. We present a theoretical analysis of the system performance requirements needed to make this a viable instrument for planet detection, including specifications on the interferometer design and telescope aperture characteristics. The concept of using rotational shearing interferometry as a wavefront error detector, thus providing a signal that can be used to adaptively correct the wavefront, will be discussed. We also present the status of laboratory studies of on-axis source suppression using a recently constructed rotational shearing interferometer that currently operates in the visible.

  13. Dynamical Outcomes of Planet-Planet Scattering

    E-print Network

    Sourav Chatterjee; Eric B. Ford; Soko Matsumura; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-05-15

    Observations in the past decade have revealed extrasolar planets with a wide range of orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities. Based on the present understanding of planet formation via core accretion and oligarchic growth, we expect that giant planets often form in closely packed configurations. While the protoplanets are embedded in a protoplanetary gas disk, dissipation can prevent eccentricity growth and suppress instabilities from becoming manifest. However, once the disk dissipates, eccentricities can grow rapidly, leading to close encounters between planets. Strong planet--planet gravitational scattering could produce both high eccentricities and, after tidal circularization, very short-period planets, as observed in the exoplanet population. We present new results for this scenario based on extensive dynamical integrations of systems containing three giant planets, both with and without residual gas disks. We assign the initial planetary masses and orbits in a realistic manner following the core accretion model of planet formation. We show that, with realistic initial conditions, planet--planet scattering can reproduce quite well the observed eccentricity distribution. Our results also make testable predictions for the orbital inclinations of short-period giant planets formed via strong planet scattering followed by tidal circularization.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

  15. Detecting companions to extrasolar planets using mutual events

    E-print Network

    J. Cabrera; J. Schneider

    2007-03-23

    We investigate a new approach to the detection of companions to extrasolar planets beyond the transit method. We discuss the possibility of the existence of binary planets. We develop a method based on the imaging of a planet-companion as an unresolved system (but resolved from its parent star). It makes use of planet-companion mutual phenomena, namely mutual transits and mutual shadows. We show that companions can be detected and their radius measured down to lunar sizes.

  16. Line-by-line analysis of Neptune's near-IR spectrum observed with Gemini/NIFS and VLT/CRIRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Lellouch, E.; de Bergh, C.; Courtin, R.; Bézard, B.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Tice, D.; Hurley, J.; Davis, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    New line data describing the absorption of CH4 and CH3D from 1.26 to 1.71 ?m (WKMC-80K, Campargue, A., Wang, L., Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Bézard, B., Lellouch, E., Coustenis, A., de Bergh, C., Hirtzig, M., Drossart, P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 110-128) have been applied to the analysis of Gemini-N/NIFS observations of Neptune made in 2009 and VLT/CRIRES observations made in 2010. The new line data are found to greatly improve the fit to the observed spectra and present a considerable advance over previous methane datasets. The improved fits lead to an empirically derived wavelength-dependent correction to the scattering properties of the main observable cloud deck at 2-3 bars that is very similar to the correction determined for Uranus' lower cloud using the same line dataset by Irwin et al. (Irwin, P.G.J., de Bergh, C., Courtin, R., Bézard, B., Teanby, N.A., Davis, G.R., Fletcher, L.N., Orton, G.S., Calcutt, S.B., Tice, D., Hurley, J. [2012]. Icarus 220, 369-382). By varying the abundance of CH3D in our simulations, analysis of the Gemini/NIFS observations leads to a new determination of the CH3D/CH4 ratio for Neptune of 3.0-0.9+1.0×10-4, which is smaller than previous determinations, but is identical (to within error) with the CH3D/CH4 ratio of 2.9-0.5+0.9×10-4 derived by a similar analysis of Gemini/NIFS observations of Uranus made in the same year. Thus it appears that the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune have an almost identical D/H ratio, which suggests that the icy planetisimals forming these planets came from the same source reservoir, or a reservoir that was well-mixed at the locations of ice giant formation, assuming complete mixing between the atmosphere and interior of both these planets. VLT/CRIRES observations of Neptune have also been analysed with the WKMC-80K methane line database, yielding very good fits, with little evidence for missing absorption features. The CRIRES spectra indicate that the mole fraction of CO at the 2-3 bar level must be substantially less than its estimated stratospheric value of 1 × 10-6, which suggests that the predominant source of CO in Neptune's atmosphere is external, through the influx of micrometeorites and comets, although these data cannot rule out an additional internal source.

  17. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Armitage, Philip J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gorelick, Noel [Google, Inc., 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)], E-mail: sean.raymond@colorado.edu

    2009-07-10

    We study the final architecture of planetary systems that evolve under the combined effects of planet-planet and planetesimal scattering. Using N-body simulations we investigate the dynamics of marginally unstable systems of gas and ice giants both in isolation and when the planets form interior to a planetesimal belt. The unstable isolated systems evolve under planet-planet scattering to yield an eccentricity distribution that matches that observed for extrasolar planets. When planetesimals are included the outcome depends upon the total mass of the planets. For M {sub tot} {approx}> 1 M{sub J} the final eccentricity distribution remains broad, whereas for M {sub tot} {approx}< 1 M{sub J} a combination of divergent orbital evolution and recircularization of scattered planets results in a preponderance of nearly circular final orbits. We also study the fate of marginally stable multiple planet systems in the presence of planetesimal disks, and find that for high planet masses the majority of such systems evolve into resonance. A significant fraction leads to resonant chains that are planetary analogs of Jupiter's Galilean satellites. We predict that a transition from eccentric to near-circular orbits will be observed once extrasolar planet surveys detect sub-Jovian mass planets at orbital radii of a {approx_equal} 5-10 AU.

  18. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  19. Upgrading the Gemini secondary mirror micro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippa, Mathew J.; Soto, Jose; Sheehan, Mike; Carter, Christopher J.; Perez, Gabriel; James, Eric; Wyman, Robert; Nakayama, Cooper; Yamasaki, Chris

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory is continuing in the preliminary design stages of upgrading the micro-controller and related data acquisition components for the Secondary Mirror Tip/tilt System (M2TS). The Gemini North M2TS has surpassed a decade of service in the scientific community, yet the designs at both sites are nearly twenty years old and maintenance costs continue to increase. The next generation M2TS acquisition system takes a look at today's more common practices such as alternatives to VME, and the use of Industry Pack modules and high-rate data logging. An overview of the refactored software design will be described including the use of The Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems, or RTEMS, as the operating system of choice to meet the real-time performance requirements.

  20. Aqueous Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly into Complex Lyotropic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the potentially wide-ranging applications of aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), the discovery of amphiphiles that reliably form these non-constant mean curvature morphologies over large phase windows remains largely serendipitous. Recent work has established that cationic gemini surfactants exhibit a pronounced tendency to form bicontinuous cubic (e.g. gyroid) phases as compared to their parent single-tail amphiphiles. The universality of this phenomenon in other surfactant systems remains untested. In this paper, we will report the aqueous LLC phase behavior of a new class of anionic gemini surfactants derived from long chain carboxylic acids. Our studies show that these new surfactants favor the formation of non-constant mean curvature gyroid and primitive (``Plumber's Nightmare'') structures over amphiphile concentration windows up to 20 wt% wide. Based on these observations, we will discuss insights gained into the delicate force balance governing the self-assembly of these surfactants into aqueous bicontinuous LLCs.

  1. Synthesis of organic rectorite with novel Gemini surfactants for copper removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guocheng; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-10-01

    Three novel Gemini surfactants were used to prepare organic rectorite (OREC) under microwave irradiation, in comparison with single-chain surfactant ester quaternary ammonium salt (EQAS) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The structure and morphology of OREC were characterized by XRD, BET, FT-IR, TEM and TGA. The removal of Cu2+ on OREC from aqueous solution was performed. The results reveal that Gemini surfactants modified REC had larger interlayer distance and higher surface area than single-chain surfactants EQAS and CTAB, and the increasing amount or chain length of Gemini surfactants led to larger layer spacing and higher adsorption capacities. The adsorption behavior of Gemini surfactant modified REC can be better described by Freundlich adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 15.16 mg g-1. The desorption and regeneration experiments indicate good reuse property of Gemini modified REC adsorbent. Therefore, this study may widen the utilization of Gemini surfactants modified layered silicates.

  2. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ? micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA. PMID:25133582

  3. The complex morphologies of Ti-MCM-41 templated by Gemini surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Jun [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhou Lihui [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Han Xia [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu Honglai [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)]. E-mail: hlliu@ecust.edu.cn; Hu Ying [Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2007-01-18

    The ordered hexagonal mesoporous materials of Ti-MCM-41 have been synthesized by using the Gemini surfactant bis(hexadecyldimethylammonium bromide)hexane (GEM16-6-16) as template. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR results provide the evidence that we can adjust the pore size by varying the Ti/Si ratio. However, there is a limit of Ti/Si ratio favoring the formation of specific structures; the ordered structures will be destructed at higher Ti/Si ratio. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) images reveal that the Ti-MCM-41 materials exhibit diverse morphologies, including ordered rods, threads and bundles, hexagonal flakes, tubes, discoid rings and helix tubes. We tentatively elucidate that the formation of the complex morphologies can be attributed to the crystal growth mechanism and the defect theory.

  4. Increasing sky coverage with the Gemini North ALTAIR/LGS AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Julian C.; Boccas, Maxime; Ebbers, Angelic; McDermid, Richard M.; Oram, Richard; Trujillo, Chadwick; Walls, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The Gemini North (GN) AO system, Altair, has been routinely operating in LGS mode since 2007. Due to the initial optical design, the NGS field-of-view (FoV) is limited to a radius ~ 25" which limits the potential science. To improve this, we have tested the AO/LGS operation using a peripheral wavefront sensor (PWFS) whose patrol field is ~ 4'-7' from the target. This expanded NGS FoV permits greater sky coverage but with decreased resolution, FWHM ~ 0.1" - 0.2" making this mode very suitable for non-imaging spectrographic and integral field unit observations. We present the hardware and software upgrades to PWFS and Altair as well as the software necessary for making this observing mode a routine and integral part of GN operations. Characterization and performance of this new operation mode, known as LGS+P1, are presented.

  5. Adsorption and Association in Aqueous Solutions of Dissymmetric Gemini Surfactant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Sikiri?; Ines Primoži?; Nada Filipovi?-Vincekovi?

    2002-01-01

    A gemini surfactant with two hydrocarbon chains differing in length and with an ethylene spacer N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-(N?,N?-dimethyl-N?-dodecylammonio) ethyl) tetradecylammonium dibromide, 12–2–14, was synthesized and its physicochemical properties were studied by surface tension, conductometry, potentiometry, viscosimetry, and light scattering measurements, as well as by optical microscopy. Surface properties and thermodynamic parameters lie between those obtained for its symmetric counterparts, while association in

  6. Gemini surfactant–water mixtures: some physical–chemical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Oliviero; Luigi Coppola; Camillo La Mesa; Giuseppe A Ranieri; M Terenzi

    2002-01-01

    The phase diagram of the water-Gemini 16-4-16 system has been investigated and the phase boundaries were determined. DSC and optical microscopy were used to define the region of existence of the different phases. No liquid crystalline phases have been observed, however, a two-phase region and a wide gel phase follow the solution region. The solution region can be highly viscous,

  7. Thermodynamic Studies of Aqueous m– s– m Gemini Surfactant Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Wettig; R. E. Verrall

    2001-01-01

    The specific conductance, surface tension, and apparent molar volume properties of aqueous solutions of two series of m–s–m gemini surfactants—one having a constant spacer s(=3) with m=8, 10, 12, and 16 and the other having a constant alkyl chain length m(=12) with variable spacer length 2?s?16—are reported. A surfactant with m=12 and having a p-xylyl (?) spacer was also studied

  8. Disposable Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    BBC Online presents this six-part special on sustainable development. Created in anticipation of the now concluded Johannesburg Summit, this Web site provides a valuable resource for viewers wishing to learn more about sustainable development and related issues. The Web site consists of an overview and six sections: Population, Food, Cities, Waste, Tourism, and Energy. The sections offer an in-depth look at each topic and include audio clips of related interviews and news stories. The discussion forums are now closed, but visitors may read the occasionally insightful and often times heated comments that have already been posted. View the slide show to get a quick, visceral sense of human impact on the planet -- past, present, and future. Visitors may also take a quiz to calculate their ecological footprint, or how much of the earth's resources they individually consume each year.

  9. Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial characterization of novel l-lysine gemini surfactants pended with reactive groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Tan; Huining Xiao

    2008-01-01

    A series of novel quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants of l-lysine containing ester group were synthesized with high yield rate. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these gemini surfactants were evaluated by quantifying the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the quaternary ammonium gemini surfactants exhibited improved activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well

  11. Gemini 9-A spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 9-A space flight is concluded as the Gemini 9 spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic. In this view its parachute is still deployed as the spacecraft hits the water (34117); Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to the crowd aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp as they emerge from their Gemini 9 capsule. John C. Stonesifer (far right), with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, was on board to greet the astronauts (34118).

  12. Astronauts Schirra and Stafford in suiting trailer during Gemini 6 prelaunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (leading), command pilot, and Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 during the Gemini 6 prelaunch countdown (59974); Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. (seated), command pilot of the Gemini 6 space flight, relaxes in the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 during the Gemini 6 prelaunch countdown. He is talking to Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Chief, Astronaut Office, Manned Spacecraft Center (59975).

  13. Easier Phase IIs: Recent Improvements to the Gemini User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Nuñez, A.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 and 2012 Gemini Observatory undertook a significant project to improve the software tools used by investigators to propose for and prepare observations. The main goal was to make the definition of observation details (the Phase II process) easier and faster. The main initiatives included rewriting the observing proposal tool (Phase I Tool) and making several major improvements to the Observing Tool, including automatic settings for arc and flat exposures, automatic guide star selection for all instruments and wavefront sensors, and more complete initial template observations with capabilities for simultaneous editing of many observations. This poster explains these major changes as well as outlines future development plans. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. Dance of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    As students continue their monthly plotting of the planets along the ecliptic they should start to notice differences between inner and outer planet orbital motions, and their relative position or separation from the Sun. Both inner and outer planets have direct eastward motion, as well as retrograde motion. Inner planets Mercury and Venus,…

  15. 24Planet Fractions and Scales Some of the planets in our

    E-print Network

    24Planet Fractions and Scales Some of the planets in our solar system are much bigger than Earth other. Image courtesy NASA/Chandra Observatory/SAO Problem 1 - Saturn is 10 times bigger than Venus, and Venus is 1/4 the size of Neptune. How much larger is Saturn than Neptune? Problem 2 - Earth is twice

  16. Diamond Turned High Precision PIAA Optics and Four Mirror PIAA System for High Contrast Imaging of Exo-planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Cady, Eric; Pueyo, Laurent; Ana, Xin; Shaklan, Stuart; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan

    2011-01-01

    Off-axis, high-sag PIAA optics for high contrast imaging present challenges in manufacturing and testing. With smaller form factors and consequently smaller surface deformations (< 80 microns), diamond turned fabrication of these mirrors becomes feasible. Though such a design reduces the system throughput, it still provides 2(lambda)D inner working angle. We report on the design, fabrication, measurements, and initial assessment of the novel PIAA optics in a coronagraph testbed. We also describe, for the first time, a four mirror PIAA coronagraph that relaxes apodizer requirements and significantly improves throughput while preserving the low-cost benefits.

  17. Diamond turned high precision PIAA optics and four mirror PIAA system for high contrast imaging of exo-planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Cady, Eric; Pueyo, Laurent; An, Xin; Shaklan, Stuart; Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan

    2011-10-01

    Off-axis, high-sag PIAA optics for high contrast imaging present challenges in manufacturing and testing. With smaller form factors and consequently smaller surface deformations (< 80 microns), diamond turned fabrication of these mirrors becomes feasible. Though such a design reduces the system throughput, it still provides 2?/D inner working angle. We report on the design, fabrication, measurements, and initial assessment of the novel PIAA optics in a coronagraph testbed. We also describe, for the first time, a four mirror PIAA coronagraph that relaxes apodizer requirements and significantly improves throughput while preserving the low-cost benefits.

  18. Low-Cost High-Precision PIAA Optics for High Contrast Imaging with Exo-Planet Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Pueyo, Laurent; Wilson, Daniel W.; Guyon, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    PIAA optics for high contrast imaging present challenges in manufacturing and testing due to their large surface departures from aspheric profiles at the aperture edges. With smaller form factors and consequent smaller surface deformations (<50 microns), fabrication of these mirrors with diamond turning followed by electron beam lithographic techniques becomes feasible. Though such a design reduces the system throughput to approx.50%, it still provides good performance down to 2 lambda/D inner working angle. With new achromatic focal plane mask designs, the system performance can be further improved. We report on the design, expected performance, fabrication challenges, and initial assessment of such novel PIAA optics.

  19. Characterizing K2 Planet Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Harps-N Collaboration, The Robo-Ao Team

    2015-01-01

    We present an effort to confirm the first planet discovered by the two-wheeled Kepler mission. We analyzed K2 photometry, correcting for nonuniform detector response as a function of the spacecraft's pointing, and detected a transiting planet candidate. We describe our multi-telescope followup observing campaign, consisting of photometric, spectroscopic, and high resolution imaging observations, including over 40 HARPS-N radial velocity measurements. The new planet is a super-Earth orbiting a bright star amenable to followup observations. HARPS-N was funded by the Swiss Space Office, the Harvard Origin of Life Initiative, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Italian National Astrophysical Institute, the University of St. Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.

  20. Improving the broadband contrast at small inner working angles using image sharpening techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Sandrine; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Lozi, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Witteborn, Fred; Greene, Thomas; Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    The detection of extrasolar planets, using both space- and ground-based telescopes, is one of the most exciting fields in astronomy today. From the ground, the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes will offer a significant increase in our capability to directly image exoplanets and could potentially lead to the direct detection of planets in the habitable zone. To obtain contrasts better than 10^-7-10^-9 requires precise wavefront control algorithms. Although wavefront control techniques, such as Electric Field Conjugation and stroke minimization, have been already developed and will soon be operational on 8-m class telescopes, they primarily function in monochromatic light and at moderate separations (r>3 lambda/D). While wavefront control simulations combining polychromatic light and smaller inner working angles (1.2 lambda/D for example) have shown promising results, experimental verification is still ongoing. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and present our latest contrast results using wavefront control techniques in polychromatic light optimized for small separations. This work is performed using the NASA Ames Center for Exoplanet Studies (ACES) testbed and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) -- currently in the final phases of integration and test.

  1. Disk-Planet Interactions During Planet Formation

    E-print Network

    J. C. B. Papaloizou; R. P. Nelson; W. Kley; F. S. Masset; P. Artymowicz

    2006-03-08

    The discovery of close orbiting extrasolar giant planets led to extensive studies of disk planet interactions and the forms of migration that can result as a means of accounting for their location. Early work established the type I and type II migration regimes for low mass embedded planets and high mass gap forming planets respectively. While providing an attractive means of accounting for close orbiting planets intially formed at several AU, inward migration times for objects in the earth mass range were found to be disturbingly short, making the survival of giant planet cores an issue. Recent progress in this area has come from the application of modern numerical techniques which make use of up to date supercomputer resources. These have enabled higher resolution studies of the regions close to the planet and the initiation of studies of planets interacting with disks undergoing MHD turbulence. This work has led to indications of how the inward migration of low to intermediate mass planets could be slowed down or reversed. In addition, the possibility of a new very fast type III migration regime, that can be directed inwards or outwards, that is relevant to partial gap forming planets in massive disks has been investigated.

  2. Characterization of a photon counting EMCCD for space-based high contrast imaging spectroscopy of extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    Wilkins, Ashlee N; Norton, Timothy J; Rauscher, Bernard J; Rothe, Johannes F; Malatesta, Michael; Hilton, George M; Bubeck, James R; Grady, Carol A; Lindler, Don J

    2014-01-01

    We present the progress of characterization of a low-noise, photon counting Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Device (EMCCD) operating in optical wavelengths and demonstrate possible solutions to the problems of Clock-Induced Charge (CIC) and other trapped charge through sub-bandgap illumination. Such a detector will be vital to the feasibility of future space-based direct imaging and spectroscopy missions for exoplanet characterization, and is scheduled to fly on-board the AFTA-WFIRST mission. The 512$\\times$512 EMCCD is an e2v detector housed and clocked by a N\\"uv\\"u Cameras controller. Through a multiplication gain register, this detector produces as many as 5000 electrons for a single, incident-photon-induced photoelectron produced in the detector, enabling single photon counting operation with read noise and dark current orders of magnitude below that of standard CCDs. With the extremely high contrasts (Earth-to-Sun flux ratio is $\\sim$ 10$^{-10}$) and extremely faint targets (an Earth analog would m...

  3. VR-Planets : a 3D immersive application for real-time flythrough images of planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    During the last two decades, a fleet of planetary probes has acquired several hundred gigabytes of images of planetary surfaces. Mars has been particularly well covered thanks to the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecrafts. HRSC, CTX, HiRISE instruments allowed the computation of Digital Elevation Models with a resolution from hundreds of meters up to 1 meter per pixel, and corresponding orthoimages with a resolution from few hundred of meters up to 25 centimeters per pixel. The integration of such huge data sets into a system allowing user-friendly manipulation either for scientific investigation or for public outreach can represent a real challenge. We are investigating how innovative tools can be used to freely fly over reconstructed landscapes in real time, using technologies derived from the game industry and virtual reality. We have developed an application based on a game engine, using planetary data, to immerse users in real martian landscapes. The user can freely navigate in each scene at full spatial resolution using a game controller. The actual rendering is compatible with several visualization devices such as 3D active screen, virtual reality headsets (Oculus Rift), and android devices.

  4. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-print Network

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  5. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Larsen

    2008-11-25

    In this project you will be the creator of a new planet in our solar system. You will be free to decide all of the characteristics of your planet. Look at the different websites below to find out more about the planets in our solar system and then decide what characteristics your planet will have. PLANET PICTURES AND FACTS I I I I I V Mercury Facts Venus Facts Earth Facts Mars Facts Jupiter Facts Saturn Facts Uranus Facts Neptune Facts PROJECT REQUIREMENTS: Your planet must have one moon or more. You must decide how long it takes your planet to rotate (length of a day on your planet). You must decide how long it takes your planet to ...

  6. Planets in a Sandbox: Hubble's Renaissance of Debris

    E-print Network

    Kalas, Paul G.

    Planets in a Sandbox: Hubble's Renaissance of Debris Disk Imaging Paul Kalas Taken from: Hubble. Planets in a Sandbox: Hubble's Renaissance of Debris Disk Imaging Paul Kalas Conduct a search for "false) When NASA launched the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) in 1983, a renaissance began. Starting

  7. Highly Stable Mesoporous Metal Oxides Using Nano-Propping Hybrid Gemini Surfactants

    E-print Network

    Kim, Ji Man

    . Here, we describe a new type of Gemini surfactant containing a siloxane moiety, which can yield highly. In the surfactant, we can control the length of the hydrophobic tail (n), the length of the siloxane moiety (m), and the length of the spacer between the positively charged headgroup and the siloxane moiety (k). The Gemini

  8. Gemini North and South Laser Guide Star Systems Requirements and Preliminary Designs

    E-print Network

    ) systems. A 10W-class laser will be associated with Altair1, 2 , the altitude conjugated- NGS AO system at Gemini North. The laser system will complete Altair's upgrade to a LGS AO facility instrument in late of the Altair LGS mode at Gemini North. Useful levels of atmospheric turbulence compensation will be achieved

  9. User Interface for the Control of the Gemini Telescopes S. S. Smith and K. Gillies

    E-print Network

    are being built using Tcl/Tk 1 and are implemented to follow the ESO Graphical User Interface Common Conventions. 2 Although several graphical user interface (GUI) builders were investigated, a decisionUser Interface for the Control of the Gemini Telescopes S. S. Smith and K. Gillies Gemini 8­M

  10. Salt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic Light Scattering

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    formed by C12CSC12 serials (S ) 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) in deionized water were transformed to micelles whenSalt Effect on Microstructures in Cationic Gemini Surfactant Solutions as Studied by Dynamic LightVed September 12, 2007. In Final Form: NoVember 6, 2007 A cationic gemini surfactant, dodecanediyl-1,12-bis

  11. Design considerations of the AO module for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system

    E-print Network

    Design considerations of the AO module for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system,Tucson, Arizona 85745 ABSTRACT The adaptive optics system for the Gemini South telescope, currently in the design, electronic and controls issues. Key words: Multi-conjugate adaptive optics, laser guide stars, adaptive

  12. Management of the Gemini 8M Telescopes Project R. Kurz, M. Mountain

    E-print Network

    , the Gemini Director reports to the Gemini Board via the President of AURA and the NSF. Figure 1. Top Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) for the NSF and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) for NASA. AURA Committee of the Board oversees financial matters and reports to the Board. The AURA Board of Directors has

  13. Update on the Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, Steven J.; Ghost Instrument Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini High-Resolution Opitcal SpecTrograph (GHOST) is under development for the Gemini telescopes in collaboration with the Austrailian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), the NRC-Herzberg in Canada, and the Australian National University (ANU). The latest design and project plan will be presented and the scientific role of the instrument will be discussed.

  14. Gemini Surfactants at Solid-Liquid Interfaces: Control of Interfacial Aggregate Geometry

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Gemini Surfactants at Solid-Liquid Interfaces: Control of Interfacial Aggregate Geometry S. Manne of surfactant geometry by using gemini surfactants with varying tail and spacer lengths. On the anionic cleavage that are surface-controlled and relatively independent of surfactant geometry. This interaction is used

  15. Exploring the Planets: Comparing the Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Comparative planetology is a scientific discipline in which researchers seek to understand the planets by comparing their similarities and examining their differences. Some planets have similarities because the materials of which they are made and the processes that have shaped them are similar. However, each planet has a unique character, due to the intensity and length of time the processes have operated. At this site, selected planets are compared on the basis of their atmospheres, volcanoes, impact craters, wind, water and ice. In each instance, photographs are displayed side by side for direct comparison.

  16. A theoretical study of Gemini surfactant phase behavior Kristine M. Layn, Pablo G. Debenedetti, and Robert K. Prud'hommea)

    E-print Network

    A theoretical study of Gemini surfactant phase behavior Kristine M. Layn, Pablo G. Debenedetti 08544 Received 14 November 1997; accepted 8 April 1998 Gemini surfactants are a relatively new type phase behavior of ternary mixtures of Gemini surfactant, oil, and water is investigated. Three

  17. The Photodimerization of a Cinnamoyl Moiety Derivative in Dilute Solution Based on the Intramolecular Chain Interaction of Gemini Surfactant

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    on the Intramolecular Chain Interaction of Gemini Surfactant Haiming Fan, Xiaoming Zhu, Lining Gao, Zichen Li 8, 2008 A Gemini surfactant, sodium N,N-di(4-n-butyloxy cinnamoly)-L-cystine, containing a cinnamoyl. The incorporation of a cinnamoyl moiety into the alkyl chains of Gemini surfactant makes it easy to probe

  18. Surface properties, aggregation behavior and micellization thermodynamics of a class of gemini surfactants with ethyl ammonium headgroups

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    March 2012 Available online 23 March 2012 Keywords: Gemini surfactants Ethyl ammonium headgroups Enhanced aggregation capability Full understanding a b s t r a c t Cationic gemini surfactant homologues properties; (2) aggregation behavior in bulk solution, including (i) morphologies of above gemini surfactants

  19. Effect of Hydrocarbon Parts of the Polar Headgroup on Surfactant Aggregates in Gemini and Bola Surfactant Solutions

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Effect of Hydrocarbon Parts of the Polar Headgroup on Surfactant Aggregates in Gemini and Bola of these gemini and bola surfactants, which can be attributed to the increase of the hydrocarbon parts of the polar headgroup of the surfactants. In combination with the result of the other gemini with headgroup

  20. Conventional and gemini surfactants embedded within bilayer membranes: contrasting behavior.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, A A; Udalykh OYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Kabanov, V A; Ermakov, Y A; Azov, V A; Menger, F M

    2001-11-19

    Laser microelectrophoresis (coupled with conductance, fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering) is shown to be a highly instructive tool in comparing the dynamics of conventional and gemini surfactants embedded within vesicle bilayers. The following can be listed among the more important observations and conclusions: a) Cationic conventional surfactant, added to a "solid" (gel) lipid vesicle containing an anionic phospholipid, charge-neutralizes only half the anionic charge. With a "liquid" (liquid crystalline) vesicle, however, the entire negative charge is neutralized. Thus, the cationic conventional surfactant can "flip-flop" readily only in the liquid membrane. b) A cationic gemini surfactant charge-neutralizes only the anionic lipid in the outer membrane leaflet of either solid or liquid membranes, thus indicating an inability to flip-flop regardless of the phase-state of the bilayer. c) Mixed population experiments show that surfactants can hop from one vesicle to another in liquid but not solid membranes. d) In liquid, but not solid, bilayers, a surface-adsorbed cationic polymer can electrostatically "drag" anionic surfactant from the inner leaflet to the outer leaflet where the polymer resides. e) Peripheral fluorescence quenching experiments show that a cationic polymer, adhered to anionic vesicles, can be forced to dissociate in the presence of high concentrations of salt or an anionic polymer. f) Adsorbed polymer, of opposite charge to that imparted to vesicles by a gemini surfactant, is unable to dislocate surfactant even in a liquid membrane. g) In our systems, ionic polymers will not bind to neutral vesicles made solely of zwitterionic phospholipid. On the other hand, ionic polymers bind to neutral vesicles if charge neutrality is obtained by virtue of the membrane containing equimolar amounts of cationic and anionic surfactant. This is attributable to surfactant segregation within the bilayer. h) Experiments prove that polymer migration can occur among a population of neutral ternary vesicles. PMID:11763452

  1. ?-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "?-crystalline phase" or "?-gel". In this study, we have characterized ?-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the ?-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated ?-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated ?-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated ?-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the ?-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of ?-gel in gemini surfactant systems. PMID:24912111

  2. Eastern Mediterranean as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean area is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the Gemini 7 mission. The Nile Delta in Egypt is at bottom. The Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez, and Red Sea are in center of photograph. Sinai Peninsula is in upper right corner of photograph. Body of water at top edge of photograph is Gulf of Aqaba. The Dead Sea can be seen in top center of picture. Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Syria are also at top center. The Island of Cyprus is at extreme left.

  3. Extragalactic Integral Field Spectroscopy on the Gemini Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Andrew Bunker; Joanna Smith; Ian Parry; Rob Sharp; Andrew Dean; Gerry Gilmore; Richard Bower; Mark Swinbank; Roger Davies; R. Ben Metcalf; Richard de Grijs

    2004-01-03

    We have been undertaking a programme on the Gemini 8-m telescopes to demonstrate the power of integral field spectroscopy, using the optical GMOS spectrograph, and the new CIRPASS instrument in the near-infrared. Here we present some preliminary results from 3D spectroscopy of extra-galactic objects, mapping the emission lines in a 3CR radio galaxy and in a gravitationally lensed arc, exploring dark matter sub-structure through observations of an Einstein Cross gravitational lens, and the star formation time-scales of young massive clusters in the starburst galaxy NGC 1140.

  4. Cationic Gemini surfactant at the air\\/water interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Qibin; Liang Xiaodong; Wang Shaolei; Xu Shouhong; Liu Honglai; Hu Ying

    2007-01-01

    The surface properties and structures of a cationic Gemini surfactant with a rigid spacer, p-xylyl-bis(dimethyloctadecylammonium bromide) ([C18H37(CH3)2N+CH2C6H4CH2N+(CH3)2C18H37],2Br?, abbreviated as 18-Ar-18,2Br?1), at the air\\/water interface were investigated. It is found that the surface pressure–molecular area isotherms observed at different temperatures do not exhibit a plateau region but display an unusual “kink” before collapse. The range of the corresponding minimum compressibility and

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. IV. OBSERVATIONS OF KEPLER, CoRoT, AND HIPPARCOS STARS FROM THE GEMINI NORTH TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ciardi, David R., E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: steve.b.howell@nasa.gov, E-mail: everett@noao.edu, E-mail: ciardi@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of 71 speckle observations of binary and unresolved stars, most of which were observed with the DSSI speckle camera at the Gemini North Telescope in 2012 July. The main purpose of the run was to obtain diffraction-limited images of high-priority targets for the Kepler and CoRoT missions, but in addition, we observed a number of close binary stars where the resolution limit of Gemini was used to better determine orbital parameters and/or confirm results obtained at or below the diffraction limit of smaller telescopes. Five new binaries and one triple system were discovered, and first orbits are calculated for other two systems. Several systems are discussed in detail.

  6. Exploring the Planets: Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students will learn that Mars, and each planet in the solar system, is unique due to the materials from which it is made and the processes that shaped it. Images and information from Mars exploration voyages, including the Viking Mission in 1975, the Pathfinder Landing in 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor project, the Mars Odyssey and Mars Express spacecrafts, the Mars Exploration Rovers, and the Reconnaissance Orbiter are presented. Students will learn about Mars mean distance from Sun, length of year, rotation period, mean orbital velocity, inclination of axis, average temperature (day and night), diameter, inclination to ecliptic, and number of observed satellites. The seasons, volcanoes, canyons and plains, craters, water, wind patterns, and two moons of Mars are also discussed.

  7. Create Your Own Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Duroseau

    2012-04-30

    This activity can be used to evaluate students understanding of the characteristics of inner and outer planets. This activity allows the students to create their own planet with the appropriate characteristics. A rubric is attached.

  8. PLANET EARTH STRANGE NEWS

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP 504kLikeLike +24142 Follow TECH HEALTH PLANET EARTH SPACE STRANGE NEWS ANIMALS HISTORY HUMAN NATURE SHOP TRENDING: Military

  9. Planet - Disk Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Sari, R; Sari, Re'em; Goldreich, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Planets form in disks around young stars. Interactions with these disks cause them to migrate and thus affect their final orbital periods. We suggest that the connection between planets and disks may be deeper and involve a symbiotic evolution. By contributing to the outward transport of angular momentum, planets promote disk accretion. Here we demonstrate that planets sufficiently massive to open gaps could be the primary agents driving disk accretion. Those having masses below the gap opening threshold drift inward more rapidly than the disk material and can only play a minor role in its accretion. Eccentricity growth during gap formation may involve an even more intimate symbiosis. Given a small initial eccentricity, just a fraction of a percent, the orbital eccentricity of a massive planet may grow rapidly once a mass in excess of the planet's mass has been repelled to form a gap around the planet's orbit. Then, as the planet's radial excursions approach the gap's width, subsequent eccentricity growth slo...

  10. Planet Designer: Kelvin Climb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the way distance, albedo, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. They will then discuss their results in terms of greenhouse strength and the presence of liquid water. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  11. Polycontinuous Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Network Phases from Gemini Dicarboxylate Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory; Schmitt, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Arising from the water concentration-dependent self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules, lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) form a wide variety of structurally periodic nanoscale morphologies including discontinuous micellar phases (I), hexagonally-packed cylinders (C), and lamellar (L) phases. In intermediate amphiphile concentration windows between the L and C phases, one typically observes three bicontinuous cubic network phases: gyroid (G), diamond (D), and primitive (P). Recent theoretical work has suggested the possible stability of a variety of non-cubic network phase LLCs, yet none of these phases have been previously observed. In this presentation, we describe the experimental discovery of the first triply periodic network phase LLC with 3D-hexagonal symmetry (space group #193) in binary mixtures of water with a simple gemini dicarboxylate surfactant based on dodecanoic acid. Using a combination of SAXS and rheological methods, we structurally characterize this new phase and show that it is comprised of three interpenetrating lipidic networks of 3-fold connectors in a matrix of water. This finding highlights the unusual aqueous phase behavior of gemini surfactants and suggests new methods for discovering and stabilizing new network phase LLCs beyond the gyroid.

  12. Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets Microlensing Searches for Extrasolar Planets I for Extrasolar Planets, B. Scott Gaudi, IAS #12;The Search for Extrasolar PlanetsThe Search for Extrasolar Planets Why Search for Extrasolar Planets ? Frequency of Life Clues to Star Formation Low End

  13. What makes a planet habitable ?

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    , but WILL "freeze away" with time When is a planet habitable ? #12;Water... Mars & Venus lost their oceans H2OWhat makes a planet habitable ? #12;#12;How to detect planets ? #12;Radial velocity #12;Transits Planet moves in front of star -> star gets dimmer · Planet size · Planet orbit · Large atmosphere ? #12

  14. Planets X and Pluto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Hoyt

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that man has discovered some fundamental truths about the universe through mathematics. The 'X' in the title of the reported study refers to the trans-Neptunian planet postulated by Percival Lowell. Attention is given to Uranus and the asteroids, Neptune, the first search for planet X, the second search for planet X, the consideration of a trans-Neptunian

  15. Planet Eart Interactive

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Deadliest Catch Dirty Jobs Future Weapons Human Body Man Vs. Wild MythBuste Raw Planet Eart Shark Animals Dinosaurs Egypt Global Warming History Planet Earth Sharks Space Survival Zone Technology Sign Up DVDs Gifts Telescopes Toys & Games Video Download When We Left Earth DVD Planet Earth DVD Eye- Shaped

  16. Peeking at the Planets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about each of the planets in our solar system. Focuses on information related to the space missions that have visited or flown near each planet, and includes a summary of what is known about some of the features of each planet. (DDR)

  17. Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Young Extrasolar Kuiper Belt in the Nearest OB Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Lisse, Carey M.; Kuchner, Marc; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Kenyon, Scott J.; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph; Debes, John

    2015-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a bright, young Kuiper belt–like debris disk around HD 115600, a ?1.4–1.5 M?, ?15 Myr old member of the Sco–Cen OB Association. Our H-band coronagraphy/integral field spectroscopy from the Gemini Planet Imager shows the ring has a (luminosity-scaled) semimajor axis of (?22 AU) ? 48 AU, similar to the current Kuiper belt. The disk appears to have neutral-scattering dust, is eccentric (e ? 0.1–0.2), and could be sculpted by analogs to the outer solar system planets. Spectroscopy of the disk ansae reveal a slightly blue to gray disk color, consistent with major Kuiper belt chemical constituents, where water ice is a very plausible dominant constituent. Besides being the first object discovered with the next generation of extreme adaptive optics systems (i.e., SCExAO, GPI, SPHERE), HD 115600's debris ring and planetary system provide a key reference point for the early evolution of the solar system, the structure, and composition of the Kuiper belt and the interaction between debris disks and planets.

  18. A giant planet around HD95086 ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Chauvin, Gaël; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Meshkat, Tiffany; Boccaletti, Anthony; Quanz, Sascha P.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Bailey, Vanessa; Kenworthy, Matthew; Currie, Thayne; Girard, Julien H.; Delorme, Philippe; Desidera, Silvano; Dumas, Christophe; Mordasini, Christoph; Klahr, Hubert; Bonavita, Mariangela

    2013-07-01

    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in as- tronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planet-star contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a year-time-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation.

  19. Detectability of planetary rings around an extrasolar planet from reflected-light photometry

    E-print Network

    L. Arnold; J. Schneider

    2005-10-19

    The next generation of high-contrast imaging instruments will provide the first unresolved image of an extrasolar planet. While the emitted infrared light from the planet in thermal equilibrium should show almost no phase effect, the reflected visible light will vary with the orbital phase angle. We study the photometric variation of the reflected light with orbital phase of a ringed extrasolar planet. We show that a ring around an extrasolar planet, both obviously unresolved, can be detected by its specific photometric signature. Keywords: Stars: planetary systems -- Planets: rings -- Extrasolar planet characterization

  20. The detectability of extrasolar planet surroundings - I. Reflected-light photometry of unresolved rings

    E-print Network

    Luc Arnold; Jean Schneider

    2004-06-09

    It is expected that the next generation of high-contrast imaging instruments will deliver the first unresolved image of an extrasolar planet. The emitted thermal infrared light from the planet should show no phase effect assuming the planet is in thermal equilibrium. But the reflected visible light will vary versus the phase angle. Here, we study the photometric variation of the reflected light versus the orbital phase of a ringed extrasolar planet. We show that a ring around an extrasolar planet, both obviously unresolved, can be detected by its specific photometric signature. A simple quantitative model is discussed, taking into account the basic optical and geometrical properties of the ringed planet.

  1. Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Journey to a Star Rich with Planets

    This artist's animation takes us on a journey to 55 Cancri, a star with a family of five known planets - the most planets discovered so far around a star besides our own.

    The animation begins on Earth, with a view of the night sky and 55 Cancri (flashing dot), located 41 light-years away in the constellation Cancer. It then zooms through our solar system, passing our asteroids and planets, until finally arriving at the outskirts of 55 Cancri.

    The first planet to appear is the farthest out from the star -- a giant planet, probably made of gas, with a mass four times that of Jupiter. This planet orbits its star every 14 years, similar to Jupiter's 11.9-year orbit.

    As the movie continues, the three inner planets are shown, the closest of which is about 10 to 13 times the mass of Earth with an orbital period of less than three days.

    Zooming out, the animation highlights the newest member of the 55 Cancri family - a massive planet, likely made of gas, water and rock, about 45 times the mass of Earth and orbiting the star every 260 days. This planet is the fourth out from the star, and lies in the system's habitable zone (green). A habitable zone is the place around a star where liquid water would persist. Though the newest planet probably has a thick gaseous envelope, astronomers speculate that it could have one or more moons. In our own solar system, moons are common, so it seems likely that they also orbit planets in other solar systems. If such moons do exist, and if they are as large as Mars or Earth, astronomers speculate that they would retain atmospheres and surface liquid water that might make interesting environments for the development of life.

    The animation ends with a comparison between 55 Cancri and our solar system.

    The colors of the illustrated planets were chosen to resemble those of our own solar system. Astronomers do not know what the planets look like.

  2. High gene delivery efficiency of alkylated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine through gemini surfactant-like effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Huang, Wei; Jin, Ming-Ji; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Min; Shao, Shuai; Gao, Zhong-Gao

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, the mechanism underlying the high transfection efficiency of alkylated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI) is not yet well understood. In this work, we grafted branched PEI (molecular weight of 1,800 Da; bPEI1800) with lauryl chains (C??), and found that bPEI1800-C?? was structurally similar to gemini surfactant and could similarly assemble into micelle-like particles. Stability, cellular uptake, and lysosome escape ability of bPEI1800-C??/DNA polyplexes were all greatly enhanced after C?? grafting. bPEI1800-C??/DNA polyplexes exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in the presence of serum. Bioluminescence imaging showed that systemic injection of bPEI1800-C??/DNA polyplexes resulted in intensive luciferase expression in vivo and bioluminescence signals that could be detected even in the head. Altogether, the high transfection efficacy of bPEI1800-C?? was because bPEI1800-C??, being an analog of gemini surfactant, facilitated lysosome escape and induced the coil-globule transition of DNA to assemble into a highly organized micelle-like structure that showed high stability. PMID:25114526

  3. Three Lyman-alpha Emitters at z approx 6: Early GMOS/Gemini Data from the GLARE Project

    E-print Network

    Elizabeth R. Stanway; Karl Glazebrook; Andrew J. Bunker; Roberto G. Abraham; Isobel Hook; James Rhoads; Patrick J. McCarthy; Brian Boyle; Matthew Colless; David Crampton; Warrick Couch; Inger Jørgensen; Sangeeta Malhotra; Rick Murowinski; Kathy Roth; Sandra Savaglio; Zlatan Tsvetanov

    2004-03-05

    We report spectroscopic detection of three z~6 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies, in the vicinity of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, from the early data of the Gemini Lyman-$\\alpha$ at Reionisation Era (GLARE) project. Two objects, GLARE#3001 (z =5.79) and GLARE#3011 (z =5.94), are new detections and are fainter in $z'$ (z'_{AB} =26.37 and 27.15) than any Lyman break galaxy previously detected in Lyman-alpha. A third object, GLARE#1042 (z =5.83) has previously been detected in line emission from the ground; we report here a new spectroscopic continuum detection. Gemini/GMOS-S spectra of these objects, obtained using nod & shuffle, are presented together with a discussion of their photometric properties. All three objects were selected for spectroscopy via the i-drop Lyman Break technique, the two new detections from the GOODS v1.0 imaging data. The red i'-z' colors and high equivalent widths of these objects suggest a high-confidence z>5 Lyman-alpha identification of the emission lines. This brings the total number of known z>5 galaxies within 9 arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to four, of which three are at the same redshift (z=5.8 within 2000 km/s suggesting the existence of a large-scale structure at this redshift.

  4. High gene delivery efficiency of alkylated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine through gemini surfactant-like effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Huang, Wei; Jin, Ming-Ji; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Min; Shao, Shuai; Gao, Zhong-Gao

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, the mechanism underlying the high transfection efficiency of alkylated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI) is not yet well understood. In this work, we grafted branched PEI (molecular weight of 1,800 Da; bPEI1800) with lauryl chains (C12), and found that bPEI1800-C12 was structurally similar to gemini surfactant and could similarly assemble into micelle-like particles. Stability, cellular uptake, and lysosome escape ability of bPEI1800-C12/DNA polyplexes were all greatly enhanced after C12 grafting. bPEI1800-C12/DNA polyplexes exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiency than Lipofectamine™ 2000 in the presence of serum. Bioluminescence imaging showed that systemic injection of bPEI1800-C12/DNA polyplexes resulted in intensive luciferase expression in vivo and bioluminescence signals that could be detected even in the head. Altogether, the high transfection efficacy of bPEI1800-C12 was because bPEI1800-C12, being an analog of gemini surfactant, facilitated lysosome escape and induced the coil–globule transition of DNA to assemble into a highly organized micelle-like structure that showed high stability. PMID:25114526

  5. Planets of young stars

    E-print Network

    E. W. Guenther; E. Esposito

    2007-01-10

    Since the first massive planet in a short period orbit was discovered, the question arised how such an object could have formed. There are basically two formation scenarios: migration due to planet-disk or planet-planet interaction. Which of the two scenarios is more realistic can be found out by observing short-period planets of stars with an age between 10E7 and 10E8 yrs. The second aim of the survey is to find out how many planets originally formed, and how many of these are destroyed in the first Gyrs: Do most young, close-in planets evaporate, or spiral into the host stars? In here we report on the first results of a radial-velocity search program for planets of young stars which we began in 2004. Using HARPS, we currently monitor 85 stars with ages between 10E7 and 10E8 yrs. We show that the detection of planets of young stars is possible. Up to now, we have identified 3 planet-candidates. Taking this result together with the results of other surveys, we conclude that the frequency of massive-short period planets of young stars is not dramatically higher than that of old stars.

  6. ConcepTest: Relative Planet Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How old are other planets in the Universe in comparison to the planets in our Solar System? a. Other planets are older than the planets in our Solar System. b. Other planets are younger than the planets in our ...

  7. The Radiometric Bode's Law and Extrasolar Planets

    E-print Network

    Joseph Lazio; W. M. Farrell; Jill Dietrick; Elizabeth Greenlees; Emily Hogan; Christopher Jones; L. A. Hennig

    2004-05-18

    We predict the radio flux densities of the extrasolar planets in the current census, making use of an empirical relation--the radiometric Bode's Law--determined from the five ``magnetic'' planets in the solar system (Earth and the four gas giants). Radio emission from these planets results from solar-wind powered electron currents depositing energy in the magnetic polar regions. We find that most of the known extrasolar planets should emit in the frequency range 10--1000 MHz and, under favorable circumstances, have typical flux densities as large as 1 mJy. We also describe an initial, systematic effort to search for radio emission in low radio frequency images acquired with the Very Large Array. The limits set by the VLA images (~ 300 mJy) are consistent with, but do not provide strong constraints on, the predictions of the model. Future radio telescopes, such as the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), should be able to detect the known extrasolar planets or place austere limits on their radio emission. Planets with masses much lower than those in the current census will probably radiate below 10 MHz and will require a space-based array.

  8. Laser Guide Star operations at the Gemini North Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulonis, Anthony C.

    2010-07-01

    The Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations at the Gemini North (GN) Telescope have improved the sky coverage far beyond using a Natural Guide Star (NGS) for the high angular resolution Adaptive Optics (AO) science demanded by our astronomical community. An understanding of the current LGS logistics from an operational standpoint is imperative for any facility planning to incorporate the LGS approach. The details of LGS operations will be highlighted, in particular the role of the Systems Support Associate (SSA) who is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the complex GN AO system, Altair. An overview of the LGS related monitoring tools, system limitations, safety protocols, SSA responsibilities, and staff support required will be included.

  9. New family of Gemini surfactants with glucosamide-based trisiloxane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Han; Gaoyong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The interfacial properties of a new family of glucosamide-based trisiloxane Gemini surfactants of the general formula (CH2OCH2)n(Me3SiOSiMeR1OSiMe3)2 (R1 = (CH2)3NR2(CH2)2NHCO(CHOH)4CH2OH; R2 = CH2CH(OH)CH2OCH2, n=0, 1,and2) were studied. Members of this family reduced the surface tension of water to approximately 21mN\\/m at concentration levels of 10?4mol\\/l and 10?5mol\\/l. The physicochemical parameters of these dimeric compounds were compared with those of the

  10. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in communications form hot spots that present significant challenges for any interconnect fabric and communication software stack. Yet despite the inherent challenges, these communication patterns are common in both applications (which often perform reductions and other collective operations that include fan-in communication such as barriers) and system software (where they assume an important role within parallel file systems and other components requiring high-bandwidth or low-latency I/O). Our study determines the effectiveness of differing clientserver fan-in strategies. We describe fan-in performance in terms of aggregate bandwidth in the presence of varying degrees of congestion, as well as several other key attributes. Comparison numbers are presented for the Cray Aries interconnect. Finally, we provide recommended communication strategies based on our findings.

  11. Which Ringed Planet...!?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere and the disk of Uranus therefore appears unsually dark. At the same time, the icy material in the rings reflects the sunlight and appears comparatively bright. Uranus is unique among the planets of the solar system in having a tilted rotation axis that is close to the main solar system plane in which most planets move (the "Ecliptic"). At the time of the Voyager-2 encounter (1986), the southern pole was oriented toward the Earth. Now, sixteen years later (corresponding to about one-fifth of Uranus' 84-year period of revolution), we observe the Uranian ring system at an angle that is comparable to the one under which we see Saturn when its ring system is most "open". The moons ESO PR Photo 31b/02 ESO PR Photo 31b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 526 pix - 76k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1460 x 1919 pix - 1.1M] Caption : PR Photo 31b/02 provides identifications of the Uranian moons present in PR Photo 31a/02 . The unidentified, round object to the left is a background star. The image scale in indicated by the bar. Seven of the moons of Uranus have been identified in PR Photo 31b/02 [1]. Of these, Titania and Oberon are the brightest (visual magnitude about 14). They were first seen in 1787 by the discoverer of Uranus, William Herschel (1738-1822), working at Bath in England. Ariel and Umbriel were found in 1851 by William Lassell (1799-1880) at Liverpool in the same country. Miranda was discovered in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (1905-1973) at the 5-m Palomar telescope in California (USA). The much smaller and fainter Puck and Portia (visual magnitude about 21 and barely visible in the photo) were first found in 1985-86 by Stephen P. Synnott of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA), during a study of Voyager-2 photos obtained soon before this NASA spacecraft flew by Uranus in January 1986. Other VLT images If you now want to see a fine VLT photo of Saturn, please look at PR Photo 04a/02 , obtained in late 2001. It was made with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) Adaptive Optics facility and is therefore much less influenced by atmospheric turbulence and hence correspondingly shar

  12. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  13. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-05-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  14. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    ?uczy?ski, Jacek; Fr?ckowiak, Renata; W?och, Aleksandra; Kleszczy?ska, Halina; Witek, Stanis?aw

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application. PMID:23271433

  15. How planet-planet scattering can create high-inclination as well as long-period orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Ford, Eric B.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2011-11-01

    Recent observations have revealed two new classes of planetary orbits. Rossiter-Mclaughlin (RM) measurements have revealed hot Jupiters in high-obliquity orbits. In addition, direct-imaging has discovered giant planets at large (~ 100 AU) separations via direct-imaging technique. Simple-minded disk-migration scenarios are inconsistent with the high-inclination (and even retrograde) orbits as seen in recent RM measurements. Furthermore, forming giant planets at large semi-major axis (a) may be challenging in the core-accretion paradigm. We perform many N-body simulations to explore the two above-mentioned orbital architectures. Planet-planet scattering in a multi-planet system can naturally excite orbital inclinations. Planets can also get scattered to large distances. Large-a planetary orbits created from planet-planet scattering are expected to have high eccentricities (e). Theoretical models predict that the observed long-period planets, such as Fomalhaut-b have moderate e ~ 0.3. Interestingly, these are also in systems with disks. We find that if a massive-enough outer disk is present, a scattered planet may be circularized at large a via dynamical friction from the disk and repeated scattering of the disk particles.

  16. The Sun, eight planets and three dwarf planets

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    The Sun, eight planets and three dwarf planets are the largest bodies in our solar system. By 2006, 166 moons had been discovered orbiting the planets and dwarf planets. There are also thousands of our solar system. The planets all revolve around this extremely hot, giant ball of burning gas

  17. Conversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities.

    E-print Network

    Conversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities. © Copyright IBM Australia Limited logo, ibm.com, smarter planet and the planet icon are trademarks of IBM Corp registered in many economic and societal progress and a huge strain on the planet's infrastructure. In Australian cities

  18. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...Docket No. MARAD-2013-0127] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI; Invitation for Public Comments...U.S.-build requirement of the coastwise laws under certain circumstances. A request...

  19. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  20. Uranus' cloud structure and seasonal variability from Gemini-North and UKIRT observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. J. Irwin; N. A. Teanby; G. R. Davis; L. N. Fletcher; G. S. Orton; D. Tice; A. Kyffin

    2011-01-01

    Observations of Uranus were made in September 2009 with the Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii, using both the NIFS and NIRI instruments. Observations were acquired in Adaptive Optics mode and have a spatial resolution of approximately 0.1\\

  1. Antagonistic mixing behavior of cationic gemini surfactants and triblock polymers in mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Singh, Jasmeet; Kaur, Gurinder

    2005-05-01

    Conductance (kappa), pyrene fluorescence (I1/I3), cloud point (C(P)), and Krafft temperature (K(T)) measurements have been carried out for various dimethylene bis(alkyldimethylammonium bromide) (gemini) surfactants with different poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock polymers (TBP). From the kappa and I1/I3 studies, the critical micelle concentrations of mixed micelle formation between the gemini and TBP have been determined using regular solution theory. It has been observed that mixed micelle formation in all the binary mixtures of gemini+TBP occurs due to the unfavorable mixing, the magnitude of which decreases with increased hydrophobicity of the gemini component. The results are further supported by evaluating the mean micelle aggregation number and enthalpy of fusion from fluorescence and Krafft temperature measurements, respectively. PMID:15797439

  2. Dusty Debris Disks as Signposts of Planets: Implications for SIRTF

    E-print Network

    B. Zuckerman; Inseok Song

    2003-11-24

    Submillimeter and near-infrared images of cool dusty debris disks and rings suggest the existence of unseen planets. At dusty but non-imaged stars, semi-major axes of associated planets can be estimated from the dust temperature. For some young stars these semi-major axes are greater than an arc second as seen from Earth. Such stars are excellent targets for sensitive near-infrared imaging searches for warm planets. To probe the full extent of the dust and hence of potential planetary orbits, SIRTF observations should include measurements with the 160mu filter.

  3. New Planets / SETI

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Planets / SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is a 48 minute radio broadcast that discusses three new planets discovered orbiting distant stars; how best to communicate with ET intelligence; and the progress of the radio-based search for ET intelligence. The new planet finds are smaller than previous extrasolar planet discoveries, on par with the planet Neptune in our solar system. There is discussion of the odds of finding life elsewhere in the universe, and if it is possible to find Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. The show also discusses: a paper published in the journal, Nature, that argues that for sending lots of data over long distances, it is hard to beat sending a physical artifact engraved with data; ways to communicate lots of information over long distances; and what SETI is listening for, and what they have heard.

  4. Disperse dyeing of polyester fiber using gemini surfactants containing ammonium cations as auxiliaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Soo Choi; Yoshio Shimizu; Hirofusa Shirai; Kunihiro Hamada

    2001-01-01

    The dyeing behavior of the disperse dye, 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAA), on polyester fiber in the presence of two cationic gemini surfactants, propanediyl-?,?-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (DC3-12) and hexanediyl-?,?-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide) (DC6-12) as auxiliaries, was investigated, and compared with that obtained in the presence of the corresponding conventional surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12C1NBr). The dyeing rate in the presence of the gemini surfactants was larger than

  5. Adsorption of zwitterionic gemini surfactants at the air–water and solid–water interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Seredyuk; E Alami; M Nydén; K Holmberg; A. V Peresypkin; F. M Menger

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper we report the adsorption behavior of a series of zwitterionic gemini surfactants, Cx–PO4?–(CH2)2–N+(CH3)2–Cy where x+y=22 and x?y, at the air–water and solid–water interfaces. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), was determined by du Nouy ring tensiometry and by steady state fluorescence. The surface excess concentration of zwitterionic gemini surfactants was calculated from the surface tension versus log

  6. Synthesis, surface properties and oil solubilisation capacity of cationic gemini surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Dam; J. B. F. N. Engberts; J. Karthäuser; S. Karaborni; N. M. van Os

    1996-01-01

    The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC have been determined for the gemini surfactants alkanediyl-?,?-bis(dimethylalkylammonium bromide) by means of dynamic surface tension measurements. For the same number of carbon atoms in the hydrophobic chain per hydrophilic head group, geminis have CMC values well below those of conventional single-chain cationic or anionic surfactants. Surface tension values

  7. The Near-Earth Encounter of 2005 YU55: Thermal Infrared Observations from Gemini North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Granvik, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As part of a multi-observatory campaign to observe 2005 YU55 during its November 2011 encounter with the Earth, thermal infrared photometry and spectroscopy (7.9- 14 and 18-22 micron) were conducted using the Michelle instrument at Gemini North. Reduction of the 8.8 flm photometry and the spectroscopy from UT Nov-IO as well as of all the Gemini data from UT Nov-9 is in progress. Results will be discussed.

  8. Magnetospheres of other Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mendez, J.

    This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, outlines the magnetic properties of the planets. Most large planets in the solar system have magnetic fields, probably produced quite differently from ours. This is part of a large work, "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere", that gives a non-mathematical introduction to the magnetic properties of the planets and the sun, space weather, and the motion of charged particles in magnetic fields. A Spanish translation is available.

  9. The Amazing Red Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the planet Mars. This lesson will begin by discussing the location and size of Mars relative to Earth, as well as introduce many interesting facts about this red planet. Next, the history of Martian exploration is reviewed and students discover why scientists are so interested in studying this mysterious planet. The lesson concludes with students learning about future plans to visit Mars.

  10. What is a planet?

    E-print Network

    Steven Soter

    2006-11-29

    A planet is an end product of disk accretion around a primary star or substar. I quantify this definition by the degree to which a body dominates the other masses that share its orbital zone. Theoretical and observational measures of dynamical dominance reveal a gap of four to five orders of magnitude separating the eight planets of our solar system from the populations of asteroids and comets. The proposed definition dispenses with upper and lower mass limits for a planet. It reflects the tendency of disk evolution in a mature system to produce a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in non-intersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them.

  11. Terrestrial planet formation.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  12. Terrestrial planet formation

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; O’Brien, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (?106 y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few × 106 y), and finally embryos to planets (107–108 y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids. PMID:21709256

  13. What is a planet?

    E-print Network

    Soter, S

    2006-01-01

    A planet is an end product of disk accretion around a primary star or substar. I quantify this definition by the degree to which a body dominates the other masses that share its orbital zone. Both theoretical and observational measures of dynamical dominance reveal a gap of five orders of magnitude separating the eight planets of our solar system from the populations of asteroids and comets. This simple definition dispenses with upper and lower mass limits for a planet. It reflects the tendency of disk evolution in a mature system to produce a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in non-intersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them.

  14. Planet - Disk Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Re'em Sari; Peter Goldreich

    2003-07-05

    Planets form in disks around young stars. Interactions with these disks cause them to migrate and thus affect their final orbital periods. We suggest that the connection between planets and disks may be deeper and involve a symbiotic evolution. By contributing to the outward transport of angular momentum, planets promote disk accretion. Here we demonstrate that planets sufficiently massive to open gaps could be the primary agents driving disk accretion. Those having masses below the gap opening threshold drift inward more rapidly than the disk material and can only play a minor role in its accretion. Eccentricity growth during gap formation may involve an even more intimate symbiosis. Given a small initial eccentricity, just a fraction of a percent, the orbital eccentricity of a massive planet may grow rapidly once a mass in excess of the planet's mass has been repelled to form a gap around the planet's orbit. Then, as the planet's radial excursions approach the gap's width, subsequent eccentricity growth slows so that the planet's orbit continues to be confined within the gap.

  15. Mixed micellization of gemini and conventional surfactant in aqueous solution: a lattice Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Hussein; Khodadadi, Zahra; Mousavi-Khoshdel, S Morteza; Hashemianzadeh, S Majid; Javadian, Soheila

    2014-09-01

    In the current study, we have investigated the micellization of pure gemini surfactants and a mixture of gemini and conventional surfactants using a 3D lattice Monte Carlo simulation method. For the pure gemini surfactant system, the effects of tail length on CMC and aggregation number were studied, and the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. For a mixture of gemini and conventional surfactants, variations in the mixed CMC, interaction parameter ?, and excess Gibbs free energy G(E) with composition revealed synergism in micelle formation. Simulation results were compared to estimations made using regular solution theory to determine the applicability of this theory for non-ideal mixed surfactant systems. A large discrepancy was observed between the behavior of parameters such as the activity coefficients fi and the excess Gibbs free energy G(E) and the expected behavior of these parameters as predicted by regular solution theory. Therefore, we have used the modified version of regular solution theory. This three parameter model contains two parameters in addition to the interaction parameters: the size parameter, ?, which reflects differences in the size of components, and the packing parameter, P*, which reflects nonrandom mixing in mixed micelles. The proposed model provides a good description of the behavior of gemini and conventional surfactant mixtures. The results indicated that as the chain length of gemini surfactants in mixture is increased, the size parameter remains constant while the interaction and packing parameters increase. PMID:25218241

  16. X-MIME: An imaging x-ray spectrometer for detailed study of Jupiter's icy moons and the planet's x-ray aurora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Elsner; B. D. Ramsey; J. H. Waite; P. Rehak; R. E. Johnson; J. F. Cooper; D. A. Swartz

    2004-01-01

    Remote observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown that the Jovian system is a source of x-rays with a rich and complicated structure. The planet's polar auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission. Chandra observations revealed x-ray emission from the Io Plasma Torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and

  17. NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF GQ LUP b USING THE GEMINI INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH NIFS

    SciTech Connect

    Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Doyon, Rene [Departement de physique and Observatoire du Mont Megantic, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafreniere, David [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Street George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Marois, Christian [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Barman, Travis, E-mail: lavigne@astro.umontreal.c [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2009-10-20

    We present new JHK spectroscopy (R approx 5000) of GQ Lup b, acquired with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph and the adaptive optics system ALTAIR at the Gemini North telescope. Angular differential imaging was used in the J and H bands to suppress the speckle noise from GQ Lup A; we show that this approach can provide improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) by a factor of 2-6 for companions located at subarcsecond separations. Based on high-quality observations and Global Astrometric lnterferometer for Astrophysics synthetic spectra, we estimate the companion effective temperature to T {sub eff} = 2400 +- 100 K, its gravity to log g = 4.0 +- 0.5, and its luminosity to log(L/L {sub sun}) = -2.47 +- 0.28. Comparisons with the predictions of the DUSTY evolutionary tracks allow us to constrain the mass of GQ Lup b to 8-60 M {sub Jup}, most likely in the brown dwarf regime. Compared with the spectra published by Seifahrt and collaborators, our spectra of GQ Lup b are significantly redder (by 15%-50%) and do not show important Pabeta emission. Our spectra are in excellent agreement with the lower S/N spectra previously published by McElwain and collaborators.

  18. Radio Galaxy 3C 230 Observed with Gemini Laser Adaptive-optics Integral-field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2011-11-01

    The Altair laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility combined with the near-infrared integral-field spectrometer on Gemini North have been employed to study the morphology and kinematics of 3C 230 at z = 1.5, the first such observations of a high-redshift radio galaxy. These suggest a bi-polar outflow spanning 0farcs9 (~16 kpc projected distance for a standard ? CDM cosmology) reaching a mean relative velocity of 235 km s-1 in redshifted H? +[N II] and [S II] emission. Structure is resolved to 0farcs1 (0.8 kpc), which is well correlated with optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Array radio maps obtained at similar spatial resolution. Line diagnostics suggest that over the 107 yr to 108 yr duration of its active galactic nucleus activity, gas has been ejected into bright turbulent lobes at rates comparable to star formation, although constituting perhaps only 1% of the baryonic mass in the galaxy.

  19. Wide Tertiary Companions to Nearby Spectroscopic Binaries: A Close Look with Gemini-North AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, P. R.; Close, L.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the preliminary findings of a multi-epoch, common proper motion (CPM) search for tertiary companions to known, nearby spectroscopic binary systems. Simulations of the star forming environment indicate that, in order to produce the very small separations of such systems, a third member can carry away angular momentum, tightening the binary. This third member typically has a low-mass and remains bound to the system. We use NIRI-Altair AO imaging on Gemini-North to search for close tertiary companions to a sample of 91 spectroscopic binaries. We collect the data in two narrow-band filters separated by approximately one year. The two filters are centered just outside of the 1.6 ?m methane feature (CH4short) and just inside it (CH4long). This allows for two forms of candidate identification: 1) CPM and 2) methane dropout if the object is a T dwarf. At this time, we have obtained and analyzed 60 multi-epoch fields. We confirm a previously known CPM companion and identify three sub-stellar candidates and two M dwarf candidates.

  20. RADIO GALAXY 3C 230 OBSERVED WITH GEMINI LASER ADAPTIVE-OPTICS INTEGRAL-FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbring, Eric [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    The Altair laser-guide-star adaptive optics facility combined with the near-infrared integral-field spectrometer on Gemini North have been employed to study the morphology and kinematics of 3C 230 at z = 1.5, the first such observations of a high-redshift radio galaxy. These suggest a bi-polar outflow spanning 0.''9 ({approx}16 kpc projected distance for a standard {Lambda} CDM cosmology) reaching a mean relative velocity of 235 km s{sup -1} in redshifted H{alpha} +[N II] and [S II] emission. Structure is resolved to 0.''1 (0.8 kpc), which is well correlated with optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Array radio maps obtained at similar spatial resolution. Line diagnostics suggest that over the 10{sup 7} yr to 10{sup 8} yr duration of its active galactic nucleus activity, gas has been ejected into bright turbulent lobes at rates comparable to star formation, although constituting perhaps only 1% of the baryonic mass in the galaxy.

  1. Gemini Near-IR Photometry of the Arches Cluster near the Galactic Center

    E-print Network

    Yang, Y; Lee, M G; Lee, S G; Yang, Yujin; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Sang-Gak

    2002-01-01

    We present Near-IR photometry of the Arches cluster, a young and massive stellar cluster near the Galactic center. We have analyzed the high resolution (FWHM 0.2") H and K' band images in the Galactic Center Demonstration Science Data Set, which were obtained with the Gemini/Hokupa's adaptive optics (AO) system. We present the color-magnitude diagram, the luminosity function and the initial mass function (IMF) of the stars in the Arches cluster in comparison with the HST/NICMOS data. The IMF slope for the range of 1.0< log(M/M_sun) <2.1 is estimated to be Gamma = -0.79+/-0.16, in good agreements with the earlier result based on the HST/NICMOS data [Figer et al. 1999, ApJ, 525, 750]. These results strengthen the evidence that the IMF of the bright stars close to the Galactic center is much flatter than that for the solar neighborhood. This is also consistent with a recent finding that the IMFs of the bright stars in young clusters in M33 get flatter as the galactocentric distance decreases [Lee et al. 20...

  2. The Nine Planets: A Multimedia Tour of the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arnett, Bill

    Created by Bill Arnett, "The Nine Planets" is an overview of the history, mythology, and current scientific knowledge of each of the planets, moons, and some other objects in our solar system. Text, images, sounds, and movies are all used. Information about planets outside our solar system is also provided. This is a nice overview of everything relating to our solar system. It provides insight into lesser known topics such as each one of the planet's moon. An introduction and frequently asked questions provide information about the website.

  3. Origins of Eccentric Extrasolar Planets: Testing the Planet-Planet Scattering Model

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Ford; Frederic A. Rasio

    2008-06-06

    (Abridged) In planetary systems with two or more giant planets, dynamical instabilities can lead to collisions or ejections through strong planet--planet scattering. Previous studies for simple initial configurations with two equal-mass planets revealed some discrepancies between the results of numerical simulations and the observed orbital elements of extrasolar planets. Here, we show that simulations with two unequal mass planets starting on nearly circular orbits predict a reduced frequency of collisions and a broader range of final eccentricities. The two-planet scattering model can easily reproduce the observed eccentricities with a plausible distribution of planet mass ratios. Further, the two-planet scattering model predicts a maximum eccentricity of about 0.8, independent of the distribution of planet mass ratios, provided that both planets are initially place on nearly circular orbits. This compares favorably with current observations and will be tested by future planet discoveries. The combination of planet--planet scattering and tidal circularization may be able to explain the existence of some giant planets with very short period orbits. Orbital migration due to planet scattering could play an important role in explaining the increased rate of giant planets with very short period orbits. We also re-examine and discuss various possible correlations between eccentricities and other properties of observed extrasolar planets. We demonstrate that the observed distribution of planet masses, orbital periods, and eccentricities can provide constraints for models of planet formation and evolution.

  4. A Tour of the Planets: Mercury Live Chat Expert Dr. Renee Weber

    E-print Network

    A Tour of the Planets: Mercury Live Chat Expert Dr. Renee Weber March 5, 2012 _____________________________________________________________________________________ Moderator Brooke: Welcome to our chat with Dr. Renee Weber as we view Mercury -- and some other planets some close-up versions of the planets as well. Here's a great dual image of Mercury in monochrome

  5. Optimal Configuration of a Planet-Finding Mission Consisting of a Telescope and a Constellation of

    E-print Network

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    Optimal Configuration of a Planet-Finding Mission Consisting of a Telescope and a Constellation that the next decade will see NASA launch the first in a series of missions dubbed the Terrestrial Planet Finders (TPF) to detect, image, and characterize extrasolar earthlike planets. Current work is directed

  6. Theoretical Spectra and Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-print Network

    David Sudarsky; Adam Burrows; Ivan Hubeny

    2003-02-19

    We present a comprehensive theory of the spectra and atmospheres of irradiated extrasolar giant planets. We explore the dependences on stellar type, orbital distance, cloud characteristics, planet mass, and surface gravity. Phase-averaged spectra for specific known extrasolar giant planets that span a wide range of the relevant parameters are calculated, plotted, and discussed. The connection between atmospheric composition and emergent spectrum is explored in detail. Furthermore, we calculate the effect of stellar insolation on brown dwarfs. We review a variety of representative observational techniques and programs for their potential for direct detection, in light of our theoretical expectations, and we calculate planet-to-star flux ratios as a function of wavelength. Our results suggest which spectral features are most diagnostic of giant planet atmospheres and reveal the best bands in which to image planets of whatever physical or orbital characteristics.

  7. Detecting Extrasolar Planets with Integral Field Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    A. Berton; R. G. Gratton; M. Feldt; T. Henning; S. Desidera; M. Turatto; H. M. Schmid; R. Waters

    2006-05-11

    Observations of extrasolar planets using Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS), if coupled with an extreme Adaptive Optics system and analyzed with a Simultaneous Differential Imaging technique (SDI), are a powerful tool to detect and characterize extrasolar planets directly; they enhance the signal of the planet and, at the same time, reduces the impact of stellar light and consequently important noise sources like speckles. In order to verify the efficiency of such a technique, we developed a simulation code able to test the capabilities of this IFS-SDI technique for different kinds of planets and telescopes, modelling the atmospheric and instrumental noise sources. The first results obtained by the simulations show that many significant extrasolar planet detections are indeed possible using the present 8m-class telescopes within a few hours of exposure time. The procedure adopted to simulate IFS observations is presented here in detail, explaining in particular how we obtain estimates of the speckle noise, Adaptive Optics corrections, specific instrumental features, and how we test the efficiency of the SDI technique to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the planet detection. The most important results achieved by simulations of various objects, from 1 M_J to brown dwarfs of 30 M_J, for observations with an 8 meter telescope, are then presented and discussed.

  8. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Doug Lin

    2005-11-14

    Formation of Planets around the Sun and other stars. The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  9. Visit to an Ocean Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Visit to an Ocean Planet is an innovative CD-ROM that has been transferred to the web. Visit to an Ocean Planet is for grades 5-12 that makes science, ocean, climate and life education fun and interactive. There are three sections, expedition, mission and guide. The expedition section engages students in exploring the 1997 El Nino, a look at oceanographers and their work, and an ocean science research cruise planning exercise. In the mission section, students discover many details about the TOPEX/Poseidon mission and learn about previous and future missions. They also learn how to measure ocean topography. The guide section contains lessons and classroom activities in climate, oceanography, and life in our oceans. The climate activities cover properties of fresh water and sea water, Earth's hydrologic cycle, coastal versus inland temperatures ocean currents and coastal temperatures, metric measurements, solar energy and distance, salinity, deep ocean circulations and greenhouse gases. The oceanography activities cover density of water, evaporation, mixing, sound in water, wind-driven currents, tides, upwelling and the Cartesian diver. The life in our oceans activities cover plankton, bioluminescence, oil spils and plastics in the ocean. Classroom activities can be downloaded directly from the website as .pdf files. The guide section also contains movies, images, and background materials. If you are an educator or home schooler, you can obtain a copy of the "Visit to an Ocean Planet" CD-ROM free of charge from the JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC: http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/edu.

  10. The Eight Planets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, by Caltech astronomer Mike Brown, is an article that recounts the reclassification of Pluto as a dwarf planet. The article explains the issues, tells how they were resolved, and answers related questions. At the bottom of the page is a link to a similar website about the dwarf planet Xena.

  11. Are Exoplanets Really Planets?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This newsbrief, from Science magazine's electronic news source, Science now, airs the skepticism of three astronomers, who state that most of the 50 recently discovered "planets" orbiting stars other than our sun may not really be planets, but rather brown dwarfs. So, what are they? Read up, and form your own opinion.

  12. March of the Planets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The motion of the planets in their orbits can be demonstrated to students by using planetarium software programs. These allow time to be sped up so that the relative motions are readily observed. However, it is also valuable to have the students understand the real speed of the planets in their orbits. This paper describes an exercise that gives…

  13. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Cutts; C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on

  14. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Niebur; L. Dudzinski; M. Coradini; J. Lebreton; J. A. Cutts

    2008-01-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on

  15. Five New Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey W. Marcy; R. Paul Butler; Steven S. Vogt; Debra A. Fischer; Gregory W. Henry; Greg Laughlin; Jason T. Wright; John A. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    We report multiple Doppler measurements of five nearby FGK main sequence stars and subgiants obtained during the past 4-6 years at the Keck observa- tory. These stars, namely, HD 183263, HD 117207, HD 188015, HD 45350, and HD 99492 all exhibit coherent variations in their Doppler shifts consistent with a planet in Keplerian motion. The five new planets occupy known

  16. PLANet: An Active Internetwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Hicks; Jonathan T. Moore; D. Scott Alexander; Carl A. Gunter; Scott M. Nettles

    1999-01-01

    We present PLANet: an active network architecture and im- plementation. In addition to a standard suite of Internet-like services, PLANet has two key programmability features: 1. all packets contain programs 2. router functionality may be extended dynamically Packet programs are written in our special purpose programming language PLAN, the Packet Language for Active Networks, while dynamic router extensions are written

  17. What is a Planet?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects. Learners will classify objects and then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term planet.

  18. Asteroids Sun's Planets

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Asteroids #12;Sun's Planets · Earth · Historical planets: (, or wanderer) ­ Mercury ­ Venus often be approximated as a geometric series #12;Asteroids · means star-like · 1 Ceres: ­Over 1 million known ­Over 600,000 with orbits #12;Asteroid ProperFes · Largest

  19. Investigating Proto-Planetary Nebulae through Angular Differential Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, Rebecca E.; Ueta, Toshiya

    Studying the Proto-Planetary Nebula (PPN) stage of a star’s life sheds light on the critical massloss mechanism that leads to the morphological change from spherically symmetric to axisymmetric circumstellar material. However, when studying material very faint in reflection so close to a star, the brightness of the star itself becomes prohibitive. Therefore, in order to study the circumstellar material more effectively, it is necessary to block out the central star. The method of angular differential imaging (ADI), used in this research, takes advantage of altitude-azimuth telescopes by turning off the telescope rotator and allowing a series of images to be taken that are slightly rotated with respect to each other. This creates a better characterization of the pointspread-function (PSF) of the central star for more effective subtraction than previous PSF subtraction techniques. ADI has successfully been used to verify extrasolar planets, but this is one of the first attempts at adopting ADI techniques for extended structures as opposed to point sources. In this study, ADI techniques were applied to PPN observations to better study the most recent mass-loss histories of PPNs. Data for the PPNs were taken at the Near Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) at Gemini South between March and September 2012. Due to the low contrast of the objects studied, this research truly pushes the boundaries of ADI methods. New details on the circumstellar structure of 6 PPNs are presented.

  20. Investigating Proto-Planetary Nebulae through Angular Differential Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, R.; Ueta, T.

    2014-04-01

    Studying the Proto-Planetary Nebula (PPN) stage of a star's life sheds light on the critical mass-loss mechanism that leads to the morphological change from spherically symmetric to axisymmetric circumstellar material. However, when studying material very faint in reflection so close to a star, the brightness of the star itself becomes prohibitive. Therefore, in order to study the circumstellar material more effectively, it is necessary to block out the central star. The method of Angular Differential Imaging (ADI), used in this research, takes advantage of altitude-azimuth telescopes by turning off the telescope rotator and allowing a series of images to be taken that are slightly rotated with respect to each other. This creates a better characterization of the point-spread-function (PSF) of the central star for more effective subtraction than previous PSF subtraction techniques. ADI has successfully been used to verify extrasolar planets, but this is one of the first attempts at adopting ADI techniques for extended structures as opposed to point sources. In this study, ADI techniques were applied to PPN observations to better study the most recent mass-loss histories of PPNs. Data for the PPNs were taken at the Near Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) at Gemini South between March and September 2012. Due to the low contrast of the objects studied, this research truly pushes the boundaries of ADI methods. New details on the circumstellar structure of 6 PPNs will be presented.

  1. Revealing planet formation: Technique, observation, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Michael Patrick

    Our understanding of planet formation rests on the observation of planetary systems over their lifetimes. The majority of known extrasolar planets are expected to have formed through a process of core accretion, by which solid planetesimals grow into embryos which sweep up gas in circumstellar disks. Observations of circumstellar disks provide a window into these processes. In particular, dusty debris produced by the destruction of primitive planetesimals can trace the characteristics and spatial distribution of these planetesimals, as well as test for the presence of planets. Debris disks are faint relative to their host stars, and advanced techniques are required to directly image the light scattered by the dust. I examine some of the challenges to high-contrast observations of circumstellar debris disks. I investigate the formation and statistics of stellar "speckles" in adaptively corrected images, which constitute a limiting noise source in high-contrast imaging. The ability for adaptive optics coronagraphy to image debris disks is examined in the context of understanding the processes of planet formation. I present an investigation using adaptive optics coronagraphy of the debris disk around AU Microscopii, a young low-mass star whose disk can be directly compared with that of the archetypal bPictoris. I also present the discovery of a ring of warm dust around HD 32297, investigate the range of disk architectures allowed by my observations, and probe the processes responsible for the distribution of dust around this star.

  2. Future Missions to Study Signposts of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    This talk will focus on debris disks, will compare ground and space and will discuss 2 proposed missions, Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments And Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and Zodiac II. At least 2 missions have been proposed for disk imaging. The technology is largely in hand today. A small mission would do excellent disk science, and would test technology for a future large mission for planets.

  3. The discovery of Eris, the largest known dwarf planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Brown

    A webpage about the discovery of Eris, the first known dwarf planet larger than Pluto. The discovery of Eris prompted the demotion of Pluto by the IAU, and the page includes images and information about the object.

  4. Find That Planet!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students use internet resources to learn about celestial coordinates, and how to use an emphemeris to locate planets on a horizon sky map. The sky maps are then used for outdoor observing. A more advanced application has students draw maps in celestial coordinates. They first learn about the celestial coordinate system astronomers use and then they generate a position, or ephemeris, for a planet at a certain time on a certain night and plot that position on an appropriate sky map. While engaged in this activity, students will learn to use star maps for finding a planet, plot a planet path on star maps with coordinate grids, and be able to find out when a planet is visible.

  5. Extreme Planet Makeover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    You may have heard of elaborate makeover television shows where some individual wishes to have various body enhancements performed or a new house is built in seven days. This fascinating extreme makeover website, from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, is much more edifying. Here, visitors will have the opportunity to make their own planet via a series of customizable bells and whistles. Visitors can use the controls on the site to adjust key planetary attributes such as distance from a star, planet size, and planet age. After making these adjustments, visitors can learn about the planet they have created, and also compare it with other existing planets and outer-space bodies.

  6. Planet Population Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Benz, W; Alibert, Y; Lin, D N C; Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of exoplanets discovered, statistical properties of the population as a whole become unique constraints on planet formation models provided a link between the description of the detailed processes playing a role in this formation and the observed population can be established. Planet population synthesis provides such a link. The approach allows to study how different physical models of individual processes (e.g., proto-planetary disc structure and evolution, planetesimal formation, gas accretion, migration, etc.) affect the overall properties of the population of emerging planets. By necessity, planet population synthesis relies on simplified descriptions of complex processes. These descriptions can be obtained from more detailed specialised simulations of these processes. The objective of this chapter is twofold: 1) provide an overview of the physics entering in the two main approaches to planet population synthesis and 2) present some of the results achieved as well as illustrate...

  7. Gemini K-band NIRI Adaptive Optics Observations of massive galaxies at 1 < z < 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2010-07-01

    We present deep K-band adaptive-optics observations of eight very massive (M* ~ 4 × 1011Msolar) galaxies at 1 < z < 2 utilizing the Gemini NIRI/Altair Laser Guide System. These systems are selected from the Palomar Observatory Wide-Field Infrared survey, and are amongst the most massive field galaxies at these epochs. The depth and high spatial resolution of our images allow us to explore for the first time the stellar mass surface density distribution of massive distant galaxies from 1 to 15 kpc on an individual galaxy basis, rather than on stacked images. We confirm that some of these massive objects are extremely compact with measured effective radii between 0.1 and 0.2arcsec, giving sizes which are <~2 kpc, a factor of ~7 smaller in effective radii than similar mass galaxies today. Examining stellar mass surface densities as a function of fixed physical aperture, we find an overdensity of material within the inner profiles, and an underdensity in the outer profile, within these high-z galaxies compared with similar mass galaxies in the local universe. Consequently, massive galaxies should evolve in a way to decrease the stellar mass density in their inner region and at the same time creating more extensive outer light envelopes. We furthermore show that ~38 +/- 20 per cent of our sample contains evidence for a disturbed outer stellar matter distribution, suggesting that these galaxies are undergoing a recent dynamical episode, such as a merger or accretion event. We calculate that massive galaxies at z < 2 will undergo on the order of 5 of these events, a much higher rate than observed for major mergers, suggesting that these galaxies are growing in size and stellar mass in part through minor mergers during this epoch.

  8. A duplex "Gemini" prodrug of naltrexone for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Hammell, Dana C; Hamad, Mohamed; Vaddi, Haranath K; Crooks, Peter A; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2004-06-18

    Transdermal naltrexone delivery is desirable in the treatment of narcotic dependence and alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to increase the delivery rate of naltrexone (NTX) across human skin by using a novel prodrug. A duplex "gemini" prodrug of naltrexone was synthesized and evaluated. In vitro human skin permeation rates of naltrexone and prodrug were measured using a flow-through diffusion cell system. Drug concentrations in the skin were quantitated at the end of the diffusion experiment. The prodrug was hydrolyzed on passing through the skin and appeared mainly as naltrexone in the receiver compartment. The prodrug provided a significantly higher naltrexone equivalent flux across human skin in vitro than naltrexone base. The naltrexone equivalent solubilities of naltrexone and the prodrug in the donor solution were not significantly different. No significant increase in drug concentration in the skin after prodrug treatment, as compared to naltrexone, was observed. The naltrexone equivalent permeability from the prodrug exceeded the permeability of naltrexone base by two-fold. Due to the design of this prodrug, toxicities associated with this compound should be nonexistent, because only naltrexone and carbon dioxide (carbonic acid) are released when the prodrug is cleaved. PMID:15196755

  9. Ocean Planet: Rough Planet Earth without Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave Pape

    1994-04-29

    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.

  10. The potential of GPI extreme AO system to image and characterize exoplanets and asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Vega, David

    2014-11-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation adaptive optics coronagraph designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planets, polarimetry of circumstellar disks and solar system planets. It is the first such facility-class instrument deployed on a 8-m telescope, designed to achieve contrast levels of up to 10^7.On the first commissioning observations (2013B), we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-sigma contrast of 10^6 at 0.75 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris (Macintosh et al. PNAS 2014) clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-second exposure with minimal post-processing. These observations were taken covering the H-band (1.65 ?m). A H-band spectrum of Beta Pic b presented in Chilcote et al. (2014) with a resolving power of ~45 and demonstrates the distinctive triangular shape of a cool substellar object with low surface gravity leading to an effective temperature of 1650+/-50 K and a surface gravity of log(g) = 4.0 +/- 0.25 (cgs units).We will also present the analysis of observations of (2) Pallas observed in direct imaging (without coronagraph) on March 22 2014 in Y, J, H, and K1 filters (from 0.95 to 2.19 ?m) spectroscopically with a resolution varying from 34 to 70. The 540-km asteroid is well resolved and irregular. An ellipse of 540±9 mas and 470±9 mas fits its silhouette. The surface of the asteroid is mostly featureless but small differences of colors is currently being analyzed. No moons with a diameter larger than 2 km and at least 480 km from Pallas were detected on these observations.These results show the power of a dedicated extreme AO with high-contrast imager, low resolution spectrograph and polarizer. A 600-star survey of young nearby stars led by B. Macintosh will begin in 2014B to produce a sample of directly imaged planets that spans a broad range of temperatures, ages, and masses and probes the range of semi-major-axes and stellar ages inaccessible to Doppler and transit surveys. Similarly a program to map ~30-40 large main-belt asteroids and search for companions around them will be initiated in 2015A. This work is funded by NASA NNX14AJ80G

  11. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z?) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]?4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and SECYT (Argentina).Reduced and calibrated data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A64

  12. Orbital Evolution and Migration of Giant Planets: Modeling Extrasolar Planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Trilling; W. Benz; T. Guillot; J. I. Lunine; W. B. Hubbard; A. Burrows

    1998-01-01

    Giant planets in circumstellar disks can migrate inward from their initial (formation) positions. Radial migration is caused by inward torques between the planet and the disk, by outward torques between the planet and the spinning star, and by outward torques due to Roche lobe overflow and consequent mass loss from the planet. We present self-consistent numerical considerations of the problem

  13. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Transits #12;Transits Transits requires an edge-on orbit. ·Jupiter;How Transits Work #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. III Astrometric Wobble #12;Finding Extrasolar

  14. PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot

    E-print Network

    Guillot, Tristan

    1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot/TPF. Extrasolar giant planets are milestones on the quest for our origins: they hold crucial information con for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new

  15. Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer

    E-print Network

    Lloyd, James P.

    Extrasolar Planet Science with the Antarctic Planet Interferometer James P. Lloyda, Ben F. Lanea. The unique properties of the polar atmosphere can be exploited for Extrasolar Planet studies on the properties of the atmosphere at the South Pole and other Antarctic plateau sites for Extrasolar Planet

  16. ExtraSolar Planets Finding Extrasolar Planets. I

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ExtraSolar Planets #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. I Direct Searches Direct searches are difficult this? Yes, but it takes special techniques, and is not easy. #12;Finding Extrasolar Planets. II Most The three planets of Gl 876: masses = 2.5 MJ, 0.8 MJ, and 7.5 M #12;Gliese 876 #12;Finding Extrasolar

  17. DetectingDetecting Planets in thePlanets in the

    E-print Network

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    DetectingDetecting Planets in thePlanets in the Galactic BulgeGalactic Bulge B. Scott Gaudi Institute for Advanced Study #12;Abstract Determination of the frequency of planets in environments mechanisms of planets. There are three currently feasible methods of detecting planetary companions to stars

  18. Pulse of the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains the archive for Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a two-minute sound portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. Pulse of the Planet is broadcast over 320 public and commercial stations around the world and on the Voice of America and the Armed Forces Radio Network. In addition to the sound clips there are associated feature stories on everything from particle physics to the birds of the Pantanal and seasonal stories describing the ways that people interact with their environment.

  19. Share Your Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-13

    In this cooperative game, learners devise strategies about sharing a small space with each other. Similar to musical chairs, this game has players sharing a smaller and smaller number of "planets" (circles on the floor) until they find a way to share just one remaining planet. After the game, learners discuss how they managed to fit everyone in one planet, what "rules" of sharing they made up as they went along, and whether there were disagreements. This game can be a great activity for indoor recess. This activity can be found on pages 12-13 of the activity guide.

  20. Self-assembly, DNA binding and cytotoxicity trends of ether functionalized gemini pyridinium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vinay; Singh, Sukhprit; Kamboj, Raman; Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2014-03-01

    Six new ether functionalized gemini pyridinium amphiphiles have been synthesized having dodecyl, tetradecyl alkyl chain lengths and three different spacers (i.e. -(CH2)n-, where n is 4, 5 and 6) and investigated for their self-assembling behavior by state of the art techniques such as tensiometry, conductivity and spectrofluorometry. These new pyridinium gemini surfactants exhibit lower cmc values as compared to other gemini surfactants reported in literature. These amphiphiles form stable complexes with DNA as established by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was carried out in vitro on C6 glioma cell line for cytotoxicity assessment of new pyridinium geminis. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to measure the micellar size of gemini surfactants. Further, thermal stability of these amphiphiles has been evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The dependence of self-assembly behavior and other properties on spacer as well as alkyl chain length has been established. PMID:24407701

  1. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

  2. Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Is Pluto a Planet? And what is a planet, anyways? N = N* fs fp AST 248 #12;What is a star? A star The real issue is that we need to know precisely what we mean when we use the word planet. Is Pluto a Planet? #12;Is Pluto a Planet? A body that: ·Orbits a star ·Is large enough for its gravity to make

  3. Planet Designer: What's Trending Hot?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the way distance, reflectivity, and atmosphere affect the temperature of a planet. Learners will create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet's temperature. This lesson is part of Project Spectra, a science and engineering education program focusing on how light is used to explore the Solar System.

  4. Formation of Planets Around the Sun and Other Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Doug

    2005-11-14

    The quest to understand the formation of planets and planetary systems has entered an era of renaissance. Driven by observational discoveries in solar system exploration, protostellar disks, and extra solar planets, we have established a rich data bank which contains not only relic clues around mature stars, including the Sun, but also direct image of ongoing processes around young stars. For the first time in this scientific endeavor, we have adequate information to construct quantitative models to account for the ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems. Some of the most intriguing theoretical questions facing us today include: (a) how did the planets in the solar system form with their present-day mass, composition, and orbital elements, (b) is planet formation a deterministic or chaotic process, and (c) what are the observable signatures of planet formation and evolution around nearby young and mature stars? I will present a comprehensive scenario which suggests (a) gas giant planets formed through coagulation of planetsimals and gas accretion onto earth-like cores; (b) the final assemblage of the terrestrial planets in the solar system occurred through the propagation of Jupiter's secular resonance 4-30 Myrs after the emergence of the gas giant; and (c) although they are yet to be discovered, Earth-like planets are expected to be common around nearby stars.

  5. Global stratigraphy. [of planet Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Scott, David H.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to recent major advances in the definition and documentation of Martian stratigraphy and geology. Mariner 9 provided the images for the first global geologic mapping program, resulting in the recognition of the major geologic processes that have operated on the planet, and in the definition of the three major chronostratigraphic divisions: the Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian Systems. Viking Orbiter images permitted the recognition of additional geologic units and the formal naming of many formations. Epochs are assigned absolute ages based on the densities of superposed craters and crater-flux models. Recommendations are made with regard to future areas of study, namely, crustal stratigraphy and structure, the highland-lowland boundary, the Tharsis Rise, Valles Marineris, channels and valley networks, and possible Martian oceans, lakes, and ponds.

  6. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we examine what can be learned about extrasolar planet atmospheres by concentrating on a class of planets that transit their parent stars. As discussed in the previous chapter, one way of detecting an extrasolar planet is by observing the drop in stellar intensity as the planet passes in front of the star. A transit represents a special case in which the geometry of the planetary system is such that the planet s orbit is nearly edge-on as seen from Earth. As we will explore, the transiting planets provide opportunities for detailed follow-up observations that allow physical characterization of extrasolar planets, probing their bulk compositions and atmospheres.

  7. The radial velocity search for extrasolar planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillen, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers are measuring small changes in the line-of-sight velocities of stars to detect the oscillating reflex acceleration induced by large planets. The intention is to observe enough stars for a long enough time to be able to make a statement of the probability of planets in a certain range of masses even if no planetary perturbations are detected. To make these measurements of Doppler shift with the required sensitivity, a new instrument was specifically designed, built and tested for this campaign of ground-based planet detection. The instrument is an optical spectrometer for which wavelengths are first calibrated by transmission through a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon interferometer. The intrinsic stability of the etalon and an image-scrambling fiber optic light feed provide great sensitivity to line-of-sight accelerations and immunity to systematic errors.

  8. The Kepler Mission: Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Likins, B.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets orbiting main-sequence stars is of great interest and importance. Current ground-based methods are only capable of detecting objects about the size or mass of Jupiter or larger. The difficulties encountered with direct imaging of Earth-size planets from space are expected to be resolved in the next twenty years. Spacebased photometry of planetary transits is currently the only viable method for detection of terrestrial planets (30-600 times less massive than Jupiter). This method searches the extended solar neighborhood, providing a statistically large sample and the detailed characteristics of each individual case. A robust concept has been developed and proposed as a Discovery-class mission. Its capabilities and strengths are presented.

  9. Why 400 Years to Discover Countless Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2011-04-01

    In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.

  10. Extrasolar planets: Remote climes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam

    2007-05-01

    A distant planet traversing its orbit shows variations in its infrared brightness, providing the first map of its climate. These variations paint a picture of a dynamic world, with efficient redistribution of stellar heat.

  11. The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jean Schneider, of the Observatoire de Paris, put together this no-nonsense site featuring current information on the "detection and study of extrasolar planets, including exobiology." Schneider's commitment to the subject is clear with the inclusion of detailed scientific and technical articles, a tutorial (by Arizona State University) on the detection of extrasolar planets, and a hyperlinked bibliography of some 200 scientific journal articles, books, and reports. A catalog of extrasolar planets (with links to the scientific articles describing them) features dozens of confirmed planets (or brown dwarfs) around main sequence stars or pulsars, in addition to disks and unconfirmed objects. Whether you are a dedicated amateur or pro (and read English or French), these pages are clearly designed and well worth the orbit.

  12. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  13. The planet Saturn (1970)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The present-day knowledge on Saturn and its environment are described for designers of spacecraft which are to encounter and investigate the planet. The discussion includes physical properties of the planet, gravitational field, magnetic and electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, satellites and meteoroids, the ring system, charged particles, atmospheric composition and structure, and clouds and atmospheric motions. The environmental factors which have pertinence to spacecraft design criteria are also discussed.

  14. Planet/Moon Trivia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about defining characteristics or features of the planets and their moons. Learners will use the Solar System Update software to complete a worksheet asking them to find the planet and/or moon that matches each listed description. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access, and is Solar System Activity 1 in a larger resource, Space Update.

  15. Transit of Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Laurance R.

    1998-01-01

    During the past five years we have pursued the detection of extrasolar planets by the photometric transit method, i.e. the detection of a planet by watching for a drop in the brightness of the light as it crosses in front of a star. The planetary orbit must cross the line-of-sight and so most systems will not be lined up for such a transit to ever occur. However, we have looked at eclipsing binary systems which are already edge-on. Such systems must be very small in size as this makes the differential light change due to a transit much greater for a given planet size (the brightness difference will be proportional to the area of the transiting planet to the disc area of the star). Also, the planet forming region should be closer to the star as small stars are generally less luminous (that is, if the same thermal regime for planet formation applies as in the solar system). This led to studies of the habitable zone around other stars, as well. Finally, we discovered that our data could be used to detect giant planets without transits as we had been carefully timing the eclipses of the stars (using a GPS antenna for time) and this will drift by being offset by any giant planets orbiting around the system, as well. The best summary of our work may be to just summarize the 21 refereed papers produced during the time of this grant. This will be done is chronological order and in each section separately.

  16. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  17. Planets' magnetic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Uberoi, C.

    1989-02-01

    The magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets and the heliomagnetosphere are examined. The orientations of the planetary spin and magnetic axes, the size of the magnetospheres, and the magnetic properties and the radio emissions of the planets are compared. Results from spacecraft studies of the planets are included. Plans for the Voyager 2 mission and its expected study of the Neptune magnetosphere are considered.

  18. Gemini spectroscopy of the outer disk star cluster BH176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharina, M. E.; Donzelli, C. J.; Davoust, E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Charbonnel, C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. BH176 is an old metal-rich star cluster. It is spatially and kinematically consistent with belonging to the Monoceros Ring. It is larger in size and more distant from the Galactic plane than typical open clusters, and it does not belong to the Galactic bulge. Aims: Our aim is to determine the origin of this unique object by accurately determining its distance, metallicity, and age. The best way to reach this goal is to combine spectroscopic and photometric methods. Methods: We present medium-resolution observations of red clump and red giant branch stars in BH176 obtained with the Gemini South Multi-Object Spectrograph. We derive radial velocities, metallicities, effective temperatures, and surface gravities of the observed stars and use these parameters to distinguish member stars from field objects. Results: We determine the following parameters for BH176: Vh = 0 ± 15 km s-1, [Fe/H] = -0.1 ± 0.1, age 7 ± 0.5 Gyr, E(V - I) = 0.79 ± 0.03, distance 15.2 ± 0.2 kpc, ?-element abundance [?/Fe] ~ 0.25 dex (the mean of [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe]). Conclusions: BH176 is a member of old Galactic open clusters that presumably belong to the thick disk. It may have originated as a massive star cluster after the encounter of the forming thin disk with a high-velocity gas cloud or as a satellite dwarf galaxy. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Aggregation behavior of a gemini surfactant with a tripeptide spacer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Han, Yuchun; Qiao, Fulin; Wang, Yilin

    2015-02-28

    A peptide gemini surfactant, 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12, has been constructed with two dodecyl chains separately attached to the two terminals of a glutamic acid-lysine-glutamic acid peptide and the aggregation behavior of the surfactant was studied in aqueous solution. The 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 molecules form fiber-like precipitates around pH 7.0, and the precipitation range is widened on increasing the concentration. At pHs 3.0 and 11.0, 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 forms soluble aggregates because each molecule carries two positively charged amino groups at the two ends of the peptide spacer at pH 3.0, while each molecule carries one negatively charged carboxyl group in the middle of the peptide spacer at pH 11.0. 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 displays a similar concentration-dependent process at these two pHs: forming small micelles above the critical micelle concentration and transferring to fibers at pH 3.0 or twisted ribbons at pH 11.0 above the second critical concentration. The fibers formed at pH 3.0 tend to aggregate into bundles with twisted structure. Both the twisted fibers at pH 3.0 and the twisted ribbons at pH 11.0 contain ?-sheet structure formed by the peptide spacer. PMID:25588349

  20. Photoinduced demulsification of emulsions using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Fukuyasu, Kengo; Horiuchi, Tatsuya; Kondo, Yukishige; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-01-14

    This Article reports on the influence of light irradiation on the stability of emulsions prepared using a photoresponsive gemini surfactant (C7-azo-C7) having an azobenzene skeleton as a spacer. When mixtures of trans C7-azo-C7 aqueous solution and n-octane are homogenized, stable emulsions are obtained in a specific region of weight fraction and surfactant concentration. Fluorescence microscopy observations using a small amount of fluorescent probes show that the stable emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W)-type. UV irradiation of stable O/W emulsions promotes the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 and leads to the coalescence of the oil (octane) droplets in the emulsions, that is, demulsification. While the equilibrated interfacial tension (IFT) between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane is almost the same as that between aqueous cis C7-azo-C7 and octane, the occupied area per molecule for C7-azo-C7 at octane/water interface decreases with the cis photoisomerization of trans isomer. Dynamic IFT measurement shows that UV irradiation to the interface between aqueous trans C7-azo-C7 solution and octane brings about an increase in the interfacial tension, indicating that the Gibbs free energy at the interface increases. From these results, the cis isomerization of trans C7-azo-C7 molecules at the O/W interface due to UV irradiation leads to direct contact between the water and octane phases, because of the reduction of molecular area at the interface, and subsequently makes the emulsions demulsified. PMID:24354334

  1. Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Young Extrasolar Kuiper Belt in the Nearest OB Association

    E-print Network

    Currie, Thayne; Kuchner, Marc J; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Kenyon, Scott J; Thalmann, Christian; Carson, Joseph; Debes, John H

    2015-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a bright, young Kuiper belt-like debris disk around HD 115600, a $\\sim$ 1.4--1.5 M$_\\mathrm{\\odot}$, $\\sim$ 15 Myr old member of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Our H-band coronagraphy/integral field spectroscopy from the \\textit{Gemini Planet Imager} shows the ring has a (luminosity scaled) semi major axis of ($\\sim$ 22 AU) $\\sim$ 48 AU, similar to the current Kuiper belt. The disk appears to have neutral scattering dust, is eccentric (e $\\sim$ 0.1--0.2), and could be sculpted by analogues to the outer solar system planets. Spectroscopy of the disk ansae reveal a slightly blue to gray disk color, consistent with major Kuiper belt chemical constituents, where water-ice is a very plausible dominant constituent. Besides being the first object discovered with the next generation of extreme adaptive optics systems (i.e. SCExAO, GPI, SPHERE), HD 115600's debris ring and planetary system provides a key reference point for the early evolution of the solar system, the structure and compositio...

  2. Building a virtual planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, V. S.

    2002-01-01

    The virtual Planetary Laboratory (VPL) is a recently funded 5-yr project, which seeks toimprove our understanding of the range of plausible environments and the likely signatures for life on extrasolar terrestrial planets. To achieve these goals we are developing a suite of innovative modeling tools to simulate the environments and spectra of extrasolar planets. The core of the VPL IS a coupled radiative transfer/climate/chemistry model, which is augmented by interchangeable modules which characterize geological, exogenic, atmospheric escape, and life processes. The VPL is validated using data derived from terrestrial planets within our own solar system. The VPL will be used to explore the plausible range of atmospheric composittions and globally averaged spectra for extrasolar planets and for early Earth, and will improve our understanding of the effect of life on a planet's atmospheric spectrum and composition. The models will also be used to create a comprehensive spectral catalog to provide recommendations on the optimum wavelength range, spectral resolution, and instrument sensitivity required to characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets. Although developed by our team, the VPL is envisioned to be a comprehensive and flexible tool, which can be collaboratively used by the broader planetary science and astrobiology communities. This presentation will describe the project concept, the tasks involved, and will outline current progress to date. This work is funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

  3. On-board calibration of the spectral response functions of the Advanced Baseline Imager's thermal IR channels by observation of the planet Mercury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Bremer

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will image Earth in 16 spectral channels, including 10 thermal IR (TIR) channels. The instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of each TIR detector element is (56 murad)2. The ABI has an onboard fullaperture blackbody, the Internal Calibration Target (ICT), used in conjunction with deep space looks to calibrate the ABI's TIR channels. The ICT is

  4. Structural and transfection properties of amine-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wettig,S.; Badea, I.; Donkuru, M.; Verrall, R.; Foldvari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in DNA transfection efficiencies for non-viral vectors can be achieved through rational design of novel cationic building blocks. Based on previous results examining DNA condensation by polyamines, novel gemini surfactants have been designed that incorporate aza or imino substituents within the spacer group in order to increase interactions with DNA and potentially improve their DNA transfection ability. Transfection efficiencies and cell toxicity of gemini nanoparticles constructed from plasmid DNA, gemini surfactant, and a neutral lipid were measured in COS7 cells using a luciferase assay. Structural properties of nanoparticles were examined by using circular dichroism, particle size, zeta potential, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The incorporation of aza and imino substituents within the spacer group was observed to enhance the transfection ability of gemini surfactants. Incorporation of an imino group in the structure of the 1,9-bis(dodecyl)-1,1,9,9-tetramethyl-5-imino-1,9-nonanediammonium dibromide surfactant (12-7NH-12) resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.01) 9-fold increase in transfection compared to an unsubstituted gemini surfactant and a 3-fold increase compared to the corresponding aza-substituted compound. A pH-dependent transition in size and zeta potential was observed to occur at pH 5.5 for complexes formed from the 12-7NH-12 compound. SAXS results show weakly ordered structures and the presence of multiple phases. The incorporation of a pH-active imino group within the spacer of the gemini surfactant results in a significant increase in transfection efficiency that can be related to both pH-induced changes in nanoparticle structure and the formation of multiple phases that more readily allow for membrane fusion that may facilitate DNA release.

  5. Coacervation and aggregate transitions of a cationic ammonium gemini surfactant with sodium benzoate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijuan; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Yilin

    2014-03-21

    Coacervation in an aqueous solution of cationic ammonium gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (C12C6C12Br2) with sodium benzoate (NaBz) has been investigated at 25 °C by turbidity titration, light microscopy, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic temperature transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), isothermal titration calorimetry, ? potential and (1)H NMR measurements. There is a critical NaBz concentration of 0.10 M, only above which coacervation can take place. However, if the NaBz concentration is too large, coacervation also becomes difficult. Coacervation takes place at a very low concentration of C12C6C12Br2 and exists in a very wide concentration region of C12C6C12Br2. The phase behavior in the NaBz concentration from 0.15 to 0.50 M includes spherical micelles, threadlike micelles, coacervation, and precipitation. With increasing NaBz concentration, the phase boundaries of coacervation shift to higher C12C6C12Br2 concentration. Moreover, the C12C6C12Br2-NaBz aggregates in the coacervate are found to be close to charge neutralized. The Cryo-TEM and SEM images of the coacervate shows a layer-layer stacking structure consisting of a three-dimensional network formed by the assembly of threadlike micelles. Long, dense and almost uncharged threadlike micelles are the precursors of coacervation in the system. PMID:24651935

  6. A Gemini Observation of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1RXS J170849-400910

    E-print Network

    Samar Safi-Harb; Jennifer West

    2005-01-27

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) represent a growing class of neutron stars discovered at X-ray energies. While the nature of their multi-wavelength emission mechanism is still under debate, evidence has been recently accumulating in favor of their magnetar nature. Their study in the optical and infrared (IR) wavelengths has recently opened a new window to constrain the proposed models. We here present a brief overview of AXPs and our Gemini-South observation of 1RXS J170849-400910, which is a relatively bright AXP discovered with ROSAT and later found to be an 11 s X-ray pulsar by ASCA. The observation was taken with the near-IR imager Flamingos in J (1.25 um), H (1.65 um), and Ks (2.15 um). We confirm the recent detection by Israel et al. (2003) of a source coincident with the Chandra source (candidate `A'). Our derived magnitudes of J = 20.6 (0.2), H = 18.6 (0.2), and Ks = 17.1 (0.2) are consistent with those derived by Israel et al. (2003), and indicate that if this source is indeed the IR counterpart to 1RXS J170849-400910, then there is no evidence of variability from this AXP. However, given the lack of IR variability and the relatively high IR to X-ray flux of this source when compared to the other AXPs, we conclude that this source is unlikely the counterpart of the AXP, and that the other source (candidate `B') within the Chandra error circle should not be ruled out as the counterpart. Further monitoring of these sources and a deep observation of this complex field are needed to confirm the nature of these sources and their association with the AXP.

  7. Shocks and star formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini spectroscopy of H?-bright knots

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Cluver, M. E. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Appleton, P. N. [NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guillard, P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud XI, F-91405 Orsay, Cedex (France); Trancho, G. [Giant Magellan Telescope Organisation, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Charlton, J. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fedotov, K.; Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Struck, C. J., E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-selected H?-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The ?40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the ?kiloparsec-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission-line ratios of the two populations of H?-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock front propagating at ?300 km s{sup –1}. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp boundary between shocks and star formation. We conclude that star formation is inhibited substantially, if not entirely, in the shock region. Attributing those H II regions projected against the shock to the intruder, we find a lopsided distribution of star formation in this galaxy, reminiscent of pileup regions in models of interacting galaxies. The H? luminosities imply mass outputs, star formation rates, and efficiencies similar to nearby star-forming regions. Two large knots are an exception to this, being comparable in stellar output to the prolific 30 Doradus region. We also examine Stephan's Quintet in the context of compact galaxy group evolution, as a paradigm for intermittent star formation histories in the presence of a rich, X-ray-emitting intra-group medium. All spectra are provided as supplemental materials.

  8. High Spatial Resolution Mid-IR Imaging of V838 Monocerotis: Evidence of New Circumstellar Dust Creation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Wisniewski; Mark Clampin; Karen S. Bjorkman; Richard K. Barry

    2008-01-01

    We report high spatial resolution 11.2 and 18.1 mum imaging of V838 Monocerotis obtained with Gemini Observatory's Michelle instrument in 2007 March. Strong emission is observed from the unresolved stellar core of V838 Mon in our Gemini imagery and is confirmed by Spitzer MIPS 24 mum imaging obtained in 2007 April. The 2007 flux density of the unresolved mid-infrared emission

  9. Electrochemical investigation on DNA–gemini complex films immobilized on gold electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fa-Qiong Zhao; Li-Jian Huang; Bai-Zhao Zeng; Dai-Wen Pang

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of DNA with several new synthesized gemini surfactants R-?,?-(C16H33N+(CH3)2Br?)2 (R=C6H12, C12H24, CH2CHOHC2H4 and CH2C6H4CH2) and the construction of DNA–gemini films formed on gold electrode surface were investigated with electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that these surfactants could be bound to DNA, driven by the electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction between DNA

  10. Novel Gemini analogs of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) with enhanced transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Weyts, Franci A; Dhawan, Puneet; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Bishop, June E; Uskokovic, Milan R; Ji, Yan; Studzinski, George P; Norman, Anthony W; Christakos, Sylvia

    2004-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), exerts its effects through regulation of target gene transcription. Configuration at C-20 of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is important in determining potency, as shown by the high potency of analogs with inverted configuration at C-20 (20-epi compounds). Gemini analogs of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) contain two side chains, combining a C-20-normal with a C20-epi side chain. We studied the potency of analogs combining double (Gemini) side chains with a 23-triple bond and a C-26,27-hexafluoro substitution in either the 20-epi (analog 20R) or 20-normal (analog 20S) side chain. These novel Gemini analogs were 8-50-fold more potent than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in inducing U937, HL-60G, and THP-1 differentiation and 5-50-fold more potent in inducing transcription from the osteocalcin vitamin D response element or the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase (24OHase) promoter. In vivo, following i.p. injection in vitamin D-deficient mice, the 20S analog induced significantly higher levels of calbindin-D(9K) mRNA in intestine, and 24OHase and calbindin-D(28K) in kidney than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or analog 20R. Increased potency did not correlate with ligand-receptor binding affinity. In GST-pull down assays using in vitro translated VDR, Gemini analogs showed equivalent (or even attenuated) potency to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in recruiting cofactors DRIP205 and GRIP-1 to VDR. However, Gemini analogs were up to 15-fold more potent than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in recruiting the same cofactors to VDR in GST-pull down assays using equal amounts of VDR from nuclear extracts of VDR transfected and hormone treated (24 hr) COS-7 cells. Deletion of C-19 in either 20S or 20R Gemini analogs resulted overall in slightly less potent analogs compared to Gemini itself. We conclude that enhanced potency of the novel Gemini analogs is at least partly due to increased metabolic stability of the analogs, resulting in more cofactor binding and elevated levels of transcription. PMID:15013848

  11. Asp-Gly based peptides confined at the surface of cationic gemini surfactant aggregates.

    PubMed

    Brizard, Aurélie; Dolain, Christel; Huc, Ivan; Oda, Reiko

    2006-04-11

    Cationic gemini surfactants complexed with anionic oligoglycine-aspartate (called gemini peptides hereafter) were synthesized, and their aggregation behaviors were studied. The effects of the hydrophobic chain length (C10-C22) and the length of the oligoglycine (0-4) were investigated, and it was clearly shown by critical micellar concentration, Krafft temperature, and isothermal surface pressure measurements that the hydrophobic effect and interpeptidic interaction influence the aggregation behavior in a cooperative manner. Below their Krafft temperatures, some of them formed both hydro- and organogels with three-dimensional networks and the Fourier transform infrared measurements show the presence of interpeptidic hydrogen bonds. PMID:16584231

  12. Progress on the Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Michael; Anthony, Andre; Burley, Greg; Chisholm, Eric; Churilov, Vladimir; Dunn, Jennifer; Frost, Gabriella; Lawrence, Jon; Loop, David; McGregor, Peter; Martell, Sarah; McConnachie, Alan; McDermid, Richard M.; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vlad; Robertson, J. G.; Sheinis, Andrew; Tims, Julia; Young, Peter; Zhelem, Ross

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is the newest instrument being developed for the Gemini telescopes, in a collaboration between the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), the NRC - Herzberg in Canada and the Australian National University (ANU). We describe the process of design optimisation that utilizes the unique strengths of the new partner, NRC - Herzberg, the design and need for the slit viewing camera system, and we describe a simplification for the lenslet-based slit reformatting. Finally, we out- line the updated project plan, and describe the unique scientific role this instrument will have in an international context, from exoplanets through to the distant Universe.

  13. Looking for Planets in all the Right Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2012-05-01

    Gravitational lensing has the potential to discover planets in orbits of all sizes, orbiting both nearby and distant stars. Until recently, however, searches for planets via lensing have been conducted by programs best suited to finding only a subset of planetary lenses. During the past year several new approaches have been developed, including searches for small periodic signals near baseline, and monitoring nearby stars. By taking these approaches, we will extend our search for planets to *all* the right places, and will increase the discovery rate. In addition, the extended lensing searches will discover nearby planetary systems that can subsequently be observed using the full range of planet-study techniques, including transit and radial velocity studies as well as direct imaging. I will talk about the theory and also about preliminary results from our monitoring of the first predicted lensing event for evidence of planets orbiting the nearby dwarf star VB 10.

  14. Rounding up the wanderers: optimizing coronagraphic searches for extrasolar planets

    E-print Network

    Eric Agol

    2006-10-24

    I derive analytic scalings for coronagraphic imaging searches for extrasolar planets. I compute the efficiency of detecting planets about any given star, and from this compute dimensionless distribution functions for the detected planets as a function of planet-star distance and distance to the host stars. I find the following for blind planet surveys: (1) the optimum wavelength is between 4000-5000 Angstroms for Earth-like planets and 4200-5800 Angstroms for Jovian planets; (2) between 21-32% of the number of planets per decade of radius can be detected with an optimized survey; (3) target stars should be ranked from greatest to least by their luminosity divided by distance to the sixth or eighth power, depending on the dominant source of noise for the survey; (4) surveys targeting all main sequence stars will detect ~3 times as many planets as surveys only targeting G-type stars; and (5) stellar populations with different metallicities should have exposure times that vary with the cube of the metallicity. I apply these results to the current suite of proposed coronagraphic satellite telescopes, of which TPF-C is the most powerful, but a much smaller telescope, TOPS, may have a significant chance of detecting Earth-sized planets due to its small inner working angle and high throughput. The most significant uncertainty in these results is the noise contribution of Exo-zodiacal light. These results can be applied to designing coronagraphs, comparing proposed telescope designs, optimizing the observing strategies, determining the properties of detected planet populations, and selecting target stars.

  15. The whodunit of debris disk archaeology in multi-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, R.

    2014-09-01

    Debris disks like Beta Pictoris are thought to be sculpted by companion planets, whose presence, properties, and dynamical history can be inferred from the disk's features. However, in characterizing detected planets from their debris disk interactions, we run the risk of ignoring the dynamical contributions of additional planets below the detection threshold. Using Beta Pic as a case study, I explore if and how the presence of undetected planets affects our inferences from disk disk archaeology and how the mutual gravitational interactions among planets can in turn affect the debris disk. I discuss the implications for systems that will be discovered by direct imaging surveys underway.

  16. California and Carnegie Planet Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California and Carnegie Planet Research website presents the University of California Berkeley and the Carnegie Institution of Washington's investigations of planets around other stars. In the Public link, users can find easily understandable details on the diversity of exoplanets and on planet detection techniques. Researchers can find more technical details in the Scientific Research Site including a detailed almanac of planets and data on extrasolar planets. The website features publications, employment information, and team members' résumés. The materials are riddled with outside links to help users find other great planet-related educational and research websites.

  17. Microlensing detection of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Emanuela; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2013-05-01

    We review the method of exoplanetary microlensing with a focus on two-body planetary lensing systems. The physical properties of planetary systems can be successfully measured by means of a deep analysis of lightcurves and high-resolution imaging of planetary systems, countering the concern that microlensing cannot determine planetary masses and orbital radii. Ground-based observers have had success in diagnosing properties of multi-planet systems from a few events, but space-based observations will be much more powerful and statistically more complete. Since microlensing is most sensitive to exoplanets beyond the snow line, whose statistics, in turn, allow for testing current planetary formation and evolution theories, we investigate the retrieval of semi-major axis density by a microlensing space-based survey with realistic parameters. Making use of a published statistical method for projected exoplanets quantities (Brown 2011), we find that one year of such a survey might distinguish between simple power-law semi-major axis densities. We conclude by briefly reviewing ground-based results hinting at a high abundance of free-floating planets and describing the potential contribution of space-based missions to understanding the frequency and mass distribution of these intriguing objects, which could help unveil the formation processes of planetary systems. PMID:23604071

  18. Planet Detection: The Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    The search for exoplanets is one of the hottest topics in astronomy and astrophysics in the twenty-first century, capturing the public's attention as well as that of the astronomical community. This nascent field was conceived in 1989 with the discovery of a candidate planetary companion to HD114762 [35] and was born in 1995 with the discovery of the first extrasolar planet 51 Peg-b [37] orbiting a main sequence star. As of March, 2011, over 500 exoplanets have been discovered* and 106 are known to transit or cross their host star, as viewed from Earth. Of these transiting planets, 15 have been announced by the Kepler Mission, which was launched into an Earth-trailing, heliocentric orbit in March, 2009 [1,4,6,15,18,20,22,31,32,34,36,43]. In addition, over 1200 candidate transiting planets have already been detected by Kepler [5], and vigorous follow-up observations are being conducted to vet these candidates. As the false-positive rate for Kepler is expected to be quite low [39], Kepler has effectively tripled the number of known exoplanets. Moreover, Kepler will provide an unprecedented data set in terms of photometric precision, duration, contiguity, and number of stars. Kepler's primary science objective is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets transiting their Sun-like host stars in the habitable zone, that range of orbital distances for which liquid water would pool on the surface of a terrestrial planet such as Earth, Mars, or Venus. This daunting task demands an instrument capable of measuring the light output from each of over 100,000 stars simultaneously with an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) at 6.5-h intervals. The large number of stars is required because the probability of the geometrical alignment of planetary orbits that permit observation of transits is the ratio of the size of the star to the size of the planetary orbit. For Earth-like planets in 1-astronomical unit (AU) orbits† about sun-like stars, only ˜0.5% will exhibit transits. By observing such a large number of stars, Kepler is guaranteed to produce a robust null result in the unhappy event that no Earth-size planets are detected in or near the habitable zone. Such a result would indicate that worlds like ours are extremely rare in the Milky Way galaxy and perhaps the cosmos, and that we might be solitary sojourners in the quest to answer the age-old question: "Are we alone?" Kepler is an audacious mission that places rigorous demands on the science pipeline used to process the ever-accumulating, large amount of data and to identify and characterize the minute planetary signatures hiding in the data haystack. Kepler observes over 160,000 stars simultaneously over a field of view (FOV) of 115 square degrees with a focal plane consisting of 42 charge-coupled devices‡ (CCDs), each of which images 2.75 square degrees of sky onto 2200×1024 pixels. The photometer, which contains the CCD array, reads out each CCD every 6.54 s [10,11] and co-adds the images for 29.4 min, called a long cadence (LC) interval. Due to storage and bandwidth constraints, only the pixels of interest, those that contain images of target stars, are saved onboard the solid-state recorder (SSR), which can store 66+ days of data. An average of 32 pixels per star is allowed for up to 170,000 stellar target definitions. In addition, a total of 512 targets are sampled at 58.85-s short cadence (SC) intervals, permitting further characterization of the planet-star systems for the brighter stars with a Kepler magnitude,* Kp, brighter than 12 (Kp < 12) stars via asteroseismology [17], and more precise transit timing. In addition to the stellar images, collateral data used for calibration (CAL) are also collected and stored on the SSR. For each of the 84 CCD readout channels these data include up to 4500 background sky pixels used to estimate and remove diffuse stellar background and zodiacal light; 1100 pixels containing masked smear measurements and another 1100 pixels containing virtual smear measurements used to remove art

  19. Chemistry of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sarah Elaine

    2008-02-01

    This thesis explores how the chemical environment in which planets develop influences planet formation. The total solid mass, gas/solid ratio, and specific ice inventory of protoplanetary disks can dramatically alter the planet's formation timescale, core/atmosphere mass ratio, and atmosphere composition. We present the results of three projects that probe the links between solar nebula composition and giant planet formation. The first project offers evidence that stars with planets exhibit statistically significant silicon and nickel enrichment over the general metal-rich population. To test whether this prediction is compatible with the core accretion theory of planet formation, we construct new numerical simulations of planet formation by core accretion that establish the timescale on which a planet forming at 5 AU reaches rapid gas accretion, t rga , as a function of solid surface density s solid : ( t rga /1 Myr) = (s solid /25.0 g cm -2 ) - 1.44 . This relation enables us to construct Monte Carlo simulations that predict the fraction of star-disk systems that form planets as a function of [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], disk mass, outer disk radius and disk lifetime. Our simulations reproduce both the known planet-metallicity correlation and the planet-silicon correlation reported in this paper. The simulations predict that 15% of Solar-type stars form Jupiter-mass planets, in agreement with 12% predicted from extrapolation of the observed planet frequency-semimajor axis distribution. Despite the success of our Monte Carlo simulation of the planet-silicon correlation at predicting the properties of extrasolar Jovian planets, there is still no in situ core accretion simulation that can successfully account for the formation of Saturn, Uranus or Neptune within the observed 2-3 Myr lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. Since solid accretion rate is directly proportional to the available planetesimal surface density, one way to speed up planet formation is to take a full inventory of all the solids present in the solar nebula. In Project 2 (Chapter 3) we combine a viscously evolving protostellar disk with a kinetic model of ice formation, which includes not just water but methane, ammonia, CO and 54 minor ices. We use this combined dynamical+chemical simulation to calculate the planetesimal composition and solid surface density in the solar nebula as a function of heliocentric distance and time. We find three effects that strongly favor giant planet formation: (1) a decretion flow that brings mass from the inner solar nebula to the giant planet-forming region, (2) recent lab results (Collings et al. 2004) showing that the ammonia and water ice lines should coincide, and (3) the presence of a substantial amount of methane ice in the trans-Saturnian region. Our results show higher solid surface densities than assumed in the core accretion models of Pollack et al. (1996) by a factor of 3-4 throughout the trans-Saturnian region. We also discuss the location of ice lines and their movement through the solar nebula, and provide new constraints on the possible initial disk configurations from gravitational stability arguments. Finally, we present a core accretion simulation of Saturn with a planet formation timescale of 3.37 Myr, consistent with observed protostellar disk lifetimes. The protostellar disk model underlying this simulation is also capable of forming Jupiter within 2.5 Myr. We observe a new manifestation of the core accretion theory, in which Saturn's solid core does not reach isolation mass, and argue that this paradigm should apply to Uranus and Neptune as well. The planet formation timescale is then governed primarily by the solid accretion rate instead of the gas contraction efficiency. Our model predicts a core mass of 44 M (+) for Saturn, heavier than inferred from observations by a factor of at least 2. We discuss possible mechanisms for reducing the core size without slowing down formation and comment on the similarity between our core- heavy Saturn model and the exoplanet HD 149026 b .

  20. Primordial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Rudolph E.; Gibson, Carl H.

    Recent spacecraft observations exploring solar system properties impact standard paradigms of the formation of stars, planets and comets. We stress the unexpected cloud of microscopic dust resulting from the DEEP IMPACT mission, and the existence of molten nodules in STARDUST samples. And the theory of star formation does not explain the common occurrence of binary and multiple star systems in the standard gas fragmentation scenario. No current theory of planet formation can explain the iron core of the earth, under oceans of water. These difficulties are avoided in a scenario where the planet mass objects form primordially and are today the baryonic dark matter. They have been detected in quasar microlensing and anomalous quasar radio brightening bursts. The primordial planets often concentrate together to form a star, with residual matter seen in pre-stellar accretion discs around the youngest stars. These primordial planet mass bodies were formed of hydrogen-helium, aggregated in dense clumps of a trillion at the time of plasma neutralization 380,000 years after the big bang. Most have been frozen and invisible, but are now manifesting themselves in numerous ways as sensitive modern space telescopes become operational. Their key detection signature is their thermal emission spectrum, pegged at the 13.8 degrees Kelvin triple point of hydrogen, the baryonic dark matter (Staplefeldt et al. 1999).