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Sample records for gender body mass

  1. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    PubMed

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women. PMID:19897779

  2. Gender differences in body fat of low- and high-body-mass children: relationship with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Komiya, S; Eto, C; Otoki, K; Teramoto, K; Shimizu, F; Shimamoto, H

    2000-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine gender differences in total body fat mass (TBFM) and body fat distribution (subcutaneous fat mass, SFM; and internal fat mass, IFM) in a cross-sectional sample of 280 children. Measurements of the body composition of 141 boys and 139 girls, all apparently healthy and aged 3-6 years were made using bioelectrical impedance. Determinations of impedance were made using a four-terminal impedance analyzer (TP-95K; Toyo Physical, Fukuoka, Japan). Lean body mass (LBM) was calculated using a previously published equation [Goran MI, Kaskoun MC, Carpenter WH, Poehlman ET, Ravussin E, Fontvieikke A-M (1993) Estimating body composition of young children by using bioelectrical resistance. J Appl Physiol 75: 1776-1780]. SFM was calculated using a modification of the equation derived by Skerjl [Skerjl B, Brozek J, Hunt EE (1953) Subcutaneous fat and age changes in body build and body form in women. Am J Phys Anthrop 11: 577-580] and Davies [Davies PSW, Jones PRM, Norgan NG (1986) The distribution of subcutaneous and internal fat in man. Ann Hum Biol 13: 189-192]. The main modifications of the equation in the present study were the introduction of: (1) mean thickness of adipose tissue over body surface/2, and (2) skin mass. IFM was calculated as the difference between TBFM and SFM. The body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated from the formula: body mass/height2. For each gender, the subjects in the lowest and highest 25th percentiles were designated as "low body mass" and "high body mass", respectively. In the present study, no gender differences in absolute TBFM, SFM and IFM were observed in either of these groups. In contrast, gender differences in relative TBFM (%Fat) and SFM (SFM/mass) were evident in girls. However, the four subgroups were similar in terms of relative IFM (IFM/mass). The TBFM was independently related to SFM, IFM and %Fat in both genders after adjustment for BMI; however, there was no significant

  3. Gender Associated High Body Mass Index in Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Minci–Bejtullahu, Ganimete; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Karahoda–Gjurgjeala, Natyra; Berisha, Naser; Morina, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases and atopy is affected by sex, age and lifestyle factors. Obesity and excess weight are reported to be potential risk factors for atopy and specifically for asthma symptoms in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between body mass index (BMI) and allergic diseases in patients of both genders, as well as association of BMI with atopy in healthy subjects. METHODS: BMI (kg/m2), skin-prick test and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were assessed in 139 subjects: 109 were patients with allergic diseases (M to F ratio was 51:58) and 30 were healthy controls (M to F ratio was 6:24). RESULTS: The study population was grouped into asthma, asthmarhinitis, rhinitis, Urticaria oreczema and controls by BMI and sex. Females with the highest BMI were in asthma and urticaria/eczema group. Males with the highest BMI were in asthmarhinitis and urticariaeczema group. High BMI was associated with atopy in both genders of healthy controls. High levels of total IgE were in male allergic patients. CONCLUSION: High BMI was associated with asthma in females, urticaria/eczema in both genders and atopy in both genders of healthy controls. Higher levels of total IgE were concluded in male patients.

  4. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A.; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F.; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M.; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C.; López-Miranda, José

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P<0.001, Q = 0.002) when BMI was > 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  5. Intestinal Microbiota Is Influenced by Gender and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Haro, Carmen; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Alcalá-Díaz, Juan F; Gómez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Landa, Blanca B; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Clemente, José C; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes are associated with the development of obesity. However, studies in humans have generated conflicting results due to high inter-individual heterogeneity in terms of diet, age, and hormonal factors, and the largely unexplored influence of gender. In this work, we aimed to identify differential gut microbiota signatures associated with obesity, as a function of gender and changes in body mass index (BMI). Differences in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by 16S sequencing in 39 men and 36 post-menopausal women, who had similar dietary background, matched by age and stratified according to the BMI. We observed that the abundance of the Bacteroides genus was lower in men than in women (P<0.001, Q = 0.002) when BMI was > 33. In fact, the abundance of this genus decreased in men with an increase in BMI (P<0.001, Q<0.001). However, in women, it remained unchanged within the different ranges of BMI. We observed a higher presence of Veillonella (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.001, Q = 0.019) and Methanobrevibacter genera (84.6% vs. 47.2%; X2 test P = 0.002, Q = 0.026) in fecal samples in men compared to women. We also observed that the abundance of Bilophila was lower in men compared to women regardless of BMI (P = 0.002, Q = 0.041). Additionally, after correcting for age and sex, 66 bacterial taxa at the genus level were found to be associated with BMI and plasma lipids. Microbiota explained at P = 0.001, 31.17% variation in BMI, 29.04% in triglycerides, 33.70% in high-density lipoproteins, 46.86% in low-density lipoproteins, and 28.55% in total cholesterol. Our results suggest that gut microbiota may differ between men and women, and that these differences may be influenced by the grade of obesity. The divergence in gut microbiota observed between men and women might have a dominant role in the definition of gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic and intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:27228093

  6. The Peer Appearance Culture during Adolescence: Gender and Body Mass Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine gender and body mass, as factors linked to perceived experiences within the peer appearance culture. The sample included 215 girls and 200 boys who were either in 7th grade or 10th grade. Students provided self-reports on experiences in three domains: appearance culture among friends (appearance…

  7. Gender and Reinforcing Associations between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Body Mass over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Reither, Eric; Logan, Ellis; Sherman-Wilkins, Kyler

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–1993 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore reciprocal associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass in this 1939 birth cohort of non-Hispanic white men and women. We integrate the fundamental cause theory, the gender relations theory, and the life-course perspective to analyze gender differences in (a) the ways that early socioeconomic disadvantage launches bidirectional associations of body mass and SES, and (b) the extent to which these mutually-reinforcing effects generate socioeconomic disparities in midlife body mass. Using structural equation modeling, we find that socioeconomic disadvantage at age 18 is related to higher body mass index and a greater risk of obesity at age 54, and that this relationship is significantly stronger for women than men. Moreover, women are more adversely affected by two mechanisms underlying the focal association: the obesogenic effect of socioeconomic disadvantage and the SES-impeding effect of obesity. These patterns were also replicated in propensity score matching models. Gender and SES act synergistically over the life course to shape reciprocal chains of two disadvantaged statuses: heavier body mass and lower SES. PMID:25138198

  8. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  9. Gender differences in vestibular modulation of body mass in altered force environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Charles; Fuller, Patrick; Hoban-Higgins, Tana; Fuller, Charles

    Body mass regulation is affected by the gravitational environment. Gravitational and linear acceleration information is transduced by the vestibular macular receptors. In addition, there are gender differences in the regulation of body mass and composition. This study therefore investigated the role of the vestibular system in the regulation of body mass in age-matched male and female rats. Four groups of male and female rats were established. A 1G and a 2G labyrinthectomized experimental group (Labx) and a 1G and 2G control group (Con). Labyrinthectomies were accomplished by trans-tympanic injection of sodium arsanilate to remove vestibular input. Control groups experienced the same surgical procedures, but with a saline control injection. Body mass and food and water consumption data were collected twice weekly. Baseline data were collected prior to surgery. There was a decrease in body mass following chemical labyrinthectomy in both male and female rats. A recovery period followed surgery to allow for the re-establishment of stable growth curves. Body mass of female experimental rats returned to the same levels as the female controls while male labyrinthectomized rats continued to regulate body mass at a lower level. All 2G groups were exposed to 8 weeks of 2G produced via centrifugation while all control groups remained at 1G. All 2G groups decreased body mass at the onset of centrifugation, with experimental groups having a smaller response than the controls. Males continued to maintain body mass at a lower level under 2G, while, again body mass of the females returned to levels similar to controls. At the conclusion of the eight week centrifugation period, all four female groups had a similar body mass while differences were evident between male groups. Overall, 1G males had a higher body mass than did males exposed to 2G. Within G levels, 1G controls were heavier than 1G Labx and, in contrast, at 2G Labx had a larger body mass than controls. (Supported by

  10. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  11. The influence of body mass index and gender on the impact attenuation properties of flooring systems.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris; Laing, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    The biomechanical effectiveness of safety floors has never been assessed during sideways falls with human volunteers. Furthermore, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gender on the protective capacity of safety floors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether safety floors provide greater impact attenuation compared with traditional flooring, and whether BMI and gender modify their impact attenuation properties. Thirty participants (7 men and 7 women of low BMI; 7 men and 9 women of high BMI) underwent lateral pelvis release trials on 2 common floors and 4 safety floors. As a group, the safety floors reduced peak force (by up to 11.7%), and increased the time to peak force (by up to 25.5%) compared with a traditional institutional grade floor. Force attenuation was significantly higher for the low BMI group, and for males. Force attenuation was greatest for the low BMI males, averaging 26.5% (SD = 3.0) across the safety floors. These findings demonstrate an overall protective effect of safety floors during lateral falls on the pelvis, but also suggest augmented benefits for frail older adults (often with low body mass) who are at an increased risk of hip fracture. PMID:23429161

  12. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  13. Gender, stress in childhood and adulthood, and trajectories of change in body mass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2015-08-01

    Despite substantial evidence of the linkage between stress and weight change, previous studies have not considered how stress trajectories that begin in childhood and fluctuate throughout adulthood may work together to have long-term consequences for weight change. Working from a stress and life course perspective, we investigate the linkages between childhood stress, adulthood stress and trajectories of change in body mass (i.e., Body Mass Index, BMI) over time, with attention to possible gender variation in these processes. Data are drawn from a national longitudinal survey of the Americans' Changing Lives (N = 3617). Results from growth curve analyses suggest that both women and men who experienced higher levels of childhood stress also report higher levels of stress in adulthood. At the beginning of the study period, higher levels of adulthood stress are related to greater BMI for women but not men. Moreover, women who experienced higher levels of childhood stress gained weight more rapidly throughout the 15-year study period than did women who experienced less childhood stress, but neither childhood nor adulthood stress significantly modified men's BMI trajectories. These findings add to our understanding of how childhood stress-a more important driver of long-term BMI increase than adult stress-reverberates throughout the life course to foster cumulative disadvantage in body mass, and how such processes differ for men and women. Results highlight the importance of considering sex-specific social contexts of early childhood in order to design effective clinical programs that prevent or treat overweight and obesity later in life. PMID:26151391

  14. Gender-Dependent Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index in Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Salas-Martínez, María Guadalupe; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Luckie-Duque, Angélica; García-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Vicenteño-Ayala, Hermenegildo; Cordova, Emilio J.; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Carnevale, Alessandra; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 1 of FTO and body mass index (BMI), a case-control association study of 2314 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo adult subjects was performed. The association between each SNP and BMI was tested using logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, gender, and ancestry and assuming additive, recessive, and dominant effects of the minor allele. Association analysis after BMI stratification showed that all five FTO SNPs (rs1121980, rs17817449, rs3751812, rs9930506, and rs17817449), were significantly associated with obesity class II/III under an additive model (P<0.05). Interestingly, we also documented a genetic model-dependent influence of gender on the effect of FTO variants on increased BMI. Two SNPs were specifically associated in males under a dominant model, while the remainder were associated with females under additive and recessive models (P<0.05). The SNP rs9930506 showed the highest increased in obesity risk in females (odds ratio = 4.4). Linear regression using BMI as a continuous trait also revealed differential FTO SNP contributions. Homozygous individuals for the risk alleles of rs17817449, rs3751812, and rs9930506 were on average 2.18 kg/m2 heavier than homozygous for the wild-type alleles; rs1121980 and rs8044769 showed significant but less-strong effects on BMI (1.54 kg/m2 and 0.9 kg/m2, respectively). Remarkably, rs9930506 also exhibited positive interactions with age and BMI in a gender-dependent manner. Women carrying the minor allele of this variant have a significant increase in BMI by year (0.42 kg/m2, P = 1.17 x 10−10). Linear regression haplotype analysis under an additive model, confirmed that the TGTGC haplotype harboring all five minor alleles, increased the BMI of carriers by 2.36 kg/m2 (P = 1.15 x 10−5). Our data suggest that FTO SNPs make differential contributions to obesity risk and support the hypothesis that gender differences in the mechanisms

  15. Gender-Dependent Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index in Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Alvarez, Yolanda; Salas-Martínez, María Guadalupe; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Luckie-Duque, Angélica; García-Cárdenas, Gustavo; Vicenteño-Ayala, Hermenegildo; Cordova, Emilio J; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Carnevale, Alessandra; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 1 of FTO and body mass index (BMI), a case-control association study of 2314 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo adult subjects was performed. The association between each SNP and BMI was tested using logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, gender, and ancestry and assuming additive, recessive, and dominant effects of the minor allele. Association analysis after BMI stratification showed that all five FTO SNPs (rs1121980, rs17817449, rs3751812, rs9930506, and rs17817449), were significantly associated with obesity class II/III under an additive model (P<0.05). Interestingly, we also documented a genetic model-dependent influence of gender on the effect of FTO variants on increased BMI. Two SNPs were specifically associated in males under a dominant model, while the remainder were associated with females under additive and recessive models (P<0.05). The SNP rs9930506 showed the highest increased in obesity risk in females (odds ratio = 4.4). Linear regression using BMI as a continuous trait also revealed differential FTO SNP contributions. Homozygous individuals for the risk alleles of rs17817449, rs3751812, and rs9930506 were on average 2.18 kg/m(2) heavier than homozygous for the wild-type alleles; rs1121980 and rs8044769 showed significant but less-strong effects on BMI (1.54 kg/m(2) and 0.9 kg/m(2), respectively). Remarkably, rs9930506 also exhibited positive interactions with age and BMI in a gender-dependent manner. Women carrying the minor allele of this variant have a significant increase in BMI by year (0.42 kg/m(2), P = 1.17 x 10(-10)). Linear regression haplotype analysis under an additive model, confirmed that the TGTGC haplotype harboring all five minor alleles, increased the BMI of carriers by 2.36 kg/m(2) (P = 1.15 x 10(-5)). Our data suggest that FTO SNPs make differential contributions to obesity risk and support the hypothesis that gender differences in the

  16. Influence of Rescuers' Gender and Body Mass Index on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation according to the American Heart Association 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Ahmad; Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Al-Hashemi, Eman

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor in determining its overall outcome. This study aims to test the association between rescuers' gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), and the accuracy of chest compressions (CC) as well as ventilation, according to American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 resuscitation guidelines. Methods. The study included 72 participants of both genders. All the participants received CPR training according to AHA 2010 resuscitation guidelines. One week later, an assessment of their CPR was carried out. Moreover, the weight and height of the participants were measured in order to calculate their BMI. Results. Our analysis showed no significant association between gender and the CC depth (P = 0.53) as well as between gender and ventilation (P = 0.42). Females were significantly faster than males in CC (P = 0.000). Regarding BMI, participants with a BMI less than the mean BMI of the study sample tended to perform CC with the correct depth (P = 0.045) and to finish CC faster than those with a BMI more than the mean (P = 0.000). On the other hand, no significant association was found between BMI and ventilation (P = 0.187). Conclusion. CPR can be influenced by factors such as gender and BMI, as such the individual rescuer and CPR training programs should take these into account in order to maximize victims' outcome.

  17. Gender differences in ventricular remodeling and function in college athletes, insights from lean body mass scaling and deformation imaging.

    PubMed

    Giraldeau, Geneviève; Kobayashi, Yukari; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Wheeler, Matthew; Perez, Marco; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Lord, Rachel; George, Keith P; Oxborough, David; Schnittger, Ingela; Froelicher, Victor; Liang, David; Ashley, Euan; Haddad, François

    2015-11-15

    Several studies suggest gender differences in ventricular dimensions in athletes. Few studies have, however, made comparisons of data indexed for lean body mass (LBM) using allometry. Ninety Caucasian college athletes (mixed sports) who were matched for age, ethnicity, and sport total cardiovascular demands underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan for quantification of LBM. Athletes underwent comprehensive assessment of left and right ventricular and atrial structure and function using 2-dimensional echocardiography and deformation imaging using the TomTec analysis system. The mean age of the study population was 18.9 ± 1.9 years. Female athletes (n = 45) had a greater fat free percentage (19.4 ± 3.7%) compared to male athletes (11.5 ± 3.7%). When scaled to body surface area, male had on average 19 ± 3% (p <0.001) greater left ventricular (LV) mass; in contrast, when scaled to LBM, there was no significant difference in indexed LV mass -1.4 ± 3.0% (p = 0.63). Similarly, when allometrically scaled to LBM, there was no significant gender-based difference in LV or left atrial volumes. Although female athletes had mildly higher LV ejection fraction and LV global longitudinal strain in absolute value, systolic strain rate and allometrically indexed stroke volume were not different between genders (1.5 ± 3.6% [p = 0.63] and 0.0 ± 3.7% [p = 0.93], respectively). There were no differences in any of the functional atrial indexes including strain or strain rate parameters. In conclusion, gender-related differences in ventricular dimensions or function (stroke volume) appear less marked, if not absent, when indexing using LBM allometrically. PMID:26456207

  18. Socio-economic factors, lifestyle and gender differences in body mass index in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Mary; Chorghade, Ginny; Crozier, Sarah; Leary, Sam; Fall, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A survey of the nutritional status of women in six villages in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India found young women to have significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than their male peers. The purpose of this study was to identify social and economic factors associated with this difference in thinness, and to explore the behaviour in men and women that might underlie these associations. We compared men and women in 90 families in this part of Maharashtra, recording social and economic details, fasting practices and oil consumption, and took measurements of the height and weight of a married couple of child-bearing age in each family. In this agricultural community, women were thinner in joint, land-owning families where the main occupation was farming, than they did in non-farming families. This was not true of men in this type of family. Men in ‘cash-rich’ families had higher BMIs than men in families without this characteristic. There was no corresponding difference in women’s body mass index. We then examined the lifestyles of men and women in a sub-set of 45 of these families. Women were more likely to work full-time in farming than men, to carry the burden of all household chores, to have less sleep and to eat less food away from home than men. Women fasted more frequently and more strictly than men. Despite identifying significant differences in behaviour between men and women in the same household, we could find no direct link between behaviour and body mass index. We conclude that being married into a farming family is an important factor in determining the thinness of a woman in rural Maharashtra. PMID:17116720

  19. The Skinny on Success: Body Mass, Gender and Occupational Standing Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Christy M.; Haas, Steven A.; Reither, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the impact of obesity on occupational standing. This study extends previous research by estimating the influence of body mass on occupational attainment over three decades of the career using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In a series of covariance structure analyses, we considered three mechanisms that may alter the career trajectories of heavy individuals: (1. employment-based discrimination, (2. educational attainment, and (3. marriage market processes. Unlike previous studies, we found limited evidence that employment-based discrimination impaired the career trajectories of either men or women. Instead, we found that heavy women received less post-secondary schooling than their thinner peers, which in turn adversely affected their occupational standing at each point in their careers. PMID:20936045

  20. The effects of gender, age, and body mass index on standing lumbar curvature in persons without current low back pain.

    PubMed

    Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H; Krause, David A

    2006-11-01

    Reference values for standing lumbar curvature (SLC) obtained via noninvasive methods are not well established in persons without current low back pain. The effect of gender is considered to have a significant effect on SLC with women having more lumbar lordosis than men. The effect of age and degree of obesity are not considered to have a statistically significant effect on SLC. The purpose of this study was to test the assumption that measurements of SLC in healthy adults obtained by a flexible curve will differ between genders, whereas the SLC will not differ across categories of age and body mass index (BMI). Two hundred thirty-five volunteers (119 men and 116 women) whose ages ranged between 20 and 79 years participated in the study. Subjects were almost exclusively White and from the Midwest. Measurements of the SLC were obtained by a flexible curve. The curve's shape was transferred to poster board, and the value of SLC was quantified by a previously described technique. A three-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) was used to examine the main effects of gender, age, and BMI on SLC. The effect of gender (F1,199 = 21.4, p < 0.0001) and the effect of age (F5,199 = 2.8, p < 0.017) were statistically significant. The effect of BMI (F2,199 = 1.8, p = 0.176) was not significant. Women (mean, 49.5 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) demonstrated about 6.5 degrees more SLC than their male (mean, 43.0 degrees +/-10.7 degrees ) counterparts. For age, the only significant difference was between the 20 to 29- and 50 to 59-year-old age categories. This study provides physical therapists with typical values of SLC in men and women without current low back pain. PMID:17118891

  1. Gender Differences in the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Changes in Body-Mass-Index

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The positive association between stress and weight has been consistently demonstrated, particularly in women. The effect of stress on changes in weight, however, is less clear. Methods A total of 33,425 participants in Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Condition (NESARC) were included in this study. The study examined the relationship between stressful life events during the 12 months prior to the Wave 2 interview and changes in body-mass-index (BMI) between Wave 1 and Wave 2 interviews. Results Women reported significantly greater increases in BMI than men. Stressful life events, particularly job-related changes, legal problems, and death of family or friends, were associated significantly with increases in BMI among women but not men. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample, stressful life events were associated with greater weight gain in women. Prevention of weight gain in women should focus on the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying female-specific effects of stressful life events on weight gain. PMID:25204986

  2. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  3. Parental incarceration and gender-based risks for increased body mass index: evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roettger, Michael E; Boardman, Jason D

    2012-04-01

    Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women. PMID:22437187

  4. Parental Incarceration and Gender-based Risks for Increased Body Mass Index: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Roettger, Michael E.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings, the authors found that obesity status moderates the relation between depression and parental incarceration. Results suggest a stress internalization process that, for the first time, links parental incarceration with obesity among women. PMID:22437187

  5. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  6. Agricultural Body-Building: Incorporations of Gender, Body and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandth, Berit

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with gendered embodiment of agricultural work, particularly the connection between women's gender identity and the body at work. Focussing on how the body enters into relations with the tools of work, four processes are identified by which women's bodies, work and machinery are incorporated into each other and give each…

  7. Gender Differences in the Associations among Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, Exercise, and Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Jensen, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore gender differences regarding weight management behaviors of college drinkers. Participants: Nationally representative sample of college students from the fall 2008 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II ("N" = 26,062 students). Methods: Structural equation modeling was used…

  8. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. Methods A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. Results We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. Conclusion The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables. PMID:25657583

  9. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. PMID:25455864

  10. Ideal Body Size as a Mediator for the Gender-Specific Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence from an Upper-Middle-Income Country in the African Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Stringhini, Silvia; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background: While obesity continues to rise globally, the associations between body size, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) seem to vary in different populations, and little is known on the contribution of perceived ideal body size in the social disparity of obesity in African countries. Purpose: We examined the gender and socioeconomic…

  11. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  12. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  13. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation: Effects of Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Luigi; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco P.; Vozzella, Letizia; Savino, Ivana G.; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Cuomo, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) relieves symptoms in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and may have prebiotic properties. However, the correlation between the effectiveness of PHGG and patient characteristics has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the effect of PHGG in symptom relief on constipation-predominant IBS according to gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with IBS entered a 2-week run-in period, followed by a 4-week study period with PHGG. Patients completed a daily questionnaire to assess the presence of abdominal pain/discomfort, swelling, and the sensation of incomplete evacuation. The number of evacuations/day, the daily need for laxatives/enemas and stool consistency-form were also evaluated. All patients also underwent a colonic transit time (CTT) evaluation. Results: PHGG administration was associated with a significant improvement in symptom scores, use of laxatives/enemas, stool form/consistency and CTT. At the end of the study period and compared with baseline, the number of evacuations improved in women, patients aged ≥ 45 years and those with BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05 for all comparisons); abdominal bloating improved in males (P < 0.05), patients < 45 years (P < 0.01) and those with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05). A decrease in the number of perceived incomplete evacuations/day was reported in patients with a BMI ≥ 25 (P < 0.05). Reductions in laxative/enema use were recorded in females (P < 0.05), patients < 45 years (P < 0.01), and patients with BMI < 25 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gender, age, and BMI seem to influence the effect of PHGG supplementation in constipated IBS patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of such parameters with a fiber-enriched diet. PMID:25843197

  14. Associations of body mass index with cancer incidence among populations, genders, and menopausal status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Gou, Ben-Fu

    2016-06-01

    In order to further reveal the differences of association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer incidence across populations, genders, and menopausal status, we performed comprehensive meta-analysis with eligible citations. The risk ratio (RR) of incidence at 10 different cancer sites (per 5kg/m(2) increase in BMI) were quantified separately by employing generalized least-squares to estimate trends, and combined by meta-analyses. We observed significantly stronger association between increased BMI and breast cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific group (RR 1.18:1.11-1.26) than in European-Australian (1.05:1.00-1.09) and North-American group (1.06:1.03-1.08) (meta-regression p<0.05). No association between increased BMI and pancreatic cancer incidence (0.94:0.71-1.24) was shown in the Asia-Pacific group (meta-regression p<0.05), whereas positive associations were found in other two groups. A significantly higher RR in men was found for colorectal cancer in comparison with women (meta-regression p<0.05). Compared with postmenopausal women, premenopausal women displayed significantly higher RR for ovarian cancer (pre- vs. post-=1.10 vs. 1.01, meta-regression p<0.05), but lower RR for breast cancer (pre- vs. post-=0.99 vs. 1.11, meta-regression p<0.0001). Our results indicate that overweight or obesity is a strong risk factor of cancer incidence at several cancer sites. Genders, populations, and menopausal status are important factors effecting the association between obesity and cancer incidence for certain cancer types. PMID:26946037

  15. Getting Bigger, Quicker? Gendered Socioeconomic Trajectories in Body Mass Index across the Adult Lifecourse: A Longitudinal Study of 21,403 Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Do socioeconomic inequities in body mass index (BMI) widen across the adult lifecourse? BMI data for 29,104 male and 32,454 female person-years aged 15 years and older (21,403 persons in total) were extracted from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel linear regression was used to examine age and gender specific trajectories in BMI by quintiles of neighborhood socioeconomic circumstance. Models were adjusted for probable sources of confounding, including couple status, number of children resident, if somebody in the household had been pregnant in the last 12 months, the highest level of education achieved, the average household gross income, and the percentage of time in the last year spent unemployed. Approximately 9.6% of BMI variation was observed between neighborhoods. High neighborhood disadvantage was associated with 2.09 kg/m2 heavier BMI (95%CI 1.82, 2.36). At age 15-24y, socioeconomic inequity in BMI was already evident among men and women especially (22.6 kg/m2 among women in the most affluent areas compared with 25.4 kg/m2 among the most disadvantaged). Among women only, the socioeconomic gap widened from 2.8 kg/m2 at age 15-24y to 3.2 kg/m2 by age 35-44y. Geographical factors may contribute to more rapid weight gain among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:26496435

  16. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  17. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in the perception of appearance-related social pressure by peers and parents. Methods 1112 German students between grades 7 and 9 (mean age: M = 13.38, SD = .81) filled in the Appearance-Related Social Pressure Questionnaire (German: FASD), which considers different sources (peers, parents) as well as various kinds of social pressure (e.g. teasing, modeling, encouragement). Results Girls were more affected by peer pressure, while gender differences in parental pressure seemed negligible. Main effects of grade-level suggested a particular increase in indirect peer pressure (e.g. appearance-related school and class norms) from early to middle adolescence. Boys and girls with higher BMI were particularly affected by peer teasing and exclusion as well as by parental encouragement to control weight and shape. Conclusion The results suggest that preventive efforts targeting body concerns and disordered eating should bring up the topic of appearance pressure in a school-based context and should strengthen those adolescents who are particularly at risk - in our study, girls and adolescents with higher weight status. Early adolescence and school transition appear to be crucial periods for these efforts. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment of appearance-related social pressure appears to be a fruitful way to further explore social risk-factors in the development of a negative body image. PMID:23680225

  18. Gravity and body mass regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  19. GFR Normalized to Total Body Water Allows Comparisons across Genders and Body Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, Toralf; Mathisen, Ulla D.; Jenssen, Trond G.; Solbu, Marit D.; Toft, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The normalization of GFR to a standardized body-surface area of 1.73 m2 impedes comparison of GFR across individuals of different genders, heights, or weights. Ideally, GFR should be normalized to a parameter that best explains variation in GFR. Here, we measured true GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of 1627 individuals from the general population who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or kidney disease. We also estimated total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume, lean body mass, liver volume, metabolic rate, and body-surface area. We compared two methods of normalizing GFR to these physiologic variables: (1) the conventional method of scaling GFR to each physiologic variable by simple division and (2) a method based on regression of the GFR on each variable. TBW explained a higher proportion of the variation in GFR than the other physiologic variables. GFR adjusted for TBW by the regression method exhibited less dependence on gender, height, and weight compared with the other physiologic variables. Thus, adjusting GFR for TBW by the regression method allows direct comparisons between individuals of different genders, weights, and heights. We propose that regression-based normalization of GFR to a standardized TBW of 40 L should replace the current practice of normalizing GFR to 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. PMID:21784894

  20. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of ... healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based ...

  1. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  2. Does the rise in eating disorders lead to increasing risk of orthorexia nervosa? Correlations with gender, education, and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sanlier, Nevin; Yassibas, Emine; Bilici, Saniye; Sahin, Gulsah; Celik, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Investigating eating disorders and orthorexia nervosa, especially in the young population, is an important step in taking protective precautions and identifying disease. This study was carried out to determine the relationship of eating disorders and orthorexia nervosa to gender, BMI, and field of study in a population of university students in Turkey. In all, 900 university students aged 17-23 years participated in this study. EAT-40 and ORTO-15, which are validated instruments for the screening of participants with anormal eating behaviors and orthorexia nervosa, respectively, were used. There was not a significant difference in EAT-40 scores according to gender and BMI classification. However, EAT-40 scores were high among the students in social science. The number of orthorectic participants among women is higher than that among men, and ORTO-15 scores were not associated with BMI classification and field of study. A significant negative correlation was found between EAT-40 and ORTO-15 scores. PMID:26979290

  3. Body Mass Measurement Chair - Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Skylab's Body Mass Measurement chair, the facility of the Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172), is shown here in this 1970 photograph. The M172 experiment determined the body mass of each crew member and observed changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight in significantly aided in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  4. Gender differences in body image and preferences for an ideal silhouette among Brazilian undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the accuracy of body size estimation and body dissatisfaction among Brazilian undergraduates and their relationships with perceptions of the ideal body silhouettes that would be selected by same-gender and opposite-gender peers. A total of 159 undergraduates (79 males) from a public University in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They completed a Figure Rating Scale and indicated the figure that best describes the size of their own body (actual), their desired body, the body they judged would be ideal to same-gender peers, and the body they judged would be ideal to opposite-gender peers. The results showed that women were less precise in estimating their actual size and more dissatisfied. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) that was selected as “current” by women was significantly higher than their desired and ideal BMIs, whereas the mean BMIs that were selected by men were practically the same. Men and women selected ideal silhouettes for their own gender that were the same as those that were selected as ideal by the opposite gender. The mean BMIs that were actually chosen by men and women as desired and ideal were closer to the upper end of normal weight and lower end of overweight, respectively. Such results contradict what has been assumed to be a normative characteristic of men and women in several countries, raising some doubts regarding the role of beliefs about judgments of the opposite gender in the development of body image disturbances. PMID:26409175

  5. Measurement of Bed Turning and Comparison with Age, Gender, and Body Mass Index in a Healthy Population: Application of a Novel Mobility Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Shang-Lin; Lin, Chia-Huei; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chen, Po-Yin; Sung, Wen-Hsu; Wei, Shun-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    We developed a mobility detection system to analyze pressure changes over time during side-turns in 29 healthy volunteers (17 males and 12 females) with a mean age of 46.1 ± 19.64 years (ranging from 23 to 86 years) in order to determine the effect of gender, age, and BMI on performance during bed postural change. Center of gravity (COG) location, peak pressure of counteraction, and time to reach peak pressure were the main outcomes used to gauge the ability to make a spontaneous side-turn. Men exhibited significantly higher side-turning force (P = 0.002) and back-turning force (P = 0.002) compared with women. Subjects with BMI ≥27 kg/m2 had significantly higher side-turning force (P = 0.007) and back-turning force (P = 0.007) compared with those with BMI < 27 kg/m2. After adjusting for other covariates, age positively correlated with back-turning time (P = 0.033) and negatively correlated with side-turning speed (P = 0.005), back-turning speed (P = 0.014), side-turning force (P = 0.010), and back-turning force (P = 0.016), respectively. Turning times negatively correlated with time to reach peak pressure (P = 0.008). Our system was effective in detecting changes in turning swiftness in the bed-ridden subject. PMID:24877137

  6. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  7. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  8. Body Mass Measurement - Skylab Experiment M172

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This chart provides details on Skylab's Body Mass Measurement experiment (M172). The M172 experiment was a medical study to determine the body mass of each crew member and observe changes in body masses during flight. Knowledge of exact body mass variations throughout the flight aided significantly in the correlation of other medical data obtained during the flight. Mass measurements under zero-gravity conditions were achieved by the application of Newton's second law (force equals mass times acceleration). The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  9. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is…

  10. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  11. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria.

    PubMed

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R H; Dikmans, Rieky E G; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization. PMID:26474976

  12. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  13. Body dissatisfaction levels and gender differences in attentional biases toward idealized bodies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    Attentional bias toward idealized bodies (men: muscular; women: thin) may cause upward comparisons and increase body dissatisfaction (BD). We investigated attentional biases of 39 men and 41 women with high and low BD toward muscular male bodies and thin female bodies. An eye-tracker measured gaze durations and fixation frequencies while exposing participants to images of thin, normal, muscular, and fat bodies of the same gender. Results revealed longer and more frequent attention toward muscular bodies in high BD men, and toward thin bodies in high BD women. High BD men and women also rated muscular and thin bodies as more attractive than those with low BD. Although men attended to muscular and women attended to thin bodies, both showed an attentional bias toward body types they rated as more attractive. These findings could provide indirect evidence in explaining the relationship between BD and the social comparison theory with attentional bias. PMID:23122552

  14. Grading the "good" body: a poststructural feminist analysis of body mass index initiatives.

    PubMed

    Gerbensky-Kerber, Anne

    2011-06-01

    This article analyzes discourse surrounding Arkansas's legislation requiring public schools to measure students' body mass index (BMI) annually and to send the scores to parents on children's report cards. Using poststructural feminist sensibilities, I explore the tensions experienced by parents, children, educators, and policymakers as this mandate was debated and implemented. The discourse illuminates salient issues about disproportionate disparities in health status that exist in communities with fewer resources, and the potentially unintended gendered consequences of health policies. I explain three dominant threads of discourse: How the economic costs of childhood obesity opened a policy window for the legislation; the presence of tensions between freedom and social control; and how BMI discourses inscribe ideological visions of bodies. Ultimately, the analysis offers insight into the discursive nature of policymaking and how class and gender are implicated in health interventions. PMID:21416419

  15. Analysing body condition: mass, volume or density?

    PubMed

    Moya-Laraño, Jordi; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    1. Body condition (defined as the relative amount of energy reserves in the body) is an animal trait with strong ecological implications. In some animal taxa (e.g. arthropods), the external volume of the body part in which most nutrients are stored (e.g. abdomen) is used interchangeably with body mass to estimate body condition, making the implicit assumption that abdomen residual volume is a good surrogate of residual mass. However, the degree of correlation between these two measures should largely depend on the density of the nutrients stored. 2. We simulated two food-supplemented experimental groups of animals, each storing a slightly different amount of lipids either in their abdomens or in their entire bodies, and explored (i) how different estimates of condition were able to detect fixed differences between the groups; and (ii) how the amount of lipids stored could affect the outcome of non-intrusive measures of condition on a dichotomous variable (e.g. survival, mating success). We found that density body condition (body mass statistically controlled for structural body size and body volume) has much greater power to detect differences between experimental groups or effects on binary response variables than do classic mass/size or volume/size condition indices. 3. Using data on Lycosa tarantula (L.), a burrowing wolf spider, we report dramatic differences among these three indices in their ability to detect sex differences in the effect of feeding treatment on body condition at maturity. In particular, a plot of residual mass against residual volume reflecting nutrient density suggests that poorly fed spiders are nutritionally unbalanced, since well-fed spiders invest in nutrients of very different density. 4. Furthermore, using data on Scathophaga stercoraria (L.), the yellow dung fly, we found that an index of density condition was better at distinguishing condition differences among three populations than were mass or volume condition estimates alone. 5

  16. Gender, Body Size and Social Relations in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Frank, Kenneth; Mueller, Anna Strassmann

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of body size in social networks, this study estimated cross-nested multilevel network models (p2) with longitudinal data from the 16 saturated schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. As body mass index increased, the likelihood of being nominated by schoolmates as friends--but not the likelihood of…

  17. Gender differences in body image and health perceptions among graduating seniors from a historically black college.

    PubMed

    Gross, Susan M; Gary, Tiffany L; Browne, Dorothy C; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2005-12-01

    This study's purpose was to identify gender differences in body size awareness and perceived impact of weight on social interactions and risk for disease among young African-American adults. A cross-sectional survey of 318 African-American graduating seniors from a historically black college or university (HBCU) was conducted. Data were collected on anthropometrics, body image, ideal weight, perceived risk for disease due to weight, and impact of weight on social interactions. Only 39% of males who were overweight perceived themselves as overweight compared with 68% of overweight females. Eighty percent of females and 63% of males expressed some body size dissatisfaction. Fewer obese males (38%) perceived a risk for disease due to their weight compared with obese females (64%), p<0.01. Males perceived greater impact than females of their weight on social interactions, with extremely obese males perceiving the greatest impact. Perceived risk for disease due to weight was related to body mass index, family weight history, body awareness and income, but not body size satisfaction. Findings suggest gender differences in the self-perception of body size, accuracy of body size perception, and understanding of acceptable weight ranges. Awareness of acceptable weight ranges and consequences of overweight needs to be raised. PMID:16396053

  18. Body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls: the effects of body mass, peer appearance culture and internalization of appearance ideals.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalization of appearance ideals to body dissatisfaction among adolescents. The sample was comprised of 239 (54% female) adolescents, with a mean age of 16 years. Self-report questionnaires were completed on body dissatisfaction, peer appearance conversations and criticism, internalization of appearance ideals, height and weight. For girls and boys, body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalized appearance ideals emerged as significant predictors of body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of body mass on body dissatisfaction. Internalization mediated the relationship between peer appearance conversations and criticism, and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that while body mass exerts a differential risk for body dissatisfaction among boys and girls, internalisation may represent a key psychological process that underpins body dissatisfaction among both boys and girls. PMID:20058058

  19. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Wechsler, Howell; McKenna, Mary; Odom, Erica; Reinold, Chris; Thompson, Diane; Grummer-Strawn, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) measurement has attracted much attention across the nation from researchers, school officials, legislators, and the media as a potential approach to address obesity among youth. Methods: An expert panel, convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2005, reviewed and provided…

  20. Body Mass Index and Mortality in CKD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of c...

  1. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.

    2000-01-01

    Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…

  2. Exploring point-cloud features from partial body views for gender classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouts, Aaron; McCoppin, Ryan; Rizki, Mateen; Tamburino, Louis; Mendoza-Schrock, Olga

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we extend a previous exploration of histogram features extracted from 3D point cloud images of human subjects for gender discrimination. Feature extraction used a collection of concentric cylinders to define volumes for counting 3D points. The histogram features are characterized by a rotational axis and a selected set of volumes derived from the concentric cylinders. The point cloud images are drawn from the CAESAR anthropometric database provided by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Human Effectiveness Directorate and SAE International. This database contains approximately 4400 high resolution LIDAR whole body scans of carefully posed human subjects. Success from our previous investigation was based on extracting features from full body coverage which required integration of multiple camera images. With the full body coverage, the central vertical body axis and orientation are readily obtainable; however, this is not the case with a one camera view providing less than one half body coverage. Assuming that the subjects are upright, we need to determine or estimate the position of the vertical axis and the orientation of the body about this axis relative to the camera. In past experiments the vertical axis was located through the center of mass of torso points projected on the ground plane and the body orientation derived using principle component analysis. In a natural extension of our previous work to partial body views, the absence of rotational invariance about the cylindrical axis greatly increases the difficulty for gender classification. Even the problem of estimating the axis is no longer simple. We describe some simple feasibility experiments that use partial image histograms. Here, the cylindrical axis is assumed to be known. We also discuss experiments with full body images that explore the sensitivity of classification accuracy relative to displacements of the cylindrical axis. Our initial results provide the basis for further

  3. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  4. Modeling of body mass index by Newton's second law.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Enrique

    2007-10-21

    Since laws of physics exists in nature, their possible relationship to terrestrial growth is introduced. By considering the human body as a dynamic system of variable mass (and volume), growing under a gravity field, it is shown how natural laws may influence the vertical growth of humans. This approach makes sense because the non-linear percentile curves of different aspects of human physical growth from childhood to adolescence can be described in relation to physics laws independently of gender and nationality. Analytical relations for the dependence of stature, measured mass (weight), growth velocity (and their mix as the body mass index) on age are deduced with a set of common statistical parameters which could relate environmental, genetics and metabolism and different aspects of physical growth on earth. A relationship to the monotone smoothing using functional data analysis to estimate growth curves and its derivatives is established. A preliminary discussion is also presented on horizontal growth in an essentially weightless environment (i.e., aquatic) with a connection to the Laird-Gompertz formula for growth. PMID:17692872

  5. Lean body mass estimation by creatinine kinetics.

    PubMed

    Keshaviah, P R; Nolph, K D; Moore, H L; Prowant, B; Emerson, P F; Meyer, M; Twardowski, Z J; Khanna, R; Ponferrada, L; Collins, A

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating lean body mass (LBM) from creatinine kinetics has been developed. It is based on the principle that creatinine production is proportional to LBM and that, in the steady state, creatinine production is equal to the sum of creatinine excretion (urinary and dialytic) and metabolic degradation. This technique was applied to 17 normal subjects, 26 stable, chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, and 71 stable, chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In the HD group, LBM was also determined by bioimpedance in 11 patients and calculated from total body water, measured as the volume of urea distribution of a sterile urea infusion, in 15 patients. In normal subjects and in the PD group, LBM was assessed by creatinine kinetics as well as by bioimpedance, near infrared, and anthropometric techniques. In the HD patients, LBM by creatinine kinetics correlated significantly with LBM from total body water and the bioimpedance technique. There was no statistical difference between the total body water and creatinine kinetics techniques, but the bioimpedance values were systematically higher than those obtained by the kinetic technique. In the PD group and in normal volunteers, LBM values by creatinine kinetics correlated significantly with the other methods but were lower. Forty-seven percent of the HD patients and 66% of the PD patients had significantly lower LBM by creatinine kinetics than expected for their sex and age. Estimation of LBM by creatinine kinetics is proposed as a simple and convenient technique for the routine nutritional assessment of dialysis patients. PMID:8161729

  6. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  7. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  8. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  9. The Impact of Gender on the Assessment of Body Checking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Lauren; Bannon, Katie; Walker, Catherine; Walton, Kate E.

    2010-01-01

    Body checking includes any behavior aimed at global or specific evaluations of appearance characteristics. Men and women are believed to express these behaviors differently, possibly reflecting different socialization. However, there has been no empirical test of the impact of gender on body checking. A total of 1024 male and female college students completed two measures of body checking, the Body Checking Questionnaire and the Male Body Checking Questionnaire. Using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning (DIF) was explored in a composite of these measures. Two global latent factors were identified (female and male body checking severity), and there were expected gender differences in these factors even after controlling for DIF. Ten items were found to be unbiased by gender and provide a suitable brief measure of body checking for mixed gender research. Practical applications for body checking assessment and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21093393

  10. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss

  11. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  12. Body mass index and colon cancer screening: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Kanwarpreet; Imam, Mohamad; Ismail, Bahaa Eldeen Senousy; Castro, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with a decreased incidence and mortality from CRC. However, patient adherence to screening is less than desirable and resources are limited even in developed countries. Better identification of individuals at a higher risk could result in improved screening efforts. Over the past few years, formulas have been developed to predict the likelihood of developing advanced colonic neoplasia in susceptible individuals but have yet to be utilized in mass screening practices. These models use a number of clinical factors that have been associated with colonic neoplasia including the body mass index (BMI). Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity contributes to colonic neoplasia as well as clinical studies on this subject have proven the association between BMI and colonic neoplasia. However, there are still controversies on this subject as some studies have arrived at different conclusions on the influence of BMI by gender. Future studies should aim at resolving these discrepancies in order to improve the efficiency of screening strategies. PMID:25663756

  13. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  14. GABRA2 Genotype, Impulsivity, and Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Houston, Rebecca J.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to test a hypothesis associating impulsivity with an elevated body mass index (BMI). Methods To this end, we examined associations of BMI with putative genetic, neurophysiological, psychiatric, and psychological indicators of impulsivity in 78 women and 74 men formerly dependent on alcohol or drugs. A second analysis was designed to test the replicability of the genetic findings in an independent sample of 109 women and 111 men with a similar history of substance dependence. Results The results of the first analysis showed that BMI was positively correlated with Total and Nonplanning Scale Scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the number of childhood symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in women. It was also positively correlated, in women, with a GABRA2 variant previously implicated as a risk factor for substance dependence and an objective electroencephalographic feature previously associated with GABRA2 and relapse risk. The second analysis confirmed that the correlation between BMI and the substance-dependence-associated GABRA2 genotype was reliable and sex-specific. Conclusions We conclude that an elevated BMI is associated with genetic, neurophysiological, psychiatric, and psychological indicators of impulsivity. The sex difference may be explained by greater opportunities to eat and overeat, a preference for higher calorie foods, a longer duration of alcohol/drug abstinence, or previous pregnancies in women. PMID:22882390

  15. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  16. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  17. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Depression-Proneness: Closing the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaulay, Marci; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines gender differences in body image and its relationship to depression-proneness and self-esteem. Findings indicate a preoccupation with body weight and appearance for both men and women, and a relationship between body satisfaction and depression-proneness. (FMW)

  18. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  19. Relative Importance of Sex, Pre-Starvation Body Mass and Structural Body Size in the Determination of Exceptional Starvation Resistance of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michal

    2016-01-01

    In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071

  20. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  1. A network analysis of body satisfaction of people with gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    van de Grift, T C; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Elaut, E; De Cuypere, G; Richter-Appelt, H; Haraldsen, I R; Kreukels, B P C

    2016-06-01

    In gender dysphoria (GD), much of the experienced distress results from body dissatisfaction. The current study analyzed the configuration of body satisfaction in trans men and women using network analysis. In total, 485 individuals diagnosed with GD from four European countries, applying for medical treatment, filled out the Body Image Scale for Transsexuals. A six-factor model reflecting different body areas was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis. A further configuration of body satisfaction was modelled using correlation network analysis techniques in R. Genital dissatisfaction showed limited connection with other body areas in comparison to other subscales. Body characteristics influencing social gender recognition were most centrally involved in body (dis)satisfaction in both natal sexes. In trans women these characteristics were related mostly to voice and hair, whereas in trans men these characteristics were related to muscularity and posture. Focusing on these socially influential body characteristics may provide important targets for transgender healthcare. PMID:27137814

  2. The effect of attachment insecurity in the development of eating disturbances across gender: the role of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Koskina, Nefeli; Giovazolias, Theodoros

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of insecure attachment on the development of negative body image as a contributing factor to the development of disturbed eating patterns in male and female university students. Participants were nonclinical male (n = 100) and female (n = 381) university students. Administering self-report questionnaires, the authors assessed demographic information (gender, age), anthropometric data (Body Mass Index [BMI], age), romantic attachment (ECRS-R; R. C. Fraley, N. G. Waller, & K. A. Brennan, 2000), body dissatisfaction (BSQ), and disturbed eating (EAT-26). The authors found body dissatisfaction to fully mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and disordered eating in women. Body dissatisfaction mediated anxious attachment and dieting in men. In addition, attachment avoidance had a direct impact on eating behaviors for both genders, without the mediation of any variables measured in this study. The findings of the present study suggest that the anxiety and avoidance dimensions of attachment insecurity affect eating behaviors differently, and the effects are different across genders. The authors discuss results in the context of therapeutic interventions design. PMID:20806850

  3. Gender and ethnic differences in body image and opposite sex figure preferences of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, LaShanda R; Fries, Elizabeth; Danish, Steven J

    2007-03-01

    This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 years) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:18089257

  4. Body fat and body-mass index among a multiethnic sample of college-age men and women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Catherine L; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S; Deng, Max; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m(2); PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m(2)) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r (2) = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  5. Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus.

    PubMed

    Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo

    2003-07-01

    The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus. PMID:12926515

  6. Increasing Body Mass Index Is Inversely Related to Groin Hernias.

    PubMed

    Ravanbakhsh, Samine; Batech, Michael; Tejirian, Talar

    2015-10-01

    Few studies describe the relationship between obesity and groin hernias. Our objective was to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and groin hernias in a large population. Patients with the diagnosis of inguinal or femoral hernia with and without incarceration or strangulation were identified using the Kaiser Permanente Southern California regional database including 14 hospitals over a 7-year period. Patients were stratified by BMI. There were 47,950 patients with a diagnosis of a groin hernia--a prevalence of 2.28 per cent. Relative to normal BMI (20-24.9 kg/m(2)), lower BMI was associated with an increased risk for hernia diagnosis. With increasing BMI, the risk of incarceration or strangulation increased. Additionally, increasing age, male gender, white race, history of hernia, tobacco use history, alcohol use, and higher comorbidity index increased the chance of a groin hernia diagnosis. Complications were higher for women, patients with comorbidities, black race, and alcohol users. Our study is the largest to date correlating obesity and groin hernias in a diverse United States population. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is associated with a lower risk of groin hernia diagnosis, but an increased risk of complications. This inverse relationship may be due to limitations of physical exam in obese patients. PMID:26463305

  7. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  8. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  9. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-10-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  10. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  11. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... BMI), a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women. ... calculate your BMI just by entering your current height and weight. Visit www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/bmicalc.htm to ...

  12. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs. PMID:25857647

  13. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  14. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  15. Body ideals for heterosexual romantic partners: gender and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878

  16. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  17. Body Pedagogies, P/Policy, Health and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Rich, Emma; Allwood, Rachel; Davies, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Schools within a "knowledge economy" nurture and endorse particular "corporeal orientations", that is to say, ascribe value, meaning and potential to "the body" (particular bodies) in time, place and space. Such processes reflect wider (national and global) socio-economic trends. In contemporary culture, these processes increasingly celebrate…

  18. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems. PMID:26828487

  19. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  20. Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Khor, G L; Merlin, A; Bahaman, A S; Norimah, K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents. PMID:16708734

  1. One-Mile Run Performance and Body Mass Index in Asian and Pacific Islander Youth: Passing Rates for the FITNESSGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Weiller, Karen H.

    1998-01-01

    Used FITNESSGRAM fitness standards to compare passing rates of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) students with passing rates of National Children and Youth Fitness Study participants, examining body mass index (BMI) and 1-mile run (OMR) rates. The groups had similar BMI but differing OMR passing rates. There were gender- and age-related BMI and OMR…

  2. Association of Body Mass Index With Tuberculosis Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Yen, Muh-Yong; Lin, Shu-Yi; Chuang, Peing; Yuan, Mei-Jen; Ho, Bo-Lung; Chou, Pesus; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence regarding the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in TB patients is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the effect of BMI on TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality in TB patients. All adult Taiwanese with TB in Taipei, Taiwan, during 2011 to 2012 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of BMI with cause of death in TB patients. Of the 1608 eligible patients, 83.6% (1345) were successfully treated, 3.3% (53) died of TB-specific causes, and 13.1% (210) died of non-TB-specific causes. Mean age was 64.6 years, and 67.5% of patients were male. After controlling for potential confounders, underweight was significantly associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–2.30), TB-specific mortality (AOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.18–3.89), and non-TB-specific mortality (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.11–2.25) during TB treatment, while overweight was not. When gender differences on the association of BMI with mortality were considered, underweight only significantly increased risks of TB-specific (AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.19–4.72) and non-TB-specific mortality (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.05–2.37) during treatment in male patients, but not female subjects. The present findings indicate that underweight was associated with higher risks of TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality during TB treatment, particularly in male patients. PMID:26735532

  3. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  4. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  5. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.

    PubMed

    Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower than outputs calculated with IBM and IBMS. The load that maximized power output was unchanged between the 3 techniques in the jump squat (0% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and power clean (80% 1RM) but was shifted from 56% (IBM and IBMS) to 71% 1RM (EBM) in the squat. Across all 3 movements, the shape of the load-power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268

  6. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  7. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size. PMID:26063751

  8. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Grabowski, Alena; Kram, Rodger

    2007-12-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In the present study, we investigated how independently altering body weight and body mass affects the metabolic cost of running. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that reducing body weight would decrease metabolic rate proportionally, and adding mass and weight would increase metabolic rate proportionally. Further, because previous studies show that adding mass alone does not affect the forces generated on the ground, we hypothesized that adding mass alone would have no substantial effect on metabolic rate. We manipulated the body weight and body mass of 10 recreational human runners and measured their metabolic rates while they ran at 3 m s(-1). We reduced weight using a harness system, increased mass and weight using lead worn about the waist, and increased mass alone using a combination of weight support and added load. We found that net metabolic rate decreased in less than direct proportion to reduced body weight, increased in slightly more than direct proportion to added load (added mass and weight), and was not substantially different from normal running with added mass alone. Adding mass alone was not an effective method for determining the metabolic cost attributable to braking/propelling body mass. Runners loaded with mass alone did not generate greater vertical or horizontal impulses and their metabolic costs did not substantially differ from those of normal running. Our results show that generating force to support body weight is the primary determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Extrapolating our reduced weight data to zero weight suggests that supporting body weight comprises at most 74% of the net cost of running. However, 74% is probably an

  9. Nennu and Shunu: gender, body politics, and the beauty economy in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    This essay analyzes recent discourse on two emerging representations of women in China, "tender" women (nennu) and "ripe" women (shunu), in order to examine the relationships among gender, body politics, and consumerism. The discourse of nennu and shunu suggests that older, ripe women become younger and more tender by consuming fashions, cosmetic surgery technologies, and beauty and health care products and services because tender women represent the ideal active consumership that celebrates beauty, sexuality, and individuality. This discourse serves to enhance consumers' desire for beauty and health and to ensure the continued growth of China's beauty economy and consumer capitalism. Highlighting the role of the female body, feminine beauty, and feminine youth in developing consumerism, this discourse downplays the contributions of millions of beauty and health care providers (predominantly laid-off female workers and rural migrant women) and new forms of gender exploitation. Such an overemphasis on gender masks intensified class division. This essay suggests that women and their bodies become new terrains from which post-Mao China can draw its power and enact consumerism. Gender constitutes both an economic multiplier to boost China's consumer capitalism and a biopolitical strategy to regulate and remold women and their bodies into subjects that are identified with the state's political and economic objectives. Since consumerism has been incorporated into China's nation-building project, gender thus becomes a vital resource for both consumer capitalist development and nation building. This essay shows that both gender and the body are useful analytic categories for the study of postsocialism. PMID:21114079

  10. Pharmacology of manipulating lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Patricio V; Bush, Ernest D; Baar, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dysfunction and wasting of skeletal muscle as a consequence of illness decreases the length and quality of life. Currently, there are few, if any, effective treatments available to address these conditions. Hence, the existence of this unmet medical need has fuelled large scientific efforts.Fortunately, these efforts have shown many of the underlying mechanisms adversely affecting skeletal muscle health.With increased understanding have come breakthrough disease-specific and broad spectrum interventions, some progressing through clinical development.The present review focuses its attention on the role of the antagonistic process regulating skeletal muscle mass before branching into prospective promising therapeutic targets and interventions. Special attention is given to therapies in development against cancer cachexia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy before closing remarks on design and conceptualization of future therapies are presented to the reader. PMID:25311629

  11. Hydrodynamic Mass of Bluff Bodies with a Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgabaili, Mohamed; Desabrais, Kenneth; Johari, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Hydrodynamic mass of an object may be used to compute the contribution of unsteady drag resulting from potential flow. Even though the hydrodynamic mass of certain bluff bodies such as cylinder and sphere have been available from analytical considerations for a long time, there are no analytical solutions for a general bluff body with a cavity such as a cup facing the flow or a round parachute canopy. There is, however, an analytical solution for spherical shells of various concavities. The translational hydrodynamic mass of cups having various depth and thickness as well as round parachute canopies during inflation was computed using a finite element solver. The kinetic energy of the potential flow around the body was used to extract the hydrodynamic mass. Results indicate that the hydrodynamic mass of a cup can be decomposed into two components, the hydrodynamic mass of a cylinder whose axis is aligned with the flow and the mass of fluid within the cup cavity. Similarly, the hydrodynamic mass of a parachute canopy during various stages of inflation may be written as the hydrodynamic mass of a disk having the same area as the projected area of the canopy plus the mass of fluid enclosed by the canopy. Sponsored by the US Army Natick RDEC.

  12. The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, M. de L.; Hanley, S.; Laughlin, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a simple method that uses skulls to estimate the diameter, and hence the mass, of birds' eyes. Allometric analysis demonstrated that, within five orders (parrots, pigeons, petrels, raptors and owls) and across 104 families of flying birds, eye mass is proportional to (body mass)0.68 over a range of body masses (6 g to 11.3 kg). As expected from their habits and visual ecology, raptors and owls have enlarged eyes, with masses 1.4 and 2.2 times greater than average birds of the same weight. Taking existing relationships for flight speed on body mass, we find that resolution increases close to (flight speed)1.333. Consequently, large birds resolve objects at a longer time to contact than small birds. Eye radius and skull size co-vary in strict proportion, suggesting common physiological, aerodynamic and mechanical constraints. Because eye mass scales close to brain mass, metabolic rate and information processing could also be limiting, but the precise factors determining the scaling of eye to body have not been identified.

  13. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  14. Weight regulation and bone mass: a comparison between professional jockeys, elite amateur boxers, and age, gender and BMI matched controls.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Eimear; Crabtree, Nicola; McGoldrick, Adrian; Ashley, David T; McCaffrey, Noel; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mass between two groups of jockeys (flat: n = 14; national hunt: n = 16); boxers (n = 14) and age, gender and BMI matched controls (n = 14). All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning for assessment of bone mass, with measurements made of the total body, vertebra L2-4 and femoral neck. Body composition and the relative contribution of fat and lean mass were extrapolated from the results. Data were analysed in accordance with differences in body composition, in particular, height, lean mass, fat mass and age. Both jockey groups were shown to display lower bone mass than either the boxers or control group at a number of sites including total body bone mineral density (BMD) (1.019 ± 0.06 and 1.17 ± 1.05 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 and 1.26 ± 0.06 g cm(-2) for flat, national hunt, boxer and control, respectively), total body bone mineral content (BMC) less head, L2-4 BMD and femoral neck BMD and BMC (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that lean mass and height were the primary predictors of total body BMC, although additional group-specific influences were present which reduced bone mass in the flat jockey group and enhanced it in the boxers (R (2) = 0.814). Reduced bone mass in jockeys may be a consequence of reduced energy availability in response to chronic weight restriction and could have particular implications for these athletes in light of the high risk nature of the sport. In contrast, the high intensity, high impact training associated with boxing may have conveyed an osteogenic stimulus on these athletes. PMID:21773703

  15. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  16. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  17. Regulation of body mass in rats exposed to chronic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Female rats approximately 6 mo old were chronically centrifuged for up to 30 days at 2.76 G or 3.18 G and sacrificed at intervals for body-composition study. Both fat and the fat-free body mass (FFBM) were reduced during the 1st wk of centrifugation, with the fat showing considerably more variation both within and between groups. The FFBM was reduced below control level to the same extent in rats fed commercial chow, a high-fat diet, or a high-protein diet or in rats prefasted to produce a body-mass deficit at the start of centrifugation. There were no centrifugation-associated changes in body water content. It was concluded that body fat showed no evidence of regulation, FFBM is regulated at any constant level of acceleration between 1 and 4.15 G, and the change in FFBM induced by a change in acceleration is probably not regulated.

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  19. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  20. Objects, Bodies and Space: Gender and Embodied Practices of Mattering in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on objects, bodies and space to explore how the mundane materialities of classrooms do crucial but often unnoticed performative work in enacting gendered power. Drawing on ethnographic data from a UK sixth form college study, the article analyses a series of "material moments" to elaborate a material feminist…

  1. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  2. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  3. Black Bodies in Dance Education: Charting a New Pedagogical Paradigm to Eliminate Gendered and Hypersexualized Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, C. S'thembile

    2005-01-01

    To resist and transform gendered and hypersexualized assumptions and attitudes that cloud interpretations and devalue readings of black and brown bodies, dance educators cannot only facilitate agency for their students, but also help demonstrate an overarching concern for social justice and equality. Dance has the power to transform and redirect…

  4. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  5. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity. PMID:20735701

  6. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  7. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  8. Psychosocial predictors of body mass index at late childhood: A longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial circumstances under which children develop excessive body mass. A community sample was followed from age 2 – 10 to determine which early problems were predictive of increased BMI. Hypothesized mediators (i.e. eating habits, physical activity, and “screen time”) were also examined. After controlling for parental psychopathology, family income, child’s gender, and child’s BMI, externalizing behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and anger predicted a relatively high BMI. Exploratory analyses did not support hypothesized mediators, although low power was an issue. PMID:23520345

  9. When Bodies Matter: Significance of the Body in Gender Constructions in Physiotherapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl-Michelsen, Tone; Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim

    2014-01-01

    This article examines which bodily performances indicate the significance of gender in the skills training of physiotherapy students. It is based on a qualitative study of first-year students' skills training in a Norwegian physiotherapy education programme. The study draws inspiration from Paechter's theory of the communities of…

  10. Characteristics of women with body size satisfaction at midlife: results of the Gender and Body Image (GABI) Study.

    PubMed

    Runfola, Cristin D; Von Holle, Ann; Peat, Christine M; Gagne, Danielle A; Brownley, Kimberly A; Hofmeier, Sara M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the profile of women (N = 1,789) ages 50 and over who report body size satisfaction on a figure rating scale. Satisfied women (12.2%) had a lower body mass index and reported fewer eating disorder symptoms, dieting behaviors, and weight and appearance dissatisfaction. Interestingly, satisfied women exercised more than dissatisfied women, and weight and shape still played a primary role in their self-evaluation. Weight monitoring and appearance-altering behaviors did not differ between groups. Body satisfaction was associated with better overall functioning. This end point appears to represent effortful body satisfaction rather than passive contentment. PMID:24116991

  11. Characteristics of Women with Body Size Satisfaction at Midlife: Results of the Gender and Body Image Study (GABI)

    PubMed Central

    Runfola, Cristin D.; Von Holle, Ann; Peat, Christine M.; Gagne, Danielle A.; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the profile of women (N = 1,789) ages 50 and over who report body size satisfaction on a figure rating scale. Satisfied women (12.2%) had a lower body mass index and reported fewer eating disorder symptoms, dieting behaviors, and weight and appearance dissatisfaction. Interestingly, satisfied women exercised more than dissatisfied women and weight and shape still played a primary role in their self-evaluation. Weight monitoring and appearance altering behaviors did not differ between groups. Body satisfaction was associated with better overall functioning. This end point appears to represent effortful body satisfaction rather than passive contentment. PMID:24116991

  12. Nonstationary Mass Transfer Near the Surface of a Cylindrical Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudobashta, S. P.; Kosheleva, M. K.; Kartashov, É. M.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of nonstationary diffusion of the target component to a phase that is external relative to the surface of a cylindrical body has been formulated and solved analytically. From the found solution the dependences have been obtained for calculating the instantaneous mass transfer coefficient and the phase-contact-time mean mass transfer coefficient, on the basis of which the process of extraction of technological pollutants from fibrous materials has been analyzed.

  13. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  14. Ethnic and gender differences in ideal body size and related attitudes among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Whites.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Claire; Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Latner, Janet D; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Often overlooked explanations for the varied obesity rates across ethno-cultural groups include differences in attitudes toward excess weight, with certain populations assumed to have larger ideal body sizes (IBS). Past studies found ethnic and gender difference in IBS across and within different groups. This study examined the effects of ethnicity and gender, and their interaction, in accounting for differences in IBS and attitudes toward those ideals. Multiple regression analyses were used to better understand the effects of ethnicity and gender in accounting for differences in perceived IBS according to ethnic-specific and Western ideals and attitudes in 1,124 people of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and White ancestry. The analyses controlled for socio-demographics, body mass index, health-related behaviors, and psychosocial variables. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians selected larger ethnic IBS, Filipinos selected smaller ethnic IBS, and Native Hawaiians selected slightly smaller Western IBS than other ethnic groups. Overall, males selected larger IBS compared to females. Interaction analyses indicated that the relationship between ethnic IBS and attitude toward that IBS varied as a function of ethnicity, such that Native Hawaiians who selected a larger ethnic IBS held less favorable attitudes toward that IBS. The discrepancy between Native Hawaiians' selection of larger ethnic IBS as ideal and their less positive attitude toward that selection warrants more investigation. However, it does suggest that Native Hawaiians, on a personal level, do not prefer larger body sizes, which contradicts their perceptions of social norms. These findings have important implications for obesity interventions among Native Hawaiians. PMID:25157324

  15. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Ideal Body Size and Related Attitudes among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Latner, Janet D; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Often overlooked explanations for the varied obesity rates across ethno-cultural groups include differences in attitudes toward excess weight, with certain populations assumed to have larger ideal body sizes (IBS). Past studies found ethnic and gender difference in IBS across and within different groups. This study examined the effects of ethnicity and gender, and their interaction, in accounting for differences in IBS and attitudes toward those ideals. Multiple regression analyses were used to better understand the effects of ethnicity and gender in accounting for differences in perceived IBS according to ethnic-specific and Western ideals and attitudes in 1,124 people of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and White ancestry. The analyses controlled for socio-demographics, body mass index, health-related behaviors, and psychosocial variables. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians selected larger ethnic IBS, Filipinos selected smaller ethnic IBS, and Native Hawaiians selected slightly smaller Western IBS than other ethnic groups. Overall, males selected larger IBS compared to females. Interaction analyses indicated that the relationship between ethnic IBS and attitude toward that IBS varied as a function of ethnicity, such that Native Hawaiians who selected a larger ethnic IBS held less favorable attitudes toward that IBS. The discrepancy between Native Hawaiians' selection of larger ethnic IBS as ideal and their less positive attitude toward that selection warrants more investigation. However, it does suggest that Native Hawaiians, on a personal level, do not prefer larger body sizes, which contradicts their perceptions of social norms. These findings have important implications for obesity interventions among Native Hawaiians. PMID:25157324

  16. Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Body Image Development Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we used longitudinal methods to examine body image development during the early part of college. Students (N = 390; 54% female) who identified as African American (32%), Latino/a American (27%), and European American (41%) completed surveys during their first, second, and third semesters at college. There were overall gender and racial/ethnic differences in all three aspects of body image, and both stability and change in body image development. Female students’ appearance evaluation became more positive, whereas male students’ appearance evaluation showed no significant change. Individuals’ body areas satisfaction increased over time, but remained stable when controlling for BMI. Appearance orientation did not change, and there were no racial/ethnic differences in body image development. Experiences in the college environment may play a role in these trends. PMID:21983339

  17. Relationships between kidney mass and body size in some Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    Kalisińska, E; Dańczak, A; Pierko, M; Wysocki, D

    1999-03-01

    Relationships between kidney mass (KM) and body mass (BM), body length (BL), and sternum length (SL) were studied in adults of both sexes of 4 Mergini anseriforms: Clangula hyemalis (n = 74), Melanitta fusca (n = 29), M. nigra (n = 15), and Somateria mollissima (n = 8). The following indices were established for the four species and for the Mergini tribe: KM/BM (as per cent body mass), KM/BL, and KM/SL. Additionally, allometric equations describing the relationships studied were developed for the tribe using mean kidney weights and body parameters of males and females of the species examined. The KM/BM indices for several anseriform tribes (i.e. Anserini, Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini), differing in food and feeding modes, were determined, based on the literature data and those obtained in this study. In addition, an allometric equation describing the kidney weight-body weight relationship in the Anseriformes order was developed as log KM = 0.797 log BM-1.346 (n = 22). The relative kidney size in the sea duck species studied showed significant intra- and interspecific differences. In addition, clear between-tribes differences in KM/BM were revealed. The highest value (1.57%) of the index is typical of the Mergini, grouping diving carnivorous sea ducks, while the lowest index (0.65%) is typical of the Anserini, a tribe which groups non-diving herbivorous birds. PMID:10208037

  18. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass from body creatine content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures have been developed for studying the effect of changes in gravitational loading on skeletal muscle mass through measurements of the body creatine content. These procedures were developed for studies of gravitational scale effects in a four-species model, comprising the hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit, which provides a sufficient range of body size for assessment of allometric parameters. Since intracellular muscle creatine concentration varies among species, and with age within a given species, the concentration values for metabolically mature individuals of these four species were established. The creatine content of the carcass, skin, viscera, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle was determined for each species. In addition, the skeletal muscle mass of the major body components was determined, as well as the total and fat-free masses of the body and carcass, and the percent skeletal muscle in each. It is concluded that these procedures are particularly useful for studying the effect of gravitational loading on the skeletal muscle content of the animal carcass, which is the principal weight-bearing organ of the body.

  19. Comments on Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Thornton, William

    2015-12-01

    The paper "Body Mass Changes During Long-Duration Spaceflight" allows a comparison of devices, their application, results obtained and their interpretation from the two programs of such studies to date. There were significant differences in all aspects of the two programs which are briefly commented on here. PMID:26630057

  20. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-05-01

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this work we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an "event mixing" technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. Taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.

  1. Maternal Employment, Work Schedules, and Children's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI…

  2. Body Mass Index Measurement in Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As the United States continues to search for answers to the growing problem of obesity among children and adolescents, much attention has focused on body mass index (BMI) measurement programs in schools. The BMI is the ratio of weight to height squared. It is often used to assess weight status because it is relatively easy to measure and it…

  3. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  4. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  5. Embodied image: gender differences in functional and aesthetic body image among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Bree D; Barber, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    Perceptions of the body are not restricted to the way the body "looks"; they may also extend to the way the body "functions". This research explores body image among male and female adolescents using the Embodied Image Scale (EIS), which incorporates body function into body image. Adolescents (N=1526, male=673, female=853) aged 12-17 (M=13.83, SD=1.02), from 26 Western Australian high schools were surveyed. Information was gathered on pubertal timing, body mass index (BMI) and body image. Participants reported significantly higher value of, behavioral-investment in, and satisfaction with the functional dimension of the body compared to the aesthetic dimension. After controlling for age, pubertal timing, and BMI, females reported significantly higher aesthetic values and aesthetic behavioral-investment, and lower aesthetic satisfaction, functional values, functional behavioral-investment and functional satisfaction than male participants. Grade, pubertal timing and BMI category differences were also explored. PMID:19945925

  6. Influence of ingested lead on body mass of wintering canvasbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hohman, W.L.; Pritchert, R.D.; Pace, R.M. III; Woolington, D.W. ); Helm, R. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of lead shotgun pellets in gizzards of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at Catahoula Lake and the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana, during winter 1987-88 to assess the influence of ingested lead shot on canvasback body mass. The prevalence of ingested lead shot was significantly higher at Catahoula Lake (27%) than at the Mississippi River Delta (4%). Canvasbacks collected at Catahoula Lake showed significant differences in prevalence of ingested lead shot by age and month. The authors attributed age-related and seasonal variations to differences in foraging effort and exposure time. Body mass of canvasbacks at Catahoula Lake, after accounting for age, monthly variation, and body size, was significantly reduced (120 g or 10%) in birds that had lead shot in their gizzards.

  7. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  8. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. PMID:21196135

  9. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  10. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  11. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. PMID:26094042

  12. Height of centre of body mass during osteoarthritic gait.

    PubMed

    Khodadadeh, S; Whittle, M W; Bremble, G R

    1986-05-01

    Early attempts to locate the position of the centre of mass of the body during walking involved the use of cinematography, followed by kinetic analysis of the forces and couples acting about three axes at the ground and centre of mass. These methods, requiring data on the individual body segments, are too lengthy and complex for routine clinical use. A method is described which estimates both the trajectory and the mean height of the centre of mass, using only dynamic data from a single walk across one pair of force plates. Relating a possible trajectory height to the measured force vectors gives a profile for the horizontal velocity. The correct height is determined by seeking the smooth profile corresponding to the known horizontal velocity obtained by integration. Results are presented for 42 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement operations. PMID:23906357

  13. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. PMID:25147244

  14. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID:27293729

  15. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally ‘active’ individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes. PMID

  16. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was developed through assessment of the biological effects data collected primarily from the rat. The consensus that a lack of hazardous biological effects occurred below a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg led to the proposition of a 0.4 W/kg guideline with a built-in safety factor of 10. This paper demonstrates that if the RFR absorption rate in the rat had been normalized with respect to total body surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/m2, which translates to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg for an adult human. It is further shown that a given RFR absorption rate, normalized as a fraction of a species' heat loss per unit of surface area, is independent of body mass over a range of 0.03-100 kg; however, a normalization of the RFR absorption rate to heat loss per unit of body mass is highly dependent on the species' mass. Normalizing the rate of RFR absorption to the surface area of the rat indicates that the current RFR exposure guideline of 0.4 W/kg may be too high.

  17. Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Magnan, Claire; Philippe, Roberta Antonini

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dimensions of body-esteem, Body Mass Index, and their relations with eating disorder symptoms among 42 elite adolescent athletes engaged in competitive synchronized swimming (M = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.2) and to compare them with 40 athletes in sports with no emphasis on leanness (M = 16.5 yr., SD = .93), and 50 nonathlete college female students (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.1). They completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed synchronized swimmers reported greater negative feelings about their appearance than the two other groups and low perceptions of how others evaluate their physical appearance. Participants did not differ on the EAT-26. Regression analyses showed that Body Mass Index and Body-esteem Appearance accounted for 38% of the variance in log-transformed Dieting scores of synchronized swimmers. Results are discussed in relation to the literature. PMID:16491692

  18. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  19. Combining Body Mass and Shape Indices in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, Jesse C.

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary clinical experience with combined consideration of the commonly used BMI (body mass index) and the newly developed ABSI (a body shape index) using a point of care anthropometric calculator for comparisons of index values and associated relative risks to population normals. In a series of 282 patients, BMI and ABSI were close to being independently distributed, supporting the value of considering both indices. Three selected cases illustrate scenarios where assessment of ABSI together with BMI could inform patient care and counseling. These data suggest that combined assessment of BMI and ABSI may prove useful in clinical practice. PMID:27034680

  20. Correlation between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness in adult Japanese: a gender difference.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shimai, S; Kikuchi, S; Tanaka, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Japanese adults who like fat-rich foods have more body fatness and higher serum lipid levels than those who do not. The subjects were 540 male and 492 female workers under 41 years of age. A self-administered questionnaire determined four levels of liking for fat-rich foods. Anthropometric measurements were employed yielding body mass index (BMI), waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR), and skinfold thickness. Anthropometric values were compared among the levels of liking for fat-rich foods using analysis of covariance. For males, a liking for fat-rich foods was associated with BMI, WHR, whole-body skinfold thickness, and abdominal skinfold thickness (p<0.0001). In particular, those who like fat-rich foods "quite a bit" or "very much" showed significantly higher values than those who answered "no" or "a little". Multiple regression analysis showed that a liking for fat-rich foods explains 7-9% of the variation in the anthropometric indices, even when other lifestyles were taken into account. For females, such findings were not evident. There is a gender difference in the association between a liking for fat-rich foods and body fatness. The difference may be due to a female-specific attitude toward high-calorie foods. PMID:11161340

  1. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-09-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure.

  2. Heuristic judgment of mass ratio in two-body collisions.

    PubMed

    Gilden, D L; Proffitt, D R

    1994-12-01

    The logic of judging relative mass from a two-body collision is developed from data presented by Runeson and Vedeler (1993). Data from two experiments are analyzed on a point-by-point basis, and strong support for the theory that mass-ratio judgments are mediated by separate speed and angle heuristics is shown. This analysis is accomplished by reducing the collision event to two elementary features: the presence of ricochet and the ratio of exit speeds. The heuristics that both ricochet and greater exit speed specify relative lightness are shown to explain the basic patterns of data presented by Runeson and Vedeler. PMID:7816541

  3. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  4. NORMALIZING THE THERMAL EFFECTS OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: BODY MASS VERSUS TOTAL BODY SURFACE AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set to high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg ...

  5. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass

    PubMed Central

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. Objectives: In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. Patients and Methods: The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28th days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28th day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. Results: By the 28th day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P < 0.001; -0.36 ± 0.371 kg/m2, P < 0.001; -0.484 ± 0.597 kg, P < 0.001; -0.293 ± 0.486 kg, P = 0.001; -0.054 ± 0.059 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Protein body mass and calorie intake did not significantly change (-0.049 ± 0.170 kg, P = 0.561; 12.94 ± 760.608 Kcal, P = 0.082 respectively). By 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting

  6. Properties and clinical implications of body mass indices.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, K P; Lee, J; Lau, S P; Chow, O K; Wong, T W; Davis, D P

    1990-01-01

    The properties of body mass indices were evaluated in a cross sectional study of the weights and heights of 5016 Chinese boys and girls aged between 3 and 18 years. Of the indices examined (weight/height (W/H), weight/height2 (W/H2), weight/height3 (W/H3) and weight/heightp (W/Hp], W/Hp was the only one that consistently showed least correlation with height, and so could be regarded as the optimal body mass index by the criterion of independence of the index from height. The exponent 'p' of W/Hp is, however, highly dependent on age; the value increases steadily between the age of 3 and 7-9 years, and then varies considerably around puberty. Only the age specific exponent ensures a lack of correlation between body mass index (W/Hp) and height. Age specific W/Hp should therefore be used in intrapopulation studies of weight or problems associated with obesity in children. Interpopulation comparison of weight and adiposity by W/H, W/H2, or W/H3 may give misleading results because of their dependence on height. Our results also suggest that the conventional weight for height charts may not be accurate enough for clinical use. PMID:2357091

  7. Influence of body weight on bone mass, architecture and turnover.

    PubMed

    Iwaniec, Urszula T; Turner, Russell T

    2016-09-01

    Weight-dependent loading of the skeleton plays an important role in establishing and maintaining bone mass and strength. This review focuses on mechanical signaling induced by body weight as an essential mechanism for maintaining bone health. In addition, the skeletal effects of deviation from normal weight are discussed. The magnitude of mechanical strain experienced by bone during normal activities is remarkably similar among vertebrates, regardless of size, supporting the existence of a conserved regulatory mechanism, or mechanostat, that senses mechanical strain. The mechanostat functions as an adaptive mechanism to optimize bone mass and architecture based on prevailing mechanical strain. Changes in weight, due to altered mass, weightlessness (spaceflight), and hypergravity (modeled by centrifugation), induce an adaptive skeletal response. However, the precise mechanisms governing the skeletal response are incompletely understood. Furthermore, establishing whether the adaptive response maintains the mechanical competence of the skeleton has proven difficult, necessitating the development of surrogate measures of bone quality. The mechanostat is influenced by regulatory inputs to facilitate non-mechanical functions of the skeleton, such as mineral homeostasis, as well as hormones and energy/nutrient availability that support bone metabolism. Although the skeleton is very capable of adapting to changes in weight, the mechanostat has limits. At the limits, extreme deviations from normal weight and body composition are associated with impaired optimization of bone strength to prevailing body size. PMID:27352896

  8. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188651

  9. [The relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat mass in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Tokarczyk-Knapik, Anita; Nowicki, Michał; Wyroślak, Janusz

    2002-08-01

    The prospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the relation between the fat mass and serum leptin level in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low body mass and anorexia are commonly found in patients with RA. Inflammatory cytokines may significantly influence the secretion of anorectic hormone--leptin--that was confirmed in both experimental and clinical studies. Fifty-two non-diabetic and non-obese patients (38 females, 14 males) were studied. Mean age was 56 +/- 11 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 24.6 +/- 4.1 kg/m2. The disease activity score (DAS) was 3.9 +/- 1.4; range 1.4-7.4, and disease duration 8.1 +/- 6.7 years. Serum leptin was measured by ELISA and body composition by double X-ray densitometry. Mean serum leptin concentration was 2.8 +/- 1.4 ng/ml in patients with RA was lower than in the control group (4.2 +/- 2.0). In a simple regression analysis leptin did not correlate with BMI (R Spearman = 0.01), C-reactive protein (R = 0.08), total fat mass (R = 0.08), trunk fat (R = 0.05), limbs fat (R = 0.09) and DAS (R = -0.17). This relation was also not influenced by gender or type of immunosuppressive therapy. In a multiple regression model none of the independent variables explained the significant portion of variance of serum leptin. It is concluded that the physiologic relation of serum leptin to body fat stores is not present in patients with RA. PMID:12476896

  10. Waist-to-hip ratio and body dissatisfaction among college women and men: moderating role of depressed symptoms and gender.

    PubMed

    Joiner, T E; Schmidt, N B; Singh, D

    1994-09-01

    We examined the interrelationships of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body dissatisfaction, gender, and depressed and eating disordered symptoms cross-sectionally among 131 male and female undergraduates. Based on past findings on physical and mental health, attractiveness, and depressive realism, we predicted that the WHR x Depression x Gender interaction would be significantly related to body dissatisfaction, such that the correspondence between WHR and body dissatisfaction would be more pronounced among depressed than among nondepressed women and men. This hypothesis received support. Implications of our results for work on body dissatisfaction were discussed. PMID:7987354

  11. The influence of body mass in endurance bicycling.

    PubMed

    Swain, D P

    1994-01-01

    Bicycling is a complex sport in which an athlete's energy cost is related to two principal forces: air resistance when traveling on flat terrain, and gravity when traveling uphill. Both wind tunnel data and physiological measurements suggest that air resistance scales as body mass to about the 1/3 power. Thus, large cyclists have only slightly greater frontal drags than small cyclists. If expressed relative to body mass, the frontal drag of small cyclists is considerably greater than that of large cyclists. The difference in frontal drag (energy cost) is not made up for by the advantage to small cyclists in relative VO2max (energy supply), since the mass exponent for drag (1/3) is closer to zero than that for VO2max (2/3). Thus, small cyclists should be at a disadvantage in flat time trials, which field data support. The energy cost of riding uphill slightly favors the large cyclist, because the weight of the bicycle represents a relatively smaller load than it does to a small cyclist. The mass exponent is 0.79. Since this exponent is greater than that for VO2max, the small cyclists have an advantage in climbing, which is supported by field data. PMID:8133740

  12. Gravity, Body Mass and Composition, and Metabolic Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic rate and body composition as a function of sex and age were defined in 5 species of common laboratory mammals, the mouse, hamster, rat, guinea pig and rabbit. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates were measured individually in 6 male and 6 female animals for each of 8 age cohorts ranging from 1 month to 2 years, and for each of the species. From the results it is evident that among these small mammals there is no indication of scaling of muscularity to body size, despite the 100-fold difference in body mass represented by the skeletal musculature seems to reach a pronounced peak value at age 2 to 3 months and then declines, the fraction of the fat-free body represented by other body components in older animals must increase complementarily. Under normal gravity conditions muscularity in small laboratory mammals displays large, systematic variation as a function both of species and age. This variation must be considered when such animals are subjects of experiments to study the effects of altered gravitational loading on the skeletal musculature of the mammal.

  13. Gender-Related Discourses as Mediators in the Association between Internalization of the Thin-Body Ideal and Indicants of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Sheahan, Emer E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-related discourses of self-objectification, self-silencing, and anger suppression mediated the association between internalization of the thin-body ideal and body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. We employed a cross-sectional design to study both university (n = 140) and community (n = 76) samples of…

  14. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. PMID:25771958

  15. Relationship between Body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage, estimated by bioelectrical impedance, in a group of Sri Lankan adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity. It is used as the same for both sexes and for all ages of adults. The relationship between BMI and body fat percentage (BF %) has been studied in various ethnic groups to estimate the capacity of BMI to predict adiposity. We aimed to study the BMI–BF% relationship, in a group of South Asian adults who have a different body composition compared to presently studied ethnic groups. We examined the influence of age, gender in this relationship and assessed its’ linearity or curvilinearity. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted, where adults of 18–83 years were grouped into young (18–39 years) middle aged (40–59 years) and elderly (>60 years). BF% was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearsons’ correlation coefficient(r) was calculated to see the relationship between BMI-BF% in the different age groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and gender in the relationship and polynomial regression was carried out to see its’ linearity. The relationships between age-BMI, age-BF % were separately assessed. Results Out of 1114 participants, 49.1% were males. The study sample represented a wide range of BMI values (14.8-41.1 kg/m2,Mean 23.8 ± 4.2 kg/m2). A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI-BF%, in males (r =0.75, p < 0.01; SEE = 4.17) and in females (r = 0.82, p < 0.01; SEE = 3.54) of all ages. Effect of age and gender in the BMI-BF% relationship was significant (p < 0.001); with more effect from gender. Regression line found to be curvilinear in nature at higher BMI values where females (p < 0.000) having a better fit of the curve compared to males (p < 0.05). In both genders, with increase of age, BMI seemed to increase in curvilinear fashion, whereas BF% increased in a linear fashion. Conclusions BMI strongly correlate with BF

  16. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Melinda L.; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T.; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2010-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/wk of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/wk over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/wk among usual care participants (p < .001). Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (p = .0022) and increases in lean mass (p = .047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. BMD was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (p = .043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis. PMID:19629060

  17. Gender Affirmation and Body Modification Among Transgender Persons in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Romero, Rodrigo A.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined structural, social, and personal characteristics that shape the processes of gender affirmation and body modification among transgender persons (assigned male at birth) in Bogotá, Colombia. Qualitative data from life-history interviews (N=14) and a focus group (N=11) explored research questions concerning the ways in which the internal psychological and external contextual processes influence individuals' decisions and behaviors concerning hormonal treatment, injections, or surgery. Research questions concerning practices and consequences of treatment performed without medical supervision were addressed through qualitative data, as well as quantitative data from 58 transgender participants. Findings indicated variation in ways participants conceptualized gender (e.g., binary or fluid), but an increased feminine presentation was a strong personal desire expressed by many and often encouraged by romantic partners and transgender friends. Transgender individuals within participants' social networks were frequently instrumental not only in providing information about hormones and contouring injections, but also in carrying out procedures—sometimes with negative consequences. Body modification procedures occurred primarily outside the health care system, due to limited access to or awareness of medical care, societal stigma, social norms within the transgender community, and personal decision-making. Public health approaches to protect the health of transgender persons undergoing body modification were suggested. PMID:26839525

  18. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  19. Gravity, body mass and composition, and metabolic rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The scale effects of increased gravitational loading by chronic centrifugation on metabolic rate and body composition in metabolically mature mammals were investigated. Individual oxygen consumption rates in groups of 12 each, 8-month-old, hamster, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits were measured at weekly intervals at 1.0 g, then 2.0 g for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate was increased significantly in all species, and stabilized after 2 weeks at 2.0 g. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the larger the animal the greater was the increase in mass-specific metabolic rate, or metabolic intensity, over the 1.0 g value for the same animal, with the result that the interspecies allometric scaling relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is different at 2.0 g compared 10 1.0 g. Analysis of covariance shows that the postioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17% at 2.0 g at the P .001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8% at the P = 0.008 level. Thus, the hypothesis that augmented gravitational loading should shift the allometric relationship between metabolic rate and body size by an increase in both parameters is supported.

  20. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wertheim, Betsy C; Nicholas, J Skye; Ernst, Kacey C; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D; Cauley, Jane A; Lewis, Cora E; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J; Chen, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50-59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4-69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70-79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  1. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  2. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  3. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation for Obesity: Beyond Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Derrick; Lessig, Bailey A; Nasr, Elie

    2016-06-01

    Many factors contribute to the diagnosis of obesity in a patient. Anthropometric measurements, such as the waist circumference and percentage of body fat, are used in the newly released obesity algorithm to risk stratify patients. Staging methods, which use the identification of comorbidities and disease burden to assess the severity of obesity, can result in treating a patient sooner than if the traditional body mass index is used. Obesity is a growing concern in the medical field, and providing additional avenues through which to diagnose obesity and address obesity-related health risks can improve prevention efforts and lead to expedited weight management. Obesity is a growing concern in the medical field, and providing additional avenues through which to diagnose obesity and address obesity-related health risks can improve prevention efforts and lead to expedited weight management. PMID:27214774

  5. An alternative to body mass index for standardizing body weight for stature.

    PubMed

    Bagust, A; Walley, T

    2000-09-01

    Although body mass index (BMI) has been adopted by WHO as an international measure of obesity, it lacks a theoretical basis, and empirical evidence suggests it is not valid for all populations. We determined standard weight-for-height using a model calibrated by multivariate analysis of observational data on body dimensions and health status in the USA (NHANES III). A multiple linear regression model based on a simple mathematical formulation accurately described the observed weight variations in this normal adult population. A standardized reference model using just two measurements (upper arm length and sitting height), readily applied in both clinical and research settings using lookup tables, improved explanatory power substantially compared to the best BMI formulation (r(2) increased 16.3% for males, 21.1% for females). Physical dysfunction and self-reported poor health showed strong trends with excess body weight. These findings need confirmation from larger population samples. PMID:10984553

  6. Different contributions of visual and motor brain areas during liking judgments of same- and different-gender bodies.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, V; Mele, S; Urgesi, C

    2016-09-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that body aesthetic appreciation involves the activation of both visual and motor areas, supporting a role of sensorimotor embodiment in aesthetic processing. Causative evidence, however, that neural activity in these areas is crucial for reliable aesthetic body appreciation has so far provided only for extrastriate body area (EBA), while the functional role played by premotor regions remained less clear. Here, we applied short trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over bilateral dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and EBA during liking judgments of female and male bodies varying in weight and implied motion. We found that both dPMC and EBA are necessary for aesthetic body appreciation, but their relative contribution depends on the model's gender. While dPMC-rTMS decreased the liking judgments of same-, but not of different-gender models, EBA-rTMS increased the liking judgments of different-, but not of same-gender models. Relative contributions of motor and visual areas may reflect processing of diverse aesthetic properties, respectively implied motion vs. body form, and/or greater sensorimotor embodiment of same- vs. different-gender bodies. Results suggest that aesthetic body processing is subserved by a network of motor and visual areas, whose relative contribution may depend on the specific stimulus and task. PMID:27235869

  7. Gender Differences in Peer and Parental Influences: Body Image Disturbance, Self-Worth, and Psychological Functioning in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Steinberg, Ari R.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The connections between body image disturbance and psychological functioning have been well established in samples of older adolescent girls and young women. Little is known, however, about body image in younger children. In particular, little is known about possible gender differences in preadolescent children. The current study explored…

  8. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F. Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key points Normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons. Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow. Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants. PMID:27274667

  9. The horizontal apparent mass of the standing human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2011-06-01

    The driving-point dynamic responses of standing people (e.g. their mechanical impedance or apparent mass) influence their dynamic interactions with structures on which they are supported. The apparent mass of the standing body has been reported previously for vertical excitation but not for lateral or fore-and-aft excitation. Twelve standing male subjects were exposed to fore-and-aft and lateral random vibration over the frequency range 0.1-5.0 Hz for 180 s at four vibration magnitudes: 0.016, 0.0315, 0.063, and 0.125 m s -2 rms. With lateral excitation at 0.063 m s -2 rms, subjects also stood with three separations of the feet. The dynamic forces measured at the driving-point in each of the three translational axes (i.e. fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical) showed components not linearly related to the input vibration, and not seen in previous studies with standing subjects exposed to vertical vibration or seated subjects exposed to vertical or horizontal vibration. A principal peak in the lateral apparent mass around 0.5 Hz tended to decrease in both frequency and magnitude with increasing magnitude of vibration and increase with increasing separation of the feet. The fore-and-aft apparent mass appeared to peak at a frequency lower than the lowest frequency used in the study.

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H. W.; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths. PMID:26509531

  11. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    PubMed

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness. PMID:8337060

  12. Body mass index and colon cancer risk in Chinese people: Menopause as an effect modifier

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Potter, John D.; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) has consistently been associated with increased colon cancer risk in men, but not in women. It is hypothesised that menopause-related changes in oestrogen levels play a role in gender-specific risk patterns. Most studies have been conducted in Western countries, where high incidence rates are coupled with a high prevalence of obesity and relatively common use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and colon cancer risk in a relatively lean population, comprising 931 cases and 1552 controls, in Shanghai, China, where HRT use was extremely rare among women, during 1990–1993. Among men, colon cancer risk significantly increased with increasing BMI (P-trend = 0.005). Among women, the risk varied with age and menopause status in a similar pattern. Within each menopause stratum, however, the BMI-related risk was similar for those aged under 55 years and those aged 55 years and over, indicating a menopause rather than age effect. Among pre-menopausal women, the odds ratios (ORs) for subjects in the highest versus lowest quintile were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–4.9) for those under 55 years of age, and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4–8.2) for those aged 55 years and over. Among post-menopausal women, the corresponding ORs were 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.91) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–0.95), respectively. Our findings suggest that BMI predicts colon cancer risk in both genders. Among women, however, the risk is modified by menopause status, possibly through altered endogenous oestrogen levels. PMID:16321519

  13. Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM. Methods Respondents (n = 13,887) to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM. Results Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p < 0.05). Conclusions Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions. PMID:20003545

  14. Androgens exert opposite effects on body mass of heavy and light meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Dark, J; Whaling, C S; Zucker, I

    1987-12-01

    The influence of gonadal hormones on body mass of adult male meadow voles varied systematically as a function of the animals' baseline body weight; heavier voles decreased and lighter voles increased their body mass after castration. Testosterone replacement reversed the effects of castration; changes in body mass during hormone treatment were negatively correlated with changes observed after castration. Body mass of intact males was not correlated with plasma testosterone titers. Individual differences in body mass of male voles appear to reflect variations among animals in substrate responsiveness to hormones rather than differences in circulating hormone levels. PMID:3323026

  15. Effect of body mass index on outcome of labour induction.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Farheen; Naru, Tahira; Sheikh, Sana

    2016-05-01

    The retrospective study to explore the adverse effect of obesity on pregnancy and labour was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients booked between 12-14 weeks and required induction of labour from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Women were grouped into two body mass index categories: normal weight (<22.9 kg/ m2) as controls and exposed group (>23 kg/m2). Obesity increased the risk of development of gestational hypertension and diabetes. Therefore obese women were more likely to be induced due to medical indication whether primiparous or multiparous adjusted odds ratio =2.89(95% confidence interval 1.29-6.48) and 2.77 (95% confidence interval 1.07-7.19) respectively. There was increased chance of having caesarean section in primigravida adjusted odds ratio = 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.72-2.92), duration of caesarean section and blood loss during the procedure were not significantly associated with high body mass index (p>0.05). Obesity may lead to a lot of problems in primigravida, but it did not have major impact. PMID:27183944

  16. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  17. Body mass index and musculoskeletal pain: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain is one of the most common complaints that patients report to physicians and two-thirds of the population has an elevated body mass index (BMI), indicating they are either overweight or obese. It was once assumed that extra body weight would stress the low back and lead to pain, however, researchers have reported inconsistencies association between body weight and back pain. In contrast, more recent studies do indicate that an elevated BMI is associated with back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes due to the presence of a chronic systemic inflammatory state, suggesting that the relationship between BMI and musculoskeletal pains be considered in more detail. Objective To describe how an elevated BMI can be associated with chronic systemic inflammation and pain expression. To outline measurable risk factors for chronic inflammation that can be used in clinical practice and discuss basic treatment considerations. Discussion Adiposopathy, or “sick fat” syndrome, is a term that refers to an elevated BMI that is associated with a chronic systemic inflammatory state most commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome. The best available evidence suggests that the presence of adiposopathy determines if an elevated BMI will contribute to musculoskeletal pain expression. It is not uncommon for physicians to fail to identify the presence of adiposopathy/metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Patients with an elevated BMI should be further examined to identify inflammatory factors associated with adiposopathy, such as the metabolic syndrome, which may be promoting back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes. PMID:23687943

  18. Body Adiposity Index Utilization in a Spanish Mediterranean Population: Comparison with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    López, Angel A.; Cespedes, Mey L.; Vicente, Teofila; Tomas, Matias; Bennasar-Veny, Miguel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Background Body fat content and fat distribution or adiposity are indicators of health risk. Several techniques have been developed and used for assessing and/or determining body fat or adiposity. Recently, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI), which is based on the measurements of hip circumference and height, has been suggested as a new index of adiposity. The aim of the study was to compare BAI and BMI measurements in a Caucasian population from a European Mediterranean area and to assess the usefulness of the BAI in men and women separately. Research Methodology/Principal Findings A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a Caucasian population. All participants in the study (1,726 women and 1,474 men, mean age 39.2 years, SD 10.8) were from Mallorca (Spain). Anthropometric data, including percentage of body fat mass obtained by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, were determined. Body Mass Index (BMI) and BAI were calculated. BAI and BMI showed a good correlation (r = 0.64, p<0.001). A strong correlation was also found between BAI and the % fat determined using BIA (r = 0.74, p<0.001), which is even stronger than the one between BMI and % fat (r = 0.54, p<0.001). However, the ROC curve analysis showed a higher accuracy for BMI than for the BAI regarding the discriminatory capacity. Conclusion The BAI could be a good tool to measure adiposity due, at least in part, to the advantages over other more complex mechanical or electrical systems. Probably, the most important advantage of BAI over BMI is that weight is not needed. However, in general it seems that the BAI does not overcome the limitations of BMI. PMID:22496915

  19. Body Mass Index, Perceived Health, and Happiness: Their Determinants and Structural Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R.; Antonides, Gerrit; Van Ophem, Johan A. C.; Van Den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on…

  20. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  1. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  2. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  3. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  4. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  5. Body mass change and ultraendurance performance: a decrease in body mass is associated with an increased running speed in male 100-km ultramarathoners.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p < 0.0001). Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p < 0.05). Serum sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and the concentration of aldosterone increased with increasing loss in body mass (p < 0.05). Urine-specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). The change in body mass was significantly and negatively related to postrace serum [Na⁺] (p < 0.05). Fluid intake was significantly and positively related to both running speed (r = 0.33, p = 0.0182) and the change in body mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.0014) and significantly and negatively to both postrace serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.42, p = 0.0022) and the change in serum [Na⁺] (r = -0.38, p = 0.0072). This field study showed that recreational, male, 100-km ultramarathoners dehydrated as evidenced by the decrease in >2 % body mass and the increase in urine-specific gravity. Race performance, however, was not impaired because of the loss in body mass. In contrast, faster athletes lost more body mass compared with slower athletes while also drinking more. The concept that a loss of >2% in body mass leads to dehydration and consequently impairs endurance performance must be questioned for ultraendurance athletes competing in the field. For practical applications, a loss in body mass during a 100-km ultramarathon was associated with a faster running speed. PMID:22614141

  6. Central Body Fat Distribution Associates with Unfavorable Renal Hemodynamics Independent of Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2013-01-01

    Central distribution of body fat is associated with a higher risk of renal disease, but whether it is the distribution pattern or the overall excess weight that underlies this association is not well understood. Here, we studied the association between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which reflects central adiposity, and renal hemodynamics in 315 healthy persons with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.9 kg/m2 and a mean 125I-iothalamate GFR of 109 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariate analyses, WHR was associated with lower GFR, lower effective renal plasma flow, and higher filtration fraction, even after adjustment for sex, age, mean arterial pressure, and BMI. Multivariate models produced similar results regardless of whether the hemodynamic measures were indexed to body surface area. Thus, these results suggest that central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is associated with an unfavorable pattern of renal hemodynamic measures that could underlie the increased renal risk reported in observational studies. PMID:23578944

  7. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  8. Effects of Body Mass Index and Full Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Speed

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Francis KH; Keung, Jackie HK; Lau, Newman ML; Ng, Douglas KS; Chung, Joanne WY; Chow, Daniel HK

    2014-01-01

    Effective training to improve serve speed is important for competitive tennis players. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of anthropometric factors and whole body kinematics of elite players on ball speed and to propose possible training strategies for improving the quality of tennis serves. Body and racket kinematics of tennis serves of 12 male elite Hong Kong players were investigated. The tennis serve was divided into four phases: I) Back-Swing Phase, II) Lead-Leg-Drive Phase, III) Forward-Swing Phase, and IV) Follow-Through Phase. It was shown that racket-side knee range of motion during phases II and III (r=0.705; p<0.05), racket-side knee peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.751; p<0.01), racket-side hip peak extension velocity during phase II (r=0.657; p<0.05), racket-side shoulder range of motion in the coronal plane during phase III (r=0.616; p<0.05), racket-side elbow peak extension velocity during phase III (r=0.708; p<0.01) and body mass index (r=0.577; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with ball speed. Body mass index and the identified kinematic parameters that were significantly correlated with ball speed could be used as training guidelines for coaches and players to improve serve speed. Players should pay particular attention in training to increasing the extension velocity and range of motion of the identified joints. PMID:25031669

  9. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  10. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  11. The Body as a Site of Gender-Related Distress: Ethical Considerations for Gender Variant Youth in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Roen, Katrina

    2016-03-01

    The present article maps out understandings about embodied distress among gender-nonconforming youth. Feminist bioethics and queer-inflected clinical perspectives are used to inform thinking about ethical, nonpathologizing health care in the case of gender-related distress. Specific attention is directed at self-harming among gender variant and trans youth. This is contextualized in relation to the role that self-harm plays for some LGBT youth, where it may be seen as a rite of passage or as reasonable and inevitable way of coping. The particular complexities of self-harm among trans youth seeking clinical intervention are examined. Queer bioethics is proposed as potentially facilitating productive uncertainty with regard to the diverse imagined futures of gender variant and trans youth. PMID:26644176

  12. A contemporary approach to body mass regulation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Czkwianianc, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of factors and mechanisms regulating body mass have been discovered, although there are still many unknowns. Their effect on the development of many diseases related to nutritional disorders (obesity, anorexia, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease) means that the understanding of these mechanisms will make it possible to determine new therapeutic goals and create new medicinal products. This is even more important because nowadays there is no effective medication to cure nutritional disorders. It is necessary to conduct further research to evaluate dependencies and relationships between particular hormones and to study newly discovered substances so that we could progress towards achieving the overall objectives while keeping the ultimate goals in mind. PMID:27350833

  13. A contemporary approach to body mass regulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Andrzej; Czkwianianc, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of factors and mechanisms regulating body mass have been discovered, although there are still many unknowns. Their effect on the development of many diseases related to nutritional disorders (obesity, anorexia, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease) means that the understanding of these mechanisms will make it possible to determine new therapeutic goals and create new medicinal products. This is even more important because nowadays there is no effective medication to cure nutritional disorders. It is necessary to conduct further research to evaluate dependencies and relationships between particular hormones and to study newly discovered substances so that we could progress towards achieving the overall objectives while keeping the ultimate goals in mind. PMID:27350833

  14. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  15. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  16. Body mass indices in patients with disabling hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Ray; Allegrante, John P

    2002-01-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in substantial morbidity. The disease may be preventable in some instances by reducing risk factors associated with the disease. We undertook a study to determine whether being overweight or obese, a health risk that applies to younger and older age groups, is commonly associated with hip joint OA. The body mass indices (BMIs) of 1021 males and females ranging in age from 23 to 94 years and requiring surgery for end-stage hip joint OA were analyzed to find the prevalence of high body weights at the time of surgery. Being overweight was defined as having a BMI of 25–29.9 kg/m2 and being obese as having a BMI >30 kg/m2. BMIs indicative of overweight were recorded for 68% of the patients surveyed. Of 35 patients aged 30–39 years, 53.3% had BMIs >25, with a mean of 28.8, which nearly reaches the lower limit defined for obesity. On average, patients who had had previous surgery and complications warranting reimplantation of new surgical devices had BMIs in the obese range. Our findings suggest that a high percentage of patients with end-stage hip OA are overweight, including younger adults and those with symptoms of 3–6 months' duration. Moreover, patients whose BMIs are in the obese range may be at increased risk for removal and reimplantation of their prosthesis. PMID:11879546

  17. Methods of body mass reduction by combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ciro José; Roas A, Fernanda Castro Martins; Brito I, Surian Souza; Marins J, Carlos Bouzas; Córdova, Claudio; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers. PMID:22349031

  18. The Body, Gender, and Biotechnology in Jeanette Winterson's The Stone Gods.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Luna

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that Winterson's use of satire and the common tropes of science fiction in her 2007 novel The Stone Gods provides an effective and important critique of the gender discrepancies arising in the implementation of aesthetic medical biotechnologies under the logic of neoliberal consumerism. In particular, engaging with aspects of Winterson's fictional landscape in Part 1 of The Stone Gods, I will explore the themes of bodily normalization, the medicalization of youth and appearance, and the notion that biotechnologies such as cosmetic surgery can inculcate happiness through some sort of "psychological cure." Ultimately, I will argue that Winterson's aim in this novel is to raise important questions about where rising standards of enhancement and appearance, implemented through biotechnologies, will take us and, furthermore, to demonstrate that the problems of the human condition require more than the surface fixes offered by consumption, technological innovation, and narcissistic body projects. PMID:26095842

  19. An ironman triathlon does not lead to a change in body mass in female triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kohler, Götz; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2010-04-01

    In 16 female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes, body mass, percent body fat, and skeletal muscle mass were determined before and after an Ironman race in order to detect changes. Selected hematological and urinary variables as well as percent total body water were measured in order to quantify a change in hydration status. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass, percent body fat, and percent body water did not change (p > 0.05). Plasma volume increased significantly by 8.1 (13.7) % (p < 0.05). The significant increase in plasma volume, plasma urea concentration, and urinary specific gravity after the race was associated with a significant fall in hematocrit and plasma sodium concentration (p < 0.05). In contrast to studies of male Ironman triathletes, we could not detect a decrease in body mass in female Ironman triathletes. The statistically insignificant loss of 0.6 kg in body mass was smaller than reported in studies of male athletes. PMID:20397114

  20. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  1. Body mass index and functional status in community dwelling older Turkish males.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Muratlı, Sevilay; İlhan, Birkan; Tufan, Asli; Tufan, Fatih; Aydin, Yucel; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Disability is utmost important on an aging population's health. Obesity is associated with increased risk for disability. On-the-other-hand, higher-BMI is reported as associated with better functionality in older people in some reports defined as "obesity paradox". There is some evidence on differential relationship between body weight status and functionality by living setting gender, and different populations. We studied the relation between body mass index and functionality in Turkish community dwelling older males accounting for the most confounding factors: age, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and nutritional status. This is a cross-sectional study in a geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Functionality was assessed with evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales. Nutrition was assessed by mini-nutritional assessment test. Two hundred seventy-four subjects comprised our study cohort. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.1 years, BMI was 25.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). Linear regression analysis revealed significant and independent association of lower BMI with higher ADL and IADL scores (B = 0.047 and B = 0.128, respectively) (p < 0.05) and better nutritional status (B = 1.94 and B = 3.05, respectively) (p < 0.001) but not with the total number of medications. Higher IADL score was associated with younger age and lower total number of diseases (B = 0.121, B = 0.595, respectively) (p < 0.05) while ADL was not. We suggest that lower BMI is associated with better functional status in Turkish community-dwelling male older people. Our study recommends longitudinal studies with higher participants from different populations, genders and living settings are needed to comment more. PMID:26134728

  2. Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Brazilian subjects.

    PubMed

    Strunz, C M C; Araki, L M; Nogueira, A A R; Mansur, A P

    2011-03-01

    The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD) CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years) and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years). Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients. PMID:21271183

  3. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  4. Increased body mass index associated with increased harm avoidance and decreased self-directedness in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akihito; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Otani, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that body mass index (BMI) is related to personality traits, and that there may be gender specificity in this relationship. In the present study, the association between BMI and the 7 dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory was investigated in 567 Japanese healthy volunteers, with special attention on gender effects. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMI was calculated from these values. In the multiple regression analyses, higher BMI was related to higher scores of harm avoidance (p < 0.05) and lower scores of self-directedness (p < 0.01) in women, whereas BMI was not related to any Temperament and Character Inventory dimension in men. The present study suggests that increasing BMI is associated with increased harm avoidance and decreased self-directedness in women but not in men in healthy subjects. PMID:19282688

  5. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  6. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  7. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  8. Influence of gender on muscle strength, power and body composition in healthy subjects and mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To explore the influence of gender on the cross-sectional differences in lower-limb strength, power and body composition among 31 healthy middle-aged adults (mean age: 47.2 +/- 5 yrs, 17 females), 28 healthy older adults (74 +/- 4 yrs, 12 females), and 34 older adults with mobility impair...

  9. Relations among Body Size Discrepancy, Gender, and Indices of Motivation and Achievement in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Gammage, Kimberley L.; Sullivan, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations…

  10. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Laura N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  11. Microsatellite frequencies vary with body mass and body temperature in mammals, suggesting correlated variation in mutation rate.

    PubMed

    Amos, William; Filipe, Laura N S

    2014-01-01

    Substitution rate is often found to correlate with life history traits such as body mass, a predictor of population size and longevity, and body temperature. The underlying mechanism is unclear but most models invoke either natural selection or factors such as generation length that change the number of mutation opportunities per unit time. Here we use published genome sequences from 69 mammals to ask whether life history traits impact another form of genetic mutation, the high rates of predominantly neutral slippage in microsatellites. We find that the length-frequency distributions of three common dinucleotide motifs differ greatly between even closely related species. These frequency differences correlate with body mass and body temperature and can be used to predict the phenotype of an unknown species. Importantly, different length microsatellites show complicated patterns of excess and deficit that cannot be explained by a simple model where species with short generation lengths have experienced more mutations. Instead, the patterns probably require changes in mutation rate that impact alleles of different length to different extents. Body temperature plausibly influences mutation rate by modulating the propensity for slippage. Existing hypotheses struggle to account for a link between body mass and mutation rate. However, body mass correlates inversely with population size, which in turn predicts heterozygosity. We suggest that heterozygote instability, HI, the idea that heterozygous sites show increased mutability, could provide a plausible link between body mass and mutation rate. PMID:25392761

  12. Body Mass Index and Its Role in Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shilpa; Agrawal, Pallavi; Singh, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate operative and perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy according to their body mass index. Method. A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy at a tertiary care center for a period of 4 years. Patients were divided into two groups: obese (BMI > 30 Kg/m2) and nonobese (BMI < 30 Kg/m2). Duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, successful laparoscopic completion, and intraoperative complications were compared in two groups. Result. A total of 253 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy from January 2010 to December 2013. Out of them, 105 women (41.5%) had a BMI of more than 30 kg/m2. Overall, the mean blood loss was 85.79 ± 54.17 mL; the operative time was 54.17 ± 19.83 min. The surgery was completed laparoscopically in 244 (96.4%) women while laparotomy was done in 4 cases and vaginal suturing and closure of vault were done in 5 cases. Risk of vaginal assistance was higher in obese patients whereas out of the 4 conversions to laparotomy 3 had BMI < 30 kg/m2. The operative time was increased as the BMI of patient increased. Conclusions. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a safe and effective procedure for obese patients and can be performed with an efficacy similar to that in nonobese patients.

  13. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  14. Influence of body mass index in revision total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Santos, Diego Benone; Chammas, Victor; Arrebola, Lucas Simões; Colombo, Mauricio Lebre; Scalizi, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on the functional assessment of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS : Thirty patients who un-derwent RTKA between January 2008 and January 2012 were retrospectively assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. The patients were divided into three groups according to the BMI ca-tegories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Group I with normal BMI (18-24.9 Kg/m2), with eight patients; Group II, overweight (BMI 25-29.9 Kg/m2), with 15 patients, and Group III obesity with BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2, with seven patients. The post-ope-rative function scores obtained through the WOMAC questionnaire were compared with the BMI of each group. The statistical analysis between BMI and WOMAC scores was performed with the Spe-arman correlation test. RESULTS : The average functional WOMAC score for individuals in Group I was 16.7; in Group II it was 47.7; and in Group III it was 69.9, with a statistically significant differen-ce between groups I, II and III (p< 0.0001). CONCLUSION : Patients with BMI > 25 Kg/m2 had a worse functional evaluation through WOMAC scores when compared to patients with normal BMI after RTKA. Level of Evidence III, Tranversal Retrospective Study. PMID:27057139

  15. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  16. Does Taste Perception Effect Body Mass Index in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Markam, Vandana; Singh, Garima; Chakravarthy, Kalyan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating trends established early in life leads to chronic life style disorders such as obesity, which is hard to overcome as child comes of age. Energy expenditure is less but caloric intake is high leading to disparity of energy balance in turn leading to obesity. Obesity is the outcome of a disparity between energy expenditure and caloric intake. Genes play a role in establishing eating habits, which is termed as genetic sensitivity to taste. Aim To determine taste perception effect on body mass index (BMI) in preschool central Indian urban children. Materials and Methods A total of 500 children of 3-6 years were selected and genetic taste perception was assessed using PROP sensitivity test. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value. Categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results Non tasters were mostly in overweight category i.e. 73.30% where as more number of tasters i.e. 59.70% were in underweight category. A significant correlation is seen between BMI and taste perception. No statistically significant correlation was seen between oral hygiene and taste perception. Females were predominant in both the tasters and non tasters categories. Conclusion Taste perception showed significant relationship with BMI of children between 3-6-year-old children. PMID:26816983

  17. Body mass index and employment status: A new look.

    PubMed

    Kinge, Jonas Minet

    2016-09-01

    Earlier literature has usually modelled the impact of obesity on employment status as a binary choice (employed, yes/no). I provide new evidence on the impact of obesity on employment status by treating the dependent variable as a as a multinomial choice variable. Using data from a representative English survey, with measured height and weight on parents and children, I define employment status as one of four: working; looking for paid work; permanently not working due to disability; and, looking after home or family. I use a multinomial logit model controlling for a set of covariates. I also run instrumental variable models, instrumenting for Body Mass Index (BMI) based on genetic variation in weight. I find that BMI and obesity significantly increase the probability of "not working due to disability". The results for the other employment outcomes are less clear. My findings also indicate that BMI affects employment through its effect on health. Factors other than health may be less important in explaining the impact of BMI/obesity on employment. PMID:27054482

  18. Premorbid body mass index and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Éilis J; Wang, Hao; Weisskopf, Marc G; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Our objective was to determine if amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk varies according to body mass index (BMI) captured up to three decades earlier. At baseline 537,968 females and 562,942 males in five ongoing cohorts reported height, current weight and weight at age 18/21 years. During 14-28 years of follow-up, 1153 participants developed ALS. Cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rates that were then pooled with random-effects models. Results showed that lower BMI at baseline was associated with ALS; for each 5-unit increase in BMI, ALS rates were 21% lower (95% CI 14% 27%). Compared to individuals with healthy BMI, ALS rates were significantly lower among the overweight (RR = 0.76 (95% CI 0.62-0.93)) and obese (RR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.55-0.96)). Among never smokers the association persisted: RR = 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.85) for each 5-unit increase. Excluding the first seven years of follow-up, the associations were materially unchanged suggesting that weight loss from undiagnosed disease does not fully explain the findings. Overall, 75% of males and females had a healthy BMI at age 18/21 years, 15% of males and 8% of females were overweight or obese; there was no association with ALS although numbers with an unhealthy weight were small. In conclusion, these findings support an association between lower premorbid BMI and ALS. PMID:23134505

  19. A New Total Body Potassium Method to Estimate Total Body Skeletal Muscle Mass in Children12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZiMian; Heshka, Stanley; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chen, Zhao; Silva, Analiza M.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Wang, Jack; Gallager, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    A whole body skeletal muscle [(SM); kg] mass estimation model, based on total body potassium [(TBK); mmol] measured by whole body 40K counting (WBC) was developed (SM = 0.0082·TBK) and validated in adults in a previous study. It is unknown whether the adult TBK SM prediction model is applicable for pediatric use. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a pediatric TBK SM prediction equation. SM measured by MRI was used as the criterion and TBK was measured by WBC. The protocol was completed in 116 healthy children, 66 males and 50 females, 11.7 ± 3.5 y (mean ± SD, range = 5–17 y). A strong linear correlation was observed between TBK and SM (r = 0.984; P < 0.001). The SM:TBK ratio was 0.0071 ± 0.0008 kg/mmol in the children studied, much lower than the corresponding value of 0.0082 kg/mmol in adults. An empirical SM prediction equation was developed using TBK alone: SM = 0.0085·TBK − 2.83, r2 = 0.97, SEE = 1.39 kg. Bland-Altman analysis did not disclose a significant bias in the prediction of SM. When biological factors entered along with TBK in the general linear model, another prediction equation was developed: SM = 5.52 + 0.001·TBK (mmol) + 0.081·weight (kg) − 0.049·height (cm) + 0.00004·TBK · height + race (−0.60 for Caucasian, 0.49 for African-American, and 0 for Hispanic). Because the adult TBK SM prediction model is not applicable for pediatric use, this study provides new empirical TBK SM prediction equations that should prove useful for studies on nutrition, growth, and development in children. PMID:17634275

  20. Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…

  1. The Role of Gender in Making Meaning of Texts: Bodies, Discourses, and Ways of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender-Slack, Delane

    2009-01-01

    Studies on gender discourses in classrooms have specifically examined how students negotiate their individual gender identities while disregarding their lived realities within a historical context. Nevertheless, although it is difficult and uncomfortable for them, students' responses to discussing gender reveal that the discourse positively…

  2. Understanding the role of gender in body image research settings: participant gender preferences for researchers and co-participants in interviews, focus groups and interventions.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Drummond, Murray

    2013-09-01

    Participant gender preferences for body image researchers, interventionists and focus group and intervention co-participants have been largely ignored, despite recognition that such characteristics can influence the nature and quality of data collected and intervention effects. To address this, Australian women (n=505) and men (n=220) completed a questionnaire about their preferences for interviewers and focus group facilitators, for teachers delivering school-based interventions, and for co-participants in these settings. Women predominantly preferred female interviewers and teachers, and mixed-sex co-participants, but most had no preference for focus group facilitators. Body dissatisfied women were more likely to prefer female researchers and single-sex co-participants. Most men did not have specific preferences, however, body dissatisfied men were more likely to report a gender preference for interviewers and teachers. Professional capabilities, personal qualities and appearance were regarded as important researcher characteristics. These findings have important implications for body image research, particularly among high-risk groups. PMID:23876877

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations between Body Mass Index and Hyperlipidemia among Adults in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that body mass index (BMI) is closely related to hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to estimate the cross-sectional relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hyperlipidemia. Methods: We recruited 21,435 subjects (aged 18–79 years and residing in Jilin province, China) using the multistage stratified cluster random sampling method. Subjects were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire and physically examined. We analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between BMI and hyperlipidemia. Results: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 51.09% (52.04% in male and 50.21% in female). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.89% and 6.23%, respectively. Our study showed that underweight (OR = 0.499, 95% CI: 0.426–0.585), overweight (OR = 2.587, 95% CI: 2.428–2.756), and obesity (OR = 3.614, 95% CI: 3.183–4.104) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001) in the age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression. After further adjusting for age, gender, region, district, ethnicity, education, marital status, main occupation, monthly family income per capita, smoking, drinking, exercise, central obesity, waist and hip, underweight (OR = 0.729, 95% CI: 0.616–0.864), overweight (OR = 1.651, 95% CI: 1.520–1.793), and obesity (OR = 1.714, 95% CI: 1.457–2.017) were independently associated with hyperlipidemia (p < 0.001). The restricted cubic spline model illustrated a nonlinear dose-response relationship between levels of BMI and the prevalence of hyperlipidemia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the continuous variance of BMI was significantly associated with the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27213419

  4. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  5. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  6. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  7. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    PubMed

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature. PMID:11560092

  8. Skeletal Correlates for Body Mass Estimation in Modern and Fossil Flying Birds

    PubMed Central

    Field, Daniel J.; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid’s humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally, by presenting statistical measurements of body mass prediction error for thirteen different body mass regressions, this study provides a much-needed quantitative framework for the accurate estimation of body mass and associated ecological correlates in fossil birds. The application of these regressions will enhance the precision and robustness of many mass-based inferences in future paleornithological studies. PMID:24312392

  9. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  10. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms. PMID:26207137

  11. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms. PMID:26207137

  12. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  13. Antibiotic Use and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Pollak, Jonathan; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Hirsch, Annemarie G.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Nau, Claudia; Kress, Amii M.; Glass, Thomas A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for children. Use of antibiotics early in life has been linked to weight gain but there are no large-scale, population-based, longitudinal studies of the full age range among mainly healthy children. Subjects/Methods We used electronic health record data on 163,820 children aged 3-18 years and mixed effects linear regression to model associations of antibiotic orders with growth curve trajectories of annual body mass index (BMI) controlling for confounders. Models evaluated three kinds of antibiotic associations – reversible (time-varying indicator for an order in year before each BMI), persistent (time-varying cumulative orders up to BMIj), and progressive (cumulative orders up to prior BMI [BMIj-1]) – and whether these varied by age. Results Among 142,824 children under care in the prior year, a reversible association was observed and this short-term BMI gain was modified by age (p < 0.001); effect size peaked in mid-teen years. A persistent association was observed and this association was stronger with increasing age (p < 0.001). The addition of the progressive association among children with at least three BMIs (n = 79,752) revealed that higher cumulative orders were associated with progressive weight gain; this did not vary by age. Among children with an antibiotic order in the prior year and at least seven lifetime orders, antibiotics (all classes combined) were associated with an average weight gain of approximately 1.4 kg at age 15 years. When antibiotic classes were evaluated separately, the largest weight gain at 15 years was associated with macrolide use. Conclusions We found evidence of reversible, persistent, and progressive effects of antibiotic use on BMI trajectories, with different effects by age, among mainly healthy children. The results suggest that antibiotic use may influence weight gain throughout childhood and not just during the earliest years as has been the primary focus of

  14. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Birmann, Brenda M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive relation of baseline body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma, but data on other correlates of energy balance are limited. We undertook the present analyses to further examine the role of energy balance in multiple myeloma etiology in two large prospective cohorts with biennially updated exposure data. We followed members of the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts from baseline until multiple myeloma diagnosis, death, or 2002. Adult height and current weight were reported at enrollment, and weight every 2 years thereafter. Physical activity was queried at baseline and updated every 2-4 years. We computed age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of multiple myeloma for categories of BMI and physical activity using Cox proportional hazards regression. We conducted analyses on each cohort separately and on both cohorts combined. We confirmed 215 incident cases of multiple myeloma in the combined cohort of 136,623 individuals (>2.1 million person-years at risk). BMI was positively associated with multiple myeloma in all analyses. The association was strongest in men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR=2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-6.0) and modest in overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) women (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR (95% CI)=1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.2 (0.7-2.2), respectively). Physical activity was not significantly related to multiple myeloma risk, although an inverse association was suggested in women. In conclusion, obesity appears to have an etiologic role in multiple myeloma, but the role of other correlates of energy balance remains uncertain. PMID:17627013

  15. Correlation between body mass index and faecal microbiota from children.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, A; Fernandes, M R; Rodrigues, V A A; Groppo, F C; Cardoso, A L; Avila-Campos, M J; Nakano, V

    2016-03-01

    Childhood obesity is an increasing problem at the global level and considered as a risk factor for obesity development and the associated co-morbidities in adult life. In this study, the occurrence of Bacteroides fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli in 84 faecal samples from 30 obese, 24 overweight and 30 lean children was verified by culture technique and quantitative determination by quantitative PCR. In addition, Lactobacillus spp. and Methanobrevibacter smithii were also analysed. A correlation between the body mass index (BMI) and these bacteria was sought. Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens and Bifidobacterium adolescentis were most prevalent in all samples evaluated by culture-method. The B. fragilis group were found at high concentrations in obese and overweight children when compared with the lean ones (p 0.015). The obese and overweight children harboured higher numbers of Lactobacillus spp. than lean children (p 0.022). The faecal concentrations of the B. fragilis group (r = 0.24; p 0.026) and Lactobacillus spp. (r = 0.44; p 0.002) were positively correlated with BMI. Bifidobacterium spp. were found in higher numbers in the lean group than the overweight and obese ones (p 0.042). Furthermore, a negative correlation between BMI and Bifidobacterium spp. copy number (r = -0.22; p 0.039) was observed. Our findings show some difference in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of obese children compared with the lean ones and a significant association between number of Lactobacillus spp. and B. fragilis group and BMI. PMID:26551842

  16. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions. Results During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2) were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03). This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01) and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24–26) at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01). In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline. Conclusion In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population. PMID:26867138

  17. Asthma and body mass index in occupational setting

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Dehghan, Faezeh; Roozbahani, Rahim; Sadeghi, Zargham; Bahadori, Baharak; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the most common respiratory disease with an increasing prevalence. On the other hand, obesity is also a challenging disease compromising health in human communities. This study sought to assess the correlation of asthma and body mass index (BMI) in occupational setting. Methods: This study was conducted in a cable manufacturing company in 2012. A total of 551 workers from the production (exposed group) and non-production (unexposed group) units were studied. A questionnaire specifically designed for this purpose was filled out for study subjects and then all workers with respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma thoroughly examined by a physician and medical history was taken from them. Complementary diagnostic tests were also carried out. Results: A total of 11.6% of our understudy subjects had asthma. The prevalence of asthma in exposed subjects with BMI≥25 kg/m2 was found to be significantly higher than in exposed workers with BMI<25 kg/m2 (p<0.01). However, no significant differences existed in prevalence of asthma between the two subgroups of BMI≥25 kg/m2 and BMI<25 kg/m2 in the unexposed group (p>0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors significant associations were observed between BMI and asthma at cut points of 30 kg/m2 and 25 kg/m2 (OR: 8.53 and 2.41, respectively). Conclusion: Our study results showed that prevalence of asthma might be higher in workers with higher BMI who are exposed to occupational asthmogens. This finding highlights the necessity of offering weight loss recommendations in periodic examinations to workers with exposure to occupational asthmogens. PMID:25414839

  18. Leptin and body mass index in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Nasrin; Haghnazari, Lida; Rasolinia, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with obesity. Human and animal studies showed a direct relationship between leptin level and obesity, however, results from different studies were mixed. This study investigated the status of leptin level in PCOS and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) in a group of Iranian women with PCOS. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 women with PCOS and 36 healthy women were assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Those in the PCOS group were not prescribed any medications for 3 months prior to the study. Fasting blood samples were then collected during the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation for laboratory measurement of serum total leptin, blood glucose (fasting blood sugar), serum insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: Mean BMI of the PCOS and control groups were 26.62 ± 4.03 kg/m2 and 23.52 ± 2.52 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.006). The mean total leptin in the PCO group was also 10.69 ± 5.37 ng/mL and 5.73 ± 2.36 ng/mL in the control group (P = 0.0001). A significant relationship was found between leptin level and BMI as well as LH level among women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between leptin and insulin (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated an increased leptin level among women with PCOS that positively associated with BMI and LH. PMID:27186548

  19. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  20. 3D measurement of the human body for apparel mass customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Lin, Sheng; Chen, Tong

    2000-12-01

    An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body-scanning system using the multi-line triangulation technique, and methods for body size extraction and body modeling. The scanning system can rapidly acquire the surface data of a body, provide accurate body dimensions, many of which are not measurable with conventional methods, and also construct a body form based on the scanned data as a digital model of the body for 3D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment.

  1. A general purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element for application to rotary wing dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, B. K.; Straub, F. K.; Ruzicka, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System employs the present formulation of the general-purpose nonlinear rigid body mass finite element, which represents the hub masses, blade tip masses, and pendulum vibration absorbers. The rigid body mass element has six degrees of freedom, and accounts for gravitational as well as dynamic effects. A consequence of deriving the element's equations from various physical principles is that, prior to the transformation which couples the rigid body mass element to the rotor blade finite element, the forces obtained for each element are fundamentally different; this is true notwithstanding the degrees-of-freedom of each element are parameterized using the same coordinates.

  2. Relationship Not Found Between Blood and Urine Concentrations and Body Mass Index in Humans With Apparently Adequate Boron Status.

    PubMed

    Koc, Fulya; Aysan, Erhan; Hasbahceci, Mustafa; Arpaci, Beyza; Gecer, Salih; Demirci, Selami; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2016-06-01

    The impact of boron on the development of obesity remains controversial in the analysis of experimental and clinical data. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between blood and urine boron concentrations and obesity in normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects in different age groups. A total of 105 subjects were categorized into 12 groups based on body mass index and three different age levels: as young adult (18 to 34 years old), adult (35 to 54 years old), and older adult (greater than 55 years old). Age, gender, body mass index, and blood and urine boron concentrations were recorded for each subject. There were 50 women and 55 men, with a mean age of 44.63 ± 17.9 years. Blood and urine boron concentrations were similar among the groups (p = 0.510 and p = 0.228, respectively). However, a positive correlation between age and blood boron concentration (p = 0.001) was detected in contrast to the presence of a negative correlation between age and urine boron concentration (p = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between gender, age, and quantitative values of body mass index for each subject, and blood and urine boron concentrations. Although the relationship between boron and obesity has not been confirmed, changes of blood and urine boron concentrations with age may have some physiologic sequences to cause obesity. PMID:26458903

  3. A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body size is intimately related to the physiology and ecology of an organism. Therefore, accurate and consistent body mass estimates are essential for inferring numerous aspects of paleobiology in extinct taxa, and investigating large-scale evolutionary and ecological patterns in the history of life. Scaling relationships between skeletal measurements and body mass in birds and mammals are commonly used to predict body mass in extinct members of these crown clades, but the applicability of these models for predicting mass in more distantly related stem taxa, such as non-avian dinosaurs and non-mammalian synapsids, has been criticized on biomechanical grounds. Here we test the major criticisms of scaling methods for estimating body mass using an extensive dataset of mammalian and non-avian reptilian species derived from individual skeletons with live weights. Results Significant differences in the limb scaling of mammals and reptiles are noted in comparisons of limb proportions and limb length to body mass. Remarkably, however, the relationship between proximal (stylopodial) limb bone circumference and body mass is highly conserved in extant terrestrial mammals and reptiles, in spite of their disparate limb postures, gaits, and phylogenetic histories. As a result, we are able to conclusively reject the main criticisms of scaling methods that question the applicability of a universal scaling equation for estimating body mass in distantly related taxa. Conclusions The conserved nature of the relationship between stylopodial circumference and body mass suggests that the minimum diaphyseal circumference of the major weight-bearing bones is only weakly influenced by the varied forces exerted on the limbs (that is, compression or torsion) and most strongly related to the mass of the animal. Our results, therefore, provide a much-needed, robust, phylogenetically corrected framework for accurate and consistent estimation of body mass in extinct terrestrial

  4. Persistence in body mass index in a recent cohort of US children.

    PubMed

    Millimet, Daniel L; Tchernis, Rusty

    2015-04-01

    While childhood obesity has become a significant public health concern over the last few decades, and underweight children continue to be a concern, knowledge pertaining to the origins of or persistence in childhood anthropometric measures is incomplete. Here, we utilize several nonparametric metrics to assess the evolution of weight and body mass index (BMI) across the entire distribution during early childhood. We find that movements within the distribution of weight - both upward and downward - are quite high prior to primary school and then decline noticeably. For BMI, we find that movements within the distribution - both upward and downward - are highest at the start of kindergarten and at the start of middle school. However, there are important sources of heterogeneity, including race, gender, and age that should prove insightful to researchers and policymakers. For instance, comparing males versus females who are initially in the bottom quartile of the distribution of BMI, we find that males have a higher probability of moving up at least 10 percentile points between kindergarten and eighth grade (53% versus 50%). Comparisons among racial groups indicate that whites who are initially in the top quartile of the distribution of BMI have a higher probability of moving down at least 10 percentile points between kindergarten and eighth grade than blacks and Hispanics (46% versus 37% and 40%, respectively). PMID:25466866

  5. Misclassification of cardiometabolic health when using body mass index categories in NHANES 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, A J; Hunger, J M; Nguyen-Cuu, J; Wells, C

    2016-05-01

    The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has proposed rules allowing employers to penalize employees up to 30% of health insurance costs if they fail to meet 'health' criteria, such as reaching a specified body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to examine cardiometabolic health misclassifications given standard BMI categories. Participants (N=40 420) were individuals aged 18+ in the nationally representative 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using the blood pressure, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance and C-reactive protein data, population frequencies/percentages of metabolically healthy versus unhealthy individuals were stratified by BMI. Nearly half of overweight individuals, 29% of obese individuals and even 16% of obesity type 2/3 individuals were metabolically healthy. Moreover, over 30% of normal weight individuals were cardiometabolically unhealthy. There was no significant race-by-BMI interaction, but there was a significant gender-by-BMI interaction, F(4,64)=3.812, P=0.008. Using BMI categories as the main indicator of health, an estimated 74 936 678 US adults are misclassified as cardiometabolically unhealthy or cardiometabolically healthy. Policymakers should consider the unintended consequences of relying solely on BMI, and researchers should seek to improve diagnostic tools related to weight and cardiometabolic health. PMID:26841729

  6. Parenting Styles and Body Mass Index Trajectories From Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Yang, Chongming; Costanzo, Phil; Hoyle, Rick H.; Ph.D.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Williams, Redford B.; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The study included self-reported data from adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Factor mixture modeling, a data-driven approach, was used to classify participants into parenting style groups based on measures of acceptance and control. Latent growth modeling (LGM) identified patterns of developmental changes in BMI. After a number of potential cofounders were controlled for, parenting style variables were entered as predictors of BMI trajectories. Analyses were also conducted for males and females of three racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic, black, white) to assess whether parenting styles were differentially associated with BMI trajectories in these 6 groups. Results Parenting styles were classified into 4 groups: authoritarian, disengaged, permissive, and balanced. Compared with the balanced parenting style, authoritarian and disengaged parenting styles were associated with a less steep average BMI increase (linear slope) over time, but also less leveling off (quadratic) of BMI over time. Differences in BMI trajectories were observed for various genders and races, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritarian or disengaged parenting styles had greater increases in BMI as they transitioned to young adulthood despite having a lower BMI trajectory through adolescence. PMID:22545979

  7. Genetic Variations in the Serotoninergic System Contribute to Body-Mass Index in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Li, Jin; Wang, Yunxin; Liu, Bin; Xiu, Daiming; Zhu, Bi; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity has become a worldwide health problem in the past decades. Human and animal studies have implicated serotonin in appetite regulation, and behavior genetic studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) has a strong genetic component. However, the roles of genes related to the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT) system in obesity/BMI are not well understood, especially in Chinese subjects. Subjects and Design With a sample of 478 healthy Chinese volunteers, this study investigated the relation between BMI and genetic variations of the serotoninergic system as characterized by 136 representative polymorphisms. We used a system-level approach to identify SNPs associated with BMI, then estimated their overall contribution to BMI by multiple regression and verified it by permutation. Results We identified 12 SNPs that made statistically significant contributions to BMI. After controlling for gender and age, four of these SNPs accounted for 7.7% additional variance of BMI. Permutation analysis showed that the probability of obtaining these findings by chance was low (p = 0.015, permuted for 1000 times). Conclusion These results showed that genetic variations in the serotoninergic system made a moderate contribution to individual differences in BMI among a healthy Chinese sample, suggesting that a similar approach can be used to study obesity. PMID:23554917

  8. Aerobic fitness and body mass index in individuals with schizophrenia: Implications for neurocognition and daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2014-12-30

    Previous reports indicate that among healthy individuals low aerobic fitness (AF) and high body-mass index (BMI) predict poor neurocognition and daily-functioning. It is unknown whether these associations extend to disorders characterized by poor neurocognition, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, we compared AF and BMI in individuals with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls, and then within the schizophrenia group we examined the links between AF, BMI, neurocognition and daily-functioning. Thirty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 64 gender- and age-matched controls completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2max) and BMI. The former also completed measures of neurocognition, daily-functioning and physical activity. The schizophrenia group displayed significantly lower AF and higher BMI. In the schizophrenia group, AF was significantly correlated with overall neurocognition (r=0.57), along with executive functioning, working memory, social cognition, and processing speed. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AF accounted for 22% of the neurocognition variance. Furthermore, AF was significantly correlated with overall daily-functioning (r=0.46). In contrast, BMI displayed significant inverse correlations with neurocognition, but no associations to daily-functioning. AF was significantly correlated physical activity. The authors discuss the potential use of AF-enhancing interventions to improve neurocognitive and daily-functioning in schizophrenia, along with putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying these links, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. PMID:25219618

  9. Body Mass Index and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jian; Chen, Qi; Yu, Feifei; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Shuqi; Jin, Zhichao; Cai, Qing; Liu, Yu; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of rheumatoid (RA), the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a dose-response meta-analysis to quantify the dose-response association between BMI and RA risk. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases and reference lists of articles for relevant studies published before August 2014 using terms related to BMI and RA. Fixed or random-effects models were used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Several subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias Thirteen studies involving 400,609 participants and 13,562 RA cases were included. The RR of RA was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02–1.44) for obesity, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.97–1.13) for overweight. The risk of RA increased by 13% (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01–1.26) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. The subgroup analyses showed a positive association between BMI and RA risk only in women with an RR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12–1.40) for obesity and 1.12(95% CI: 1.07–1.18) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Also, an increased risk of RA was found in sero-negative subgroup with an RR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.11–1.96) for obesity and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06–1.39) for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. There is evidence that obesity is a risk factor for developing of RA. Furthermore, the positive association between BMI and RA risk may be stronger among women than men. PMID:26937917

  10. Body mass index and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yibin; Zhang, Tianyi; Wang, Zhiyong; Yu, Feifei; Xu, Qin; Guo, Wei; Wu, Cheng; He, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on the dose–response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a systemic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies that were published until June 2015. A random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality in COPD patients with normal weight compared with those who were underweight, overweight, or obese. In addition, a dose–response meta-analysis was conducted to explore the dose–response relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in COPD patients. A total of 17 observational studies involving 30,182 COPD patients among 285,960 participants were included. Compared with the reference category, the RRs of underweight, overweight, and obese individuals were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20–1.63), 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67–0.96), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62–0.95), respectively. A significant nonlinear relationship between BMI and mortality of COPD patients was found by using a random effects model. COPD patients with BMI of <21.75 kg/m2 had a higher risk of death. Moreover, an increase in the BMI resulted in a decrease in the risk of death. The risk of death was lowest when BMI was 30 kg/m2 (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53–0.89). The BMI was not associated with all-cause mortality when BMI was >32 kg/m2. Our findings indicate that overweight is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COPD whereas underweight is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in these patients. However, there is limited evidence to support the association between obesity and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. PMID:27428228

  11. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Meng, Qingrui; Vin-Raviv, Neomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Importance: Over one-third of American adults (36%) are obese and more than two-thirds (69%) are overweight. The impact of obesity on hospitalization outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific in-hospital mortality; postsurgical complications; and hospital length of stay (LOS). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Representative sample of US hospitals included in the Health Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Participants: We obtained data for patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cancer, COPD, asthma, and CVD. Main Outcome: In-hospital mortality, postsurgical complications, and hospital LOS. Results: A total of 800,417 patients were included in this analysis. A higher proportion of Blacks (26.8%; 12.5%) and Whites (23.3%; 8.7%) had BMI of 40 to 49.9 and ≥50, respectively, compared with Hispanics (20.4%; 7.3%). Compared with normal BMI patients, the odds of in-hospital mortality increased 3.6-fold (odds ratio [OR] 3.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37–3.89) for preobese patients, 6.5-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 5.79–7.34) for patients with BMI: 30 to 31.9, 7.5-fold (OR: 7.57, 95% CI: 6.67–8.59) for patients with BMI: 34 to 35.9, and 1.6- fold (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56–1.79) for patients with BMI ≥ 50. Compared with normal BMI patients, preobese and overweight patients had shorter hospital stays (β preobese: −1.58, 95% CI: −1.63, −1.52); however, no clear trends were observed for postsurgical complications. Conclusions: The majority of hospitalized patients in this analysis had a BMI > 30, and higher BMI was associated with increased risk of mortality and longer hospital stay. PMID:27428218

  12. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  13. Energy Cost of Walking in Boys Who Differ in Adiposity but Are Matched For Body Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayub, Beatriz Volpe; Bar-Or, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Compared the energy cost of treadmill walking in pairs of obese and lean adolescent boys matched for total body mass. Results found no intergroup differences in the net energy cost at the two lower speeds, but obese boys expended more energy at a higher speed. Heart rate was considerably higher in obese boys. Body mass, rather than adiposity, was…

  14. a Body Mass Dependent Mechanical Impedance Model for Applications in Vibration Seat Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BOILEAU, P.-É.; RAKHEJA, S.; WU, X.

    2002-05-01

    A three degree-of-freedom model is proposed to predict the biodynamic responses of the seated human body of different masses. A baseline model is initially derived to satisfy both the mean apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility responses proposed in ISO/DIS 5982:2000 applicable for mean body mass of 75 kg. The validity of the resultant generic mass dependent model is verified by comparing the apparent mass and driving-point mechanical impedance responses computed for total body masses of 55, 75 and 90 kg with the range of idealized values proposed for body masses within the 49-93 kg range. Considering the lack of data that could be found to define the apparent mass/mechanical impedance of subjects with different body masses when applying the experimental conditions defined in ISO/DIS 5982:2000, an attempt is made to adapt the parameters of the base model to fit the measured apparent mass data applicable to groups of automobile occupants within different mass ranges. This is achieved through constrained parametric optimization which consists of minimizing the sum of squared errors between the computed response and the mean apparent mass data measured for automobile occupants within four mass groups: less than 60 kg, 60·5-70·5 kg, 70·5-80 kg and above 80 kg. The results show a reasonably good agreement between the model responses and the measured apparent mass data, particularly at frequencies below 10 Hz. The results suggest that the proposed mass dependent model can effectively predict the apparent mass responses of automobile occupants over a wide range of body masses and for two different postures: passenger (hands-in-lap) and driver (hands-on-steering wheel) postures.

  15. Excess body mass is associated with T cell differentiation indicative of immune ageing in children.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, G; Johnston, C A; O'Connor, D P; Foreyt, J P; Simpson, R J

    2014-05-01

    Obesity has been associated with accelerated biological ageing and immunosenescence. As the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing, we wanted to determine if associations between obesity and immunosenescence would manifest in children. We studied 123 Mexican American adolescents aged 10-14 (mean 12·3 ± 0·7) years, with body weights ranging from 30·1 to 115·2 kg (mean 52·5 ± 14·5 kg). Blood samples were obtained to determine proportions of naive, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM), senescent and early, intermediate and highly differentiated subsets of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overweight and obese children had significantly lowered proportions of early CD8(+) T cells (B = -11·55 and -5·51%, respectively) compared to healthy weight. Overweight children also had more EM (B = +7·53%), late (B = +8·90%) and senescent (B = +4·86%) CD8(+) T cells than healthy weight children, while obese children had more intermediate CD8(+) (B = +4·59%), EM CD8(+) (B = +5·49%), late CD4(+) (B = +2·01%) and senescent CD4(+) (B = +0·98%) T cells compared to healthy weight children. These findings withstood adjustment for potentially confounding variables, including age, gender and latent cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections. We conclude that excess body mass, even in adolescence, may accelerate immunosenescence and predispose children to increased risks of incurring immune-related health problems in adulthood. PMID:24401077

  16. Body mass index and chronic airflow limitation in a worldwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vanfleteren, Lowie Egw; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Kaiser, Bernhard; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Burney, Peter; Wouters, Emiel Fm; Franssen, Frits Me

    2016-05-01

    Nutritional status has been associated with clinical outcome in chronic airflow limitation (CAL), but epidemiological studies are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and CAL, taking into account confounding factors. 18,606 participants (49% male, 21% smokers, mean age: 55.8 ± 11.2 years, mean BMI: 26.7 ± 5.5 kg/m(2)) of the BOLD initiative from 26 sites in 23 countries were included. CAL was defined as post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity < lower limit of normal. Low and obese BMI were defined as <21 kg/m(2) and ≥30 kg/m(2), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis controlled for confounders age, sex and smoking, and meta-analysis of between-site heterogeneity and clustering. Prevalence of low and obese BMI, smoking history and prevalence of CAL were highly variable between sites. After adjustment for confounders, the meta-analysis of all sites showed that compared to subjects without CAL, low BMI was more frequent, (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.75, 2.85)) and conversely, obesity was less frequent in subjects with CAL (adjusted OR: 0.78 (0.65, 0.94)). In a worldwide population sample, CAL was associated with lower BMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors age, gender, smoking and between-site heterogeneity. These results indicate a CAL-specific association with body composition. PMID:26768010

  17. Reconceptualizing the Gendered Body: Learning and Constructing Masculinities and Femininities in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2006-01-01

    How children learn to construct and enact masculinities and femininities is clearly an issue for education and one that has been explored in a wide variety of ways. In recent years, however, our conceptions of gender have once again become problematic, particularly given a gradual slippage regarding the sex/gender distinction and the increasing…

  18. Bodies, Identities and Performances: Reconfiguring the Language of Gender and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I seek to address a series of tensions in the ways we think, write and speak about gender in classrooms and playgrounds, and in the language we use to describe children and their behaviour. I shall examine some of the concepts we use for describing gender relations among children and consider the extent to which they are still…

  19. Environmental Light Exposure Is Associated with Increased Body Mass in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Cassandra L.; Allan, Alicia C.; Staton, Sally L.; Thorpe, Karen J.; Smith, Simon S.

    2016-01-01

    The timing, intensity, and duration of exposure to both artificial and natural light have acute metabolic and physiological effects in mammals. Recent research in human adults suggests exposure to moderate intensity light later in the day is concurrently associated with increased body mass; however, no studies have investigated the effect of light exposure on body mass in young children. We examined objectively measured light exposure and body mass of 48 preschool-aged children at baseline, and measured their body mass again 12 months later. At baseline, moderate intensity light exposure earlier in the day was associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Increased duration of light exposure at baseline predicted increased BMI 12-months later, even after controlling for baseline sleep duration, sleep timing, BMI, and activity. The findings identify that light exposure may be a contributor to the obesogenic environment during early childhood. PMID:26735299

  20. Relationship of Heath and Carter's Second Component to Lean Body Mass and Height in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, M. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The Heath and Carter approach to determining somatotypes is less accurate than is regression analysis, mainly because of the lack of association between skeletal widths and lean body mass as measured by body density and whole-body fat percentage, holding constant muscle circumference. (Author)

  1. Validity of segmental multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition of adults across a range of body mass indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Compare estimates of body composition using segmental, multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy adults across a range of body mass index (BMI). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF), fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) asses...

  2. The Relationship between Perceived and Ideal Body Size and Body Mass Index in 3rd-Grade Low Socioeconomic Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Allison; Lange, Mary Anne; Young-Cureton, Virginia; Canham, Daryl

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about body satisfaction among minority children. This study examined the relationship between perceived and actual body size and Body Mass Index among 43 low-socioeconomic Hispanic 3rd-graders. Researchers measured participants' Body Mass Index; students self-reported Perceived Ideal Self Image and Perceived Actual Self Image…

  3. Effect of body size and body mass on δ 13 C and δ 15 N in coastal fishes and cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been widely used in the investigation of trophic relations, energy pathways, trophic levels and migrations, under the assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N occurs exclusively due to ontogenetic changes in diet and not body size increase per se. However, several studies have shown that these assumptions are uncertain. Data from food-webs containing an important number of species lack theoretical support on these assumptions because very few species have been tested for δ 13C and δ 15N variation in captivity. However, if sampling comprises a wide range of body sizes from various species, the variation of δ 13C and δ 15N with body size can be investigated. While correlation between body size and δ 13C and δ 15N can be due to ontogenetic diet shifts, stability in such values throughout the size spectrum can be considered an indication that δ 13C and δ 15N in muscle tissues of such species is independent of body size within that size range, and thus the basic assumptions can be applied in the interpretation of such food webs. The present study investigated the variation in muscle δ 13C and δ 15N with body size and body mass of coastal fishes and cephalopods. It was concluded that muscle δ 13C and δ 15N did not vary with body size or mass for all bony fishes with only one exception, the dragonet Callionymus lyra. Muscle δ 13C and δ 15N also did not vary with body size or mass in cartilaginous fishes and cephalopods, meaning that body size/mass per se have no effect on δ 13C or δ 15N, for most species analysed and within the size ranges sampled. The assumption that δ 13C is independent of body size and that variation in δ 15N is not affected by body size increase per se was upheld for most organisms and can be applied to the coastal food web studied taking into account that C. lyra is an exception.

  4. Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons. PMID:24331215

  5. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  6. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised and the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory across Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusticus, Shayna A.; Hubley, Anita M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of body image measures have largely been developed with younger female samples. Before these measures can be applied to men, and to middle-aged and older women, and used to make gender and age comparisons, they must exhibit adequate cross-group measurement invariance. This study examined the age and gender cross-group measurement…

  8. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  9. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  10. Stochastic and compensatory effects limit persistence of variation in body mass of young caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; Collins, W.B.; Joly, Kyle; Valkenburg, P.; Tobey, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional restriction during growth can have short- and long-term effects on fitness; however, animals inhabiting uncertain environments may exhibit adaptations to cope with variation in food availability. We examined changes in body mass in free-ranging female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) by measuring mass at birth and at 4, 11, and 16 months of age to evaluate the relative importance of seasonal nutrition to growth, the persistence of cohort-specific variation in body mass through time, and compensatory growth of individuals. Relative mean body mass of cohorts did not persist through time. Compensatory growth of smaller individuals was not observed in summer; however, small calves exhibited more positive change in body mass than did large calves. Compensation occurred during periods of nutritional restriction (winter) rather than during periods of rapid growth (summer) thus differing from the conventional view of compensatory growth. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  12. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    PubMed

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. PMID:26604143

  13. Gender-specific associations of appendicular muscle mass with BMD in elderly Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C; Cappelli, S; Rossi, S; Giordano, N; Nuti, R

    2014-10-01

    Currently used diagnostic measures for sarcopenia are based on the evaluation of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) divided by height-squared (ASMMI). This study aimed to investigate the associations between different operational definitions of appendicular muscle mass and BMD at different skeletal sites in aging Italian men and women. In 1199 consecutive healthy Italian subjects, aged 55 years or more (854 women, age 64.2 ± 6.4 years and 165 men, age 65.3 ± 6.1 years), we measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS-BMD), at femoral neck (FN-BMD),at total hip (TH-BMD), at total body (WB-BMD) and at the right hand (H-BMD) and body composition parameters [ASMM, ASMMI, ASMM/Weight, total lean mass and total fat mass by DXA]. In all subjects, we also measured sex hormones, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers. In men, both ASMM and ASMMI were positively correlated with BMD at all sites, whereas in women, ASMM and ASMMI did not show any significant correlation with BMD. In men, multiple regression analyses showed that ASMM was positively associated (p < 0.01) with FN-BMD, TH-BMD and H-BMD; however, these associations were no longer present when lean mass was included. In women, both fat mass and lean mass were found positively associated with BMD at all sites. In conclusion, among the different operational measures of the ASMM, only ASMM was significantly associated with BMD in elderly men, but not in elderly women. PMID:25139040

  14. Common endocrine control of body weight, reproduction, and bone mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Bone mass is maintained constant between puberty and menopause by the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The existence of a hormonal control of osteoblast activity has been speculated for years by analogy to osteoclast biology. Through the search for such humoral signal(s) regulating bone formation, leptin has been identified as a strong inhibitor of bone formation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin has shown that the effect of this adipocyte-derived hormone on bone is mediated via a brain relay. Subsequent studies have led to the identification of hypothalamic groups of neurons involved in leptin's antiosteogenic function. In addition, those neurons or neuronal pathways are distinct from neurons responsible for the regulation of energy metabolism. Finally, the peripheral mediator of leptin's antiosteogenic function has been identified as the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetics administered to mice decreased bone formation and bone mass. Conversely, beta-blockers increased bone formation and bone mass and blunted the bone loss induced by ovariectomy.

  15. THE MASS OF (15) EUNOMIA FROM 923 TEST BODIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenbach, William

    2010-03-15

    The orbits of 923 asteroids that came within 0.1 AU of (15) Eunomia were analyzed to determine its mass and gave a weighted mean mass of (1.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -11} M {sub sun}. The process was automated, which forced the use of uniform criteria for selection and weighting of both the observations and the individual solutions. Statistical combination of a large number of cases including numerous implausible individual results, gives reasonable mass values even for subsets of weakly determined individual solutions. This approach mitigates the impact of mismodeling as well as observation errors and/or poor distribution of data that might affect individual test cases.

  16. Instrument for Measuring the Body Mass of Astronaut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito; Maru, Koichi; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Nagai, Norihiro; Sugita, Yoichi

    The accuracy and the efficiency of the prototype of the Space Scale, which has been proposed as a practical and lightweight instrument for measuring the mass of astronauts under microgravity conditions in the International Space Station (ISS), have been evaluated by the parabolic flight tests. 2 series of the parabolic flight tests, in which the rigid metal structure and the human subject are used for the mass to be measured, have been conducted. The standard uncertainty of the mass measurement of the rigid object is estimated to be approximately 2.1 % for single measurement and 0.7 % for the average of 12 measurements. The present status and the future status of the Space Scale are discussed.

  17. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small. PMID:25874664

  18. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P < 0.0001), with less bias compared with lean body mass assessment by DXA, which overestimated muscle mass compared with MRI. The dilution of an oral D3-creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  19. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  20. Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ahituv, Nadav ; Kavaslar, Nihan ; Schackwitz, Wendy ; Ustaszewska, Anna ; Martin, Joel ; Hébert, Sybil ; Doelle, Heather ; Ersoy, Baran ; Kryukov, Gregory ; Schmidt, Steffen ; Yosef, Nir ; Ruppin, Eytan ; Sharan, Roded ; Vaisse, Christian ; Sunyaev, Shamil ; Dent, Robert ; Cohen, Jonathan ; McPherson, Ruth ; Pennacchio, Len A. 

    2007-01-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significant heritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors to this phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of 58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96-Mb survey included 21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, as well as 37 genes that function in body weight–related pathways. We found that the monogenic obesity–associated gene group was enriched for rare nonsynonymous variants unique to the obese population compared with the lean population. In addition, computational analysis predicted a greater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort. Together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleles contribute to obesity in the population and provide a medical sequencing-based approach to detect them. PMID:17357083

  1. The effect of age and body mass index on cost of spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Walid, Mohammad Sami; Sanoufa, Mazen; Robinson, Joe Sam

    2011-04-01

    Complex shifts in demography combined with drastic advancements in spinal surgery have led to a steep increase in often expensive spinal interventions in older and obese patients. A cost analysis, based on hospital charges, was performed retrospectively on the spinal surgery of 787 randomly selected patients who were operated at The Medical Center of Central Georgia, a large urban hospital in Central Georgia. The types of surgery included anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), lumbar decompression and fusion (LDF), and lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD). The distribution of patient age followed a Gaussian form. The peak age for patients was 50-59 years (28.8%), and there was no statistical difference in age between men and women. The body mass index (BMI) differed (p<0.01) between males (28.86 kg/m(2); range: 18-47 kg/m(2)) and females (30.69 kg/m(2); range: 17-58 kg/m(2)). The BMI data did not follow a Gaussian distribution for either gender. The hospital cost for spinal surgery increased with age except for male patients who underwent ACDF. For male patients who underwent LDF, the increase in hospital cost was statistically significant between the 40-49-year and the ≥ 70-year age groups. Univariate analysis with type of surgery as a covariate showed that age was a significant determinant of hospital cost (p=0.000), and BMI was not (p=0.110); however, the interaction between age and BMI was significant (p=0.000). Older patients undergoing spinal surgery had lower BMI, more so in males (r=-0.047, p=0.426) than in females (r=-0.038, p=0.485). There were linear trends in all gender-spinal surgery categories between age, BMI and hospital cost. Older female patients who underwent LDF tended to have a lower BMI but higher hospital cost, confirming that age was more important than BMI in determining hospital cost in these patients. The increments in cost of spinal surgery in relation to age especially and BMI were, nevertheless, small. We believe that spinal

  2. Lack of influence of body mass index on the efficacy of the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Rana F; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L; Kossoff, Eric H

    2007-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is carefully calculated by dietitians in an effort to achieve the child's ideal body weight, theoretically to improve seizure control. This study researched whether achieving a stable body mass index or ideal body mass index-for-age correlates with efficacy with the traditional ketogenic diet. The outcomes of 123 children started on the ketogenic diet were analyzed at clinic visits 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diet onset. Children who were at 40% to 59% body mass index-for-age did not have higher efficacy than those at a higher or lower body mass index-for-age, except at the 12-month clinic visit (81% versus 48%; P = .02). No clear link was demonstrated between either an ideal body mass index or changes in the body mass index and seizure control in the management of children receiving a ketogenic diet. Attributing changes in seizure control to a rapid weight gain or loss may be unjustified. PMID:17940242

  3. Variation in body mass and morphological characters in Macaca mulatta brevicaudus from Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Lyu, Mu-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Chu, Yuan-Meng-Ran; Han, Ning; Yang, Danhe; Hu, Kaijin

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely distributed nonhuman primate species in the world, with six subspecies distributed through China. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted studies on the body mass and morphological variation of the southernmost subspecies M. m. brevicaudus in Nanwan Nature Reserve for Rhesus Macaque, Hainan, China. We compared measurements with other populations of this species. We also investigated the inter-group body mass variation from seven provisioned free-ranging groups in our study site. Our results show that M. m. brevicaudus has the smallest body size, the smallest body mass, and the shortest tail among rhesus macaque subspecies. Its sexual dimorphism score is also among the lowest, which is similar to other southern distributed subspecies in China, but smaller than northern distributed subspecies. We found that the average body mass of female macaques is not correlated with their dominance ranks. There are significant differences in body mass among the seven adjacent study groups at the same site, suggesting the existence of inter-group competition. Average body mass of a group is better described by a quadratic function of group size than a linear one as predicted by the socio-ecological model. Am. J. Primatol. 78:679-698, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848718

  4. Stepping in Elton's footprints: a general scaling model for body masses and trophic levels across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Riede, Jens O; Brose, Ulrich; Ebenman, Bo; Jacob, Ute; Thompson, Ross; Townsend, Colin R; Jonsson, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Despite growing awareness of the significance of body-size and predator-prey body-mass ratios for the stability of ecological networks, our understanding of their distribution within ecosystems is incomplete. Here, we study the relationships between predator and prey size, body-mass ratios and predator trophic levels using body-mass estimates of 1313 predators (invertebrates, ectotherm and endotherm vertebrates) from 35 food-webs (marine, stream, lake and terrestrial). Across all ecosystem and predator types, except for streams (which appear to have a different size structure in their predator-prey interactions), we find that (1) geometric mean prey mass increases with predator mass with a power-law exponent greater than unity and (2) predator size increases with trophic level. Consistent with our theoretical derivations, we show that the quantitative nature of these relationships implies systematic decreases in predator-prey body-mass ratios with the trophic level of the predator. Thus, predators are, on an average, more similar in size to their prey at the top of food-webs than that closer to the base. These findings contradict the traditional Eltonian paradigm and have implications for our understanding of body-mass constraints on food-web topology, community dynamics and stability. PMID:21199248

  5. On the central configurations in the spatial 5-body problem with four equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramírez, Martha; Corbera, Montserrat; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the families of central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with four masses equal to 1 when the fifth mass m varies from 0 to +∞. In particular we continue numerically, taking m as a parameter, the central configurations (which all are symmetric) of the restricted spatial (4+1)-body problem with four equal masses and m=0 to the spatial 5-body problem with equal masses (i.e. m=1), and viceversa we continue the symmetric central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with five equal masses to the restricted (4+1)-body problem with four equal masses. Additionally we continue numerically the symmetric central configurations of the spatial 5-body problem with four equal masses starting with m=1 and ending in m=+∞, improving the results of Alvarez-Ramírez et al. (Discrete Contin Dyn Syst Ser S 1: 505-518, 2008). We find four bifurcation values of m where the number of central configuration changes. We note that the central configurations of all continued families varying m from 0 to +∞ are symmetric.

  6. Identification and reciprocal introgression of a QTL affecting body mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Julian K; Rance, Kellie A; Knott, Sara A; Pignatelli, Pat M; Oliver, Fiona; Bünger, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a QTL in different genetic backgrounds. A QTL affecting body mass on chromosome 6 was identified in an F2 cross between two lines of mice that have been divergently selected for this trait. The effect of the QTL on mass increased between 6 and 10 weeks of age and was not sex-specific. Body composition analysis showed effects on fat-free dry body mass and fat mass. To examine the effect of this QTL in different genetic backgrounds, the high body mass sixth chromosome was introgressed into the low body mass genetic background and vice versa by repeated marker-assisted backcrossing. After three generations of backcrossing, new F2 populations were established within each of the introgression lines by crossing individuals that were heterozygous across the sixth chromosome. The estimated additive effect of the QTL on 10-week body mass was similar in both genetic backgrounds and in the original F2 population (i.e., ~0.4 phenotypic standard deviations); no evidence of epistatic interaction with the genetic background was found. The 95% confidence interval for the location of the QTL was refined to a region of approximately 7 cM between D6Mit268 and D6Mit123. PMID:15339634

  7. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    PubMed Central

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D.; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P < 0.001) among all the circumferences tested. Hip circumference had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.89, P < 0.001) among the circumferences of individual body sites. Receiver-Operator Characteristic analysis showed that women with ABC > 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  8. A model of social influence on body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Ross A; Ornstein, Joseph T

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of social influence on body weight. The model's assumptions are grounded in theory and evidence from physiology, social psychology, and behavioral science, and its outcomes are tested against longitudinal data from American youth. We discuss the implementation of the model, the insights it generates, and its implications for public health policy. By explicating a well-grounded dynamic mechanism, our analysis helps clarify important dependencies for both efforts to leverage social influence for obesity intervention and efforts to interpret clustering of BMI in networks. PMID:24528150

  9. Individual Consistency and Phenotypic Plasticity in Rockhopper Penguins: Female but Not Male Body Mass Links Environmental Conditions to Reproductive Investment

    PubMed Central

    Dehnhard, Nina; Eens, Marcel; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Poisbleau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    In marine habitats, increasing ocean temperatures due to global climate change may distinctly reduce nutrient and consequently food availability for seabirds. Food availability is a known driver of body mass and reproductive investment in birds, but these traits may also depend on individual effects. Penguins show extreme intra-annual body mass variation and rely on accumulated body reserves for successful breeding. However, no study so far has tested individual consistency and phenotypic responses in body mass and reproductive investment in this taxon. Using a unique dataset on individually marked female and male southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) across six years, we investigated 1) the individual consistency in body mass (measured at egg laying), body condition and reproductive investment across years, subsequently 2) identified the best-explanatory temperature-related environmental variables for female and male body mass, and 3) tested the effect of female and male body mass on reproductive investment. Body mass, body condition and reproductive investment were all highly repeatable. As body condition should control for the structural size of the birds, the similarly high repeatability estimates for body mass and body condition suggested that the consistent between-individual body mass differences were independent of structural size. This supported the use of body mass for the subsequent analyses. Body mass was higher under colder environmental conditions (positive Southern Annular Mode), but the overall phenotypic response appeared limited. Reproductive investment increased with female but not male body mass. While environmental effects on body mass in our study period were rather small, one can expect that ongoing global climate change will lead to a deterioration of food availability and we might therefore in the long-term expect a phenotypical decline in body mass and reproductive investment. PMID:26030824

  10. The One-Body and Two-Body Density Matrices of Finite Nuclei and Center-of-Mass Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Shebeko, A.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2006-04-26

    A method is presented for the calculation of the one-body (1DM) and two-body (2DM) density matrices and their Fourier transforms in momentum space, that is consistent with the requirement for translational invariance (TI), in the case of a nucleus (a finite self-bound system). We restore TI by using the so-called fixed center-of-mass (CM) approximation for constructing an intrinsic nuclear ground state wavefunction (WF) by starting from a non-translationally invariant (nTI) WF and applying a projection prescription. We discuss results for the one-body (OBMD) and two-body (TBMD) momentum distributions of the 4He nucleus calculated with the Slater determinant of the harmonic oscillator (HO) orbitals, as the initial nTI WF. Effects of such an inclusion of CM correlations are found to be quite important in the momentum distributions.

  11. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Methods Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978–2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25–64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. Results An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. Conclusion No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income

  12. Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti

    2004-01-01

    Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and <5th percentile for overweight and underweight respectively, there were a total of 7.3% of overweight students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P <0.001). The results showed that both the problems of under- and over-nutrition co-exist in the capital city of Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future. PMID:15563435

  13. Body mass dynamics in hand reared clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) cubs from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Fernando; Brown, Janine; Wildt, David E; Virolle, Laurie; Kongprom, Urarikha; Revuelta, Luis; Goodrowe-Beck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of body mass changes in hand reared clouded leopards, we analyzed 3,697 weight data points during the first 3 months of life in 49 cubs from 24 zoo-born litters from 2003 through 2012. All cubs were fed the same formula mixture after a similar weaning protocol. The hand rearing process was divided into three periods based on feeding protocols: Stage 1: formula only (Days 1-28; Day 0 = day of birth); Stage 2, formula supplemented with protein (e.g., turkey baby food; Days 29-42); Stage 3, formula in decreasing amounts supplemented with meat (chicken and/or beef; Days 43-90). Weights at birth were 11.2% higher (P < 0.001) for males (n = 29) than females (n = 20). Daily weight gain was slowest (P < 0.05) during Stage 1 when cubs were fed straight formula only and fastest during Stage 3 when provided a mixture of formula and meat. Mean growth rate (± SD) during hand rearing differed (P < 0.05) by gender, being 34.6 ± 1.4 g/day for male and 30.0 ± 1.2 g/day for female cubs. Eighteen cubs (37%) exhibited mild to severe diarrhea during the study; however, palliative treatment resulted in similar (P > 0.05) growth and weaning weights compared to healthy counterparts. These are the first data documenting, on a large scale, the growth patterns for zoo born, hand reared clouded leopard cubs. Findings are valuable as an aid in managing this rare species, including for helping identify early onset of medical issues and further determining key factors regulating the first 3 months of development. PMID:25716685

  14. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  15. Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, Wrist and Waist Circumferences to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Severity

    PubMed Central

    KOMURCU, Hatice Ferhan; KILIC, Selim; ANLAR, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18–35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36–64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference. PMID:24257492

  16. Epigenome-wide study identifies novel methylation loci associated with body mass index and waist circumference

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Demerath, Ellen W.; Mendelson, Michael; Zhi, Degui; Guan, Weihua; Liang, Liming; Sha, Jin; Pankow, James S.; Liu, Chunyu; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Fornage, Myriam; Hidalgo, Bertha; Lin, Li-An; Thibeault, Krista Stanton; Bressler, Jan; Tsai, Michael Y.; Grove, Megan L.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Levy, Daniel; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Absher, Devin M.; Arnett, Donna K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and obesity traits. Design and Methods We quantified DNA methylation in CD4+ T-cells using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 array in 991 participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. We modeled methylation at individual cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites as a function of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), adjusting for age, gender, study site, T-cell purity, smoking, and family structure. Results We found epigenome-wide significant associations between eight CpG sites and BMI and five CpG sites and WC, successfully replicating the top hits in whole blood samples from the Framingham Heart Study (n=2,377) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=2,105). Top findings were in CPT1A (meta-analysis P= 3.5×10−37 for BMI and P=2.2×10−16 for WC), PHGDH (meta-analysis P= 4.7×10−15 for BMI and 2.2×10−8 for WC), CD38 (meta-analysis P= 3.7×10−11 for BMI and 6.1×10−13 for WC) and long intergenic non-coding RNA 00263 (meta-analysis P= 1.2×10−13 for BMI and 5.8×10−10 for WC), regions with biologically plausible relationships to adiposity. Conclusions This large-scale epigenome-wide study discovered and replicated robust associations between DNA methylation at CpG loci and obesity indices, laying the groundwork for future diagnostic and/or therapeutic applications. PMID:26110892

  17. Body mass index and waist: hip ratio are not enough to characterise female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Leszek; Cabrić, Milan; Krakowiak, Helena

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of characteristic body features of Miss Poland beauty contest finalists compared with the control group, can contribute to recognising the contemporary ideal of beauty promoted by the mass media. The studies of Playboy models and fashion models conducted so far have been limited to the following determinants of attractiveness: body mass index, waist:hip ratio, and waist:chest ratio, which only partially describe the body shape. We compared 20 body features of the finalists of Miss Poland 2004 beauty contest with those of the students of Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz. Discriminant analysis showed that the thigh girth-height index, waist: chest ratio, height, and body mass index had the greatest discrimination power distinguishing the two groups. A model of Miss Poland finalists figure assessment is presented which allows one to distinguish super-attractive women from the control group. PMID:17283934

  18. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. PMID:26032789

  19. Numerical simulation of tidal evolution of a viscoelastic body modelled with a mass-spring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien; Quillen, Alice C.; Efroimsky, Michael; Giannella, David

    2016-05-01

    We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body code to simulate the tidal evolution of the spin and orbit of a self-gravitating viscoelastic spherical body moving around a point-mass perturber. The damped mass-spring model represents a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid. We measure the tidal quality function (the dynamical Love number k2 divided by the tidal quality factor Q) from the numerically computed tidal drift of the semimajor axis of the binary. The shape of k2/Q, as a function of the principal tidal frequency, reproduces the kink shape predicted by Efroimsky for the tidal response of near-spherical homogeneous viscoelastic rotators. We demonstrate that we can directly simulate the tidal evolution of spinning viscoelastic objects. In future, the mass-spring N-body model can be generalized to inhomogeneous and/or non-spherical bodies.

  20. Three-dimensional body scanning system for apparel mass-customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bugao; Huang, Yaxiong; Yu, Weiping; Chen, Tong

    2002-07-01

    Mass customization is a new manufacturing trend in which mass-market products (e.g., apparel) are quickly modified one at a time based on customers' needs. It is an effective competing strategy for maximizing customers' satisfaction and minimizing inventory costs. An automatic body measurement system is essential for apparel mass customization. This paper introduces the development of a body scanning system, body size extraction methods, and body modeling algorithms. The scanning system utilizes the multiline triangulation technique to rapidly acquire surface data on a body, and provides accurate body measurements, many of which are not available with conventional methods. Cubic B-spline curves are used to connect and smooth body curves. From the scanned data, a body form can be constructed using linear Coons surfaces. The body form can be used as a digital model of the body for 3-D garment design and for virtual try-on of a designed garment. This scanning system and its application software enable apparel manufacturers to provide custom design services to consumers seeking personal-fit garments.

  1. Linking body mass and group dynamics in an obligate cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, Arpat; Bateman, Andrew W; English, Sinead; Coulson, Tim; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-11-01

    Social and environmental factors influence key life-history processes and population dynamics by affecting fitness-related phenotypic traits such as body mass. The role of body mass is particularly pronounced in cooperative breeders due to variation in social status and consequent variation in access to resources. Investigating the mechanisms underlying variation in body mass and its demographic consequences can help elucidate how social and environmental factors affect the dynamics of cooperatively breeding populations. In this study, we present an analysis of the effect of individual variation in body mass on the temporal dynamics of group size and structure of a cooperatively breeding mongoose, the Kalahari meerkat, Suricata suricatta. First, we investigate how body mass interacts with social (dominance status and number of helpers) and environmental (rainfall and season) factors to influence key life-history processes (survival, growth, emigration and reproduction) in female meerkats. Next, using an individual-based population model, we show that the models explicitly including individual variation in body mass predict group dynamics better than those ignoring this morphological trait. Body mass influences group dynamics mainly through its effects on helper emigration and dominant reproduction. Rainfall has a trait-mediated, destabilizing effect on group dynamics, whereas the number of helpers has a direct and stabilizing effect. Counteracting effects of number of helpers on different demographic rates, despite generating temporal fluctuations, stabilizes group dynamics in the long term. Our study demonstrates that social and environmental factors interact to produce individual variation in body mass and accounting for this variation helps to explain group dynamics in this cooperatively breeding population. PMID:24749732

  2. Effects of Parental Status on Male Body Mass in the Monogamous, Biparental California Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Harris, Breanna N.; de Jong, Trynke R.; Nguyen, Pauline P.; Cho, Julia T.; Hernandez, Mindy; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of biparental mammals demonstrate that males may undergo systematic changes in body mass as a consequence of changes in reproductive status; however, these studies typically have not teased apart effects of specific social and reproductive factors, such as cohabitation with a female per se, cohabitation with a breeding female specifically, and engagement in paternal care. We aimed to determine whether California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers undergo systematic changes in body mass and if so, which specific social/reproductive factor(s) might contribute to these changes. We compared mean weekly body masses over a 5-week period in 1) males housed with another male vs. males housed with a non-reproductive (tubally ligated) female; 2) males housed with a tubally ligated female vs. males housed with a female that was undergoing her first pregnancy; and 3) experienced fathers housed with vs. without pups during their mate’s subsequent pregnancy. Body mass did not differ between males housed with another male and those housed with a non-reproductive female; however, males housed with a non-reproductive female were significantly heavier than those housed with a primiparous female. Among experienced fathers, those housed with pups from their previous litter underwent significant increases in body mass across their mates’ pregnancy, whereas fathers housed without pups did not. These results suggest that male body mass is reduced by cohabitation with a breeding (pregnant) female, but not by cohabitation with a non-reproductive female, and that increases in body mass across the mate’s pregnancy are associated with concurrent care of offspring rather than cohabitation with a pregnant female. Additional work is needed to determine the mechanisms and functional significance, if any, of these changes in male body mass with reproductive condition. PMID:26005292

  3. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. PMID:24140617

  4. Association of Body Weight and Body Mass Index with Bone Mineral Density in Women and Men from Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Bahtiri, Elton; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are considered potentially modifiable determinants of bone mass. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the association between body weight and body mass index (BMI) with total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This cross-sectional study included a population of 100 women and 32 men from Kosovo into three BMI groups. All the study subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Results: Total hip BMD levels of obese menopausal and premenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared to overweight or normal weight subjects, while lumbar spine BMD levels of only menopausal women and men were higher among obese subjects. Age-adjusted linear regression analysis showed that BMI is a significant independent associate of lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women and men. Conclusion: Despite positive association between BMI and lumbar spine and total hip BMD in menopausal women, presence of more obese and osteoporotic subjects among menopausal women represent a population at risk for fractures because of poor balance and frequent falls; therefore, both obesity and osteoporosis prevention efforts should begin early on in life. PMID:26543419

  5. Body mass, composition, and food intake in rabbits during altered acceleration fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katovich, M. J.; Smith, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    Mature male Polish rabbits were subjected to varying gravitational fields in an animal centrifuge in order to evaluate the effects of acceleration and deacceleration on body mass, body composition, and food intake. The acceleration field intensity was increased by 0.25-G increments to a maximum of 2.5 G at intervals which permitted physiological adaptation at each field. Control animals of the same age were maintained at earth gravity under identical conditions of constant-light environment at a room temperature of 23 + or - 5 C. It is shown that increasing the acceleration-field intensity leads to a decrease in body mass. The regulated nature of this decreased body mass is tested by the response to an additional three-day fasting of animals adapted physiologically to 2.5 G. Ad libitum food intake per kg body mass per day tends to increase in chronically accelerated animals above 1.75 G. Increase in water content in centrifuged animals after physiological adaptation to 2.5 G is the result of decreasing body fat. Body mass and food intake returned to the precentrifuged levels of control animals within six weeks after cessation of centrifugation.

  6. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  7. Interaction of clothing and body mass index affects validity of air displacement plethysmography in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Examine the effect of alternate clothing schemes on validity of Bod Pod to estimate percent body fat (BF) compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and determine if these effects differ by body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional Subjects: 132 healthy adults aged 19-81 classifi...

  8. Body Mass Index in Rural First Grade Schoolchildren: Progressive Increase in Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.; Vendela, Mandolyn Jade; Bartee, R. Todd; Carr, Lucas J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Childhood overweight is a global health problem. Monitoring of childhood body mass index (BMI) may help identify critical time periods during which excess body weight is accumulated. Purpose: To examine changes in mean BMI and the prevalence of at-risk-for overweight in repeated cross-sectional samples of rural first grade schoolchildren…

  9. Mass Purification of Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus Inclusion Bodies in the K-Series Centrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Breillatt, J. P.; Brantley, J. N.; Mazzone, H. M.; Martignoni, M. E.; Franklin, J. E.; Anderson, N. G.

    1972-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrosis virus inclusion bodies specific for Hemerocampa pseudotsugata, Neodiprion sertifer, Porthetria dispar, and Heliothis zea have been purified by using a continuous-sample-flow-with-isopycnic-banding centrifuge in quantities up to 6 × 1013 polyhedral inclusion bodies per day. Continuous-flow methods for S-ρ type purification have been evolved to deal with mass isolation of bioparticles. PMID:5031562

  10. Pre-pregnancy BMI and body fat mass of 2 weeks old infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been previously demonstrated in animal studies. Clinical studies have also shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. This study reports for the first time infant body composition at 2 weeks us...

  11. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  12. Longitudinal changes in health behaviours and body weight among Swedish school children - associations with age, gender and parental education – the SCIP school cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to develop health promotion initiatives it is important to identify at what age gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours emerge. The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how health-related behaviours and weight status differed by age-group, gender, family socio-economic status and over time in three cohorts of school children. Methods All children in grades 2, 4 and 7 in a Swedish semi-urban municipality were invited to participate (n = 1,359) of which 813 (60%) consented. At baseline and after 2 years a health questionnaire was answered by all children. Height and weight was measured. Fourteen outcomes were analysed. The main and interaction effects of time, gender and parental educational level on the health-related behaviours, weight status and body mass index standard deviation score (BMIsds) were analysed by the Weighted Least Squares method for categorical repeated measures and Analysis of Variance. Results Nine of 12 health behaviours deteriorated over the two years: consumption of breakfast and lunch, vegetables and fruit, intake of sweetened drinks, TV viewing, club membership, being outdoors, and school recess activity; two behaviours were unchanged: intake of sweets, and active transport. Only sports participation increased with time. Girls consumed more vegetables, less sweetened drinks, performed less sports, were less physically active during recess, and had lower BMIsds, compared to boys. Those with more highly educated parents had more favourable or similar behaviours compared to those with less educated parents in 10 out of 12 health behaviours, the only exception being intake of sweets and being outdoors, and had lower BMIsds. Conclusions This study adds to our knowledge regarding the temporal development of health behaviours and weight status in school children. Differences with regard to gender and socioeconomic status were seen already at a young age. These results contribute to our

  13. Wolf body mass cline across Minnesota related to taxonomy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that in northern Minnesota two species of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758 or western wolf and Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 (= Canis rufus Audubon and Bachman, 1851) or eastern wolf) meet and hybridize. However, little morphological information is available about these two types of wolves in Minnesota. We analyzed the mass of 950 female wolves and 1006 males older than 1 year from across northern Minnesota and found that it increased from 26.30 ?? 0.56 kg (mean ?? SE) for females and 30.60 ?? 0.72 kg for males in northeastern Minnesota to 30.01 ?? 0.43 kg for females and 35.94 ?? 0.45 kg for males in northwestern Minnesota (females: r2 = 0.79, P < 0.02; males: r2 = 0.63, P = 0.06). These mass differences add morphological information to the identities of eastern and western wolves and support the view that ranges of the two species meet in Minnesota. ?? 2008 NRC.

  14. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance. PMID:26343709

  15. Body Work: Childhood, Gender and School Health Education in England, 1870-1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on a neglected topic in the historical sociology of childhood, namely health education, and explores a neglected theme, namely the gendered character of (re)constructions of childhood. Drawing on primary sources, the article argues that while health education for children played an important role in a broader set of British…

  16. Gender and Body Concerns in Adolescent Females: Single Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensinger, Janell

    This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…

  17. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  18. Power, Jobs and Bodies: The Experiences of Becoming a Gender Scholar in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danowitz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that doctoral students' learning and experiences are influenced by their relationships and predominant organizational norms and structures, create gender inequality and discourage or prevent alternative behaviors. However, there is very little empirical information on the nature of doctoral experiences and organizational…

  19. Increased body mass in infancy and early toddlerhood in Angelman syndrome patients with uniparental disomy and imprinting center defects.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Marie-Luise; Adam, Margaret P; Seaver, Laurie H; Myers, Angela; Schelley, Susan; Zadeh, Neda; Hudgins, Louanne; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Angelman syndrome (AS) is based on clinical features and genetic testing. Developmental delay, severe speech impairment, ataxia, atypical behavior and microcephaly by two years of age are typical. Feeding difficulties in young infants and obesity in late childhood can also be seen. The NIH Angelman-Rett-Prader-Willi Consortium and others have documented genotype-phenotype associations including an increased body mass index in children with uniparental disomy (UPD) or imprinting center (IC) defects. We recently encountered four cases of infantile obesity in non-deletion AS cases, and therefore examined body mass measures in a cohort of non-deletion AS cases. We report on 16 infants and toddlers (ages 6 to 44 months; 6 female, and 10 male) with severe developmental delay. Birth weights were appropriate for gestational age in most cases, >97th% in one case and not available in four cases. The molecular subclass case distribution consisted of: UPD (n = 2), IC defect (n = 3), UPD or IC defect (n = 3), and UBE3A mutation (n = 8). Almost all (7 out of 8) UPD, IC and UPD/IC cases went on to exhibit >90th% age- and gender-appropriate weight for height or BMI within the first 44 months. In contrast, no UBE3A mutation cases exhibited obesity or pre-obesity measures (percentiles ranged from <3% to 55%). These findings demonstrate that increased body mass may be evident as early as the first year of life and highlight the utility of considering the diagnosis of AS in the obese infant or toddler with developmental delay, especially when severe. Although a mechanism explaining the association of UPD, and IC defects with obesity has not been identified, recognition of this correlation may inform investigation of imprinting at the PWS/AS locus and obesity. PMID:25402239

  20. Bone and body mass changes during space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Oganov, V.; LeBlanc, A.; Rakmonov, A.; Taggart, L.; Bakulin, A.; Huntoon, C.; Grigoriev, A.; Varonin, L.

    Long duration space flight has shown us that humans have significant bone loss and mineral changes because they are living in microgravity. Skylab and the longer Salyut and Mir missions, are providing us useful data and allowing us to explore the mechanism involved in skeletal turnover. Bone redistribution occurs throughout space flight with bone loss predominately in the weight bearing bones of posture and locomotion. The primary health hazards which may occur during space flight induced by skeletal changes include signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia, and the risk of kidney stones and metastatic calcification. After flight lengthy recovery of bone mass and the possible increase in the risk of bone fracture should be considered. Continued research studies are being directed toward determining the mechanisms by which bone is lost in space and developing more effective countermeasures by both the US (Schneider and McDonald, 1984 and Schneider, LeBlanc & Huntoon, 1993) and Russian (Grigoriev et. al., 1989) space programs.

  1. The use of body mass loss to estimate metabolic rate in birds.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Guillemette, Magella

    2011-03-01

    During starvation, energy production occurs at the expense of body reserve utilisation which results in body mass loss. Knowing the role of the fuels involved in this body mass loss, along with their energy density, can allow an energy equivalent of mass loss to be calculated. Therefore, it is possible to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE) if two body mass loss measurements at an interval of a few days are obtained. The technique can be cheap, minimally stressful for the animals involved, and the data relatively simple to gather. Here we review the use of body mass loss to estimate DEE in birds through critiquing the strengths and weaknesses of the technique, and detail the methodology and considerations that must be adhered to for accurate measures of DEE to be obtained. Owing to the biology of the species, the use of the technique has been used predominantly in Antarctic seabirds, particularly penguins and albatrosses. We demonstrate how reliable the technique can be in predicting DEE in a non-Antarctic species, common eiders (Somateria mollissima), the female of which undergoes a fasting period during incubation. We conclude that using daily body mass loss to estimate DEE can be a useful and effective approach provided that (1) the substrate being consumed during mass loss is known, (2) the kinetics of body mass loss are understood for the species in question and (3) only species that enter a full phase II of a fast (where substrate catabolism reaches a steady state) and are not feeding for a period of time are appropriate for this method. PMID:21144908

  2. Lorentz Boosted Potential for a Two-Body System with Unequal Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, H.; Polyzou, W. N.; Witała, H.; Miyagawa, K.

    2014-04-01

    We produce a Lorentz boosted two-body potential for particles of different mass that is phase equivalent to a given realistic non-relativistic two-body potential. The relativistic potential is related to the nonrelativistic potential using the Coester-Pieper-Serduke scheme, which ensures that the same scattering wave functions are obtained from the relativistic and non-relativistic potentials. This implies that the phase shifts are identical functions of the relative momentum. To construct the potential we use an iterative scheme that generalizes one that has been applied successfully to two-body systems with equal masses.

  3. Differences between men and women in self-reported body mass index and its relation to drug use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a public health problem of alarming proportions, including among the university population in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the self-reported body mass index and the associated drug use and health-risk behaviors. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive study of 3,311 Chilean university students (17–24 years). The variables weight, height, frequency of physical activity, diet quality index, and drug use were evaluated by way of a self-report questionnaire. Results 16.7% of students were overweight and 2.1% were obese. Higher rates of overweight and obesity were observed in the men compared to women. There was a significant but moderate association between self-perceived obesity and being men and higher age, and just low with greater use of analgesics and tranquilizers with or without a prescription. Conclusions The punctual prevalence rates of self-reported obesity, in this sample, are consistent with other Latin American studies. The risk behaviors associated with perceived obesity in terms of gender, particularly the different pattern of drug use, highlight the importance of considering gender when designing strategies to promote health in a university setting. PMID:24383608

  4. [Determining of body mass index in adolescents from public schools in Piracicaba, São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Romero, Alexandre; Slater, Betzabeth; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Cezar, Cláudia; da Silva, Marina Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess determining factors of body mass index (BMI) in adolescents enrolled in public schools in Piracicaba, São Paulo. The sample had 328 adolescents from both genders; minimum age was 10 years old. We have assessed weight, height, sexual maturity, physical activity, and diet. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between independent variables and BMI. While girls considered physically active presented greater mean BMI than those insufficiently active, boys did not present statistical difference between mean BMI among those active and those insufficiently active. Sexual maturity was a determinant for BMI, for both genders, reinforcing the idea that it is essential to take this variable into account in studies that assess the nutritional situation in adolescents. We believe that the methods used in the present study, which are normally used in similar surveys, have important limitations to assess the influence of variables such as the level of physical activity and food intake on the BMI of adolescents. Thus, it is important to improve these methods and adopt them in further studies. PMID:20169241

  5. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  6. When are people interchangeable sexual objects? The effect of gender and body type on sexual fungibility.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Sarah J; Vescio, Theresa K; Allen, Jill

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the fungibility hypothesis derived from sexual objectification theory. Sexual objectification theorists have suggested that like objects, people, typically women, may be fungible or interchangeable with similar others. Despite its provocative nature and potential adverse psychological consequences, the fungibility hypothesis has yet to be empirically examined. We suggested that women, regardless of body types, but also men with body types that resemble the cultural ideal of attractiveness (e.g., large arms and chests and narrow waists), would be more fungible than men with body types that resemble the cultural average. Participants (n = 66) saw images of average and ideal women and men once before they completed a surprise matching task requiring that they match the bodies and faces that appeared together in the original images. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that women with ideal bodies, women with average bodies, and men with ideal bodies were more fungible (perceivers made more body-face pairing errors) than men with average bodies. Furthermore, it appears that when people are fungible they are interchangeable with people with similar body types. Implications and directions for future research on objectification and fungibility are discussed. PMID:23216316

  7. Dressing religious bodies in public spaces: gender, clothing and negotiations of stigma among Jews in Paris and muslims in London.

    PubMed

    Endelstein, Lucine; Ryan, Louise

    2013-06-01

    In recent years religious clothing has become prevalent across many European cities, making religious bodies more visible in public spaces. This paper brings together our separate research on Jews in Paris and Muslims in London. While recognising the clear differences between these two socio-political contexts and distinct religious groups, we suggest that a focus on clothing allows us to consider some points of similarity and difference in the presentation of gendered religious bodies, particularly in situations of heightened stigmatisation. We draw upon Goffman's notion of impression management, in contexts of risks and threats, to explore how individuals experience and negotiate self presentation as members of stigmatised religious groups. We use rich qualitative data based on indepth interviews to consider how, when faced with collective stigmatisation, actors make deliberate and measured choices to present themselves and attempt to impression manage. PMID:23307497

  8. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  9. Body mass index and mortality in nonsmoking older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Diehr, P; Bild, D E; Harris, T B; Duxbury, A; Siscovick, D; Rossi, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the relationship of body mass index to 5-year mortality in a cohort of 4317 nonsmoking men and women aged 65 to 100 years. METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict mortality as a function of baseline body mass index, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between body mass index and mortality; death rates were higher for those who weighed the least. Inclusion of covariates had trivial effects on these results. People who had lost 10% or more of their body weight since age 50 had a relatively high death rate. When that group was excluded, there was no remaining relationship between body mass index and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The association between higher body mass index and mortality often found in middle-aged populations was not observed in this large cohort of older adults. Over-weight does not seem to be a risk factor for 5-year mortality in this age group. Rather, the risks associated with significant weight loss should be the primary concern. PMID:9551005

  10. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N.; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2015-01-01

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  11. Gene-environment interactions related to body mass: School policies and social context as environmental moderators

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Roettger, Michael E.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Harris, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of institutional resources and policies, whose origins lie in political processes, in shaping the genetic etiology of body mass among a national sample of adolescents. Using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we decompose the variance of body mass into environmental and genetic components. We then examine the extent to which the genetic influences on body mass are different across the 134 schools in the study. Taking advantage of school differences in both health-related policies and social norms regarding body size, we examine how institutional resources and policies alter the relative impact of genetic influences on body mass. For the entire sample, we estimate a heritability of .82, with the remaining .18 due to unique environmental factors. However, we also show variation about this estimate and provide evidence suggesting that social norms and institutional policies often mask genetic vulnerabilities to increased weight. Empirically, we demonstrate that more-restrictive school policies and policies designed to curb weight gain are also associated with decreases the proportion of variance in body mass that is due to additive genetic influences. PMID:23236222

  12. The role of body mass in diet contiguity and food-web structure

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B.; Rezende, Enrico L.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Summary The idea that species occupy distinct niches is a fundamental concept in ecology. Classically, the niche was described as an n-dimensional hypervolume where each dimension represents a biotic or abiotic characteristic. More recently, it has been hypothesised that a single dimension may be sufficient to explain the system-level organization of trophic interactions observed between species in a community.Here, we test the hypothesis that species body mass is that single dimension. Specifically, we determine how the intervality of food webs ordered by body size compares to that of randomly ordered food webs. We also extend this analysis beyond the community level to the effect of body mass in explaining the diets of individual species.We conclude that body mass significantly explains the ordering of species and the contiguity of diets in empirical communities.At the species-specific level, we find that the degree to which body mass is a significant explanatory variable depends strongly on the phylogenetic history, suggesting that other evolutionarily conserved traits partly account for species’ roles in the food web.Our investigation of the role of body mass in food webs thus helps us to better understand the important features of community food-web structure and the evolutionary forces that have led us to the communities we observe. PMID:21401590

  13. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. PMID:26674947

  14. Fitness in animals correlates with proximity to discontinuities in body mass distributions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Almeida, David

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous structure in landscapes may cause discontinuous, aggregated species body-mass patterns, reflecting the scales of structure available to animal communities within a landscape. Empirical analyses have shown that the location of species within body mass aggregations, which reflect this scale-specific organization, is non-random with regard to several ecological phenomena, including species extinctions. The propensity of declining species to have body masses proximate to discontinuities suggests that transition zones between scaling regimes ultimately decreases the ecological fitness for some species. We test this proposition using vulnerable and unthreatened fish species in Mediterranean streams with differing levels of human impact. We show that the proximity to discontinuities in body mass aggregations (“distance-to-edge”) of more vs. less fit individuals within vulnerable and unthreatened populations differs. Specifically, regression analysis between the scaled mass index, a proxy of animal fitness, and distance-to-edge reveals negative and positive relationships for vulnerable and unthreatened species, respectively. That is, fitness is higher close to discontinuities in vulnerable populations and toward the center of body mass aggregation groups in unthreatened populations. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the discontinuity framework for scrutinizing non-random patterns of environmental impact in populations. Further exploration of the usefulness of this method across other ecosystems and organism groups is warranted.

  15. An examination of the relation of gender, mass media influence, and loneliness to disordered eating among college students.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Pritchard, M E

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that mass media influence and loneliness relate to disordered eating behaviors in women, but little is known about this relation in men. The present study examined the relations among disordered eating patterns, gender, mass media influence, and loneliness in male and female college students. Results of a stepwise regression revealed that disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test-26) were predicted by mass media influence, gender, and loneliness, respectively. In the present study both male and female college students appear susceptible to developing disordered eating patterns. Clinicians may wish to address unrealistic comparisons to media and client interpersonal skills when designing treatment plans. PMID:19934629

  16. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods

    PubMed Central

    Brassey, Charlotte A.; Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses. PMID:25740841

  17. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-03-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082-2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses. PMID:25740841

  18. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  19. Nonlinearity in apparent mass and transmissibility of the supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-07-01

    Resonance frequencies evident in the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the human body decrease with increasing vibration magnitude, but the mechanisms responsible for this nonlinearity have not been established. This experiment was designed to explore the effects of body location on the nonlinearity of the body in supine postures. In a group of 12 male subjects, the apparent mass and transmissibility to the sternum, upper abdomen, and lower abdomen were measured in three postures (relaxed semi-supine, flat supine and constrained semi-supine) with vertical random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at seven vibration magnitudes (nominally 0.0313, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 ms -2 rms). In all three postures, the apparent mass resonance frequencies and the primary peak frequencies in the transmissibilities to the upper and lower abdomen decreased with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. Nonlinearity generally apparent in transmissibility to the abdomen was less evident in transmissibility to the sternum and less evident in transmissibilities to the abdomen at vibration magnitudes less than 0.125 ms -2 rms. The nonlinearity was more apparent in the flat supine posture than in the semi-supine postures. The findings are consistent with the nonlinearity being associated with the response of soft tissues, more likely a consequence of passive thixotropy than muscle activity.

  20. The roles of body mass and gravity in determining the energy requirements of homoiotherms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies by Kleiber and by Brody in the 1930's established the 3/4 power of body weight as the unit of metabolic size for homoiotherms. Later Kleiber conceived of the energy requirement as a composite function, with a thermoregulatory component that is proportional to heat loss, and an antigravity component that is directly proportional to body weight. Maintenance feed requirements (F) have been measured with groups of small animals chronically exposed to several acceleration fields (G). Analysis of the results leads to an arithmetic relationship between the maintenance requirement and acceleration field strength: F sub G = F sub 0 + kG. When the equations are compared for groups of different body size, F sub 0 tends to vary between the 0.4 and 0.5 power of body mass - and k tends to be the same, irrespective of body mass. These findings tend to confirm the Kleiber concept of a composite nature of homoiotherm maintenance requirements.

  1. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  2. Body mass affects seasonal variation in sickness intensity in a seasonally breeding rodent

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Species that display seasonal variation in sickness intensity show the most intense response in the season during which they have the highest body mass, suggesting that sickness intensity may be limited by an animal's energy stores. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) display lower body masses and less intense sickness when housed in short, winter-like days as opposed to long, summer-like days. To determine whether reduced sickness intensity displayed by short-day hamsters is a product of seasonal changes in body mass, we food restricted long-day hamsters so that they exhibited body mass loss that mimicked the natural photoperiod-induced loss of body mass in short-day hamsters. We then experimentally induced sickness with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and compared sickness responses among long-day food-restricted and long- and short-day ad libitum fed groups, predicting that long-day food-restricted hamsters would show sickness responses comparable to those of short-day ad libitum fed hamsters and attenuated in comparison to long-day ad libitum fed hamsters. We found that long-day food-restricted hamsters showed attenuated LPS-induced anorexia, loss of body mass and hypothermia compared with long-day ad libitum fed animals; however, anorexia remained elevated in long-day food-restricted animals compared with short-day ad libitum fed animals. Additionally, LPS-induced anhedonia and decreases in nest building were not influenced by body mass. Results of hormone assays suggest that cortisol levels could play a role in the attenuation of sickness in long-day food-restricted hamsters, indicating that future research should target the roles of glucocorticoids and natural variation in energy stores in seasonal sickness variation. PMID:25852068

  3. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  4. Quantitative interpretation of tracks for determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  5. Quantitative Interpretation of Tracks for Determination of Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Schanz, Tom; Lins, Yvonne; Viefhaus, Hanna; Barciaga, Thomas; Läbe, Sashima; Preuschoft, Holger; Witzel, Ulrich; Sander, P. Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the biology of extinct animals, experimentation with extant animals and innovative numerical approaches have grown in recent years. This research project uses principles of soil mechanics and a neoichnological field experiment with an African elephant to derive a novel concept for calculating the mass (i.e., the weight) of an animal from its footprints. We used the elephant's footprint geometry (i.e., vertical displacements, diameter) in combination with soil mechanical analyses (i.e., soil classification, soil parameter determination in the laboratory, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and gait analysis) for the back analysis of the elephant's weight from a single footprint. In doing so we validated the first component of a methodology for calculating the weight of extinct dinosaurs. The field experiment was conducted under known boundary conditions at the Zoological Gardens Wuppertal with a female African elephant. The weight of the elephant was measured and the walking area was prepared with sediment in advance. Then the elephant was walked across the test area, leaving a trackway behind. Footprint geometry was obtained by laser scanning. To estimate the dynamic component involved in footprint formation, the velocity the foot reaches when touching the subsoil was determined by the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Soil parameters were identified by performing experiments on the soil in the laboratory. FEA was then used for the backcalculation of the elephant's weight. With this study, we demonstrate the adaptability of using footprint geometry in combination with theoretical considerations of loading of the subsoil during a walk and soil mechanical methods for prediction of trackmakers weight. PMID:24204890

  6. No evidence for directional evolution of body mass in herbivorous theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-22

    The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. Here, we reconstruct body mass in the three major subclades of non-avian theropod dinosaurs whose ecomorphology is correlated with extrinsic evidence of at least facultative herbivory in the fossil record--all of which also achieve relative gigantism (more than 3000 kg). Ordinary least-squares regressions on natural log-transformed mean mass recover significant correlations between increasing mass and geological time. However, tests for directional evolution in body mass find no support for a phylogenetic trend, instead favouring passive models of trait evolution. Cross-correlation of sympatric taxa from five localities in Asia reveals that environmental influences such as differential habitat sampling and/or taphonomic filtering affect the preserved record of dinosaurian body mass in the Cretaceous. Our results are congruent with studies documenting that behavioural and/or ecological factors may mitigate the benefit of increasing mass in extant taxa, and suggest that the hypothesis can be extrapolated to herbivorous lineages across geological time scales. PMID:23193135

  7. Gender Differences in the Experience of Body Awareness: An Experiential Sampling Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores how the different social pressures on men and women, with respect to their physical appearance, might influence their respective experiences of their bodies during normal daily activities. Subjects' body esteem and beliefs about the importance of their physical self in attracting the opposite sex are measured. (JS)

  8. Gender, Pubertal Development, and Peer Sexual Harassment Predict Objectified Body Consciousness in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2007-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…

  9. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  10. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  11. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  12. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: I. Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    Increasing levels of obesity are having an increasingly adverse impact on individual and societal health. While much effort is directed to the harmful consequences of excess body mass on the cardiovascular system, there is relatively little research on how obesity compromises the response of the musculoskeletal system across the complete range of body types. This shortfall is addressed here by a comprehensive physics-based approach to produce a wide spectrum of representative adults, who are carefully chosen to cover both sexes, a full spread of percentiles for stature, and multiple weight levels. The latter encompass healthy, overweight and obese conditions defined by the standard parameter, body mass index (BMI). The distribution of body mass is computed for female and male subjects at all height percentiles and values of BMI to generate a detailed description of a diverse population. This cohort can then be examined for more advanced aspects of musculoskeleture, an important precursor for which is included here by calculating the extent of excess body mass at each body part as a function of BMI.

  13. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  14. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  15. Associations between family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in obese youth.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the associations among family religious practices, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, and body mass index in a sample of severely obese youth referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. The sample consisted of 43 obese youth (body mass index > 95th percentile) aged 6-16 years (mean age = 12.67 years). Approximately 93% of families endorsed their religious faith as Christian or Catholic. Parents of youth were administered a demographic questionnaire, religiosity questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Three multiple linear regression models were examined with body mass index percentile, Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Scale as outcome variables. A parent endorsing greater importance of religious faith in shaping family life was associated with lower child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05) in the present sample. Greater family attendance at religious services was associated with higher child body mass index percentile (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that church-based interventions may be one viable option for the delivery of lifestyle interventions in families of youth with severe obesity. PMID:25921774

  16. Development of a pediatric body mass index using longitudinal single-index models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingwei; Tu, Wanzhu

    2016-04-01

    As a measure of human adiposity, the body mass index, defined as weight/height(2), has been widely used in clinical investigations. For children undergoing pubertal development, whether this function of height and weight represents an optimal way of quantifying body mass for assessing of specific health outcomes has not been carefully studied. In this study, we propose an alternative pediatric body mass measure for prediction of blood pressure based on recorded height and weight data using single-index modeling techniques. Specifically, we present a general form of partially linear single-index mixed effect models for the determination of this new metric. A methodological contribution of this research is the development of an efficient algorithm for the fitting of a general class of partially linear single-index models in longitudinal data situations. The proposed model and related model fitting algorithm are easily implementable in most computational platforms. Simulation demonstrates superior performance of the new method, as compared to the standard body mass index measure. Using the proposed method, we explore an alternative body mass measure for the prediction of blood pressure in children. The method is potentially useful for the construction of other indices for specific investigations. PMID:23302518

  17. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  18. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Increased Creatinine Clearance by a Mechanism Independent of Body Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gerchman, Fernando; Tong, Jenny; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Zraika, Sakeneh; Udayasankar, Jayalakshmi; McNeely, Marguerite J.; Carr, Darcy B.; Leonetti, Donna L.; Young, Bessie A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Boyko, Edward J.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.; Kahn, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although obesity has been, in general, associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, visceral adiposity has been suggested to be associated with reduced glomerular filtration. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the differential effects of obesity and body fat distribution on glomerular filtration. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Japanese-American community in Seattle, Washington. Participants: We studied a representative sample of second-generation Japanese-American men and women with normal glucose tolerance (n = 124) and impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) (n = 144) residing in King County, Washington. Main Outcome Measures: Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by 24-h urinary creatinine clearance, body size by body mass index (BMI), and intra-abdominal fat (IAF), sc fat (SCF), and lean thigh areas by CT scan. Results: Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.429; P < 0.001), fasting glucose (r = 0.198; P = 0.001), and insulin levels (r = 0.125; P = 0.042), as well as IAF (r = 0.239; P < 0.001), SCF (r = 0.281; P < 0.001), and lean thigh (r = 0.353; P < 0.001) areas. The association between creatinine clearance and BMI remained significant after adjustments for IAF, SCF areas, and fasting insulin levels (r = 0.337; P < 0.001); whereas IAF and SCF areas were not independently associated with creatinine clearance after adjusting for BMI. Creatinine clearance increased with increasing BMI after adjusting for fasting insulin, fasting glucose, IAF and SCF areas in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (r = 0.432; P < 0.001) and impaired glucose metabolism (r = 0.471; P < 0.001). Conclusions: BMI rather than body fat distribution is an independent determinant of creatinine clearance in nondiabetic subjects. Lean body mass, rather than adiposity, may explain this association. PMID:19584179

  19. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  20. N-body experiments and missing mass in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H.; Hintzen, P.; Sofia, S.; Oegerle, W.; Scott, J.; Holman, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the distributions of surface density and radial-velocity dispersion in clusters of galaxies are sensitive tracers of the underlying distribution of any unseen mass. N-body experiments have been used to test this assumption. Calculations with equal-mass systems indicate that the effects of the underlying mass distribution cannot be detected by observations of the surface-density or radial-velocity distributions, and the existence of an extended binding mass in all well-studied clusters would be consistent with available observations.

  1. Body, gender, and disease: the female breast in late imperial Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Li

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the diverse ways in which Chinese medical experts historically gendered breast disease as a female ailment. By comparing representations of the female breast from the "Imperially-Compiled Golden Mirror of Medical Learning (Yuzuan yizong jinjian, 1742)" to those from earlier and contemporary texts, this paper analyzes how breast disease was alternately categorized as an ailment of childbearing and as a disease rooted in pathological female emotion. Medical awareness of breast disease in men did somewhat challenge these connections between womanhood and disease. Nevertheless, medical illustrations of women helped to reinforce the idea that breast disease was a characteristically female problem. PMID:22069795

  2. Minding the body: situating gender identity diagnoses in the ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Winter, Sam

    2012-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of revising the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) and ICD-11 has an anticipated publication date of 2015. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health (WGSDSH) is charged with evaluating clinical and research data to inform the revision of diagnostic categories related to sexuality and gender identity that are currently included in the mental and behavioural disorders chapter of ICD-10, and making initial recommendations regarding whether and how these categories should be represented in the ICD-11. The diagnostic classification of disorders related to (trans)gender identity is an area long characterized by lack of knowledge, misconceptions and controversy. The placement of these categories has shifted over time within both the ICD and the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), reflecting developing views about what to call these diagnoses, what they mean and where to place them. This article reviews several controversies generated by gender identity diagnoses in recent years. In both the ICD-11 and DSM-5 development processes, one challenge has been to find a balance between concerns related to the stigmatization of mental disorders and the need for diagnostic categories that facilitate access to healthcare. In this connection, this article discusses several human rights issues related to gender identity diagnoses, and explores the question of whether affected populations are best served by placement of these categories within the mental disorders section of the classification. The combined stigmatization of being transgender and of having a mental disorder diagnosis creates a doubly burdensome situation for this group, which may contribute adversely to health status and to the attainment and enjoyment of human rights. The ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and

  3. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Effect of seat backrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on various characteristics of the seat and the dynamic response of the human body. The dynamic response of the body can be represented by its apparent mass, but the effect of the seat on the apparent mass of the body is not well understood. This study was designed to quantify the effect of foam and rigid backrests on the vertical apparent mass of the human measured at the seat surface supporting the body. The apparent masses of 12 subjects were measured during exposure to random vertical vibration (1.0 ms -2 rms from 0.125 to 40 Hz) in a seat with a rigid backrest, in the same rigid seat with three thicknesses of foam backrest (50, 100 and 150 mm), and in the same seat with no backrest. The backrests were inclined at various angles: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25° and 30° for the rigid and 100 mm foam backrests, and 0°, 10°, 20° and 30° for the 50 and 150 mm foam backrests. With all vertical backrests (i.e., 0° inclination), there were resonances in the apparent mass of the body around 5 and 10 Hz. With no backrest, the apparent mass was increased at frequencies less than the resonance frequency but decreased at frequencies between 8 and 20 Hz, relative to the apparent mass with the vertical rigid and foam backrests. With the rigid backrest, the primary resonance frequencies in the apparent mass increased with increasing backrest inclination. With the foam backrests, the resonance frequencies decreased with increasing backrest inclination. At frequencies less than the primary resonance, the apparent mass decreased with increasing backrest inclination, particularly with the rigid backrest. Between 8 and 15 Hz, the apparent mass decreased with increasing inclination, most notably with the foam backrests. At inclinations less than 30°, there was little effect of foam thickness on the apparent mass, but at 30° an increase in the thickness of the foam decreased the frequency of the first resonances. Since

  4. Beetroot juice increase nitric oxide metabolites in both men and women regardless of body mass.

    PubMed

    Baião, Diego dos Santos; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-01-01

    The nitrate (NO3(-)) present in beetroot juice (BJ) has been studied for its effect on the cardiovascular system by converting to nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of BJ on the excretion of NO metabolites and its relationship with body mass in both men and women. NO metabolites - urinary NO3(-), nitrite (NO2(-)) and NOx were analyzed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography system. There were significant increases in urinary NO3(-), NO2(-) and NOx in BJ as compared to PLA (BJ without NO3(-)). No significant difference between men and women was observed in NO metabolites after BJ at any time point. There were no significant relationships between urinary NO3(-), NO2(-) and NOx and body mass in BJ intervention for both men and women. In conclusion, urinary NO metabolites after BJ consumption increases in similar manner between sexes regardless of body mass. PMID:26653541

  5. Weighing potential candidates for kidney transplant: the ethics of exclusion for elevated body mass index.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    With more than 80 000 patients in the United States on waiting lists for a kidney-and more than 100 000 patients beginning treatment for end-stage renal disease each year-transplant programs must evaluate potential recipients in a fair and efficient manner. To this end, certain "absolute exclusion criteria" have been proposed to screen out candidates who will not sufficiently benefit from transplant. Some programs use elevated body mass index as such an exclusion criterion, given that some studies have reported an association with increased risk of delayed graft function and acute rejection, longer hospitalization, and decreased overall graft survival. Upon further examination, however, elevated body mass index turns out to be a poor evaluative criterion for transplant candidates, as it is only variably associated with negative transplant outcomes. Moreover, use of a body mass index cutoff is potentially discriminatory and may mask underlying prejudice against persons of size. PMID:23187054

  6. THE WEIGHT OF SUCCESS: THE BODY MASS INDEX AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We show that body mass increases with economic resources among most Southern Africans, although not all. Among Black South Africans the relationship is non-decreasing over virtually the entire range of incomes/wealth. Furthermore in this group other measures of “success” (e.g., employment and education) are also associated with increases in body mass. This is true in both 1998 (the Demographic and Health Survey) and 2008 (National Income Dynamics Survey). A similar relationship holds among residents of Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Malawi, and Namibia. This suggests that body mass can be used as a crude measure of well-being. This allows us to examine the vexed question in South African labor economics whether there is involuntary unemployment. The fact that the unemployed are lighter than the employed, even when we control for household fixed effects, suggests that they are not choosing this state. PMID:26199456

  7. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  8. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central obesity is thought to be more pathogenic than overall obesity and studies have shown that the association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality was strongest in those with a normal body mass index (BMI). The objective of our study was to determine secular trends in the prevalence of central obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) among Chinese adults with normal BMI from 1993 to 2009 and to examine the impact of performance of combined BMI and WC on the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults. Methods We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted from 1993 to 2009. From which we included a total of 52023 participants aged ≥ 18 years. Results The age-standardized prevalence of central obesity among Chinese adults with BMI < 25 kg/m2 increased from 11.9% in 1993 to 21.1% in 2009 (P for linear trend <0.001). The upward trends were noted in both genders, all ages, rural/urban settings, and education groups (all P for linear trend <0.001), with greater increments in men, participants aged 18–64 years, and rural residents (P for interaction terms survey × sex, survey × age, and survey × rural/urban settings were 0.042, 0.003, and < 0.001, respectively). Trends in the prevalence of central obesity were similar when a more stringent BMI < 23 kg/m2 cut point (Asian cut point) was applied. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. More than 65% individuals with obesity would be missed if solely BMI was measured. Conclusions We observed an upward trend in the prevalence of central obesity among participants with normal BMI irrespective of sex, age, rural/urban settings, and education level. Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension within normal BMI category. Approximately two thirds of the individuals with obesity would be missed if WC was not measured. It is, therefore, urgent to emphasize the importance of

  9. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  10. A body shape index and heart rate variability in healthy indians with low body mass index.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy; Sucharita, Sambashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    Background. One third of Indian population is said to be suffering from chronic energy deficiency (CED), with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A new anthropometric measure called A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is said to be a better index in predicting risks for premature mortality. ABSI is also in part said to be a surrogate of visceral fat. Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between indices of HRV (heart rate variability), BMI, WC, and ABSI in healthy Indian males with low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) and to compare with normal BMI group (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)). Methodology. ABSI and BMI were derived from anthropometric parameters, namely, height, weight, and waist circumference in 178 males aged 18 to 78 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their BMI. Results and Conclusions. Power spectral analysis of HRV demonstrated a significant negative correlation between Log HF (high frequency) and ABSI in both low BMI [-24.2 (9.4), P < 0.05] and normal BMI group [-23.41 (10.1), P < 0.05] even after controlling for age. Thus even with slight increase in BMI among low BMI individuals, there could be a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25371818

  11. A Body Shape Index and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Indians with Low Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy; Sucharita, Sambashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    Background. One third of Indian population is said to be suffering from chronic energy deficiency (CED), with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A new anthropometric measure called A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is said to be a better index in predicting risks for premature mortality. ABSI is also in part said to be a surrogate of visceral fat. Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between indices of HRV (heart rate variability), BMI, WC, and ABSI in healthy Indian males with low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and to compare with normal BMI group (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2). Methodology. ABSI and BMI were derived from anthropometric parameters, namely, height, weight, and waist circumference in 178 males aged 18 to 78 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their BMI. Results and Conclusions. Power spectral analysis of HRV demonstrated a significant negative correlation between Log HF (high frequency) and ABSI in both low BMI [−24.2 (9.4), P < 0.05] and normal BMI group [−23.41 (10.1), P < 0.05] even after controlling for age. Thus even with slight increase in BMI among low BMI individuals, there could be a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25371818

  12. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    De Laet, C; Kanis, J A; Odén, A; Johanson, H; Johnell, O; Delmas, P; Eisman, J A; Kroger, H; Fujiwara, S; Garnero, P; McCloskey, E V; Mellstrom, D; Melton, L J; Meunier, P J; Pols, H A P; Reeve, J; Silman, A; Tenenhouse, A

    2005-11-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-documented risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this effect and to explore the association of BMI with fracture risk in relation to age, gender and bone mineral density (BMD) from an international perspective using worldwide data. We studied individual participant data from almost 60,000 men and women from 12 prospective population-based cohorts comprising Rotterdam, EVOS/EPOS, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Dubbo, EPIDOS, OFELY, Kuopio, Hiroshima, and two cohorts from Gothenburg, with a total follow-up of over 250,000 person years. The effects of BMI, BMD, age and gender on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson regression model in each cohort separately. The results of the different studies were then merged. Without information on BMD, the age-adjusted risk for any type of fracture increased significantly with lower BMI. Overall, the risk ratio (RR) per unit higher BMI was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99) for any fracture, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.98) for osteoporotic fracture and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94) for hip fracture (all p <0.001). The RR per unit change in BMI was very similar in men and women ( p >0.30). After adjusting for BMD, these RR became 1 for any fracture or osteoporotic fracture and 0.98 for hip fracture (significant in women). The gradient of fracture risk without adjustment for BMD was not linearly distributed across values for BMI. Instead, the contribution to fracture risk was much more marked at low values of BMI than at values above the median. This nonlinear relation of risk with BMI was most evident for hip fracture risk. When compared with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), a BMI of 20 kg/m(2) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in risk ratio (RR=1.95; 95% CI, 1.71-2.22) for hip fracture. In contrast, a BMI of 30 kg/m(2), when compared with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), was associated with only a 17

  13. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird.

    PubMed

    Hennin, Holly L; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Love, Oliver P

    2016-03-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass. PMID:26925215

  14. Body mass estimation in xenarthra: a predictive equation suitable for all quadrupedal terrestrial placentals?

    PubMed

    De Esteban-Trivigno, Soledad; Mendoza, Manuel; De Renzi, Miquel

    2008-10-01

    The Magnorder Xenarthra includes strange extinct groups, like glyptodonts, similar to large armadillos, and ground sloths, terrestrial relatives of the extant tree sloths. They have created considerable paleobiological interest in the last decades; however, the ecology of most of these species is still controversial or unknown. The body mass estimation of extinct species has great importance for paleobiological reconstructions. The commonest way to estimate body mass from fossils is through linear regression. However, if the studied species does not have similar extant relatives, the allometric pattern described by the regression could differ from those shown by the extinct group. That is the case for glyptodonts and ground sloths. Thus, stepwise multiple regression were developed including extant xenarthrans (their taxonomic relatives) and ungulates (their size and ecological relatives). Cases were weighted to maximize the taxonomic evenness. Twenty-eight equations were obtained. The distribution of the percent of prediction error (%PE) was analyzed between taxonomic groups (Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, and Xenarthra) and size groups (0-20 kg, 20-300 kg, and more than 300 kg). To assess the predictive power of the functions, equations were applied to species not included in the regression development [test set cross validation, (TSCV)]. Only five equations had a homogeneous %PE between the aforementioned groups. These were applied to five extinct species. A mean body mass of 80 kg was estimated for Propalaehoplophorus australis (Cingulata: Glyptodontidae), 594 kg for Scelidotherium leptocephalum (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae), and 3,550.7 kg for Lestodon armatus (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae). The high scatter of the body mass estimations obtained for Catonyx tarijensis (Phyllophaga: Mylodontidae) and Thalassocnus natans (Phyllophaga: Megatheriidae), probably due to different specializations, prevented us from predicting its body mass. Surprisingly, although obtained

  15. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  16. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Methods: We systematically reviewed electronic medical records from a tertiary academic medical center and identified adolescents (age 13–18 years) who were overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) and had a depression diagnosis. Patients were seen from January 1, 2000, through January 1, 2010. Age- and sex-standardized body mass index scores were calculated at initiation of antidepressant medication and at the end of treatment. Unmedicated patients had baseline and final age- and sex-standardized body mass index calculated using the first and last recorded measurements in the study period (maximum time between measures was 5 years). Results: In total, 435 patients (301 female) met our inclusion criteria; of these, 255 were prescribed an antidepressant (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, tricyclic antidepressant, or dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor). Age- and sex-standardized body mass index significantly increased (F1,193=14.34; P<0.001) only for adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For patients receiving other medications or no medication, age- and sex-standardized body mass index did not change significantly. Conclusion: This study provides initial empiric evidence for a link between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and weight gain in already overweight adolescents. Further study of antidepressant use and weight gain in other pediatric populations and in prospective studies is warranted. PMID:25621183

  17. Body shape index versus body mass index as correlates of health risk in young healthy sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Malara, Marzena; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Lutosławska, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new simply calculated index of body composition -a body shape index (ABSI) has been introduced as an index more reliable than BMI of association between body composition and all-cause mortality. However, until now associations between ABSI and metabolic risk factors have not been evaluated. A total of 114 male university students not engaged in any planned physical activity participated in the present study. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference) were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from weight and height, body shape index (ABSI) was calculated from waist circumference, weight, height and BMI. Blood was withdrawn after an overnight fast from the antecubital vein. Triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma were determined using colorimetric methods and Randox commercial kits. Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations were calculated according to the Friedewald formula. Circulating insulin was assayed using a standard radioimmunological method with monoclonal antibodies against insulin and BioSource commercial kits. BMI was slightly, but significantly correlated only with circulating TG (r=0.330, p < 0.001) In contrast, ABSI was slightly, but significantly correlated with plasma levels of insulin (r=0.360, p<0.001), TC (r=0.270, p<0.002), LDL-C and non-HDL-C (r=0.300, p<0.001). In participants at the upper quartile of BMI circulating TG was higher (by 50%, p<0.05) than in their counterparts at the lower BMI quartile. Subjects representing the upper quartile of ABSI were characterized by higher plasma levels of insulin, TC, LDL-C and non-HDL in comparison with subjects at the lower ABSI quartile. (by 92 %, 11. %, 29 % and 21 % respectively, p<0.001). ABSI, a new simply calculated index of body fat seems to more accurately depict the variability in circulating insulin and lipoproteins than BMI at least in young, healthy male subjects. PMID:25890016

  18. Bone architectural and structural properties after 56Fe26+ radiation-induced changes in body mass.

    PubMed

    Willey, J S; Grilly, L G; Howard, S H; Pecaut, M J; Obenaus, A; Gridley, D S; Nelson, G A; Bateman, T A

    2008-08-01

    High-energy, high-charge (HZE) radiation, including iron ions ((56)Fe(26+)), is a component of the space environment. We recently observed a profound loss of trabecular bone in mice after whole-body HZE irradiation. The goal of this study was to examine morphology in bones that were excluded from a (56)Fe(26+) beam used to irradiate the body. Using 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and excluding the hind limbs and pelvis, we irradiated animals with 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy (56)Fe(26+) ions and killed them humanely after 9 months. Animals grew throughout the experiment. Trabecular bone volume, connectivity and thickness within the proximal tibiae were significantly lower than control in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiated animals generally had less body mass than controls, which largely accounted for the variability in bone parameters as determined by ANCOVA. Likewise, lower cortical parameters were associated with reduced mass. However, lesser trabecular thickness in the 4-Gy group could not be attributed to body mass alone. Indicators of bone metabolism were generally unchanged, suggesting stabilized turnover. Exposure to (56)Fe(26+) ions can alter trabecular microarchitecture in shielded bones. Reduced body mass seems to be correlated with these deficits of trabecular and cortical bone. PMID:18666808

  19. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  20. The use of body mass changes as a practical measure of dehydration in team sports.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gemma; Meir, Rudi; Brooks, Lyndon; Holloway, Kate

    2008-11-01

    Body mass changes, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour were recorded during two games of soccer to determine which of these methods was the most practical in a field setting for monitoring dehydration. Members (n=13) of a premiership soccer team with a mean age of 22.6 (+/-4.9) years old, height of 177.8 (+/-7.1)cm and sum of skinfolds (four sites) of 37 (+/-12.8) were invited to participate in this study with 11 participating in each game. Players had weight, hematocrit, specific gravity and urine colour recorded pre- and post-game. Players were allowed to ingest fluid ad libitum throughout the matches with the amount consumed recorded. Urine excretion was also recorded and included in the calculation of final body mass loss (kg). A mean ambient temperature of 21 degrees C and relative humidity 77% was recorded for both games. Pre- and post-game body mass, sweat loss, hematocrit, urine specific gravity and colour were significantly different (p<0.01) for both games. Linear mixed effects models were fitted to the data in order to identify an optimal prediction equation for sweat loss. The model predicting from mass change was clearly the best fitting. The results demonstrate that a change in body mass during a game of soccer is an effective method of monitoring dehydration due to sweat loss when compared to other known methods that may be invasive and inappropriate in the field. PMID:17888734

  1. Body Mass Changes Associated With Hyper-Gravity are Independent of Adrenal Derived Hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Wang, Tommy J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Yuan, Fang; Fung, Cyra K.; Stein, T. Peter; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to hyper-gravity results in a number of metabolic changes associated with increases in catecholamines and corticosterone. These changes result in a loss of body and fat mass. To assess the role of hormones derived from the adrenal gland in the changes we studied sham operated (SO) and adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats exposed to hyper-gravity of 2 G for 14 days. Control groups at 1 G were also studied. Urinary epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone (CORT) were reduced in ADX animals. In response to 2 G there was an increase in urinary EPI and CORT in SO rats, while levels were unchanged in ADX animals. Both groups of animals had similar increases in urinary norepinephrine levels. The reductions of body mass gain in response to 2 G were the same in both groups. The decrease in relative fat mass was greater in ADX. Energy intake and expenditure were not different between groups. In response of returning to 1 G for 24 hours and reexposure to hyper-gravity there were no differences between SO and ADX in the changes of food and water intake, body mass or activity. The changes in metabolism with exposure to hyper-gravity do not appear to require hormones derived from the adrenal gland. The increase in lypolysis and alterations body and fat mass appear to be modulated by sympathetically derived norepinehrine.

  2. Effect of body mass on hibernation strategies of woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed

    Zervanos, Stam M; Maher, Christine R; Florant, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    The benefits of mammalian hibernation have been well documented. However, the physiological and ecological costs of torpor have been emphasized only recently as part of a hibernation-optimization hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that hibernators with greater availability of energy minimize costs of torpor by less frequent utilization of torpor and by maintaining higher body temperatures (T(b)) during torpor. In order to further examine the relationship between body mass and other parameters of hibernation, we present data, collected over a 12-year period, on the hibernation patterns of free-living woodchucks (Marmota monax) in southeastern Pennsylvania. Body mass was positively correlated with T(b) and negatively correlated with percentage of the heterothermic period spent in torpor. Thus, woodchucks with greater mass exhibited less time in torpor as a proportion of their heterothermic period and at higher T(b) than those with lesser mass. This strategy potentially enhances the physiological and physical ability of woodchucks to defend territories, avoid predation, find mates, and complete the reproductive cycle upon emergence from hibernation. Our results further support the hibernation-optimization hypothesis by demonstrating the relationship between body mass and characteristics of torpor and contributing toward a fuller understanding of this concept. PMID:24345658

  3. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    PubMed

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake. PMID:24797627

  4. Proton conductance and fatty acyl composition of liver mitochondria correlates with body mass in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Martin D; Turner, Nigel; Ocloo, Augustine; Else, Paul L; Hulbert, A J

    2003-01-01

    The proton conductance of isolated liver mitochondria correlates significantly with body mass in mammals, but not in ectotherms. To establish whether the correlation in mammals is general for endotherms or mammal-specific, we measured proton conductance in mitochondria from birds, the other main group of endotherms, using birds varying in mass over a wide range (nearly 3000-fold), from 13 g zebra finches to 35 kg emus. Respiratory control ratios were higher in mitochondria from larger birds. Mitochondrial proton conductance in liver mitochondria from birds correlated strongly with body mass [respiration rate per mg of protein driving proton leak at 170 mV being 44.7 times (body mass in g)(-0.19)], thus suggesting a general relationship between body mass and proton conductance in endotherms. Mitochondria from larger birds had the same or perhaps greater surface area per mg of protein than mitochondria from smaller birds. Hence, the lower proton conductance was caused not by surface area changes but by some change in the properties of the inner membrane. Liver mitochondria from larger birds had phospholipid fatty acyl chains that were less polyunsaturated and more monounsaturated when compared with those from smaller birds. Phospholipid fatty acyl polyunsaturation correlated positively and monounsaturation correlated negatively with proton conductance. These correlations echo those seen in mammalian liver mitochondria, suggesting that they too are general for endotherms. PMID:12943530

  5. Study on the connection between the rotating mass dipole and natural elongated bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Jiang, Fanghua; Li, Junfeng; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-03-01

    The focus of this paper is to connect the rotating mass dipole with natural elongated bodies. The dipole system is consisted with two point masses connected with a massless rod in a constant characteristic distance. A brief introduction on the dynamics near the rotating mass dipole is given with the distribution of its equilibrium points and zero-velocity curves. Five parameters of the dipole model are required to approximate the potential distribution of an elongated body out of the body's surface, including the mass ratio, system mass, spinning period, characteristic distance and the ratio between the gravitational and centrifugal forces. The method to obtain the five parameters is presented along with its application to the asteroid 1620 Geographos in detail. The accuracy of the dipole model is quantified with the relative tolerance of locations of the equilibrium points. Six more elongated asteroids and comets, such as 25143 Itokawa and 103P/Hartley-2, are illustrated to provide a reference for further studies. Model justification is evaluated through comparison between sample elongated bodies and their corresponding dipole models with regard to the external potential distribution, the stability and topological manifold structure of the equilibrium points.

  6. ‘Crohn'z meanz Heinz’: foreign body inflammatory mass mimicking Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Visagan, R; Grossman, R; Dimitriadis, P A; Desai, A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a patient with a presumed diagnosis of Crohn's disease for 6 years turning out to be an unusual inflammatory mass caused by ileal perforation due to a foreign body. When surgical intervention became necessary for admissions with recurrent obstruction, laparoscopy revealed an inflammatory mass in the terminal ileum, exposing two pieces of plastic bearing the word ‘Heinz’. Resection of the inflammatory mass led to the complete resolution of symptoms. Histology from the operative specimen showed no features of Crohn's disease. There were no granulomas and no fissuring ulcers. This case highlights that an inflammatory mass in the small intestine caused by the perforation of ingested foreign body can mimic Crohn's disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a synthetic plastic packaging causing ileo-caecal junctional perforation mimicking Crohn’s disease. PMID:23749825

  7. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  8. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception

    PubMed Central

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M.; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication. PMID:26834656

  9. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication. PMID:26834656

  10. Testing for size and allometric differences in fossil hominin body mass estimation.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Natalie M; Rainwater, Christopher W; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2013-06-01

    Body size reconstructions of fossil hominins allow us to infer many things about their evolution and lifestyle, including diet, metabolic requirements, locomotion, and brain/body size relationships. The importance of these implications compels anthropologists to attempt body mass estimation from fragmentary fossil hominin specimens. Most calculations require a known "calibration" sample usually composed of modern humans or other extant apes. Caution must be taken in these analyses, as estimates are sensitive to overall size and allometric differences between the fossil hominin and the reference sample. PMID:23588924

  11. Dynamical mass and multiplicity constraints on co-orbital bodies around stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Marsh, Thomas R.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-06-01

    Objects transiting near or within the disruption radius of both main sequence (e.g. KOI 1843) and white dwarf (WD 1145+017) stars are now known. Upon fragmentation or disintegration, these planets or asteroids may produce co-orbital configurations of nearly equal-mass objects. However, as evidenced by the co-orbital objects detected by transit photometry in the WD 1145+017 system, these bodies are largely unconstrained in size, mass, and total number (multiplicity). Motivated by potential future similar discoveries, we perform N-body simulations to demonstrate if and how debris masses and multiplicity may be bounded due to second-to-minute deviations and the resulting accumulated phase shifts in the osculating orbital period amongst multiple co-orbital equal point masses. We establish robust lower and upper mass bounds as a function of orbital period deviation, but find the constraints on multiplicity to be weak. We also quantify the fuzzy instability boundary, and show that mutual collisions occur in less than 5%, 10% and 20% of our simulations for masses of 1021, 1022 and 1023 kg. Our results may provide useful initial rough constraints on other stellar systems with multiple co-orbital bodies.

  12. Dynamical mass and multiplicity constraints on co-orbital bodies around stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Marsh, Thomas R.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-09-01

    Objects transiting near or within the disruption radius of both main-sequence (e.g. KOI 1843) and white dwarf (WD 1145+017) stars are now known. Upon fragmentation or disintegration, these planets or asteroids may produce co-orbital configurations of nearly equal mass objects. However, as evidenced by the co-orbital objects detected by transit photometry in the WD 1145+017 system, these bodies are largely unconstrained in size, mass, and total number (multiplicity). Motivated by potential future similar discoveries, we perform N-body simulations to demonstrate if and how debris masses and multiplicity may be bounded due to second-to-minute deviations and the resulting accumulated phase shifts in the osculating orbital period amongst multiple co-orbital equal point masses. We establish robust lower and upper mass bounds as a function of orbital period deviation, but find the constraints on multiplicity to be weak. We also quantify the fuzzy instability boundary, and show that mutual collisions occur in less than 5, 10, and 20 per cent of our simulations for masses of 1021, 1022, and 1023 kg. Our results may provide useful initial rough constraints on other stellar systems with multiple co-orbital bodies.

  13. Longitudinal effects of change in body mass on measurements of ventilatory capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, D. J.; Cotes, J. E.; Reed, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In several longitudinal studies changes in body mass and in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) have been found to be negatively correlated. This paper tests the hypothesis that failure to allow for the association can lead to error in the interpretation of longitudinal measurements of ventilatory capacity. METHODS: Male shipyard workers (n = 1005) were assessed on two occasions with an average interval between measurements of 6.9 years. A respiratory symptoms questionnaire, detailed anthropometric measurements, and dynamic spirometric tests were undertaken. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables which contributed to the changes in lung function. RESULTS: After allowing for age and growth in stature, a change in body mass of 1 kg was, on average, associated with a mean (SE) converse change in FEV1 of 17.6 (2.0) ml, and in forced vital capacity (FVC) of 21.1 (2.5) ml. Neglect of changes in body mass (which in this context reflected changes in body fat) led to underestimation of the longitudinal decline in FEV1 with age and failure to detect significant improvements in FEV1, both in smokers following discontinuation of smoking and in shipyard welders and caulker/burners as a consequence of leaving their employment. The estimated peak ages and associated peak levels of the indices were found to differ, depending on whether or not they were expressed at constant body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Neglect of changes in body mass can lead to erroneous conclusions being drawn from longitudinal measurements of FEV1. PMID:8882076

  14. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  15. Vitamin D status in young women is strongly negatively related to body weight, body mass index and body fat, but is not associated to bone mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available data in elderly adults suggest that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (250HD) concentrations are positively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) and inversely associated with obesity. To characterize whether these relations are also present at the time of peak bone mass, we examined t...

  16. Body size reductions in nonmammalian eutheriodont therapsids (Synapsida) during the end-Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocker, Adam K

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which mass extinctions influence body size evolution in major tetrapod clades is inadequately understood. For example, the 'Lilliput effect,' a common feature of mass extinctions, describes a temporary decrease in body sizes of survivor taxa in post-extinction faunas. However, its signature on existing patterns of body size evolution in tetrapods and the persistence of its impacts during post-extinction recoveries are virtually unknown, and rarely compared in both geologic and phylogenetic contexts. Here, I evaluate temporal and phylogenetic distributions of body size in Permo-Triassic therocephalian and cynodont therapsids (eutheriodonts) using a museum collections-based approach and time series model fitting on a regional stratigraphic sequence from the Karoo Basin, South Africa. I further employed rank order correlation tests on global age and clade rank data from an expanded phylogenetic dataset, and performed evolutionary model testing using Brownian (passive diffusion) models. Results support significant size reductions in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction (ca. 252.3 Ma) consistent with some definitions of Lilliput effects. However, this temporal succession reflects a pattern that was underscored largely by Brownian processes and constructive selectivity. Results also support two recent contentions about body size evolution and mass extinctions: 1) active, directional evolution in size traits is rare over macroevolutionary time scales and 2) geologically brief size reductions may be accomplished by the ecological removal of large-bodied species without rapid originations of new small-bodied clades or shifts from long-term evolutionary patterns. PMID:24498335

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Steck, Susan E; Chalecki, Allison M; Miller, Paul; Conway, Jason; Austin, Gregory L; Hardin, James W; Albright, Craig D; Thuillier, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) alters body composition in animal models, but few studies have examined the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and clinical safety measures in obese humans. In the present study, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine the changes in body composition and clinical laboratory values following CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans. Forty-eight participants (13 males and 35 females) were randomized to receive placebo (8 g safflower oil/d), 3.2 g/d CLA, or 6.4 g/d CLA for 12 wk. Changes in body fat mass and lean body mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Resting energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Clinical laboratory values and adverse-event reporting were used to monitor safety. Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term. PMID:17449580

  18. CROSS-VALIDATION OF LIPOMETER ESTIMATES OF BODY COMPOSITION: THE EFFECT OF GENDER AND SKIN COLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lipometer (v12.1e; Graz, Austria) uses light-emitting diodes (lambda=660 nm) and a photodetector to measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and estimate percent body fat (%fat). Since, the Lipometer uses a light beam to measure SAT, it is possible that skin color may influence the results, cre...

  19. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  20. Sexual Orientation and Gender as Factors in Socioculturally Acquired Vulnerability to Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siever, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…

  1. Relationship of body mass status with running and jumping performances in young basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Asadi, Abbas; Santos, Eduardo J.A.M.; Calleja-González, Julio; Padulo, Johnny; Chtourou, Hamdi; Zemkova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of body mass (BM) status with running and jumping performances in young male basketball players. Methods basketball players (n=72, age 12.9±2.8 yrs), who were grouped into U-12 (9–12 yrs), U-15 (12–15 yrs) and U-18 (15–18 yrs), performed a battery of anthropometric, running and jumping tests. We examined differences among age groups, and between normal weight and overweight players. Results the results indicated significant and large differences among age groups in BM, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, speed, endurance, standing long jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), mean power in 30 s jumping test (Pmean) (p<0.001, η2≥0.23) with older players presenting higher values. Within each age group, overweight players had higher BM, BMI, body fat percentage and FM (p<0.05) than their normal weight counterparts. Overweight players had worst performance in running (sprint and endurance) and jumping (CMJ and Pmean) in U-12, and worst endurance in U-18 (p<0.05, |d|≥0.82) than normal-weight players, whereas there was no difference in U-15. Conclusions it was concluded that the relationship of BMI with running and jumping performances varied according to age. Based on these findings, trainers and coaches should focus on special intervention exercise and nutrition programs targeting optimal body mass especially in young basketball players, where the excess of body mass seemed to have the most detrimental effect on running and jumping performances. PMID:26605193

  2. Is being a boy and feeling fat a barrier for physical activity? The association between body image, gender and physical activity among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-11-01

    Regular physical activity leads to physical and mental health benefits. Previous studies have shown physical activity to be associated with body image and gender. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the associations of body image with physical activity of adolescents and whether gender modifies this association. We obtained data on body image and physical activity as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study in 2010 from Slovakia (n = 8042, age 11-15 years, 49% boys, response rate: 79.5%). Adolescents answered questions about their body image and the frequency of their physical activity. Sufficient physical activity was more likely in adolescents perceiving themselves as fat (OR = 0.63, 95%CI 0.54-0.73) and in boys (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.92-2.42). A poor body image among girls was not associated with physical activity, whereas among boys it was associated with less physical activity. Gender seems to moderate the relationship between body image and physical activity in youths. Health promotion should be targeted in particular at boys with a negative body image, as they are at higher risk of physical inactivity. PMID:25350010

  3. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  4. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Wheatley, Courtney M; Behnia, Mehrdad; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass. Subsequently, VO2max was quantified during a maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer as well as a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer. The test protocol included a pre-exercise stage followed by incremental exercise until VO2max was reached. The order of exercise modes was randomized and there was a wash-out period between the two tests. Oxygen uptake was obtained via a breath-by-breath metabolic cart (Vmax™ Encore, San Diego, CA). Rowing VO2max was higher than cycling VO2max in both groups (p<0.05). Older subjects had less of an increase in VO2max from cycling to rowing (p<0.05). There was a significant relationship between muscle mass and VO2max for both groups (p<0.05). After correcting for muscle mass, the difference in cycling VO2max between groups disappeared (p>0.05), however, older subjects still demonstrated a lower rowing VO2max relative to younger subjects (p<0.05). Muscle mass is associated with the VO2max obtained, however, it appears that VO2max in older subjects may be less influenced by muscle mass than in younger subjects. PMID:27479009

  5. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  6. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  7. Bioelectrical impedance vectorial analysis and nutritional status of older women according to body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Longitudinal studies, both epidemiological and clinical, have shown that elderly with high body mass index (BMI) are able to better face stressing factors, and have better survival rate as consequence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if higher BMI values were associated with improved nu...

  8. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  9. Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown enhanced responsiveness to ozone in obese mice. Adiposity has not been examined as a possible modulator of ozone response in humans. We therefore examined the relationship between body mass index and the acute spirometric response to ozone (O(3)) exposur...

  10. Parent Reactions to a School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Lamp, Camilla; He, Jianghua; Deeb, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study assessed parent reactions to school-based body mass index (BMI) screening. Methods: After a K-8 BMI screening program, parents were sent a letter detailing their child's BMI results. Approximately 50 parents were randomly selected for interview from each of 4 child weight-classification groups (overweight, at risk of…

  11. Elementary School Nurses' Perceptions and Practices regarding Body Mass Index Measurement in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Candace; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Mosca, Nancy W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines elementary school nurses' perceived efficacy expectations, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits to measuring body mass index (BMI) in students in schools with mandated BMI policies versus schools without mandated policies. Of the 2,629 school nurses participating in the study, 67% believe nurses should measure BMI in…

  12. Predicting 1-Year Change in Body Mass Index among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy; Rini, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite beliefs about weight gain in college, few researchers have evaluated this phenomenon. Participants: Participants were 18- to 31-year-old students at a midwestern university. The dependent variable was body mass index (BMI) change. Methods: The authors extracted predictor variables from a Health Risk Appraisal. These included…

  13. Regional Differences as Barriers to Body Mass Index Screening Described by Ohio School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) screening is advocated by the National Association of School Nurses (NASN). Research identifying barriers to BMI screening in public elementary school settings has been sparse. The purpose of the study was to identify barriers and facilitating factors of BMI screening practices among Ohio school nurses working in…

  14. Body mass index distribution affects discrepancies in weight classifications in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) distribution, ethnicity, and age at menarche on the consistency in the prevalence of underweight and overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Obesity Task Fo...

  15. Relationship between Motor Skill and Body Mass Index in 5- to 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5-10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill…

  16. Increasing Walking in College Students Using a Pedometer Intervention: Differences According to Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Erica M.; Howton, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a pedometer intervention and differences in walking behaviors according to body mass index (BMI). Participants: Two hundred ninety college students completed the intervention from January to February 2005. Methods: Participants wore pedometers 5 days per week for 12 weeks and completed…

  17. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  18. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  19. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  20. Body Mass Index and the Use of the Internet for Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Smit, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who experience or anticipate negative interactions from medical providers related to conditions such as obesity may preferentially use the Internet for health information. Our objectives in this study were to (1) examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and Internet health information-seeking and (2) examine…

  1. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  2. Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

  3. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  4. Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index in College Students: The Role of Sleep Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Perla A.; Flores, Melissa; Robles, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. Methods: A convenience sample of 515 college students completed an online survey consisting of the Pittsburgh Sleep…

  5. The Association between Short Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among South Korean Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunhee

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) in two South Korean samples: children and adolescents. Nationally representative secondary data (i.e., the Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children) collected in 2009 were analyzed ("N" = 2,499 for children and "N" = 7,431 for…

  6. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  7. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  8. The Relationship between Motor Skill Proficiency and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel W.; Scrabis-Fletcher, Kristin; Modlesky, Christopher; Getchell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Thirty-eight children ages 4-6 years had their BMI calculated and were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2; Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). These data were analyzed in two ways.…

  9. School Social Capital and Body Mass Index in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tracy K.; Milliren, Carly; Walls, Courtney E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social capital in neighborhoods and workplaces positively affects health. Less is known about the influence of school social capital on student health outcomes, in particular weight status. We sought to examine the association between individual- and school-level social capital and student body mass index (BMI). Methods: Analyzing data…

  10. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  11. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  12. Food Serving Size Knowledge in African American Women and the Relationship with Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Elston, Elizabeth; Hubbard, Stacy; Carson, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine serving size knowledge in African Americans and how it is related to body mass index (BMI). Design: Serving size knowledge of food commonly consumed by African Americans was assessed by asking the subjects to select the amount of food considered to be a single serving size by the United States Department of Agriculture and…

  13. Socioeconomic and behavioral correlates of body mass index in black adults: the Pitt County Study.

    PubMed Central

    Croft, J B; Strogatz, D S; James, S A; Keenan, N L; Ammerman, A S; Malarcher, A M; Haines, P S

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Obesity is more prevalent among Black women than Black men, but there is little information on the correlates of obesity in Blacks. This study describes the relations of sociodemographic factors and health behaviors to body mass index in a southern, Black population. METHODS. In 1988, a community probability sample of 1784 Black adults, aged 25 to 50, was examined in Pitt County, NC. RESULTS. More women than men were at least 20% overweight (57% vs 36%). The relation of socioeconomic status (a composite of education and occupation) to age-adjusted body mass index level was inverse in women but not in men. Body mass index did not differ with either current energy intake or energy expenditure. Smokers and drinkers had lower age-adjusted levels than non-smokers and abstainers. CONCLUSIONS. Since the excess body mass index levels associated with low socioeconomic status in women could not be explained after controlling for adverse health behaviors, further epidemiologic study of risk factors for obesity in Black women is recommended. PMID:1585962

  14. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  15. Diet quality and body mass index are associated with healthcare resource use in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health care resource consumption is a growing concern. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between diet quality and body mass index with health care resource use (HRU) in a cohort of advanced age. Participants in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (n=5,993) were mailed demographic and...

  16. Glucose kinetics and pregnancy outcome in Indian women with low and normal body mass indices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal energy demands are met from the oxidation of maternally supplied glucose and amino acids. During the fasted state, the glucose supply is thought to be met by gluconeogenesis. Underweight women with low body mass index (BMI) might be unable to adequately supply amino acids to satisfy the demand...

  17. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  18. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m2] =30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future devel...

  19. Body Mass Index, Dieting, Romance, and Sexual Activity in Adolescent Girls: Relationships over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Oslak, Selene G.; Udry, J. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships constitute an important, but understudied, developmental context for accommodation to pubertal change. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,487 black, white, and Hispanic adolescent females, this study examined associations among body mass index, current romantic involvement, and dieting. For each one point increase…

  20. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latty, Christopher; Carolan, Marsha T.; Jocks, Jodi E.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The substantial increase in youth obesity during the last two decades may have serious biological as well as behavioral/mental health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess how ecological factors and hence overall well-being were related to body mass index (BMI) in youths. Methods: Three BMI categories (normal;…

  1. Ethnic Differences in Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: The Confounding Role of Body Mass Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Cecilia A.; Mann, Traci

    2001-01-01

    Explored the role of body mass index (BMI) in eating disorders among Hispanic, Asian American, and non-Hispanic white female college students. Data from student surveys indicated that after controlling for BMI, ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms of concern about weight and shape disappeared, but differences in restrained eating…

  2. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post-hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional

  3. A qualitative study of preadolescent boys' and girls' body image: gendered ideals and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative study examined preadolescent boys' and girls' body ideals, and peer and media factors that shape these ideals. Sixty-eight children aged 8-10 participated in semi-structured interviews: 19 boys and 17 girls in individual interviews and 16 boys and 16 girls in eight group interviews. Techniques from grounded theory were used to analyze the data. Findings demonstrated that fitness was an important element of boys' and girls' body ideals. For boys the emphasis was on sport, and this was promoted by their peer interactions and the sportsmen they admired. For girls the focus was on looking good, and this was reinforced by their peer conversations, and the actresses and singers they admired. Focus groups further highlighted how peers both reinforced media messages, yet also helped children critique media messages. Implications are discussed for prevention programs that need to be specifically tailored for boys and girls. PMID:24018337

  4. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  5. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass. PMID:16358400

  6. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jochimsen, Thies H; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-21

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography--magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of (18)F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41 ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35 ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29 ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement. PMID:26020722

  7. Alterations of Body Mass Gain of Neonates (P7&P14) During Certrifugation AT 2G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Corbin, B. J.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Previous research has shown animal body mass to be significantly affected by centrifugation. At the onset of centrifugation, animals have a selective loss of fat, causing an initial body mass loss. Body mass gain will resume at the same rate as uncentrifuged animals, but this subsequent gain will be lower. For this study, two different ages of Sprague Hawley neonate families were observed during centrifugation. Eight litters (dam with eight neonates) of postnatal day (PN) seven and four litters (dam with ten neonates) of PN 14 were separated into two separate groups each, centrifuge (+2G(sub z)) and environmental controls (EC) and placed into either the centrifuge or an animal holding unit in the centrifuge rotunda for a total of 16 days. P7: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 138.90 g/end = 311.0 g EC litter = 150.85 g/end = 516.9 g. P14: Total litter start mass of +2G(sub z) litter = 287.70 g/end = 762.5g; EC litter = 245 g/end = 942.9 g. An initial body mass loss was observed in both groups of +2G(sub z) animals for two days after the onset of centrifugation, but then an increase began to occur. Literature suggests adult animals at +2G(sub z), will have an initial loss, but will resume similar growth rates over time as compared to control animals. The P7 +2G(sub z) animals began to gain body mass, but showed a significantly slower growth rate than their EC animals for the duration of the test (pace). The P14 +2G(sub z) animals began to show similar growth rates to their EC after day nine. At day 16, both groups of +2Gz animals were significantly smaller than the EC animals (pace). At +2Gz, animals experience an initial body mass loss. Older animals are able to resume similar growth rates as their controls, but younger animals showed growth rates to be significantly reduced.

  8. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  9. Short-term changes of fatigability and muscle performance in severe obese patients after an integrated body mass reduction program.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Fontana, P; Trecate, L; Lafortuna, C L

    2003-04-01

    The effects of a short-term (3-week) integrated body weight reduction (BWR) program on fatigue perception and on lower limb anaerobic power output were evaluated in 200 severely obese in-patients (40 males and 160 females, age: 18-83 yr, BMI: 35.0-65.3 kg/m2). Fatigue was assessed by a 7-point Likert-type scale questionnaire (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS), while average lower limb power output (W) during a maximal effort was determined with a modification of the Margaria test for stair climbing. In both genders, total FSS score was influenced by both age and obesity level, resulting significantly (p < 0.001) lower in younger subjects (< 45 yr) than in older (> 45 yr) and in patients with lower BMI (< 40 kg/m2) than in those with a higher one (> 40 kg/m2). An opposite trend was observed in W. The 3-week BWR integrated program with moderate aerobic exercise and free standing and ground gymnastic routines induced a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.001), in total FSS score (p < 0.001) and a significant increase in W, both in absolute terms (p < 0.05) and relative to body mass (p < 0.001). Total FSS score and absolute or relative power output were positively correlated both before and after the BWR program (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank test). It is concluded that: a) subjective fatigue perception, assessed by a FSS questionnaire, can be considered an indirect indicator of effective lower limb power output in severely obese patients and, b) in spite of a relatively small, although significant, decline of BMI, the full-time participation in a hospital-based, integrated BWR program with moderate exercise activity is associated with significant short-term improvements of both fatigue sensation and power output. Dia PMID:12846447

  10. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  11. Influence of Resistance Exercise on Lean Body Mass in Aging Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Sen, Ananda; Gordon, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sarcopenia plays a principal role in the pathogenesis of frailty and functional impairment that occurs with aging. There are few published accounts which examine the overall benefit of resistance exercise (RE) for lean body mass (LBM), while considering a continuum of dosage schemes and/or age ranges. Therefore the purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of RE on LBM in older men and women, while taking these factors into consideration. Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Randomized controlled trials and randomized or non-randomized studies among adults ≥ 50 years, were included. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochran Q and I2 statistics, and publication bias was evaluated through physical inspection of funnel plots as well as formal rank-correlation statistics. Mixed-effects meta-regression was incorporated to assess the relationship between RE dosage and changes in LBM. Results Data from forty-nine studies, representing a total of 1328 participants were pooled using random-effect models. Results demonstrated a positive effect for lean body mass and there was no evidence of publication bias. The Cochran Q statistic for heterogeneity was 497.8, which was significant (p < 0.01). Likewise, I2 was equal to 84%, representing rejection of the null hypothesis of homogeneity. The weighted pooled estimate of mean lean body mass change was 1.1 kg (95% CI, 0.9 kg to 1.2 kg). Meta-regression revealed that higher volume interventions were associated (β = 0.05, p < 0.01) with significantly greater increases in lean body mass, whereas older individuals experienced less increase (β = -0.03, p = 0.01). Conclusions RE is effective for eliciting gains in lean body mass among aging adults, particularly with higher volume programs. Findings suggest that RE participation earlier in life may provide superior effectiveness. PMID:20543750

  12. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A; Bateman, Brian T; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500) were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2) was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6) among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3) among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27010734

  13. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A.; Bateman, Brian T.; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989–2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500) were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2) was based on height and weight at 10–15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women’s body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.3) for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2–4.3) for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8–8.6) among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1–4.3) among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. PMID:27010734

  14. Age-related body mass and reproductive measurements of gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Based on 65 free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) of known age and 25 of estimated age examined during summers of 1970-2004 in northeastern Minnesota, body mass of both males and females peaked at 5 or 6 years of age, with mean masses of 40.8 kg and 31.2 kg, respectively. Testis size varied as a function of age and month through at least 8 years of age, with length plus width ranging from 1.9 to 7.8 cm. Most females aged 4-9 years bred based on assessment of nipple sizes; those that had not bred had average lower body mass than those that had. This is the 1st report of such data from known-aged wolves.

  15. Coronary artery disease in patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2: a retrospective chart analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhawam, Hassan; Nguyen, James; Sayanlar, Jason; Sogomonian, Robert; Desai, Ronak; Jolly, JoshPaul; Vyas, Neil; Syed, Umer; Homsi, Maher; Rubinstein, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, we evaluated obesity as a single risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), along with the synergistic effect of obesity and other risk factors. Methods A retrospective study of 7,567 patients admitted to hospital for chest pain from 2005 to 2014 and underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients were divided into two groups: obese and normal with body mass index (BMI) calculated as ≥30 kg/m2 and <25, respectively. We assessed the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in obese patients and the degree of CAD. Results Of the 7,567 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization, 414 (5.5%) had a BMI ≥30. Of 414 obese patients, 332 (80%) had evidence of CAD. Obese patients displayed evidence of CAD at the age of 57 versus 63.3 in non-obese patients (p<0.001). Of the 332 patients with CAD and obesity, 55.4% had obstructive CAD versus 44.6% with non-obstructive CAD. In obese patients with CAD, male gender and history of smoking were major risk factors for development of obstructive CAD (p=0.001 and 0.01, respectively) while dyslipidemia was a major risk factor for non-obstructive CAD (p=0.01). Additionally, obese patients with more than one risk factor developed obstructive CAD compared to non-obstructive CAD (p=0.003). Conclusion Having a BMI ≥30 appears to be a risk factor for early development of CAD. Severity of CAD in obese patients is depicted on non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors such as the male gender and smoking or greater than one risk factor, respectively. PMID:27406452

  16. Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

    2015-11-01

    Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an association between duration and BMI for either Latino or Asian men. For women, duration and BMI have a significant and positive relationship, although the pathways differ between the two ethnic groups. For Latina women, household income and acculturative stress are significant indirect pathways, although they work in opposing directions. For Asian women, English proficiency and discrimination are significant indirect pathways. Our findings reveal complex pathways between duration and BMI that vary by ethnicity and gender and highlight limitations in the negative acculturation theory, which suggests that exposure to the United States should have a net negative impact on health. In contrast, our findings suggest that not all groups show declining health with longer duration, as measured by BMI, and that integration processes do not always translate into health differences in the expected directions. Future research on duration patterns may need to consider

  17. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  18. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  19. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity. PMID:26527773

  20. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  1. Body mass estimations for Plateosaurus engelhardti using laser scanning and 3D reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Suthau, Tim; Bellmann, Anke; Friedrich, Andreas; Schwanebeck, Thomas; Stoinski, Stefan; Trippel, Tobias; Kirsch, Karl; Hellwich, Olaf

    2007-08-01

    Both body mass and surface area are factors determining the essence of any living organism. This should also hold true for an extinct organism such as a dinosaur. The present report discusses the use of a new 3D laser scanner method to establish body masses and surface areas of an Asian elephant (Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Denmark) and of Plateosaurus engelhardti, a prosauropod from the Upper Triassic, exhibited at the Paleontological Museum in Tübingen (Germany). This method was used to study the effect that slight changes in body shape had on body mass for P. engelhardti. It was established that body volumes varied between 0.79 m3 (slim version) and 1.14 m3 (robust version), resulting in a presumable body mass of 630 and 912 kg, respectively. The total body surface areas ranged between 8.8 and 10.2 m2, of which, in both reconstructions of P. engelhardti, ˜33% account for the thorax area alone. The main difference between the two models is in the tail and hind limb reconstruction. The tail of the slim version has a surface area of 1.98 m2, whereas that of the robust version has a surface area of 2.73 m2. The body volumes calculated for the slim version were as follows: head 0.006 m3, neck 0.016 m3, fore limbs 0.020 m3, hind limbs 0.08 m3, thoracic cavity 0.533 m3, and tail 0.136 m3. For the robust model, the following volumes were established: 0.01 m3 head, neck 0.026 m3, fore limbs 0.025 m3, hind limbs 0.18 m3, thoracic cavity 0.616 m3, and finally, tail 0.28 m3. Based on these body volumes, scaling equations were used to assess the size that the organs of this extinct dinosaur have.

  2. Improving the Precision of Our Ecosystem Calipers: A Modified Morphometric Technique for Estimating Marine Mammal Mass and Body Composition

    PubMed Central

    Shero, Michelle R.; Pearson, Linnea E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal’s measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only −2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  3. Improving the precision of our ecosystem calipers: a modified morphometric technique for estimating marine mammal mass and body composition.

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Pearson, Linnea E; Costa, Daniel P; Burns, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Mass and body composition are indices of overall animal health and energetic balance and are often used as indicators of resource availability in the environment. This study used morphometric models and isotopic dilution techniques, two commonly used methods in the marine mammal field, to assess body composition of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, N = 111). Findings indicated that traditional morphometric models that use a series of circular, truncated cones to calculate marine mammal blubber volume and mass overestimated the animal's measured body mass by 26.9±1.5% SE. However, we developed a new morphometric model that uses elliptical truncated cones, and estimates mass with only -2.8±1.7% error (N = 10). Because this elliptical truncated cone model can estimate body mass without the need for additional correction factors, it has the potential to be a broadly applicable method in marine mammal species. While using elliptical truncated cones yielded significantly smaller blubber mass estimates than circular cones (10.2±0.8% difference; or 3.5±0.3% total body mass), both truncated cone models significantly underestimated total body lipid content as compared to isotopic dilution results, suggesting that animals have substantial internal lipid stores (N = 76). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the minimum number of morphometric measurements needed to reliably estimate animal mass and body composition so that future animal handling times could be reduced. Reduced models estimated body mass and lipid mass with reasonable accuracy using fewer than five morphometric measurements (root-mean-square-error: 4.91% for body mass, 10.90% for lipid mass, and 10.43% for % lipid). This indicates that when test datasets are available to create calibration coefficients, regression models also offer a way to improve body mass and condition estimates in situations where animal handling times must be short and efficient. PMID:24614685

  4. Influence of winter temperature and simulated climate change on body mass and fat body depletion during diapause in adults of the solitary bee, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Giejdasz, Karol; Wasielewski, Oskar; Krishnan, Natraj

    2012-12-01

    The influence of simulated climate change on body weight and depletion of fat body reserves was studied during diapause in the European solitary bee Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Insects (females) were reared and collected from outdoor nests from September to March. One cohort of females was weighed and dissected immediately for analyses, whereas another cohort was subjected to simulated warmer temperature (15°C for 7 d) before analyses. A gradual decline in body mass and fat body content was recorded with declining temperatures from September to January in female bees from natural conditions. Temperature increased gradually from January to March with a further decline in body mass and fat body content. The fat body development index dropped from five in September-October (≈ 89% individuals) to four for the period from November to February (≈ 84% individuals) and further to three in March (95% individuals) before emergence. Simulated warmer winter temperature also resulted in a similar decline in body weight and fat body content; however, body weight and fat body content declined faster. The fat body development index dropped to three in December in the majority of individuals and continued at this level until March just before emergence. Taken together, our data indicate an earlier depletion of fat body reserves under simulated climate change conditions that may impact ovarian development and reproductive fitness in O. rufa. PMID:23321111

  5. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  6. Analysis of Body Mass Components in National Club Football Players in Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Slobodan; Todorovska, Lidija; Maleska, Vesela; Dejanova, Beti; Efremova, Ljudmila; Zivkovic, Vujica; Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to analyze body composition in adult male football players and its changes during adulthood. Methods: Adult male football players (n=942, mean age 24.11 ±4.69y), all members of national competitive clubs from Macedonia were included in the study. The absolute and the relative body components were calculated: lean body mass (LBMkg), muscle mass (MMkg; MM%), bone mass (BMkg; BM%) and fat components (FMkg; FM%), using the anthropometric protocol by Matiegka. Results: Mean values of anthropometric measures for all included participants were as follows: height=178.39±6.11cm; weight=77.02±7.57; LBM=65.65±6.38; MM%=53.23±2.78; BM%=17.05±1.27; FM%=14.58±1.48. Descriptive statistics for these parameters was made for age specific groups. Conclusions: The results obtained could be used as reference values for adult football players in Republic of Macedonia. In the examined age span (18-35 years) a slight increase of absolute values of all three body components has been registered with advancing age. The most significant increase in the absolute values was registered for the muscle component, followed by the fat and bone components, respectively. Regarding the relative values (%), the muscle and the fat components showed an equally slight positive correlation with the age increase of 1 year, whilst the bone component decreased with advancing age. PMID:25568532

  7. Rheumatoid cachexia: cytokine-driven hypermetabolism accompanying reduced body cell mass in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Roubenoff, R; Roubenoff, R A; Cannon, J G; Kehayias, J J; Zhuang, H; Dawson-Hughes, B; Dinarello, C A; Rosenberg, I H

    1994-01-01

    The cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha cause cachexia and hypermetabolism in animal models, but their role in human inflammation remains controversial. The relationship between in vitro cytokine production and metabolism was examined in 23 adults with RA and 23 healthy control subjects matched on age, sex, race, and weight. Body composition was measured by multicompartmental analysis of body cell mass, water, fat, and bone mass. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by indirect calorimetry. Cytokine production by PBMC was measured by radioimmunoassay. Usual energy intake, physical activity, disability scores, medication use, and other confounders were also measured. Body cell mass was 13% lower (P < 0.00001), REE was 12% higher (P < 0.008), and physical activity was much lower (P < 0.001) in subjects with RA. Production of TNF-alpha was higher in RA than controls, both before and after stimulation with endotoxin (P < 0.05), while production of IL-1 beta was higher with endotoxin stimulation (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, cytokine production was directly associated with REE (P < 0.001) in patients but not in controls. While energy and protein intake were similar in the two groups and exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances, energy intake in subjects with RA was inversely associated with IL-1 beta production (P < 0.005). In this study we conclude that: loss of body cell mass is common in RA; cytokine production in RA is associated with altered energy metabolism and intake, despite a theoretically adequate diet; and TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta modulate energy metabolism and body composition in RA. PMID:8200971

  8. The extinct, giant giraffid Sivatherium giganteum: skeletal reconstruction and body mass estimation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sivatherium giganteum is an extinct giraffid from the Plio–Pleistocene boundary of the Himalayan foothills. To date, there has been no rigorous skeletal reconstruction of this unusual mammal. Historical and contemporary accounts anecdotally state that Sivatherium rivalled the African elephant in terms of its body mass, but this statement has never been tested. Here, we present a three-dimensional composite skeletal reconstruction and calculate a representative body mass estimate for this species using a volumetric method. We find that the estimated adult body mass of 1246 kg (857—1812 kg range) does not approach that of an African elephant, but confirms that Sivatherium was certainly a large giraffid, and may have been the largest ruminant mammal that has ever existed. We contrast this volumetric estimate with a bivariate scaling estimate derived from Sivatherium's humeral circumference and find that there is a discrepancy between the two. The difference implies that the humeral circumference of Sivatherium is greater than expected for an animal of this size, and we speculate this may be linked to a cranial shift in centre of mass. PMID:26763212

  9. The extinct, giant giraffid Sivatherium giganteum: skeletal reconstruction and body mass estimation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Christopher; Falkingham, Peter L; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Sivatherium giganteum is an extinct giraffid from the Plio-Pleistocene boundary of the Himalayan foothills. To date, there has been no rigorous skeletal reconstruction of this unusual mammal. Historical and contemporary accounts anecdotally state that Sivatherium rivalled the African elephant in terms of its body mass, but this statement has never been tested. Here, we present a three-dimensional composite skeletal reconstruction and calculate a representative body mass estimate for this species using a volumetric method. We find that the estimated adult body mass of 1246 kg (857-1812 kg range) does not approach that of an African elephant, but confirms that Sivatherium was certainly a large giraffid, and may have been the largest ruminant mammal that has ever existed. We contrast this volumetric estimate with a bivariate scaling estimate derived from Sivatherium's humeral circumference and find that there is a discrepancy between the two. The difference implies that the humeral circumference of Sivatherium is greater than expected for an animal of this size, and we speculate this may be linked to a cranial shift in centre of mass. PMID:26763212

  10. Gender Related Differences in Response to “In Favor of Myself” Wellness Program to Enhance Positive Self & Body Image among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program – “In Favor of Myself” – on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Methods Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Results Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to “In Favor of Myself”. Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain “thin”. At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Conclusions Girls exhibited more gains than boys from ‘In Favor of Myself’ which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs

  11. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  12. Compound and metabolite distribution measured by MALDI mass spectrometric imaging in whole-body tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckli, Markus; Staab, Dieter; Schweitzer, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The determination of the compound distribution in laboratory animal tissue in early development is a standard process in pharmaceutical research. While this information is traditionally obtained by means of whole-body autoradiography using radiolabeled compounds, this technology does not distinguish between metabolites and parent compound. The technique described in this article, termed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging, can fill this gap by simultaneously measuring compound and multiple metabolites distributed in whole-body tissue sections, using non-labeled compounds.

  13. Extreme negative temperatures and body mass loss in the Siberian salamander (Salamandrella keyserlingii, amphibia, hynobiidae).

    PubMed

    Berman, D I; Meshcheryakova, E N; Bulakhova, N A

    2016-05-01

    Frozen Siberian salamander safely tolerates long (45 days) stay at-35°C. Short-term (3 days) cooling down to-50°C was tolerable for 40% of adult individuals; down to-55°C, for 80% of the underyearlings. Generally, the salamanders lose about 28% of the body mass during the pre-hibernating period (before winter, at temperatures as low as 0°C) and during the process of freezing (as low as-5°C). The body weight remained constant upon further cooling (to-35°C). The frozen salamanders have no physiological mechanisms protecting from sublimation. PMID:27411827

  14. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  15. A Spatial Analysis of Body Mass Index and Neighborhood Factors in Community-Dwelling Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Christman, Zachary; Pruchno, Rachel; Cromley, Ellen; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Mir, Izza

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of obesity among the older population can yield insights into the influence of contextual factors associated with this public health problem. We tested the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and body mass index (BMI) using global and local spatial statistics of geographic clustering, using data derived from a random-digit-dial sample of 5,319 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 74 residing in 1,313 census tracts in New Jersey. Geographically weighted regression modeled associations between BMI clusters and neighborhood characteristics, including metrics of structure, safety, demographics, and amenities. Across the sample panel, average BMI was 28.62 kg/m(2) for women and 28.25 kg/m(2) for men. There was significant spatial clustering of obesity by census tract, varying by gender across the state. Neighborhood characteristics were more strongly related to BMI for women than men. This research illuminates the role of neighborhood contextual factors and will assist community planners, officials, and public health practitioners as they address the rise in obesity. PMID:27147678

  16. HYPERGLYCEMIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH RELATIVELY LOWER LEAN BODY MASS IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    KALYANI, RITA R.; TRA, Y.; EGAN, J.M.; FERRUCCI, L.; BRANCATI, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults with known diabetes are vulnerable to accelerated loss of lean body mass. However, the relationship of hyperglycemia per se with lean body mass is not fully understood. We sought to examine the independent relationship of hyperglycemia with relative lean body mass in older persons without a reported history of diabetes. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. Setting United States. Participants We studied U.S. adults >50 years without known diabetes (n=5434) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004). Measurements In linear regression models, we studied the relationship of measured HbA1c (<5.0%, 5.0–5.4%, 5.5–5.9%, 6.0–6.4%, ≥6.5%) with percent lean body mass, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, after accounting for potential confounders. Results Among older U.S. men and women, progressively higher HbA1c was associated with relatively lower total, appendicular, and trunk percent lean mass, independent of demographics and height (all p<0.05). Accounting for physical activity, C-reactive protein, and diabetes-related comorbidities (heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis, neuropathy, hip fracture, amputation, cancer, pulmonary disease), undiagnosed diabetes (i.e. HbA1c ≥6.5%) versus reference (<5.0%) in both men and women was associated with lower total (−3.5±0.8% and −2.9±0.8%), appendicular (−1.8±0.5% and −1.2±0.4%), and trunk percent lean mass (−1.2±0.4% and −1.3±0.5%), respectively (all p<0.05). Persons at increased risk for diabetes (i.e. HbA1c 6.0–6.4%) also had significant decrements at these sites versus reference. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is associated with relatively lower lean mass in a nationally representative population of older adults without history of diabetes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationship of hyperglycemia with the accelerated decline of skeletal muscle mass in older persons

  17. Coupled motion of rigid bodies about their center of mass. [Shuttle/payload system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jezewski, D. J.; Donaldson, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Nontrivial analytical solutions for the coupled motion of two rigid bodies about their center of mass are obtained on the assumptions that the rigid bodies are coupled by a massless rigid boom and that no external forces are acting on the system. Both relative rotational and translational motions of the two bodies are considered. General equations of motion are derived by regarding the two bodies as consisting of two distinct systems of particles and by applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum. It is shown that a basic nontrivial solution can be obtained for the translational problem if an assumption is made concerning the relative orientation of one principal axis of inertia of each body and that fundamental nontrivial solutions are readily obtained for the rotational problem if an additional assumption is made with respect to the symmetry of one body. Certain stability criteria are found for some of these motions by defining regions of constraint for the relative translational and rotational elements.

  18. Do Gender-Specific and High-Resolution Three Dimensional Body Charts Facilitate the Communication of Pain for Women? A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is more prevalent among women; however, the majority of standardized pain drawings are often collected using male-like androgynous body representations. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender-specific and high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) body charts facilitate the communication of pain for women. Methods Using mixed-methods and a cross-over design, female patients with chronic pain were asked to provide detailed drawings of their current pain on masculine and feminine two-dimensional (2D) body schemas (N=41, Part I) or on female 2D and 3D high-resolution body schemas (N=41, Part II) on a computer tablet. The consistency of the drawings between body charts were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Semistructured interviews and a preference questionnaire were then used to obtain qualitative and quantitative responses of the drawing experience. Results The consistency between body charts were high (Part I: ICC=0.980, Part II: ICC=0.994). The preference ratio for the masculine to feminine body schemas were 6:35 and 18:23 for the 2D to 3D female body charts. Patients reported that the 3D body chart enabled a more accurate expression of their pain due to the detailed contours of the musculature and bone structure, however, patients also reported the 3D body chart was too human and believed that skin-like appearance limited ‘deep pain’ expressions. Conclusions Providing gender-specific body charts may facilitate the communication of pain and the level of detail (2D vs 3D body charts) should be used according to patients’ needs. PMID:27440737

  19. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  20. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals at 2.0 g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    It is postulated that augmentation of gravitational loading should produce a shift in the classic Kleiber mammalian allometric relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass by an increase in both these parameters. Oxygen consumption rate and body mass measurements of 10 male rabbits 8 months of age were obtained initially for 1.0 g, and then over a 9-week period of chronic centrifugation at 2.0 g. Analysis of covariance showed that the positioning constant at 2.0 g is increased by 17 percent from that at 1.0 g at the P less than 0.001 level, and the exponent is increased by 8 percent at the P = 0.008 level. It is concluded that abatement of gravitational loading in spaceflight will result in a lowering of both allometric parameters.