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Sample records for gender matched elderly

  1. Gender differences in bladder control: from babies to elderly.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Ricarda M; Huebner, Wilhelm

    2013-10-01

    In both sexes, there are anatomical and behavioral differences in dealing with bladder control, as well as voiding and incontinence. Despite intensive research within the last decades, the differences in physiology and pathophysiology as well as gender differences of bladder control and continence are still poorly understood and further research is highly needed. In babies, gender difference seems to be most likely caused by a difference in maturity rate of the bladder. After gaining bladder control, behavior starts to be influenced by socialization. During preschool and school, children experience a negative perception of school toilets. Especially girls crouch over the toilet seat and train to empty the bladder without relaxation of the pelvic floor. This posture may lead to bladder dysfunction. Often adult women continue this bad habit and bladder dysfunction may consolidate. From the fourth decade in both sexes lower urinary tract symptoms start to develop. However, men and women handle the problem variedly showing gender differences in coping strategies with better coping mechanisms in women. In general, gender difference in help seeking and receiving treatment increases with younger age. In elderly, urinary incontinence is only associated with a higher mortality in men, and elderly men seek more often professional help. Aim of the review is to provide an insight into gender differences of bladder control and bladder dysfunction. PMID:23881351

  2. Suicide attempts by elderly women - from a gender perspective.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Moura, Rosylaine; Hesler, Lilian Zielke; Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran

    2015-06-01

    This article analyzes the presence of gender inequality and violence in the lives of elderly women who have attempted suicide. This survey is part of a qualitative research study developed in twelve municipal regions in Brazil with high levels of suicide, and is coordinated by Claves-Fiocruz. Information was obtained by means of semi-structured interviews with thirty-two women from a sampling of fifty-nine elderly women with a history of attempted suicide. It was decided not to identify the interviewees, and to construct a narrative based on events that have occurred in the lives of all these women. The study was based on the women's life cycle (infancy, youth, adult life and old age) to see if gender inequality had been an issue in each of these phases. The inequalities began in infancy with differentiated gender upbringing; these continued during their youth and with their sexual initiation, marriage and maturity these continued during their adult life through acts of violence committed by their partners and/ or other family members which culminates in old age, when they are deprived of their independence and have lost ties, possessions and points of reference. These lives permeated with violence result in a feeling of emptiness and unworthiness, and lead many elderly women to view death as their only solution. PMID:26060950

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. Feasibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy for elderly patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: results from a matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To clarify the feasibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in elderly (age≥65 years) patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods From January 2000 to December 2006, 101 newly diagnosed elderly non-metastatic NPC patients (age≥65 years) who received cisplatin 3-weekly or weekly concurrent CRT with/without sequential chemotherapy were recruited. Each patient from the CRT group was matched to another patient treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone based on age, gender, pathological type, performance status, overall stage, stage method, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score and RT technique, from the same institute and time period. We also recruited 101 young patients (age<65 years) as the referent group, which had been matched to the CRT group based on patient characteristics and treatment parameters. Treatment tolerability and toxicity were clarified, and treatment outcomes were calculated and compared among groups. Results CRT was feasible in elderly NPC patients, while a concurrent regimen of weekly cisplatin was more tolerable. Grade≥3 acute toxicity in CRT group was similar with referent group, although it was significantly higher than the RT alone group (65.3% vs. 43.6%, P=0.002). Furthermore, patients with ACE-27 score≥2 in the CRT group had significantly higher severe acute toxicity and dose reduction. Survival was poorer in elderly patients than the referent group. Compared to RT alone, CRT significantly improved the 5-year overall survival (OS: 54.6% vs. 39.3%, P=0.009), cancer-specific survival (CSS: 56.6% vs. 42.7%, P=0.022), disease-free survival (DFS: 51.6% vs. 30.2%, P=0.028) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS: 78.4% vs. 52.2%, P=0.003), but not distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS: 69.6% vs. 63.6%, P=0.669). However, CRT did not significantly improve 5-year OS (43.6% vs. 27.3%, P=0.893) or CSS (43.6% vs. 34.1%, P=0.971) in elderly NPC patients with ACE-27 score≥2

  5. Gender, Relationships, and Elder Abuse: Assessing Aggression in Mother-Daughter Dyads.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Pieters, Huibrie C; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly, and with it comes a national concern for elder abuse. Elder abuse is an intentional act of harm or failure to provide care by a person in a trusted relationship with the elder. One relationship is often overlooked in both research and clinical practice as having special significance for elder abuse-that of the adult daughter-elderly mother. However, recent studies suggest that there are gender differences in the use of aggression, which challenge standard assessments of abuse and may be important for assessing mother-daughter relationships. In this narrative review article, the authors review the relevant literature on female-to-female aggression, with an emphasis on its application to mother-daughter relationships and elder abuse. Measurement tools are evaluated in light of the state of the science. The authors conclude with specific recommendations for clinical practice. PMID:26115361

  6. Effects of Sex, Gender Role Identification, and Gender Relevance of Two Types of Stressors on Cardiovascular and Subjective Responses: Sex and Gender Match and Mismatch Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Klugkist, Irene G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be…

  7. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men. PMID:22217427

  8. A Vignette Study on Gendered Filial Expectations of Elders in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril

    2012-01-01

    This investigation integrated vignette and survey design to study how sons' reduced availability and daughters' increased contributions to parents influenced Chinese rural elders' gendered filial expectations, measured with their beliefs about obligations of a vignette daughter and a vignette son to their postsurgery parent. The sample included…

  9. Gender, Emotional Support, and Well-Being among the Rural Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Cottrell, Lesley Epperly; Barnes, Kristi A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of social support on the psychological well-being of rural elders. Surveys of 180 older adults living in northern Appalachia indicated that respondents had high levels of subjective well-being. There were no mean gender differences in perceptions of support, though the relative importance of various sources of supported…

  10. Caring and Daring Discourses at Work: Doing Gender through Occupational Choices in Elderly Care and Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas; Haake, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to problematise how gender is being done--1. through occupational choices in two occupations that are traditionally gender divided, elderly care and police work, and 2. through the division of work assignments in police work. Interviews with care workers and police officers are analysed using a "doing gender" perspective, a…

  11. [Health status and care giving needs in the elderly: gender related differences].

    PubMed

    Doser Joz-Roland, N; Monod-Zorzi, S

    2010-07-28

    The health status and need for care differ depending on the gender. The most notable differences are life expectancy, life expectancy in good health and the prevalence of geriatric syndromes or chronic illnesses. Some social health determinants (social isolation or financial precariousness) seem to act as risk factors for vulnerability, mostly amongst old or very old women. Through some examples of differences between men and women in terms of health and caregiving needs, this article tries to heighten the awareness of health professionals to a gender based approach of the elderly patient in order to promote the best possible equity in healthcare. PMID:20806564

  12. A Comparison of Measures of Endothelial Function in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Age and Gender Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Richard B.; Vun, Simon V.; Spark, J. Ian

    2016-01-01

    This study compared flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and serum nitric oxide (NO) measures of endothelial function in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) against age/gender matched controls. 25 patients (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) with established PAD and an age/gender matched group of 25 healthy controls (mean age: 72.4 years, M : F 18 : 7) were studied. Endothelial function was measured using the % FMD, reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using PAT and serum NO (μmol). Difference for each method between PAD and control patients and correlation between the methods were investigated. FMD and RHI were lower in patients with PAD (median FMD for PAD = 2.16% versus control = 3.77%, p = 0.034 and median RHI in PAD = 1.64 versus control = 1.92, p = 0.005). NO levels were not significantly different between the groups (PAD median = 7.70 μmol, control median = 13.05 μmol, p = 0.662). These results were obtained in elderly patients and cannot be extrapolated to younger individuals. FMD and PAT both demonstrated a lower hyperaemic response in patients with PAD; however, FMD results in PAD patients were unequivocally reduced whereas half the PAD patients had RHI values above the established threshold for endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that FMD is a more appropriate method for the measurement of NO-mediated endothelial function. PMID:26942010

  13. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation. PMID:18763461

  14. Gender Differences of Airway Dimensions in Anatomically Matched Sites on CT in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Il; Schroeder, Joyce; Lynch, David; Newell, John; Make, Barry; Friedlander, Adam; Estépar, Raúl San José; Hanania, Nicola A.; Washko, George; Murphy, James R.; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John E.; Zach, Jordan; Butterfield, Kiel; Bowler, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives There are limited data on, and controversies regarding gender differences in the airway dimensions of smokers. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) images were analyzed to examine whether gender could explain differences in airway dimensions of anatomically matched airways in smokers. Materials and Methods We used VIDA imaging software to analyze MDCT scans from 2047 smokers (M:F, 1021:1026) from the COPDGene® cohort. The airway dimensions were analyzed from segmental to subsubsegmental bronchi. We compared the differences of luminal area, inner diameter, wall thickness, wall area percentage (WA%) for each airway between men and women, and multiple linear regression including covariates (age, gender, body sizes, and other relevant confounding factors) was used to determine the predictors of each airway dimensions. Results Lumen area, internal diameter and wall thickness were smaller for women than men in all measured airway (18.4 vs 22.5 mm2 for segmental bronchial lumen area, 10.4 vs 12.5 mm2 for subsegmental bronchi, 6.5 vs 7.7 mm2 for subsubsegmental bronchi, respectively p < 0.001). However, women had greater WA% in subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi. In multivariate regression, gender remained one of the most significant predictors of WA%, lumen area, inner diameter and wall thickness. Conclusion Women smokers have higher WA%, but lower luminal area, internal diameter and airway thickness in anatomically matched airways as measured by CT scan than do male smokers. This difference may explain, in part, gender differences in the prevalence of COPD and airflow limitation. PMID:21756032

  15. Gender based Dosing of Metoprolol in the Elderly using Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article seeks to clarify if gender-based differences occur in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol in the elderly patients. There are a series of physiologic changes that occur in the elderly ranging from decreased hepatic blood flow to increased adiposity causing higher plasma concentrations at therapeutic doses as compared to the healthy young population. Methods Population pharmacokinetic modeling were performed using MONOLIX and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted using MATLAB. The data was based from a previously published dataset where elderly patients, having multiple comorbidities, were administered a 50mg dose of metoprolol. Results Metoprolol was modeled using a one-compartment model and resulted in the following population pharmacokinetic parameters: volume of distribution, V=38L (CV=155%), clearance rates, CL-Men=105L/hour and CL-Women=59.1L/hour (38%), time lag, Tlag=0.469 hour (CV=17%), and the absorption rate constant, Ka=0.235 hr-1 (CV=23%). Conclusion Gender stratified doses resulting in an equivalent systemic metoprolol exposure in geriatric patients have been identified. Metoprolol doses resulting a similar AUC in a healthy young male administered 50mg tablet were 15mg for geriatric women and 25mg for geriatric men. Further, Metoprolol doses of 25mg for geriatric women and 50mg for geriatric men resulted in an equivalent AUC to a healthy young males dosed with a 100mg tablet. A 15mg Metoprolol tablet may need to be compounded to account for the gender differences in Metoprolol pharmacokinetics.

  16. The effect of gender in the perception of elder physical abuse in court.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Yozwiak, John A; Kinstle, Terri L; Marsil, Dorothy F

    2005-10-01

    Two experiments investigated mock jurors' perceptions of elder abuse (EA) in a physical assault case. In Experiment 1, participants read a fictional criminal trial summary of a physical assault case in which the alleged victim was 66, 76, or 86 years old. In Experiment 2, the age of the alleged victim was 76 years old, but the gender of the alleged victim and the gender of the defendant were crossed. The results of the experiments showed that women believed the alleged victim more and rendered a guilty verdict more often than men. Overall, the alleged victim was believed more than the defendant regardless of the age of the alleged victim, and most verdicts were guilty. These results are discussed in terms of the factors that affect perceptions of alleged victims of EA in court. PMID:16254745

  17. Facial trauma as physical violence markers against elderly Brazilians: A comparative analysis between genders.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rayanne Izabel Maciel; de Macedo Bernardino, Ítalo; Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Bento, Patricia Meira; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of elderly Brazilians with injuries resulting from physical violence and identify victimization differences. A descriptive and exploratory study was conducted involving the analysis of medico-legal and social records of 259 elderly victims of physical violence treated at an Institute of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry over four years (from January 2008 to December 2011). The forensic service database was evaluated by researchers properly trained and calibrated to perform this function between January and March 2013. Socio-demographic variables of victims, aggression characteristics, aggressor's profile and types of lesions were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) were performed. The prevalence of facial trauma was 42.9%. Based on the MCA results, two groups with different victimization profiles were identified: married men aged 70-79 years, victims of community violence at night, suffering facial injuries; and single, widowed or separated women aged 60-69 years, victims of domestic violence during the day, suffering trauma in other areas of the body. The results suggest that there is a high prevalence of facial injuries among elderly Brazilians victims of physical violence and there are important differences related to victimization characteristics according to gender. PMID:27420151

  18. Closing the Need-Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and…

  19. Reducing the motor response in haptic parallel matching eliminates the typically observed gender difference.

    PubMed

    van Mier, Hanneke I

    2016-01-01

    When making two bars haptically parallel to each other, large deviations have been observed, most likely caused by the bias of a hand-centered egocentric reference frame. A consistent finding is that women show significantly larger deviations than men when performing this task. It has been suggested that this difference might be due to the fact that women are more egocentrically oriented than men or are less efficient in overcoming the egocentric bias of the hand. If this is indeed the case, reducing the bias of the egocentric reference frame should eliminate the above-mentioned gender difference. This was investigated in the current study. Sixty participants (30 men, 30 women) were instructed to haptically match (task HP) the orientation of a test bar with the dominant hand to the orientation of a reference bar that was perceived with the non-dominant hand. In a haptic visual task (task HV), in which only the reference bar and exploring hand were out of view, no motor response was required, but participants had to "match" the perceived orientation by verbally naming the parallel orientation that was read out on a test protractor. Both females and males performed better in the HV task than in the HP task. Significant gender effects were only found in the haptic parallelity task (HP), corroborating the idea that women perform at the same level as men when the egocentric bias of the hand is reduced. PMID:26378006

  20. Sex-Related Difference in Muscle Deoxygenation Responses Between Aerobic Capacity-Matched Elderly Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Muscle O2 dynamics during ramp cycling exercise were compared between aerobic capacity-matched elderly men (n=8, age 65±2 years) and women (n=8, age 66±3 years). Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative change in deoxygenated (Δdeoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (Δtotal-Hb) were monitored continuously during exercise in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. SmO2 was significantly higher during exercise in women than in men in VL, but not in GM. In VL, Δdeoxy-Hb and Δtotal-Hb were significantly higher in men than in women, especially during high intensity exercise. However, no significant difference was observed in Δdeoxy-Hb or Δtotal-Hb in GM. Sex-related differences in muscle deoxygenation response may be heterogeneous among leg muscles in elderly subjects. PMID:26782195

  1. The match between institutional elderly care management research and management challenges - a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly care practice and its management together with policy and research play a crucial role in responding to increasing challenges in institutional care for elderly people. Successful dialogue between these is necessary. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to compare how institutional elderly care management research meets the care challenges currently emphasized in international long-term care policy documents. Methods This paper was based on a systematic literature review. After screening 1971 abstracts using inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 refereed articles published between 2000 and 2010 remained for analysis. The articles were analyzed using theory-based content analysis by comparing the results to the framework based on analysis of international long-term care management policy documents. Results The current challenges of long-term care management identified from policy documents were Integrated Care Management, Productivity Management, Quality Management, Workforce Management and ICT Management. The research on institutional elderly care management responded somewhat to the challenges mentioned in policy documents. However, some of the challenges were studied broadly and some were paid only minor attention. Further, only few studies focused on the core items of challenges addressed in policy documents. Conclusions Institutional care management research needs to focus more on challenges in integrated care, productivity, ICT and division of labor. Managers, researchers and policy-makers should assume more active collaborative roles in processes of research, policymaking and policy implementation. In addition managers’ and policymakers’ scientific literacy needs to be enhanced. PMID:23137416

  2. Gender dependent cervical spine anatomical differences in size-matched volunteers - biomed 2009.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Derosia, John J; Yogananan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to examine significant differences in the bony structure of cervical spine vertebrae based on gender and spinal level that may influence injury risk in women following automotive rear impact. Male and female subjects were recruited for a separate study and data from two subsets were selected for inclusion in this study. Subjects were size-matched based on sitting height (17 males, 11 females) and head circumference (9 males, 18 females). Axial CT scans were obtained of the cervical spine from the C1 through C6. Bony boundaries of cervical vertebrae were defined using image-analysis software and biomechanically-relevant dimensions were derived at spinal levels C2 through C6. Six of seven vertebral dimensions were significantly dependent upon gender and spinal level in both subgroups. Male vertebrae had larger dimensions for each metric. Depth dimensions were greatest at caudal and cranial extents, whereas width dimensions were smallest at C2 and increased caudally. Greater linear and areal dimensions in size-matched male subjects indicates a more stable cervical spinal column that may be more capable of resisting inertial loading of the head-neck complex during automotive rear impacts. Although the explanation for greater injury susceptibility in females is likely multi-factorial, including differences in spinal material properties, soft tissue tolerance thresholds, occupant-seatback orientation, and neck muscle size/orientations, the present study has identified significant differences in cervical spine anatomical dimensions that may contribute to greater rates of whiplash injury in that population. PMID:19369755

  3. An Investigation of Same- versus Cross-Gender Matching for Boys in Formal School-Based Mentoring Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchewa, Stella S.; Rhodes, Jean E.; Schwartz, Sarah E. O.; Olsho, Lauren E. W.

    2014-01-01

    Although assigned mentoring relationships have typically involved same-gender matches, a growing number of programs, particularly those in schools, have begun pairing female mentors with male mentees. This practice stems, in large part, from the relative dearth of male mentors and programs' efforts to increase the availability of youth…

  4. Brain activation in elderly people with and without dementia: Influences of gender and medication.

    PubMed

    Richter, Melany M; Herrmann, Martin J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2007-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia show altered functional brain activation patterns especially in prefrontal brain regions, as research suggests. The present study follows three aims: to replicate these findings, to investigate treatment effects when administering galantamine, and to put gender differences in focus. We compared 12 patients with dementia to 12 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects regarding changes in haemoglobin concentration in brain tissue while performing a verbal fluency task (VFT). Concentration changes of oxygenated (O(2)Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) haemoglobin were measured by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an easily applicable and non-invasive method of optical topography. In the patient group, measurement was repeated 4 and 8 weeks after starting treatment with galantamine. The results showed a reduced increase in O(2)Hb during task performance for patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, female subjects showed more pronounced activation in O(2)Hb as well as HHb compared to male subjects. Regarding treatment effects, no clear results could be obtained. In HHb, evidence for an entrainment effect was found. In the light of existing literature, the present study suggests an interaction of gender and age regarding brain activation patterns which should be aimed at in future investigations. PMID:17366346

  5. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  6. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  7. Gender-related differences in maximum gait speed and daily physical activity in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Shinya; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Oka, Koichiro; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Brubaker, Peter H; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2015-03-01

    Maximum gait speed and physical activity (PA) relate to mortality and morbidity, but little is known about gender-related differences in these factors in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients. This study aimed to determine differences in maximum gait speed and daily measured PA based on sex and the relationship between these measures in elderly cardiac inpatients.A consecutive 268 elderly Japanese cardiac inpatients (mean age, 73.3 years) were enrolled and divided by sex into female (n = 75, 28%) and male (n = 193, 72%) groups. Patient characteristics and maximum gait speed, average step count, and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) in kilocalorie per day for 2 days assessed by accelerometer were compared between groups.Gait speed correlated positively with in-hospital PA measured by average daily step count (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and average daily PAEE (r = 0.47, P < 0.001) in all patients. After adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction, step counts and PAEE were significantly lower in females than males (2651.35 ± 1889.92 vs 4037.33 ± 1866.81 steps, P < 0.001; 52.74 ± 51.98 vs 99.33 ± 51.40 kcal, P < 0.001), respectively.Maximum gait speed was slower and PA lower in elderly female versus male inpatients. Minimum gait speed and step count values in this study might be minimum target values for elderly male and female Japanese cardiac inpatients. PMID:25789953

  8. Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Function, and the Elderly Obese Surgical Patient: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelz, Rachel R.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Zubizarreta, José R.; Wang, Min; Saynisch, Philip; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Reese, Peter P.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Silber, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between obesity and perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI), controlling for preoperative kidney dysfunction. Summary Background Data More than 30% of patients over the age of 60 are obese, and therefore at risk for kidney disease. Post-operative AKI is a significant problem. Methods We performed a matched case control study of patients enrolled in the Obesity and Surgical Outcomes Study (OBSOS), using Medicare claims data enriched with detailed chart review. Each AKI patient was matched to a non-AKI control similar in procedure type, age, sex, race, emergency status, transfer status, baseline eGFR, admission APACHE score, and the risk of death score with fine balance on hospitals. Results We identified 514 AKI cases and 694 control patients. Of the cases, 180 (35%) followed orthopedic procedures and 334 (65%) followed colon or thoracic surgery. After matching, obese patients undergoing a surgical procedure demonstrated a 65% increase in odds of AKI within 30 days from admission (OR=1.65, p<0.005) when compared to the non-obese patients. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds of post-operative AKI remained elevated in the elderly obese (OR=1.68, p=0.01.) Conclusions Obesity is an independent risk factor for post-operative AKI in patients over 65 years of age. Efforts to optimize kidney function pre-operatively should be employed in this at risk population along with keen monitoring and maintenance of intra-operative hemodynamics. When subtle reductions in urine output or a rising creatinine are observed post-operatively, timely clinical investigation is warranted to maximize renal recovery. PMID:23676533

  9. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  10. [Elder].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented. PMID:27603886

  11. Effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on paranoia in African-American men with severe mental illness.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. METHOD: One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. RESULTS: There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. CONCLUSION: The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services. PMID:16623068

  12. Outsourcing Elderly Care to Migrant Workers: The Impact of Gender and Class on the Experience of Male Employers

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Ester; Scrinzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This article, based on semi-structured interviews, addresses masculinity in the international division of reproductive labour through an analysis of the impact of gender and class on the outsourcing of elderly care services to migrant care workers. In the Italian context, characterised by a limited provision of long-term care services and by cash-for-care benefits, the strategies of men as employers of migrant care workers are shaped by class and gender. The outsourcing of care to migrant workers reproduces hegemonic masculinity in so far as male employers are able to withdraw from the ‘dirty work’. At the same time, men engage with tasks which are, in principle, kept at a distance. The employers’ family status, combined with their class background, are crucial factors in shaping the heterogeneity of men’s experiences as employers and managers of care labour, and the ways in which they make sense of their masculinity. PMID:27041775

  13. Data correlations between gender, cytomegalovirus infection and T cells, NK cells, and soluble immune mediators in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    We describe a cohort of 50 elderly subjects, age at least 70 years. We present gender-specific findings in T lymphocyte markers and soluble immune mediators. We show the correlation between cytomegalovirus infection status with CD56(dim) NK cell responses to a variety of stimuli and with CD56(bright)/CD56(dim) NK cell ratio. We also present the correlation of retinol binding protein (RBP)-4 plasma levels with NK cell responses and we explore the relationship between gender and adiponectin, 25(OH)D (vitamin D), and RBP4 in affecting CD56(dim) NK cell responses. These data are discussed in Al-Attar et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27508213

  14. Gender differences in the health status of elderly living alone compared to those who are not alone: Evidence of the AHAP study, North of Iran.

    PubMed Central

    Mouodi, Simin; Bijani, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the factors that have impact on the health status of elderly people is living alone. This study was conducted to examine the living condition of elderly population in Babol and probable differences which this condition induced on the health disorders of elderly people. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 1544 elderly people aged 60 and over in Amirkola, Babol. Demographic characteristics, the incidence of falls, chronic diseases, polypharmacy, headache with uncertain cause, chronic pains and back pain were collected by the study questionnaire; social support, physical activity, depression and cognitive disorders were assessed with standard questionnaires. Results: 6.8% of elderly people were living alone. Lack of social support, cognitive disorders, depression, multiple chronic diseases, occurrence of falls and headache with uncertain cause were significantly higher among those elderly who live alone (p<0.05). Regardless of age and educational level, headache and depressive symptoms in male individuals living alone, and falls occurrence in female individuals were significantly more than those who did not live alone (p<0.05). Also, in female elderly subjects, the effect of the marital status factor on health-related disorders was more than the effect of living alone factor. Conclusion: Many disorders and disabilities are higher in the elderly people who live alone; also there is a difference in the health status of elderly people who live alone, according to their gender.

  15. [New tools for the management of renal function in the elderly: Berlin Initiative Study equation and hematocrit, urea and gender formulae].

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2016-05-20

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function in the elderly, and if every elderly person with a glomerular filtration rate estimated using formulas (Cockroft-Gault, MDRD, CKD-EPI) of less than 60ml/min/1.73m(2) has kidney disease. In this review we analysed, based on the results of the study Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital de Segovia, the new equations to measure kidney function in the elderly: the Berlin Initiative Study equation designed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in people aged 70 or more, and the hematocrit, urea and gender formula to establish whether an elderly person with a glomerular filtration rate lower than 60mL/min/1.73m(2) has kidney disease. PMID:26971975

  16. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  17. Gender issues and Japanese family-centered caregiving for frail elderly parents or parents-in-law in modern Japan: from the sociocultural and historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a sociocultural and historical literature review of gender related issues associated with family-centered caregiving for frail, elderly relatives in modern Japan. Issues addressed from a Japanese perspective are (a) women and social norms of caregiving, (b) feminine identity and caregiving, (c) women in the workforce, and (d) women and caregiving. Implications for research are also discussed. PMID:10675050

  18. Gender, Age and Season as Modifiers of the Effects of Diurnal Temperature Range on Emergency Room Admissions for Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease among the Elderly in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Bei; Wang, Shigong; He, Shilin; Yin, Ling; Shang, Kezheng; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important index of climate change and variability. It is also a risk factor affecting human health. However, limited evidence is available to illustrate the effect of DTR modification on cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly. Methods: A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily emergency room (ER) admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases among the elderly from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by gender and age, and examined the effects of DTR in the warm season and cold season for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases. Results: Significant associations were found between DTR and ER admissions for all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease among elderly males, while DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for all cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among elderly females. People aged 75 years and older were more vulnerable to DTR. DTR caused greater adverse effects on both genders in the warm season, whereas the effect estimates on females were higher in cold season than in warm season. Conclusions: A short-term increase of DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly in Beijing. Gender, age and season may modify the acute health effect of DTR. Some prevention programs that target the high risk subgroups in the elderly for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people’s health. PMID:27128931

  19. Time-motion, tactical and technical analysis in top-level karatekas according to gender, match outcome and weight categories.

    PubMed

    Tabben, Montassar; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabène, Helmi; Franchini, Emerson; Ghoul, Nihel; Tourny, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time-motion (i.e., fighting, preparatory and breaking activity), technical (i.e., attack, timed-attack, counterattack, blocking and grasps) and tactical (i.e., upper limb, lower-limb, combination and throwing) profiles of the senior top-level karate competition played under the most recent rules of the International Karate Federation in relation to gender, match outcome and weight categories. Time-motion, tactical actions and technical executions were investigated of senior karatekas (n = 60) during the Karate World Championship. The referee's decisions caused an overall activity-to-break ratio of ~1:1.5 with a significant difference (P = 0.025) between karateka's weight categories (light = 1:1.5; middle = 1:2 and heavy = 1:1). High-intensity actions (i.e., attack and defensive actions performed quickly and powerfully) were higher in male compared to female athletes. Top-level karatekas used upper limb techniques more than lower limb ones, with both applied in the head more than in the body. For the high-intensity-actions to pause ratio and the percentage of combined techniques, light weight category was significantly higher than middle weight category. These findings suggest that training programs may need to be specific to the requirements of the gender and weight categories. PMID:25358098

  20. Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies indicate that a well balanced vegetarian diet offers several health benefits including a lower prevalence of prosperity diseases in vegetarians compared to omnivores. It was the purpose of the present study to compare nutritional and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly. Methods Twenty-two female and 7 male V (females: 84.1 ± 5.1yrs, males: 80.5 ± 7.5yrs) and 23 female and 7 male NV (females: 84.3 ± 5.0yrs, males: 80.6 ± 7.3yrs) participated. All subjects were over 65 years of age, and free of major disease or physical handicap. Dietary intake, blood profile, anthropometrics, and handgrip strength were determined. Results Mean daily energy intake was 6.8 ± 2.0MJ in V females, and 8.0 ± 1.4MJ in the NV females, only the V did not reach the recommended value of 7.8 MJ. Male V and NV had a mean daily energy intake of 8.7 ± 1.6MJ and 8.7 ± 1.2MJ respectively (RDI: 8.8 MJ). Mean carbohydrate intake was significantly below the RDI in NV only (female V: 47.8 ± 7.5E%, female NV: 43.3 ± 4.6E%, male V: 48.1 ± 6.4E%, male NV: 42.3 ± 3.6E%), while protein (female V: 17.3 ± 3.4E%, female NV: 19.5 ± 3.5E%, male V: 17.8 ± 3.4E%, male NV: 21.0 ± 2.0E%), and saturated fat intake (female V: 25.4 ± 8.2 g/day, female NV: 32.2 ± 6.9 g/day, male V: 31.4 ± 12.9 g/day, male NV: 33.4 ± 4.7 g/day) were too high in both V and NV. Mean micronutrient intakes met the RDI's in all 4 groups. Mean blood concentrations for vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium were normal in all 4 groups. Mean zinc blood serum was below the reference value in all groups, whereas estimated zinc intake was in agreement with the RDI. The mean blood cholesterol concentration was above the 200 mg/dl upper limit in the V group (213 ± 40 mg/dl) and below that limit in the NV (188 ± 33 mg/dl) group. Mean BMI was 26.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2 in the female V, 26.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 in the female NV, 23.5

  1. Immunity in young adult survivors of childhood leukemia is similar to the elderly rather than age-matched controls: Role of cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Azanan, Mohamad Shafiq; Abdullah, Noor Kamila; Chua, Ling Ling; Lum, Su Han; Abdul Ghafar, Sayyidatul Syahirah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul; Lewin, Sharon R; Woo, Yin Ling; Ariffin, Hany; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Many treatment complications that occur late in childhood cancer survivors resemble age-related comorbidities observed in the elderly. An immune phenotype characterized by increased immune activation, systemic inflammation, and accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD57(+) CD28(-) T cells has been associated with comorbidities in the elderly. Here, we explored if this phenotype was present in young adult leukemia survivors following an average of 19 years from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy completion, and compared this with that in age-matched controls. We found that markers of systemic inflammation-IL-6 and human C-reactive protein and immune activation-CD38 and HLA-DR on T cells, soluble CD (sCD)163 from monocytes and macrophages-were increased in survivors compared to controls. T-cell responses specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) were also increased in survivors compared to controls while CMV IgG levels in survivors were comparable to levels measured in the elderly (>50years) and correlated with IL-6, human C-reactive protein, sCD163, and CD57(+) CD28(-) memory T cells. Immune activation and inflammation markers correlated poorly with prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy exposure. These data suggest that CMV infection/reactivation is strongly correlated with the immunological phenotype seen in young childhood leukemia survivors and these changes may be associated with the early onset of age-related comorbidities in this group. PMID:27129782

  2. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    PubMed Central

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  3. Gender-specific associations of appendicular muscle mass with BMD in elderly Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C; Cappelli, S; Rossi, S; Giordano, N; Nuti, R

    2014-10-01

    Currently used diagnostic measures for sarcopenia are based on the evaluation of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) divided by height-squared (ASMMI). This study aimed to investigate the associations between different operational definitions of appendicular muscle mass and BMD at different skeletal sites in aging Italian men and women. In 1199 consecutive healthy Italian subjects, aged 55 years or more (854 women, age 64.2 ± 6.4 years and 165 men, age 65.3 ± 6.1 years), we measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS-BMD), at femoral neck (FN-BMD),at total hip (TH-BMD), at total body (WB-BMD) and at the right hand (H-BMD) and body composition parameters [ASMM, ASMMI, ASMM/Weight, total lean mass and total fat mass by DXA]. In all subjects, we also measured sex hormones, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers. In men, both ASMM and ASMMI were positively correlated with BMD at all sites, whereas in women, ASMM and ASMMI did not show any significant correlation with BMD. In men, multiple regression analyses showed that ASMM was positively associated (p < 0.01) with FN-BMD, TH-BMD and H-BMD; however, these associations were no longer present when lean mass was included. In women, both fat mass and lean mass were found positively associated with BMD at all sites. In conclusion, among the different operational measures of the ASMM, only ASMM was significantly associated with BMD in elderly men, but not in elderly women. PMID:25139040

  4. Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Rapeli, Pekka; Kivisaari, Reetta; Autti, Taina; Kähkönen, Seppo; Puuskari, Varpu; Jokela, Olga; Kalska, Hely

    2006-01-01

    Background Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence during early abstinence. It was hypothesized that cognitive deficits are pronounced immediately after peak withdrawal symptoms have passed and then partially recover. Methods Fifteen patients with opioid dependence and fifteen controls matched for, age, gender, and verbal intelligence were tested with a cognitive test battery When patients performed worse than controls correlations between cognitive performance and days of withdrawal, duration of opioid abuse, duration of any substance abuse, or opioid withdrawal symptom inventory score (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale) were analyzed. Results Early abstinent opioid dependent patients performed statistically significantly worse than controls in tests measuring complex working memory, executive function, and fluid intelligence. Their complex working memory and fluid intelligence performances correlated statistically significantly with days of withdrawal. Conclusion The results indicate a rather general neurocognitive deficit in higher order cognition. It is suggested that cognitive deficit during early abstinence from opioid dependence is related to withdrawal induced neural dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and is partly transient. PMID:16504127

  5. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in the Elderly: A Population Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Sachin Khane, Rupali; Surdi, Anil D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health transition in India reflects the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases. It is well-known that there are significant and meaningful differences in the measured electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters between females and males. Specific to ECG diagnosis and ischemia, reports have indicated a higher number of false positive results in female patients than in male patients. This study was aimed at examining gender difference in the prevalence of ECG abnormality in older people who were free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its associated risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in Solapur city using 400 apparently healthy asymptomatic subjects with an age range of 45 to 74 years. A resting 12-lead ECG was recorded in supine position in accordance with classical recommendations. The various ECG abnormalities were defined according to Minnesota code. The findings were analyzed using Chi Square test at P<0.05. Results: Out of 400 ECGs recorded, 152 showed abnormalities. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was significantly (P<0.001) more in males than in females. Major prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males observed were LAD, LVH, sinus bradycardia, LBBB and Q/QS patterns. There was no significant gender difference in the prevalence of other ECG abnormalities. Conclusion: This study has outlined the overall prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as well as in females in Solapur city. We found highly significant (P<0.001) increase in the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as compare to females. PMID:23115437

  6. Nonlinear relationship between waist to hip ratio, weight and strength in elders: is gender the key?

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Carnicero, José A; de la Torre, Mari Ángeles; Amor, Solange; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; García-García, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Visceral fat has a high metabolic activity with deleterious effects on health contributing to the risk for the frailty syndrome. We studied the association between waist to hip ratio (an indirect measure of visceral fat stores) on upper and lower extremities strength. 1741 individuals aged ≥65 participated in this study. The data was obtained from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. For each gender, we studied the relationship between the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI) and regional muscle strength (grip, shoulder, knee and hip) using multivariate linear regression and kernel regression statistical models. WHR was higher in men than in women (0.98 ± 0.07 vs. 0.91 ± 0.08, respectively, P < 0.05). In women with high WHR, we observed a decrease in strength especially in those with a normal BMI. As the WHR lowered, the strength increased regardless of the BMI. In men, lower strength was generally related to the lowest and highest WHR's. Maximum strength in men corresponded at a WHR around 1 and the highest BMI. Muscle strength depends on the joined distribution of WHR and BMI according to gender. In consequence, sex, WHR and BMI should be analyzed conjointly to study the relationship among fat distribution, weight and muscle strength. PMID:25966877

  7. [Propensity-score-matched Comparison of Postoperative Pain Between Young and Elderly Patients Who Underwent Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Spontaneous Pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Tsuboshima, Kenji; Nagata, Machiko; Wakahara, Teppei; Matoba, Yasumi; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Yamana, Hidenori; Abe, Koichiro; Oue, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Ono, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is the standard treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax(SP). Although VATS has decreased the postoperative pain in comparison with conventional thoracotomy, the procedure still often requires sufficient postoperative pain management especially for young patients, and the present study on the postoperative pain management focused on the age difference was designed. Using the numerical rating scale, we compared postoperative pain between the young group(36 patients) and the elderly group (36 patients) selected by propensity score matching in order to adjust for the patients' backgrounds. Although the young group had significantly stronger pain than the elderly group immediately after surgery(4.9±2.5 vs.3.2±2.4, p=0.002), it improved promptly. Moreover, the young group required significantly more frequent continuous infusions of opioids after surgery( p=0.001). In conclusion, it is considered that the postoperative pain management in the pneumothorax surgery should be customized according to the age. PMID:27476561

  8. Weight regulation and bone mass: a comparison between professional jockeys, elite amateur boxers, and age, gender and BMI matched controls.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Eimear; Crabtree, Nicola; McGoldrick, Adrian; Ashley, David T; McCaffrey, Noel; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mass between two groups of jockeys (flat: n = 14; national hunt: n = 16); boxers (n = 14) and age, gender and BMI matched controls (n = 14). All subjects underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning for assessment of bone mass, with measurements made of the total body, vertebra L2-4 and femoral neck. Body composition and the relative contribution of fat and lean mass were extrapolated from the results. Data were analysed in accordance with differences in body composition, in particular, height, lean mass, fat mass and age. Both jockey groups were shown to display lower bone mass than either the boxers or control group at a number of sites including total body bone mineral density (BMD) (1.019 ± 0.06 and 1.17 ± 1.05 vs. 1.26 ± 0.01 and 1.26 ± 0.06 g cm(-2) for flat, national hunt, boxer and control, respectively), total body bone mineral content (BMC) less head, L2-4 BMD and femoral neck BMD and BMC (p < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that lean mass and height were the primary predictors of total body BMC, although additional group-specific influences were present which reduced bone mass in the flat jockey group and enhanced it in the boxers (R (2) = 0.814). Reduced bone mass in jockeys may be a consequence of reduced energy availability in response to chronic weight restriction and could have particular implications for these athletes in light of the high risk nature of the sport. In contrast, the high intensity, high impact training associated with boxing may have conveyed an osteogenic stimulus on these athletes. PMID:21773703

  9. Gender Differences in Tea, Coffee, and Cognitive Decline in the Elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Lenore; Biggs, Mary L.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Longstreth, W.T.; Crane, Paul K.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Although caffeine can enhance cognitive function acutely, long-term effects of consumption of caffeine-containing beverages such as tea and coffee are uncertain. Data on 4,809 participants aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to examine the relationship of consumption of tea and coffee, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, on change in cognitive function by gender. Cognitive performance was assessed using serial Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examinations, which were administered annually up to 9 times. Linear mixed models were used to estimate rates of change in standard 3MS scores and scores modeled using item response theory (IRT). Models were adjusted for age, education, smoking status, clinic site, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, depression score, and APOE genotype. Over the median 7.9 years of follow-up, participants who did not consume tea or coffee declined annually by an average of 1.30 points (women) and 1.11 points (men) on standard 3MS scores. In fully adjusted models using either standard or IRT 3MS scores, we found modestly reduced rates of cognitive decline for some, but not all, levels of coffee and tea consumption for women, with no consistent effect for men. Caffeine consumption was also associated with attenuation in cognitive decline in women. Dose-response relationships were not linear. These longitudinal analyses suggest a somewhat attenuated rate of cognitive decline among tea and coffee consumers compared to non-consumers in women but not in men. Whether this association is causal or due to unmeasured confounding requires further study. PMID:21841254

  10. Increased masticatory activity and quality of life in elderly persons with dementia-a longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, millions of people are suffering from dementia and this number is rising. An index of quality of life (QoL) can describe the impact a disease or treatment has on a person’s wellbeing. QoL comprises many variables, including physical health and function, and mental health and function. QoL is related to masticatory ability and physical activity. Animal studies show that disruption of mastication due to loss of teeth or a soft diet leads to memory loss and learning problems. Since these are common complaints in dementia, it is hypothesized that improvement of masticatory function and normalization of diet consistency can increase QoL in elderly persons suffering from dementia. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to examine whether an increase in masticatory activity, achieved by increased food consistency and enhancement of masticatory function through improved oral health care has a positive effect on QoL, including cognition, mood, activities of daily living (ADL), and circadian rhythm in elderly persons with dementia. Methods and design The described study is a prospective longitudinal matched cluster randomized single-blind multicenter study. Participants are elderly persons living in the Netherlands, suffering from dementia and receiving psychogeriatric care. An intervention group will receive improved oral health care and a diet of increased consistency. A control group receives care as usual. Participants will be assessed four times; outcome variables besides QoL are cognition, mood, independence, rest-activity rhythm, blood pressure, and masticatory function. Discussion This research protocol investigates the effect of an intervention executed by daily caregivers. The intervention will increase masticatory activity, which is achieved by three different actions, (providing oral health care, increasing food consistency, or a combination of both). There is a certain amount of variety in the nature of the interventions due to local

  11. Aphrodisiac Use Associated with HIV Infection in Elderly Male Clients of Low-Cost Commercial Sex Venues in Guangxi, China: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guojian; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongman; Lan, Guanghua; Feng, Xue; Lin, Rui; Abdullah, Abu S.; Wu, Zunyou; Shi, Cynthia X.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi. Methods A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years), number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years), and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection. Findings This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08–3.04), never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08–3.07), and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05–2.98) were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02). Conclusions Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission. PMID:25286369

  12. Effects of age and gender on elderly suicide rates in Catholic and Orthodox countries: an inadvertent neglect?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, C; Baldwin, D

    2000-10-01

    When compared to suicide rates in the general population, it may be expected that elderly suicide rates would be lower in Catholic and Orthodox societies than in non-Catholic or non-Orthodox countries because of religious affiliations and extended family traditions. National suicide rates in the general population were compared with rates in the sub-population of those aged over 75 years. Proportionately, there are significantly higher suicide rates in elderly men in Catholic and Orthodox countries, compared to rates in other countries, with a trend for similar findings among women. There may be important implications on health and social policy and clinical practice in the efforts to reduce suicide rates among elderly people. PMID:11044872

  13. The relation of education and gender on the attention items of the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish speaking Hispanic elders

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Mónica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) has frequently been challenged for its bias against individuals with lower levels of education and the use of scoring adjustments for lower educational levels has become standard practice. An additional source of concern is that original instructions specify that the “serial 7’s” item may be replaced by an apparently less difficult “backwards spelling” task. This study compared the performance on these items and the effects for total scores on 102 unimpaired and 58 memory impaired elder Hispanic individuals (age 54-98), divided into 3 groups based on educational level (<7, 7-11, and >11 years of education). The effects of education and gender on the total MMSE scores were analyzed using the “serial 7’s” and the “backwards spelling” items. For all the studied groups, MMSE scores were higher by an average of 1.5 points when using the “backwards spelling” task. Correlation between “serial 7’s” and “backwards spelling” was a modest .37. Education had a significant effect on the MMSE scores in both the impaired and the unimpaired groups. After controlling for education, gender also explains a significant proportion of the variance of the results. The “backwards spelling” and “serial 7’s” items do not appear to be either equivalent in difficulty or to test the same abilities in the unimpaired and the impaired Hispanics elders tested in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of National Academy of Neuropsychology. PMID:16968662

  14. Gender differences between WOMAC index scores, health-related quality of life and physical performance in an elderly Taiwanese population with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Hsien-Feng; Chen, Ching-Yang; Kang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lin, Chin; Yang, Jia-Hwa; Su, Wen; Kao, SenYeong; Su, Sui-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the importance of the WOMAC index score, health-related quality of life and physical performance in each domain affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify gender differences in the importance of these domains and physical performances. Material and methods We performed a population-based study for radiographic knee OA among participants aged more than 65 years. Demographic data were collected and anthropometric measurement, radiographic assessment, the WOMAC index score, the short-form 12 (SF-12), the Timed and Up to Go Test (TUGT) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) were performed. Result There were 901 individuals (409 males and 492 females) aged 74.04±6.92 (male: 76.35±7.33; female: 72.12±5.92) years included in this study. The WOMAC scores of participants with OA were higher than those without OA in males and females (male: 11.97±15.79 vs 8.23±12.84, p<0.001; female: 10.61±14.97 vs 7.59±3.31, p=0.032). The physical component summary (PCS) score was only significant in females with knee OA (62.14±24.66 vs 66.59±23.85, p=0.043), while the mental component summary (MCS) score was only significant in males with knee OA (78.02±18.59 vs 81.98±15.46, p=0.02). The TUGT and FTSST were not significant in individuals with and without OA in males and females. Moreover, the multivariate results for the WOMAC score were significant for females (3.928 (95% CI 1.287 to 6.569), p=0.004). Conclusions The PCS domains of SF-12 and MCS domains of SF-12 are crucial in Taiwanese females and elderly males, respectively, with knee OA. Different evaluation and treatment strategies based on gender differences should be considered in elderly Taiwanese patients with knee OA to improve their quality of life. PMID:26373405

  15. The associations of gender, depression and elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population: the modifying effect of social support.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Beck, Todd; Simon, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to: (1) examine the gender differences in the association of depression and elder mistreatment (EM) in a community-dwelling Chinese population; and (2) examine the potential differential modifying effect of greater social support on these associations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 141 women and 270 men aged 60 years or greater who presented to an urban medical center. EM was assessed using the modified Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS) and depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and overall social support was measured using the Social Support Index (SSI). After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was associated with 447% increased risk for EM among men (odds ratio, OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.52-13.13) and 854% increased risk for EM among women (OR = 8.54; 95% CI = 2.85-25.57). After examining the effect of greater social support on depression (social support x depression), depression was no longer associated with increased risk for EM in men (parameter estimate = PE = 0.62 + or - 0.82 (+ or - S.E.M.) = 0.82, p = 0.454). However, among women, depression remained as a significant risk factor for EM (PE = 1.49 + or - 0.68, p = 0.029). Depression is significant risk factor for EM for both men and women. However, effect of greater overall social support may have higher protective effect in men than in women. PMID:19398133

  16. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    predictor of subjects' ability to sing the notes E and F♯; (3) mean speech frequency correlated moderately and significantly (p < .001) with sharpness and flatness of singing response accuracy in Hz; (4) speech range was the strongest predictor of singing accuracy for the pitches G and A in the study (p < .001); (5) gender emerged as a significant, but not the strongest, predictor for ability to sing the pitches in the study above C and D; (6) gender did not correlate with mean speech frequency and speech range; (7) age in months emerged as a low but significant predictor of ability to sing the lower notes (C and D) in the study; (8) age correlated significantly but negatively low (r = -.23, p < .05, two-tailed) with mean speech frequency; and (9) age did not emerge as a significant predictor of overall singing accuracy. Ancillary findings indicated that there were significant differences in singing accuracy based on geographic location by gender, and that siblings and fraternal twins in the study generally performed similarly. In addition, reliability for using the CSpeech for acoustical analysis revealed test/retest correlations of .99, with one exception at .94. Based on these results, suggestions were made concerning future research concerned with studying the use of voice in speech and how it may affect singing development, overall use in singing, and pitch-matching accuracy.

  17. Age and gender effects on human brain anatomy: a voxel-based morphometric study in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles D; Chebrolu, Himachandra; Wekstein, David R; Schmitt, Frederick A; Markesbery, William R

    2007-07-01

    The adult human brain shrinks slowly with age, but the regional specificity and tissue class specificity of this loss is unclear. Subjects (n=122) were healthy aged participants in a longitudinal cohort who undergo periodic standardized cognitive and clinical examination. Multi-spectral segmentation of magnetic resonance images into grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF was performed on cross-sectional image data using a custom template and calculated prior probability maps. Global differences were evaluated by fitting a regression model for absolute and normalized subject GM, WM, and CSF values. Global and regional patterns of GM, WM and CSF differences were assessed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). GM volume decreased with age at a rate of 2.4 cm(3)/year (-0.18%/year); CSF increased by 2.5 cm(3)/year (0.20%/year). Regression analyses showed no significant decrease in WM volume, but a focal WM decrease with age was detected in the anterior corpus callosum using VBM. Diffuse reductions of GM volume were seen with age in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Relative regional differences in cortical GM volume with age occurred in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, but not in medial temporal lobe or in posterior cingulate. We did not observe significant gender effects. These findings establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in human brain volume between ages 58 and 95 years. PMID:16774798

  18. Gender differences in continuous-flow left ventricular assist device therapy as a bridge to transplantation: a risk-adjusted comparison using a propensity score-matching analysis.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Mohite, Prashant N; García Sáez, Diana; Amrani, Mohamed; Bahrami, Toufan; De Robertis, Fabio; Wahlers, Thorsten; Banner, Nicholas R; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences regarding outcome after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cfLVAD) implantation. The study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Included were 24 consecutive female cfLVAD recipients and 24 male recipients (62.5% HeartMate II, 37.5% HeartWare) who received their devices between July 2007 and May 2013. Subjects were matched using propensity score analysis based on age, diagnosis, body surface area, preoperative mechanical circulatory support, heart failure severity score (INTERMACS class), and comorbidities. Female patients were significantly sicker before operation. After propensity score matching, there were no statistically significant differences in demographics or clinical baseline characteristics between male and female LVAD recipients. Also, there was a trend towards a longer postoperative intensive care unit stay in the female group (median 9 days [interquartile range 5-17] versus 15 days [interquartile range 8-33]; P < 0.061) and higher postoperative bilirubin values (median 14 mmol/L [interquartile range 10-17] versus 21 mmol/L [interquartile range 13-30]). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of outcome (P < 0.569). The overall survival was comparable between the two groups (log rank P < 0.389). Half (50%) of female patients required inotropic support for more than 7 days compared with 21.7% in the male group (P < 0.048). Half (50%) of female recipients required short-term postoperative right ventricular assist device implantation compared with 16.7% in the male group (P < 0.014). In conclusion, cfLVAD implantation as a bridge to transplantation is associated with longer duration of inotropic support and higher requirement for postoperative mechanical right ventricular support in women with similar survival rates. Further studies are required to identify additional demographic and clinical

  19. Depression - elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest risk. Families should pay close attention to elderly relatives who are depressed and who live alone. ... health care provider. Alternative Names Depression in the elderly Images Depression among the elderly References Abbasi O, ...

  20. Are Boys Better Off with Male and Girls with Female Teachers? A Multilevel Investigation of Measurement Invariance and Gender Match in Teacher-Student Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jak, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182…

  1. Long term survival with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) versus thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection in elderly people: national population based study with propensity matched comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Subroto; Lee, Paul C; Mao, Jialin; Isaacs, Abby J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cancer specific survival after thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for tumors ≤2 cm in size and thoracoscopic resection (sublobar resection or lobectomy) and SABR for tumors ≤5 cm in size. Design National population based retrospective cohort study with propensity matched comparative analysis. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry linked with Medicare database in the United States. Participants Patients aged ≥66 with lung cancer undergoing SABR or thoracoscopic lobectomy or sublobar resection from 1 Oct 2007 to 31 June 2012 and followed up to 31 December 2013. Main outcome measures Cancer specific survival after SABR or thoracoscopic surgery for lung cancer. Results 690 (275 (39.9%) SABR and 415 (60.1%) thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection) and 2967 (714 (24.1%) SABR and 2253 (75.9%) thoracoscopic resection) patients were included in primary and secondary analyses. The average age of the entire cohort was 76. Follow-up of the entire cohort ranged from 0 to 6.25 years, with an average of three years. In the primary analysis of patients with tumors sized ≤2 cm, 37 (13.5%) undergoing SABR and 44 (10.6%) undergoing thoracoscopic sublobar resection died from lung cancer, respectively. The cancer specific survival diverged after one year, but in the matched analysis (201 matched patients in each group) there was no significant difference between the groups (SABR v sublobar lung resection mortality: hazard ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 2.26; P=0.32). Estimated cancer specific survival at three years after SABR and thoracoscopic sublobar lung resection was 82.6% and 86.4%, respectively. The secondary analysis (643 matched patients in each group) showed that thoracoscopic resection was associated with improved cancer specific survival over SABR in patients with tumors sized ≤5 cm (SABR v resection mortality: hazard ratio 2.10, 1.52 to 2.89; P<0

  2. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  3. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women. PMID:26211934

  4. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  5. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  6. First successful bone marrow transplantation for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease by using preimplantation female gender typing and HLA matching.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, Janine; Van de Velde, Hilde; De Rycke, Martine; Staessen, Cathérine; Platteau, Peter; Baetens, Patricia; Güngör, Tayfun; Ozsahin, Hulya; Scherer, Franziska; Siler, Ulrich; Seger, Reinhard A; Liebaers, Inge

    2008-09-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor is currently the only proven curative treatment for chronic granulomatous disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with alternative donors is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we performed in vitro fertilization and preimplantation HLA matching combined with female sexing for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic granulomatous disease. Ethical and psychological issues were considered carefully. We used in vitro fertilization with X-enriched spermatozoa followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis to identify female HLA-genoidentical embryos in a family in need of a suitable donor for their boy affected with severe X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Two preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles were performed in the family. In the second cycle, 2 HLA-genoidentical female embryos were transferred and a singleton pregnancy was obtained, resulting in the birth of an unaffected girl at term. Because of insufficient cell numbers in the cord-blood source, conventional hematopoietic stem cell transplantation had to be performed at 12 months of age of the donor and 5 years of age of the recipient and resulted in complete stable donor chimerism and immunologic reconstitution up to 25 months post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after in vitro fertilization and combined female sexing and HLA matching offers a new and relatively rapid therapeutic option for patients with X-linked primary immunodeficiency such as chronic granulomatous disease who need hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but lack an HLA-genoidentical donor. PMID:18762514

  7. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  8. Haptic Exploration in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Joel M.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Matching accuracy and strategy utilization in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults was examined in a series of intramodal, haptic match-to-standard problems. Results indicated that elderly adults were less successful in solving the haptic problems. They also displayed less systematic and logical haptic search strategies. (Author)

  9. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    PubMed

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    Trying to analyse the effects of the paradigm shift in the old age social security system in Germany (GRV) from a life cycle gender perspective yields light and shade - it is a conglomeration of individual- and family-specific transfers, financed by a mix of contributions and taxes, and with measures of explicit and implicit, intended and not intended ex-post and ex-ante redistribution and discrimination.The paradigm shift has increased the complexity of the system and created additional elements of gender specific discrimination as well as reduced established elements of the so called "social compensation". Furthermore, the relevance of complementary private and occupational pensions will increase absolute and relative due to the reduction of the pension level. This will raise the importance of earnings in old age especially those that are without any elements of social security compensation or without elements of recognition of activities beside employment. Overall the paradigm shift has intensified the discrimination of women in two ways and the pension privatisation has caused redistribution from the bottom to the top. In other words, there is an increase in inter- and intra-gender discrimination. Due to the changes and the emphasis of aspects of an independent old age security savings for women the norm of the "male breadwinner model" has increased. The importance of "providing one's own pension" additionally creates distribution conflicts within a partnership. Because of the necessity of constant payments over time within a private insurance and the changes of an individual income and gender-specific life cycle, conflicts may occur time and again. The dependence of life-long partnerships on each other is not reduced or abolished with the strengthening of the individualistic model of protection, but is qualitatively and quantitatively improved. Against this background, the measures of the statutory pension system which are aimed towards the situation of a

  10. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  11. Elderly trauma.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Renee Semonin

    2015-01-01

    Across the world, the population is aging. Adults 65 years and older make up one of the fastest growing segments of the US population. Trauma is a disease process that affects all age groups. The mortality and morbidity that result from an injury can be influenced by many factors including age, physical condition, and comorbidities. The management of the elderly trauma patient can present some unique challenges. This paper addresses the differences that occur in the management of elderly patient who has been injured. This paper also includes a discussion of how to prevent injury in the elderly. PMID:26039652

  12. Gendered Perceptions of Aging: An Examination of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of…

  13. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  14. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  15. Gender dysphoria

    MedlinePlus

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a conflict between a person's physical gender and the ... Gender dysphoria used to be known as gender identity disorder. People with gender dysphoria may act as members ...

  16. Cytokine profile in elderly patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil T.; Sudhir, U.; Punith, K.; Kumar, Rahul; Ravi Kumar, V. N.; Rao, Medha Y.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Sepsis is a serious health problem in the elderly with a high degree of mortality. There is very limited data available in elderly subjects regarding the markers for sepsis. Development of good markers will help in overall management and prediction of sepsis. Objectives: Serial estimation of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) and their correlation with mortality in sepsis in elderly patients and to determine the influence of gender on cytokine production and mortality in elderly patients with sepsis. Settings and Design: The prospective study was conducted at our tertiary care center from April 2007 to September 2008. Elderly Patients satisfying the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria were included. Methods and Material: TNF-α and IL-6 were estimated in 30 elderly patients admitted to our intensive care unit with SIRS and sepsis. The estimations were done on day 1, 3 and 7 of admission. Statistical Analysis Used: Student and paired ‘t’ tests, and ANOVA, which were further followed up by post-hoc ‘t’ tests with Bonferroni correction using SPSS. Results: Reducing levels of IL-6 levels from day 1 to 7 was found in the survivor group. TNF-α level was significantly low on day 1 in the nonsurvivor female group. Conclusions: Serial estimation of cytokines in elderly patients with sepsis will help in prediction of mortality. Female gender was an independent predictor of increased morality in critically ill patients with sepsis. PMID:19881187

  17. Generalised Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Raphael; Harrow, Aram W.; Popa, Alexandru; Sach, Benjamin

    Given a pattern p over an alphabet Σ p and a text t over an alphabet Σ t , we consider the problem of determining a mapping f from Σ p to {Σ}t+ such that t = f(p 1)f(p 2)...f(p m ). This class of problems, which was first introduced by Amir and Nor in 2004, is defined by different constraints on the mapping f. We give NP-Completeness results for a wide range of conditions. These include when f is either many-to-one or one-to-one, when Σ t is binary and when the range of f is limited to strings of constant length. We then introduce a related problem we term pattern matching with string classes which we show to be solvable efficiently. Finally, we discuss an optimisation variant of generalised matching and give a polynomial-time min (1,sqrt{k/OPT})-approximation algorithm for fixed k.

  18. The Presence of Adult Children: A Source of Stress for Elderly Couples' Marriages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Pillemer, Karl

    1987-01-01

    Studied 677 elderly residents of the Boston metropolitan area to assess the effects of the presence of adult children on elderly parents' relationships. Contrary to expectations, found no effect on elderly parents' marital conflict, even when age, educational attainment, health, and gender were controlled. Marital conflict was, however, strongly…

  19. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  20. Nationality, Gender, Age, and Body Mass Index Influences on Vitamin D Concentration among Elderly Patients and Young Iraqi and Jordanian in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Hanan; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Mallah, Eyad; Hamad, Mohammed; Mima, Mohammad; Awad, Riad; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining and regulating calcium levels; thus, insufficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine vitamin D levels among Jordanian and Iraqi volunteers and find the relation between vitamin D level and lipid profile patients. Vitamin D levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For young healthy group subjects, vitamin D levels were 20.60 ± 5.94 ng/mL for Jordanian and 27.59 ± 7.74 ng/mL for Iraqi. Vitamin D concentrations for young males and females were 25.82 ± 8.33 ng/mL and 21.95 ± 6.39 ng/mL, respectively. Females wearing hijab were 20.87 ± 6.45 ng/mL, while uncovered females were 23.55 ± 6.04 ng/mL. For >40 years Iraqi subjects, vitamin D level for healthy was 29.78 ± 9.49 ng/mL and 23.88 ± 7.93 ng/mL for hyperlipidemic subjects. Vitamin D levels for overweight and obese healthy groups were significantly higher (P < 0.050) than those for the hyperlipidemic patients groups. Vitamin D levels for males were significantly higher than females and were significantly higher for healthy than those hyperlipidemic Iraqi patients. These findings showed that vitamin D levels are affected by age, nationality, gender, and health statues and highlight the importance of vitamin D supplementation for groups with low levels particularly old, hijab wearing females, and hyperlipidemic groups. PMID:27110402

  1. Comparison of Outpatient Services between Elderly People with Intellectual Disabilities and the General Elderly Population in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chang, Yu-Chia; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the ambulatory visit frequency and medical expenditures of the general elderly population versus the elderly with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan, while examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and copayment status on ambulatory utilization. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 103,183…

  2. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among urban elderlies: Lucknow elderly study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S. C.; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Aditya; Kar, A. M.; Singh, Ragini; Kohli, V. K.; Agarwal, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paucity of systematic studies in elderly mental health in an aging population is an urgent need, which is required to address services and planning issues for health. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the distribution of physical, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive disorders of a community sample of elderlies with certain socioeconomic data. Materials and Methods: A door-to-door household survey was conducted to identify houses with elderlies (≥55 years) in two urban localities of Lucknow. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS)/Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and physical and neurological examination were used for screening all consenting elderlies. MMSE positive participants were assessed on Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination-Revised for diagnosis of cognitive disorders; SPAS/MDQ positives were assessed on Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry based clinical interview for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders other than cognitive disorders (using ICD-10 criteria). Routine and indicated laboratory/radiological investigations on all and on MMSE/SPAS (organic section) positive/physically ill participants respectively were done to confirm organic and/or physical illness. Only percentages were calculated to find the distribution of morbidity. Results: The sample had proportionate age structure as that of the surveyed population and had balanced gender representation in each age deciles. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders (with/without comorbidities) was 11.8% in the elderlies (60 years and above) highest being in the 60-69 years age group. Being women and of lower socioeconomic status was more commonly associated with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. 7.6% of the elderlies had cognitive impairment. Overall findings suggest a prevalence rate of 17.34% of total psychiatric morbidity among elderlies. A significant number had comorbid physical illness diagnoses

  3. Elderly Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... for completing suicide among the elderly. Men use firearms more often than women. • Alcohol or substance abuse plays a diminishing role in later life suicides compared to younger suicides. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics System. Mortality Data. ...

  4. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  5. Isolated Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose; And Others

    The Minnesota Senior Study, the first statewide survey of the elderly in nearly 20 years, was based on a telephone survey with a statewide sample of 1,500 non-institutionalized Minnesotans age 60 and older. Substantial numbers of Minnesotans age 60-plus were found to have low social contacts. Five percent, or about 33,000 older Minnesotans, fell…

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors for Falling in Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hiromi; Okuno, Makoto; Nakamura, Tatsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is possible that patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are at a high risk of falling. However, there are insufficient data to confirm the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared with healthy elderly counterparts. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared to the age- and gender-matched healthy elderly. Methods Subjects who underwent TKA consisted of 252 patients over 60 years of age. Controls were 150 healthy elderly individuals over 60 years of age living independently in the community. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to patients after TKA and a similar questionnaire was distributed to the controls by investigators during the town-sponsored healthy aging program. The questionnaire included questions for ambulatory ability, functional status in daily living, knee pain, other joint pain and information on falls. Results Self-administered questionnares were returned by 192 of the 252 patients (76.1%) and 146 of the 150 controls (97.3%). Age and gender matching was performed for respondents between 70 and 80 years of age. There were 81 patients and 80 controls who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and all of them agreed to participate. In the previous year, 34 of the 81 patients (38.2%) fell. The incidence of falls was significantly higher in patients than controls (23.8%, P = 0.041). In controls, ability to stand up from a chair without using the arms and restriction from joining social activities due to knee pain showed the strongest association with recent falls. In patients, self-reported kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls. Conclusion Patients after TKA are more likely to fall than the general Japanese population. Kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls in patients after TKA, which was different from the results obtained in the healthy elderly. PMID:25901101

  7. [Gender aspect of population aging in Russia].

    PubMed

    Safarova, G L; Safarova, A A; Lisenenkov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Demographic aspects of gender differences in aging characteristics for Russian Federation and Saint-Petersburg, the greatest non-metropolitan Russian megalopolis, for the period 1990-2009 have been considered. Differences in the number and proportions of the elderly in the male and female populations, gender gap in life expectancies, gender differences in aging indicators which take account of remaining years of life have been examined. Results of the study demonstrate significant gender differences in aging characteristics. Gender imbalance should be taken into account when elaboration effective demographic, social and economic policies. PMID:25306653

  8. Neutrophil adhesion in the elderly: inhibitory effects of plasma from elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Damtew, B; Spagnuolo, P J; Goldsmith, G G; Marino, J A

    1990-02-01

    Neutrophil (PMN) adherence is a critical component of host defense against infection. We questioned whether abnormalities of PMN adherence may be responsible, in part, for the increased susceptibility to infection in the elderly. We examined the adherence of 51Cr-labeled PMN from 18 elderly (65-95 years) and 18 younger subjects (18-40 years) to gelatin-coated plastic (gel) and bovine aortic endothelial monolayers (BAEC). There was no difference in unstimulated or baseline adherence of elderly or control PMN to either gel or BAEC substrates. N-Formyl-methionyleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and calcium ionophore A23187 (CI) significantly increased adherence of elderly PMN to gel and BAEC by 204 and 140% for FMLP, 271 and 263% for PMA, and 211 and 150% for CI, respectively. No differences were observed in the increment in stimulated adherence between young and elderly PMN. In contrast, in 5 of 18 subjects, incubation of elderly or young PMN with 10% elderly plasma resulted in greater than 25% inhibition in baseline adherence to BAEC compared to their sex-matched controls. The effect of elderly plasma was specific for BAEC and not seen with the gel substrate and was also demonstrated using human venous endothelium. When the adherence assay was repeated with varying ratios of elderly and young plasma, PMN adherence to BAEC correlated inversely with the proportion of elderly plasma in the assay. With greater than 70% elderly plasma, adherence was depressed below that observed in the absence of plasma. These data suggest the presence of a factor(s) in elderly plasma which may diminish adherence to endothelium. This factor(s) may be important in the increased risk of infection in a segment of the elderly population. PMID:2295155

  9. Heart Rate Variability in Depressed Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Ripu D.; Vasko, Raymond C.; Jennings, J. Richard; Fasiczka, Amy L.; Thase, Michael E.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study examines a measure of cardiac autonomic function, the heart rate variability (HRV), in a group of depressed elderly. Cardiac autonomic abnormalities have been implicated as a potential mediator of cardiovascular events and sudden death in depression. Because aging is associated with decreased cardiac vagal activity, it is possible that autonomic abnormalities are even more pronounced in the older depressed patients. Design Cross-sectional comparison between those with or without depression. The groups were compared using the Wilcoxon matched-pair sign-rank test. Setting Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research for Late-Life Mood Disorders at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Participants Fifty-three patients with major depression (mean age: 73.3; SD: 7.4; range: 60–93) and an equal number of age and gender-matched subjects as a comparison group. Intervention None. Measurements Time domain and frequency domain measures of HRV. Results The groups did not differ in any of the time domain or frequency domain measures of HRV. As expected, subjects without depression displayed decreasing cardiac vagal function with aging (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = −0.33, p = 0.02). However, there was no significant change in vagal function with age in the depressed (r = 0.12, p = 0.38). Post-hoc analysis using Fisher’s zr transformation revealed that the relationship between age and cardiac vagal function was significantly different between the groups (z = 2.32, p = 0.02). Conclusions Our findings suggest that age has differential influence on vagal function in individuals with and without depression, a difference with implications for cardiovascular disease risk in depression. Prospective studies of cardiac vagal activity in depressed patients with or without preexisting cardiac disease in different age groups are needed to replicate and extend these findings. PMID:18978247

  10. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  11. Mentoring in Gerontology Doctoral Education: The Role of Elders in Mentoring Gerontologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Webb, Alicia K.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Russell Hatch, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined elder mentors' and students' roles, functions, and satisfaction with the Elder Mentorship program at the Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky. The Elder Mentorship program matches gerontology doctoral students with older adults in the community. Parallel surveys were constructed to evaluate the program from…

  12. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  13. Seizures in the elderly: Impact on mental status, mood and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Sheryl R.; Katz, Mindy; Masur, Jonathan; Lipton, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Co-morbidities of epilepsy have not been well explored in the elderly. Herein, we examined mental status, mood, and sleep in elderly patients with epilepsy, compared to age and gender matched community controls without epilepsy from the Einstein Aging Study. Testing included a mental status test, the Blessed Information Memory and Concentration (BIMC) test; Prime-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Anxiety Modules; and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Persons with epilepsy (n=31) had higher mean BIMC scores than controls (n=31, BIMC 6.3 vs.1.2; p<0.0001). Mean PHQ Depression scores were higher for cases than controls indicating more depressive symptoms (4.2 vs. 0.8; p=0.006); six cases (18%) and no controls met screening criteria for depression. Mean PHQ Anxiety scores were also higher for cases than controls (3.7 vs. 0.0; p=0.001). Cases demonstrated poorer sleep scores in the categories of somnolence (p=0.009) and shortness of breath/headache (p=0.021). Thus, co-morbidities of epilepsy in this elderly population included decreased mental status, a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep health when compared to age mates without epilepsy. Mental status impairment was not related to anti-epileptic medication or mood disturbance. Further investigation will explore these associations prospectively. PMID:19189862

  14. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  15. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  16. Conflicting views on elder care responsibility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2016-05-01

    I examine the attitudinal ambivalence created by conflicting social expectations regarding parent-child devotion, filial obligation and family membership, and gender norms in a national population of Japanese adults. I ask: in a context of rapidly changing family and elder care norms, how do different beliefs and attitudes overlap and conflict and how are they related to elder care preferences? I analyze data from the 2006 Japanese General Social Survey and use Latent Class Analysis to identify latent groups in the population defined by their beliefs and examine the relationship between class membership and elder care preferences. I found variation in the population with respect to the measured beliefs as well as a relationship between patterns of beliefs and choice of elder caregiver. I found conflicting expectations regarding elder care responsibility in one latent class and this class also expressed elder care preferences that conflict with at least some of their strongly held beliefs. PMID:26973036

  17. Social Engagement and Health: Findings From the 2013 Survey of the Shanghai Elderly Life and Opinion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Qiushi; Liu, Lin; Zhen, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    What are the social factors that matter most to the health of elderly Chinese? Are there any gender and age differences? Using a representative sample of elderly Chinese in Shanghai, the most developed city in China with the nation's largest proportion of elderly residents, this study found that economic conditions, chronic health status, living arrangements, social activity participation, and caring for grandchildren are factors that are most important to the health of elderly Chinese. This is true for both self-rated health and psychological well-being. The beneficial effects of participation in social activities are particularly salient for elderly women and for the old-old, whereas the salutary effects of caring for grandchildren are more substantial for elderly men and for the young-old. Our findings suggest the importance of social engagement in promoting health and successful aging of elderly Chinese and disclose the moderating roles of gender and age in this focal relationship. PMID:26333422

  18. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. PMID:25439641

  19. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  20. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances. PMID:20202264

  1. Nutritional assessment of institutionalized elderly

    PubMed Central

    Volpini, Milena Maffei; Frangella, Vera Silvia

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To define the nutritional profile of institutionalized elderly individuals. Methods: Comparative correlation and quantitative field study conducted in a Long-Stay Institution in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil, between December 2010 and January 2012. To define nutritional diagnosis, data were collected from patient files, such as body mass index, circumferences, triceps skinfold, muscle area of the arm, thickness of the adductor pollicis, handgrip strength, and biochemical test results. The anthropometric variables were presented as mean, standard deviation, and percentages, and were grouped by gender and stratified by age. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: One hundred and two elderly individuals were selected, and 84 were females. Excess weight was the most common anthropometric diagnosis in men (n=11; 61%), with the detection of protein depletion in those aged 70 years, and possible cases of sarcopenic obesity. All women were in good health conditions (n=84; 100%). However, in 27% (n=23) of them, protein depletion was evident. Conclusion: More anthropometric studies are necessary which would allow a definition of local reference standards, stratified by gender and age group. The difference between populations and factors, such as inclusion and exclusion criteria, and methodological characteristics, limit the use of international standards, interfering in the reliability of the nutritional diagnosis. PMID:23579741

  2. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  3. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - elder care ... The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on ...

  4. Frailty among rural elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors related to frailty, by Fried criteria, in the elderly population in a rural area in the Andes Mountains, and to analyze the relationship of these with comorbidity and disability. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 1878 participants 60 years of age and older. The frailty syndrome was diagnosed based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). Variables were grouped as theoretical domains and, along with other potential confounders, were placed into five categories: (a) demographic and socioeconomic status, (b) health status, (c) self-reported functional status, (d) physical performance-based measures, and (e) psychosocial factors. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the prognostic value of frailty for the outcomes of interest. Results The prevalence of frailty was 12.2%. Factors associated with frailty were age, gender, health status variables that included self-perceived health and number of chronic conditions, functional covariate variables that included disability in activities in daily living (ADL), disabilities in instrumental ADL, chair stand time, and psychosocial variables that included depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. Higher comorbidity and disability was found in frail elderly people. Only a subset of frail elderly people (10%) reported no disease or disability. Conclusions A relevant number of elderly persons living in rural areas in the Andes Mountains are frail. The prevalence of frailty is similar to that reported in other populations in the Latin American region. Our results support the use of modified Cardiovascular Health Study criteria to measure frailty in communities other than urban settings. Frailty in this study was strongly associated with comorbidities, and frailty and comorbidity predicted disability. PMID:24405584

  5. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: Reconsidering assumptions regarding men as elder abuse perpetrators and as elder abuse victims.

    PubMed

    Kosberg, Jordan I

    2014-01-01

    From research findings and practice experiences, it is concluded that abuse of older men is especially invisible and underreported, compared to abuse of older women. It is proposed that attention should be directed not to gender, but to those conditions in different countries and cultures leading to abuse of both older men and women, including (but not limited to) economic problems, few alternatives to family care of the elderly, violence, changing characteristics of the family, ageism, and sexism. Advocates for the prevention of elder abuse should work together in combating, reducing, and eliminating the problem of elder abuse of both older men and older women. PMID:24779537

  6. Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly: Is Being Alone the Key?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, B. Bradford; Chiang, Chi-Pang

    1984-01-01

    Compared 21 older clients of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggested that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single elderly who lived alone. (JAC)

  7. Health Behavior among the Elderly in Turkey: An Early Evaluation of the Geroatlas Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Scientific investigations have revealed that behaviors about health and illness states are related to socioeconomic status, gender, and cultural factors. Chronic diseases and comorbidity are common in elderly people when compared to the rest of the population. Major problems of the elderly in Turkey are related to health behaviors, financial…

  8. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment. PMID:21487386

  9. Constipation in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, Van J.

    1983-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem that affects not only the young, but the elderly as well. Treatment in the elderly, however, may cause more problems than the constipation itself. A review of the prevalence of constipation in the elderly and its etiology and suggestions for treatment are presented. Some of the complications that may result from constipation or its treatment are described. PMID:6631998

  10. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  11. Primitive society, health & elderly.

    PubMed

    Dhar, H L

    2000-03-01

    Mankind have been ravaged by diseases since primitive age and remedial measures were emprirical learnt either by accident, experience or superstition. But most elderly population were killed and hardly died of diseases. Fate of women were no better. Care for elderly came with civilization. They were little better in the East compared to the West. Although elderly population were better treated in India, China tops the list for elderly care. Even today the oldest man in the family is most respected. Civilized nations even today discriminate elderly population compared to children and adult, but apply the yardstick in a different manner, direct killing alone is not allowed. PMID:11227620

  12. Bioethics' gender.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    I argue that the field of bioethics is gendered feminine, but that the methods it uses to resist this gender identity pose real harm to actual women. Starting with an explanation of what I take 'gender' to be, I enumerate four drawbacks to being gendered feminine. I then argue that bioethics suffers from three of the same four drawbacks. I show how the field escapes the fourth disadvantage by adopting a masculine persona that inflicts damage on women, and conclude by urging bioethicists to reflect on their complicity in abusive power systems such as gender, race and class. PMID:16500829

  13. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  14. Aided speech recognition in single-talker competition by elderly hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Maureen; Humes, Larry

    2001-05-01

    This study examined the speech-identification performance in one-talker interference conditions that increased in complexity while audibility was ensured over a wide bandwidth (200-4000 Hz). Factorial combinations of three independent variables were used to vary the amount of informational masking. These variables were: (1) competition playback direction (forward or reverse); (2) gender match between target and competition talkers (same or different); and (3) target talker uncertainty (one of three possible talkers from trial to trial). Four groups of listeners, two elderly hearing-impaired groups differing in age (65-74 and 75-84 years) and two young normal-hearing groups, were tested. One of the groups of young normal-hearing listeners was tested under acoustically equivalent test conditions and one was tested under perceptually equivalent test conditions. The effect of each independent variable on speech-identification performance and informational masking was generally consistent with expectations. Group differences in the observed informational masking were most pronounced for the oldest group of hearing-impaired listeners. The eight measures of speech-identification performance were found to be strongly correlated with one another, and individual differences in speech understanding performance among the elderly were found to be associated with age and level of education. [Work supported, in part, by NIA.

  15. Abnormality in glutamine–glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine and d-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine–glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression. PMID:26926880

  16. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Eickemberg, Michaela; Mello, Adriana Lima; Côrtes, Elvira Barbosa Quadros; Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), anemia affects 25-63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR) with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%), as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%). Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.72) and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.63) and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34-5.07) dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00-3.77). The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence. PMID:27607057

  17. Nonexercise movement in elderly compared with young people.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ann M; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; McCrady, Shelly K; Levine, James A

    2007-04-01

    The association between free-living daily activity and aging is unclear because nonexercise movement and its energetic equivalent, nonexercise activity thermogenesis, have not been exhaustively studied in the elderly. We wanted to address the hypothesis that free-living nonexercise movement is lower in older individuals compared with younger controls matched for lean body mass. Ten lean, healthy, sedentary elderly and 10 young subjects matched for lean body mass underwent measurements of nonexercise movement and body posture over 10 days using sensitive, validated technology. In addition, energy expenditure was assessed using doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry. Total nonexercise movement (acceleration arbitrary units), standing time, and standing acceleration were significantly lower in the elderly subjects; this was specifically because the elderly walked less distance per day despite having a similar number of walking bouts per day compared with the young individuals. The energetic cost of basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, total daily energy expenditure, and nonexercise activity thermogenesis were not different between the elderly and young groups. Thus, the energetic cost of walking in the elderly may be greater than in the young. Lean, healthy elderly individuals may have a biological drive to be less active than the young. PMID:17401138

  18. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  19. Elderly Mental Health: Needs*

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Shubhangi R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727

  20. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  1. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592

  2. Gender Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  3. Gender Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In late 2007, the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) expanded its Enrollment Reporting service to include several additional data elements (commonly referred to as the "A2" or "expanded" data elements). One of these expanded data elements is student gender. Although gender is potentially important to a number of research…

  4. Gender Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…

  5. Gender Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  6. Treatment matching. Theoretic basis and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gastfriend, D R; McLellan, A T

    1997-07-01

    An extensive knowledge base supports the development of treatment matching methods for alcohol and other drug abuse. Many matching variables have been identified that relate to specific modalities of treatment and to specific levels of care. Physicians and other providers can use many putative matching variables to address patients' substance use problems on a highly individualized basis. These variables include demographic factors (age, gender, culture), typology and severity (age of onset; severity of intoxication; withdrawal; quantity, recency, frequency of substance use), intrapersonal characteristics (psychiatric diagnosis, cognitive function, self-efficacy, stage of change), and interpersonal function (social stability). The evolution of formal criteria for patient placement such as the ASAM criteria is a beneficial, adaptive process that is underway in numerous states, managed care entities, professional provider societies, and provider groups. Currently, matching approaches rely more heavily on consensus recommendations than on empiric matching data. The technology for conducting psychosocial treatment matching studies is rapidly increasing in sophistication. Although predictive validity has not yet been fully demonstrated on a large, multisite basis, the national research portfolio on treatment matching is expanding in size and complexity. This is an essential public health need, given dramatic cost pressures, if addiction services are to continue to grow in quality and availability. PMID:9222262

  7. The association of physical activity to neural adaptability during visuo-spatial processing in healthy elderly adults: A multiscale entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hao; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tseng, Philip; Yang, Albert C; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Muggleton, Neil G; Juan, Chi-Hung; Liang, Wei-Kuang

    2014-10-29

    Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition. PMID:25463141

  8. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs. PMID:24390093

  9. Cancer and the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Veath, J.M.; Meyer, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book compiles the pages presented at the annual conference on the subject of cancer of elderly patients and radiotherapy and surgery. The topics discussed were: Diagnostic techniques of radiology for elderly patients; cancer of breasts and its management and monitoring. Hormonal dependence of cancer breast was also partly discussed.

  10. Malnutrition among the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrition is a significant determinant of health. Undernutrition presenting as malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people with many health problems. Understanding the risk factors for malnutrition helps physicians assess and manage the condition. Primary care physicians are in an excellent position to screen, educate, and manage their elderly malnourished patients. Images p1396-a PMID:8324408

  11. Falls in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hodgetts, P. Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    Falls are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. One in three older people will fall every year. Assessing intrinsic (patient) factors and extrinsic (environmental) factors that increase the risk of falling is an important part of caring for the elderly. Physicians can readily assess balance and mobility as part of a preventive approach. PMID:21221300

  12. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  13. [Obesity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing also in the elderly population. The European Euronut-Seneca study described an obesity prevalence of 12-41% in elderly women and of 8-24% in elderly men. Obesity in the elderly is related to the cardiometabolic risk, but also to degenerative joint diseases and impaired physical functions. Some discrepancies are caused by the description of a so-called obesity paradox with a more favourable prognosis for certain diseases in the presence of overweight compared to normal or reduced body weight. The so-called sarcopenic obesity is associated with the worst prognosis.Preventive and therapeutic regimens should consider the increased risk of malnutrition in elderly. The combinations of individually tailored nutritional recommendations and physical exercise is of advantage for the prognosis of comorbidities and the quality of life. PMID:26820990

  14. Japanese elderly persons walk faster than non-Asian elderly persons: a meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Masataka; Kamide, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify ethnic differences in walking speed by comparing walking speed in both Japanese and non-Asian elderly individuals and to investigate the necessity of consideration of ethnic differences in walking speed. [Subjects and Methods] Articles that reported comfortable walking speeds for community-dwelling elderly individuals were identified from electronic databases. Articles that involved community-dwelling individuals who were 60 years old or older and well functioning were included in the study. Articles that involved Asians were excluded. Weighted means for 5-m walking times were calculated as walking speeds from the Japanese and non-Asian sample data. The effects of age, gender, and ethnicity on 5-m walking times were then investigated using meta-regression analysis. [Results] Twenty studies (34 groups) were included for Japanese, and 16 studies (28 groups) were included for non-Asians. The weighted mean 5-m walking time was estimated to be 4.15 sec (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.87–4.44) for Japanese and 4.24 sec (95% CI: 4.09–4.40) for non-Asians. Furthermore, using meta-regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, the 5-m walking time was 0.40 sec faster (95% CI: 0.03–0.77) for Japanese than for non-Asian elderly individuals. [Conclusion] Walking speed appeared faster for Japanese community-dwelling elderly individuals than for non-Asian elderly individuals. PMID:26696722

  15. Student Gender and Teacher Gender: What Is the Impact on High Stakes Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, John M.

    2005-01-01

    A large literature establishes that boys and girls are treated differently in the classroom. Research suggests that this treatment depends upon the gender of the teacher. Using a large data set that observes a matched teacher/student sample over multiple years, this paper explores the impact of teacher and student gender differences on…

  16. Characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Morita, Seiji; Higami, Shigeo; Yamagiwa, Takeshi; Iizuka, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe burns. We studied the clinical features of 76 adult patients with severe burns, 35 of whom (46.1%) were ≥65 years old. We evaluated the characteristics of patients with respect to each type of burn. In addition, we studied the rate of death and survival in the elderly and also between the elderly and non-elderly patients. The following parameters were either assessed or compared between the elderly and non-elderly: gender, average age, vital signs (Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) and PaO(2)/FiO(2) (P/F) ratio at admission, cause of burn and a history of physical or psychiatric disease. Further, we investigated whether the burn was caused by attempting suicide and determined the percent total body surface area (%TBSA), second- and third-degree burn area, burn index (BI), prognostic burn index (PBI), presence of tracheal burns, presence of alcohol intoxication and overdose poisoning, presence of tracheal intubation, outcome and cause of death. The male:female ratio of the elderly patients was 17:18 (average age, 78.1 (8.2) years). Burns were mostly caused by flame (26/35), followed by scalding (8/35). Ten patients had attempted suicide. The %TBSA, second-degree burn area, third-degree burn area, BI and PBI, respectively were 46.6% (26.7%), 15.3% (19.0%), 35.6% (26.0%), 41.1 (25.2) and 119.2 (25.9). Of the 35 patients, 23 died. The notable characteristics of the elderly patients who died were flame as the cause of the burns: high %TBSA, BI and PBI, and a high rate of tracheal intubation. Elderly patients constituted approximately 45% of our study population. Most burns were caused by flames. The incidence of accidental bathtub-related burns was higher and that of suicide attempts was lower in the elderly patients, as compared with the non-elderly patients. Severe burns were fatal for elderly patients. Therefore, elderly

  17. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  18. Generic image matching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1992-05-01

    The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.

  19. [Stories by the elderly].

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fernanda A; Delboux Diogo, Maria José; Filomena Ceolim, Maria

    2005-10-01

    This Brazilian article bears interest for its qualitative methodology which allows us to get a feeling for the elderly of this country being able to relate the results of their lives and knowledge to our own. The lack of an educational health program for the elderly led the authors to create the Health Care Group for the Elderly (GRASI in Portuguese) in which we developed an educational program based on the social-historical perspective of L. S. Vygotsky. This current study analyzes the dynamic speeches recorded by a group of elderly in the GRASI educational program. A group of seven elderly people, from both sexes, having an age equal to or greater than 60, participated in an analysis of the content from meetings among themselves. To analyze the data obtained, in the underlying text as well as their recorded speech, the feelings and meanings of their conversations and stories were identified and separated into thematic units. The results obtained reveal that the opportunity to express their experiences regarding the transformation the elderly have lived during their lives, and to find new ways to treat health problems or how to carry out self health care, is an important resource for elderly nursing care which can lead to the development of health education programs. PMID:16304835

  20. Matched-pair classification

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  1. Dementia and elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J

    2005-05-01

    Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553

  2. Elder care - resources

    MedlinePlus

    The following organizations are good resources for information on aging and elder care: Administration on Aging -- www.aoa.gov Eldercare Locator -- www.eldercare.gov National Institute on Aging -- www.nia.nih.gov

  3. Anticoagulation in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Righini, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Management of anticoagulation in elderly patients represents a particularly challenging issue. Indeed, this patient population is at high thromboembolic risk, but also at high hemorrhagic risk. Assessment of the benefit-risk balance of anticoagulation is the key point when decisions are made about introducing and/or continuing such treatments in the individual elderly patient. In order to maximise the safety of anticoagulation in the elderly, some specific considerations need to be taken into account, including renal insufficiency, modified pharmacodynamics of anticoagulants, especially vitamin K antagonists, and the presence of multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications. New anticoagulants could greatly simplify and possibly increase the safety of anticoagulation in the elderly in the near future.

  4. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePlus

    ... to an elder's affairs and possessions; unexplained sudden transfer of assets to a family member or someone ... living condition/arrangements (e.g., improper wiring, no heat, or no running water); unsanitary and unclean living ...

  5. Pharmacokinetics in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Mayersohn, M

    1994-01-01

    Animals undergo substantial changes in many physiologic and biochemical functions as a natural consequence of aging. In the absence of disease or other pathologic conditions, these changes occur in a gradual manner with time (generally expressed as a fractional or percentage change in that function per year or decade). Furthermore, for any given function and at any given chronologic age, there is large variation in that function among individuals. Given the increase in life expectancy, the substantial increase in the number of elderly (and aged elderly) in the population, and the escalating costs of health care, there is great interest in learning more about the risks associated with aging as a result of toxic exposure. Are the elderly at greater risk than younger adults to the toxic effects of drugs and environmental exposure? Is the elderly population an inherently more sensitive one? PMID:7737036

  6. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Key References Elder ( Sambucus nigra L.) Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on May ... Wilkins; 2000:103–105. Elderberry. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on May ...

  7. Is It Time to Phase Out the Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty? A Propensity Score Matched Case Control Comparison versus Cemented Hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Ping; Lau, Tak-Wing; Leung, Anderson; Wong, Tak-Man; Pun, Terence

    2016-01-01

    We compared the Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty versus cemented hemiarthroplasties using a propensity score matched cased control study. For a consecutive cohort of 450 patients with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures, 128 matched cases in each group were selected based on age, gender, walking status, nursing home residency, delays in surgery, ASA score, and the Charlson comorbidity score. At a mean follow-up of 16.3 months, we evaluated their outcomes. Significantly more patients with AMA experienced thigh pain (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.67–7.33,  p = 0.000), overall complications (RR = 4.47, 95% CI: 1.77–11.3, p = 0.000), and implant loosening (RR = 8.42, 95% CI: 2.63–26.95, p = 0.000). There were no definite cement related deaths in this series. There was no significant difference in mortality, walking status, and the number of revisions between the groups. We support the routine use of cemented hemiarthroplasty instead of the Austin Moore for treating elderlies with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures. PMID:27042669

  8. Transplanting the elderly: Balancing aging with histocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, G J; Hemke, A C; Reinders, M E J; de Fijter, J W

    2015-10-01

    Across the world, the proportions of senior citizens (i.e. those ≥65years) increase rapidly and are predicted to constitute over 25% of the general population by 2050. In 2012 already 48% of the population with end stage renal disease (ESRD) was aged 65years or older. Transplantation is considered the preferred treatment option for ESRD offering survival advantage over long-term dialysis in the majority of patients. Indeed, acceptable outcomes have been documented for selected patients over the age of 70years or even cases over 80years. The reality of organ scarcity and prolonged waiting times for a deceased donor kidney transplantation, however, indicate that at best 50% of the selected elderly may have realistic expectations to receive a timely transplant offer. By choice or medical selection, access to transplantation also decreases with increasing age. In order to expedite the chance for elderly to receive a kidney transplant dedicated allocation systems have been developed. These allocation systems, like the Eurotransplant Senior Program (ESP), support preferential local allocation of kidneys from older donors to older patients in order to match recipient and graft life while disregarding histocompatibility for HLA antigens. The consequence has been more acute rejection episodes and an increase in immunosuppressive load. In the elderly, the most common cause of graft loss is death with functioning graft and death from infectious diseases is one of the dominant causes. The Eurotransplant Senior DR-compatible Program (ESDP) was designed to further improve the perspective of successful transplantation in the elderly in terms of life and quality of life by re-introducing matching criteria for HLA-DR in the old-for-old algorithm. PMID:26411382

  9. Neurobiology of Elderly Suicide.

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Turecki, G; Jollant, F

    2016-07-01

    Suicide in the elderly is an underestimated and complex issue that has mainly been explored in sociological, clinical and psychological perspectives. Suicide in non-elderly adults has been associated with diverse neurobiological alterations that may shed light on future predictive markers and more efficient preventative interventions. The aim of this paper was to review studies specifically investigating the neurobiology of elderly suicidal behaviour. We performed a systematic English and French Medline and EMBASE search until 2013. Contrary to literature about the non-elderly, we found a paucity of studies investigating the biomarkers of suicidal risk in elderly adults. Main findings were found in the neurocognitive domain. Studies generally supported the existence of cognitive deficits, notably decision-making impairment and reduced cognitive inhibition, in patients with a history of suicidal act compared to patients without such history. However, replications are needed to confirm findings. Due to several limitations including the small number of available studies, frequent lack of replication and small sample size, no firm conclusions can be drawn. The authors encourage further investigations in this field as insight in the neurobiology of these complex behaviors may limit clichés about end of life and aging, as well as improve future prevention of suicide in the elderly. PMID:26743828

  10. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women. PMID:25939073

  11. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  12. Meaningful matches in stereovision.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Neus; Almansa, Andrés; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces a statistical method to decide whether two blocks in a pair of images match reliably. The method ensures that the selected block matches are unlikely to have occurred "just by chance." The new approach is based on the definition of a simple but faithful statistical background model for image blocks learned from the image itself. A theorem guarantees that under this model, not more than a fixed number of wrong matches occurs (on average) for the whole image. This fixed number (the number of false alarms) is the only method parameter. Furthermore, the number of false alarms associated with each match measures its reliability. This a contrario block-matching method, however, cannot rule out false matches due to the presence of periodic objects in the images. But it is successfully complemented by a parameterless self-similarity threshold. Experimental evidence shows that the proposed method also detects occlusions and incoherent motions due to vehicles and pedestrians in nonsimultaneous stereo. PMID:22442122

  13. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence. PMID:23099754

  14. The Economics of Gender in Mexico: Work, Family, State, and Market. Directions in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elizabeth G., Ed.; Correia, Maria C., Ed.

    The studies compiled in this book analyze the effects of gender on the well-being of individuals and households in Mexico. Analyses examine gender issues over the life cycle, including education and child labor, adult urban and rural labor participation, and the situation of elderly Mexican men and women. Following an introduction by Elizabeth…

  15. Mobile phones and elderly people: a noisy communication.

    PubMed

    Stamato, Cláudia; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the users is capital for building user-friendly digital interfaces. One way to think about the users is considering their familiarity with this technology. This article presents the results of twelve interviews with elderly people residing in the so-called South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who have used mobile phones over at least one year. It is part of the Doctor's Thesis "Mobile phones for elderly people - usability for social integration" ("Celulares para idosos - usabilidade a serviço da integração social"), which is targeted at ascertaining if the current mobile phones are user-friendly for elderly people. Through the technique of Guided Interviews, we found usage time, criteria for choice of phones, reasons for changes, preferences, and manners of use. Preliminarily, we have noticed differences in the behavior of the participating users and performed a qualitative analysis according to groups of age and gender. PMID:22316743

  16. Graph-matching based CTA.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Dmitry; Hesser, Jürgen; Brockmann, Carolin; Jochum, Susanne; Dietz, Tiina; Schnitzer, Andreas; Düber, Christoph; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Diehl, Steffen

    2009-12-01

    Separating bone, calcification, and vessels in computer tomography angiography (CTA) allows for a detailed diagnosis of vessel stenosis. This paper presents a new, graph-based technique that solves this difficult problem with high accuracy. The approach requires one native data set and one that is contrast enhanced. On each data set, an attributed level-graph is derived and both graphs are matched by dynamic programming to differentiate between bone, on one hand side, and vessel/calcification on the other hand side. Lumen and calcified regions are then separated by a profile technique. Evaluation is based on data from vessels of pelvis and lower extremities of elderly patients. Due to substantial calcification and motion of patients between and during the acquisitions, the underlying approach is tested on a class of difficult cases. Analysis requires 3-5 min on a Pentium IV 3 GHz for a 700 MByte data set. Among 37 patients, our approach correctly identifies all three components in 80% of cases correctly compared to visual control. Critical inconsistencies with visual inspection were found in 6% of all cases; 70% of these inconsistencies are due to small vessels that have 1) a diameter near the resolution of the CT and 2) are passing next to bony structures. All other remaining deviations are found in an incorrect handling of the iliac artery since the slice thickness is near the diameter of this vessel and since the orientation is not in cranio-caudal direction. Increasing resolution is thus expected to solve many the aforementioned difficulties. PMID:19574161

  17. Gender Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Fivush, Robyn

    In spite of the loosening ties between reproductive and social roles, the worlds of men and women and boys and girls, are clearly not the same. There is much more to being female or male than the potential to mother or father a child. Gender development does not simply depend on children's relationship with their parents: it results from a complex…

  18. Intersectional perspective in elderly care.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees' well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  19. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  20. The paradox of the advantaged elder and the feminization of poverty.

    PubMed

    Gonyea, J G

    1994-01-01

    The construction of social definitions is important, as these definitions are ultimately translated into public policies. This article explores the emergence of the concepts of the advantaged elder and the feminization of poverty. It is a paradox that society has simultaneously embraced these two concepts when the elderly population, especially the subpopulation of those who are very old, is overwhelmingly women. The theoretical shortcomings of both concepts are examined, and a broader model of economic well-being that emphasizes the interactive nature of gender, race, and class is proposed. The implications of societal perceptions of the advantaged elder and the feminization of poverty for older women are addressed. PMID:8310321

  1. Salmonella-related urinary tract infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Scott Anthony

    2014-01-01

    An elderly female patient with an uncomplicated urinary tract infection from Salmonella newport is presented. Radiological and laboratory studies were performed because of her systemic and exposure risk factors as well as prior urinary tract abnormalities. While this patient was successfully treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, complications and recurrence are common and deserve close follow-up with repeat urine cultures at a minimum. Further laboratory and radiological testing should be guided by patient gender, risk factors and recurrence. PMID:25193813

  2. Filial Responsibility Expectations among Mexican American Undergraduates: Gender and Biculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Bonnie; Chavez, Mary; Quintana, Fernando; Salinas, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    How Mexican American college students perceive responsibility for parental care is important as Mexican American elders' numbers increase. The authors applied mixed methods to investigate the impact of gender and biculturalism within this group. Two hundred and eighty-six Mexican American undergraduates completed the Hamon Filial Responsibility…

  3. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Department of Family Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC has created educational materials in English and Spanish for caregivers of people with dementia about preventing elder abuse. The English brochure provides information about elder abuse, ...

  4. National Center on Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  5. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. ...

  6. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  7. Nutrition in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Morley, J E; Mooradian, A D; Silver, A J; Heber, D; Alfin-Slater, R B

    1988-12-01

    Nutritional modulation is one approach to successful aging. In animals, dietary restriction increases life span. Alterations in the macronutrient and micronutrient constituent of the diet can modulate gene expression. Anorexia is common in elderly persons. The results of studies in animals suggest that aging is associated with a decrease in the opioid feeding drive and an increase in the satiating effect of cholecystokinin. Unrecognized depression is a common, treatable cause of anorexia and weight loss in elderly persons. Protein synthesis decreases in elderly persons; nevertheless, nitrogen balance can be maintained in patients with fairly low intakes of protein. Carbohydrate intolerance is common and may be modulated by nutritional intervention and physical activity. The role of cholesterol in the development of heart disease in very old persons is controversial. Homebound and institutionalized elderly persons often do not expose their skin to sunlight; because the skin of older persons has a decreased ability to form vitamin D, the vitamin D status in these persons is precarious and they are at risk for osteopenia. Vitamins are often abused by elderly persons. Drug administration alters the vitamin requirements of persons. Borderline zinc state has been associated with deteriorating immune function, especially in persons who have diabetes mellitus or who abuse alcohol. Zinc administration appears to protect against the deteriorating vision associated with age-related macular degeneration. Selenium deficiency seems to be associated with an increased prevalence of cancer. PMID:3056165

  8. Easily forgotten: elderly female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Women form a growing minority within the worldwide prison population and have special needs and distinct characteristics. Within this group exists a smaller sub-group: elderly female prisoners (EFPs) who require tailored social and health interventions that address their unique needs. Data collected from two prisons in Switzerland housing women prisoners were studied. Overall 26 medical records were analyzed, 13 from EFPs (50+ years) and for comparison 13 from young female prisoners (YFPs, 49 years and younger). Additionally, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with EFPs. Using the layer model of vulnerability, three layers of vulnerability were identified: the "prisoner" layer; followed by the layer of "woman"; both of which are encompassed by the layer of "old age." The analysis of these layers resulted in three main areas where EFPs are particularly vulnerable: their status of "double-minority," health and health-care access, and their social relations. Prison administration and policy-makers need to be more sensitive to gender and age related issues in order to remedy these vulnerabilities. PMID:25661851

  9. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  10. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  11. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  12. Superior Sensory, Motor, and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals with Multi-Year Dancing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabella; Kalisch, Tobias; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years) amateur dancing (AD) in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65–84 years) as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG) having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals. PMID:20725636

  13. Elderly Care Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  14. The effect of sex on immune cells in healthy aging: Elderly women have more robust natural killer lymphocytes than do elderly men.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Peterson, Charlotte A; Thomas, D Travis; Lutz, Charles T

    2016-06-01

    Immune gender differences have been reported, but are little studied in elderly humans. We compared monocyte and lymphocyte subsets, along with soluble immune mediators in healthy men and women over the age of 70. We also measured natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cytotoxic granule exocytosis, chemokine synthesis, and cytokine synthesis in response to a variety of stimuli. Elderly women had significantly more circulating B cells than men, whereas men had more CD4 central memory T cells and higher monocyte levels. Plasma adiponectin levels were higher in women, plasma retinol-binding protein 4 levels were higher in men, but there were no significant gender differences in C-reactive protein, IL-15, or sphingosine-1-phosphate. Women had a higher ratio of immature CD56(bright) NK cells to mature CD56(dim) NK cells, indicating a gender difference in NK cell maturation in the elderly. Comparing sexes, female mature NK cells had more vigorous cytotoxic granule responses to K562 leukemia cells and IFN-γ responses to NKp46 crosslinking. Moreover, female NK cells were more likely to produce MIP-1β in response to a variety of stimuli. These data show that gender influences NK cell activity in elderly humans. PMID:27059724

  15. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated. PMID:27359315

  16. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  17. Scanner matching optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupers, Michiel; Klingbeil, Patrick; Tschischgale, Joerg; Buhl, Stefan; Hempel, Fritjof

    2009-03-01

    Cost of ownership of scanners for the manufacturing of front end layers is becoming increasingly expensive. The ability to quickly switch the production of a layer to another scanner in case it is down is important. This paper presents a method to match the scanner grids in the most optimal manner so that use of front end scanners in effect becomes interchangeable. A breakdown of the various components of overlay is given and we discuss methods to optimize the matching strategy in the fab. A concern here is how to separate the scanner and process induced effects. We look at the relative contributions of intrafield and interfield errors caused by the scanner and the process. Experimental results of a method to control the scanner grid are presented and discussed. We compare the overlay results before and after optimizing the scanner grids and show that the matching penalty is reduced by 20%. We conclude with some thoughts on the need to correct the remaining matching errors.

  18. Inter-image matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Interimage matching is the process of determining the geometric transformation required to conform spatially one image to another. In principle, the parameters of that transformation are varied until some measure of some difference between the two images is minimized or some measure of sameness (e.g., cross-correlation) is maximized. The number of such parameters to vary is faily large (six for merely an affine transformation), and it is customary to attempt an a priori transformation reducing the complexity of the residual transformation or subdivide the image into small enough match zones (control points or patches) that a simple transformation (e.g., pure translation) is applicable, yet large enough to facilitate matching. In the latter case, a complex mapping function is fit to the results (e.g., translation offsets) in all the patches. The methods reviewed have all chosen one or both of the above options, ranging from a priori along-line correction for line-dependent effects (the high-frequency correction) to a full sensor-to-geobase transformation with subsequent subdivision into a grid of match points.

  19. MATCH PLAY, SOAP HOPE.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan Paragi; Hilton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Education Commission (MEC) has published Graduate Medical Education (GME) data since 1997, including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) and the Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program (SOAP), and totals all GME in Louisiana for annual publication. The NRMP provides the quotas and filled positions by institution. Following the NRMP, SOAP attempts to place unmatched candidates with slots that are unfilled. The NRMP Fellowship match also comes close to filling quotas and has a significant SOAP. Thus, an accurate number of total filled positions is best obtained in July of the same match year. All GME programs in Louisiana are represented for 2014, and the number trend 2005 to 2014 shows that the only dip was post-Katrina in 2005-2006. The March match after SOAP 2014 is at the peak for both senior medical students and post graduate year one (PGY-1) residents. A significant and similar number stay in Louisiana GME institutions after graduation. Also noteworthy is that a lower percentage are staying in state, due to increased enrollment in all Louisiana medical schools. PMID:27159458

  20. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  1. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  2. Tactile Intervention as a Novel Technique in Improving Body Stability in Healthy Elderly and Elderly with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Faris S.; Daher, Noha; Alzoghbieh, Eman S.; Dehom, Salem O.; Laymon, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Body sway increases in the elderly because of normal aging and high incidence of disease such as diabetes. Prevalence of sway is greater in the elderly with diabetes because of damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Increase in body sway is associated with an elevated risk of falling. Falling is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to improve body stability and decrease body sway in the elderly people with or without diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-two subjects—12 elderly (mean age, 75.5±7.3 years) and 10 age-matched elderly with diabetes (mean age, 72.5±5.3 years)—were recruited for this study. Subjects received tactile feedback as a tingling sensation resulting from electrical stimulation triggered by body sway. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in body sway in the elderly while standing on foam with eyes open (1.0±0.31 vs. 1.9±0.8; P=0.006) and eyes closed (1.8±0.7 vs. 3.3±1.5; P=0.001). In the group with diabetes, there was a significant reduction in body sway while standing on foam with eyes closed (1.4±0.5 vs. 2.3±0.8; P=0.045) but not with eyes open. Conclusions: In this small study, this technique offers a new tool for training people with diabetes and elderly people to improve body stability and balance. PMID:25299792

  3. Elderly patients with a hip fracture: the risk for delirium.

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Marieke J; Duursma, Sijmen A; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Clevers, Gert-Jan; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2003-05-01

    This prospective study investigated risk factors for delirium in elderly hip fracture patients that could be recognized by nurses. Data were collected on predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium from 92 elderly patients with a hip fracture. Predisposing factors included age, gender, sensory impairments, functional impairment before the hip fracture, residency before admission, pre-existing cognitive impairment, comorbidities, and medication use. Precipitating factors included factors related to surgery and to the postoperative period. Factors related to surgery included time between admission and surgery, type of surgery, type of anesthesia, duration of surgery and anesthesia, and complications during surgery. Factors studied in the postoperative period were slow recovery, malnutrition, dehydration, addition of three or more medications, introduction of bladder catheter, infections, complications and falls, and use of morphine. Eighteen patients developed delirium, as diagnosed by a geriatrician by using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV criteria. Data on delirious patients were compared with the data on non-delirious patients. The findings confirm that elderly hip fracture patients with premorbid ADL dependency, psychiatric comorbidities (including dementia), and a high number of other comorbid problems are at risk for the development of delirium. Based on these findings, it is recommended that nurses should assess patients' pre-fracture functional and cognitive capacities in an early stage of the hospital stay. Nurses should also be alert to postoperative delirium in "healthy elderly" patients. Monitoring of symptoms postoperatively in all elderly patients is advised. PMID:12764718

  4. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Srikanth; Jaleel, Qadir

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Materials and Methods: Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. Results: There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching) and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation), which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. Conclusions: The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere. PMID:25883476

  5. Chronotype ontogeny related to gender

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, L.L.; Menna-Barreto, L.; Miguel, M.A.L.; Louzada, F.; Araújo, J.; Alam, M.; Areas, R.; Pedrazzoli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronotype is an established concept designed to identify distinct phase relationships between the expression of circadian rhythms and external synchronizers in humans. Although it has been widely accepted that chronotype is subjected to ontogenetic modulation, there is no consensus on the interaction between age and gender. This study aimed to determine the relationship between age- and gender-related changes in the morningness-eveningness character in a large sample of people. A total of 14,650 volunteers were asked to complete the Brazilian version of the Horne and Östberg chronotype questionnaire. The data demonstrated that, on average, women were more morning-oriented than men until the age of 30 and there were no significant differences between men and women from 30 to 45 years of age. In contrast to the situation observed until the age of 30, women older than 45 years were more evening-oriented than men. These results suggest that the ontogenetic development of the circadian timekeeping system is more plastic in men, as represented by the larger amplitude of chronotype changes throughout their aging process. The phase delay of adolescence and phase advance of the elderly seem to be phenomena that are more markedly present in men than in women. Thus, our data, for the first time, provide support that sharply opposes the view that there is a single path toward morningness as a function of age, regardless of gender. PMID:24714814

  6. Pain in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark R; Ehrhardt, Ken P; Ripoll, Juan G; Sharma, Bharat; Padnos, Ira W; Kaye, Rachel J; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-04-01

    Pain management in the elderly has increasingly become problematic in the USA as the aged population grows. The proportion of the population over 65 continues to climb and may eclipse 20 % in the next decade. In order to effectively diagnosis and treat these patients, a proper history and physical exam remain essential; pain assessment scales such as the Verbal Descriptor Scales (VDS), the Numerical Rating Scales (NRS), and the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) often but not always prove beneficial. The conditions most frequently afflicting this population include osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, and lower back pain which include spondylosis and radiculopathies. While the normal aging process does not necessarily guarantee symptoms of chronic pain, elderly individuals are far more likely to develop these painful conditions than their younger counterparts. There are many effective treatment modalities available as potential therapeutic interventions for elderly patients, including but not limited to analgesics such as NSAIDs and opioids, as well as multiple interventional pain techniques. This review will discuss chronic pain in the elderly population, including epidemiology, diagnostic tools, the multitude of co-morbidities, and common treatment modalities currently available to physicians. PMID:26896947

  7. Loneliness among Elderly Widowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinick, Barbara H.

    The fact that few researchers have studied loneliness in widowhood may be related to the concept itself which spans intellectual perspectives, incorporating elements of affect, cognition, and social structure. To examine loneliness among elderly widowers, 24 adult males (participants in a more comprehensive study of widowed men, aged 63 to 93…

  8. [Dignity of the elderly].

    PubMed

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times. PMID:25777944

  9. Housing the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Innovative housing designs are needed for the growing number of elderly Americans who suffer because of the limited living options provided by inflexible housing. Creative alternatives include double houses, shared living, intergenerational housing, and adaptable houses. Long-term planning is needed to construct an attractive environment that does…

  10. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  11. [Diarrhea in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Truninger, Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    The causes of acute and chronic diarrheal disorders and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are common at all ages. The impact of diarrhea, however, may be more pronounced in the elderly due to various causes, such as age-related structural and functional intestinal changes, concomittant illnesses, consume of preventive and therapeutic drugs, impaired sense of hunger and thirst, compromised nutrition and hydration to withstand the effect of diarrhea, more frequent hospital admissions and courses of antibiotics, and more subtle clinical presentation than in younger patients. These aspects have to be considered when investigating and treating diarrhea of older patients. Diarrhea may have a devastating effect on quality of life in the elderly and above all, fecal incontinence is a common consequence. In elderly institutionalized persons, fecal impaction in the rectum with liquid stool leaking around the hard, dry fecal mass is often associated with fecal incontinence. In this article, general aspects of diarrhea in the elderly, clostridium difficile infection, ischemic colitis, microscopic colitis and incontinence due to fecal impaction are discussed. PMID:25154690

  12. Honoring the Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons; St. Clair, Robert N.

    The co-directors of the 1998 Annual Symposium for Language Renewal and Revitalization describe how they came up with a focus and presenters for the symposium. They began by discussing their concern over the loss of indigenous languages and cultures, then decided to honor tribal elders by choosing one to represent them all as the symposium's…

  13. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Coope, J

    1987-08-01

    Hypertension is a common finding in patients aged over 60 years, but the following questions need answering. How dangerous is it? Will lowering the blood pressure reduce the attendant risks? What is the 'cost' of such treatment in terms of side effects, drug-induced disease and health service finance? Two recently completed trials throw light on these problems: EWPHE (European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly), a European study based on hospital-clinic attenders, using a diuretic backed up with methyldopa; and HEP (randomized trial of treatment of Hypertension in Elderly Patients in Primary Care), based on general-practice screening in England and Wales using atenolol and bendrofluazide. The results of these trials were compared and the findings were broadly similar in the two studies. Some of the differences may be due to the different selection of patients. It is concluded that elderly patients with sustained blood pressures greater or equal to 170/90 mmHg would benefit from treatment by substantial reduction of stroke. Diuretics or beta-blockers, alone or together, are acceptable treatments in elderly subjects. PMID:3312529

  14. Threefold entanglement matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Luis; Muñoz, Ariana; Hutin, Alice; Hecker, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of entanglement matching in the probabilistic teleportation scheme by considering two independent levels of entanglement in the measurement basis. The probability of a successful teleportation has an upper bound which only depends on the amount of entanglement of the quantum channel. However, we found that each entanglement of the measurement basis contributes independently to the success probability as long as it is weaker than the entanglement of the channel. Accordingly, the teleportation process reaches its optimal probability when both entanglements of the measurement basis match the entanglement of the channel. Additionally, we study the probabilistic scheme for extracting an unknown state from a partially known state. We characterize the success probability and the concurrence involved in that process.

  15. Relationship between cognitive domains, physical performance, and gait in elderly and demented subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Brouillette, Robert M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Foil, Heather C; Gahan, William P; Nye, Danielle M; Guillory, Leslie; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive function declines with age, with studies linking decreases in cognitive function to increased fall risk. The association between declines in specific cognitive domains and the development of gait and physical performance deficits has not been established. The current cross-sectional study was designed to address these issues using well characterized control subjects (n = 50), and individuals with early stage dementia (n = 50) tightly matched for age, gender, and education. All participants received detailed cognitive assessments for global cognitive function, as well as for processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function. Additionally, participants were administered single- and dual-task gait assessments (GAITRite) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) measures of physical performance (gait, balance, chair stands). Data show that all measures of cognitive function correlated significantly with measures of gait and physical performance when analyzed in all subjects or just subjects with dementia. However, data also reveal that measures of processing speed and verbal fluency correlated significantly with multiple aspects of motor performance in non-demented, control subjects, even when corrected for age. There was no correlation between global cognitive function and motor performance, and only limited relationship between executive function and motor performance in non-demented, control subjects. These studies reveal the complex interactions between cognitive function and gait/physical performance in the context of aging and dementia, and suggest that impairments in specific cognitive domains might undermine gait and physical performance and thus exacerbate fall risk in the elderly. PMID:22466001

  16. Neuropsychological profiles of victims of financial elder exploitation at the los angeles county elder abuse forensic center.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stacey; Rakela, Benjamin; Liu, Pi-Ju; Navarro, Adria E; Bernatz, Susan; Wilber, Kathleen H; Allen, Robin; Homeier, Diana; Homier, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The current article examines neuropsychological correlates of financial elder exploitation in a sample of older adults who have been documented victims of financial elder exploitation. The purpose of this exploratory study was twofold. First, a subsample of the referrals at the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center (LACEAFC) was compared to community dwelling adults in terms of the specific cognitive domains linked to financial capacity including memory, calculation, and executive functioning. Next, the correlation between presence of neuropsychological data and the likelihood of filing a case with the LA County's District Attorney office was examined. Twenty-seven LACEAFC cases and 32 controls were assessed. Overall, the forensic center group performed worse than a community-based age-matched control group on the MMSE, calculation, and executive functioning (ps < .01). The presence of neuropsychological data was significantly correlated to an increased likelihood of a case being filed. PMID:24848863

  17. Travel Patterns and Characteristics of Elderly Subpopulation in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Wilson, Daniel W.; Reuscher, Tim; Yang, Jianjiang; Taylor, Rob D.; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2015-03-01

    With the increasing demographic shift towards a larger population of elderly (individuals 65 years and older), it is essential for policy makers and planners to have an understanding of transportation issues that affect the elderly. These issues include livability of the community, factors impacting travel behavior and mobility, transportation safety, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of travel behaviors, and identify patterns and trends of the elderly within NYS. The National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) was used as the primary data source to analyze subjects and address questions such as: Are there differences in traveler demographics between the elderly population and those of younger age groups who live in various NYS regions; e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS, or other parts of the country? How do they compare with the population at large? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Gender differences? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the elderly group? In addition to analysis of NHTS data, roadway travel safety concerns associated with elderly travelers were also investigated in this study. Specifically, data on accidents involving the elderly (including drivers, passengers, and others) as captured in the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database was analyzed to examine elderly driver and elderly pedestrian travel safety issues in NYS. The analyses of these data sets provide a greater understanding of the elderly within NYS and their associated transportation issues. Through this study, various key findings on elderly population size, household characteristics, and travel patterns were produced and are report herein this report.

  18. “Gray Murder”: Characteristics of Elderly Compared With Nonelderly Homicide Victims in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Robert C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased’s system. Methods. All medical examiner–certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11 850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Results. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. Conclusions. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions. PMID:17666708

  19. Seating and wheeled mobility in the disabled elderly population.

    PubMed

    Redford, J B

    1993-08-01

    Elderly persons constitute the largest among the populations regularly using wheelchairs. This is a review of the few studies specifically concerned with seating for the elderly; it identifies current problems, particularly in the seating for aged people who are in long-term care facilities. This review describes ways of matching currently available seating technology with the needs of disabled elderly persons. Two major barriers to greater use of newer seating technology are (1) the high cost of durable medical equipment and (2) the failure of most clinicians and institutional administrators to recognize the importance of posture and comfort to provide functional independence in wheelchair users. This review discusses seating for four groups of elderly persons: (1) the nonmobile, dependents who may be safety risks and are without energy or ability to wheel or walk by themselves; (2) mobile nonambulatory; and (3) ambulatory, but with special wheelchair needs. Research is needed in wheeled mobility in a number of areas: better matching of mobility to function, cheaper and more effective cushions, more modular seating systems, and better lifting and transfer devices. The American National Standards Institute in cooperation with Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America has recently recommended standards for wheelchair performance that may be legislated in the next few years. PMID:8347074

  20. The Elderly: Teacher's Manual. Value Reasoning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, John, Ed.

    The complex moral issues of dealing with elderly people are delineated in this manual for teachers responsible for changing the attitudes of young people toward this subject. Six major themes are considered: (1) attitudes toward the elderly; (2) the elderly in our society; (3) problems of the elderly; (4) the elderly and the work force; (5) the…

  1. The Nonmetro Elderly: Economic and Demographic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Nina

    A disproportionate share of the U.S. elderly population lives in nonmetro areas and has substantially more poverty than the metro elderly population. The nonmetro elderly's poverty rate was 21% in 1980 versus 13% for metro elderly, while median incomes were $4,111 versus $5,003. Lower personal incomes of the nonmetro elderly, regression analysis…

  2. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Background: Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women’s happiness. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. Results: From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. Conclusions: The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions. PMID:26734470

  3. Drawing on Stereotypes: Using Undergraduates' Sketches of Elders as a Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Cantwell, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    Using data collected from undergraduates at two large, public universities (N = 183), we examined features of student drawings (e.g., facial expressions) as reflections of dominant views of the elderly. Sketches depicted both negative (e.g., frailty) and positive stereotypes (e.g., kindness). They also illustrate gender inequality; for example,…

  4. Undergraduate Attitudes toward the Elderly: The Role of Knowledge, Contact and Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…

  5. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  6. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency…

  7. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  8. The Pitch-Matching Ability of High School Choral Students: A Justification for Continued Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle, Aaron M.; Gerrity, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pitch-matching ability of high school choral students. Years of piano experience, middle school performance experience, and model were considered as variables that might affect pitch-matching ability. Gender of participants was also considered when identifying the effectiveness of each model.…

  9. Hypertension in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lionakis, Nikolaos; Mendrinos, Dimitrios; Sanidas, Elias; Favatas, Georgios; Georgopoulou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The elderly are the most rapidly growing population group in the world. Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. The risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart disease, chronic kidney insufficiency and dementia is also increased in this subgroup of hypertensives. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to cardiovascular specialists and other practioners. During the last years and before the findings of the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial were published, the general medical opinion considered not to decrease blood pressure values similarly to other younger patients, in order to avoid possible ischemic events and poor oxygenation of the organs (brain, heart, kidney). The aim of this review article is to highlight the importance of treating hypertension in aged population in order to improve their quality of life and lower the incidence of the cardiovascular complications. PMID:22655162

  10. Multinomial pattern matching revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Multinomial pattern matching (MPM) is an automatic target recognition algorithm developed for specifically radar data at Sandia National Laboratories. The algorithm is in a family of algorithms that first quantizes pixel value into Nq bins based on pixel amplitude before training and classification. This quantization step reduces the sensitivity of algorithm performance to absolute intensity variation in the data, typical of radar data where signatures exhibit high variation for even small changes in aspect angle. Our previous work has focused on performance analysis of peaky template matching, a special case of MPM where binary quantization is used (Nq = 2). Unfortunately references on these algorithms are generally difficult to locate and here we revisit the MPM algorithm and illustrate the underlying statistical model and decision rules for two algorithm interpretations: the 1-of-K vector form and the scalar. MPM can also be used as a detector and specific attention is given to algorithm tuning where "peak pixels" are chosen based on their underlying empirical probabilities according to a reward minimization strategy aimed at reducing false alarms in the detection scenario and false positives in a classification capacity. The algorithms are demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations on the AFRL civilian vehicle dataset for variety of choices of Nq.

  11. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  12. Matching pursuit of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeaud, Francois; Mallat, Stephane G.

    1995-04-01

    A crucial problem in image analysis is to construct efficient low-level representations of an image, providing precise characterization of features which compose it, such as edges and texture components. An image usually contains very different types of features, which have been successfully modeled by the very redundant family of 2D Gabor oriented wavelets, describing the local properties of the image: localization, scale, preferred orientation, amplitude and phase of the discontinuity. However, this model generates representations of very large size. Instead of decomposing a given image over this whole set of Gabor functions, we use an adaptive algorithm (called matching pursuit) to select the Gabor elements which approximate at best the image, corresponding to the main features of the image. This produces compact representation in terms of few features that reveal the local image properties. Results prove that the elements are precisely localized on the edges of the images, and give a local decomposition as linear combinations of `textons' in the textured regions. We introduce a fast algorithm to compute the matching pursuit decomposition for images with a complexity of (Omicron) (N log2 N) per iteration for an image of N2 pixels.

  13. Surgery in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Watters, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The elderly (those 75 years of age or older) are a heterogeneous group. They present with both elective and urgent surgical problems, and risk assessment, decision-making and perioperative care are typically more challenging than in younger patients. An appreciation for this heterogeneity and an understanding of how physiologic changes of aging affect surgical care are essential if the best outcomes are to be achieved. PMID:11939651

  14. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem. PMID:21253160

  15. Depression and gender differences: focus on Taiwanese American older adults.

    PubMed

    Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn

    2006-04-01

    Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710

  16. Multi-Indication Carbamazepine and the Risk of Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Korean Elderly Patients: A Korean Health Insurance Data-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Joongyub; Ko, Young-Jin; Shin, Ju-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR) after exposure to multi-indication antiepileptic drugs for in Korean elderly patients. Methods We used a nationwide database from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims constructed for the monitoring of drug utilization among the entire Korean elderly population from January 2005 to June 2006. We identified cases of SCARs among inpatients aged ≥65 years and those newly diagnosed with erythema multiforme according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code (L51). Each case was matched to four controls for gender, age, and the first hospitalization date as the index date. The use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate during a 60-day period before the index date was compared. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of SCARs for antiepileptic drug. Results We identified 286 cases of SCAR and 1,144 matched controls. Among the 25 patients who were prescribed antiepileptic drugs within 60 days of the index date. There were 11 cases (3.8%) of severe ocular manifestations, and most elderly patients were first-time or short-term users of antiepileptic drugs. Among the 10 cases of carbamazepine use, only 2 cases were prescribed carbamazepine for seizure. All antiepileptic drugs were associated with an increased SCAR risk (adjusted OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.75–6.63). The SCAR risk was highest in patients treated with carbamazepine (adjusted OR = 10.39, 95% CI: 2.64–40.86, for multi-indication; adjusted OR = 6.84, 95% CI: 1.55–30.10, for neuropathic pain). Conclusion Carbamazepine use was associated with a nearly 10-fold increase in severe cutaneous drug reactions in Korean elderly patients. This association was consistently high with SCAR patients who received carbamazepine for neuropathic

  17. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Robles, Nicolas R; Macias, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. Aging is an inevitable part of life and brings along two inconvenient events: physiologic decline and disease state. High blood pressure (HBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. It is a significant and often asymptomatic chronic disease, which requires optimal control and persistent adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risks of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to geriatric and cardiovascular specialists and other practitioners. Furthermore, with the wide adoption of multiple drug strategies targeting subgroups of hypertensive patients with specific risk conditions to lower blood pressure (BP), difficult questions arise about how aggressive treatment of elderly patients should be. The purpose of the following chapter article is to review the pathophysiology of aging as well as the epidemiology and the clinical assessment of high blood pressure (HBP) in older people. PMID:25761101

  18. [Dyslipidemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Lasses y Ojeda, Luis Alberto; Gutiérrez, Jorge Luis Torres; Salazar, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Age is an independent and unmodifiable risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. In Mexico, coronary heart disease is responsible for 50 % of the deaths for those older than 65 years of age. Aging produces major differences in the presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy in coronary heart disease. The goal of treatment is the prolongation of survival and the improvement of the quality of life. However, in the elderly, the aim of therapy should focus on attaining a meaningful quality of life thus allowing them to be functionally independent. Clinical trials demonstrate conclusively that lowering serum cholesterol levels will reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease irrespective of age. Dietary advise and life-style modifications are the first-line approach in the elderly. When these measures are insufficient to achieve target lipid reductions, statins are the drug of choice. Fibrates may be indicated if triglycerides are high and C-HDL is low. Given the grater coronary risk of older population, the absolute benefit will be greater in the elderly. PMID:15709510

  19. [The impact of frailty on the oral care behaviour and dental service use of elderly people].

    PubMed

    Niesten, D; van der Sanden, W J M; Gerritsen, A E

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore how the level of frailty and various frailty factors affect the dental service use and oral self-care behaviour of frail elderly people, 51 frail elderly people were interviewed. Additional information on age, gender, living situation, prosthetic status, self-reported health and oral health, chronic diseases and an index for frailty was collected. A thematic qualitative analysis of the collected data reveals that frail elders maintain long-established oral hygiene routines as long as possible to sustain a sense of self-worth. When burdened by severe health complaints they discontinue visits to the dentist first and oral hygiene routines subsequently. A loss of confidence in the results of dental service use, the trivializing of complaints and a diminishing sense of the importance of oral health play a role in these developments. Frail elderly people also experience psychological and social barriers to oral healthcare and dental service use when they are institutionalized. PMID:26210121

  20. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness. PMID:21542199

  1. The earliest matches.

    PubMed

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, A Nigel; Goring-Morris, Nigel A; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha'ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8(th) millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as "clay pestles," "clay rods," and "cylindrical clay objects." Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

  2. The Earliest Matches

    PubMed Central

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

  3. Perfectly matched multiscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohu

    In this dissertation, the Perfectly Matched Multiscale Simulations (PMMS), a method of discrete-to-continuum multiscale scale computation is studied, revised and extended. In particular, the role of the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) in PMMS is carefully studied. We show that instead of following the PML theory of continuum, the PML equations of motion in PMMS can be derived by stretching the inter-atomic equilibrium distance. As a result, the displacement solution in the PML region has the desired spatial damping property. It is also shown that the dispersion relationship in the PML region is different from the one in the original lattice. And a reflection coefficient is computed. We also incorporate the local Quasicontinuum (QC) theory with the cohesive Finite Element (FE) method to form a cohesive QC scheme which can deal with arbitrary discontinuities. This idea is built into the PMMS method to simulate a moving screw dislocation. The second part of the dissertation is to extend PMMS to finite temperature. A multiscale thermodynamics is proposed based on the idea of distributed coarse scale thermostats. Each coarse scale node is viewed as a thermostat and has part of atoms associated with it. The atomic motion at the fine scale level is governed by the Nose-Hoover dynamics. At the coarse scale, the expression of a coarse-grained Helmholtz free energy is derived and coupled thermo-mechanical equations are formulated based on it. With the proposed framework, the finite-temperature PMMS method is capable of simulating problems with drastic temperature change. Several numerical examples are computed to validate the method.

  4. Spirituality and well being among elders: differences between elders with heart failure and those without heart failure.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Seo, Yaewon; Marin, Patricia A; Starling, Randall C; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic debilitating disease that affects all aspects of a person's life, including physical, mental and spiritual dimensions. The associations among these dimensions, and the relationship to overall health status, have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to explore differences between spirituality, depressive symptoms, and quality of life among elders with and without heart failure. A total of 44 elders with heart failure and 40 non-heart failure elders completed several questionnaires including: The Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), Spirituality Index of Well-Being (SIWB), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and SF-12 Health Survey. There were significant differences in the groups on gender and ethnicity; thus these variables were controlled in the analyses related to the dependent variables. After controlling for gender and ethnicity, there were significant differences in the physical component of quality of life and spiritual well-being. The heart failure patients had significantly lower physical quality of life but more spiritual well-being than the non-heart failure patients. There were no significant differences in daily spiritual experiences, mental component of quality of life, and depressive symptoms between the two groups. PMID:18225469

  5. Distinctiveness Maps for Image Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Tomasi, Carlo

    2000-01-01

    Stereo correspondence is hard because different image features can look alike. We propose a measure for the ambiguity of image points that allows matching distinctive points first and breaks down the matching task into smaller and separate subproblems. Experiments with an algorithm based on this measure demonstrate the ensuing efficiency and low likelihood of incorrect matches.

  6. Elder mistreatment, culture, and help-seeking: a cross-cultural comparison of older Chinese and Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Moon, Ailee; Gomez, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This study explored and compared the salient sociocultural characteristics that influenced elder mistreatment and help-seeking behaviors among older Chinese and Korean immigrants. Results from qualitative, in-depth focus groups with 30 participants revealed that elder mistreatment is a culturally laden construct, and core values of traditional culture and acculturation are significant contextual factors that profoundly affect the perceptions of elder abuse and receptivity of interventions. Older Korean participants, compared to their Chinese counterparts, demonstrated stronger influence of hierarchy and cultural beliefs in exclusive family ties and gender norms, and were less likely to disclose abuse. Implications for culturally based interventions are also discussed. PMID:24779539

  7. Recognition of elder abuse by Italian nurses and nursing students: evaluation by the Caregiving Scenario Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Pelotti, Susi; D'Antone, Elisa; Ventrucci, Costanza; Mazzotti, Maria Carla; Salsi, Giancarlo; Dormi, Ada; Ingravallo, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Elder abuse appears to be widely underestimated by health professionals. We aimed to evaluate the recognition of elder abuse among Italian nurses and nursing students related to their professional, personal experiences and socio-demographic characteristics. 193 nursing students and 76 nurses attending a post-graduate nursing management master's degree at the University of Bologna (Italy) completed the Caregiving Scenario Questionnaire measuring the ability to recognize elder abuse. Data on age, gender, previous professional and personal experiences as well as nursing school teaching were collected. Regarding abusive items, preventing elder's movements by putting a table over the elder's lap was identified by almost all participants, while locking someone at home was identified by half of them. Neglect was recognized by 25 % of nurses and 20 % of students, respectively. The majority of nurses and students correctly identified non-abusive strategies. Reporting being taught on elder abuse was inversely associated with a good performance in detecting neglect. Italian nurses' and nursing students' uncertainty in identifying abusive strategies, especially neglect, was consistent with results of previous studies in other countries. Standardized education in healthcare core curriculum, reference guidance and training are strongly needed to improve elder abuse recognition in Italy. PMID:23864427

  8. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Zujko, Małgorzata Elżbieta; Witkowska, Anna Maria; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs) in comparison with young (20–40 yrs) and middle age (41–60 yrs) groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ) took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and flavonoid content (FC) were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake. PMID:26236427

  9. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value < 0.001) with Asian-descendant race, male gender, living alone, and older age and a positive association with per capita income. Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables. PMID:27276697

  10. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among community dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Yaka, Erdem; Keskinoglu, Pembe; Ucku, Reyhan; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Tunca, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Depression in the elderly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of depression among community-dwelling older population in an urban setting in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 482 elderly individuals 65 years and over in an urban area. Cluster sampling method was used for sample size. Depression in the elderly had been diagnosed by a clinical interview and Geriatric Depression Scale. Data were collected by door-to-door survey. Chi square test was used for statistical analysis. P value, which was calculated by the results of chi square test and coefficient of phi (φ), below 0.05 was included in the analysis of logistic regression. Depression was significantly associated with female gender, being single or divorced, lower educational status, low income, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. However, logistic regression analysis revealed higher depression rates in the elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psychiatric disease, cerebrovascular disease, low income and being dependent. Depression is common among community-dwelling older people in an urban area of Izmir, Turkey. Older adults living in community should be cautiously screened to prevent or manage depression. PMID:24767692

  12. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. PMID:25331371

  13. Constraint-based stereo matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    The major difficulty in stereo vision is the correspondence problem that requires matching features in two stereo images. Researchers describe a constraint-based stereo matching technique using local geometric constraints among edge segments to limit the search space and to resolve matching ambiguity. Edge segments are used as image features for stereo matching. Epipolar constraint and individual edge properties are used to determine possible initial matches between edge segments in a stereo image pair. Local edge geometric attributes such as continuity, junction structure, and edge neighborhood relations are used as constraints to guide the stereo matching process. The result is a locally consistent set of edge segment correspondences between stereo images. These locally consistent matches are used to generate higher-level hypotheses on extended edge segments and junctions to form more global contexts to achieve global consistency.

  14. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161

  15. Parathyroid Surgery in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lilah F.; Zelada, Juliette; Wu, Bian; Hahn, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is expected to increase in developed nations as the aged population grows. This review discusses issues related to PHPT in the elderly population with a focus on differences in disease presentation, medical and surgical management, and outcomes. Methods. Literature review of English-language studies of PHPT or parathyroidectomy (PTx) in the elderly was performed. Surgical literature reviewed included original clinical studies published after 1990. Priority was given to studies with >30 patients where institutional practice and outcomes have not changed significantly over time. Results. Elderly patients primarily present with nonclassic symptoms of PHPT that can sometimes be missed in favor of other diagnoses. They have equivalent surgical outcomes, including morbidity, mortality, and cure rates, compared with younger patients, although their length of hospital stay is significantly longer. Several recent studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of outpatient, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy in an elderly population. Patients are referred for PTx less frequently with each advancing decade, although surgical referral patterns have increased over time in centers that offer minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Elderly patients experience increased fracture-free survival after PTx. The majority of elderly patients report symptomatic relief postoperatively. Conclusion. PTx can offer elderly patients with PHPT improved quality of life. PTx is safe and effective in elderly patients, and advanced age alone should not deter surgical referral. PMID:21159725

  16. Medicine, Ethics, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)

  17. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  18. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gheno, Ramon; Cepparo, Juan M.; Rosca, Cristina E.; Cotten, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common problems affecting the elderly. The resulting loss of mobility and physical independence can be particularly devastating in this population. The aim of this article is to present some of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders of the elderly, such as fractures, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, microcrystal disorders, infections, and tumors. PMID:22919553

  19. Quantum image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Dang, Yijie; Wang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Quantum image processing (QIP) means the quantum-based methods to speed up image processing algorithms. Many quantum image processing schemes claim that their efficiency is theoretically higher than their corresponding classical schemes. However, most of them do not consider the problem of measurement. As we all know, measurement will lead to collapse. That is to say, executing the algorithm once, users can only measure the final state one time. Therefore, if users want to regain the results (the processed images), they must execute the algorithms many times and then measure the final state many times to get all the pixels' values. If the measurement process is taken into account, whether or not the algorithms are really efficient needs to be reconsidered. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of measurement and give a quantum image matching algorithm. Unlike most of the QIP algorithms, our scheme interests only one pixel (the target pixel) instead of the whole image. It modifies the probability of pixels based on Grover's algorithm to make the target pixel to be measured with higher probability, and the measurement step is executed only once. An example is given to explain the algorithm more vividly. Complexity analysis indicates that the quantum scheme's complexity is O(2n) in contradistinction to the classical scheme's complexity O(2^{2n+2m}) , where m and n are integers related to the size of images.

  20. The impact of surgical outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The elderly population has increased in many countries. Indications for cancer treatment in elderly patients have expanded, because surgical techniques and medical management have improved remarkably. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) requires high-quality techniques and perioperative management methods. If it is possible for elderly patients to withstand an aggressive surgery, age should not be considered a contraindication for PD. Appropriate preoperative evaluation of elderly patients will lead to their safer management. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety of PD in patients older than 75 years and to show the influence of advanced age on the morbidity and mortality associated with this operation. Patients and methods Subjects were 98 patients who underwent PD during the time period from April 2005 to April 2011. During this study, 31 patients were 75 years of age or older (group A), and the other 67 patients were less than 75 years old (group B). Preoperative demographic and clinical data, surgical procedure, pathologic diagnosis, postoperative course and complication details were collected prospectively and they were analyzed in two group. Results There was no statistical difference between patient groups in terms of gender, comorbidity, preoperative drainage, diagnosis, or laboratory data. Preoperative albumin values were lower in group A (P = 0.04). The mean surgical time in group A was 408.1 ± 73.47 min. Blood loss and blood transfusion were not significantly different between both groups. There was no statistical differences in mortality rate (P = 0.14), morbidity rate (P = 0.43), and mean length of hospital stay (P = 0.22) between both groups. Long-term survival was also no statistically significant difference between the two groups using the log-rank test (P = 0.10). Conclusion It cannot be ignored that the elderly population is getting larger. We must investigate the management of elderly patients after PD and prepare

  1. Dysphagia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045

  2. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  3. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  4. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  5. [CMV infection in elderly].

    PubMed

    Pytka, Dorota; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio. This constellation reduces immunity against a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and alters the response to vaccinations. CMV infection could also influence the pathophysiology of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, however, the mechanism of such influence is still not clear. It is not clear as well, whether CMV infection influences the all-cause and cardiovascular diseases-related mortality. In conclusion, CMV infection could intensify immunosenescence and contribute to age-related diseases, but inconsistent results of many experiments do not allow currently to define clear guidelines for the treatment of CMV infection in elderly. PMID:27526428

  6. Biopsychosocial Characteristics, Using a New Functional Measure of Balance, of an Elderly Population with CLBP.

    PubMed

    Hulla, Ryan; Moomey, Michael; Garner, Tyler; Ray, Christopher; Gatchel, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the biopsychosocial characteristics of chronic low back pain (CLBP) in an understudied but increasingly larger part of the population: the elderly (i.e., 65 years and older). A new innovative physical functioning measure (postural control, which is a proxy for the common problem of slips and falls in the elderly) was part of this biopsychosocial evaluation. Also, the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-developed Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was also part of this comprehensive evaluation. Two demographically-matched groups of elderly participants were evaluated: one with CLBP (n = 24); and the other without (NCLBP, n = 24). Results revealed significant differences in most of these measures between the two groups, further confirming the importance of using a biopsychosocial approach for future studies of pain and postural control in the elderly. PMID:27563929

  7. Clinical features, comorbidity, and cognitive impairment in elderly bipolar patients

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256

  8. QT dispersion in elderly athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; Santoro, G; Prattichizzo, F; Femia, F R; Pastine, F; Pentimone, F

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the QT dispersion in elderly endurance athletes with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Sixteen athletes (males, mean age 67.6 +/- 4.5 years) with mild to moderate LV hypertrophy, were compared with 16 age-matched hypertensive patients with similar degree of LV hypertrophy and 16 age-matched healthy sedentary controls. All the participants underwent echocardiogram and 12-lead electrocardiogram. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between maximum and minimum QT intervals in the different leads. QT dispersion was corrected (QTc) for heart rate according to Bazett's formula. The results showed in athletes and hypertensive patients comparable LV mass (258.2 +/- 14.2 vs. 262.4 +/- 16.8 g, ns), which was significantly higher than that of controls (p < 0.001). Trained subjects had QT dispersion (38.6 +/- 10.2 ms) and QTc dispersion (39.4 +/- 11.3 ms) significantly lower than hypertensive patients (QT dispersion: 68.4 +/- 11.4 ms; QTc dispersion: 72.2 +/- 8.4, p < 0.001) and comparable with controls (QT dispersion: 44.3 +/- 8.4 ms; QTc dispersion: 46.2 +/- 6.2 ms, ns). In conclusion, in elderly athletes training-induced myocardial hypertrophy was characterized by a QT dispersion significantly lower than hypertensive myocardial hypertrophy. This could provide a simple and inexpensive screening method for differentiating physiologic from pathologic myocardial hypertrophy in elderly subjects. PMID:12784163

  9. [Characteristics of clinical presentations and cerebral hemodynamic changes in elderly men and women with initiatory stages of dyscirculatory encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Abramenko, Iu V; Iakovlev, N A

    2010-01-01

    72 elderly women and 48 matched by age and education men with initiatory stages of dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE) have been studied using comparative analysis of clinical, cognitive and sonographic characteristics. The results demonstrate the predomination of cognitive impairment and fine motor coordination disorders among men with DE. Psychovegetative and statolocomotor disorders prevailed in women-patients. It was shown by means of transcranial duplex scanning that elderly women with DE were characterized by more severe abnormal venous outflow from the brain. PMID:21510084

  10. A systematic evaluation of a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Victoria M; Burnes, David; Chalfy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a conceptually based, systematic evaluation process employing multivariate techniques to evaluate a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer intervention model (JASA-LEAP). Logistic regression analyses were used with a random sample of case records (n = 250) from three intervention sites. Client retention, program fidelity, and exposure to multidisciplinary services were significantly related to reduction in mistreatment risk at case closure. Female gender, married status, and living with perpetrator significantly predicted unfavorable outcomes. This study extends the elder mistreatment program evaluation literature beyond descriptive/bivariate evaluation strategies. Findings suggest that a multidisciplinary social work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model is a successful approach. PMID:24965802