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  1. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Hernández-Ramírez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide their acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution toward the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kułakowski et al., 2005) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interpersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in México. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  2. Gender Balance in Teaching Debate: Tensions between Gender Theory and Equality Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a research project funded by the Scottish Executive which analysed the gender balance in teaching and explored the underlying reasons for the decline in the number and proportion of men, particularly in secondary schools. As in other developed countries, such as Australia, the USA and Canada, the proportion of men…

  3. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  4. Inside the Mustard Seed: Toward a Gender-Balanced Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobus, Doni Kwolek

    1989-01-01

    Considers three issues related to gender-balanced global education: gender's place in the social studies; survey results on awareness and implementation of the National Council for the Social Studies' resolution on gender in global education; and criteria for evaluating global education materials. (DB)

  5. Adaptive Strategies, Gender Ideology, and Work-Family Balance among Dutch Dual Earners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.

    2008-01-01

    Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…

  6. Relationship between Anthropometric Factors, Gender, and Balance under Unstable Conditions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Cuğ, Mutlu; Dülgeroğlu, Deniz; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Alonso, Angelica Castilho

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the anthropometric factors of height, body mass, body mass index and postural balance and to compare the balance indices between genders in the upright standing position, in healthy adult subjects under conditions of instability. Forty individuals were subjected to functional tests of body stability using the Biodex Balance System, and the resulting indices were correlated with body mass, height, and body mass index, and also compared between genders. Body mass was the main anthropometric factor that influenced variations in postural balance, with a high correlation between groups and with all variables. A linear regression analysis showed that body mass associated with BMI explained 66% of the overall stability, and body mass explained 59% of the anteroposterior stability index and 65% of the mediolateral stability index. In the female group, body mass explained 72% of the overall balance, 66% of the anteroposterior, and 76% of the medio-lateral stability index. Increased body mass requires greater movements to maintain postural balance. Height and BMI presented moderate correlations with balance. Women showed less movement than men on the Biodex Balance System. PMID:23509788

  7. Development and Validation of a Gender-Balanced Measure of Aggression-Relevant Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Webster-Stratton, Barbara T.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social?Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive…

  8. A Theoretical Look at the Gender Balance of Power in the American Couple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser; Coleman, Marion Tolbert

    1989-01-01

    Develops empirically testable model applying Blumberg's general theory of gender stratification to the contemporary American heterosexual couple. Proposes a scheme for measuring marital economic power that incorporates "discount factors" at the macro and micro level which affect the overall economic power balance, resulting in "net economic…

  9. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Plisky, Phillip J; Kiesel, Kyle B

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of movement tests before performance training and sport participation is gaining popularity as part of musculoskeletal screening for injury. The identification of an athlete's asymmetries and poor performance in the preseason allows coaches and sports medicine clinicians the opportunity to proactively address these deficits to reduce the potential for injury. Currently, there are no tests reported in the literature that simultaneously require shoulder and core stability while taking the subjects through a large range of motion at the end range of their stability. Thus, the purpose of this article was to describe the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test and report the gender differences in the performance of the test. Upper extremity reach distances were measured in 95 active adults using a standardized upper extremity balance-and-reach protocol. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess reliability, and gender differences were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, whereas bilateral differences were analyzed using a dependent samples t-test for the normalized composite reach scores. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.80 to 0.99. Intraclass correlation coefficient (3.1) for interrater reliability was 1.00. Average composite scores (right/left) reported as a percentage of limb length were 81.7/82.3% for men and 80.7/80.7% for women. The results of the study suggest that the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test is a reliable test for measuring upper extremity reach distance while in a closed-chain position. It was further determined that there was no significant difference in performance between genders or between sides on the test when normalized to limb length. Coaches and sports medicine professionals may consider incorporating the Upper Quarter Y Balance Test as part of their preprogram testing to identify movement limitations and asymmetries in athletes and thereby may reduce injury. PMID:22228174

  10. BALANCE

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  11. Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  12. Impact of birth weight and gender on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance regulatory gene expression in the young lamb.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Bake, T; Findlay, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2013-11-01

    Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is involved in developmental metabolic programming and here we test the hypothesis that IUGR affects the developing hypothalamic energy balance regulatory pathways in a sex-specific manner. This experiment investigated early postnatal hypothalamic gene expression for six primary leptin- and insulin-sensitive neuropeptides and receptors in male and female IUGR (n = 8 and 9, respectively) and normal (N) birth weight lambs (n = 8 per gender) gestated and suckled by overnourished mothers. IUGR lambs were smaller at birth, had increased fractional growth rates (FGR), lower final body weight (11 weeks) and similar body fat content compared with N lambs, while males had higher final body weight and insulinemia but lower body fat and leptinemia than females. In situ hybridization revealed greater gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus at 11 weeks for anorexigenic genes in females and orexigenic genes in males, with no effect of IUGR. Leptinemia correlated with gene expression for neuropeptide Y (NPY, negatively) in both sexes and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, positively) in females but with leptin receptor (negatively) only in males. Current FGR for girth correlated negatively with gene expression for NPY in males and POMC in females. Neither IUGR nor gender affected suckling activity (proxy for appetite) assessed at 3 weeks, but final NPY gene expression correlated with suckling weight gain in males. This study has revealed no effect of IUGR on early postnatal hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but a major effect of gender associated with major sex differences in adiposity and leptinemia. PMID:23932904

  13. Guidelines for a Gender-Balanced Curriculum in English, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Women in Literature and Life Assembly.

    This booklet presents a book list, activities, and teacher resources to provide teachers a starting place for works of adolescent literature that will initiate conversations and questions about gender roles and the perceptions of appropriate behavior and activities. It is designed to bring teachers' attention to more recent titles in order to…

  14. The intersection of gender and social class in disaster: balancing resilience and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Fordham, M

    1999-03-01

    People who experience disaster are widely regarded as an undifferentiated group of victims. In the immediate crisis period, it is hard for outside professionals to differentiate between varying levels of need and still carry out their pressing disaster-related tasks. However, soon after a disaster strikes, it becomes clear that some people were hit harder than others and that disasters are not the great levelers they are sometimes thought to be. Rather, complex variations exist both within and between social groups broadly understood as middle- and working-class. The author explores the intersection of gender and social class in 2 major flood events in Scotland, Perth in 1993 and Strathclyde in 1994, and argues for a better appreciation of these factors at the conceptual and practical levels, to be incorporated into the disaster management process. PMID:12295202

  15. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Kasztelan-Szczerbińska, Beata; Surdacka, Agata; Celiński, Krzysztof; Roliński, Jacek; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Miącz, Sławomir; Szczerbiński, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg) cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed. Materials and Methods 147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort. Conclusions We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury. PMID:26107937

  16. Impact of Life-Cycle Stage and Gender on the Ability to Balance Work and Family Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of gender and life-cycle stage on three components of work-family conflict using sample of 3,616 respondents. For men, levels of work-family conflict were moderately lower in each successive life-cycle stage. For women, levels were similar in two early life-cycle stages but were significantly lower in later life-cycle stage.…

  17. Supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread or corn-soy blend in wasted adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: Randomised, Investigator Blinded, Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the effect of two different food supplements on body mass index (BMI) in wasted Malawian adults with HIV who were starting antiretroviral therapy. A randomised, investigator blinded, controlled trial was used in a large, public clinic associated with a referral hospital in Blantyre, M...

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. Methods This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014—June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Results Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test) with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%). Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects. Conclusion This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for

  19. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePlus

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a conflict between a person's physical gender and the ... Gender dysphoria used to be known as gender identity disorder. People with gender dysphoria may act as members ...

  20. School-to-Work Transition Performance of "Male", "Female" and "Neutral" Vocational Streams: A Gender Balance Sheet for Vocational Education Graduates in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis; Rousseas, Panagiotis; Vretakou, Vassilia

    2003-01-01

    The issue of gender-related differences in the transition of secondary vocational education graduates from school-to-work is discussed, relative to "male", "female" and "neutral" curriculum choices, using findings from a national survey of graduates. The discussion explores this issue using matched employment and earnings as critical indicators.…

  1. Guidelines for a Gender-Balanced Curriculum in English Language Arts, Pre-K to Grade 6. NCTE Positions and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English. Women in Literature and Life Assembly.

    In children's literature not many characters are shown as multidimensional human beings with strengths as well as weaknesses. Instead, both males and females display behavior and traits which reflect stereotypical roles, responsibilities, and expectations. Although there may be segments of society which are redefining gender roles, the female and…

  2. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  3. Gender in physics in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine; Nordström, Birgitta; Bearden, Ian; Grage, Mette M.-L.

    2013-03-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10% of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark.

  4. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  6. GET.ON Mood Enhancer: efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help compared to psychoeducation for depression: an investigator-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) imposes a considerable disease burden on individuals and societies. A large number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of Internet-based guided self-help interventions in reducing symptoms of depression. However, study quality varies considerably. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention (GET.ON Mood Enhancer) compared to online-based psychoeducation in an investigator-blinded RCT. Methods/design A RCT will be conducted to compare the efficacy of GET.ON Mood Enhancer with an active control condition receiving online psychoeducation on depression (OPD). Both treatment groups will have full access to treatment as usual. Adults with MDD (n = 128) will be recruited and randomised to one of the two conditions. Primary outcome will be observer-rated depressive symptoms (HRSD-24) by independent assessors blind to treatment conditions. Secondary outcomes include changes in self-reported depressive symptom severity, anxiety and quality of life. Additionally, potential negative effects of the treatments will systematically be evaluated on several dimensions (for example, symptom deteriorations, attitudes toward seeking psychological help, relationships and stigmatisation). Assessments will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after randomisation. Discussion This study evaluates a new Internet-based guided self-help intervention for depression using an active control condition (psychoeducation-control) and an independent, blinded outcome evaluation. This study will further enhance the evidence for Internet-based guided self-help interventions for MDD. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00005025 PMID:24476555

  7. Gender Equity and Secondary School Home Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayibor, Bernice; Peterat, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Three home economics textbooks on human relations were analyzed in terms of intentions, photographs, language, and content about gender relations. In terms of five approaches (visual balance, neutral/inclusive language, gender balance in information, gender sensitivity, and critical thinking), many parts were inadequate and contributed to myths…

  8. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  9. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  10. Reconceptualizing balance: attributes associated with balance performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Julia C; Odonkor, Charles; Griffith, Laura; Holt, Nicole; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Leveille, Suzanne; Ni, Pensheng; Latham, Nancy K; Jette, Alan M; Bean, Jonathan F

    2014-09-01

    Balance tests are commonly used to screen for impairments that put older adults at risk for falls. The purpose of this study was to determine the attributes that were associated with balance performance as measured by the Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test. This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort study, the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE). Boston RISE was performed in an outpatient rehabilitation research center and evaluated Boston area primary care patients aged 65 to 96 (N=364) with self-reported difficulty or task-modification climbing a flight of stairs or walking 1/2 of a mile. The outcome measure was standing balance as measured by the FICSIT-4 balance assessment. Other measures included: self-efficacy, pain, depression, executive function, vision, sensory loss, reaction time, kyphosis, leg range of motion, trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength and leg velocity at peak power. Participants were 67% female, had an average age of 76.5 (±7.0) years, an average of 4.1 (±2.0) chronic conditions, and an average FICSIT-4 score of 6.7 (±2.2) out of 9. After adjusting for age and gender, attributes significantly associated with balance performance were falls self-efficacy, trunk extensor muscle endurance, sensory loss, and leg velocity at peak power. FICSIT-4 balance performance is associated with a number of behavioral and physiologic attributes, many of which are amenable to rehabilitative treatment. Our findings support a consideration of balance as multidimensional activity as proposed by the current International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model. PMID:24952097

  11. Bioethics' gender.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    I argue that the field of bioethics is gendered feminine, but that the methods it uses to resist this gender identity pose real harm to actual women. Starting with an explanation of what I take 'gender' to be, I enumerate four drawbacks to being gendered feminine. I then argue that bioethics suffers from three of the same four drawbacks. I show how the field escapes the fourth disadvantage by adopting a masculine persona that inflicts damage on women, and conclude by urging bioethicists to reflect on their complicity in abusive power systems such as gender, race and class. PMID:16500829

  12. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  13. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  14. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  15. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  16. Beyond Gender Performance in Accounting: Does Personality Distinction Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2014-01-01

    This study questions whether the contradictory results from previous studies of gender and performance in accounting is because gender has no mutually homogeneous groups. A combination of gender and personality types will provide a more balanced picture of academic performance in accounting. There are three main findings in this study: the…

  17. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a new type of balance therapy using computerized, virtual reality. UPMC associate professor Susan Whitney, Ph.D., developed ... a virtual grocery store in the university's Medical Virtual Reality Center. Patients walk on a treadmill and safely ...

  18. Balancing Acts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). It involves simulated trips down the ...

  19. Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    TherEx Inc.'s AT-1 Computerized Ataxiameter precisely evaluates posture and balance disturbances that commonly accompany neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. Complete system includes two-strain gauged footplates, signal conditioning circuitry, a computer monitor, printer and a stand-alone tiltable balance platform. AT-1 serves as assessment tool, treatment monitor, and rehabilitation training device. It allows clinician to document quantitatively the outcome of treatment and analyze data over time to develop outcome standards for several classifications of patients. It can evaluate specifically the effects of surgery, drug treatment, physical therapy or prosthetic devices.

  20. A National Study of Gender-Based Occupational Segregation in Municipal Bureaucracies: Persistence of Glass Walls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Will; Kerr, Brinck; Reid, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Investigates gender-based municipal employment patterns in discrete functional-policy areas. Indicates that even though cities have achieved gender balance in redistributive functions, women are severely underrepresented in distributive and regulatory agencies. (Author)

  1. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  2. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults’ body balance. PMID:26957722

  3. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance. PMID:26957722

  4. Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Balance (or Vestibular) Rehabilitation Audiologic (hearing), balance, and medical diagnostic tests help indicate whether you are a candidate for vestibular (balance) rehabilitation. Vestibular rehabilitation is an individualized balance ...

  5. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  6. Balanced Can

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-12-01

    The ordinary 12-oz beverage cans in the figures below are not held up with any props or glue. The bottom of such cans is stepped at its circumference for better stacking. When this kind of can is tilted, as shown in Fig. 1, the outside corners of the step touch the surface beneath, providing an effective contact about 1 cm wide. Because the contact is relatively wide and the geometry is symmetrical, it is easy to balance an empty can by simply adding an appropriate amount of water so that the overall center of mass is located directly above the contact. In fact, any amount of water between about 40 and 210 mL will work. A computational animation of this trick by Sijia Liang and Bruce Atwood that shows center of mass as a function of amount of added water is available at http://demonstrations.wolfram.com. Once there, search "balancing can."

  7. Airplane Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguet, L

    1921-01-01

    The authors argue that the center of gravity has a preponderating influence on the longitudinal stability of an airplane in flight, but that manufacturers, although aware of this influence, are still content to apply empirical rules to the balancing of their airplanes instead of conducting wind tunnel tests. The author examines the following points: 1) longitudinal stability, in flight, of a glider with coinciding centers; 2) the influence exercised on the stability of flight by the position of the axis of thrust with respect to the center of gravity and the whole of the glider; 3) the stability on the ground before taking off, and the influence of the position of the landing gear. 4) the influence of the elements of the glider on the balance, the possibility of sometimes correcting defective balance, and the valuable information given on this point by wind tunnel tests; 5) and a brief examination of the equilibrium of power in horizontal flight, where the conditions of stability peculiar to this kind of flight are added to previously existing conditions of the stability of the glider, and interfere in fixing the safety limits of certain evolutions.

  8. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  9. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept. PMID:25344993

  10. Sex selection: laissez faire or family balancing?

    PubMed

    Dahl, Edgar

    2005-03-01

    In a recent comment on the HFEA's public consultation on sex selection, Soren Holm claimed that proponents of family balancing are committed to embrace a laissez faire approach. Given that arguments in support of sex selection for family balancing also support sex selection for other social reasons, advocates of family balancing, he asserts, are simply inconsistent when calling for a limit on access to sex selection. In this paper, I argue that proponents of family balancing are in no way inconsistent. Provided their advocacy of family balancing is aimed at preventing a severe distortion of the natural sex ratio, they are entirely justified in insisting on restrictions to sex selection. The real question is whether a concern for the sex ratio does indeed call for a limit on sex selection. Based on a recent survey on gender preferences and data from several Gender Clinics, I argue that a restriction on sex selection to family balancing is unwarranted. In the absence of any evidence for a pending sex ratio distortion, we are actually required to adopt a laissez faire approach to sex selection. PMID:15889684

  11. Career Salience and Gender-Role Attitudes in Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    Work and family form a core relationship in people's lives and many individuals struggle to balance these responsibilities. To explore this balance, some of the issues surrounding attitudes toward gender equality and work-family commitment as related to medical students, are examined in this report. The research focused on patterns of commitment…

  12. Justice in the context of family balancing

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics and feminist scholarship has explored various justice implications of non-medical sex selection and family balancing. However, prospective users’ viewpoints have been absent from the debate over the socially acceptable bounds of non-medical sex selection. This qualitative study provides a set of empirically-grounded perspectives on the moral values that underpin prospective users’ conceptualizations of justice in the context of a family balancing program in the United States. The results indicate that couples pursuing family balancing understand justice primarily in individualist and familial terms rather than in terms of social justice for women and girls or for children resulting from sex selection. Study participants indicated that an individual’s desire for gender balance in their family is ethically complex and may not be inherently sexist, immoral or socially consequential, particularly given the social context in which they live. Our findings suggest that the social conditions that contribute to prospective users’ desires for gender balance in their families may direct them away from recognizing or engaging broader social justice concerns relating to sexism and stratified reproduction. PMID:24371364

  13. Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Balance Improve Your Balance Each year, more than 2 million older Americans ... types of exercise — endurance , strength , balance, and flexibility . Balance Stand on One Foot Heel-to-Toe Walk ...

  14. A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David B.; Troy, Maridy; Dupree, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities consider balance to be a component of skill-related physical fitness. Balance, however, is directly related to health, especially for older adults. Falls are a leading cause of injury and death among the elderly. Improved balance can help reduce falls and contribute to older people remaining physically active. Balance is a…

  15. Balance in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The review by Black and Wiliam of national systems makes clear the complexity of assessment, and identifies important issues. One of these is "balance": balance between local and central responsibilities, balance between the weights given to various purposes of schooling, balance between weights for various functions of assessment, and balance…

  16. Dynamic balance improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The reduction of residual unbalance in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure turbopump rotors was addressed. Elastic rotor response to unbalance and balancing requirements, multiplane and in housing balancing, and balance related rotor design considerations were assessed. Recommendations are made for near term improvement of the SSME balancing and for future study and development efforts.

  17. Scientific aspects of preconception gender selection.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joseph D; Karabinus, David S

    2005-03-01

    Although numerous methods have been promoted as having an influence on the gender of offspring, most lack credible scientific evidence of effectiveness. Preconception gender selection has an important application in reducing the risk of having children with X-linked disease. A preconception, flow cytometric sperm sorting method of gender selection (MicroSort) is based upon the detection of differential fluorescence emitted by fluorescently stained X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Ongoing clinical trial results illustrate the safety and efficacy of the method. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of specimens pre- and post-sort show the 50:50 X:Y ratio in unsorted spermatozoa can be shifted to 90% X or 75% Y after sorting. Embryo gender and fetal/baby gender are consistent with post-sort FISH results. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) and IVF/ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) pregnancy rates are consistent with those reported in the assisted reproduction literature. Clinical loss rates are similar to those in the general population. The observed major congenital abnormality rate of 2.05% for babies born after using this sperm sorting method coincides with that occurring spontaneously. Current results indicate that the method is a safe and effective process and is a valuable tool for families wishing to balance the gender distribution of their children or to reduce the likelihood of having children with X-linked disease. PMID:15820020

  18. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... games that are more active and enjoy toy soldiers, blocks, and toy trucks. What parents can do: All children need the opportunity to explore different gender roles and different styles of play. Ensure your young child's environment reflects diversity in gender roles and encourages ...

  19. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed. PMID:26818970

  20. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  1. Gender Effects in Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.

    The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…

  2. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  3. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  4. Gender and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  5. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  6. Beyond Gender Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the continuing significance of gender identity as a category of analysis within the field of gender theory and research in education. I begin by considering contemporary discussions of the limitations of research relating to gender theory and research in education. Following on from this, I explore some contemporary…

  7. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  8. Gender and Science.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    We are delighted to expand our Cell Metabolism "Rosie project" to highlight an upcoming LabLinks meeting, "The Gender of Science and the Science of Gender" on May 19th in Cambridge, MA. We present the viewpoints of the speakers and other leaders on the ever-fascinating topic of gender in science. PMID:27166933

  9. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  10. Gender determination in populus

    SciTech Connect

    McLetchie, D.N.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  11. What is balance?

    PubMed

    Pollock, A S; Durward, B R; Rowe, P J; Paul, J P

    2000-08-01

    Balance is a term frequently used by health professionals working in a wide variety of clinical specialities. There is no universally accepted definition of human balance, or related terms. This article identifies mechanical definitions of balance and introduces clinical definitions of balance and postural control. Postural control is defined as the act of maintaining, achieving or restoring a state of balance during any posture or activity. Postural control strategies may be either predictive or reactive, and may involve either a fixed-support or a change-in-support response. Clinical tests of balance assess different components of balance ability. Health professionals should select clinical assessments based on a sound knowledge and understanding of the classification of balance and postural control strategies. PMID:10945424

  12. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  13. Surgical culture in transition: gender matters and generation counts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; Fluit, Meghan; Lent, Barbara; Herbert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background We sought to study the impact of the change in gender balance and the shift in generational beliefs on the practice of surgery. Methods We used in-depth, individual, semistructured interviews to explore the ideas, perceptions and experiences of recently recruited academic surgeons regarding the role of gender and the influence of the changing attitudes of this generation on the work environment. All the interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis was both iterative and interpretative. Results Nine women and 8 men participated in the study. All participants stated that departmental expectations regarding their performance as clinicians and as academics were not influenced by gender. However, further exploration revealed how gender did influence the way they sought to balance their personal and professional lives. Women in particular struggled with attaining this balance. While maternity leave was endorsed by both men and women, the challenging logistics associated with such leave were noted. Our data also revealed a generational shift among men and women in terms of the importance of the balance between their personal and professional lives. Participants saw this priority as radically different from that of their senior colleagues. Conclusion Gender and the shift in generational attitudes are changing the culture of academic surgery, often described as the prototypical male-dominated medical environment. These changes may reflect the changing face of medicine. PMID:23484466

  14. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  15. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  16. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  17. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  18. Coaching for Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Discusses coaching for balance the integration of the whole self: physical (body), intellectual (mind), spiritual (soul), and emotional (heart). Offers four ways to identify problems and tell whether someone is out of balance and four coaching techniques for creating balance. (Contains 11 references.) (JOW)

  19. The Teaching of Psychology with a Gender-Balanced Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaremba, Stacey Beth

    Traditional psychological theories are designed, in large part, to explain the behavior of white males, viewing female behavior as deviant or deficient, or ignoring it altogether. While special undergraduate topics courses, such as those on the psychology of women, address this problem in part, many institutions cannot afford to offer them. In…

  20. Gender Balance Analysis of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marjane; Beck, Michael D.

    The 1978 edition of the Metropolitan Achievement Tests was analyzed for sex stereotyping and for the use of male, female, or neuter references and a comparison was made with the 1970 edition. There was less bias in the new edition, and there was relatively little sex stereotyping with respect to occupations, activities, and roles for females.…

  1. Comment on ``Righting the Balance: Gender Diversity in the Geosciences''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Floyd

    2004-03-01

    To say that the fraction of geoscientists who are women is too small, as a recent Forum essay (Eos, 5 August 2003, p. 292) did, is mathematically equivalent to saying that the complementary set, male geoscientists, is too large. Does this mean that many of the male geoscientists should be eliminated? A similar article in Science proposed that Title IX should be used in science as it was in college athletics, when a comparable quota requirement forced the elimination of a large fraction of the male athletes in order to reach a male/female ratio less than one.

  2. Using ICT To Improve the Gender Balance in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alha, Katariina; Gibson, Ivan S.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the activities, contents, and overall outcomes of an international seminar organized jointly by two working groups of SEFI--the Working Group on Women in Engineering and the Working Group on Information and Communication Technologies. Replaces traditional teaching methods and concentration on narrow technical contents with a more…

  3. Female Flight? Gender Balance and Outmigration by Native Alaskan Villagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Seyfrit, Carole L.

    Surveys in Alaska's predominantly Native, Bristol Bay and Northwest Arctic regions examined attitudes toward education and migration among high school students, as well as outcomes among high school graduates. These surveys encompassed 430 high school students and 144 recent high school graduates in 15 predominantly Native villages. About 63…

  4. Gender Balance in ECEC: Why Is There so Little Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, J.; Rohrmann, T.; Emilsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Social attitudes about male participation in the upbringing of children have changed considerably over the past few decades. Men are now seen as important for children's development and learning. Research from many countries worldwide shows that in early childhood care and education (ECEC), male workers are welcomed by female colleagues and…

  5. Gender Balance in Primary Initial Teacher Education: Some Current Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwed, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The drive to recruit more male primary teachers has been a longstanding aim of many Western countries. Within England the Training and Development Agency for Schools has undertaken a 10-year marketing campaign to increase the numbers with limited success. Researchers have attempted to analyse the reasons for this failure, considering many areas,…

  6. A Pressing Need for Gender Balance in AGU Honors Nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    AGU thrives on the volunteer efforts of its scientists, which is how I found myself agreeing to be a member of AGU's Science for Solutions Award committee last year. The award is targeted specifically at students and postdoctoral scientists who use Earth and space science to solve societal problems, and it was an intriguing experience to go through the process of evaluating the nominees and selecting a winner. All across the Union, members of other honors committees were going through a similar process, and at the 2013 Fall Meeting, those award recipients selected by the committees were honored.

  7. Gender and physics: a sociological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendick, Heather

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, I take a sociological approach to understanding the under-representation of gender and physics. I argue that gender is something we do not something that we are. Thus, every aspect of our behaviour, including our engagement (or not) with physics becomes part of our performance of gender. I then use a brief historical analysis and an example from popular culture to show how physics is culturally aligned with masculinity. The impact is that the subject feels more ‘natural’ for men than for women. I end with some of the implications of this for those who want to make physics more accessible to girls and women. (EDITORS NOTE: This paper was given at the Improving Gender Balance (IGB) conference in Cambridge, UK, in March 2015, organised by the Institute of Physics. This conference was for schools and their supporters who were part of the IGB strand of the Stimulating Physics Network, funded by the Department for Education. It aimed to summarise some of the sociological perspectives on girls and physics for the benefit of the teachers attending the conference. We feel that it may be a useful summary for those teachers of physics who are unfamiliar with sociological approaches to gender and the classroom.)

  8. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  9. Patterns of Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  10. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  11. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  12. Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracy D.

    2009-01-01

    Far fewer males than females work in elementary education today. This deficit may represent an unacceptable balance in elementary teacher gender demographics. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, 217 elementary teachers in four public…

  13. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    PubMed

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions. PMID:25595020

  14. Cultures of Work-Life Balance in Higher Education: A Case of Fragmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work-life balance. Research on work-life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways…

  15. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  16. Gender, Persuasion Techniques, and Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raign, Kathryn Rosser; Sims, Brenda R.

    1993-01-01

    Examines preconceptions of four proposal developers about three factors: effective and ineffective collaboration; gender's effects on collaboration; and gender's effect on persuasion. Finds the discourse techniques used by men and women do not parallel a person's gender. (RS)

  17. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  18. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…

  19. Gender-Friendly Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kelley; Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The authors, who have worked with more than 2,000 schools across the United States in efforts to close gender gaps, describe how gender-related issues consistently intersect and interfere with school improvement efforts. They present statistics showing that schools are now failing boys in more areas than girls, and describe how "the structures,…

  20. Gender in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola, Ed.

    The construction of gender is a systematic process that begins at birth and is continually shaped, molded, and reshaped throughout life. This book examines practices with young children with respect to the construction of gender and the expectations of society, schools, and families. The book is organized into two parts. The first part considers…

  1. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  2. Gender, Toys and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  3. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  4. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  5. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  6. Issues of Gender. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on issues of gender in human resource development (HRD). "The Impact of Awareness and Action on the Implementation of a Women's Network" (Laura L. Bierema) reports on research to examine how gender consciousness emerges through the formation of in-company networks to promote corporate women's status. It…

  7. Gender and School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cherry; Batten, Margaret; Ainley, John; Getty, Corinne

    The Gender and School Education study was undertaken to collect baseline data against which progress in implementing the National Policy for the Education of Girls in Australian Schools can be measured. The study was designed to provide data on gender matters related to boys as well as girls. A total of 408 schools across Australia were involved:…

  8. Picturing Women: Gender, Images, and Representation in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine

    2006-01-01

    More than two decades ago, a well-known study pointed out that despite the marked increase in images of women in secondary history textbooks, the narrative emphasis on political, diplomatic, and military history had not changed. While this study raised awareness of gender balance in the social studies curriculum, little attention has been paid to…

  9. Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education: Patterns and Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Leif; Riis, Ulla; Silander, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries, more women than men attend undergraduate Higher Education (HE) and more women than men obtain degrees. In Sweden the proportion of female students has long been in the vicinity of 51-60%. The number of doctoral entrants and degrees meet a "balanced gender criterion," defined as no sex constituting more than 60% of the…

  10. Gender dysphoria and children.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Chance; McGuinness, Teena M

    2014-08-01

    The age at which gender dysphoria can be diagnosed with enough certainty to justify medical intervention is controversial. The aim of this article is to explore current literature as it relates to the gender reassignment process and diagnostic indicators supporting an appropriate age for intervention. The timing of diagnosis and treatment of gender dysphoria remains the center of debate between the long-term effects of early intervention versus delay of treatment. Limited research is available on gender dysphoria treatment protocols for children. However, preliminary studies suggest that early intervention improves the quality of life in individuals who are transgender. Ongoing research suggests that it may be possible to confirm gender dysphoria at an earlier age. PMID:24972388

  11. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  12. Gender Disparities in Academic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Jennifer F.; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Kim, H. Myra; Gyetko, Margaret R.; Quint, Elisabeth H.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Woolliscroft, James O.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In academia, women remain underrepresented. Our purpose was to examine differences in faculty position and professional satisfaction among academic physicians by gender. Methods From 2008–2012, academic faculty members at a single institution were surveyed (2008 n=737; 2010 n=1151; 2012 n=971). Outcomes included position, choice of position, professional satisfaction, and the reasons for leaving. Logistic regression was performed to compare aspects of professional satisfaction by gender. Results Men more often held tenure track positions compared with women (2008: 45% vs. 20%; 2010: 47% vs. 20%, 2012: 49% vs. 20%, p<0.001). Women were more likely to engage in only clinical activities compared with men (2008: 31% vs. 18%, 2010: 28% vs. 14%; 2012: 33% vs. 13%, p<0.001), and less likely to participate in research. Women chose tracks to accommodate work-life balance (2008: OR=1.9 (1.29 – 2.76); 2010: OR: 2.0 (1.38 – 2.76); 2012: OR: 2.1 (1.40 – 3.00)), and but not for the opportunity of tenure (2008: OR=0.4 (0.23 – 0.75); 2010: OR=0.5 (0.35–0.85); 2012: OR=0.5 (0.29–0.76) compared with men. Men reported higher professional satisfaction compared with women (2008: 5.7 vs. 5.4, p<0.009; 2012: 5.3 vs. 5.0, p<0.03). Men were more likely to leave due leadership opportunities (14.4% vs. 9.2%, p<0.03) and compensation (14.2% vs. 9.2%, p<0.03) compared with women. Conclusions Women are less satisfied in academic practice compared with men, and make choices to accommodate the demands of their work-life balance. Given the increasing pressures of academic practice, efforts to align work-life balance can improve faculty satisfaction and retention. PMID:26313843

  13. Staff gender ratio and aggression in a forensic psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Daffern, Michael; Mayer, Maggie; Martin, Trish

    2006-06-01

    Gender balance in acute psychiatric inpatient units remains a contentious issue. In terms of maintaining staff and patient safety, 'balance' is often considered by ensuring there are 'sufficient' male nurses present on each shift. In an ongoing programme of research into aggression, the authors investigated reported incidents of patient aggression and examined the gender ratio on each shift over a 6-month period. Contrary to the popular notion that a particular gender ratio might have some relationship with the likelihood of aggressive incidents, there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of male staff working on the shifts when there was an aggressive incident compared with the shifts when there was no aggressive incident. Further, when an incident did occur, the severity of the incident bore no relationship with the proportion of male staff working on the shift. Nor did the gender of the shift leader have an impact on the decision to seclude the patient or the likelihood of completing an incident form following an aggressive incident. Staff confidence in managing aggression may be influenced by the presence of male staff. Further, aspects of prevention and management may be influenced by staff gender. However, results suggest there is no evidence that the frequency or severity of aggression is influenced by staff gender ratio. PMID:16643344

  14. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    PubMed

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap. PMID:18808221

  15. A Balance of Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosey, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The booming economy of the Pacific Northwest region promotes the dilemma of balancing the need for increased electrical power with the desire to maintain that region's unspoiled natural environment. Pertinent factors discussed within the balance equation are population trends, economic considerations, industrial power requirements, and…

  16. Judicial Checks and Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porta, Rafael; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    In the Anglo-American constitutional tradition, judicial checks and balances are often seen as crucial guarantees of freedom. Hayek distinguishes two ways in which the judiciary provides such checks and balances: judicial independence and constitutional review. We create a new database of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these…

  17. Inevitability of Balance Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance between input and output of any element in a living organism is incompatible with life. The duration of imbalance varies, but eventually balance is achieved. This rule applies to any quantifiable element in a compartment of finite capacity. Transient discrepancies occur regularly, but given sufficient time, balance is always achieved, because permanent imbalance is impossible, and the mechanism for eventual restoration of balance is foolproof. The kidney is a central player for balance restoration of fluid and electrolytes, but the smartness of the kidney is not the reason for perfect balance. The kidney merely accelerates the process. The most crucial element of the control system is that discrepancy between intake and output inevitably leads to a change in total content of the element in the system, and uncorrected balance has a cumulative effect on the overall content of the element. In a living organism, the speed of restoration of balance depends on the permissible duration of imbalance without death or severe disability. The three main factors that influence the speed of balance restoration are: magnitude of flux, basal store, and capacity for additional storage. For most electrolytes, total capacity is such that a substantial discrepancy is not possible for more than a week or two. Most control mechanisms correct abnormality partially. The infinite gain control mechanism is unique in that abnormality is completely corrected upon completion of compensation. PMID:21468193

  18. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  19. Balanced Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Roehrig, Alysia; Bogner, Kristen; Raphael, Lisa M.; Dolezal, Sara

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for balanced literacy instruction in the elementary years. The case is made that the balanced instructional model is particularly appropriate and beneficial for students who have initial difficulties in learning to read and write. Key features of successful reading instruction programs are described. (Contains…

  20. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  1. The Technology Balance Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Eddie K.

    2006-01-01

    "The Technology Balance Beam" is designed to question the role of technology within school districts. This case study chronicles a typical school district in relation to the school district's implementation of technology beginning in the 1995-1996 school year. The fundamental question that this scenario raises is, What is the balance between…

  2. Gender Balance/Gender Bias: The Teaching Profession and the Impact of Feminisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drudy, Sheelagh

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of young children has long been dominated by women. This global phenomenon is firmly rooted in issues relating to economic development, urbanisation, the position of women in society, cultural definitions of masculinity and the value of children and childcare. There have been expressions of concern by the media, by government…

  3. Continuity and change in work-life balance choices.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nickie; Harris, Chris

    2007-06-01

    This paper explores the ways in which the work-life balance choices made by heterosexual couples differ in different generations, how such choices are gendered, and the extent to which 'individualization' provides an adequate conceptualization of the effects of social change on heterosexual couples. It argues that processes of individualization need to be seen in the context of changing social institutions, and that it is the de-institutionalization of 'the family' and the life course that is leading to a de-gendering of work-life balance choices. The paper draws on findings from a restudy of the family and social change and a study of the gender dimensions of job insecurity both of which were carried out in the same geographical location. The studies provide evidence of generational change in work-life balance choices and increasing occupational differentiation between heterosexual partners. This leads to a situation where increasingly choices are made which blur gendered boundaries and which has been made possible by a process of de-institutionalization of the male breadwinner family. Our findings support the contention that processes of individualization are more apparent amongst younger than older generations and that, because of changes external to the family, there is more negotiation and pragmatism amongst younger generations about work-life choices. PMID:17610623

  4. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital. PMID:25941756

  5. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  6. Active balance system and vibration balanced machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass.

  7. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Balance Evaluation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NeuroCom's Balance Master is a system to assess and then retrain patients with balance and mobility problems and is used in several medical centers. NeuroCom received assistance in research and funding from NASA, and incorporated technology from testing mechanisms for astronauts after shuttle flights. The EquiTest and Balance Master Systems are computerized posturography machines that measure patient responses to movement of a platform on which the subject is standing or sitting, then provide assessments of the patient's postural alignment and stability.

  10. A question of balance

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.; Brown, H.; Strawn, N.

    1996-12-31

    Nature seeks a balance. The global carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans through natural processes such as absorption, photosynthesis, and respiration, is one of those balances. This constant exchange promotes an equilibrium in which atmospheric carbon dioxide is keep relatively steady over long periods of time. For the last 10,000 years, up to the 19th century, the global carbon cycle has maintained atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide between 260 and 290 ppm. This article discusses the disturbance of the balance, how ethanol fuels address the carbon dioxide imbalance, and a bioethanol strategy.

  11. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  12. Consideration of Dynamical Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    The quasi-balance of extra-tropical tropospheric dynamics is a fundamental aspect of nature. If an atmospheric analysis does not reflect such balance sufficiently well, the subsequent forecast will exhibit unrealistic behavior associated with spurious fast-propagating gravity waves. Even if these eventually damp, they can create poor background fields for a subsequent analysis or interact with moist physics to create spurious precipitation. The nature of this problem will be described along with the reasons for atmospheric balance and techniques for mitigating imbalances. Attention will be focused on fundamental issues rather than on recipes for various techniques.

  13. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  14. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  15. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6–16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7–11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account. PMID:26834878

  16. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-11-22

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects' ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account. PMID:26834878

  17. Gender differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andia, A M; Zisook, S; Heaton, R K; Hesselink, J; Jernigan, T; Kuck, J; Morganville, J; Braff, D L

    1995-08-01

    In an assessment of gender differences in schizophrenia, 85 outpatients (53 men and 32 women) with schizophrenia were evaluated for illness history, symptom severity, IQ, neurocognitive status, cerebral volume loss, and cortical asymmetry. Social functioning was assessed using marital status, independent living skills, and employment status. Significant gender differences were found, as women were on lower doses of neuroleptic medications and more frequently met criteria for paranoid and disorganized subtypes of schizophrenia than men. Women also were better educated and more often married, living independently, and employed. No gender differences were found in present age, symptom severity, neurocognitive functioning, or clinical magnetic resonance imaging scan readings. Our findings suggest that women may experience less of the adverse interpersonal psychosocial consequences of schizophrenia than men, even when symptom and neurocognitive status is equivalent between groups. However, more extensive investigations are warranted to better understand the role of pathophysiological or social mechanisms in gender differences. PMID:7643064

  18. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  19. Adolescents with gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Young people with gender dysphoria are increasingly seen by pediatric endocrinologists. Mental health child specialists assess the adolescent and give advice about psychological or medical treatment. Provided they fulfill eligibility and readiness criteria, adolescents may receive pubertal suspension, consisting of using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs, later followed by cross-sex hormones (sex steroids of the experienced gender). If they fulfill additional criteria, they may have various types of gender affirming surgery. Current issues involve safety aspects. Although generally considered safe in the short-term, the long-term effects regarding bone health and cardiovascular risks are still unknown. Therefore, vigilance is warranted during and long after completion of the last gender affirming surgeries. The timing of the various treatment steps is also under debate: instead of fixed age limits, the cognitive and emotional maturation, along with the physical development, are now often considered as more relevant. PMID:26051304

  20. The Balanced Literacy Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Describes professional development program in Ontario school district to improve student reading and writing skills. Program used food-pyramid concepts to help teacher learn to provide a balanced and flexible approach to literacy instruction based on student needs. (PKP)

  1. The Balancing Act

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  2. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are in your blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes helps your ... them from the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body ...

  3. Mars Balance Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Challenge is to develop ideas for how NASA can turn available entry, descent, and landing balance mass on a future Mars mission into a scientific or technological payload. Proposed concepts sho...

  4. Gender dysphoria in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above. PMID:26754056

  5. Balance Function Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  6. Exercise to Improve Your Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercise to Improve Your Balance Having good balance is important for many everyday activities, such as ... fracture of the arm, hand, ankle, or hip. Balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid ...

  7. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  8. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  9. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  10. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  11. The Social Perception of Heroes and Murderers: Effects of Gender-Inclusive Language in Media Reports.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karolina; Littwitz, Cindy; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite "heroine or hero in a novel," they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite "hero in a novel." The research reported in this article examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers' own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256) read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs). Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants' own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about "heroines and heroes" made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about "heroes" only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers' own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles. PMID:27047410

  12. The Social Perception of Heroes and Murderers: Effects of Gender-Inclusive Language in Media Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Karolina; Littwitz, Cindy; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite “heroine or hero in a novel,” they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite “hero in a novel.” The research reported in this article examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers’ own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256) read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs). Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants’ own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about “heroines and heroes” made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about “heroes” only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers’ own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles. PMID:27047410

  13. Cavendish Balance Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a project carried out to modify a manual commercial Cavendish Balance for automated use in cryostat. The scope of this project was to modify an off-the-shelf manually operated Cavendish Balance to allow for automated operation for periods of hours or days in cryostat. The purpose of this modification was to allow the balance to be used in the study of effects of superconducting materials on the local gravitational field strength to determine if the strength of gravitational fields can be reduced. A Cavendish Balance was chosen because it is a fairly simple piece of equipment for measuring gravity, one the least accurately known and least understood physical constants. The principle activities that occurred under this purchase order were: (1) All the components necessary to hold and automate the Cavendish Balance in a cryostat were designed. Engineering drawings were made of custom parts to be fabricated, other off-the-shelf parts were procured; (2) Software was written in LabView to control the automation process via a stepper motor controller and stepper motor, and to collect data from the balance during testing; (3)Software was written to take the data collected from the Cavendish Balance and reduce it to give a value for the gravitational constant; (4) The components of the system were assembled and fitted to a cryostat. Also the LabView hardware including the control computer, stepper motor driver, data collection boards, and necessary cabling were assembled; and (5) The system was operated for a number of periods, data collected, and reduced to give an average value for the gravitational constant.

  14. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, Alice T. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within .+-.0.05%, the entire system has an accuracy of a .+-.0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  15. Automatic force balance calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  16. Prosocial behavior and gender

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in “neutral” baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies. PMID:25926783

  17. Gender equity & human development.

    PubMed

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context. PMID:18032808

  18. Gender differences in mental health.

    PubMed

    Afifi, M

    2007-05-01

    Effective strategies for mental disorders prevention and its risk factors' reduction cannot be gender neutral, while the risks themselves are gender specific. This paper aims to discuss why gender matters in mental health, to explain the relationship of gender and health-seeking behaviour as a powerful determinant of gender differences, to examine the gender differences in common mental health disorders, namely, depressive and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and domestic violence, and finally, to raise some recommendations stemming from this review. PMID:17453094

  19. The cryogenic balance design and balance calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, B.; Polanski, L.; Graewe, E.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of a program aimed at the development of a cryogenic balance for the European Transonic Wind Tunnel is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the cryogenic balance design philosophy, mechanical balance design, reliability and accuracy, cryogenic balance calibration concept, and the concept of an automatic calibration machine. It is shown that the use of the automatic calibration machine will improve the accuracy of calibration while reducing the man power and time required for balance calibration.

  20. Extraordinary hall balance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  1. Vibration balanced miniature loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, David E.; Jiles, Mekell; Miller, Thomas E.; Thompson, Stephen C.

    2002-11-01

    The vibration that is generated by the receiver (loudspeaker) in a hearing aid can be a cause of feedback oscillation. Oscillation can occur if the microphone senses the receiver vibration at sufficient amplitude and appropriate phase. Feedback oscillation from this and other causes is a major problem for those who manufacture, prescribe, and use hearing aids. The receivers normally used in hearing aids are of the balanced armature-type that has a significant moving mass. The reaction force from this moving mass is the source of the vibration. A modification of the balanced armature transducer has been developed that balances the vibration of its internal parts in a way that significantly reduces the vibration force transmitted outside of the receiver case. This transducer design concept, and some of its early prototype test data will be shown. The data indicate that it should be possible to manufacture transducers that generate less vibration than equivalent present models by 15-30 dB.

  2. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

  3. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  4. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. PMID:26774437

  5. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  6. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  7. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming. PMID:26237926

  8. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  9. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  10. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  11. Evaluating Gender Discrimination Claims: Is There a Gender Similarity Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Teri J.; Phillips, James S.; Konopaske, Robert; Townsend, Joellyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the possible existence of a gender similarity bias in evaluations of gender discrimination allegations, using a laboratory experiment in which the strength of evidence against a defendant company and the gender of the plaintiff were manipulated. Participants were ethnically diverse undergraduate students. Although female mock jurors…

  12. Gender cognition in transgender children.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kristina R; Key, Aidan C; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-04-01

    A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity. PMID:25749700

  13. The effects of proportional representation and gender orientation of the task on emergent leadership behavior in mixed-gender work groups.

    PubMed

    Karakowsky, L; Siegel, J P

    1999-08-01

    Much of the research that has examined the behavioral consequences of membership in mixed-gender work groups suggests that men are more participative and influential in task-related behavior. Drawing from elements of sociological, structural, and psychological perspectives, this study examined the effects of group gender composition and gender orientation of the group's task on patterns of emergent leadership behavior. Participants were assigned to male-dominated, female-dominated, or balanced-gender groups for the purpose of discussing and generating solutions for two business-related cases--each case emphasized either male-oriented or female-oriented expertise. The findings suggest that the proportional representation of men and women in a work group, along with the gender orientation of the group's task, can significantly influence the level of leadership behavior exhibited in group activity. PMID:10504894

  14. The Heider Balance:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Gawroński, Przemysław; Gronek, Piotr

    The Heider balance (HB) is investigated in a fully connected graph of N nodes. The links are described by a real symmetric array r (i, j), i, j =1, …, N. In a social group, nodes represent group members and links represent relations between them, positive (friendly) or negative (hostile). At the balanced state, r (i, j) r (j, k) r (k, i) > 0 for all the triads (i, j, k). As follows from the structure theorem of Cartwright and Harary, at this state the group is divided into two subgroups, with friendly internal relations and hostile relations between the subgroups. Here the system dynamics is proposed to be determined by a set of differential equations, ˙ r =rḑot r. The form of equations guarantees that once HB is reached, it persists. Also, for N =3 the dynamics reproduces properly the tendency of the system to the balanced state. The equations are solved numerically. Initially, r (i, j) are random numbers distributed around zero with a symmetric uniform distribution of unit width. Calculations up to N =500 show that HB is always reached. Time τ(N) to get the balanced state varies with the system size N as N-1/2. The spectrum of relations, initially narrow, gets very wide near HB. This means that the relations are strongly polarized. In our calculations, the relations are limited to a given range around zero. With this limitation, our results can be helpful in an interpretation of some statistical data.

  15. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  16. Lives in the Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Our Children, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the workplace that would provide flexibility for working parents are slowly developing and receiving government, business, and societal attention. A sidebar, "Mother, Professional, Volunteer: One Woman's Balancing Act," presents an account of how one woman rearranged her professional life to enable her to do full-time parenting. (SM)

  17. Maintaining an Environmental Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A recent conference of the National Environmental Development Association focused on the concepts of environment, energy and economy and underscored the necessity for balancing the critical needs embodied in these issues. Topics discussed included: nuclear energy and wastes, water pollution control, federal regulations, environmental technology…

  18. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  19. Toward Balance in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  20. A Balancing Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tamika; Mobley, Mary; Huttenlock, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    It's the season for the job hunt, whether one is looking for their first job or taking the next step along their career path. This article presents first-person accounts to see how teachers balance the rewards and challenges of working in different types of schools. Tamica Lewis, a third-grade teacher, states that faculty at her school is…

  1. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  2. Closing the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo

    1993-01-01

    Girls' avoidance of computers seems downright mysterious. There is no Big Culprit, but teachers and administrators might ponder the effects of gender-biased classroom practices, social activities, and TV commercials and role-models. This article points out some computer-equity-program successes in several states. A sidebar describes…

  3. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  4. Mathematics and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  5. Gender and Bilinguals' Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Using Biber's multidimensional analysis (1988) to examine a large corpus of world English literatures written in Indian, West African, Britain, Anglo-American, and Mexican American varieties of English, examines whether quantitative analyses can also be insightful and useful in the examination of the influence of gender on language and in…

  6. Gender and Job Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers distinct differences and a few similarities between men and women concerning values and expectations associated with employment. Women attach greater importance to intrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards. Earlier research suggested significant gender differences regarding extrinsic rewards; however, this category revealed no…

  7. Data on gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    In her Forum article "Mending the broken pipe" (April pp16-17), Lesley Cohen showed very encouraging data on the increasing numbers of female physicists at Imperial College London, which is one of the leaders in driving gender equality among academics in the UK.

  8. Genders, Mathematics, and Feminisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damarin, Suzanne

    Historical studies reveal that mathematics has been claimed as a private domain by men, while studies of the popular press document that women and girls are considered incompetent in that field. The study of gender and mathematics as viewed through feminism can create a new reading which exposes hidden assumptions, unwarranted conclusions, and…

  9. Gender and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Cornelia

    This article examines distance learning from a gender perspective. In any new area of enterprise, expectations have an important effect on planning, implementation, and evaluation. When it comes to distance learning, a variety of images of what this exciting new technology will look like and what it can empower us to achieve will determine how we…

  10. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in science and…

  11. Gender Object Identification Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  12. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  13. Genre and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curti, Lidia

    This paper begins by discussing the difference between genre and gender, defining the former as the study of a systemic totality, and the latter as the split in the totality, reversal, upturning, and break-up of any systemic logic. Also discussed are (1) the difference between nature and culture, and the quarrel between essentialist and…

  14. Gender and Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Theresa

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes and updates an earlier descriptive survey of male-to-female publishing ratios in rhetoric and composition journals. Expands the earlier survey to see how much collaborative work is being published and how much is male coauthored, female coauthored, or mixed gender. (RS)

  15. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  16. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  17. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  18. Bringing up Gender: Academic Abjection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    The principal questions raised in this article are: what does it mean to bring up the topic of gender in a space where it is not known, and how can this moment of bringing up gender--or not bringing it up--be conceptualised? The article departs from the thoughts and questions that were provoked by an interview conducted with a Gender Studies…

  19. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  20. Gender Constancy and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecke-Aleksa, Diane; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explored gender constancy's interaction with television viewing, using videotapes of television viewing and viewing diaries for 5-year olds. Gender-constant boys focused on more male characters and watched more action and sports programs than preconstant boys. Gender-constant girls viewed more action programming than preconstant girls. Acquisition…

  1. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  2. Troubling Gender through Mail Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A persistent and troubling trend in teacher education programmes is how gender is constructed heteronormatively. Finding ways that challenge novice teacher thinking about gender and gender identities has proven to be difficult ([Grace, A. P., and K. Wells. 2006. "The Quest for a Queer Inclusive Cultural Ethics: Setting Directions for…

  3. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  4. Gender norms affect adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1997-01-01

    Gender roles of men and women are determined by the society they live in. Many organizations that work with adolescents and young adults are incorporating a gender perspective into sex education, service delivery, and provider training programs in order to improve the reproductive health of their target groups. Many societies place a higher value on males than females. In sub-Saharan African countries girls are expelled from school if they become pregnant. In Egypt 86% of 2300 women interviewed believed the beatings by husband are justified under some circumstances, and 31% reported being beaten during pregnancy. A study of 128 adolescents in Peru and 108 in Columbia found that 60% of them had been sexually abused within the previous year. Female circumcision jeopardizes reproductive health, yet some 2 million girls undergo the procedure annually. In Thailand, among more than 100 factory workers 15-24 years old, the majority of men said premarital intercourse was accepted, while young women said premarital intercourse was unacceptable. Many programs that incorporate gender have begun projects that empower girls. Better Life Options administered by the Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) provides information about sexuality, reproductive health, family planning and communication skills. The Young Men's Clinic, located in New York, aims to provide reproductive health services for men while also doing screening for tuberculosis or sickle-cell anemia. A report from the United Nations Population Fund states that men's services can be provided by minor adaptations to existing facilities. In Argentina the Foundation for Study and Research on Women offers education sessions on family planning and STDs to 50-100 secondary school students. In Gujarat, India, the Center for Health Education, Training and Nutrition Awareness incorporates gender into its health education workshops for young people ages 11-18. In these programs more equality in gender roles

  5. Assessment of balance among adolescent track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Knight, Adam C; Holmes, Megan E; Chander, Harish; Kimble, Amari; Stewart, Joshua Ty

    2016-06-01

    Track and field events place different demands on athletes and may have an effect on balance. This study investigated the effects of event specialty, gender, and leg dominance on balance among adolescent track and field athletes. Forty healthy adolescent track and field athletes (male = 23, female = 17) categorised into three different groups (sprinter = 20, distance runners = 13, throwers = 7) had their single leg static balance measured with the eyes open and the eyes closed using an AMTI force platform. Dependent variables included average displacement (cm) of the centre of pressure (COP) in the anterior/posterior direction and medial/lateral directions, the average velocity of the COP (cm/s) and the 95% ellipse area (cm(2)). Variables were analysed using a 3 (event specialty) × 2 (gender) × 2 (leg) ANOVA with repeated measures on the leg variable (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the average displacement of the COP in the medial/lateral direction for both the eyes open and closed condition, with the non-dominant leg demonstrating greater displacement than the dominant leg. This might increase the risk of injury for the non-dominant leg, but additional data should be collected and analysed on both dynamic balance and performance. PMID:27111401

  6. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  7. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  8. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  9. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  10. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  11. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    PubMed

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels. PMID:12347385

  12. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  13. A gender analysis of secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostas, Nancy Ann

    Secondary school physics textbooks and laboratory manuals were evaluated for gender balance. The textbooks and manuals evaluated were all current editions available at the time of the study with copyrights of 1988 to 1992. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were judged gender balanced based on the number of men and women, boys and girls shown in both active and passive roles. Illustrations, drawings and photographs were also evaluated by the number of male and female scientists identified by name. The curricular content of the textbooks was analyzed for gender balance by three criteria: the number of named male and female scientists whose accomplishments were described in the text; the number of careers assigned to men and women; and the number of verbal analogies assigned to girls interests, boys interests or neutral interests. The laboratory activities in the manuals were categorized as demonstrations, experiments and observations. Three of each of these types of activities from each manual were analyzed for skills and motivating factors important to girls as identified by Potter and Rosser (1992). Data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics of frequencies, means and chi-square goodness of fit. The.05 level of significance was applied to all analyses based upon an expected frequency of 50 - 50 percentage of men and women and a 4.5 percent for women scientists to 95.5 percent for men scientists. The findings were as follows. None of the textbooks had a balance of men/women, boys/girls in the illustrations, drawings and photographs. The Hewitt (Scott-Foresman, 1989) textbook was the only textbook with no significant difference. Using the expected frequency for male and female scientists, two textbooks were gender balanced for illustrations, drawings and photographs while all textbooks were gender balanced for described accomplishments of scientists. The Hewitt (Scott Foresman, 1989) textbook had the only gender balanced representation of careers

  14. [Gender in view].

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women. PMID:12349308

  15. Assessment of postural balance function.

    PubMed

    Kostiukow, Anna; Rostkowska, Elzbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Postural balance is defined as the ability to stand unassisted without falling. Examination of the patient's postural balance function is a difficult diagnostic task. Most of the balance tests used in medicine provide incomplete information on this coordination ability of the human body. The aim of this study was to review methods of assessment of the patient's postural balance function, including various tests used in medical diagnostics centers. PMID:20698188

  16. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored. PMID:26828376

  17. Gender determination using cheiloscopy

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, B. N.; Makkad, Ramanpal Singh; Rajan, S. Y.; Kolli, Gopi Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although lip prints have been used as an evidence for human identification in forensic science, there exists a doubt about its role in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed for documenting common patterns, as well as their variation in the study population, with objective of evaluating uniqueness of the lip print pattern among the study population, as well as to evaluate the possibility of gender determination. Study Design: Two hundred and thirty five lip prints were collected from volunteers among out patients of Darshan Dental College and Hospital, as well as community dental care camps of rural areas around Udaipur. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with transparent overlay and transferred on to a bond paper. It was then photographed using a Canon EOS 55OD 16 mega pixel digital camera. Software Picasa 3.6 and Microsoft Picture Manager were used to digitally enhance the quality and magnify the image bearing the groove pattern. Lip prints were later analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability (P value) was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. Dots, reticular and complex patterns were significant in gender determination. PMID:24255561

  18. More on Chemical Reaction Balancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A previous article stated that only the matrix method was powerful enough to balance a particular chemical equation. Shows how this equation can be balanced without using the matrix method. The approach taken involves writing partial mathematical reactions and redox half-reactions, and combining them to yield the final balanced reaction. (JN)

  19. Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history.

    PubMed

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification of gender identity-related conditions over time, and indicate how these changes were associated with the changes in conceptualization. A diagnosis of 'transsexualism' appeared first in DSM-III in 1980. This version also included a childhood diagnosis: gender identity disorder of childhood. As research about gender incongruence/gender dysphoria increased, the terminology, placement and criteria were reviewed in successive versions of the DSM. Changes in various aspects of the diagnosis, however, were not only based on research. Social and political factors contributed to the conceptualization of gender incongruence/gender dysphoria as well. PMID:26782319

  20. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment. PMID:21487386

  1. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  2. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education. PMID:25790361

  3. Earth in the balance

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Earth in the Balance is a lucid, scientifically grounded treatise on the global environments. The author's description of the world's water, air, and land use problems is clear, lively, and knowledgable. A major section of the book explores the psychological dimensions of global environmental problems. He attempts to synthesize ideas across many fields of thought. Gore offers a Global Marshall Plan - a worldwide strategic environment initiative that would help phase out older technologies and disseminate benign substitutes, change accounting methods so environmental costs are considered, and use education as a tool.

  4. Micromechanical Oscillating Mass Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altemir, David A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A micromechanical oscillating mass balance and method adapted for measuring minute quantities of material deposited at a selected location, such as during a vapor deposition process. The invention comprises a vibratory composite beam which includes a dielectric layer sandwiched between two conductive layers. The beam is positioned in a magnetic field. An alternating current passes through one conductive layers, the beam oscillates, inducing an output current in the second conductive layer, which is analyzed to determine the resonant frequency of the beam. As material is deposited on the beam, the mass of the beam increases and the resonant frequency of the beam shifts, and the mass added is determined.

  5. Watt and joule balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  6. Are high school chemistry textbooks gender fair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazler, Judith A.; Simonis, Doris A.

    This study compared two generations of seven high school chemistry texts (1970/1973) and current editions analyzed for gender fairness in illustrations and in concrete analogies. Results support these conclusions: (a) considering the texts as a group, there are significant differences between relative frequencies of named and unnamed illustrations of men and women and no significant differences between relative frequencies of illustrations of boys and girls in seven high school chemistry texts in the 1970 editions compared to current edition of the same texts; (b) a current best-seller is the only text that has achieved balance between male/female illustrations; (c) the other texts overwhelmingly favor pictures of males; (d) most current texts had more analogies than their 1970 editions; the former favored images reflecting girls' interests.

  7. Gender issues in the university research environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used to explore perceptions in four main skills areas: group work; communication; personal awareness; project planning and management. The study indicates consistent female concerns on issues pertaining to effective female role models, negative work-role stereotypes and the work-life balance of an academic career. For all four skills areas, the average confidence scores of the female participants fell below those of males, but these differences were only statistically significant for perceptions on group work and communication skills and prior to an intense skills development course. Based on these findings, a student workshop on gender issues has been developed, an outline of which is presented.

  8. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  9. Gait characteristics and sensory abilities of older adults are modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Despite the general perception that women and men walk differently, little is known about the reasons for these differences, especially in older adults. Previous work on gender differences in older adults has focused on spatiotemporal parameters. This study aims to assess gender-related differences in gait spatiotemporal and quality parameters when walking on a flat walkway at two different self-selected speeds: comfortable and fast. Sensorimotor abilities (Strength, agility, standing balance, reaction time) were also compared by gender, and gender-specific associations between spatiotemporal and sensorimotor parameters and gait quality were studied. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used at head and pelvis levels to investigate spatiotemporal parameters (step length, velocity and cadence), and gait quality (harmonic ratios (HR) and attenuation of accelerations between body levels) in 122 older adults (90 women, 69.7±5.1 y.o. and 32 men, 71.6±6.4 y.o.). Both men and women walked with similar speed; however women presented faster cadence and shorter steps than men at both walking speeds. Women also walked with greater vertical HR (head and pelvis), mediolateral pelvis HR, and attenuation (mediolateral and anteroposterior) than men. Women had better control of standing balance on foam (eyes open and closed) and tandem test. Moreover, balance on foam, tandem test, step length and cadence were associated to gender-specific gait quality parameters. The aging process seems to be affecting men and women differently, thus, gender differences should be considered when preparing intervention programs to improve balance and gait in older populations or when establishing normative data for balance and gait in older adults. PMID:25943408

  10. Eyeglasses and gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Terry, R L

    1989-10-01

    Under the guise of forming impressions of a job applicant in a hiring interview, subjects rated a videotaped male or female stimulus person (SP) on several gender stereotypical and task relevant traits. In one condition, the SP's wore eyeglasses, and in the other condition they did not. Eyeglasses, especially when worn by the stimulus male, were associated with feminine stereotypes and positive task relevant attributes. The results were interpreted to suggest that men who wear eyeglasses may be the target of some negative social judgments but also redeeming task relevant attributes, whereas women who wear eyeglasses are more likely to be the target of only negative social judgments. PMID:2587035

  11. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  12. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  13. Balancing Family and Career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.

  14. Applications of balanced pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, HuanHuan; Wang, JunFu; Huang, ZhaoYong

    2016-05-01

    Let $(\\mathscr{X}$, $\\mathscr{Y})$ be a balanced pair in an abelian category. We first introduce the notion of cotorsion pairs relative to $(\\mathscr{X}$, $\\mathscr{Y})$, and then give some equivalent characterizations when a relative cotorsion pair is hereditary or perfect. We prove that if the $\\mathscr{X}$-resolution dimension of $\\mathscr{Y}$ (resp. $\\mathscr{Y}$-coresolution dimension of $\\mathscr{X}$) is finite, then the bounded homotopy category of $\\mathscr{Y}$ (resp. $\\mathscr{X}$) is contained in that of $\\mathscr{X}$ (resp. $\\mathscr{Y}$). As a consequence, we get that the right $\\mathscr{X}$-singularity category coincides with the left $\\mathscr{Y}$-singularity category if the $\\mathscr{X}$-resolution dimension of $\\mathscr{Y}$ and the $\\mathscr{Y}$-coresolution dimension of $\\mathscr{X}$ are finite.

  15. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  16. Energy balance in peridynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Lehoucq, Richard B.; Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2010-09-01

    The peridynamic model of solid mechanics treats internal forces within a continuum through interactions across finite distances. These forces are determined through a constitutive model that, in the case of an elastic material, permits the strain energy density at a point to depend on the collective deformation of all the material within some finite distance of it. The forces between points are evaluated from the Frechet derivative of this strain energy density with respect to the deformation map. The resulting equation of motion is an integro-differential equation written in terms of these interparticle forces, rather than the traditional stress tensor field. Recent work on peridynamics has elucidated the energy balance in the presence of these long-range forces. We have derived the appropriate analogue of stress power, called absorbed power, that leads to a satisfactory definition of internal energy. This internal energy is additive, allowing us to meaningfully define an internal energy density field in the body. An expression for the local first law of thermodynamics within peridynamics combines this mechanical component, the absorbed power, with heat transport. The global statement of the energy balance over a subregion can be expressed in a form in which the mechanical and thermal terms contain only interactions between the interior of the subregion and the exterior, in a form anticipated by Noll in 1955. The local form of this first law within peridynamics, coupled with the second law as expressed in the Clausius-Duhem inequality, is amenable to the Coleman-Noll procedure for deriving restrictions on the constitutive model for thermomechanical response. Using an idea suggested by Fried in the context of systems of discrete particles, this procedure leads to a dissipation inequality for peridynamics that has a surprising form. It also leads to a thermodynamically consistent way to treat damage within the theory, shedding light on how damage, including the

  17. Alzheimer, mitochondria and gender.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Amandine; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe Guy; Eckert, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies revealed that two-thirds of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are women and the drop of sex steroid hormones after the menopause has been proposed to be one risk factor in AD. Similarly, the decrease of circulating testosterone levels with aging may also increase the risk of AD in men. Studies attest the neuroprotective effects of sex hormones in animal models of AD, but clinical trial data remain controversial. Here, we discuss the implication of mitochondria in gender differences observed in AD patients and animal models of AD. We summarize the role of mitochondria in aging and AD, pointing to the potential correlation between the loss of sex hormones and changes in the brain redox status. We discuss the protective effects of the sex hormones, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone with a specific focus on mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. The understanding of pathological processes linking the loss of sex hormones with mitochondrial dysfunction and mechanisms that initiate the disease onset may open new avenues for the development of gender-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:27139022

  18. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  19. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    PubMed Central

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making. PMID:26869947

  20. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  1. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa. PMID:19706778

  2. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  3. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  4. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  5. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  6. Gender Mainstreaming or Promoting Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulstich-Wieland, Hannelore

    2005-01-01

    Gender inequalities in education are very apparent. Young women are overrepresented in educational training and in the school-based training and correspondingly underrepresented in the dual training courses. Gender segmentation in professional education continues to exist. Women are overrepresented in the service sector, while men are in…

  7. Gender, Education, Extremism and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, extremism and security. After defining extremism and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…

  8. Gender Issues in Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent work in variationist sociolinguistics, sociology of language and linguistic anthropology, focuses on new approaches to explaining gender differentiated patterns of sound change and language shift, the success or failure of planned linguistic reforms, and changes in the social evaluation of gendered speech styles. (Author/VWL)

  9. Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Rhonda C.

    Since the 1960s, gender differences in mathematics performance have been a major topic in educational and mathematical research. This study entails a gender comparative analysis of students' mathematics performance as determined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and by the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency. In a public school system in rural…

  10. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…