These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise. PMID:24580263

Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

2014-01-01

2

Identication of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP639  

E-print Network

Identi®cation of a novel alternative splicing isoform of human amyloid precursor protein gene, APP, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam ZO, the Netherlands Keywords: alternative splicing, Alzheimer's disease, APP derived from a large amyloid precursor protein (APP). To date, several alternatively spliced human APP

Tian, Weidong

3

Gene duplication followed by exon structure divergence substitutes for alternative splicing in zebrafish.  

PubMed

In this study we report novel findings regarding the evolutionary relationship between gene duplication and alternative splicing, two processes that increase proteomic diversity. By studying teleost fish, we find that gene duplication followed by exon structure divergence between paralogs, but not gene duplication alone, leads to a significant reduction in alternative splicing, as measured by both the proportion of genes that undergo alternative splicing as well as mean number of transcripts per gene. Additionally, we show that this effect is independent of gene family size and gene function. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduction in alternative splicing may be due to the partitioning of ancestral splice forms among the duplicate genes - a form of subfunctionalization. Taken together these results indicate that exon structure evolution subsequent to gene duplication may be a common substitute for alternative splicing. PMID:24942242

Lambert, Matthew J; Olsen, Kyle G; Cooper, Cynthia D

2014-08-10

4

Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene  

SciTech Connect

In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

2008-11-07

5

Alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana SR and SR-related protein-coding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several recent studies indicate that alternative splicing in Arabidopsis and other plants is a common mechanism for post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression. However, few analyses have been done so far to elucidate the functional relevance of alternative splicing in higher plants. Representing a frequent and universal subtle alternative splicing event among eukaryotes, alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors contributes to

Stefanie Schindler; Karol Szafranski; Michael Hiller; Gul Shad Ali; Saiprasad G Palusa; Rolf Backofen; Matthias Platzer; Anireddy SN Reddy

2008-01-01

6

Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms  

SciTech Connect

Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A. [Universite de Paris (France)] [and others

1995-09-20

7

A dynamic alternative splicing program regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing remodels the human transcriptome in a spatiotemporal manner during normal development and differentiation. Here we explored the landscape of transcript diversity in the erythroid lineage by RNA-seq analysis of five highly purified populations of morphologically distinct human erythroblasts, representing the last four cell divisions before enucleation. In this unique differentiation system, we found evidence of an extensive and dynamic alternative splicing program encompassing genes with many diverse functions. Alternative splicing was particularly enriched in genes controlling cell cycle, organelle organization, chromatin function and RNA processing. Many alternative exons exhibited differentiation-associated switches in splicing efficiency, mostly in late-stage polychromatophilic and orthochromatophilic erythroblasts, in concert with extensive cellular remodeling that precedes enucleation. A subset of alternative splicing switches introduces premature translation termination codons into selected transcripts in a differentiation stage-specific manner, supporting the hypothesis that alternative splicing-coupled nonsense-mediated decay contributes to regulation of erythroid-expressed genes as a novel part of the overall differentiation program. We conclude that a highly dynamic alternative splicing program in terminally differentiating erythroblasts plays a major role in regulating gene expression to ensure synthesis of appropriate proteome at each stage as the cells remodel in preparation for production of mature red cells. PMID:24442673

Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Ghanem, Dana; An, Xiuli; Li, Jie; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

2014-01-01

8

Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5? splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress adaptation in plants. It is also envisioned that alternative splicing of the clock genes plays more complex roles than previously expected. PMID:24885185

2014-01-01

9

Characterization of porcine TAP genes: alternative splicing of TAP1.  

PubMed

The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a heterodimer composed of TAP1 and TAP2 subunits that belong to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. TAP translocates small peptides (usually 8- to 12-amino-acid-long) from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum for subsequent loading onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The translocated peptides are required for the stable cell surface expression of MHC class I molecules. Virus-encoded proteins, which inhibit TAP activity, include ICP47 from herpes simplex virus and US6 from human cytomegalovirus. We have previously shown that ICP47 downregulated porcine MHC class I [swine leukocyte Ag class I (SLA I)] cell-surface expression in the pig epithelial cell line PK(15). Here we show that SLA I cell-surface expression in the pig epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 is relatively unaffected by expression of ICP47. Anticipating that this might be due to differences in the primary structure of TAP1 or TAP2 expressed by these two cell lines, cDNAs from PK(15) and LLC-PK1 encoding the complete open reading frames of porcine TAP1 and TAP2 were cloned and sequenced. Porcine TAP1 and TAP2 exhibited 80% amino acid identity with their human orthologs. Two splice variants of TAP1 were found. In LLC-PK1 cells, an alternatively spliced TAP1 transcript was detected, which was predicted to encode a protein with nine fewer amino acids. While the deleted amino acids may be in close proximity to the putative peptide/ICP47-binding site, we were unable to demonstrate that this imparted an apparent resistance to the effects of ICP47 on SLA I surface expression. PMID:16555068

García-Borges, Carmen N; Phanavanh, Bounleut; Crew, Mark D

2006-06-01

10

Expressional changes in alternative splicing affecting genes during cell passage of human diploid fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Normal human diploid cells have a limited proliferative lifespan in in vitro cultures. Changes in gene expression have been examined for understanding control mechanisms of limited proliferative lifespan. and enhanced expression of growth suppressing genes such as p21 was reported in late-passaged cells. We screened genes which were expressed preferentially in mid-passaged cells by the differential plaque screening of the subtracted cDNA libraries prepared from young, life-extended, and immortalized SV40-transformed human fibroblasts. Among isolated clones, ASF/SF2, which was known to affect alternative splicing, was expressed in normal fibroblasts with a peak at mid-passage. Relative expression levels of SC35 and hnRNPA1, which are also known to affect alternative splicing, was also highest at mid-passage. Changes in alternative splicing at mid-passage, if it occurred, may play a crucial role in the process of cellular senescence. PMID:9922122

Ito, Y; Ide, T; Mitsui, Y

1998-09-15

11

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis  

SciTech Connect

Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

2009-02-03

12

Human Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Alternatively-Spliced Transcriptional Variants and Their Suggested Nomenclature  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily consists of 19 genes encoding enzymes critical for NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes, including drugs and environmental toxicants. Mutations in ALDH genes are the molecular basis of several disease states (e.g. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and type II hyperprolinemia) and may contribute to the etiology of complex diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this nomenclature update was to identify splice transcriptional variants principally for the human ALDH genes. METHODS Data-mining methods were used to retrieve all human ALDH sequences. Alternatively-spliced transcriptional variants were determined based upon: a) criteria for sequence integrity and genomic alignment; b) evidence of multiple independent cDNA sequences corresponding to a variant sequence; and c) if available, empirical evidence of variants from the literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Alternatively-spliced transcriptional variants and their encoded proteins exist for most of the human ALDH genes; however, their function and significance remain to be established. When compared with the human genome, rat and mouse include an additional gene, Aldh1a7, in the ALDH1A subfamily. In order to avoid confusion when identifying splice variants in various genomes, nomenclature guidelines for the naming of such alternative transcriptional variants and proteins are recommended herein. In addition, a web database (www.aldh.org) has been developed to provide up-to-date information and nomenclature guidelines for the ALDH superfamily. PMID:19823103

Black, William J.; Stagos, Dimitrios; Marchitti, Satori A.; Nebert, Daniel W.; Tipton, Keith F.; Bairoch, Amos; Vasiliou, Vasilis

2011-01-01

13

Aberrant alternative splicing and extracellular matrix gene expression in mouse models of myotonic dystrophy.  

E-print Network

Aberrant alternative splicing and extracellular matrix gene expression in mouse models of myotonic , and Manuel Ares, Jr.1 * 1 RNA Center, Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, Sinsheimer Labs, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 USA 2 Neuromuscular Disease Center

Ares Jr., Manny

14

Alternative splicing and gene duplication differentially shaped the regulation of isochorismate synthase in Populus and Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Isochorismate synthase (ICS) converts chorismate to isochorismate for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone, an essential cofactor for photosynthetic electron transport. ICS is also required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis during Arabidopsis defense. In several other species, including Populus, SA is derived primarily from the phenylpropanoid pathway. We therefore sought to investigate ICS regulation in Populus to learn the extent of ICS involvement in SA synthesis and defense. Arabidopsis harbors duplicated AtICS genes that differ in their exon-intron structure, basal expression, and stress inducibility. In contrast, we found a single ICS gene in Populus and six other sequenced plant genomes, pointing to the AtICS duplication as a lineage-specific event. The Populus ICS encodes a functional plastidic enzyme, and was not responsive to stresses that stimulated phenylpropanoid accumulation. Populus ICS underwent extensive alternative splicing that was rare for the duplicated AtICSs. Sequencing of 184 RT-PCR Populus clones revealed 37 alternative splice variants, with normal transcripts representing ?50% of the population. When expressed in Arabidopsis, Populus ICS again underwent alternative splicing, but did not produce normal transcripts to complement AtICS1 function. The splice-site sequences of Populus ICS are unusual, suggesting a causal link between junction sequence, alternative splicing, and ICS function. We propose that gene duplication and alternative splicing of ICS evolved independently in Arabidopsis and Populus in accordance with their distinct defense strategies. AtICS1 represents a divergent isoform for inducible SA synthesis during defense. Populus ICS primarily functions in phylloquinone biosynthesis, a process that can be sustained at low ICS transcript levels. PMID:19996170

Yuan, Yinan; Chung, Jeng-Der; Fu, Xueyan; Johnson, Virgil E.; Ranjan, Priya; Booth, Sarah L.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2009-01-01

15

Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and various cone-rod dystrophies. Mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked RP and ocular variants of Stickler syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant RP. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule-based therapies, has the potential to lead to new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

Liu, M M; Zack, D J

2013-08-01

16

Expression and alternative splicing of folate pathway genes in HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines  

PubMed Central

Aim Folate is vital for cell growth and development through its important role in one-carbon metabolism - an essential process in the synthesis of amino acids and nucleic acids. Folate pathway genes have been considered as therapeutic targets of drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Racial and ethnic disparities of folate metabolism and outcome of antifolate therapies have been reported. In this study, we evaluate the genetic regulation for expression and alternative splicing of folate related genes in HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of individuals of European and African descent. Materials & methods Gene and exon level expression and alternative splicing of folate pathway genes were compared in LCLs derived from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) from Utah (CEU) and the Yoruba from Ibadan (YRI) using a permutation-based test. A genome-wide association study was performed to search for SNPs associated with folate pathway gene expressions and alternative splicing in the combined population samples. Results A total of 52 folate pathway genes were evaluated in the analysis of which 46 were expressed in the LCLs. There were 12 genes (26%) with differential gene-level expression and 23 genes (50%) with differential alternative splicing for exons or UTRs between the CEU and the YRI (permutation p ? 0.05). The expression level of FPGS and the splicing indices of eight genes (ATP13A2, ASCC3L1, IFIH1, SMARCA5, SMARCA2, SETX, DDX52 and RUVBL2) were found to be associated with SNP genotypes in the combined populations (p < 3.2 × 10-8, Bonferroni corrected p < 0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that LCLs are an in vitro system suitable to evaluate the expression levels of folate pathway genes. The differential transcript-level expressions and the differentially alternative splicing events of exons or UTRs and associated SNP markers in 2 populations will enhance our understanding of the folate pathway and, thus, facilitate research in the areas of nutrition and folate metabolism. PMID:19374514

Duan, Shiwei; Huang, R Stephanie; Zhang, Wei; Mi, Shuangli; Bleibel, Wasim K; Kistner, Emily O; Cox, Nancy J; Dolan, M Eileen

2009-01-01

17

Identification of new alternative splice events in the TCIRG1 gene in different human tissues  

SciTech Connect

Two transcript variants (TV) of the T cell immune regulator gene 1 (TCIRG1) have already been characterized. TV1 encodes a subunit of the osteoclast vacuolar proton pump and TV2 encodes a T cell inhibitory receptor. Based on the search in dbEST, we validated by RT-PCR six new alternative splice events in TCIRG1 in most of the 28 human tissues studied. In addition, we observed that transcripts using the TV1 transcription start site and two splice forms previously described in a patient with infantile malignant osteopetrosis are also expressed in various tissues of healthy individuals. Studies of these nine splice forms in cytoplasmic RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that at least six of them could be efficiently exported from the nucleus. Since various products with nearly ubiquitous tissue distribution are generated from TCIRG1, this gene may be involved in other processes besides immune response and bone resorption.

Smirnova, Anna S. [Immunogenetics Division, Pediatrics Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Morgun, Andrey [Immunogenetics Division, Pediatrics Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: anemorgun@hotmail.com; Shulzhenko, Natalia [Immunogenetics Division, Pediatrics Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva, Ismael D.C.G. [Gynecology Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gerbase-DeLima, Maria [Immunogenetics Division, Pediatrics Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2005-05-13

18

Alternative splicing of the sheep MITF gene: Novel transcripts detectable in skin.  

PubMed

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor, which regulates the differentiation and development of melanocytes and pigment cell-specific transcription of the melanogenesis enzyme genes. Though multiple splice variants of MITF have been reported in humans, mice and other vertebrate species, in merino sheep (Ovis aries), MITF gene splicing has not yet been investigated until now. To investigate the sheep MITF isoforms, the full length mRNA/cDNAs from the skin of merino sheep were cloned, sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis and molecular prediction revealed two basic splice variants with (+) and without (-) an 18bp insertion viz. CGTGTATTTTCCCCACAG, in the coding region (CDS) for the amino acids 'ACIFPT'. It was further confirmed by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering intron-6 (2463bp), wherein an 18bp intronic sequence is retained into the CDS of MITF (+) isoform. Further, full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). A total of seven sheep MITF splice variants, with distinct N-terminus sequences such as MITF-A, B, E, H, and M, the counterparts of human and mouse MITF, were identified by 5' RACE. The other two 5' RACE products were found to be novel splice variants of MITF and represented as 'MITF truncated form (Trn)-1, 2'. These alternative splice (AS) variants were illustrated using comparative genome analysis. By means of 3' RACE three different MITF 3' UTRs (625, 1083, 3167bp) were identified and characterized. We also demonstrated that the MITF gene expression determined at transcript level is mediated via an intron-6 splicing event. Here we summarize for the first time, the expression of seven MITF splice variants with three distinct 3' UTRs in the skin of merino sheep. Our data refine the structure of the MITF gene in sheep beyond what was previously known in humans, mice, dogs and other mammals. PMID:25239663

Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

2014-11-15

19

Expression Microarray Analysis Reveals Alternative Splicing of LAMA3 and DST Genes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prior studies have demonstrated tumor-specific alternative splicing events in various solid tumor types. The role of alternative splicing in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unclear. Our study queried exon-level expression to implicate splice variants in HNSCC tumors. Experimental Design We performed a comparative genome-wide analysis of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) tissue samples at an exon expression level. In our comparison we ranked genes based upon a novel score—the Maximum-Minimum Exon Score (MMES) – designed to predict the likelihood of an alternative splicing event occurring. We validated predicted alternative splicing events using quantitative RT-PCR on an independent cohort. Results After MMES scoring of 17,422 genes, the top 900 genes with the highest scores underwent additional manual inspection of expression patterns in a graphical analysis. The genes LAMA3, DST, VEGFC, SDHA, RASIP1, and TP63 were selected for further validation studies because of a high frequency of alternative splicing suggested in our graphical analysis, and literature review showing their biological relevance and known splicing patterns. We confirmed TP63 as having dominant expression of the short DeltaNp63 isoform in HNSCC tumor samples, consistent with prior reports. Two of the six genes (LAMA3 and DST) validated by quantitative RT-PCR for tumor-specific alternative splicing events (Student's t test, P<0.001). Conclusion Alternative splicing events of oncologically relevant proteins occur in HNSCC. The number of genes expressing tumor-specific splice variants needs further elucidation, as does the functional significance of selective isoform expression. PMID:24675808

Li, Ryan; Ochs, Michael F.; Ahn, Sun Mi; Hennessey, Patrick; Tan, Marietta; Soudry, Ethan; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Uemura, Mamoru; Brait, Mariana; Shao, Chunbo; Westra, William; Bishop, Justin; Fertig, Elana J.; Califano, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

20

Complex alternative splicing of the GHV gene in the human testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human growth hormone variant (GH-V) gene is expressed during pregnancy in the syncytio- trophoblast and, as shown recently, in the normal human testis. In addition to the classical transcript encoding for the 22 K major form, intron D-retaining processed mRNAs (GH-V2) have also been described in both tissues. In the present study we analyzed testicular GH-V RNA alternative splicing

G Untergasser; M Hermann; H Rumpold; P Berger

1998-01-01

21

TCERG1 Regulates Alternative Splicing of the Bcl-x Gene by Modulating the Rate of RNA Polymerase II Transcription  

PubMed Central

Complex functional coupling exists between transcriptional elongation and pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Pausing sites and changes in the rate of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) may therefore have fundamental impacts in the regulation of alternative splicing. Here, we show that the elongation and splicing-related factor TCERG1 regulates alternative splicing of the apoptosis gene Bcl-x in a promoter-dependent manner. TCERG1 promotes the splicing of the short isoform of Bcl-x (Bcl-xs) through the SB1 regulatory element located in the first half of exon 2. Consistent with these results, we show that TCERG1 associates with the Bcl-x pre-mRNA. A transcription profile analysis revealed that the RNA sequences required for the effect of TCERG1 on Bcl-x alternative splicing coincide with a putative polymerase pause site. Furthermore, TCERG1 modifies the impact of a slow polymerase on Bcl-x alternative splicing. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of Bcl-x alternative splicing, we found that TCERG1 modifies the amount of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of the endogenous Bcl-x. Most importantly, TCERG1 affects the rate of RNAPII transcription of endogenous human Bcl-x. We propose that TCERG1 modulates the elongation rate of RNAPII to relieve pausing, thereby activating the proapoptotic Bcl-xS 5? splice site. PMID:22158966

Montes, Marta; Cloutier, Alexandre; Sánchez-Hernández, Noemí; Michelle, Laetitia; Lemieux, Bruno; Blanchette, Marco; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Chabot, Benoit

2012-01-01

22

THE GRK4 SUBFAMILY OF G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASES: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, GENE ORGANIZATION, AND SEQUENCE CONSERVATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The GRK4 subfamily of G protein-coupled receptor kinases. Alternative splicing, gene organization, and sequence conservation. Premont RT, Macrae AD, Aparicio SA, Kendall HE, Welch JE, Lefkowitz RJ. Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke Univer...

23

ZRANB2 localizes to supraspliceosomes and influences the alternative splicing of multiple genes in the transcriptome.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a major source of protein diversity in humans. The human splicing factor zinc finger, Ran-binding domain containing protein 2 (ZRANB2) is a splicing protein whose specific endogenous targets are unknown. Its upregulation in grade III ovarian serous papillary carcinoma could suggest a role in some cancers. To determine whether ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome, nuclear supernatants from human embryonic kidney 293 cells were prepared and then fractioned on a glycerol gradient, followed by Western blotting. The same was done after treatment with a tyrosine kinase to induce phosphorylation. This showed for the first time that ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome, and that phosphorylation affects its subcellular location. Studies were then performed to understand the splicing targets of ZRANB2 at the whole-transcriptome level. HeLa cells were transfected with a vector containing ZRANB2 or with a vector-only control. RNA was extracted, converted to cDNA and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. At the FDR ?1.3 significance level we found that ZRANB2 influenced the alternative splicing of primary transcripts of CENTB1, WDR78, C10orf18, CABP4, SMARCC2, SPATA13, OR4C6, ZNF263, CAPN10, SALL1, ST18 and ZP2. Several of these have been implicated in tumor development. In conclusion ZRANB2 is part of the supraspliceosome and causes differential splicing of numerous primary transcripts, some of which might have a role in cancer. PMID:23666063

Yang, Yee Hwa J; Markus, M Andrea; Mangs, A Helena; Raitskin, Oleg; Sperling, Ruth; Morris, Brian J

2013-09-01

24

Identification and characterization of yak (Bos grunniens) b-Boule gene and its alternative splice variants.  

PubMed

Boule is responsible for meiotic arrest of sperms and male sterility during mammalian spermatogenesis. In the present study, we first identified yak b-Boule gene and its two alternative splice variants. The full length coding region of yak b-Boule is 888bp and encodes a 295-amino acid protein with a typical RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and a Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) repetitive sequence motif. Two alternative splice variants of yak b-Boule were generated following the consensus "GT-AG" rule and named b-Boule1 (36bp deletion in exon 3) and b-Boule2 (deletion of integral exon 7), respectively. In male yak, b-Boule, b-Boule1 and b-Boule2 were found to be exclusively expressed in the testes at a ratio of 81:0.1:1. Intriguingly, the mRNA expression levels of b-Boule and b-Boule1 in yak testis were significantly higher than those in cattle-yak, although no significant difference was observed for b-Boule2 expression between the yak and cattle-yak. These results suggest that b-Boule gene, which is partially regulated by alternative splicing, may be involved in the process of yak spermatogenesis. PMID:25149018

Li, Bojiang; Ngo, Sherry; Wu, Wangjun; Xu, Hongtao; Xie, Zhuang; Li, Qifa; Pan, Zengxiang

2014-10-25

25

Alternative splicing of the tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) gene in human and mouse tissues  

SciTech Connect

The recently isolated gene for tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) encodes a 5.5.kb transcript that is widely expressed. The TSC2 gene product, named tuberin, is a 1784-amino-acid protein that shows a small stretch of homology to the GTPase activating protein rap1GAP. We have detected a novel variant of the TSC2 mRNA lacking 129 nucleotides, predicting an in-frame deletion of 43 amino acids spanning codons 946-988 of tuberin. This 129-bp deletion precisely corresponds to exon 25 of the TSC2 gene suggesting that alternative splicing leads to production of two forms of transcripts designated isoforms 1 and 2. Further molecular analysis revealed a third isoform exhibiting a deletion of 44 amino acids spanning codons 946-989 of tuberin. Amino acid 989 is a Ser residue encoded by the first codon of exon 26. The two isoforms also exist in newborn and adult mouse tissues, reinforcing the potential functional importance of these alternatively spliced products. These alternative isoforms should have implications for efforts aimed at identifying mutations in TSC patients. The distinct polypeptides encoded by the TSC2 gene may have different targets as well as functions involved in the regulation of cell growth. 26 refs., 4 figs.

Xu, Lin; Sterner, C.; Maheshwar, M.M. [and others] [and others

1995-06-10

26

Divergent Functions Through Alternative Splicing: The Drosophila CRMP Gene in Pyrimidine Metabolism, Brain, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

DHP and CRMP proteins comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that perform divergent functions, DHP in pyrimidine catabolism in most organisms and CRMP in neuronal dynamics in animals. In vertebrates, one DHP and five CRMP proteins are products of six genes; however, Drosophila melanogaster has a single CRMP gene that encodes one DHP and one CRMP protein through tissue-specific, alternative splicing of a pair of paralogous exons. The proteins derived from the fly gene are identical over 90% of their lengths, suggesting that unique, novel functions of these proteins derive from the segment corresponding to the paralogous exons. Functional homologies of the Drosophila and mammalian CRMP proteins are revealed by several types of evidence. Loss-of-function CRMP mutation modifies both Ras and Rac misexpression phenotypes during fly eye development in a manner that is consistent with the roles of CRMP in Ras and Rac signaling pathways in mammalian neurons. In both mice and flies, CRMP mutation impairs learning and memory. CRMP mutant flies are defective in circadian activity rhythm. Thus, DHP and CRMP proteins are derived by different processes in flies (tissue-specific, alternative splicing of paralogous exons of a single gene) and vertebrates (tissue-specific expression of different genes), indicating that diverse genetic mechanisms have mediated the evolution of this protein family in animals. PMID:22649077

Morris, Deanna H.; Dubnau, Josh; Park, Jae H.; Rawls, John M.

2012-01-01

27

ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

2006-01-01

28

Promoter usage and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Recent findings justify a renewed interest in alternative splicing (AS): the process is more a rule than an exception as it affects the expression of 60% of human genes; it explains how a vast mammalian proteomic complexity is achieved with a limited number of genes; and mutations in AS regulatory sequences are a widespread source of human disease. AS regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with their target sequences in the pre-mRNA but is coupled to transcription. A clearer picture is emerging of the mechanisms by which transcription affects AS through promoter identity and occupation. These mechanisms involve the recruitment of factors with dual functions in transcription and splicing (i.e. that contain both functional domains and hence link the two processes) and the control of RNA polymerase II elongation. PMID:15901495

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2005-06-01

29

Genetic identification, sequence, and alternative splicing of the Caenorhabditis elegans alpha 2(IV) collagen gene  

PubMed Central

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has two type IV collagen genes homologous to the mammalian alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen genes. We demonstrate by transgenic rescue of mutant animals that the genetic locus encoding the C. elegans alpha 2(IV) collagen gene is let-2 on the X chromosome. The most severe effect of mutations in let-2 is temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. The embryonic lethal phenotype is similar to that seen in animals with mutations in the alpha 1(IV) collagen gene, emb-9. The sequence of the entire C. elegans alpha 2(IV) collagen gene is presented. Comparisons with mammalian type IV collagen sequences show high amino acid sequence conservation in the C-terminal NCl domain and of crosslinking residues (Cys and Lys) in the N-terminal 7S domain. RT-PCR analysis shows that transcripts of the C. elegans alpha 2(IV) collagen gene are alternatively spliced. Transcripts contain one of two mutually exclusive exons, exon 9 or 10. These exons encode very similar products, differing primarily in the sequence of a 9-10 amino acid Gly-X-Y interruption. The expression of these alternatively spliced alpha 2(IV) collagen transcripts is developmentally regulated. In embryos over 90% of the alpha 2(IV) collagen mRNA contains exon 9, while larval and adult RNAs contain 80- 90% exon 10. This shift in expression of alternative alpha 2(IV) collagen transcripts suggests that C. elegans embryos may require a different form of alpha 2(IV) collagen than do larvae and adults. PMID:7691828

1993-01-01

30

Coupling transcription and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing regulation not only depends on the interaction of splicing factors with splicing enhancers and silencers in the pre-mRNA, but also on the coupling between transcription and splicing. This coupling is possible because splicing is often cotranscriptional and promoter identity and occupation may affect alternative splicing. We discuss here the different mechanisms by which transcription regulates alternative splicing. These include the recruitment of splicing factors to the transcribing polymerase and "kinetic coupling", which involves changes in the rate of transcriptional elongation that in turn affect the timing in which splice sites are presented to the splicing machinery. The recruitment mechanism may depend on the particular features of the carboxyl terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, whereas kinetic coupling seems to be linked to how changes in chromatin structure and other factors affect transcription elongation. PMID:18380347

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2007-01-01

31

The evolving roles of alternative splicing Liana F Lareau1  

E-print Network

The evolving roles of alternative splicing Liana F Lareau1 , Richard E Green1 , Rajiv S Bhatnagar2,3 and Steven E Brenner1,2Ã? Alternative splicing is now commonly thought to affect more than half of all human forms. Comparisons of alternative splicing between human and mouse genes show that predominant splice

32

Alternative splicing regulates vesicular trafficking genes in cardiomyocytes during postnatal heart development  

PubMed Central

During postnatal development the heart undergoes a rapid and dramatic transition to adult function through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, including alternative splicing (AS). Here we perform deep RNA-sequencing on RNA from cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts to conduct a high-resolution analysis of transcriptome changes during postnatal mouse heart development. We reveal extensive changes in gene expression and AS that occur primarily between postnatal days 1 and 28. Cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts show reciprocal regulation of gene expression reflecting differences in proliferative capacity, cell adhesion functions, and mitochondrial metabolism. We further demonstrate that AS plays a role in vesicular trafficking and membrane organization, These AS transitions are enriched among targets of two RNA-binding proteins, Celf1 and Mbnl1, which undergo developmentally regulated changes in expression. Vesicular trafficking genes affected by AS during normal development (when Celf1 is down-regulated) show a reversion to neonatal splicing patterns after Celf1 re-expression in adults. Short-term Celf1 induction in adult animals results in disrupted transverse tubule organization and calcium handling. These results identify potential roles for AS in multiple aspects of postnatal heart maturation, including vesicular trafficking and intracellular membrane dynamics. PMID:24752171

Giudice, Jimena; Xia, Zheng; Wang, Eric T.; Scavuzzo, Marissa A.; Ward, Amanda J.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Wang, Wei; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Burge, Christopher B.; Li, Wei; Cooper, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

33

Binding of hnRNP H to an exonic splicing silencer is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing of the rat beta-tropomyosin gene.  

PubMed

In the rat beta-tropomyosin (beta-TM) gene, exons 6 and 7 are spliced alternatively in a mutually exclusive manner. Exon 6 is included in mRNA encoding nonmuscle TM-1, whereas exon 7 is used in mRNA encoding skeletal muscle beta-TM. Previously, we demonstrated that a six nucleotide mutation at the 5' end of exon 7, designated as ex-1, activated exon 7 splicing in nonmuscle cells. In this study, we show that the activating effect of this mutation is not the result of creating an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) or disrupting a putative secondary structure. The sequence in exon 7 acts as a bona fide exonic splicing silencer (ESS), which is bound specifically by a trans-acting factor. Isolation and peptide sequencing reveal that this factor is hnRNP H, a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. Binding of hnRNP H correlates with the ESS activity. Furthermore, addition of antibodies that specifically recognizes hnRNP H to the splicing reactions or partial depletion of hnRNP H from nuclear extract activates exon 7 splicing in vitro and this effect can be reversed by addition of purified recombinant hnRNP H. These results indicate that hnRNP H participates in exclusion of exon 7 in nonmuscle cells. The involvement of hnRNP H in the activity of an ESS may represent a prototype for the regulation of tissue- and developmental-specific alternative splicing. PMID:10072387

Chen, C D; Kobayashi, R; Helfman, D M

1999-03-01

34

Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans.  

PubMed

Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the most important staple foods. Rice is considered a model species for most gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice has provided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize and wheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soil degradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, such as greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods, soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there is an extremely high demand for additional research, in order to address these negative factors. Studies have shown that the alternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stress conditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternative splicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for rice to adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement of microarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencing technology, several studies have shown that more than half of the genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. This mini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research of splicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicing in humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studies may change the landscape of investigation of rice functional genomics and genetically improved rice. PMID:24064058

E, Zhiguo; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jianhua

2013-09-01

35

RNA interference knockdown of DNA methyl-transferase 3 affects gene alternative splicing in the honey bee  

PubMed Central

Studies of DNA methylation from fungi, plants, and animals indicate that gene body methylation is ancient and highly conserved in eukaryotic genomes, but its role has not been clearly defined. It has been postulated that regulation of alternative splicing of transcripts was an original function of DNA methylation, but a direct experimental test of the effect of methylation on alternative slicing at the whole genome level has never been performed. To do this, we developed a unique method to administer RNA interference (RNAi) in a high-throughput and noninvasive manner and then used it to knock down the expression of DNA methyl-transferase 3 (dnmt3), which is required for de novo DNA methylation. We chose the honey bee (Apis mellifera) for this test because it has recently emerged as an important model organism for studying the effects of DNA methylation on development and social behavior, and DNA methylation in honey bees is predominantly on gene bodies. Here we show that dnmt3 RNAi decreased global genomic methylation level as expected and in addition caused widespread and diverse changes in alternative splicing in fat tissue. Four different types of splicing events were affected by dnmt3 gene knockdown, and change in two types, exon skipping and intron retention, was directly related to decreased methylation. These results demonstrate that one function of gene body DNA methylation is to regulate alternative splicing. PMID:23852726

Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Li, Yang; Stroud, Hume; Feng, Suhua; Newman, Thomas C.; Kaneda, Megan; Hou, Kirk K.; Worley, Kim C.; Elsik, Christine G.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ma, Jian; Robinson, Gene E.

2013-01-01

36

Molecular cloning and characterization of Izumo1 gene from sheep and cashmere goat reveal alternative splicing.  

PubMed

We cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding for Izumo1 of cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). Analysis of 4.6 kb Izumo1 genomic sequences in sheep and goat revealed a canonical open reading frame (ORF) of 963 bp spliced by eight exons. Sheep and goat Izumo1 genes share >99% identity at both DNA and protein levels and are also highly homologous to the orthologues in cattle, mouse, rat and human. Extensive cloning and analysis of Izumo1 cDNA revealed three (del 69, del 182 and del 217) and two (del 69 and ins 30) alternative splicing isoforms in goat and sheep, respectively. All of the isoforms are derived from splicing at typical GT-AG sites leading to partial or complete truncation of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed that caprine and ovine Izumo1 proteins share similar structure with their murine orthologue. There are a signal peptide at the N-terminus (1-22 aa), a transmembrane domain at the C-terminus (302-319 aa), and an extracellular Ig-like region in the middle (161-252 aa) with a putative N-linked glycosylation site (N(205)-N-S). Alignment of Izumo1 protein sequences among 15 mammalian species displayed several highly conserved regions, including LDC and YRC motifs with cysteine residues for potential disulfide bridge formation, CPNKCG motif upstream of the Ig-like domain, GLTDYSFYRVW motif upstream of the putative N-linked glycosylation site, and a number of scattered cysteine residues. These distinctive features are very informative to pinpoint the important gene motifs and functions. The C-terminal regions, however, are more variable across species. Izumo1 cDNA sequences of goat, sheep, and cow were found to be largely homologous, and the molecular phylogenetic analysis is consistent with their morphological taxonomy. This implies the Izumo1 gene evolves from the same ancestor, and the mechanism of sperm-egg fusion in mammals may be under the same principle in which Izumo1 plays an important role. PMID:20963501

Xing, Wan-Jin; Han, Bao-Da; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Li; Bao, Xiao-Hong; Bou, Shorgan

2011-03-01

37

Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher. PMID:18315870

Munk, Carsten; Beck, Thomas; Zielonka, Jorg; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Chareza, Sarah; Battenberg, Marion; Thielebein, Jens; Cichutek, Klaus; Bravo, Ignacio G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lochelt, Martin; Yuhki, Naoya

2008-01-01

38

Homer1 Alternative Splicing Is Regulated by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Modulates Gonadotropin Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a critical role in reproductive physiology by regulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) gene expression in the pituitary. Analysis of gonadotrope deep-sequencing data identified a global regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by GnRH. Homer1, a gene encoding a postsynaptic density scaffolding protein, was selected for further study. Homer1 expresses a short splice form, Homer1a, and more-abundant long transcripts Homer1b/c. GnRH induced a modest increase in Homer1b/c expression and a dramatic increase in the Homer1a splice form. G protein knockdown studies suggested that the Homer1 induction, but not the regulated splicing, was G?q/11 dependent. Phosphorylation of the splicing regulator SRp20 was found to be induced by GnRH. SRp20 depletion attenuated the GnRH-induced increase in the Homer1a-to-Homer1b/c ratio and modulated the effects of GnRH on FSH? and LH? expression. Homer1 gene knockdown resulted in increased GnRH-induced FSH? and LH? transcript levels. Furthermore, splice-form-specific reduction of Homer1b/c increased both FSH? and LH? mRNA induction, whereas reduction of Homer1a had the opposite effect on FSH? induction. These results indicate that the regulation of Homer1 splicing by GnRH contributes to gonadotropin gene control. PMID:24591653

Wang, Qian; Chikina, Maria D.; Pincas, Hanna

2014-01-01

39

Alternative splicing of exon 10 in the tau gene as a target for treatment of tauopathies  

PubMed Central

Tau aggregation is one of the major features in Alzheimer's disease and in several other tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). More than 35 mutations in the tau gene have been identified from FTDP-17 patients. A group of these mutations alters splicing of exon 10, resulting in an increase in exon 10 inclusion into tau mRNA. Abnormal splicing with inclusion of exon 10 into tau mRNA has also been observed in PSP and AD patients. These results indicate that abnormal splicing of exon 10, leading to the production of tau with exon 10, is probably one of the mechanisms by which tau accumulates and aggregates in tauopathic brains. Therefore, modulation of exon 10 splicing in the tau gene could potentially be targeted to prevent tauopathies. To identify small molecules or compounds that could potentially be developed into drugs to treat tauopathies, we established a cell-based high-throughput screening assay. In this review, we will discuss how realistic, specific biological molecules can be found to regulate exon 10 splicing in the tau gene for potential treatment of tauopathies. PMID:19090983

Zhou, Jianhua; Yu, Qingming; Zou, Tie

2008-01-01

40

Genomic organization, expression of the human CBFA1 gene, and evidence for an alternative splicing event affecting protein function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cbfa1 gene, which encodes the transcription factor Osf2\\/Cbfa1 required for osteoblast differentiation in mouse and human, is mutated\\u000a in cleidocranial dysplasia, a skeletal dysplasia. We describe here the isolation of the full-length human OSF2\\/ CBFA1 cDNAs,\\u000a the genomic organization of the entire CBFA1 gene, its expression, and the existence of an alternative splicing event. Nucleotide\\u000a sequence analysis of the

V. Geoffroy; D. A. Corral; L. Zhou; B. Lee; G. Karsenty

1998-01-01

41

Gene Selection, Alternative Splicing, and Posttranslational Processing Regulate Neuroligin Selectivity for ?-Neurexins †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroligins 1-4 are postsynaptic transmembrane proteins capable of initiating presynaptic maturation via interactions with ‚-neurexin. Both neuroligins and ‚-neurexins have alternatively spliced inserts in their extracellular domains. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that the extracellular domains of the neuroligins sediment as dimers, whereas the extracellular domains of the ‚-neurexins appear monomeric. Sedimentation velocity experiments of titrated stoichiometry ratios of ‚-neurexin

Davide Comoletti; Robyn E. Flynn; Antony A. Boucard; Borries Demeler; Virgil Schirf; Jianxin Shi; Lori L. Jennings; Helen R. Newlin; Thomas C. Südhof; Palmer Taylor

2006-01-01

42

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Hou, Lichao [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

2010-01-01

43

Characterization of the Sesbania rostrata Phytochelatin Synthase Gene: Alternative Splicing and Function of Four Isoforms  

PubMed Central

Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. PCs are synthesized from glutathione by phytochelatin synthase (PCS), a dipeptidyltransferase. Sesbania rostrata is a tropical legume plant that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd and Zn. In this study, the S. rostrata PCS gene (SrPCS) and cDNAs were isolated and characterized. Southern blot and sequence analysis revealed that a single copy of the SrPCS gene occurs in the S. rostrata genome, and produces four different SrPCS mRNAs and proteins, SrPCS1–SrPCS4, by alternative splicing of the SrPCS pre-mRNA. The SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 proteins conferred Cd tolerance when expressed in yeast cells, whereas the SrPCS2 and SrPCS4 proteins, which lack the catalytic triad and the N-terminal domains, did not. These results suggested that SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 have potential applications in genetic engineering of plants for enhancing heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:20111680

Li, An-Ming; Yu, Bing-Yun; Chen, Fu-Hua; Gan, Hui-Yan; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Qiu, Rongliang; Huang, Jun-Chao; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Xu, Zeng-Fu

2009-01-01

44

Characterization of conserved tandem donor sites and intronic motifs required for alternative splicing in corticosteroid receptor genes.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing events from tandem donor sites result in mRNA variants coding for additional amino acids in the DNA binding domain of both the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. We now show that expression of both splice variants is extensively conserved in mammalian species, providing strong evidence for their functional significance. An exception to the conservation of the MR tandem splice site (an A at position +5 of the MR+12 donor site in the mouse) was predicted to decrease U1 small nuclear RNA binding. In accord with this prediction, we were unable to detect the MR+12 variant in this species. The one exception to the conservation of the GR tandem splice site, an A at position +3 of the platypus GRgamma donor site that was predicted to enhance binding of U1 snRNA, was unexpectedly associated with decreased expression of the variant from the endogenous gene as well as a minigene. An intronic pyrimidine motif present in both GR and MR genes was found to be critical for usage of the downstream donor site, and overexpression of TIA1/TIAL1 RNA binding proteins, which are known to bind such motifs, led to a marked increase in the proportion of GRgamma and MR+12. These results provide striking evidence for conservation of a complex splicing mechanism that involves processes other than stochastic spliceosome binding and identify a mechanism that would allow regulation of variant expression. PMID:19819975

Rivers, Caroline; Flynn, Andrea; Qian, Xiaoxiao; Matthews, Laura; Lightman, Stafford; Ray, David; Norman, Michael

2009-11-01

45

Gene regulation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modification of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation: a focused review  

PubMed Central

Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases. PMID:24817852

Sheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

46

Alternative splicing in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is a general mechanism for regulating gene expression that affects the RNA products of more than 90% of human genes. Not surprisingly, alternative splicing is observed among gene products of metazoan immune systems, which have evolved to efficiently recognize pathogens and discriminate between “self” and “non-self”, and thus need to be both diverse and flexible. In this review we focus on the specific interface between alternative splicing and autoimmune diseases, which result from a malfunctioning of the immune system and are characterized by the inappropriate reaction to self-antigens. Despite the widespread recognition of alternative splicing as one of the major regulators of gene expression, the connections between alternative splicing and autoimmunity have not been apparent. We summarize recent findings connecting splicing and autoimmune disease, and attempt to find common patterns of splicing regulation that may advance our understanding of autoimmune diseases and open new avenues for therapy. PMID:20639696

Evsyukova, Irina; Somarelli, Jason A; Gregory, Simon G

2010-01-01

47

Alternative Splicing and Its Impact as a Cancer Diagnostic Marker  

PubMed Central

Most genes are processed by alternative splicing for gene expression, resulting in the complexity of the transcriptome in eukaryotes. It allows a limited number of genes to encode various proteins with intricate functions. Alternative splicing is regulated by genetic mutations in cis-regulatory factors and epigenetic events. Furthermore, splicing events occur differently according to cell type, developmental stage, and various diseases, including cancer. Genome instability and flexible proteomes by alternative splicing could affect cancer cells to grow and survive, leading to metastasis. Cancer cells that are transformed by aberrant and uncontrolled mechanisms could produce alternative splicing to maintain and spread them continuously. Splicing variants in various cancers represent crucial roles for tumorigenesis. Taken together, the identification of alternative spliced variants as biomarkers to distinguish between normal and cancer cells could cast light on tumorigenesis. PMID:23105933

Kim, Yun-Ji

2012-01-01

48

Population genetics of duplicated alternatively spliced exons of the Dscam gene in Daphnia and Drosophila.  

PubMed

In insects and crustaceans, the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) occurs in many different isoforms. These are produced by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of dozens of tandem duplicated exons coding for parts or whole immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of the Dscam protein. This diversity plays a role in the development of the nervous system and also in the immune system. Structural analysis of the protein suggested candidate epitopes where binding to pathogens could occur. These epitopes are coded by regions of the duplicated exons and are therefore diverse within individuals. Here we apply molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analyses using Daphnia magna and several Drosophila species to investigate the potential role of natural selection in the divergence between orthologs of these duplicated exons among species, as well as between paralogous exons within species. We found no evidence for a role of positive selection in the divergence of these paralogous exons. However, the power of this test was low, and the fact that no signs of gene conversion between paralogous exons were found suggests that paralog diversity may nonetheless be maintained by selection. The analysis of orthologous exons in Drosophila and in Daphnia revealed an excess of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the epitopes putatively involved in pathogen binding. This may be a sign of balancing selection. Indeed, in Dr. melanogaster the same derived non-synonymous alleles segregate in several populations around the world. Yet other hallmarks of balancing selection were not found. Hence, we cannot rule out that the excess of non-synonymous polymorphisms is caused by segregating slightly deleterious alleles, thus potentially indicating reduced selective constraints in the putative pathogen binding epitopes of Dscam. PMID:22174757

Brites, Daniela; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Ebert, Dieter; Du Pasquier, Louis; Haag, Christoph R

2011-01-01

49

Libraries enriched for alternatively spliced exons reveal splicing patterns in melanocytes  

E-print Network

computa- tional predictions. As cancer-related genes such as Mdm2 (ref. 13) or Cdkn2a14 are regulated melanoma cell lines, in which 5,401 genes were found to be alternatively spliced. These genes include those and previously unidentified splicing events for 436 genes. Real-time PCR further identified cell line

Cai, Long

50

Riboswitch Control of Gene Expression in Plants by Splicing and Alternative 3? End Processing of mRNAs[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The most widespread riboswitch class, found in organisms from all three domains of life, is responsive to the vitamin B1 derivative thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). We have established that a TPP-sensing riboswitch is present in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the thiamin biosynthetic gene THIC of all plant species examined. The THIC TPP riboswitch controls the formation of transcripts with alternative 3? UTR lengths, which affect mRNA accumulation and protein production. We demonstrate that riboswitch-mediated regulation of alternative 3? end processing is critical for TPP-dependent feedback control of THIC expression. Our data reveal a mechanism whereby metabolite-dependent alteration of RNA folding controls splicing and alternative 3? end processing of mRNAs. These findings highlight the importance of metabolite sensing by riboswitches in plants and further reveal the significance of alternative 3? end processing as a mechanism of gene control in eukaryotes. PMID:17993623

Wachter, Andreas; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Grove, Beth C.; Green, Pamela J.; Shintani, David K.; Breaker, Ronald R.

2007-01-01

51

Alternative splicing, promoter methylation, and functional SNPs of sperm flagella 2 gene in testis and mature spermatozoa of Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

The sperm flagella 2 (SPEF2) gene is essential for development of normal sperm tail and male fertility. In this study, we characterized first the splice variants, promoter and its methylation, and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SPEF2 gene in newborn and adult Holstein bulls. Four splice variants were identified in the testes, epididymis, sperm, heart, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and liver tissues through RT-PCR, clone sequencing, and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the SPEF2 was specifically expressed in the primary spermatocytes, elongated spermatids, and round spermatids in the testes and epididymis. SPEF2-SV1 was differentially expressed in the sperms of high-performance and low-performance adult bulls; SPEF2-SV2 presents the highest expression in testis and epididymis; SPEF2-SV3 was only detected in testis and epididymis. An SNP (c.2851G>T) in exon 20 of SPEF2, located within a putative exonic splice enhancer, potentially produced SPEF2-SV3 and was involved in semen deformity rate and post-thaw cryopreserved sperm motility. The luciferase reporter and bisulfite sequencing analysis suggested that the methylation pattern of the core promoter did not significantly differ between the full-sib bulls that presented hypomethylation in the ejaculated semen and testis. This finding indicates that sperm quality is unrelated to SPEF2 methylation pattern. Our data suggest that alternative splicing, rather than methylation, is involved in the regulation of SPEF2 expression in the testes and sperm and is one of the determinants of sperm motility during bull spermatogenesis. The exonic SNP (c.2851G>T) produces aberrant splice variants, which can be used as a candidate marker for semen traits selection breeding of Holstein bulls. PMID:24277870

Guo, F; Yang, B; Ju, Z H; Wang, X G; Qi, C; Zhang, Y; Wang, C F; Liu, H D; Feng, M Y; Chen, Y; Xu, Y X; Zhong, J F; Huang, J M

2014-02-01

52

Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the u Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains  

PubMed Central

The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-01-01

53

Human liver glucokinase gene: Cloning and sequence determination of two alternatively spliced cDNAs  

SciTech Connect

A human liver glucokinase was isolated from a liver cDNA library. This cDNA (hLGLK1) appeared to be full length as its size was consistent with a single 2.8-kilobase (kb) glucokinase mRNA on Northern blot analysis of liver poly(A){sup +}RNA. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1392 bp that predicted a protein of 464 amino acids and a molecular mass of 52 kDa; this protein has 97% identity to rat liver glucokinase. Fourteen residues on the amino terminus of the predicted human liver glucokinase, however, differed completely from those of the predicted rat liver enzyme and could be explained by alternative splicing of a 124-bp cassette exon in human cDNA. A second glucokinase cDNA (hLGLK2), missing the 124-bp cassette exon, was isolated by PCR amplification of human liver cDNA. These results suggested that the alternative splicing of a cassette exon in hLGLK1 resulted in an mRNA with an upstream initiator codon and reduced function. The relative biological activity of the two isoforms of human glucokinase and their possible developmental and/or metabolic regulation remain to be determined.

Tanizawa, Yukio; Koranyi, L.I.; Welling, C.M.; Permutt, M.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-08-15

54

Human Pot1 (Protection of Telomeres) Protein: Cytolocalization, Gene Structure, and Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Fission yeast Pot1 (protection of telomeres) is a single-stranded telomeric DNA binding protein with a critical role in ensuring chromosome stability. A putative human homolog (hPot1) was previously identified, based on moderate sequence similarity with fission yeast Pot1 and telomere end-binding proteins from ciliated protozoa. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we show here that epitope-tagged hPot1 localizes to telomeres in interphase nuclei of human cells, consistent with a direct role in telomere end protection. The hPOT1 gene contains 22 exons, most of which are present in all cDNAs examined. However, four exons are subject to exon skipping in some transcripts, giving rise to five splice variants. Four of these are ubiquitously expressed, whereas the fifth appears to be specific to leukocytes. The resultant proteins vary significantly in their ability to form complexes with single-stranded telomeric DNA as judged by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In addition to these splice variants, the Pot1 family is expanded by the identification of six more genes from diverse species. Pot1-like proteins have now been found in plants, animals, yeasts, and microsporidia. PMID:12391173

Baumann, Peter; Podell, Elaine; Cech, Thomas R.

2002-01-01

55

Alternative splicing: increasing diversity in the proteomic world  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can the genome of Drosophila melanogaster contain fewer genes than the undoubtedly simpler organism Caenorhabditis elegans? The answer must lie within their proteomes. It is becoming clear that alternative splicing has an extremely important role in expanding protein diversity and might therefore partially underlie the apparent discrepancy between gene number and organismal complexity. Alternative splicing can generate more transcripts

Brenton R. Graveley

2001-01-01

56

Tau exon 10 alternative splicing and tauopathies  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of microtubule-associated protein tau play a central role in neurofibrillary degeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders that collectively called tauopathies. Six isoforms of tau are expressed in adult human brain, which result from alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generated from a single tau gene. Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in tau isoforms containing either three or four microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau, respectively). Approximately equal levels of 3R-tau and 4R-tau are expressed in normal adult human brain, but the 3R-tau/4R-tau ratio is altered in the brains in several tauopathies. Discovery of silence mutations and intronic mutations of tau gene in some individuals with frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), which only disrupt tau exon 10 splicing but do not alter tau's primary sequence, demonstrates that dysregulation of tau exon 10 alternative splicing and consequently of 3R-tau/4R-tau balance is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and dementia. Here, we review the gene structure, transcripts and protein isoforms of tau, followed by the regulation of exon 10 splicing that determines the expression of 3R-tau or 4R-tau. Finally, dysregulation of exon 10 splicing of tau in several tauopathies is discussed. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which tau exon 10 splicing is regulated and how it is disrupted in tauopathies will provide new insight into the mechanisms of these tauopathies and help identify new therapeutic targets to treat these disorders. PMID:18616804

Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

2008-01-01

57

cis-elements involved in alternative splicing in the rat beta-tropomyosin gene: the 3'-splice site of the skeletal muscle exon 7 is the major site of blockage in nonmuscle cells.  

PubMed

We have been using the rat beta-tropomyosin (beta-TM) gene as a model system to study the mechanism of alternative splicing. The beta-TM gene spans 10 kb with 11 exons and encodes two distinct isoforms, namely skeletal muscle beta-TM and fibroblast TM-1. Exons 1-5, 8, and 9 are common to all mRNAs expressed from this gene. Exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts, as well as in smooth muscle cells, whereas exons 7 and 10 are used exclusively in skeletal muscle cells. Our previous studies localized the critical elements for regulated alternative splicing to sequences within exon 7 and the adjacent upstream intron. We also demonstrated that these sequences function, in part, to regulate splice-site selection in vivo by interacting with cellular factors that block the use of the skeletal muscle exon in nonmuscle cells (1). Here we have further characterized the critical cis-acting elements involved in alternative splice site selection. Our data demonstrate that exon 7 and its flanking intron sequences are sufficient to regulate the suppression of exon 7 in nonmuscle cells when flanked by heterologous exons derived from adenovirus. We have also shown by both in vivo and in vitro assays that the blockage of exon 7 in nonmuscle cells is primarily at its 3'-splice site. A model is presented for regulated alternative splicing in both skeletal muscle and nonmuscle cells. PMID:8233825

Guo, W; Helfman, D M

1993-10-11

58

Severe hypoxia exerts parallel and cell-specific regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing in human mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background The endosteum of the bone marrow provides a specialized hypoxic niche that may serve to preserve the integrity, pluripotency, longevity and stemness of resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To explore the molecular genetic consequences of such a niche we subjected human (h) MSCs to a pO2 of 4 mmHg and analyzed global gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) by genome-exon microarray and RT-qPCR, and phenotype by western blot and immunostaining. Results Out of 446 genes differentially regulated by >2.5-fold, down-regulated genes outnumbered up-regulated genes by 243:203. Exon analyses revealed 60 hypoxia-regulated AS events with splice indices (SI) >1.0 from 53 genes and a correlation between high SI and degree of transcript regulation. Parallel analyses of a publicly available AS study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed that there was a strong cell-specific component with only 11 genes commonly regulated in hMSCs and HUVECs and 17 common differentially spliced genes. Only 3 genes were differentially responsive to hypoxia at the gene (>2.0) and AS levels in both cell types. Functional assignments revealed unique profiles of gene expression with complex regulation of differentiation, extracellular matrix, intermediate filament and metabolic marker genes. Antioxidant genes, striated muscle genes and insulin/IGF-1 signaling intermediates were down-regulated. There was a coordinate induction of 9 out of 12 acidic keratins that along with other epithelial and cell adhesion markers implies a partial mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Conclusions We conclude that severe hypoxia confers a quiescent phenotype in hMSCs that is reflected by both the transcriptome profile and gene-specific changes of splicosome actions. The results reveal that severe hypoxia imposes markedly different patterns of gene regulation of MSCs compared with more moderate hypoxia. This is the first study to report hypoxia-regulation of AS in stem/progenitor cells and the first molecular genetic characterization of MSC in a hypoxia-induced quiescent immobile state. PMID:24758227

2014-01-01

59

Expression of a human alpha-globin/fibronectin gene hybrid generates two mRNAs by alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated genomic clones for human fibronectin (FN), by screening a human gene library with previously isolated FN cDNA clones. We have recently reported two different FN mRNAs, one of them containing an additional 270 nucleotide insert coding for a structural domain ED. Restriction mapping and DNA sequencing of the genomic clones show that the ED type III unit corresponds to exactly one exon in the gene, whilst the two flanking type III units are split in two exons at variable positions. When an alpha-globin/FN gene hybrid construct, containing the ED exon, flanking introns and neighbouring FN exons, is transfected into HeLa cells, two hybrid mRNAs differing by the ED exon are synthesized. These experiments confirmed that the two FN mRNAs observed in vivo arise from the same gene by alternative splicing. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6096127

Vibe-Pedersen, K; Kornblihtt, A R; Baralle, F E

1984-01-01

60

ECgene: an alternative splicing database update.  

PubMed

ECgene (http://genome.ewha.ac.kr/ECgene) was developed to provide functional annotation for alternatively spliced genes. The applications encompass the genome-based transcript modeling for alternative splicing (AS), domain analysis with Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and expression analysis based on the EST and SAGE data. We have expanded the ECgene's AS modeling and EST clustering to nine organisms for which sufficient EST data are available in the GenBank. As for the human genome, we have also introduced several new applications to analyze differential expression. ECprofiler is an ontology-based candidate gene search system that allows users to select an arbitrary combination of gene expression pattern and GO functional categories. DEGEST is a database of differentially expressed genes and isoforms based on the EST information. Importantly, gene expression is analyzed at three distinctive levels-gene, isoform and exon levels. The user interfaces for functional and expression analyses have been substantially improved. ASviewer is a dedicated java application that visualizes the transcript structure and functional features of alternatively spliced variants. The SAGE part of the expression module provides many additional features including SNP, differential expression and alternative tag positions. PMID:17132829

Lee, Yeunsook; Lee, Younghee; Kim, Bumjin; Shin, Youngah; Nam, Seungyoon; Kim, Pora; Kim, Namshin; Chung, Won-Hyong; Kim, Jaesang; Lee, Sanghyuk

2007-01-01

61

The Relationship Between the Alternative exon 7 Splice Variant of the BF Gene and MHC-Related Marek's Disease Resistance in Chickens.  

PubMed

The study was to analyse the relationship between the alternative exon 7 splice variant of the BF gene and MHC-related Marek's disease (MD) resistance in chickens. The experiment first determined whether or not the cocks of Xiayan chickens have alternative splicing-out of the exon 7 of the BF gene from peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs). Then, selected two groups: Group K included the offspring of the selected cocks which have no alternative splicing-out of the exon 7 of the BF gene; Group Y included the offspring of the selected cocks which have alternative splicing-out of the exon 7 of the BF gene. All hens used in the cross-breeding were non-selected. The experimental chickens were challenged with a very virulent strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) at 4 days old and were raised for 12 weeks. At this time, all the surviving chickens were killed and necropsy was also performed during the experiment whenever chickens died from the infection. Tumour incidence and mortality were calculated using SPSS, and the tissues were collected to detect MDV by PCR. The results showed that the mortalities of Group K and Y were 52.75% and 70.65%, respectively; and that the tumour incidences of non-alternative splicing-out of the exon 7 of the BF for Groups K and Y were 15.38% and 38.89%, respectively; the tumour incidences for the alternative splicing-out of the exon 7 were 46.15% and 56.76%, respectively. The results demonstrated the tumour incidence was highly related with the alternative exon 7 splice variant of the BF gene (P < 0.05). PMID:25124506

Jin, Y-C; Huang, L; Wei, X-X; Zhao, Z-Y; Li, Y; Wei, P

2014-11-01

62

Misregulation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing in cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors enables one gene to produce multiple protein isoforms with differing functions. Under normal conditions, this mechanism is tightly regulated in order for the human genome to generate proteomic diversity sufficient for the functional requirements of complex tissues. When deregulated, however, cancer cells take advantage of this mechanism to produce aberrant proteins with added, deleted, or altered functional domains that contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we discuss aspects of alternative splicing misregulation in cancer, focusing on splicing events affected by deregulation of regulatory splicing factors and also recent studies identifying mutated components of the splicing machinery. PMID:24145039

Zhang, Jian; Manley, James L.

2013-01-01

63

Low dose proteasome inhibition affects alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system ensures controlled degradation of structural proteins, signaling mediators, and transcription factors. Inhibition of proteasome function by specific proteasome inhibitors results in dose-dependent cellular effects ranging from induction of apoptosis to protective stress responses. The present study seeks to identify nuclear regulators mediating the protective stress response to low dose proteasome inhibition. Primary human endothelial cells were treated with low doses of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 for 2 h, and proteomic analysis of nuclear extracts was performed. Using a 2-D differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) approach, we identified more than 24 splice factors to be differentially regulated by low dose proteasome inhibition. In particular, several isoforms of hnRNPA1 were shown to be increased, pointing toward altered posttranslational modification of hnRNPA1 upon proteasome inhibition. Elevated levels of splice factors were associated with a different alternative splicing pattern in response to proteasome inhibition as determined by Affymetrix exon array profiling. Of note, we observed alternative RNA processing for stress associated genes such as caspases and heat shock proteins. Our study provides first evidence that low dose proteasome inhibition affects posttranscriptional regulation of splice factors and early alternative splicing events. PMID:22702956

Bieler, Sven; Hammer, Elke; Gesell-Salazar, Manuela; Völker, Uwe; Stangl, Karl; Meiners, Silke

2012-08-01

64

Identification of novel alternative splicing events in the huntingtin gene and assessment of the functional consequences using structural protein homology modelling.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the large multi-exon gene, huntingtin (HTT). Although multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed for HD, there is increasing interest in the RNA processing of the HTT gene. In mammals, most multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced; however, few alternative transcripts have been described for HTT. Given the numerous protein bands detected in mouse and human brain tissue by Western blotting using anti-huntingtin antibodies, we examined whether alternative splicing of HTT may account for some of these fragments. Using RT-PCR in mouse brain, we detected two novel splice variants of Htt that lacked the 111-bp exon 29 (Htt?ex29) or retained a 57-bp portion of intron 28 (Htt(+57)in28) via use of a cryptic splice site. The alternative transcripts were present in wild-type and homozygous Hdh(Q150/Q150) mouse brain at all ages and in all brain regions and peripheral tissues studied. Differential splicing of Htt?ex29 was found in the cerebellum of Hdh(Q150/Q150) mice with a significant reduction in transcript levels in mutant animals. In human brain, we detected similar splice variants lacking exons 28 and 29. The ability of alternatively spliced transcripts to encode different protein isoforms with individual functions in the cell, combined with the known role of splicing in disease, renders these novel transcripts of interest in the context of HD pathogenesis. PMID:24389360

Hughes, Alis C; Mort, Matthew; Elliston, Lyn; Thomas, Rhian M; Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B; Jones, Lesley

2014-04-01

65

Directing alternative splicing: cast and scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the study of alternative RNA splicing indicates that the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with specific target elements modulates splice site recognition and spliceosome assembly. The identity of splicing signals, the presence of modulating elements and differences in the distribution of RNA-binding proteins are key determinants involved in the tissue-specific regulation of splice site selection.

Benoit Chabot

1996-01-01

66

Alternative splicing regulation of telomerase: a new paradigm?  

PubMed

Alternative splicing affects approximately 95% of eukaryotic genes, greatly expanding the coding capacity of complex genomes. Although our understanding of alternative splicing has increased rapidly, current knowledge of splicing regulation has largely been derived from studies of highly expressed mRNAs. Telomerase is a key example of a protein that is alternatively spliced, but it is expressed at very low levels and although it is known that misregulation of telomerase splicing is a hallmark of nearly all cancers, the details of this process are unclear. Here we review work showing that hTERT expression is in part regulated by atypical alternative splicing, perhaps due to its exceptionally low expression level. We propose that these differential regulatory mechanisms may be widely applicable to other genes and may provide new opportunities for the development of cancer therapeutics. PMID:25172021

Wong, Mandy S; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

2014-10-01

67

Regulation of alternative splicing in vivo by overexpression of antagonistic splicing factors.  

PubMed

The opposing effects of SF2/ASF and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 influence alternative splicing in vitro. SF2/ASF or hnRNP A1 complementary DNAs were transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells, and the effect on alternative splicing of several cotransfected reporter genes was measured. Increased expression of SF2/ASF activated proximal 5' splice sites, promoted inclusion of a neuron-specific exon, and prevented abnormal exon skipping. Increased expression of hnRNP A1 activated distal 5' splice sites. Therefore, variations in the intracellular levels of antagonistic splicing factors influence different modes of alternative splicing in vivo and may be a natural mechanism for tissue-specific or developmental regulation of gene expression. PMID:8085156

Cáceres, J F; Stamm, S; Helfman, D M; Krainer, A R

1994-09-16

68

Shotgun proteomics aids discovery of novel protein-coding genes, alternative splicing, and "resurrected" pseudogenes in the mouse genome.  

PubMed

Recent advances in proteomic mass spectrometry (MS) offer the chance to marry high-throughput peptide sequencing to transcript models, allowing the validation, refinement, and identification of new protein-coding loci. We present a novel pipeline that integrates highly sensitive and statistically robust peptide spectrum matching with genome-wide protein-coding predictions to perform large-scale gene validation and discovery in the mouse genome for the first time. In searching an excess of 10 million spectra, we have been able to validate 32%, 17%, and 7% of all protein-coding genes, exons, and splice boundaries, respectively. Moreover, we present strong evidence for the identification of multiple alternatively spliced translations from 53 genes and have uncovered 10 entirely novel protein-coding genes, which are not covered in any mouse annotation data sources. One such novel protein-coding gene is a fusion protein that spans the Ins2 and Igf2 loci to produce a transcript encoding the insulin II and the insulin-like growth factor 2-derived peptides. We also report nine processed pseudogenes that have unique peptide hits, demonstrating, for the first time, that they are not just transcribed but are translated and are therefore resurrected into new coding loci. This work not only highlights an important utility for MS data in genome annotation but also provides unique insights into the gene structure and propagation in the mouse genome. All these data have been subsequently used to improve the publicly available mouse annotation available in both the Vega and Ensembl genome browsers (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk). PMID:21460061

Brosch, Markus; Saunders, Gary I; Frankish, Adam; Collins, Mark O; Yu, Lu; Wright, James; Verstraten, Ruth; Adams, David J; Harrow, Jennifer; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Hubbard, Tim

2011-05-01

69

Global analysis of alternative splicing differences between humans and chimpanzees.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism affording extensive proteomic and regulatory diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. However, the extent to which alternative splicing has contributed to the evolution of primate species-specific characteristics has not been assessed previously. Using comparative genomics and quantitative microarray profiling, we performed the first global analysis of alternative splicing differences between humans and chimpanzees. Surprisingly, 6%-8% of profiled orthologous exons display pronounced splicing level differences in the corresponding tissues from the two species. Little overlap is observed between the genes associated with alternative splicing differences and the genes that display steady-state transcript level differences, indicating that these layers of regulation have evolved rapidly to affect distinct subsets of genes in humans and chimpanzees. The alternative splicing differences we detected are predicted to affect diverse functions including gene expression, signal transduction, cell death, immune defense, and susceptibility to diseases. Differences in expression at the protein level of the major splice variant of Glutathione S-transferase omega-2 (GSTO2), which functions in the protection against oxidative stress and is associated with human aging-related diseases, suggests that this enzyme is less active in human cells compared with chimpanzee cells. The results of this study thus support an important role for alternative splicing in establishing differences between humans and chimpanzees. PMID:17978102

Calarco, John A; Xing, Yi; Cáceres, Mario; Calarco, Joseph P; Xiao, Xinshu; Pan, Qun; Lee, Christopher; Preuss, Todd M; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2007-11-15

70

Identification of cis-acting elements involved in an alternative splicing of the amyloid precursor protein ( APP) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study demonstrated that a cis-acting element for neuron-specific splicing of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene existed in an intron region flanking to exon 8 (Yamada et al., 1993). In this study, we extended the analysis by deletion and mutagenesis experiments and identified two distinct cis-acting elements which modulate the splicing of exon 8 of the APP gene

Asami Shibata; Masahira Hattori; Hideaki Suda; Yoshiyuki Sakaki

1996-01-01

71

Alternative 5' splice site selection induced by heat shock.  

PubMed Central

The mouse HSP47 gene consists of six exons separated by five introns. Three HSP47 cDNAs differing only in their 5' noncoding regions have been reported. One of these alternatively spliced mRNAs was detected only after heat shock, which caused an alternative 5' splice donor site selection. Other stress inducers, including an amino acid analog and sodium arsenite, had no effect on the alternative splicing. The alternatively spliced mRNA, which was 169 nucleotides longer in the 5' noncoding region compared to mRNA transcribed in non-heat shock conditions, was efficiently translated under heat shock conditions. This novel finding that alternative splicing is caused by artificial treatment like heat shock will provide a useful in vivo model for understanding the exon-intron recognition mechanism as well as heat shock-induced alterations in gene expression. Images PMID:8264624

Takechi, H; Hosokawa, N; Hirayoshi, K; Nagata, K

1994-01-01

72

Transcriptome profiling and sequencing of differentiated human hematopoietic stem cells reveal lineage-specific expression and alternative splicing of genes  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic differentiation is strictly regulated by complex network of transcription factors that are controlled by ligands binding to cell surface receptors. Disruptions of the intricate sequences of transcriptional activation and suppression of multiple genes cause hematological diseases, such as leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, or myeloproliferative syndromes. From a clinical standpoint, deciphering the pattern of gene expression during hematopoiesis may help unravel disease-specific mechanisms in hematopoietic malignancies. Herein, we describe a human in vitro hematopoietic model system where lineage-specific differentiation of CD34+ cells was accomplished using specific cytokines. Microarray and RNAseq-based whole transcriptome and exome analysis was performed on the differentiated erythropoietic, granulopoietic, and megakaryopoietic cells to delineate changes in expression of whole transcripts and exons. Analysis on the Human 1.0 ST exon arrays indicated differential expression of 172 genes (P < 0.0000001) and significant alternate splicing of 86 genes during differentiation. Pathway analysis identified these genes to be involved in Rac/RhoA signaling, Wnt/B-catenin signaling and alanine/aspartate metabolism. Comparison of the microarray data to next generation RNAseq analysis during erythroid differentiation demonstrated a high degree of correlation in gene (R = 0.72) and exon (R = 0.62) expression. Our data provide a molecular portrait of events that regulate differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Knowledge of molecular processes by which the cells acquire their cell-specific fate would be beneficial in developing cell-based therapies for human diseases. PMID:21828245

Liu, Poching; Barb, Jennifer; Woodhouse, Kimberly; Taylor, James G.; Munson, Peter J.

2011-01-01

73

Exon Array Analysis using re-defined probe sets results in reliable identification of alternatively spliced genes in non-small cell lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with novel targeted therapies is a major unmet clinical need. Alternative splicing is a mechanism which generates diverse protein products and is of functional relevance in cancer. Results In this study, a genome-wide analysis of the alteration of splicing patterns between lung cancer and normal lung tissue was performed. We generated an exon array data set derived from matched pairs of lung cancer and normal lung tissue including both the adenocarcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma subtypes. An enhanced workflow was developed to reliably detect differential splicing in an exon array data set. In total, 330 genes were found to be differentially spliced in non-small cell lung cancer compared to normal lung tissue. Microarray findings were validated with independent laboratory methods for CLSTN1, FN1, KIAA1217, MYO18A, NCOR2, NUMB, SLK, SYNE2, TPM1, (in total, 10 events) and ADD3, which was analysed in depth. We achieved a high validation rate of 69%. Evidence was found that the activity of FOX2, the splicing factor shown to cause cancer-specific splicing patterns in breast and ovarian cancer, is not altered at the transcript level in several cancer types including lung cancer. Conclusions This study demonstrates how alternatively spliced genes can reliably be identified in a cancer data set. Our findings underline that key processes of cancer progression in NSCLC are affected by alternative splicing, which can be exploited in the search for novel targeted therapies. PMID:21118496

2010-01-01

74

Modulating role of RNA structure in alternative splicing of a critical exon in the spinal muscular atrophy genes  

PubMed Central

Humans have two nearly identical copies of the survival motor neuron (SMN?) gene, SMN1 and SMN2. Homozygous loss of SMN1 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN2 is unable to prevent the disease due to skipping of exon 7. Using a systematic approach of in vivo selection, we have previously demonstrated that a weak 5? splice site (ss) serves as the major cause of skipping of SMN2 exon 7. Here we show the inhibitory impact of RNA structure on the weak 5? ss of exon 7. We call this structure terminal stem–loop 2 (TSL2). Confirming the inhibitory nature of TSL2, point mutations that destabilize TSL2 promote exon 7 inclusion in SMN2, whereas strengthening of TSL2 promotes exon 7 skipping even in SMN1. We also demonstrate that TSL2 negatively affects the recruitment of U1snRNP at the 5? ss of exon 7. Using enzymatic structure probing, we confirm that the sequence at the junction of exon 7/intron 7 folds into TSL2 and show that mutations in TSL2 cause predicted structural changes in this region. Our findings reveal for the first time the critical role of RNA structure in regulation of alternative splicing of human SMN. PMID:17170000

Singh, Natalia N.; Singh, Ravindra N.; Androphy, Elliot J.

2007-01-01

75

Alternative Splicing: Therapeutic Target and Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing swells the coding capacity of the human genome, expanding the pharmacoproteome, the proteome that provides targets for ther- apy. Splicing, both constitutive and regulated forms, can itself be targeted by conventional and molecular therapies. This review focuses on splicing as a therapeutic target with a particular emphasis on molecular approaches. The review looks at the use of antisense

Mariano A. Garcia-Blanco

76

Characterization of the Tomato ARF Gene Family Uncovers a Multi-Levels Post-Transcriptional Regulation Including Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Background The phytohormone auxin is involved in a wide range of developmental processes and auxin signaling is known to modulate the expression of target genes via two types of transcriptional regulators, namely, Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factors (ARF). ARFs play a major role in transcriptional activation or repression through direct binding to the promoter of auxin-responsive genes. The present study aims at gaining better insight on distinctive structural and functional features among ARF proteins. Results Building on the most updated tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) reference genome sequence, a comprehensive set of ARF genes was identified, extending the total number of family members to 22. Upon correction of structural annotation inconsistencies, renaming the tomato ARF family members provided a consensus nomenclature for all ARF genes across plant species. In silico search predicted the presence of putative target site for small interfering RNAs within twelve Sl-ARFs while sequence analysis of the 5?-leader sequences revealed the presence of potential small uORF regulatory elements. Functional characterization carried out by transactivation assay partitioned tomato ARFs into repressors and activators of auxin-dependent gene transcription. Expression studies identified tomato ARFs potentially involved in the fruit set process. Genome-wide expression profiling using RNA-seq revealed that at least one third of the gene family members display alternative splicing mode of regulation during the flower to fruit transition. Moreover, the regulation of several tomato ARF genes by both ethylene and auxin, suggests their potential contribution to the convergence mechanism between the signaling pathways of these two hormones. Conclusion All together, the data bring new insight on the complexity of the expression control of Sl-ARF genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels supporting the hypothesis that these transcriptional mediators might represent one of the main components that enable auxin to regulate a wide range of physiological processes in a highly specific and coordinated manner. PMID:24427281

Chateigner-Boutin, Anne-Laure; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Wang, Hua; Audran, Corinne; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

2014-01-01

77

Alternatively spliced exons of the beta tropomyosin gene exhibit different affinities for F-actin and effects with nonmuscle caldesmon.  

PubMed

The rat beta-tropomyosin (TM) gene expresses two isoforms via alternative RNA splicing, namely skeletal muscle beta-TM and fibroblast TM-1. The latter is also expressed in smooth muscle where it corresponds to smooth muscle beta-TM. Skeletal muscle beta-TM contains exons 7 and 10, whereas exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts and smooth muscle. In order to study the properties of the alternatively spliced proteins, recombinant TMs derived from bacterial and insect cell expression systems were produced, including the normal beta gene products, fibroblast TM-1 and beta skeletal muscle TM, two carboxy-terminal chimeric TMs, TM-6/10 and TM-7/11, as well as a carboxyl-truncated version of each, TM-6Cla and TM-7Cla. The purified TM isoforms were used in actin filament association studies. The apparent TM association constants (Ka) were taken as the free concentration at half saturation and were found to be 6 microM for beta Sk TM, 8.5 for TM-6/10, 25 microM for TM-1, and 30 microM for TM-7/11 at an F-actin concentration of 42 microM. For the truncated TMs, the values determined were higher still but the binding was not carried out to full saturation. Isoforms were also produced using the baculovirus-insect cell system which produces proteins with an acetylated amino terminus as is normally found in vivo. This modification significantly enhanced the F-actin association of TM-1 but not the beta skeletal TM or the other isoforms. Fibroblast TM-2 or TM-3, both products of the alpha gene, enhanced the affinity of TM-1 for F-actin, demonstrating different isoforms can act cooperatively on binding to actin. This effect was not detected with the other expressed beta gene products. The presence of 83 kDa nonmuscle caldesmon was found to enhance the binding of TM-1 for F-actin. This effect was dependent on the presence of both exons 6 and 11, as caldesmon had little effect on the other beta gene products. Collectively these results demonstrate TMs differ in their affinity for F-actin, which can be altered by other TMs or actin-binding proteins. The beta tropomyosin isoforms were fluorescently-tagged and microinjected into cultured cells to study their in vivo localization where it was found that each of the full-length TMs bound to microfilaments but, at the light microscopy level, the isoforms were not differentially localized in these fibroblasts. PMID:7593286

Pittenger, M F; Kistler, A; Helfman, D M

1995-10-01

78

Identification and expression pattern of two novel alternative splicing variants of EEF1D gene of dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Our recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified 105 genome-wide significant SNPs for milk production traits. Of these, one SNP (rs109661298) for milk fat percentage is located within the first intron of the bovine EEF1D gene on BTA14, thus that the EEF1D gene was considered as a novel candidate in dairy cattle. Until now, however, its genomic organization remains undetermined yet and no studies of EEF1D in relation to milk production traits have been reported. To layout the groundwork for the validation of gene function in dairy cattle, we herein investigated its expression pattern in lactating dairy cows. With rapid amplification of 5' cDNA end (5' RACE), two novel alternatively spliced transcript variants of 1202bp and 2195bp were isolated in bovine mammary in lactation, named EEF1Da and EEF1Db (GenBank: KC190039 and KC190038KC190039KC190038). Such two variants contain the different first exon from each other (exon1a vs exon1b: 294bp vs 1287bp) with no overlap and the same remaining 7 exons. Coding sequence similarity between EEF1Da and EEF1Db and three of human EEF1D transcript variants were 85-88%. With semi-quantitative and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we found that the mRNA level of EEF1Da was similar to the overall EEF1D mRNA and much higher than EEF1Db in the mammary of lactating cows, indicating EEF1Da functions as the dominant transcript variant to encode the EEF1D protein. Tissue expression pattern showed that the mRNA expression of EEF1D and EEF1Da in mammary gland was significantly higher compared with other 7 tissues (P<0.05, P<0.01) with the exception of EEF1D between mammary and lung. Together, our findings present the first report on the alternative splicing of the bovine EEF1D gene and provided basis for further investigation on function validation of EEF1D in dairy cattle. PMID:24239553

Xie, Yan; Yang, Shaohua; Cui, Xiaogang; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Dongxiao

2014-01-25

79

Phylogenetic comparison of the pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase ADAR2 genes and transcripts: conservation and diversity in editing site sequence and alternative splicing patterns.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA -2 (ADAR2) is a member of a family of vertebrate genes that encode adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA deaminases, enzymes that deaminate specific A residues in specific pre-mRNAs to produce I. Known substrates of ADAR2 include sites within the coding regions of pre-mRNAs of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, GluR2-6, and the serotonin receptor, 5HT2C. Mammalian ADAR2 expression is itself regulated by A-to-I editing and by several alternative splicing events. Because the biological consequences of ADAR2 function are significant, we have undertaken a phylogenetic comparison of these features. Here we report a comparison of cDNA sequences, genomic organization, editing site sequences and patterns of alternative splicing of ADAR2 genes from human, mouse, chicken, pufferfish and zebrafish. Coding sequences and intron/exon organization are highly conserved. All ADAR2 genes show evidence of transcript editing with required sequences and predicted secondary structures very highly conserved. Patterns and levels of editing and alternative splicing vary among organisms, and include novel N-terminal exons and splicing events. PMID:12459255

Slavov, D; Gardiner, K

2002-10-16

80

Characterization of Tissue-Specific and Developmentally Regulated Alternative Splicing of Exon 64 in the COL5A1 Gene  

PubMed Central

The COL5A1 gene, a member of the clade B fibrillar collagen gene family, was recently shown to contain two alternatively spliced exons (64A and 64B) that encode 23 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal propeptide. The two are identical in length, very similar in sequence, and used in a mutually exclusive fashion because of the small intron that separates them. Each COL5A1 allele uses both exons, but a given transcript will contain only one of the two exons. The sequences in other species are highly conserved at the amino acid level. The expression profile of the two isoforms was determined from analysis of RNA levels in a panel of murine tissues. While both isoforms were found in all tissues studied, actively proliferating tissues (liver, lung) used isoform B more often, while a less mitotically-active tissue, brain, had a higher proportion of exon 64A. The high degree of conservation between the two exons is consistent with a regional genomic duplication. The presence of the two isoforms as far back as pufferfish (tetraodon) implies an important functional significance. The exact role determined by the two sequences is not known, but involvement in the determination of chain composition of mature type V collagen or regulation of cell activity are possible, given the differences in tissue distribution. PMID:22149965

Mitchell, Anna L.; Judis, LuAnn M.; Schwarze, Ulrike; Vaynshtok, Polina M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Byers, Byers

2014-01-01

81

The functional modulation of epigenetic regulators by alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic regulators (histone acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, chromatin-remodelling enzymes, etc) play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression by modifying the local state of chromatin. However, due to their recent discovery, little is yet known about their own regulation. This paper addresses this point, focusing on alternative splicing regulation, a mechanism already known to play an important role in other protein families, e.g. transcription factors, membrane receptors, etc. Results To this end, we compiled the data available on the presence/absence of alternative splicing for a set of 160 different epigenetic regulators, taking advantage of the relatively large amount of unexplored data on alternative splicing available in public databases. We found that 49 % (70 % in human) of these genes express more than one transcript. We then studied their alternative splicing patterns, focusing on those changes affecting the enzyme's domain composition. In general, we found that these sequence changes correspond to different mechanisms, either repressing the enzyme's function (e.g. by creating dominant-negative inhibitors of the functional isoform) or creating isoforms with new functions. Conclusion We conclude that alternative splicing of epigenetic regulators can be an important tool for the function modulation of these enzymes. Considering that the latter control the transcriptional state of large sets of genes, we propose that epigenetic regulation of gene expression is itself strongly regulated by alternative splicing. PMID:17651478

Lois, Sergio; Blanco, Noemí; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; de la Cruz, Xavier

2007-01-01

82

Modulating role of RNA structure in alternative splicing of a critical exon in the spinal muscular atrophy genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have two nearly identical copies of the survival motor neuron (SMN ) gene, SMN1 and SMN2. Homozygous loss of SMN1 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN2 is unable to prevent the disease due to skipping of exon 7. Using a systematic approach of in vivo selection, we have previously demonstrated that a weak 50 splice site (ss) serves as

Natalia N. Singh; Ravindra N. Singh; Elliot J. Androphy

2006-01-01

83

The Orthologue of the Fruitfly Sex Behaviour Gene Fruitless in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti: Evolution of Genomic Organisation and Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila melanogaster the doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) regulatory genes act at the bottom of the somatic sex determination pathway. Both are regulated via alternative splicing by an upstream female-specific TRA/TRA-2 complex, recognizing a common cis element. dsx controls somatic sexual differentiation of non-neural as well as of neural tissues. fru, on the other hand, expresses male-specific functions only in neural system where it is required to built the neural circuits underlying proper courtship behaviour. In the mosquito Aedes aegypti sex determination is different from Drosophila. The key male determiner M, which is located on one of a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sex-specific splicing of the mosquito dsx orthologue. In this study we report the genomic organization and expression of the fru homologue in Ae. aegypti (Aeafru). We found that it is sex-specifically spliced suggesting that it is also under the control of the sex determination pathway. Comparative analyses between the Aeafru and Anopheles gambiae fru (Angfru) genomic loci revealed partial conservation of exon organization and extensive divergence of intron lengths. We find that Aeadsx and Aeafru share novel cis splicing regulatory elements conserved in the alternatively spliced regions. We propose that in Aedes aegypti sex-specific splicing of dsx and fru is most likely under the control of splicing regulatory factors which are different from TRA and TRA-2 found in other dipteran insects and discuss the potential use of fru and dsx for developing new genetic strategies in vector control. PMID:23418412

Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Aceto, Serena; Nimmo, Derric; Neira, Marco; Alphey, Luke; Polito, Lino C.; Saccone, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

84

The orthologue of the fruitfly sex behaviour gene fruitless in the mosquito Aedes aegypti: evolution of genomic organisation and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

In Drosophila melanogaster the doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) regulatory genes act at the bottom of the somatic sex determination pathway. Both are regulated via alternative splicing by an upstream female-specific TRA/TRA-2 complex, recognizing a common cis element. dsx controls somatic sexual differentiation of non-neural as well as of neural tissues. fru, on the other hand, expresses male-specific functions only in neural system where it is required to built the neural circuits underlying proper courtship behaviour. In the mosquito Aedes aegypti sex determination is different from Drosophila. The key male determiner M, which is located on one of a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sex-specific splicing of the mosquito dsx orthologue. In this study we report the genomic organization and expression of the fru homologue in Ae. aegypti (Aeafru). We found that it is sex-specifically spliced suggesting that it is also under the control of the sex determination pathway. Comparative analyses between the Aeafru and Anopheles gambiae fru (Angfru) genomic loci revealed partial conservation of exon organization and extensive divergence of intron lengths. We find that Aeadsx and Aeafru share novel cis splicing regulatory elements conserved in the alternatively spliced regions. We propose that in Aedes aegypti sex-specific splicing of dsx and fru is most likely under the control of splicing regulatory factors which are different from TRA and TRA-2 found in other dipteran insects and discuss the potential use of fru and dsx for developing new genetic strategies in vector control. PMID:23418412

Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Aceto, Serena; Nimmo, Derric; Neira, Marco; Alphey, Luke; Polito, Lino C; Saccone, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

85

Tools to covisualize and coanalyze proteomic data with genomes and transcriptomes: validation of genes and alternative mRNA splicing.  

PubMed

Direct links between proteomic and genomic/transcriptomic data are not frequently made, partly because of lack of appropriate bioinformatics tools. To help address this, we have developed the PG Nexus pipeline. The PG Nexus allows users to covisualize peptides in the context of genomes or genomic contigs, along with RNA-seq reads. This is done in the Integrated Genome Viewer (IGV). A Results Analyzer reports the precise base position where LC-MS/MS-derived peptides cover genes or gene isoforms, on the chromosomes or contigs where this occurs. In prokaryotes, the PG Nexus pipeline facilitates the validation of genes, where annotation or gene prediction is available, or the discovery of genes using a "virtual protein"-based unbiased approach. We illustrate this with a comprehensive proteogenomics analysis of two strains of Campylobacter concisus . For higher eukaryotes, the PG Nexus facilitates gene validation and supports the identification of mRNA splice junction boundaries and splice variants that are protein-coding. This is illustrated with an analysis of splice junctions covered by human phosphopeptides, and other examples of relevance to the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project. The PG Nexus is open-source and available from https://github.com/IntersectAustralia/ap11_Samifier. It has been integrated into Galaxy and made available in the Galaxy tool shed. PMID:24152167

Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Tay, Aidan P; Aya, Carlos; Twine, Natalie A; Harkness, Linda; Hart-Smith, Gene; Chia, Samantha Z; Chen, Zhiliang; Deshpande, Nandan P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kassem, Moustapha; Wilkins, Marc R

2014-01-01

86

Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genes encoding the type I and type II interferons (IFNs) have previously been identified in rainbow trout and their proteins partially characterized. These previous studies reported a single type II IFN (rtIFN-??) and three rainbow trout type I IFN genes that are classified into either group I (rtIFN1, rtIFN2) or group II (rtIFN3). In this present study, we report the identification of a novel IFN-?? gene (rtIFN-??2) and a novel type I group II IFN (rtIFN4) in homozygous rainbow trout and predict that additional IFN genes or pseudogenes exist in the rainbow trout genome. Additionally, we provide evidence that short and long forms of rtIFN1 are actively and differentially transcribed in homozygous trout, and likely arose due to alternate splicing of the first exon. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to systematically profile all of the rainbow trout IFN transcripts, with high specificity at an individual gene level, in na??ve fish and after stimulation with virus or viral-related molecules. Cloned PCR products were used to ensure the specificity of the qRT-PCR assays and as absolute standards to assess transcript abundance of each gene. All IFN genes were modulated in response to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a DNA vaccine based on the IHNV glycoprotein, and poly I:C. The most inducible of the type I IFN genes, by all stimuli tested, were rtIFN3 and the short transcript form of rtIFN1. Gene expression of rtIFN-??1 and rtIFN-??2 was highly up-regulated by IHNV infection and DNA vaccination but rtIFN-??2 was induced to a greater magnitude. The specificity of the qRT-PCR assays reported here will be useful for future studies aimed at identifying which cells produce IFNs at early time points after infection. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Purcell, M.K.; Laing, K.J.; Woodson, J.C.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Hansen, J.D.

2009-01-01

87

Alternative Splicing of the Tuberous Sclerosis 2 ( TSC2) Gene in Human and Mouse Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently isolated gene for tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) encodes a 5.5-kb transcript that is widely expressed. The TSC2 gene product, named tuberin, is a 1784-amino-acid protein that shows a small stretch of homology to the GTPase activating protein rap1GAP. We have detected a novel variant of the TSC2 mRNA lacking 129 nucleotides, predicting an in-frame deletion of 43 amino

Lin Xu; Christopher Sterner; Magitha M. Maheshwar; Peter J. Wilson; Mark Nellist; Priscilla M. Short; Jonathan L. Haines; Julian R. Sampson; Vijaya Ramesh

1995-01-01

88

Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries, and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism. We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across 42 eukaryotes to gain insight into how spliceosomal introns are recognized. Results All eukaryotes we studied exhibit RIs, which appear more frequently than previously thought. CEs are also present in all kingdoms and most of the organisms in our analysis. We observe that the ratio of CEs to RIs varies substantially among kingdoms, while the ratio of competing 3' acceptor and competing 5' donor sites remains nearly constant. In addition, we find the ratio of CEs to RIs in each organism correlates with the length of its introns. In all 14 fungi we examined, as well as in most of the 9 protists, RIs far outnumber CEs. This differs from the trend seen in 13 multicellular animals, where CEs occur much more frequently than RIs. The six plants we analyzed exhibit intermediate proportions of CEs and RIs. Conclusion Our results suggest that most extant eukaryotes are capable of recognizing splice sites via both ID and ED, although ED is most common in multicellular animals and ID predominates in fungi and most protists. PMID:18321378

McGuire, Abigail M; Pearson, Matthew D; Neafsey, Daniel E; Galagan, James E

2008-01-01

89

De-regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing affects distinct cellular pathways in the aging hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Aging is accompanied by gradually increasing impairment of cognitive abilities and constitutes the main risk factor of neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanisms are however not well understood. Here we analyze the hippocampal transcriptome of young adult mice and two groups of mice at advanced age using RNA sequencing. This approach enabled us to test differential expression of coding and non-coding transcripts, as well as differential splicing and RNA editing. We report a specific age-associated gene expression signature that is associated with major genetic risk factors for late-onset AD (LOAD). This signature is dominated by neuroinflammatory processes, specifically activation of the complement system at the level of increased gene expression, while de-regulation of neuronal plasticity appears to be mediated by compromised RNA splicing.

Stilling, Roman M.; Benito, Eva; Gertig, Michael; Barth, Jonas; Capece, Vincenzo; Burkhardt, Susanne; Bonn, Stefan; Fischer, Andre

2014-01-01

90

Studies of exon scrambling and mutually exclusive alternative splicing  

E-print Network

The goals of this thesis work were to study two special alternative splicing events: exon scrambling at the RNA splicing level and mutually exclusive alternative splicing (MEAS) by computational and experimental methods. ...

Kong, Rong, 1979-

2005-01-01

91

Dysfunctional gene splicing as a potential contributor to neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism by which the proteomic diversity of eukaryotic genomes is amplified. Much akin to neuropsychiatric disorders themselves, alternative splicing events can be influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Here, we review the evidence that abnormalities of splicing may contribute to the liability toward these disorders. First, we introduce the phenomenon of alternative splicing and describe the processes involved in its regulation. We then review the evidence for specific splicing abnormalities in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders (schizophrenia), affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder), suicide, substance abuse disorders (cocaine abuse and alcoholism), and neurodevelopmental disorders (autism). Next, we provide a theoretical reworking of the concept of "gene-focused" epidemiologic and neurobiologic investigations. Lastly, we suggest potentially fruitful lines for future research that should illuminate the nature, extent, causes, and consequences of alternative splicing abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21438146

Glatt, Stephen J; Cohen, Ori S; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T

2011-06-01

92

Dynamic usage of alternative splicing exons during mouse retina development  

PubMed Central

Alternative processing of pre-mRNA plays an important role in protein diversity and biological function. Previous studies on alternative splicing (AS) often focused on the spatial patterns of protein isoforms across different tissues. Here we studied dynamic usage of AS across time, during murine retina development. Over 7000 exons showed dynamical changes in splicing, with differential splicing events occurring more frequently in early development. The overall splicing patterns for exclusive and inclusive exons show symmetric trends and genes with symmetric splicing patterns that tend to have similar biological functions. Furthermore, we observed that within the retina, retina-enriched genes that are preferentially expressed at the adult stage tend to have more dynamically spliced exons compared to other genes, suggesting that genes maintaining retina homeostasis also play an important role in development via a series of AS events. Interestingly, the transcriptomes of retina-enriched genes largely reflect the retinal developmental process. Finally, we identified a number of candidate cis-regulatory elements for retinal AS by analyzing the relative occurrence of sequence motifs in exons or flanking introns. The occurrence of predicted regulatory elements showed strong correlation with the expression level of known RNA binding proteins, suggesting the high quality of the identified cis-regulatory elements. PMID:21724604

Wan, Jun; Masuda, Tomohiro; Hackler, Laszlo; Torres, Kieron M.; Merbs, Shannath L.; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang

2011-01-01

93

Organization, regulatory sequences, and alternatively spliced transcripts of the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) gene  

SciTech Connect

The mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) is expressed selectively at venular sites of lymphocyte extravasation into mucosal lymphoid tissues and lamina propria, where it directs local lymphocyte trafficking. MAdCAM-1 is a multifunctional type I transmembrane adhesion molecule comprising two distal Ig domains involved in {alpha}4{beta}7 integrin binding, a mucin-like region able to display L-selectin-binding carbohydrates, and a membrane-proximal Ig domain homologous to IgA. We show in this work that the MAdCAM-1 gene is located on chromosome 10 and contains five exons. The signal peptide and each one of the three Ig domains are encoded by a distinct exon, whereas the transmembrane, cytoplasmic tail, and 3{prime}-untranslated region of MAdCAM-1 are combined on a single exon. The mucin-like region and the third Ig domain are encoded together on exon 4. An alternatively spliced MAdCAM-1 mRNA is identified that lacks the mucin/IgA-homologous exon 4-encoded sequences. This short variant of MAdCAM-1 may be specialized to support {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesion strengthening, independent of carbohydrate-presenting function. Sequences 5{prime} of the transcription start site include tandem nuclear factor-KB sites; AP-1, AP-2, and signal peptide-1 binding sites; and an estrogen response element. Our findings reinforce the correspondence between the multidomain structure and versatile functions of this vascular addressin, and suggest an additional level of regulation of carbohydrate-presenting capability, and thus of its importance in lectin-mediated vs. {alpha}4{beta}7-dependent adhesive events in lymphocyte trafficking. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Sampaio, S.O.; Mei, C.; Butcher, E.C. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

94

The evolutionary landscape of alternative splicing in vertebrate species.  

PubMed

How species with similar repertoires of protein-coding genes differ so markedly at the phenotypic level is poorly understood. By comparing organ transcriptomes from vertebrate species spanning ~350 million years of evolution, we observed significant differences in alternative splicing complexity between vertebrate lineages, with the highest complexity in primates. Within 6 million years, the splicing profiles of physiologically equivalent organs diverged such that they are more strongly related to the identity of a species than they are to organ type. Most vertebrate species-specific splicing patterns are cis-directed. However, a subset of pronounced splicing changes are predicted to remodel protein interactions involving trans-acting regulators. These events likely further contributed to the diversification of splicing and other transcriptomic changes that underlie phenotypic differences among vertebrate species. PMID:23258890

Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Irimia, Manuel; Pan, Qun; Xiong, Hui Y; Gueroussov, Serge; Lee, Leo J; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Kutter, Claudia; Watt, Stephen; Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Misquitta-Ali, Christine M; Wilson, Michael D; Kim, Philip M; Odom, Duncan T; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

2012-12-21

95

Mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation: insights from molecular and genomics approaches  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of mRNA precursors provides an important means of genetic control and is a crucial step in the expression of most genes. Alternative splicing markedly affects human development, and its misregulation underlies many human diseases. Although the mechanisms of alternative splicing have been studied extensively, until the past few years we had not begun to realize fully the diversity and complexity of alternative splicing regulation by an intricate protein–RNA network. Great progress has been made by studying individual transcripts and through genome-wide approaches, which together provide a better picture of the mechanistic regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:19773805

Chen, Mo; Manley, James L.

2010-01-01

96

Alternative splicing in disease and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is the major source of proteome diversity in humans and thus is highly relevant to disease and therapy. For example, recent work suggests that the long-sought-after target of the analgesic acetaminophen is a neural-specific, alternatively spliced isoform of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1). Several important diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, have been linked with mutations or variations in either cis-acting

Andrew P Baraniak; Erika L Lasda; Mariano A Garcia-Blanco

2004-01-01

97

Rbm20 regulates titin alternative splicing as a splicing repressor  

PubMed Central

Titin, a sarcomeric protein expressed primarily in striated muscles, is responsible for maintaining the structure and biomechanical properties of muscle cells. Cardiac titin undergoes developmental size reduction from 3.7 megadaltons in neonates to primarily 2.97 megadaltons in the adult. This size reduction results from gradually increased exon skipping between exons 50 and 219 of titin mRNA. Our previous study reported that Rbm20 is the splicing factor responsible for this process. In this work, we investigated its molecular mechanism. We demonstrate that Rbm20 mediates exon skipping by binding to titin pre-mRNA to repress the splicing of some regions; the exons/introns in these Rbm20-repressed regions are ultimately skipped. Rbm20 was also found to mediate intron retention and exon shuffling. The two Rbm20 speckles found in nuclei from muscle tissues were identified as aggregates of Rbm20 protein on the partially processed titin pre-mRNAs. Cooperative repression and alternative 3? splice site selection were found to be used by Rbm20 to skip different subsets of titin exons, and the splicing pathway selected depended on the ratio of Rbm20 to other splicing factors that vary with tissue type and developmental age. PMID:23307558

Li, Shijun; Guo, Wei; Dewey, Colin N.; Greaser, Marion L.

2013-01-01

98

Hypoxia-Induced Alternative Splicing in Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptation to low oxygen by changing gene expression is vitally important for cell survival and tissue development. The sprouting of new blood vessels, initiated from endothelial cells, restores the oxygen supply of ischemic tissues. In contrast to the transcriptional response induced by hypoxia, which is mainly mediated by members of the HIF family, there are only few studies investigating alternative splicing events. Therefore, we performed an exon array for the genome-wide analysis of hypoxia-related changes of alternative splicing in endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal findings Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) for 48 h. Genome-wide transcript and exon expression levels were assessed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We found altered expression of 294 genes after hypoxia treatment. Upregulated genes are highly enriched in glucose metabolism and angiogenesis related processes, whereas downregulated genes are mainly connected to cell cycle and DNA repair. Thus, gene expression patterns recapitulate known adaptations to low oxygen supply. Alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are shown for nine genes: six which are implicated in angiogenesis-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling (cask, itsn1, larp6, sptan1, tpm1 and robo1); one, which is involved in the synthesis of membrane-anchors (pign) and two universal regulators of gene expression (cugbp1 and max). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, this study investigates changes in splicing in the physiological response to hypoxia on a genome-wide scale. Nine alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are reported, considerably expanding the information on splicing changes due to low oxygen supply. Therefore, this study provides further knowledge on hypoxia induced gene expression changes and presents new starting points to study the hypoxia adaptation of endothelial cells. PMID:22876330

Weigand, Julia E.; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Gellert, Pascal; Dimmeler, Stefanie

2012-01-01

99

AnAlternatively Spliced mRNA fromtheAP-2GeneEncodes a Negative Regulator ofTranscriptional Activation byAP-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

AP-2isa retinoic acid-inducible anddevelopmentally regulated activator oftranscription. We havecloned an alternative AP-2transcript (AP-2B) fromthehumanteratocarcinoma cell linePA-1,whichencodes a protein differing intheC terminus fromthepreviously isolated AP-2protein (AP-2A). Thisprotein contains theactivation domainofAP-2andpartoftheDNA binding domainbutlacks thedimerization domainwhich isnecessaryforDNA binding. Analysis ofoverlapping genomic clones spanning theentire AP-2gene proves thatAP-2AandAP-2Btranscripts arealternatively spliced fromthesame gene.Bothtransient andstable transfection experiments showthatAP-2Binhibits AP-2transactivator function, as measured by an AP-2-responsive chloramphenicol

PERRY KANNAN; AXEL IMHOF; REINHARD BAUER; RUDOLF GLOCKSHUBER; MICHAEL W. VAN DYKE; MICHAEL A. TAINSKYl; M. D. Anderson

1993-01-01

100

The Drosophila melanogaster gene for the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase acyl carrier protein: developmental expression analysis and evidence for alternatively spliced forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (mtACP), a subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase involved in de\\u000a novo fatty acid synthesis in the mitochondrion. This gene expresses two distinct mature transcripts by alternative splicing,\\u000a which encode mature polypeptides of 86 (mtACP1A) and 88 (mtACP1B) amino acids, respectively. Drosophila mtACP1 is 72% identical to mammalian mtACP,

G. Ragone; R. Caizzi; R. Moschetti; P. Barsanti; V. De Pinto; C. Caggese

1999-01-01

101

Short Communication Revisit on the evolutionary relationship between alternative splicing and  

E-print Network

Short Communication Revisit on the evolutionary relationship between alternative splicing and gene for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China b Department duplication Alternative splicing Copy number variation Exon­intron structure Gene duplications and alternative

Gu, Xun

102

Four fibroblast tropomyosin isoforms are expressed from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via alternative RNA splicing and the use of two promoters.  

PubMed

cDNA clones encoding four rat tropomyosin isoforms, termed TM-2, TM-3, TM-5a, and TM-5b, were isolated and characterized. All are derived from the alpha-tropomyosin gene via alternative RNA processing and the use of two alternate promoters. The cDNA sequences predict that TM-2 and TM-3 both contain 284 amino acids and differ from each other only at an internal region of the protein from amino acids 189 through 213, due to alternative splicing of exons 6a and 6b. TM-5a and TM-5b both contain 248 amino acids and differ from each other only at an internal exon encoding amino acids 153 through 177, also due to alternative splicing of exons 6a and 6b. The differences in the amino acid sequence encoded by these alternate exons affects the theoretical actin-binding pattern of the tropomyosins, such that TM-5b is expected to bind actin with greater affinity than TM-5a. TM-2 and TM-3 are transcribed from the upstream promoter, and TM-5a and TM-5b are transcribed from an internal promoter. In addition, all four isoforms contain the identical COOH-terminal coding region. RNA protection analyses revealed that the mRNA for each isoform is expressed in a number of different tissues and cell types, although the expression of some isoforms is restricted to particular cell types. Furthermore, the expression of mRNA encoding these isoforms was found to be altered in a number of different virally transformed cell lines. The changes in the expression of tropomyosin mRNAs in transformed cells reflect changes in the relative use of the two promoters, as well as the relative use of alternatively spliced exons 6a and 6b. PMID:2022655

Goodwin, L O; Lees-Miller, J P; Leonard, M A; Cheley, S B; Helfman, D M

1991-05-01

103

An Exonic Splicing Enhancer in Human IGF-I Pre-mRNA Mediates Recognition of Alternative Exon 5 by the Serine-Arginine Protein Splicing Factor2\\/ Alternative Splicing Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human IGF-I gene has six exons, four of which are alternatively spliced. Variations in splicing involving exon 5 may occur, depending on the tissue type and hormonal environment. To study the regulation of splicing to IGF-I exon 5, we established an in vitro splicing assay, using a model pre-mRNA containing IGF-I exons 4 and 5 and part of the

PHILIP J. SMITH; EMMA L. SPURRELL; JOHN COAKLEY; CHARLES J. HINDS; RICHARD J. M. ROSS; ADRIAN R. KRAINER; SHERN L. CHEW

2010-01-01

104

Tumor microenvironment–associated modifications of alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Pre-mRNA alternative splicing is modified in cancer, but the origin and specificity of these changes remain unclear. Here, we probed ovarian tumors to identify cancer-associated splicing isoforms and define the mechanism by which splicing is modified in cancer cells. Using high-throughput quantitative PCR, we monitored the expression of splice variants in laser-dissected tissues from ovarian tumors. Surprisingly, changes in alternative splicing were not limited to the tumor tissues but were also found in the tumor microenvironment. Changes in the tumor-associated splicing events were found to be regulated by splicing factors that are differentially expressed in cancer tissues. Overall, ?20% of the alternative splicing events affected by the down-regulation of the splicing factors QKI and RBFOX2 were altered in the microenvironment of ovarian tumors. Together, our results indicate that the tumor microenvironment undergoes specific changes in alternative splicing orchestrated by a limited number of splicing factors. PMID:24335142

Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Lucier, Jean-François; Nwilati, Hanad; Thibault, Philippe; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Durand, Mathieu; Couture, Sonia; Lapointe, Elvy; Prinos, Panagiotis; Klinck, Roscoe; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Chabot, Benoit; Abou-Elela, Sherif

2014-01-01

105

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants  

E-print Network

Genomewide comparative analysis of alternative splicing in plants Bing-Bing Wang* and Volker in mamma- lian systems but much less in plants. Here we report AS events deduced from EST cDNA analysis in two model plants: Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, 4,707 (21.8%) of the genes with EST c

Brendel, Volker

106

Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition  

E-print Network

Background: Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently ...

McGuire, Abigail Manson

107

Alternative ion channel splicing in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Alternative gene transcript splicing permits a single gene to produce multiple proteins with varied functions. Bioinformatic\\u000a investigations have identified numerous splice variants, but whether these transcripts are translated to functional proteins\\u000a and the physiological significance of these alternative proteins are largely unknown. Through direct identification of splice\\u000a variants associated with disease states, we can begin to address these questions and

Erin L Heinzen; Woohyun Yoon; Michael E Weale; Arjune Sen; Nicholas W Wood; James R Burke; Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer; Christine M Hulette; Sanjay M Sisodiya; David B Goldstein

2007-01-01

108

Discovery of novel splice forms and functional analysis of cancer-specific alternative splicing in human expressed sequences  

PubMed Central

We report here a genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing in 2 million human expressed sequence tags (ESTs), to identify splice forms that are up-regulated in tumors relative to normal tissues. We found strong evidence (P < 0.01) of cancer-specific splice variants in 316 human genes. In total, 78% of the cancer-specific splice forms we detected are confirmed by human-curated mRNA sequences, indicating that our results are not due to random mis-splicing in tumors; 73% of the genes showed the same cancer-specific splicing changes in tissue-matched tumor versus normal datasets, indicating that the vast majority of these changes are associated with tumorigenesis, not tissue specificity. We have confirmed our EST results in an independent set of experimental data provided by human-curated mRNAs (P-value 10–5.7). Moreover, the majority of the genes we detected have functions associated with cancer (P-value 0.0007), suggesting that their altered splicing may play a functional role in cancer. Analysis of the types of cancer-specific splicing shifts suggests that many of these shifts act by disrupting a tumor suppressor function. Sur prisingly, our data show that for a large number (190 in this study) of cancer-associated genes cloned originally from tumors, there exists a previously uncharacterized splice form of the gene that appears to be predominant in normal tissue. PMID:14500827

Xu, Qiang; Lee, Christopher

2003-01-01

109

Mutations in the unc-52 gene responsible for body wall muscle defects in adult Caenorhabditis elegans are located in alternatively spliced exons  

SciTech Connect

The unc-52 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans produces several large proteins that function in the basement membrane underlying muscle cells. Mutations in this gene result in defects in myofilament assembly and in the attachment of the myofilament lattice to the muscle cell membrane. The st549 and ut111 alleles of unc-52 produce a lethal (Pat) terminal phenotype whereas the e444, e669, e998, e1012 and e1421 mutations result in viable, paralyzed animals. We have identified the sequence alterations responsible for these mutant phenotypes. The st549 allele has a premature stop codon in exon 7 that should result in the complete elimination of unc-52 gene function, and the ut111 allele has a Tc1 transposon inserted into the second exon of the gene. The five remaining mutations are clustered in a small interval containing three adjacent, alternatively spliced exons (16, 17 and 18). These mutations affect some, but not all of the unc-52-encoded proteins. Thirteen intragenic revertants of the e669, e998, e1012 and e1421 alleles have also been sequenced. The majority of these carry the original mutation plus a G to A transition in the conserved splice acceptor site of the affected exon. This result suggests that reversion of the mutant phenotype in these strains may be the result of exon-skipping. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Rogalski, T.M.; Gilchrist, E.J.; Mullen, G.P. [Univ. of British, Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

1995-01-01

110

Role of the ubiquitin-like protein Hub1 in splice-site usage and alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs diversifies gene products in eukaryotes and is guided by factors that enable spliceosomes to recognize particular splice sites. Here we report that alternative splicing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRC1 pre-mRNA is promoted by the conserved ubiquitin-like protein Hub1. Structural and biochemical data show that Hub1 binds non-covalently to a conserved element termed HIND, which is present in the spliceosomal protein Snu66 in yeast and mammals, and Prp38 in plants. Hub1 binding mildly alters spliceosomal protein interactions and barely affects general splicing in S. cerevisiae. However, spliceosomes that lack Hub1, or are defective in Hub1–HIND interaction, cannot use certain non-canonical 5? splice sites and are defective in alternative SRC1 splicing. Hub1 confers alternative splicing not only when bound to HIND, but also when experimentally fused to Snu66, Prp38, or even the core splicing factor Prp8. Our study indicates a novel mechanism for splice site utilization that is guided by non-covalent modification of the spliceosome by an unconventional ubiquitin-like modifier. PMID:21614000

Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Ammon, Tim; Popowicz, Grzegorz M.; Krajewski, Marcin; Nagel, Roland J.; Ares, Manuel; Holak, Tad A.; Jentsch, Stefan

2013-01-01

111

ASTD: The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database (ASTD) gives access to a vast collection of alternative transcripts that integrate transcription initiation, polyadenylation and splicing variant data. Alternative transcripts are derived from the mapping of transcribed sequences to the complete human, mouse and rat genomes using an extension of the computational pipeline developed for the ASD (Alternative Splicing Database) and ATD

Gautier Koscielny; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Jean-Jack Riethoven; Francesco Nardone; Eleanor Stanley; Christine Fallsehr; Oliver Hofmann; Meelis Kull; Eoghan Harrington; Stéphanie Boué; Eduardo Eyras; Mireya Plass; Fabrice Lopez; William Ritchie; Virginie Moucadel; Takeshi Ara; Heike Pospisil; Alexander Herrmann; Jens G. Reich; Roderic Guigó; Peer Bork; Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz; Jaak Vilo; Winston Hide; Rolf Apweiler; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj; Daniel Gautheret

2009-01-01

112

Skipping of Exons by Premature Termination of Transcription and Alternative Splicing within Intron5 of the Sheep SCF Gene: A Novel Splice Variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (?) or soluble (+) forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin

Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal; Dario Pediconi; Carlo Renieri; Antonietta La Terza

2012-01-01

113

Genome-wide analysis of light-regulated alternative splicing mediated by photoreceptors in Physcomitrella patens  

PubMed Central

Background Light is one of the most important factors regulating plant growth and development. Light-sensing photoreceptors tightly regulate gene expression to control photomorphogenic responses. Although many levels of gene expression are modulated by photoreceptors, regulation at the mRNA splicing step remains unclear. Results We performed high-throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze light-responsive changes in alternative splicing in the moss Physcomitrella patens, and found that a large number of alternative splicing events were induced by light in the moss protonema. Light-responsive intron retention preferentially occurred in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and translation. Many of the alternatively spliced transcripts were expressed from genes with a function relating to splicing or light signaling, suggesting a potential impact on pre-mRNA splicing and photomorphogenic gene regulation in response to light. Moreover, most light-regulated intron retention was induced immediately upon light exposure, while motif analysis identified a repetitive GAA motif that may function as an exonic regulatory cis element in light-mediated alternative splicing. Further analysis in gene-disrupted mutants was consistent with a function for multiple red-light photoreceptors in the upstream regulation of light-responsive alternative splicing. Conclusions Our results indicate that intensive alternative splicing occurs in non-vascular plants and that, during photomorphogenesis, light regulates alternative splicing with transcript selectivity. We further suggest that alternative splicing is rapidly fine-tuned by light to modulate gene expression and reorganize metabolic processes, and that pre-mRNA cis elements are involved in photoreceptor-mediated splicing regulation. PMID:24398233

2014-01-01

114

Implicit alternative splicing for genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new nature-inspired variation operator for binary encodings in genetic algorithms (GAs). Our method, called implicit alternative splicing (iAS), is repeatedly applied to the individual encodings in the algorithm's population and inverts randomly chosen segments of decreasing size in a systematic fashion. Its goal is to determine the largest possible segment the inversion of which

Philipp Rohlfshagen; John A. Bullinaria

2007-01-01

115

G to A substitution in 5{prime} donor splice site of introns 18 and 48 of COL1A1 gene of type I collagen results in different splicing alternatives in osteogenesis imperfecta type I cell strains  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a G to A substitution in the 5{prime} donor splice site of intron 18 of one COL1A1 allele in two unrelated families with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I. A third OI type I family has a G to A substitution at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele. Both mutations abolish normal splicing and lead to reduced steady-state levels of mRNA from the mutant COL1A1 allele. The intron 18 mutation leads to both exon 18 skipping in the mRNA and to utilization of a single alternative splice site near the 3{prime} end of exon 18. The latter results in deletion of the last 8 nucleotides of exon 18 from the mRNA, a shift in the translational reading-frame, and the creation of a premature termination codon in exon 19. Of the potential alternative 5{prime} splice sites in exon 18 and intron 18, the one utilized has a surrounding nucleotide sequence which most closely resembles that of the natural splice site. Although a G to A mutation was detected at the identical position in intron 48 of one COL1A1 allele in another OI type I family, nine complex alternative splicing patterns were identified by sequence analysis of cDNA clones derived from fibroblast mRNA from this cell strain. All result in partial or complete skipping of exon 48, with in-frame deletions of portions of exons 47 and/or 49. The different patterns of RNA splicing were not explained by their sequence homology with naturally occuring 5{prime} splice sites, but rather by recombination between highly homologous exon sequences, suggesting that we may not have identified the major splicing alternative(s) in this cell strain. Both G to A mutations result in decreased production of type I collagen, the common biochemical correlate of OI type I.

Willing, M.; Deschenes, S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-09-01

116

Identification of alternative splicing and negative splicing activity of a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus, Borna disease virus  

PubMed Central

Borna disease virus (BDV) is a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus that belongs to the Mononegavirales. Unlike other animal viruses of this order, BDV replicates and transcribes in the nucleus of infected cells. Previous studies have shown that BDV uses RNA splicing machinery for its mRNA expression. In the present study, we identified spliced RNAs that use an alternative 3? splice site, SA3, in BDV-infected cell lines as well as infected animal brain cells. Transient transfection analysis of cDNA clones of BDV RNA revealed that although SA3 is a favorable splice site in mammalian cells, utilization of SA3 is negatively regulated in infected cells. This negative splicing activity of the SA3 site is regulated by a putative cis-acting region, the exon splicing suppressor (ESS), within the polymerase exon of BDV. The BDV ESS contains similar motifs to other known ESSs present in viral and cellular genes. Furthermore, our results indicated that a functional polyadenylation signal just upstream of the BDV ESS is also involved in the regulation of alternative splicing of BDV. These observations represent the first documentation of complex RNA splicing in animal RNA viruses and also provide new insight into the mechanism of regulation of alternative splicing in animal viruses. PMID:11070091

Tomonaga, Keizo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Lee, Byeong- Jae; Watanabe, Makiko; Kamitani, Wataru; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2000-01-01

117

A Novel CDX2 Isoform Regulates Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Gene expression is a dynamic and coordinated process coupling transcription with pre-mRNA processing. This regulation enables tissue-specific transcription factors to induce expression of specific transcripts that are subsequently amplified by alternative splicing allowing for increased proteome complexity and functional diversity. The intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 regulates development and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium by inducing expression of genes characteristic of the mature enterocyte phenotype. Here, sequence analysis of CDX2 mRNA from colonic mucosa-derived tissues revealed an alternatively spliced transcript (CDX2/AS) that encodes a protein with a truncated homeodomain and a novel carboxy-terminal domain enriched in serine and arginine residues (RS domain). CDX2 and CDX2/AS exhibited distinct nuclear expression patterns with minimal areas of co-localization. CDX2/AS did not activate the CDX2-dependent promoter of guanylyl cyclase C nor inhibit transcriptional activity of CDX2. Unlike CDX2, CDX2/AS co-localized with the putative splicing factors ASF/SF2 and SC35. CDX2/AS altered splicing patterns of CD44v5 and Tra2-?1 minigenes in Lovo colon cancer cells independent of CDX2 expression. These data demonstrate unique dual functions of the CDX2 gene enabling it to regulate gene expression through both transcription (CDX2) and pre-mRNA processing (CDX2/AS). PMID:25101906

Witek, Matthew E.; Snook, Adam E.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Xiang, Bo; Magee, Michael; Waldman, Scott A.

2014-01-01

118

A Unique, Consistent Identifier for Alternatively Spliced Transcript Variants  

PubMed Central

Background As research into alternative splicing reveals the fundamental importance of this phenomenon in the genome expression of higher organisms, there is an increasing need for a standardized, consistent and unique identifier for alternatively spliced isoforms. Such an identifier would be useful to eliminate ambiguities in references to gene isoforms, and would allow for the reliable comparison of isoforms from different sources (e.g., known genes vs. computational predictions). Commonly used identifiers for gene transcripts prove to be unsuitable for this purpose. Methodology We propose an algorithm to compute an isoform signature based on the arrangement of exons and introns in a primary transcript. The isoform signature uniquely identifies a transcript structure, and can therefore be used as a key in databases of alternatively spliced isoforms, or to compare alternative splicing predictions produced by different methods. In this paper we present the algorithm to generate isoform signatures, we provide some examples of its application, and we describe a web-based resource to generate isoform signatures and use them in database searches. Conclusions Isoform signatures are simple, so that they can be easily generated and included in publications and databases, but flexible enough to unambiguously represent all possible isoform structures, including information about coding sequence position and variable transcription start and end sites. We believe that the adoption of isoform signatures can help establish a consistent, unambiguous nomenclature for alternative splicing isoforms. The system described in this paper is freely available at http://genome.ufl.edu/genesig/, and supplementary materials can be found at http://genome.ufl.edu/genesig-files/. PMID:19865484

Riva, Alberto; Pesole, Graziano

2009-01-01

119

Cellular expression and alternative splicing of SLC25A23, a member of the mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent solute carrier gene family.  

PubMed

The transport of metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane is mediated by a large superfamily of mitochondrial solute carrier (MSC) proteins. A novel human member of the MSC gene family named SLC25A23, with homologs in mammalian and non-mammalian species has been recently identified together with two close paralogs, SLC25A24 and SLC25A25. These genes encode the human isoforms of the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier described in whole mitochondria. We report here the cellular expression and alternative splicing of SLC25A23. The gene encodes a 468 amino acids polypeptide, named SCaMC-3, with a bipartite structure typical of calcium-binding mitochondrial solute carrier (CaMSC) proteins. The amino-terminal portion harbors three canonical EF-hand calcium-binding domains while the carboxyl-terminal portion of SCaMC-3 has the characteristic features of the MSC superfamily. Northern blot analysis reveals the presence of the transcript in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, liver and small intestine. The SLC25A23 gene undergoes alternative splicing suggesting a modular nature of the encoded product. Three out of four putative protein isoforms lack a significant portion of the third mitochondrial carrier signature. The most common SCaMC-3 isoform shows a mitochondrial subcellular localization when transfected in HeLa cells and is able to bind calcium by Ca(2+)-dependent mobility shift assays. We believe that our study will contribute to a better knowledge of this family of mitochondrial carriers. PMID:15716113

Bassi, Maria Teresa; Manzoni, Marta; Bresciani, Roberto; Pizzo, Maria Teresa; Della Monica, Antonella; Barlati, Sergio; Monti, Eugenio; Borsani, Giuseppe

2005-01-31

120

Nonmuscle and muscle tropomyosin isoforms are expressed from a single gene by alternative RNA splicing and polyadenylation.  

PubMed

The molecular basis for the expression of rat embryonic fibroblast tropomyosin 1 and skeletal muscle beta-tropomyosin was determined. cDNA clones encoding these tropomyosin isoforms exhibit complete identity except for two carboxy-proximal regions (amino acids 189 to 213 and 258 to 284) and different 3'-untranslated sequences. The isoform-specific regions delineate the troponin T-binding domains of skeletal muscle tropomyosin. Analysis of genomic clones indicates that there are two separate loci in the rat genome that contain sequences complementary to these mRNAs. One locus is a pseudogene. The other locus contains a single gene made up of 11 exons and spans approximately 10 kilobases. Sequences common to all mRNAs were found in exons 1 through 5 (amino acids 1 to 188) and exons 8 and 9 (amino acids 214 to 257). Exons 6 and 11 are specific for fibroblast mRNA (amino acids 189 to 213 and 258 to 284, respectively), while exons 7 and 10 are specific for skeletal muscle mRNA (amino acids 189 to 213 and 258 to 284, respectively). In addition, exons 10 and 11 each contain the entire 3'-untranslated sequences of the respective mRNAs including the polyadenylation site. Although the gene is also expressed in smooth muscle (stomach, uterus, and vas deferens), only the fibroblast-type splice products can be detected in these tissues. S1 and primer extension analyses indicate that all mRNAs expressed from this gene are transcribed from a single promoter. The promoter was found to contain G-C-rich sequences, a TATA-like sequence TTTTA, no identifiable CCAAT box, and two putative Sp1-binding sites. PMID:2432392

Helfman, D M; Cheley, S; Kuismanen, E; Finn, L A; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y

1986-11-01

121

Alternative splicing of tropomyosin pre-mRNAs in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

A single rat gene encodes both fibroblast TM-1 and skeletal muscle beta-tropomyosin by an alternative RNA-processing mechanism. The gene contains 11 exons: Exons 1-5 and exons 8 and 9 are constitutive exons common to all mRNAs expressed from this gene; exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts as well as smooth muscle; exons 7 and 10 are used exclusively in skeletal muscle. We have studied the internal alternative RNA splice choice (exons 6 and 7) of the rat tropomyosin 1 gene in vitro, using nuclear extracts obtained from HeLa cells. Use of alternative splice sites in vitro is dependent on the ionic conditions of the assay, and correct splicing occurs only under well-defined salt conditions. Splicing of exon 5 to exon 6 (fibroblast-type splice) and exon 5 to exon 7 (skeletal muscle-type splice) was dependent on precursors in which exon 6 or 7 was first joined to exon 8. The same patterns of alternatively spliced RNAs were formed when similar templates were introduced in HeLa cells by transfection. Thus, there appears to be an ordered pathway of splicing in which the internal alternatively spliced exons must first be joined to the downstream constitutive exon before they can be spliced to the upstream constitutive exon. The data are consistent with a model in which the critical event in alternative splicing occurs during the joining of exon 6 to exon 8 (fibroblast-type splice) or exon 7 to exon 8 (skeletal muscle-type splice). PMID:3215513

Helfman, D M; Ricci, W M; Finn, L A

1988-12-01

122

Cryptic splice sites and split genes.  

PubMed

We describe a new program called cryptic splice finder (CSF) that can reliably identify cryptic splice sites (css), so providing a useful tool to help investigate splicing mutations in genetic disease. We report that many css are not entirely dormant and are often already active at low levels in normal genes prior to their enhancement in genetic disease. We also report a fascinating correlation between the positions of css and introns, whereby css within the exons of one species frequently match the exact position of introns in equivalent genes from another species. These results strongly indicate that many introns were inserted into css during evolution and they also imply that the splicing information that lies outside some introns can be independently recognized by the splicing machinery and was in place prior to intron insertion. This indicates that non-intronic splicing information had a key role in shaping the split structure of eukaryote genes. PMID:21470962

Kapustin, Yuri; Chan, Elcie; Sarkar, Rupa; Wong, Frederick; Vorechovsky, Igor; Winston, Robert M; Tatusova, Tatiana; Dibb, Nick J

2011-08-01

123

The AP2-like gene OitaAP2 is alternatively spliced and differentially expressed in inflorescence and vegetative tissues of the orchid Orchis italica.  

PubMed

The AP2/ERF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in multiple regulatory pathways, from plant organ development to response to various environmental stresses. One of the mechanisms that regulates the AP2-like genes involves the microRNA miR172, which controls their activity at the post-transcriptional level. Extensive studies on AP2-like genes are available in many different species; however, in orchids, one of the largest plant families, studies are restricted to a few species, all belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily. In the present study, we report the isolation of an AP2-like gene in the Mediterranean orchid Orchis italica (Orchidoideae). The OitaAP2 locus includes 10 exons and 9 introns, and its transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in the long OitaAP2 and the short OitaAP2_ISO isoforms, with the latter skipping exon 9. Both isoforms contain the conserved target site for miR172, whose action is demonstrated by the presence of cleaved OitaAP2 mRNA. The OitaAP2 and OitaAP2_ISO mRNAs are present in the tepals and lip before and after anthesis at different expression levels. In addition, the OitaAP2_ISO isoform is expressed in the ovary before pollination and in the root and stem. The isoform-specific expression pattern suggests a functional differentiation of the OitaAP2 alternatively spliced transcripts. The expression profile of miR172 is complementary to that of the OitaAP2 isoforms in inflorescence tissues before anthesis, whereas after anthesis and in ovary tissue before and after pollination, this relationship disappears, suggesting the existence of OitaAP2 inhibitory mechanisms in these tissues that differ from that involving miR172. PMID:24204832

Salemme, Marinella; Sica, Maria; Iazzetti, Giovanni; Gaudio, Luciano; Aceto, Serena

2013-01-01

124

The splice of life: Alternative splicing and neurological disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splicing of pre-messenger RNA is regulated differently in the brain compared with other tissues. Recognition of aberrations in splicing events that are associated with neurological disease has contributed to our understanding of disease pathogenesis in some cases. Neuron-specific proteins involved in RNA splicing and metabolism are also affected in several neurological disorders. These findings have begun to bridge what we

B. Kate Dredge; Alexandros D. Polydorides; Robert B. Darnell

2001-01-01

125

Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)  

PubMed Central

Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery. PMID:23474544

Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

2013-01-01

126

PTCH2, a Novel Human Patched Gene, Undergoing Alternative Splicing and Up-regulated in Basal Cell Carcinomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a combination of cDNA library screening, rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, and BAC sequencing, a novel human patched-like gene (PTCH2) has been cloned and sequenced. The genomic organization is similar to PTCH1 with 22 exons and, by radiation hybrid mapping, PTCH2 has been localized to chromosome 1p33-34, a region often lost in a variety of tumors. Several alternatively

Peter G. Zaphiropoulos; Anne Birgitte Unden; Fahimeh Rahnama; Robert E. Hollingsworth; Rune Toftgård

127

A phylogenetic generalized hidden Markov model for predicting alternatively spliced exons  

PubMed Central

Background An important challenge in eukaryotic gene prediction is accurate identification of alternatively spliced exons. Functional transcripts can go undetected in gene expression studies when alternative splicing only occurs under specific biological conditions. Non-expression based computational methods support identification of rarely expressed transcripts. Results A non-expression based statistical method is presented to annotate alternatively spliced exons using a single genome sequence and evidence from cross-species sequence conservation. The computational method is implemented in the program ExAlt and an analysis of prediction accuracy is given for Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusion ExAlt identifies the structure of most alternatively spliced exons in the test set and cross-species sequence conservation is shown to improve the precision of predictions. The software package is available to run on Drosophila genomes to search for new cases of alternative splicing. PMID:16934144

Allen, Jonathan E; Salzberg, Steven L

2006-01-01

128

Fine mapping of the latency-related gene of herpes simplex virus type 1: alternative splicing produces distinct latency-related RNAs containing open reading frames  

SciTech Connect

The latency-related (LR) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is transcriptionally active during HSV-1 latency, producing at least two LR-RNAs. The LR gene partially overlaps the immediate-early gene ICP0 and is transcribed in the opposite direction from ICP0, producing LR-RNAs that are complementary (antisense) to ICP0 mRNA. The LR gene is thought to be involved in HSV-1 latency. The authors report here the time mapping and partial sequence analysis of this HSV-1 LR gene. /sup 32/P-labeled genomic DNA restriction fragments and synthetic oligonucleotides were used as probes for in situ hybridizations and Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations of RNA from trigeminal ganglia of rabbits latently infected with HSV-1. The two most abundant LR-RNAs appeared to share their 5' and 3' ends and to be produced by alternative splicing. These LR-RNAs were approximately 2 and 1.3 to 1.5 kilobases in length and were designated LR-RNA 1 and LF-RNA 2, respectively. LR-RNA 1 appeared to have at least one intron removed, while LR-RNA 2 appeared to have at least two introns removed. The LR-RNAs contained two potential long open reading frames, suggesting the possibility that one or more of the LR-RNAs may be a functional mRNA.

Wechsler, S.L.; Nesburn, A.B.; Watson, R.; Slanina, S.M.; Ghiasi, H.

1988-11-01

129

Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia  

PubMed Central

A number of neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of abundant deposits containing Tau protein. Expression of the human tau gene is under complex regulation. Mutations in the tau gene have been identified in patients with frontotemporal lobe dementia. These mutations affect either biochemical/biophysical properties or the delicate balance of different splicing isoforms. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of genetics and molecular pathogenesis of tauopathies with the focus on frontotemporal lobe dementia. We review published studies on tau pre-mRNA splicing regulation. Understanding molecular mechanisms of tauopathies may help in developing effective therapies for neurodegenerative tauopathies and related disorders, including Alzheimer disease. PMID:16317255

Kar, Amar; Kuo, David; He, Rongqiao; Zhou, Jiawei; Wu, Jane Y.

2007-01-01

130

Alternative Splicing of Exon 17 and a Missense Mutation in Exon 20 of the Insulin Receptor Gene in Two Brothers with a Novel Syndrome of Insulin Resistance (Congenital Fiber-Type Disproportion Myopathy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulin receptor (IR) in two brothers with a rare syndrome of congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy (CFTDM) associated with diabetes and severe insulin resistance was studied. By direct sequencing of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes both patients were found to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in the IR gene. The maternal allele was alternatively spliced in exon 17 due to

Peter Vorwerk; Claus T. Christoffersen; Jørn Müller; Henrik Vestergaard; Oluf Pedersen; Pierre De Meyts

1999-01-01

131

Sudemycin E influences alternative splicing and changes chromatin modifications  

PubMed Central

Sudemycin E is an analog of the pre-messenger RNA splicing modulator FR901464 and its derivative spliceostatin A. Sudemycin E causes the death of cancer cells through an unknown mechanism. We found that similar to spliceostatin A, sudemycin E binds to the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) component SF3B1. Native chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that U2 snRNPs physically interact with nucleosomes. Sudemycin E induces a dissociation of the U2 snRNPs and decreases their interaction with nucleosomes. To determine the effect on gene expression, we performed genome-wide array analysis. Sudemycin E first causes a rapid change in alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing, which is later followed by changes in overall gene expression and arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The changes in alternative exon usage correlate with a loss of the H3K36me3 modification in chromatin encoding these exons. We propose that sudemycin E interferes with the ability of U2 snRNP to maintain an H3K36me3 modification in actively transcribed genes. Thus, in addition to the reversible changes in alternative splicing, sudemycin E causes changes in chromatin modifications that result in chromatin condensation, which is a likely contributing factor to cancer cell death. PMID:24623796

Convertini, Paolo; Shen, Manli; Potter, Philip M.; Palacios, Gustavo; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; de la Grange, Pierre; Horbinski, Craig; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.; Stamm, Stefan

2014-01-01

132

Investigation of tissue-specific human orthologous alternative splice events in pig.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA can contribute to differences between tissues or cells either by regulating gene expression or creating proteins with various functions encoded by one gene. The number of investigated alternative splice events in pig has so far been limited. In this study we have investigated alternative splice events detected in humans, in orthologous pig genes. A total of 17 genes with predicted exon skipping events were selected for further studies. The splice events for the selected genes were experimentally verified using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR) with splice-specific primers in 19 different tissues. The same splice variants as reported in humans were detected in 15 orthologous pig genes, however, the expression pattern predicted in the in silico analyses was only experimentally verified in a few cases. The results support the findings that splice events resulting in preservation of open reading frame are indicative of a functional significance of the splice variants of the gene. PMID:20967640

Nygard, Ann-Britt; Jørgensen, Claus B; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

2010-10-01

133

An evolutionary analysis of cAMP-specific Phosphodiesterase 4 alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each gene isoform termed long, short, super-short and truncated super-short. Many species across the vertebrate lineage contain multiple splice variants of each gene type, which are characterized by length and amino termini. Results A phylogenetic approach was used to visualize splice variant form genesis and identify conserved splice variants (genome conservation with EST support) across the vertebrate taxa. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference indicated PDE4 gene duplication occurred at the base of the vertebrate lineage and reveals additional gene duplications specific to the teleost lineage. Phylogenetic inference and PDE4 splice variant presence, or absence as determined by EST screens, were further supported by the genomic analysis of select vertebrate taxa. Two conserved PDE4 long form splice variants were found in each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4C genes, and eight conserved long forms from the PDE4 D gene. Conserved short and super-short splice variants were found from each of the PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4 D genes, while truncated super-short variants were found from the PDE4C and PDE4 D genes. PDE4 long form splice variants were found in all taxa sampled (invertebrate through mammals); short, super-short, and truncated super-short are detected primarily in tetrapods and mammals, indicating an increasing complexity in both alternative splicing and cAMP metabolism through vertebrate evolution. Conclusions There was a progressive independent incorporation of multiple PDE4 splice variant forms and amino termini, increasing PDE4 proteome complexity from primitive vertebrates to humans. While PDE4 gene isoform duplicates with limited alternative splicing were found in teleosts, an expansion of both PDE4 splice variant forms, and alternatively spliced amino termini predominantly occurs in mammals. Since amino termini have been linked to intracellular targeting of the PDE4 enzymes, the conservation of amino termini in PDE4 splice variants in evolution highlights the importance of compartmentalization of PDE4-mediated cAMP hydrolysis. PMID:20701803

2010-01-01

134

Alternative splicing: a pivotal step between eukaryotic transcription and translation.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing was discovered simultaneously with splicing over three decades ago. Since then, an enormous body of evidence has demonstrated the prevalence of alternative splicing in multicellular eukaryotes, its key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific differentiation patterns, the multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control it, and its causal role in hereditary disease and cancer. The emerging evidence places alternative splicing in a central position in the flow of eukaryotic genetic information, between transcription and translation, in that it can respond not only to various signalling pathways that target the splicing machinery but also to transcription factors and chromatin structure. PMID:23385723

Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Schor, Ignacio E; Alló, Mariano; Dujardin, Gwendal; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Muñoz, Manuel J

2013-03-01

135

Branch point selection in alternative splicing of tropomyosin pre-mRNAs.  

PubMed

The rat tropomyosin 1 gene gives rise to two mRNAs encoding rat fibroblast TM-1 and skeletal muscle beta-tropomyosin via an alternative splicing mechanism. The gene is comprised of 11 exons. Exons 1 through 5 and exons 8 and 9 are common to all mRNAs expressed from this gene. Exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts as well as smooth muscle whereas exons 7 and 10 are used exclusively in skeletal muscle. In the present studies we have focused on the mutually exclusive internal alternative splice choice involving exon 6 (fibroblast-type splice) and exon 7 (skeletal muscle-type splice). To study the mechanism and regulation of alternative splice site selection we have characterized the branch points used in processing of the tropomyosin pre-mRNAs in vitro using nuclear extracts obtained from HeLa cells. Splicing of exon 5 to exon 6 (fibroblast-type splice) involves the use of three branch points located 25, 29, and 36 nucleotides upstream of the 3' splice site of exon 6. Splicing of exon 6 (fibroblast-type splice) or exon 7 (skeletal muscle type-splice) to exon 8 involves the use of the same branch point located 24 nucleotides upstream of this shared 3' splice site. In contrast, the splicing of exon 5 to exon 7 (skeletal muscle-type splice) involves the use of three branch sites located 144, 147 and 153 nucleotides, upstream of the 3' splice site of exon 7. In addition, the pyrimidine content of the region between these unusual branch points and the 3' splice site of exon 7 was found to be greater than 80%. These studies raise the possibility that the use of branch points located a long distance from a 3' splice site may be an essential feature of some alternatively spliced exons. The possible significance of these unusual branch points as well as a role for the polypyrimidine stretch in intron 6 in splice site selection are discussed. PMID:2762151

Helfman, D M; Ricci, W M

1989-07-25

136

Cloning and Characterization of Buffalo NANOG Gene: Alternative Transcription Start Sites, Splicing, and Polyadenylation in Embryonic Stem Cell-Like Cells  

PubMed Central

NANOG is a critical homeodomain transcription factor responsible for maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency. In the present study, we isolated, sequenced, and characterized the NANOG gene in buffalo ESC-like cells. Here, we demonstrated that NANOG mRNA is expressed as multiple isoforms and uses four alternative transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and five different polyadenylation sites. The TSSs identified by 5?-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-5?-RACE) were positioned at 182, 95, 35, and 17 nucleotides upstream relative to the translation initiation codon. 3?-RACE experiment revealed the presence of tandem polyadenylation signals, which leads to the expression of at least five different 3?-untranslated regions (269, 314, 560, 566, and 829 nucleotides). Expression analysis showed that these alternatively polyadenylated transcripts expressed differentially. Sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame of buffalo NANOG codes for a 300-amino-acid-long protein. Further, results showed that alternative splicing leads to the expression of two types of transcript variants encoded by four and five exons. In silico analysis of cloned 5?-flanking region (3366 nucleotides upstream of translation start codon) identified several putative transcription factors binding sites in addition to a TATA box and CAAT box at ?30 and ?139?bp (upstream to the distal most TSS), respectively, in the buffalo NANOG promoter. PMID:22011250

Singh, Natwar; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radhaysham; Chauhan, Manmohan S.

2012-01-01

137

Nova1 is a master regulator of alternative splicing in pancreatic beta cells.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. It affects more than 90% of human genes but its role in the regulation of pancreatic beta cells, the producers of insulin, remains unknown. Our recently published data indicated that the 'neuron-specific' Nova1 splicing factor is expressed in pancreatic beta cells. We have presently coupled specific knockdown (KD) of Nova1 with RNA-sequencing to determine all splice variants and downstream pathways regulated by this protein in beta cells. Nova1 KD altered the splicing of nearly 5000 transcripts. Pathway analysis indicated that these genes are involved in exocytosis, apoptosis, insulin receptor signaling, splicing and transcription. In line with these findings, Nova1 silencing inhibited insulin secretion and induced apoptosis basally and after cytokine treatment in rodent and human beta cells. These observations identify a novel layer of regulation of beta cell function, namely AS controlled by key splicing regulators such as Nova1. PMID:25249621

Villate, Olatz; Turatsinze, Jean-Valery; Mascali, Loriana G; Grieco, Fabio A; Nogueira, Tatiane C; Cunha, Daniel A; Nardelli, Tarlliza R; Sammeth, Michael; Salunkhe, Vishal A; Esguerra, Jonathan L S; Eliasson, Lena; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L

2015-02-01

138

Oncogenic Alternative Splicing Switches: Role in Cancer Progression and Prospects for Therapy  

PubMed Central

Alterations in the abundance or activities of alternative splicing regulators generate alternatively spliced variants that contribute to multiple aspects of tumor establishment, progression and resistance to therapeutic treatments. Notably, many cancer-associated genes are regulated through alternative splicing suggesting a significant role of this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in the production of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, the study of alternative splicing in cancer might provide a better understanding of the malignant transformation and identify novel pathways that are uniquely relevant to tumorigenesis. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of cancer-associated alternative splicing isoforms will not only help to explain many fundamental hallmarks of cancer, but will also offer unprecedented opportunities to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24285959

Bonomi, Serena; Gallo, Stefania; Catillo, Morena; Pignataro, Daniela; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Ghigna, Claudia

2013-01-01

139

Alternative Splicing and Tissue-specific Elastin Misassembly Act as Biological Modifiers of Human Elastin Gene Frameshift Mutations Associated with Dominant Cutis Laxa*  

PubMed Central

Elastin is the extracellular matrix protein in vertebrates that provides elastic recoil to blood vessels, the lung, and skin. Because the elastin gene has undergone significant changes in the primate lineage, modeling elastin diseases in non-human animals can be problematic. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying a class of elastin gene mutations leading to autosomal dominant cutis laxa, we engineered a cutis laxa mutation (single base deletion) into the human elastin gene contained in a bacterial artificial chromosome. When expressed as a transgene in mice, mutant elastin was incorporated into elastic fibers in the skin and lung with adverse effects on tissue function. In contrast, only low levels of mutant protein incorporated into aortic elastin, which explains why the vasculature is relatively unaffected in this disease. RNA stability studies found that alternative exon splicing acts as a modifier of disease severity by influencing the spectrum of mutant transcripts that survive nonsense-mediated decay. Our results confirm the critical role of the C-terminal region of tropoelastin in elastic fiber assembly and suggest tissue-specific differences in the elastin assembly pathway. PMID:22573328

Sugitani, Hideki; Hirano, Eiichi; Knutsen, Russell H.; Shifren, Adrian; Wagenseil, Jessica E.; Ciliberto, Christopher; Kozel, Beth A.; Urban, Zsolt; Davis, Elaine C.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.

2012-01-01

140

Alternative Splicing Mediates Responses of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock to Temperature Changes[W  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental changes on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state temperatures or undergoing temperature transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic changes in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these changes, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR7, are temperature-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important changes in clock gene expression in temperature transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. Temperature effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that temperature-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock. PMID:22408072

James, Allan B.; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W.S.; Nimmo, Hugh G.

2012-01-01

141

Alternative splicing of DNA polymerase beta in vertebrates.  

E-print Network

??Alternative splicing (AS) is the predominant mechanism responsible for increasing eukaryotic transcriptome and proteome complexity. In this phenomenon, numerous mRNA transcripts are produced from a… (more)

Bondy-Chorney, Emma

2012-01-01

142

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in NAGNAG Acceptors Are Highly Predictive for Variations of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Aberrant or modified splicing patterns of genes are causative for many human diseases. Therefore, the identification of genetic variations that cause changes in the splicing pattern of a gene is important. Elsewhere, we described the widespread occurrence of alternative splicing at NAGNAG acceptors. Here, we report a genomewide screen for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect such tandem acceptors. From 121 SNPs identified, we extracted 64 SNPs that most likely affect alternative NAGNAG splicing. We demonstrate that the NAGNAG motif is necessary and sufficient for this type of alternative splicing. The evolutionarily young NAGNAG alleles, as determined by the comparison with the chimpanzee genome, exhibit the same biases toward intron phase 1 and single–amino acid insertion/deletions that were already observed for all human NAGNAG acceptors. Since 28% of the NAGNAG SNPs occur in known disease genes, they represent preferable candidates for a more-detailed functional analysis, especially since the splice relevance for some of the coding SNPs is overlooked. Against the background of a general lack of methods for identifying splice-relevant SNPs, the presented approach is highly effective in the prediction of polymorphisms that are causal for variations in alternative splicing. PMID:16400609

Hiller, Michael; Huse, Klaus; Szafranski, Karol; Jahn, Niels; Hampe, Jochen; Schreiber, Stefan; Backofen, Rolf; Platzer, Matthias

2006-01-01

143

A Functional P2X7 Splice Variant with an Alternative Transmembrane Domain 1 Escapes Gene Inactivation in P2X7 Knock-out Mice*  

PubMed Central

The ATP-activated P2X7 receptor channel is involved in immune function and inflammatory pain and represents an important drug target. Here we describe a new P2X7 splice variant (P2X7(k)), containing an alternative intracellular N terminus and first transmembrane domain encoded by a novel exon 1 in the rodent P2rx7 gene. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of the rat isoform expressed in HEK293 cells revealed an 8-fold higher sensitivity to the agonist Bz-ATP and much slower deactivation kinetics when compared with the P2X7(a) receptor. Permeability measurements in Xenopus oocytes show a high permeability for N-methyl-d-glucamine immediately upon activation, suggesting that the P2X7(k) channel is constitutively dilated upon opening. The rates of agonist-induced dye uptake and membrane blebbing in HEK cells were also increased. PCR analyses and biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and BN-PAGE indicate that the P2X7(k) variant escapes gene deletion in one of the available P2X7?/? mice strains and is strongly expressed in the spleen. Taken together, we describe a novel P2X7 isoform with distinct functional properties that contributes to the diversity of P2X7 receptor signaling. Its presence in one of the P2X7?/? strains has important implications for our understanding of the role of this receptor in health and disease. PMID:19546214

Nicke, Annette; Kuan, Yung-Hui; Masin, Marianela; Rettinger, Jurgen; Marquez-Klaka, Benjamin; Bender, Olaf; Gorecki, Dariusz C.; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth D.; Soto, Florentina

2009-01-01

144

A house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) spleen transcriptome reveals intra- and interspecific patterns of gene expression, alternative splicing and genetic diversity in passerines  

PubMed Central

Background With its plumage color dimorphism and unique history in North America, including a recent population expansion and an epizootic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), the house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) is a model species for studying sexual selection, plumage coloration and host-parasite interactions. As part of our ongoing efforts to make available genomic resources for this species, here we report a transcriptome assembly derived from genes expressed in spleen. Results We characterize transcriptomes from two populations with different histories of demography and disease exposure: a recently founded population in the eastern US that has been exposed to MG for over a decade and a native population from the western range that has never been exposed to MG. We utilize this resource to quantify conservation in gene expression in passerine birds over approximately 50 MY by comparing splenic expression profiles for 9,646 house finch transcripts and those from zebra finch and find that less than half of all genes expressed in spleen in either species are expressed in both species. Comparative gene annotations from several vertebrate species suggest that the house finch transcriptomes contain ~15 genes not yet found in previously sequenced vertebrate genomes. The house finch transcriptomes harbour ~85,000 SNPs, ~20,000 of which are non-synonymous. Although not yet validated by biological or technical replication, we identify a set of genes exhibiting differences between populations in gene expression (n = 182; 2% of all transcripts), allele frequencies (76 FST ouliers) and alternative splicing as well as genes with several fixed non-synonymous substitutions; this set includes genes with functions related to double-strand break repair and immune response. Conclusions The two house finch spleen transcriptome profiles will add to the increasing data on genome and transcriptome sequence information from natural populations. Differences in splenic expression between house finch and zebra finch imply either significant evolutionary turnover of splenic expression patterns or different physiological states of the individuals examined. The transcriptome resource will enhance the potential to annotate an eventual house finch genome, and the set of gene-based high-quality SNPs will help clarify the genetic underpinnings of host-pathogen interactions and sexual selection. PMID:24758272

2014-01-01

145

Psip1/Ledgf p52 Binds Methylated Histone H3K36 and Splicing Factors and Contributes to the Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that chromatin modifications have important roles in modulating constitutive or alternative splicing. Here we demonstrate that the PWWP domain of the chromatin-associated protein Psip1/Ledgf can specifically recognize tri-methylated H3K36 and that, like this histone modification, the Psip1 short (p52) isoform is enriched at active genes. We show that the p52, but not the long (p75), isoform of Psip1 co-localizes and interacts with Srsf1 and other proteins involved in mRNA processing. The level of H3K36me3 associated Srsf1 is reduced in Psip1 mutant cells and alternative splicing of specific genes is affected. Moreover, we show altered Srsf1 distribution around the alternatively spliced exons of these genes in Psip1 null cells. We propose that Psip1/p52, through its binding to both chromatin and splicing factors, might act to modulate splicing. PMID:22615581

Pradeepa, Madapura M.; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Ule, Jernej; Grimes, Graeme R.; Bickmore, Wendy A.

2012-01-01

146

TMEM16A alternative splicing coordination in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background TMEM16A, also known as Anoctamin-1, is a calcium-activated chloride channel gene overexpressed in many tumors. The role of TMEM16A in cancer is not completely understood and no data are available regarding the potential tumorigenic properties of the multiple isoforms generated by alternative splicing (AS). Methods We evaluated TMEM16A AS pattern, isoforms distribution and Splicing Coordination (SC), in normal tissues and breast cancers, through a semi-quantitative PCR-assay that amplifies transcripts across three AS exons, 6b, 13 and 15. Results In breast cancer, we did not observe an association either to AS of individual exons or to specific TMEM16A isoforms, and induced expression of the most common isoforms present in tumors in the HEK293 Flp-In Tet-ON system had no effect on cellular proliferation and migration. The analysis of splicing coordination, a mechanism that regulates AS of distant exons, showed a preferential association of exon 6b and 15 in several normal tissues and tumors: isoforms that predominantly include exon 6b tend to exclude exon 15 and vice versa. Interestingly, we found an increase in SC in breast tumors compared to matched normal tissues. Conclusions As the different TMEM16A isoforms do not affect proliferation or migration and do not associate with tumors, our results suggest that the resulting channel activities are not directly involved in cell growth and motility. Conversely, the observed increase in SC in breast tumors suggests that the maintenance of the regulatory mechanism that coordinates distant alternative spliced exons in multiple genes other than TMEM16A is necessary for cancer cell viability. PMID:23866066

2013-01-01

147

Identification, mRNA Expression, and Functional Analysis of Chitin Synthase 1 Gene and Its Two Alternative Splicing Variants in Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis  

PubMed Central

Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5?- and 3?-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E. PMID:23569438

Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

2013-01-01

148

Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)  

PubMed Central

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

149

The human gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor gene: Alternative splice donor site in exon 4 generates two variant mRNAs  

SciTech Connect

Gastrin and its carboxyl-terminal homolog cholecystokinin (CCK) exert a variety of biological actions in the brain and gastrointestinal tract that are mediated in part through one or more G protein-coupled receptors which exhibit similar affinity for both peptides. Genomic clones encoding a human gastrin/CCK[sub B] receptor were isolated by screening a human EMBL phage library with a partial-length DNA fragment which was based on the nucleotide sequence of the canine gastrin receptor. The gene contained a 1356-bp open reading frame consisting of five exons interrupted by 4 introns and was assigned to human chromosome 11p15.4. A region of exon 4, which encodes a portion of the putative third intracellular loop, appears to be alternatively spliced to yield two different mRNAs, one containing (452 aminio acids; long isoform) and the other lacking (447 amino acids; short isoform) the pentapeptide sequence Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly-Pro. The two receptor isoforms may contribute to functional differences in gastrin- and CCK-mediated signal transduction. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Song, I.; Brown, D.R.; Wiltshire, R.N.; Gantz, I.; Trent, J.M.; Yamada, T. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1993-10-01

150

Long noncoding RNA modulates alternative splicing regulators in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA represents a major mechanism underlying increased transcriptome and proteome complexity. Here, we show that the nuclear speckle RNA-binding protein (NSR) and the AS competitor long noncoding RNA (or ASCO-lncRNA) constitute an AS regulatory module. AtNSR-GFP translational fusions are expressed in primary and lateral root (LR) meristems. Double Atnsr mutants and ASCO overexpressors exhibit an altered ability to form LRs after auxin treatment. Interestingly, auxin induces a major change in AS patterns of many genes, a response largely dependent on NSRs. RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that AtNSRs interact not only with their alternatively spliced mRNA targets but also with the ASCO-RNA in vivo. The ASCO-RNA displaces an AS target from an NSR-containing complex in vitro. Expression of ASCO-RNA in Arabidopsis affects the splicing patterns of several NSR-regulated mRNA targets. Hence, lncRNA can hijack nuclear AS regulators to modulate AS patterns during development. PMID:25073154

Bardou, Florian; Ariel, Federico; Simpson, Craig G; Romero-Barrios, Natali; Laporte, Philippe; Balzergue, Sandrine; Brown, John W S; Crespi, Martin

2014-07-28

151

Manipulation of alternative splicing by a newly developed inhibitor of Clks.  

PubMed

The regulation of splice site usage provides a versatile mechanism for controlling gene expression and for the generation of proteome diversity, playing an essential role in many biological processes. The importance of alternative splicing is further illustrated by the increasing number of human diseases that have been attributed to mis-splicing events. Appropriate spatial and temporal generation of splicing variants demands that alternative splicing be subjected to extensive regulation, similar to transcriptional control. The Clk (Cdc2-like kinase) family has been implicated in splicing control and consists of at least four members. Through extensive screening of a chemical library, we found that a benzothiazole compound, TG003, had a potent inhibitory effect on the activity of Clk1/Sty. TG003 inhibited SF2/ASF-dependent splicing of beta-globin pre-mRNA in vitro by suppression of Clk-mediated phosphorylation. This drug also suppressed serine/arginine-rich protein phosphorylation, dissociation of nuclear speckles, and Clk1/Sty-dependent alternative splicing in mammalian cells. Consistently, administration of TG003 rescued the embryonic defects induced by excessive Clk activity in Xenopus. Thus, TG003, a novel inhibitor of Clk family will be a valuable tool to dissect the regulatory mechanisms involving serine/arginine-rich protein phosphorylation signaling pathways in vivo, and may be applicable for the therapeutic manipulation of abnormal splicing. PMID:15010457

Muraki, Michiko; Ohkawara, Bisei; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Onogi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Jun; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Sumi, Kengo; Yomoda, Jun-ichiro; Murray, Michael V; Kimura, Hiroshi; Furuichi, Kiyoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Krainer, Adrian R; Suzuki, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

2004-06-01

152

Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing and chromatin structure in Drosophila gonads revealed by RNA-seq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both transcription and post-transcriptional processes, such as alternative splicing, play crucial roles in controlling developmental programs in metazoans. Recently emerged RNA-seq method has brought our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptomes to a new level, because it can resolve both gene expression level and alternative splicing events simultaneously. To gain a better understanding of cellular differentiation in gonads, we analyzed mRNA profiles

Qiang Gan; Iouri Chepelev; Gang Wei; Lama Tarayrah; Kairong Cui; Keji Zhao; Xin Chen

2010-01-01

153

An evolutionary analysis of cAMP-specific Phosphodiesterase 4 alternative splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the intracellular second messengers: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanine monophosphate (cGMP). The cAMP-specific PDE family 4 (PDE4) is widely expressed in vertebrates. Each of the four PDE4 gene isoforms (PDE4 A-D) undergo extensive alternative splicing via alternative transcription initiation sites, producing unique amino termini and yielding multiple splice variant forms from each

Keven R Johnson; Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson; Robert S Danziger

2010-01-01

154

Characterization of a gene encoding a single-subunit bacteriophage-type RNA polymerase from maize which is alternatively spliced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-subunit RNA polymerases belonging to the T3\\/T7 bacteriophage family are thought to be common throughout eukaryotes.\\u000a We report the isolation and characterization of a nucleus-encoded single-subunit RNA polymerase gene from maize. This gene\\u000a is highly homologous to other single-subunit RNA polymerase genes from Arabidopsis, Chenopodium, yeast and Neurospora crassa involved in organellar transcription. Genomic Southern analysis reveals 10 to 15

D. A. Young; R. L. Allen; A. J. Harvey; D. M. Lonsdale

1998-01-01

155

Alternative splicing and genetic diversity of the white collar-1 ( wc-1 ) gene in cereal Phaeosphaeria pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white collar-1 (wc-1) gene encodes an important light-responsive protein (wc-1) that maintains circadian clocks and controls numerous light-dependent\\u000a reactions including sporulation in ascomycete fungi. The structure and expression of the wc-1 gene in wheat-biotype Phaeosphaeria nodorum (PN-w) was studied. It was shown that the full-size (3,353 bp in length) wc-1 gene in PN-w contained 4 introns in which introns 1

Ericka Yen-Hsin Chiu; Ying-Hong Lin; Wei Wu; Qijian Song; Pi-Fang Linda Chang; Ling-Yan Gao; Chun-Chi Chou; Peter P. Ueng

2010-01-01

156

Tissue-specific classification of alternatively spliced human exons  

E-print Network

Alternative splicing is involved in numerous cellular functions and is often disrupted and involved in disease. Previous research has identified methods to distinguish alternative conserved exons (ACEs) in human and mouse. ...

Rothman, Craig Jeremy

2007-01-01

157

Detection of alternative splicing during epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays a critical role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential cellular program that occurs in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we describe a strategy to detect alternative splicing during EMT using an inducible EMT model by expressing the transcription repressor Twist. EMT is monitored by changes in cell morphology, loss of E-cadherin localization at cell-cell junctions, and the switched expression of EMT markers, such as loss of epithelial markers E-cadherin and ?-catenin and gain of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. Using isoform-specific primer sets, the alternative splicing of interested mRNAs are analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The production of corresponding protein isoforms is validated by immunoblotting assays. The method of detecting splice isoforms described here is also suitable for the study of alternative splicing in other biological processes. PMID:25350517

Huang, Huilin; Xu, Yilin; Cheng, Chonghui

2014-01-01

158

A novel computational method for the identification of plant alternative splice sites.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) increases protein diversity by generating multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene in higher eukaryotes. Up to 48% of plant genes exhibit alternative splicing, which has proven to be involved in some important plant functions such as the stress response. A hybrid feature extraction approach which combing the position weight matrix (PWM) with the increment of diversity (ID) was proposed to represent the base conservative level (BCL) near splice sites and the similarity level of two datasets, respectively. Using the extracted features, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied to classify alternative and constitutive splice sites. By the proposed algorithm, 80.8% of donor sites and 85.4% of acceptor sites were correctly classified. It is anticipated that the novel computational method is promising for the identification of AS sites in plants. PMID:23313482

Cui, Ying; Han, Jiuqiang; Zhong, Dexing; Liu, Ruiling

2013-02-01

159

A purine-rich intronic element enhances alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor mRNA.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian thyroid hormone receptor gene c-erbAalpha gives rise to two mRNAs that code for distinct isoforms, TRalpha1 and TRalpha2, with antagonistic functions. Alternative processing of these mRNAs involves the mutually exclusive use of a TRalpha1-specific polyadenylation site or TRalpha2-specific 5' splice site. A previous investigation of TRalpha minigene expression defined a critical role for the TRalpha2 5' splice site in directing alternative processing. Mutational analysis reported here shows that purine residues within a highly conserved intronic element, SEa2, enhance splicing of TRalpha2 in vitro as well as in vivo. Although SEalpha2 is located within the intron of TRalpha2 mRNA, it activates splicing of a heterologous dsx pre-mRNA when located in the downstream exon. Competition with wild-type and mutant RNAs indicates that SEalpha2 functions by binding trans-acting factors in HeLa nuclear extract. Protein-RNA crosslinking identifies several proteins, including SF2/ASF and hnRNP H, that bind specifically to SEalpha2. SEalpha2 also includes an element resembling a 5' splice site consensus sequence that is critical for splicing enhancer activity. Mutations within this pseudo-5' splice site sequence have a dramatic effect on splicing and protein binding. Thus SEa2 and its associated factors are required for splicing of TRalpha2 pre-mRNA. PMID:11421362

Hastings, M L; Wilson, C M; Munroe, S H

2001-01-01

160

Inference of alternative splicing from tiling array data.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mechanism implicated in eukaryotic gene expression, whereby exon segments of precursor-mRNA transcripts are joined together in different arrangements corresponding to diverse isoforms of mature mRNA. Accumulating evidence suggests that in many instances this process is specifically regulated and contributes to the structural and functional diversification of tissues and cell types. Furthermore, several studies support the view that environmental stresses dramatically impact on AS and reported the presence of novel transcript isoforms in response to biotic or abiotic stresses. Since specific regulation of AS in plants is a largely unexplored field of research, large-scale approaches aimed at monitoring AS on a genome-wide level are of increasing importance to gain insights into tissue-specific splicing regulation and to study the effects of changed environmental conditions on pre-mRNA splicing.Here, we describe the concepts of a traditional statistical approach, and a more recently developed machine learning-based method for AS detection from tiling arrays. The here presented approaches were employed for the detection and profiling of AS events in the model plant A. thaliana, and applied to a large dataset comprising transcriptomic expression data from 11 tissues and 13 stress conditions. PMID:23975791

Eichner, Johannes

2013-01-01

161

A functional alternative splicing mutation in human tryptophan hydroxylase-2  

PubMed Central

The brain serotonergic system has an essential role in the physiological functions of the central nervous system and dysregulation of serotonin (5-HT) homeostasis has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. The tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and thus is an ideal candidate gene for understanding the role of dysregulation of brain serotonergic homeostasis. Here, we characterized a common, but functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1386493) in the TPH2 gene, which decreases efficiency of normal RNA splicing, resulting in a truncated TPH2 protein (TPH2-TR) by alternative splicing. TPH2-TR, which lacks TPH2 enzyme activity, dominant-negatively affects full-length TPH2 function, causing reduced 5-HT production. The predicted mRNA for TPH2-TR is present in postmortem brain of rs1386493 carriers. The rs13864923 variant does not appear to be overrepresented in either global or multiplex depression cohorts. However, in combination with other gene variants linked to 5-HT homeostasis, this variant may exhibit important epistatic influences. PMID:20856248

Zhang, X; Nicholls, P J; Laje, G; Sotnikova, T D; Gainetdinov, R R; Albert, P R; Rajkowska, G; Stockmeier, C A; Speer, M C; Steffens, D C; Austin, M C; McMahon, F J; Krishnan, K R R; Garcia-Blanco, M A; Caron, M G

2011-01-01

162

Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing in Zea mays: Landscape and Genetic Regulation.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing enhances transcriptome diversity in all eukaryotes and plays a role in plant tissue identity and stress adaptation. To catalog new maize (Zea mays) transcripts and identify genomic loci that regulate alternative splicing, we analyzed over 90 RNA-seq libraries from maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17, as well as Syn10 doubled haploid lines (progenies from B73 × Mo17). Transcript discovery was augmented with publicly available data from 14 maize tissues, expanding the maize transcriptome by more than 30,000 and increasing the percentage of intron-containing genes that undergo alternative splicing to 40%. These newly identified transcripts greatly increase the diversity of the maize proteome, sometimes coding for entirely different proteins compared with their most similar annotated isoform. In addition to increasing proteome diversity, many genes encoding novel transcripts gained an additional layer of regulation by microRNAs, often in a tissue-specific manner. We also demonstrate that the majority of genotype-specific alternative splicing can be genetically mapped, with cis-acting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) predominating. A large number of trans-acting QTLs were also apparent, with nearly half located in regions not shown to contain genes associated with splicing. Taken together, these results highlight the currently underappreciated role that alternative splicing plays in tissue identity and genotypic variation in maize. PMID:25248552

Thatcher, Shawn R; Zhou, Wengang; Leonard, April; Wang, Bing-Bing; Beatty, Mary; Zastrow-Hayes, Gina; Zhao, Xiangyu; Baumgarten, Andy; Li, Bailin

2014-09-01

163

Riboswitch Control of Gene Expression in Plants by Splicing and Alternative 3' End Processing of mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widespread riboswitch class, found in organisms from all three domains of life, is responsive to the vitamin B1 derivative thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). We have established that a TPP-sensing riboswitch is present in the 39 untranslated region (UTR) of the thiamin biosynthetic gene THIC of all plant species examined. The THIC TPP riboswitch controls the formation of transcripts with

Andreas Wachter; Meral Tunc-Ozdemir; Beth C. Grove; Pamela J. Green; David K. Shintani; R. R. Breaker

2007-01-01

164

CRE promoter sites modulate alternative splicing via p300-mediated histone acetylation.  

PubMed

Histone acetylation modulates alternative splicing of several hundred genes. Here, we tested the role of the histone acetyltransferase p300 in alternative splicing and showed that knockdown of p300 promotes inclusion of the fibronectin (FN1) alternative EDB exon. p300 associates with CRE sites in the promoter via the CREB transcription factor. We created mini-gene reporters driven by an artificial promoter containing CRE sites. Both deletion and mutation of the CRE site affected EDB alternative splicing in the same manner as p300 knockdown. Next we showed that p300 controls histone H4 acetylation along the FN1 gene. Consistently, p300 depletion and CRE deletion/mutation both reduced histone H4 acetylation on mini-gene reporters. Finally, we provide evidence that the effect of CRE inactivation on H4 acetylation and alternative splicing is counteracted by the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Together, these data suggest that histone acetylation could be one of the mechanisms how promoter and promoter binding proteins influence alternative splicing. PMID:25019513

Dušková, Eva; Hnilicová, Jarmila; Stan?k, David

2014-07-01

165

[Perspectives of RNA interference application in the therapy of diseases associated with defects in alternative RNA splicing].  

PubMed

The primary transcript of an eukaryotic gene (pre-mRNA) is composed of coding regions--exons intervened by non-coding introns--which are removed in the RNA splicing process, leading to the formation of mature, intron-free mRNA. Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is responsible for high complexity of the cellular proteome and expresses effective use of genetic information contained in genomic DNA. Alternative splicing plays important roles in the organism, including apoptosis regulation or development and plasticity of the nervous system. The main role of alternative splicing is differential, dependent on conditions and the cell type, splicing of mRNA, generating diverse transcripts from one gene, and, after the translation, different isoforms of a particular protein. Because of the high complexity of this mechanism, alternative splicing is particularly prone to errors. The perturbations resulting from mutations in the key sequences for splicing regulations are especially harmful. The pathogenesis of numerous diseases results from disturbed alternative RNA splicing, and those include cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The treatment of these conditions is problematic due to their genetic background and currently RNA interference, which is a common mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation, is being studied. Initial successes in the attempts of silencing the expression of faulty protein isoforms support the idea of using RNA interference in targeting disease related to disturbances in alternative splicing of RNA. PMID:23001210

Wysoki?ski, Daniel; B?asiak, Janusz

2012-01-01

166

Intron mis-splicing: no alternative?  

PubMed Central

A recent report reveals widespread mis-splicing of RNA transcripts in eukaryotes, with mis-spliced RNA destroyed by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This striking inefficiency deepens the mystery of the proliferation and persistence of introns. PMID:18304372

Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2008-01-01

167

Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding the type I and type II interferons (IFNs) have previously been identified in rainbow trout and their proteins partially characterized. These previous studies reported a single type II IFN (rtIFN-?) and three rainbow trout type I IFN genes that are classified into either group I (rtIFN1, rtIFN2) or group II (rtIFN3). In this present study, we report

Maureen K. Purcell; Kerry J. Laing; James C. Woodson; Gary H. Thorgaard; John D. Hansen

2009-01-01

168

Multiple Alternative Splicing and Differential Expression Pattern of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? (GSK3?) Gene in Goat (Capra hircus)  

PubMed Central

Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) has been identified as a key protein kinase involved in several signaling pathways, such as Wnt, IGF-? and Hedgehog. However, knowledge regarding GSK3? in the goat is limited. In this study, we cloned and characterized the goat GSK3? gene. Six novel GSK3? transcripts were identified in different tissues and designated as GSK3?1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. RT-PCR was used to further determine whether the six GSK3? transcripts existed in different goat tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain (S_TKc domain) is missing from GSK3?2 and GSK3?4. GSK3?3 and GSK3?6 do not contain the negative regulatory sites that are controlled by p38 MAPK. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that all the GSK3? transcripts were expressed at the highest level in the heart, whereas their expression levels in the liver, spleen, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle and uterus were different. These studies provide useful information for further research on the functions of GSK3? isoforms. PMID:25334049

Hou, Yuguo; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

2014-01-01

169

Conserved RNA cis-elements regulate alternative splicing of Lepidopteran doublesex.  

PubMed

Doublesex (dsx) is a downstream key regulator in insect sex determination pathway. In Drosophila, alternative splicing of Dm-dsx gene is sex-specifically regulated by transformer (tra), in which the functional TRA promotes female-specific Dm-dsx. However, the sex determination pathway in Lepidoptera is not well understood; here we focused on alternative splicing of doublesex (dsx) in two agricultural pests, Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), as well as the silkworm (Bombyx mori). More than a dozen new alternative splicing isoforms of dsx were found in the Lepidopteran females, which exist in all tested developmental stages and differentiated tissues. Alignment of mRNA and protein sequences of doublesex revealed high conservation of this gene in Lepidoptera. Strength analysis of splice sites revealed a weak 5' splice site at intron 3 in Lepidopteran dsx, which was experimentally confirmed. Furthermore, we identified highly conserved RNA sequences in the Lepidopteran dsx, including RNA elements I (14 nt), II (11 nt), III (26 nt), IV (17 nt), 3E-1 (8 nt) and 3E-2 (8 nt). The RNA elements III and IV were previously found in exon 4 of B. mori dsx and bound with Bm-PSI, which suppressed the inclusion of exons 3 & 4 into the male-specific Bm-dsx. Then we identified and analyzed the homologous genes of Bm-psi in the two Lepidopteran pests, which expressed at similar levels and exhibited a unique isoform in the males and females from each Lepidoptera. Importantly, mutagenesis of Bm-dsx mini-genes and their expression in BmN cell line demonstrated that three RNA elements are involved in the female-specific alternative splicing of Bm-dsx. Mutations in the RNA cis-elements 3E-1 and 3E-2 resulted in decreased inclusion of exon 3 into the female-specific dsx mRNA, suggesting that these two elements would be exonic splicing enhancers that facilitate the recognition of the weak 5' splice site at intron 3 of Lepidopteran dsx. We propose that the 5' splice sites at intron 3 are weak, resulting in multiple alternative splicing events in intron 3 of female Lepidoptera dsx. Activation of the 5' splice site requires regulatory cis-elements in exons 3 for female-specific splicing of Lepidoptera dsx. PMID:24239545

Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zheng, Zeng-Zhang; Song, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Yong-Zhen

2014-01-01

170

A sequence compilation and comparison of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism to create protein diversity. In order to elucidate possible regulatory elements common to neuron specific exons, we created and statistically analysed a database of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons. The splice site comparison of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons reveals that some, but not all alternatively spliced exons have splice sites deviating from the consensus sequence, implying diverse patterns of regulation. The deviation from the consensus is most evident at the -3 position of the 3' splice site and the +4 and -3 position of the 5' splice site. The nucleotide composition of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons is different, with alternatively spliced exons being more AU rich. We performed overlapping k-tuple analysis to identify common motifs. We found that alternatively and constitutively spliced exons differ in the frequency of several trinucleotides that cannot be explained by the amino acid composition and may be important for splicing regulation. PMID:8202349

Stamm, S; Zhang, M Q; Marr, T G; Helfman, D M

1994-05-11

171

A sequence compilation and comparison of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons.  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism to create protein diversity. In order to elucidate possible regulatory elements common to neuron specific exons, we created and statistically analysed a database of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons. The splice site comparison of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons reveals that some, but not all alternatively spliced exons have splice sites deviating from the consensus sequence, implying diverse patterns of regulation. The deviation from the consensus is most evident at the -3 position of the 3' splice site and the +4 and -3 position of the 5' splice site. The nucleotide composition of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons is different, with alternatively spliced exons being more AU rich. We performed overlapping k-tuple analysis to identify common motifs. We found that alternatively and constitutively spliced exons differ in the frequency of several trinucleotides that cannot be explained by the amino acid composition and may be important for splicing regulation. PMID:8202349

Stamm, S; Zhang, M Q; Marr, T G; Helfman, D M

1994-01-01

172

A deep survey of alternative splicing in grape reveals changes in the splicing machinery related to tissue, stress condition and genotype  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity. It is differentially regulated in a wide variety of cell types and plays a role in several cellular processes. Here we describe a detailed survey of alternative splicing in grape based on 124 SOLiD RNAseq analyses from different tissues, stress conditions and genotypes. Results We used the RNAseq data to update the existing grape gene prediction with 2,258 new coding genes and 3,336 putative long non-coding RNAs. Several gene structures have been improved and alternative splicing was described for about 30% of the genes. A link between AS and miRNAs was shown in 139 genes where we found that AS affects the miRNA target site. A quantitative analysis of the isoforms indicated that most of the spliced genes have one major isoform and tend to simultaneously co-express a low number of isoforms, typically two, with intron retention being the most frequent alternative splicing event. Conclusions As described in Arabidopsis, also grape displays a marked AS tissue-specificity, while stress conditions produce splicing changes to a minor extent. Surprisingly, some distinctive splicing features were also observed between genotypes. This was further supported by the observation that the panel of Serine/Arginine-rich splicing factors show a few, but very marked differences between genotypes. The finding that a part the splicing machinery can change in closely related organisms can lead to some interesting hypotheses for evolutionary adaptation, that could be particularly relevant in the response to sudden and strong selective pressures. PMID:24739459

2014-01-01

173

Quantitative and evolutionary biology of alternative splicing: how changing the mix of alternative transcripts affects phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-messenger RNA is a common phenomenon that creates different transcripts from a single gene, and these alternative transcripts affect phenotypes. The majority of AS research has examined tissue and developmental specificity of expression of particular AS transcripts, how this specificity affects cell function, and how aberrant AS is related to disease. Few studies have examined quantitative

J H Marden

2008-01-01

174

Are all of the human exons alternatively spliced?  

PubMed

Alternative mRNA splicing (AS) is a major mechanism for increasing regulatory complexity. A key concept in AS is the distinction between alternatively and constitutively spliced exons (ASEs and CSEs, respectively). ASEs and CSEs have been reported to be differentially regulated, and to have distinct biological properties. However, the recent flood of RNA-sequencing data has obscured the boundary between ASEs and CSEs. Researchers are beginning to question whether ‘authentic CSEs’ do exist, and whether the ASE/CSE distinction is biologically invalid. Here, I examine the influences of increasing transcriptome data on the human ASE/CSE classification and our past understanding of the properties of these two types of exons. Interestingly, although the percentage of human ASEs has increased dramatically in recent years, the overall distinction between ASEs and CSEs remain valid. For example, CSEs are longer, evolve more slowly, and less frequently correspond to intrinsically disordered protein regions than ASEs. In addition, only a relatively small number of human genes have their transcripts composed entirely of ASEs despite the large amount of high-throughput transcriptome information. Therefore, the ‘backbone’ concept of AS, in which CSEs constitute the invariant part and ASEs the flexible part of the transcript, appears to be generally true despite the increasing percentage of ASEs in the human exome. PMID:23640569

Chen, Feng-Chi

2014-07-01

175

Rapid-response splicing reporter screens identify differential regulators of constitutive and alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds have been invaluable for dissecting the mechanisms, regulation, and functions of cellular processes. However, very few such reagents have been described for pre-mRNA splicing. To facilitate their systematic discovery, we developed a high-throughput cell-based assay that measures pre-mRNA splicing by utilizing a quantitative reporter system with advantageous features. The reporter, consisting of a destabilized, intron-containing luciferase expressed from a short-lived mRNA, allows rapid screens (<4 h), thereby obviating the potential toxicity of splicing inhibitors. We describe three inhibitors (out of >23,000 screened), all pharmacologically active: clotrimazole, flunarizine, and chlorhexidine. Interestingly, none was a general splicing inhibitor. Rather, each caused distinct splicing changes of numerous genes. We further discovered the target of action of chlorhexidine and show that it is a selective inhibitor of specific Cdc2-like kinases (Clks) that phosphorylate serine-arginine-rich (SR) protein splicing factors. Our findings reveal unexpected activities of clinically used drugs in splicing and uncover differential regulation of constitutively spliced introns. PMID:20123975

Younis, Ihab; Berg, Michael; Kaida, Daisuke; Dittmar, Kimberly; Wang, Congli; Dreyfuss, Gideon

2010-04-01

176

Identification of two distinct intron elements involved in alternative splicing of beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA.  

PubMed

The rat beta-tropomyosin gene encodes two isoforms, termed skeletal muscle beta-tropomyosin and fibroblast last tropomyosim 1 (TM-1), via an alternative RNA processing mechanism. The gene contains 11 exons. Exons 1-5 and exons 8 and 9 are common to all mRNAs expressed from the gene. Exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts, as well as smooth muscle, whereas exons 7 and 10 are used only in skeletal muscle. In the present studies we focused on the mutually exclusive internal alternative splice choice involving exon 6 (fibroblast-type splice) and exon 7 (skeletal muscle-type splice). We have identified two distinct elements in the intron, upstream of exon 7, involved in splice site selection. The first element is comprised of a polypyrimidine tract located 89-143 nucleotides upstream of the 3' splice site, which specifies the location of the lariat branchpoints used, 144-153 nucleotides upstream of exon 7. The 3' splice site AG dinucleotide has no role in selection of these branchpoints. The second element is comprised of intron sequences located between the polypyrimidine tract and the 3' splice site of exon 7. It contains an important determinant in alternative splice site selection, because deletion of these sequences results in the use of the skeletal muscle-specific exon in nonmuscle cells. We propose that the use of lariat branchpoints located far upstream from a 3' splice site may be a general feature of some alternatively excised introns, reflecting the presence of regulatory sequences located between the lariat branch site and the 3' splice site. The data also indicate that alternative splicing of the rat beta-tropomyosin gene is regulated by a somewhat different mechanism from that described for rat alpha-tropomyosin gene and the transformer-2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:2307372

Helfman, D M; Roscigno, R F; Mulligan, G J; Finn, L A; Weber, K S

1990-01-01

177

Control of alternative splicing by forskolin through hnRNP K during neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of cell signal-regulated alternative splicing at the 3? splice site remains largely unknown. We isolated a protein kinase A-responsive ribonucleic acid (RNA) element from a 3? splice site of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene for forskolin-inhibited splicing during neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The element binds specifically to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo protein (hnRNP) K in a phosphatase-sensitive way, which directly competes with the U2 auxiliary factor U2AF65, an essential component of early spliceosomes. Transcripts with similarly localized hnRNP K target motifs upstream of alternative exons are enriched in genes often associated with neurological diseases. We show that such motifs upstream of the Runx1 exon 6 also bind hnRNP K, and importantly, hnRNP K is required for forskolin-induced repression of the exon. Interestingly, this exon encodes the peptide domain that determines the switch of the transcriptional repressor/activator activity of Runx1, a change known to be critical in specifying neuron lineages. Consistent with an important role of the target genes in neurons, knocking down hnRNP K severely disrupts forskolin-induced neurite growth. Thus, through hnRNP K, the neuronal differentiation stimulus forskolin targets a critical 3? splice site component of the splicing machinery to control alternative splicing of crucial genes. This also provides a regulated direct competitor of U2AF65 for cell signal control of 3? splice site usage. PMID:22684629

Cao, Wenguang; Razanau, Aleh; Feng, Dairong; Lobo, Vincent G.; Xie, Jiuyong

2012-01-01

178

Regulation of Telomerase Alternative Splicing: A New Target for Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Telomerase is present in human cancer cells but absent in most somatic tissues. The mRNA of human telomerase (hTERT) is alternatively spliced into mostly non-functional products. We sought to understand splicing so we could decrease functional splice isoforms to reduce telomerase activity to complement direct enzyme inhibition. Unexpectedly, minigenes containing hTERT exons 5–10 flanked by 150–300bp intronic sequences did not produce alternative splicing. A 1.1kb region of 38bp repeats ~2kb from the exon 6/intron junction restored exclusion of exons 7/8. An element within intron 8, also >1kb from intron/exon junctions, modulated this effect. Transducing an oligonucleotide complementary to this second element increased non-functional hTERT mRNA from endogenous telomerase. These results demonstrate the potential of manipulating hTERT splicing for both chemotherapy and regenerative medicine, and provide the first specific sequences deep within introns that regulate alternative splicing in mammalian cells by mechanisms other than introducing cryptic splice sites. PMID:23562158

Wong, Mandy S.; Chen, Ling; Foster, Christopher; Kainthla, Radhika; Shay, Jerry W.; Wright, Woodring E.

2013-01-01

179

Modulation of alternative splicing by expression of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, catalyzed by small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), plays an important role in proteome complexity and the modulation of cellular functions. snRNP polypeptide N (SmN), is tissue-specifically expressed, where it replaces snRNP polypeptide B (SmB)/B' in the Sm core assembly of snRNPs. Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbation of snRNPs leads to alternative splicing, but whether SmN modulates functions of the splicing machinery remains unclear. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of SmN increased utilization of the proximal 5' splice site on an adenovirus early gene 1A reporter. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying SmN-dependent alternative splicing, we generated a HeLa cell line with an inducible expression system for SmN. Upon SmN induction, SmB/B' expression decreased dramatically, despite only small changes in the level and splicing pattern of SNRPB mRNA. In addition, SmN was incorporated into the U2 snRNP but not into the U1 snRNP after induction. Sedimentation analysis revealed a decrease in the level of mature U2 snRNP. This result suggests that SmN incorporation into the Sm core may impede processing, decreasing the level of functional U2 snRNP. We also found that the inclusion frequencies of alternatively spliced exons in the bridging integrator 1 and exocyst complex component 7 (EXOC7) genes were modulated by SmN expression. An enhanced GFP-EXOC7 reporter was used to confirm that SmN increases the inclusion frequency of EXOC7 exon 7. Taken together, our findings indicate that SmN expression reduces the level of mature U2 snRNP, leading to alternative splicing. PMID:25238490

Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Yu-Shan; Deng, Yi-Fang; Hsu, Wan-Ting; Shen, Chiung-Chun; Cheng, Yi-Hsin; Huang, Yao-Ting; Li, Chin

2014-12-01

180

C6 pyridinium ceramide influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing by inhibiting protein phosphatase-1  

PubMed Central

Alternative pre-mRNA processing is a central element of eukaryotic gene regulation. The cell frequently alters the use of alternative exons in response to physiological stimuli. Ceramides are lipid-signaling molecules composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid. Previously, water-insoluble ceramides were shown to change alternative splicing and decrease SR-protein phosphorylation by activating protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). To gain further mechanistical insight into ceramide-mediated alternative splicing, we analyzed the effect of C6 pyridinium ceramide (PyrCer) on alternative splice site selection. PyrCer is a water-soluble ceramide analog that is under investigation as a cancer drug. We found that PyrCer binds to the PP1 catalytic subunit and inhibits the dephosphorylation of several splicing regulatory proteins containing the evolutionarily conserved RVxF PP1-binding motif (including PSF/SFPQ, Tra2-beta1 and SF2/ASF). In contrast to natural ceramides, PyrCer promotes phosphorylation of splicing factors. Exons that are regulated by PyrCer have in common suboptimal splice sites, are unusually short and share two 4-nt motifs, GAAR and CAAG. They are dependent on PSF/SFPQ, whose phosphorylation is regulated by PyrCer. Our results indicate that lipids can influence pre-mRNA processing by regulating the phosphorylation status of specific regulatory factors, which is mediated by protein phosphatase activity. PMID:22210893

Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Kelemen, Olga; Beullens, Monique; Aubol, Brandon E.; Adams, Joseph A.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew; Bollen, Mathieu; Andreadis, Athena; Stamm, Stefan

2012-01-01

181

Dynamic regulation of alternative splicing and chromatin structure in Drosophila gonads revealed by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Both transcription and post-transcriptional processes, such as alternative splicing, play crucial roles in controlling developmental programs in metazoans. Recently emerged RNA-seq method has brought our understandings of eukaryotic transcriptomes to a new level, because it can resolve both gene expression level and alternative splicing events simultaneously. To gain a better understanding of cellular differentiation in gonads, we analyzed mRNA profiles from Drosophila testes and ovaries using RNA-seq. We identified a set of genes that have sex-specific isoforms in wild-type (wt) gonads, including several transcription factors. We found that differentiation of sperms from undifferentiated germ cells induced a dramatic down-regulation of RNA splicing factors. Our data confirmed that RNA splicing events are significantly more frequent in the undifferentiated-cell enriched bag of marbles (bam) mutant testis, but down-regulated upon differentiation in wt testis. Consistent with this, we showed that genes required for meiosis and terminal differentiation in wt testis were mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, but not by alternative splicing. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in expression of all families of chromatin remodeling factors and histone modifying enzymes in the undifferentiated cell-enriched bam testis. More interestingly, chromatin regulators and histone modifying enzymes with opposite enzymatic activities are co-enriched in undifferentiated cells in testis, suggesting these cells may possess dynamic chromatin architecture. Finally, our data revealed many new features of the Drosophila gonadal transcriptomes, and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how differential gene expression and splicing regulate gametogenesis in Drosophila. Our data provided a foundation for the systematic study of gene expression and alternative splicing in many interesting areas of germ cell biology in Drosophila, such as the molecular basis for sexual dimorphism and the regulation of the proliferation vs. terminal differentiation programs in germline stem cell lineages. The GEO accession number for the raw and analyzed RNA-seq data is GSE16960. PMID:20440302

Gan, Qiang; Chepelev, Iouri; Wei, Gang; Tarayrah, Lama; Cui, Kairong; Zhao, Keji; Chen, Xin

2010-01-01

182

Developmental expression of p107 mRNA and evidence for alternative splicing of the p107 (RBL1) gene product  

SciTech Connect

Expression of p107, a protein with homology to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB), was monitored during murine development. Northern blot tissue surveys identified two transcripts of 4.9 and 2.4 kb that hybridized to a p107 cDNA clone. Expression of both transcripts was detected in fetal tissues, with particularly high levels in the liver and heart. In contrast, p107 transcripts were markedly decreased in most adult tissues examined. Molecular cloning analyses revealed that the 4.9- and 2.4-kb transcripts encoded proteins with deduced molecular masses of 119 and 68 kDa, respectively. Genetic mapping studies suggested that the two p107 transcripts arose by alternative splicing of a common precursor. The protein encoded by the 2.4-kb transcript lacks the spacer and B motif of the {open_quotes}pocket domain,{close_quotes} a region of homology between p107 and pRB that is required for binding to cell cycle regulatory proteins. Structural modifications resulting from alternative splicing may this confer functional diversity upon the 119- and 68-kDa proteins. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, Kyung Keun; Soonpaa, M.H.; Wang, He [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

1995-08-10

183

Conserved sequences in the final intron of MDM2 are essential for the regulation of alternative splicing of MDM2 in response to stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in generating proteome diversity and is critical in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. It is estimated that 50% of disease-causing mutations alter splicing efficiency and\\/or patterns of splicing. An alternatively spliced form of murine double-minute 2, MDM2-ALT1, is associated with pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) at high frequency in primary human tumors and RMS cell lines.

Ravi K. Singh; Aixa Tapia-Santos; Thomas W. Bebee; Dawn S. Chandler

2009-01-01

184

Identification of alternative splicing events regulated by the oncogenic factor SRSF1 in lung cancer.  

PubMed

Abnormal alternative splicing has been associated with cancer. Genome-wide microarrays can be used to detect differential splicing events. In this study, we have developed ExonPointer, an algorithm that uses data from exon and junction probes to identify annotated cassette exons. We used the algorithm to profile differential splicing events in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells after downregulation of the oncogenic serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1). Data were generated using two different microarray platforms. The PCR-based validation rate of the top 20 ranked genes was 60% and 100%. Functional enrichment analyses found a substantial number of splicing events in genes related to RNA metabolism. These analyses also identified genes associated with cancer and developmental and hereditary disorders, as well as biologic processes such as cell division, apoptosis, and proliferation. Most of the top 20 ranked genes were validated in other adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer cells, with validation rates of 80% to 95% and 70% to 75%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis allowed us to identify four genes, ATP11C, IQCB1, TUBD1, and proline-rich coiled-coil 2C (PRRC2C), with a significantly different pattern of alternative splicing in primary non-small cell lung tumors compared with normal lung tissue. In the case of PRRC2C, SRSF1 downregulation led to the skipping of an exon overexpressed in primary lung tumors. Specific siRNA downregulation of the exon-containing variant significantly reduced cell growth. In conclusion, using a novel analytical tool, we have identified new splicing events regulated by the oncogenic splicing factor SRSF1 in lung cancer. PMID:24371231

de Miguel, Fernando J; Sharma, Ravi D; Pajares, María J; Montuenga, Luis M; Rubio, Angel; Pio, Ruben

2014-02-15

185

Splicing of the alternative exons of the chicken, rat, and Xenopus beta tropomyosin transcripts requires class-specific elements.  

PubMed

The diversity of protein isoforms is often generated from single genes by alternative splicing of the primary transcript. Using transfection of beta tropomyosin minigene constructs into homologous and heterologous cell systems, we show that there are differences, among higher vertebrates, in the components of the splicing machinery which control the conserved regulated splicing pattern of two mutually exclusive exons (6A and 6B) present in this gene. These experiments demonstrate that genes which give rise to alternative transcripts may require an appropriate combination of splicing factors which are species-specific, or at least restricted to the same taxonomic subgroup (class). An important practical implication is that the splicing of these genes may be deregulated in heterologous systems in vitro and in vivo, i.e. in transgenic animals. PMID:8051042

Balvay, L; Pret, A M; Libri, D; Helfman, D M; Fiszman, M Y

1994-08-01

186

A heroin addiction severity-associated intronic single nucleotide polymorphism modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the ? opioid receptor gene OPRM1 via hnRNPH interactions.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPRM1 gene have been associated with vulnerability to opioid dependence. The current study identifies an association of an intronic SNP (rs9479757) with the severity of heroin addiction among Han-Chinese male heroin addicts. Individual SNP analysis and haplotype-based analysis with additional SNPs in the OPRM1 locus showed that mild heroin addiction was associated with the AG genotype, whereas severe heroin addiction was associated with the GG genotype. In vitro studies such as electrophoretic mobility shift assay, minigene, siRNA, and antisense morpholino oligonucleotide studies have identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNPH) as the major binding partner for the G-containing SNP site. The G-to-A transition weakens hnRNPH binding and facilitates exon 2 skipping, leading to altered expressions of OPRM1 splice-variant mRNAs and hMOR-1 proteins. Similar changes in splicing and hMOR-1 proteins were observed in human postmortem prefrontal cortex with the AG genotype of this SNP when compared with the GG genotype. Interestingly, the altered splicing led to an increase in hMOR-1 protein levels despite decreased hMOR-1 mRNA levels, which is likely contributed by a concurrent increase in single transmembrane domain variants that have a chaperone-like function on MOR-1 protein stability. Our studies delineate the role of this SNP as a modifier of OPRM1 alternative splicing via hnRNPH interactions, and suggest a functional link between an SNP-containing splicing modifier and the severity of heroin addiction. PMID:25122903

Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Pan, Ling; Deng, Yi; Xie, Xiaohu; Liu, Huifen; Ding, Shixiong; Hurd, Yasmin L; Pasternak, Gavril W; Klein, Robert J; Cartegni, Luca; Zhou, Wenhua; Pan, Ying-Xian

2014-08-13

187

Incorporating alternative splicing and mRNA editing into the genetic analysis of complex traits.  

PubMed

The nomination of candidate genes underlying complex traits is often focused on genetic variations that alter mRNA abundance or result in non-conservative changes in amino acids. Although inconspicuous in complex trait analysis, genetic variants that affect splicing or RNA editing can also generate proteomic diversity and impact genetic traits. Indeed, it is known that splicing and RNA editing modulate several traits in humans and model organisms. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, it is now possible to integrate the genetics of transcript abundance, alternative splicing (AS) and editing with the analysis of complex traits. We recently demonstrated that both AS and mRNA editing are modulated by genetic and environmental factors, and potentially engender phenotypic diversity in a genetically segregating mouse population. Therefore, the analysis of splicing and RNA editing can expand not only the regulatory landscape of transcriptome and proteome complexity, but also the repertoire of candidate genes for complex traits. PMID:25171292

Hassan, Musa A; Saeij, Jeroen P J

2014-11-01

188

Conserved sequences in the final intron of MDM2 are essential for the regulation of alternative splicing of MDM2 in response to stress.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in generating proteome diversity and is critical in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. It is estimated that 50% of disease-causing mutations alter splicing efficiency and/or patterns of splicing. An alternatively spliced form of murine double-minute 2, MDM2-ALT1, is associated with pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) at high frequency in primary human tumors and RMS cell lines. We have identified that this isoform can be induced in response to specific types of stress (UV and cisplatin). However, the mechanism of alternative splicing of MDM2 in human cancer is unknown. Using UV and cisplatin to model alternative splicing of the MDM2 gene, we have developed a damage-inducible in vitro splicing system. This system employs an MDM2 minigene that mimics the damage-induced alternative splicing observed in vivo. Using this in vitro splicing system, we have shown that conserved intronic sequences in intron 11 of MDM2 are required for normal splicing. Furthermore, we showed that these intronic elements are also required for the regulated damage-induced alternative splicing of MDM2. The use of this novel damage-inducible system will allow for the systematic identification of regulatory elements and factors involved in the splicing regulation of the MDM2 gene in response to stress. This study has implications for identification of novel intervention points for development of future therapeutics for rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:19631207

Singh, Ravi K; Tapia-Santos, Aixa; Bebee, Thomas W; Chandler, Dawn S

2009-11-15

189

The Evolution of Alternative Splicing in the Pax Family: The View from the Basal Chordate Amphioxus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pax genes encode transcription factors critical for metazoan development. Large-scale gene duplication with subsequent gene losses\\u000a during vertebrate evolution has resulted in two human genes for each of the Pax1\\/9, Pax3\\/7, and Pax4\\/6 subfamilies and three for the Pax2\\/5\\/8 subfamily, compared to one each in the cephalochordate amphioxus. In addition, alternative splicing occurs in vertebrate\\u000a Pax transcripts from all four

Stephen Short; Linda Z. Holland

2008-01-01

190

Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)  

PubMed Central

The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT–PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef

2010-01-01

191

Fine-Scale Variation and Genetic Determinants of Alternative Splicing across Individuals  

PubMed Central

Recently, thanks to the increasing throughput of new technologies, we have begun to explore the full extent of alternative pre–mRNA splicing (AS) in the human transcriptome. This is unveiling a vast layer of complexity in isoform-level expression differences between individuals. We used previously published splicing sensitive microarray data from lymphoblastoid cell lines to conduct an in-depth analysis on splicing efficiency of known and predicted exons. By combining publicly available AS annotation with a novel algorithm designed to search for AS, we show that many real AS events can be detected within the usually unexploited, speculative majority of the array and at significance levels much below standard multiple-testing thresholds, demonstrating that the extent of cis-regulated differential splicing between individuals is potentially far greater than previously reported. Specifically, many genes show subtle but significant genetically controlled differences in splice-site usage. PCR validation shows that 42 out of 58 (72%) candidate gene regions undergo detectable AS, amounting to the largest scale validation of isoform eQTLs to date. Targeted sequencing revealed a likely causative SNP in most validated cases. In all 17 incidences where a SNP affected a splice-site region, in silico splice-site strength modeling correctly predicted the direction of the micro-array and PCR results. In 13 other cases, we identified likely causative SNPs disrupting predicted splicing enhancers. Using Fst and REHH analysis, we uncovered significant evidence that 2 putative causative SNPs have undergone recent positive selection. We verified the effect of five SNPs using in vivo minigene assays. This study shows that splicing differences between individuals, including quantitative differences in isoform ratios, are frequent in human populations and that causative SNPs can be identified using in silico predictions. Several cases affected disease-relevant genes and it is likely some of these differences are involved in phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to complex diseases. PMID:20011102

Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Lam, Kevin C. L.; Dias, Christel; Majewski, Jacek

2009-01-01

192

Replication stress-induced alternative mRNA splicing alters properties of the histone RNA-binding protein HBP/SLBP: a key factor in the control of histone gene expression.  

PubMed

Animal replication-dependent histone genes produce histone proteins for the packaging of newly replicated genomic DNA. The expression of these histone genes occurs during S phase and is linked to DNA replication via S-phase checkpoints. The histone RNA-binding protein HBP/SLBP (hairpin-binding protein/stem-loop binding protein), an essential regulator of histone gene expression, binds to the conserved hairpin structure located in the 3'UTR (untranslated region) of histone mRNA and participates in histone pre-mRNA processing, translation and histone mRNA degradation. Here, we report the accumulation of alternatively spliced HBP/SLBP transcripts lacking exons 2 and/or 3 in HeLa cells exposed to replication stress. We also detected a shorter HBP/SLBP protein isoform under these conditions that can be accounted for by alternative splicing of HBP/SLBP mRNA. HBP/SLBP mRNA alternative splicing returned to low levels again upon removal of replication stress and was abrogated by caffeine, suggesting the involvement of checkpoint kinases. Analysis of HBP/SLBP cellular localization using GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins revealed that HBP/SLBP protein and isoforms lacking the domains encoded by exon 2 and exons 2 and 3 were found in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas HBP/SLBP lacking the domain encoded by exon 3 was predominantly localised to the nucleus. This isoform lacks the conserved region important for protein-protein interaction with the CTIF [CBP80/20 (cap-binding protein 80/20)]-dependent initiation translation factor and the eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E)-dependent translation factor SLIP1/MIF4GD (SLBP-interacting protein 1/MIF4G domain). Consistent with this, we have previously demonstrated that this region is required for the function of HBP/SLBP in cap-dependent translation. In conclusion, alternative splicing allows the synthesis of HBP/SLBP isoforms with different properties that may be important for regulating HBP/SLBP functions during replication stress. PMID:23941746

Rattray, Alexander M J; Nicholson, Pamela; Müller, Berndt

2013-01-01

193

New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases.

Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

2014-01-01

194

Transcriptome analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by SRSF10 reveals position-dependent splicing modulation  

PubMed Central

Splicing factor SRSF10 is known to function as a sequence-specific splicing activator. Here, we used RNA-seq coupled with bioinformatics analysis to identify the extensive splicing network regulated by SRSF10 in chicken cells. We found that SRSF10 promoted both exon inclusion and exclusion. Motif analysis revealed that SRSF10 binding to cassette exons was associated with exon inclusion, whereas the binding of SRSF10 within downstream constitutive exons was associated with exon exclusion. This positional effect was further demonstrated by the mutagenesis of potential SRSF10 binding motifs in two minigene constructs. Functionally, many of SRSF10-verified alternative exons are linked to pathways of stress and apoptosis. Consistent with this observation, cells depleted of SRSF10 expression were far more susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis than control cells. Importantly, reconstituted SRSF10 in knockout cells recovered wild-type splicing patterns and considerably rescued the stress-related defects. Together, our results provide mechanistic insight into SRSF10-regulated alternative splicing events in vivo and demonstrate that SRSF10 plays a crucial role in cell survival under stress conditions. PMID:24442672

Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Wenwu; Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wei, Ning; Zong, Jie; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin; Chen, Dai; Manley, James L.; Wang, Hui; Feng, Ying

2014-01-01

195

The human decorin gene: Intron-exon organization, discovery of two alternatively spliced exons in the 5[prime] untralsated region, and mapping of the gene to chromosome 12q23  

SciTech Connect

Decorin is a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan expressed by most vascular and avascular connective tissues and, because of its ability to interact with collagen and growth factors, has been implicated in the control of matrix assembly and cellular growth. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating its tissue expression, we have isolated a number of genomic clones encoding the complete decorin gene. The human decorin gene spans over 38 kb of continuous DNA sequence and contains eight exons and very large introns, two of which are 5.4 and > 13.2 kb. We have discovered two alternatively spliced leader exons, exons Ia and Ib, in the 5[prime] untranslated region. These exons were identified by cloning and sequencing cDNAs obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fibroblast cDNA library. Using Northern blotting or reverse transcriptase PCR, we detected the two leader exons in a variety of mRNAs isolated from human cell lines and tissues. Interestingly, sequences highly (74-87%) homologous to exons Ia and lb are found in the 5[prime]untranslated region of avian and bovine decorin, respectively. This high degree of conservation among species suggests regulatory functions for these leader exons. In the 3' untranslated region there are several polyadenylation sites, and at least two of these sites could give rise to the transcripts of [approx]1.6 and [approx]1.9 kb, typically detected in a variety of tissues and cells. Using a genomic clone as the labeled probe and in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes, we have mapped the decorin gene to the discrete region of human chromosome 12q23. This sturdy provides the molecular basis for discerning the transcriptional control of the decorin gene and offers the opportunity to investigate genetic disorders linked to this important human gene. 57 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Danielson, K.G.; Fazzio, A.; Cohen, I.; Cannizzaro, L.A.; Eichstetter, I.; Iozzo, R.V. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

196

Correction of aberrant FGFR1 alternative RNA splicing through targeting of intronic regulatory elements.  

PubMed

Alternative RNA splicing is now known to be pervasive throughout the genome and a target of human disease. We evaluated if targeting intronic splicing regulatory sequences with antisense oligonucleotides could be used to correct aberrant exon skipping. As a model, we targeted the intronic silencing sequence (ISS) elements flanking the alternatively spliced alpha-exon of the endogenous fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, which is aberrantly skipped in human glioblastoma. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeting either upstream or downstream ISS elements increased alpha-exon inclusion from 10% up to 70% in vivo. The effect was dose dependent, sequence specific and reproducible in several human cell lines, but did not necessarily correlate with blocking of protein association in vitro. Simultaneous targeting of the ISS elements had no additive effect, suggesting that splicing regulation occurred through a shared mechanism. Broad applicability of this approach was demonstrated by similar targeting of the ISS elements of the human hnRNPA1 gene. The correction of FGFR1 gene splicing to >90% alpha-exon inclusion in glioblastoma cells had no discernable effect on cell growth in culture, but was associated with an increase in unstimulated caspase-3 and -7 activity. The ability to manipulate endogenously expressed mRNA variants allows exploration of their functional relevance under normal and diseased physiological states. PMID:15333583

Bruno, Ivone G; Jin, Wei; Cote, Gilbert J

2004-10-15

197

Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program  

SciTech Connect

A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

2006-06-15

198

Fine-mapping reveals novel alternative splicing of the dopamine transporter.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3, DAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). We previously detected association between SZ and intronic SLC6A3 variants that replicated in two independent Caucasian samples, but had no obvious function. In follow-up analyses, we sequenced the coding and intronic regions of SLC6A3 to identify complete linkage disequilibrium patterns of common variations. We genotyped 78 polymorphisms, narrowing the potentially causal region to two correlated clusters of associated SNPs localized predominantly to introns 3 and 4. Our computational analysis of these intronic regions predicted a novel cassette exon within intron 3, designated E3b, which is conserved among primates. We confirmed alternative splicing of E3b in post-mortem human substantia nigra (SN). As E3b introduces multiple in-frame stop codons, the SLC6A3 open reading frame is truncated and the spliced product may undergo nonsense mediated decay. Thus, factors that increase E3b splicing could reduce the amount of unspliced product available for translation. Observations consistent with this prediction were made using cellular assays and in post-mortem human SN. In mini-gene constructs, the extent of splicing is also influenced by at least two common haplotypes, so the alternative splicing was evaluated in relation to SZ risk. Meta-analyses across genome-wide association studies did not support the initial associations and further post-mortem studies did not suggest case-control differences in splicing. These studies do not provide a compelling link to schizophrenia. However, the impact of the alternative splicing on other neuropsychiatric disorders should be investigated. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20957647

Talkowski, Michael E; McCann, Kathleen L; Chen, Michael; McClain, Lora; Bamne, Mikhil; Wood, Joel; Chowdari, Kodavali V; Watson, Annie; Prasad, Konasale M; Kirov, George; Georgieva, Lyudmilla; Toncheva, Draga; Mansour, Hader; Lewis, David A; Owen, Michael; O'Donovan, Michael; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Sullivan, Patrick; Ruderfer, Douglas; Yao, Jeffrey K; Leonard, Sherry; Thomas, Pramod; Miyajima, Fabio; Quinn, John; Lopez, A Javier; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

2010-12-01

199

Disturbed Expression of Splicing Factors in Renal Cancer Affects Alternative Splicing of Apoptosis Regulators, Oncogenes, and Tumor Suppressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundClear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cancer. One of the processes disturbed in this cancer type is alternative splicing, although phenomena underlying these disturbances remain unknown. Alternative splicing consists of selective removal of introns and joining of residual exons of the primary transcript, to produce mRNA molecules of different sequence. Splicing aberrations may

Agnieszka Piekielko-Witkowska; Hanna Wiszomirska; Anna Wojcicka; Piotr Poplawski; Joanna Boguslawska; Zbigniew Tanski; Alicja Nauman; Juan Valcarcel

2010-01-01

200

Comprehensive annotation of splice junctions supports pervasive alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus: a report from the ENIGMA consortium.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function germline mutations in BRCA1 (MIM #113705) confer markedly increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The full-length transcript codifies for a protein involved in DNA repair pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Several BRCA1 splicing isoforms have been described in public domain databases, but the physiological role (if any) of BRCA1 alternative splicing remains to be established. An accurate description of 'naturally occurring' alternative splicing at this locus is a prerequisite to understand its biological significance. However, a systematic analysis of alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus is yet to be conducted. Here, the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germ-Line Mutant Alleles consortium combines RT-PCR, exon scanning, cloning, sequencing and relative semi-quantification to describe naturally occurring BRCA1 alternative splicing with unprecedented resolution. The study has been conducted in blood-related RNA sources, commonly used for clinical splicing assays, as well as in one healthy breast tissue. We have characterized a total of 63 BRCA1 alternative splicing events, including 35 novel findings. A minimum of 10 splicing events (?1Aq, ?5, ?5q, ?8p, ?9, ?(9,10), ?9_11, ?11q, ?13p and ?14p) represent a substantial fraction of the full-length expression level (ranging from 5 to 100%). Remarkably, our data indicate that BRCA1 alternative splicing is similar in blood and breast, a finding supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based in vitro splicing assays. Overall, our data suggest an alternative splicing model in which most non-mutually exclusive alternative splicing events are randomly combined into individual mRNA molecules to produce hundreds of different BRCA1 isoforms. PMID:24569164

Colombo, Mara; Blok, Marinus J; Whiley, Phillip; Santamariña, Marta; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Romero, Atocha; Garre, Pilar; Becker, Alexandra; Smith, Lindsay Denise; De Vecchi, Giovanna; Brandão, Rita D; Tserpelis, Demis; Brown, Melissa; Blanco, Ana; Bonache, Sandra; Menéndez, Mireia; Houdayer, Claude; Foglia, Claudia; Fackenthal, James D; Baralle, Diana; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Caldés, Trinidad; Walker, Logan; Díez, Orland; Vega, Ana; Spurdle, Amanda B; Radice, Paolo; De La Hoya, Miguel

2014-07-15

201

Alternative Splicing and Transcriptome Profiling of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Using Genome-Wide Exon Arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing demyelination and nerve loss in the central nervous system. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of MS that is widely used to investigate complex pathogenic mechanisms. Transcriptional control through isoform selection and mRNA levels determines pathway activation and ultimately susceptibility to disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We have studied the role of alternative splicing and differential expression in lymph node cells from EAE-susceptible Dark Agouti (DA) and EAE-resistant Piebald Virol Glaxo.AV1 (PVG) inbred rat strains using Affymetrix Gene Chip Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Comparing the two strains, we identified 11 differentially spliced and 206 differentially expressed genes at day 7 post-immunization, as well as 9 differentially spliced and 144 differentially expressed genes upon autoantigen re-stimulation. Functional clustering and pathway analysis implicate genes for glycosylation, lymphocyte activation, potassium channel activity and cellular differentiation in EAE susceptibility. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that alternative splicing occurs during complex disease and may govern EAE susceptibility. Additionally, transcriptome analysis not only identified previously defined EAE pathways regulating the immune system, but also novel mechanisms. Furthermore, several identified genes overlap known quantitative trait loci, providing novel causative candidate targets governing EAE. PMID:19915720

Gillett, Alan; Maratou, Klio; Fewings, Chris; Harris, Robert A.; Jagodic, Maja; Aitman, Tim; Olsson, Tomas

2009-01-01

202

Misregulation of Tau Alternative Splicing in Neurodegeneration and Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that fulfills several functions critical for neuronal formation and health. Tau discharges its functions by produc- ing multiple isoforms via intricately regulated alternative splicing. These isoforms modulate tau function in normal brain by altering the domains of the protein, thereby influencing its conformation and post-translational modifications and hence its affinity for microtubules and other ligands.

Athena Andreadis

2006-01-01

203

A long noncoding way to alternative splicing in plant development.  

PubMed

In this issue of Developmental Cell, Bardou et al. (2014) elucidate how long, highly structured noncoding RNAs control alternative splicing regulators that specifically mediate the action of the hormone auxin in the promotion of lateral root growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:25073153

Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2014-07-28

204

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell  

E-print Network

An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Mathieu expression. Here, we identify an evolutionarily conserved embryonic stem cell (ESC)- specific AS event of the regulatory processes responsible for maintenance of the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs

Zandstra, Peter W.

205

Multiple Oct2 isoforms are generated by alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the Oct2 transcription factor with the cognate octamer motif ATGCAAAT is a critical determinant of the lymphoid-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes. Ectopic expression of cloned Oct2 cDNA was shown to be sufficient to reconstitute at least some aspects of this regulation in non-lymphoid cells. We describe the isolation and characterization of multiple cDNAs encoding mouse Oct2 from a mature B-cell line and we show that a variety of isoforms of this transcription factor is generated from a single gene by an alternative splicing mechanism. All the isoforms retain the previously characterized POU-domain and are therefore able to bind to the octamer motif. Different amounts of the various isoforms are present within the same B-cell regardless of the developmental stage of B-cell differentiation and at least some of the isoforms are conserved between mouse and humans. In cotransfection experiments we show that all the isoforms are able to activate an octamer containing promoter element in fibroblasts revealing an unexpected functional redundancy. Finally, we show that one of the isoforms encodes the previously described lymphoid-specific Oct2B protein which has been suggested to be involved in the function of the octamer motif in the context of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) enhancer. Images PMID:2011512

Wirth, T; Priess, A; Annweiler, A; Zwilling, S; Oeler, B

1991-01-01

206

Neuronal cell type-specific alternative splicing is regulated by the KH domain protein SLM1  

PubMed Central

The unique functional properties and molecular identity of neuronal cell populations rely on cell type–specific gene expression programs. Alternative splicing represents a powerful mechanism for expanding the capacity of genomes to generate molecular diversity. Neuronal cells exhibit particularly extensive alternative splicing regulation. We report a highly selective expression of the KH domain–containing splicing regulators SLM1 and SLM2 in the mouse brain. Conditional ablation of SLM1 resulted in a severe defect in the neuronal isoform content of the polymorphic synaptic receptors neurexin-1, -2, and -3. Thus, cell type–specific expression of SLM1 provides a mechanism for shaping the molecular repertoires of synaptic adhesion molecules in neuronal populations in vivo. PMID:24469635

Iijima, Takatoshi; Iijima, Yoko; Witte, Harald

2014-01-01

207

Alternative splicing of TAF6: downstream transcriptome impacts and upstream RNA splice control elements.  

PubMed

The TAF6? pathway of apoptosis can dictate life versus death decisions independently of the status of p53 tumor suppressor. TAF6? is an inducible pro-apoptotic subunit of the general RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription factor TFIID. Alternative splice site choice of TAF6? has been shown to be a pivotal event in triggering death via the TAF6? pathway, yet nothing is currently known about the mechanisms that promote TAF6? splicing. Furthermore the transcriptome impact of the gain of function of TAF6? versus the loss of function of the major TAF6? splice form remains undefined. Here we employ comparative microarray analysis to show that TAF6? drives a transcriptome profile distinct from that resulting from depletion of TAF6?. To define the cis-acting RNA elements responsible for TAF6? alternative splicing we performed a mutational analysis of a TAF6 minigene system. The data point to several new RNA elements that can modulate TAF6? and also reveal a role for RNA secondary structure in the selection of TAF6?. PMID:25025302

Kamtchueng, Catherine; Stébenne, Marie-Éve; Delannoy, Aurélie; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Léger, Hélène; Benecke, Arndt G; Bell, Brendan

2014-01-01

208

A novel functional low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 gene alternative splice variant is associated with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

We previously found that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) gene are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we studied the posttranscriptional metabolism of the LRP6 message scanning sequentially the 23 LRP6 exons in human tissues and found a novel LRP6 isoform that completely skips exon 3 (LRP6?3) in all tissues examined and was also conserved in mice. Expression levels of the LRP6 isoforms were determined in 47 cortical brain messenger (m)RNA samples including 22 AD cases, 11 control subjects, and 14 individuals with other neurological disorders. LRP6?3 mRNA levels were significantly augmented in AD brains compared with controls (1.6-fold; p = 0.037) or other pathological samples (2-fold; p = 0.007). Functional analysis in Wnt/?-catenin signaling assays revealed that skipping of exon 3 reduced significantly the signaling activity of the LRP6 coreceptor. We conclude that the LRP6?3 isoform is a novel splice variant, which shows diminished Wnt/?-catenin signaling activity and might have a functional role in individuals with AD. PMID:23218566

Alarcón, Marcelo A; Medina, Matías A; Hu, Qubai; Avila, Miguel E; Bustos, Bernabé I; Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Peralta, Alexis; Salazar, Paulina; Ugarte, Giorgia D; Reyes, Ariel E; Martin, George M; Opazo, Carlos; Moon, Randall T; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

2013-06-01

209

Pressure-Overload Cardiac Hypertrophy Is Associated with Distinct Alternative Splicing Due to Altered Expression of Splicing Factors  

PubMed Central

Chronic pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity/mortality, largely due to maladaptive remodeling and dilatation that progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy. Alternative splicing is an important biological mechanism that generates proteomic complexity and diversity. The recent development of next-generation RNA sequencing has improved our understanding of the qualitative signatures associated with alternative splicing in various biological conditions. However, the role of alternative splicing in cardiac hypertrophy is yet unknown. The present study employed RNA-Seq and a bioinformatic approach to detect the RNA splicing regulatory elements involved in alternative splicing during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. We found GC-rich exonic motifs that regulate intron retention in 5? UTRs and AT-rich exonic motifs that are involved in exclusion of the AT-rich elements that cause mRNA instability in 3? UTRs. We also identified motifs in the intronic regions involved in exon exclusion and inclusion, which predicted splicing factors that bind to these motifs. We found, through Western blotting, that the expression levels of three splicing factors, ESRP1, PTB and SF2/ASF, were significantly altered during cardiac hypertrophy. Collectively, the present results suggest that chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy is closely associated with distinct alternative splicing due to altered expression of splicing factors. PMID:24552714

Kim, Taeyong; Kim, Jin Ock; Oh, Jae Gyun; Hong, Seong-Eui; Kim, Do Han

2014-01-01

210

The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

2014-04-01

211

Detection of novel mRNA splice variants of human ING4 tumor suppressor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitor of growth (ING)4, member of a gene family encoding potential tumor suppressors, is implicated as a repressor of angiogenesis and tumor growth and suppresses loss of contact inhibition in vitro. Here, we report that ING4 undergoes alternative splicing. Expression analysis identified novel ING4 spliced variant mRNAs encoding proteins devoid of different portions. The ING4 variants were detected in both

G Raho; C Miranda; E Tamborini; M A Pierotti; A Greco

2007-01-01

212

Alternative splicing results in RET isoforms with distinct trafficking properties  

PubMed Central

RET encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for spermatogenesis, development of the sensory, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems and the kidneys, as well as for maintenance of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. RET is alternatively spliced to encode multiple isoforms that differ in their C-terminal amino acids. The RET9 and RET51 isoforms display unique levels of autophosphorylation and have differential interactions with adaptor proteins. They induce distinct gene expression patterns, promote different levels of cell differentiation and transformation, and play unique roles in development. Here we present a comprehensive study of the subcellular localization and trafficking of RET isoforms. We show that immature RET9 accumulates intracellularly in the Golgi, whereas RET51 is efficiently matured and present in relatively higher amounts on the plasma membrane. RET51 is internalized faster after ligand binding and undergoes recycling back to the plasma membrane. This differential trafficking of RET isoforms produces a more rapid and longer duration of signaling through the extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway downstream of RET51 relative to RET9. Together these differences in trafficking properties contribute to some of the functional differences previously observed between RET9 and RET51 and establish the important role of intracellular trafficking in modulating and maintaining RET signaling. PMID:22875993

Richardson, Douglas S.; Rodrigues, David M.; Hyndman, Brandy D.; Crupi, Mathieu J. F.; Nicolescu, Adrian C.; Mulligan, Lois M.

2012-01-01

213

Structure and expression of spermidine synthase genes in apple: two cDNAs are spatially and developmentally regulated through alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Three cDNAs (MdSPDS1, 2a and 2b) encoding spermidine synthase (SPDS), a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis, have been cloned from apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The deduced amino acid sequences of their protein products share 76-83% identity with SPDSs of other higher plants. A comparison of the sequences of the three cDNAs and of the two corresponding genomic DNA fragments (SPDS1 and SPDS2) indicated that MdSPDS1 was transcribed from the SPDS1 sequence, whereas MdSPDS2a and MdSPDS2b were both derived from SPDS2 by alternative splicing. To learn more about the physiological roles of MdSPDS1, MdSPDS2a and MdSPDS2b, Northern analyses were carried out, together with measurements of polyamine content. Levels of both MdSPDS1 and MdSPD2a were higher in young leaves than in mature leaves and shoots. In fruits, mRNA levels were nearly as high as in young leaves and remained high during fruit development. By RT-PCR, MdSPDS2b transcripts were detected in mature leaves and shoots, but not in young leaves and fruits. These results indicate that MdSPDS2a and MdSPDS2b are differentially regulated in a tissue- and developmentally specific manner. The content of free polyamines in mesocarp tissues was measured at five stages of fruit development. At all stages, spermidine (Spd) was the predominant form of polyamine. The level of Spd was high at the early growth stage and declined to about 90% during later developmental stages. The possible regulation of SPDS expression during apple fruit development is discussed. PMID:12655406

Zhang, Z; Honda, C; Kita, M; Hu, C; Nakayama, M; Moriguchi, T

2003-03-01

214

RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis Pollen Uncovers Novel Transcription and Alternative Splicing1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing patterns of pollen transcripts will improve our understanding of pollen and allow investigation of tissue-specific splicing in plants. Most Arabidopsis pollen transcriptome studies have used the ATH1 microarray, which does not assay splice variants and lacks specific probe sets for many genes. To investigate the pollen transcriptome, we performed high-throughput sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Arabidopsis pollen and seedlings for comparison. Gene expression was more diverse in seedling, and genes involved in cell wall biogenesis were highly expressed in pollen. RNA-Seq detected at least 4,172 protein-coding genes expressed in pollen, including 289 assayed only by nonspecific probe sets. Additional exons and previously unannotated 5? and 3? untranslated regions for pollen-expressed genes were revealed. We detected regions in the genome not previously annotated as expressed; 14 were tested and 12 were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Gapped read alignments revealed 1,908 high-confidence new splicing events supported by 10 or more spliced read alignments. Alternative splicing patterns in pollen and seedling were highly correlated. For most alternatively spliced genes, the ratio of variants in pollen and seedling was similar, except for some encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing. This study highlights the robustness of splicing patterns in plants and the importance of ongoing annotation and visualization of RNA-Seq data using interactive tools such as Integrated Genome Browser. PMID:23590974

Loraine, Ann E.; McCormick, Sheila; Estrada, April; Patel, Ketan; Qin, Peng

2013-01-01

215

Complex changes in alternative pre-mRNA splicing play a central role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)  

PubMed Central

The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental process that is also implicated in disease pathophysiology, such as cancer progression and metastasis. A wealth of literature in recent years has identified important transcriptional regulators and large-scale changes in gene expression programs that drive the phenotypic changes that occur during the EMT. However, in the past couple of years it has become apparent that extensive changes in alternative splicing also play a profound role in shaping the changes in cell behavior that characterize the EMT. While long known splicing switches in FGFR2 and p120-catenin provided hints of a larger program of EMT-associated alternative splicing, the recent identification of the epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (ESRP1 and ESRP2) began to reveal this genome-wide post-transcriptional network. Several studies have now demonstrated the truly vast extent of this alternative splicing program. The global switches in splicing associated with the EMT add an important additional layer of post-transcriptional control that works in harmony with transcriptional and epigenetic regulation to effect complex changes in cell shape, polarity, and behavior that mediate transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. Future challenges include the need to investigate the functional consequences of these splicing switches at both the individual gene as well as systems level. PMID:22548723

Warzecha, Claude C.; Carstens, Russ P.

2012-01-01

216

Processing sites involved in intron splicing of Armillaria natural product genes.  

PubMed

We analysed the structure of four genes whose transcriptional products are likely to be involved in the small molecule metabolism of the homobasidiomycete Armillaria mellea with the aim of verifying splice sites. To this end we experimentally validated in silico predicted intron/exon junctions for accuracy. Based on 78 verified junctions, a consensus for donor and acceptor sites in Armillaria is presented, along with experimental evidence for non-canonical splice sites, introns with alternative donor or acceptor junctions, and allele-selective splicing. The investigated reading frames show significant homologies to: (1) antibiotic and other small molecule efflux transporter genes; (2) phenoloxidase/laccase genes; (3) genes for dual Cys2His2/Zn(II)2Cys6 transcriptional regulators. For all of these gene categories, this is the first report on examples from the genus Armillaria. PMID:18280725

Misiek, Mathias; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2008-02-01

217

RNA-Seq analysis in mutant zebrafish reveals role of U1C protein in alternative splicing regulation  

PubMed Central

Precise 5? splice-site recognition is essential for both constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing. The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP)-specific protein U1C is involved in this first step of spliceosome assembly and important for stabilizing early splicing complexes. We used an embryonically lethal U1C mutant zebrafish, hi1371, to investigate the potential genomewide role of U1C for splicing regulation. U1C mutant embryos contain overall stable, but U1C-deficient U1 snRNPs. Surprisingly, genomewide RNA-Seq analysis of mutant versus wild-type embryos revealed a large set of specific target genes that changed their alternative splicing patterns in the absence of U1C. Injection of ZfU1C cRNA into mutant embryos and in vivo splicing experiments in HeLa cells after siRNA-mediated U1C knockdown confirmed the U1C dependency and specificity, as well as the functional conservation of the effects observed. In addition, sequence motif analysis of the U1C-dependent 5? splice sites uncovered an association with downstream intronic U-rich elements. In sum, our findings provide evidence for a new role of a general snRNP protein, U1C, as a mediator of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:21468032

Rosel, Tanja Dorothe; Hung, Lee-Hsueh; Medenbach, Jan; Donde, Katrin; Starke, Stefan; Benes, Vladimir; Ratsch, Gunnar; Bindereif, Albrecht

2011-01-01

218

Alternative splicing of beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA: multiple cis-elements can contribute to the use of the 5'- and 3'-splice sites of the nonmuscle/smooth muscle exon 6.  

PubMed

We previously found that the splicing of exon 5 to exon 6 in the rat beta-TM gene required that exon 6 first be joined to the downstream common exon 8 (Helfman et al., Genes and Dev. 2, 1627-1638, 1988). Pre-mRNAs containing exon 5, intron 5 and exon 6 are not normally spliced in vitro. We have carried out a mutational analysis to determine which sequences in the pre-mRNA contribute to the inability of this precursor to be spliced in vitro. We found that mutations in two regions of the pre-mRNA led to activation of the 3'-splice site of exon 6, without first joining exon 6 to exon 8. First, introduction of a nine nucleotide poly U tract upstream of the 3'-splice site of exon 6 results in the splicing of exon 5 to exon 6 with as little as 35 nucleotides of exon 6. Second, introduction of a consensus 5'-splice site in exon 6 led to splicing of exon 5 to exon 6. Thus, three distinct elements can act independently to activate the use of the 3'-splice site of exon 6: (1) the sequences contained within exon 8 when joined to exon 6, (2) a poly U tract in intron 5, and (3) a consensus 5'-splice site in exon 6. Using biochemical assays, we have determined that these sequence elements interact with distinct cellular factors for 3'-splice site utilization. Although HeLa cell nuclear extracts were able to splice all three types of pre-mRNAs mentioned above, a cytoplasmic S100 fraction supplemented with SR proteins was unable to efficiently splice exon 5 to exon 6 using precursors in which exon 6 was joined to exon 8. We also studied how these elements contribute to alternative splice site selection using precursors containing the mutually exclusive, alternatively spliced cassette comprised of exons 5 through 8. Introduction of the poly U tract upstream of exon 6, and changing the 5'-splice site of exon 6 to a consensus sequence, either alone or in combination, facilitated the use of exon 6 in vitro, such that exon 6 was spliced more efficiently to exon 8. These data show that intron sequences upstream of an exon can contribute to the use of the downstream 5'-splice, and that sequences surrounding exon 6 can contribute to tissue-specific alternative splice site selection. PMID:8036160

Tsukahara, T; Casciato, C; Helfman, D M

1994-06-25

219

20-hydroxyecdysone mediates non-canonical regulation of mosquito vitellogenins through alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Vitellogenesis is one of the most well-studied physiological processes in mosquitoes. Expression of mosquito vitellogenin genes is classically described as being restricted to female adult reproduction. We report premature vitellogenin transcript expression in three vector mosquitoes: Culex tarsalis, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vitellogenins expressed during non-reproductive stages are alternatively spliced to retain their first intron and encode premature termination codons. We show that intron retention results in transcript degradation by translation-dependent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This is probably an example of regulated unproductive splicing and translation (RUST), a mechanism known to regulate gene expression in numerous organisms but which has never been described in mosquitoes. We demonstrate that the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is responsible for regulating post-transcriptional splicing of vitellogenin. After exposure of previtellogenic fat bodies to 20E, vitellogenin expression switches from a non-productive intron-retaining transcript to a spliced protein-coding transcript. This effect is independent of factors classically known to influence transcription, such as juvenile hormone-mediated competence and amino acid signalling through the target of rapamycin pathway. Non-canonical regulation of vitellogenesis through RUST is a novel role for the multifunctional hormone 20E, and may have important implications for general patterns of gene regulation in mosquitoes. PMID:24720618

Provost-Javier, K N; Rasgon, J L

2014-08-01

220

The cardiotonic steroid digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion of the splicing factors SRSF3 and TRA2B  

E-print Network

Modulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a potential approach to therapeutic targeting for a variety of human diseases. We investigated the mechanism by which digitoxin, a member of the cardiotonic steroid class of ...

Anderson, Erik S.

221

Introduction to Cotranscriptional RNA Splicing  

PubMed Central

The discovery that many intron-containing genes can be cotranscriptionally spliced has led to an increased understanding of how splicing and transcription are intricately intertwined. Cotranscriptional splicing has been demonstrated in a number of different organisms and has been shown to play roles in coordinating both constitutive and alternative splicing. The nature of cotranscriptional splicing suggests that changes in transcription can dramatically affect splicing, and new evidence suggests that splicing can, in turn, influence transcription. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of cotranscriptional splicing and introduce some of the tools used to measure this process. PMID:24549657

Merkhofer, Evan C.; Hu, Peter; Johnson, Tracy L.

2014-01-01

222

Novel alternative splicing isoform biomarkers identification from high-throughput plasma proteomics profiling of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In the biopharmaceutical industry, biomarkers define molecular taxonomies of patients and diseases and serve as surrogate endpoints in early-phase drug trials. Molecular biomarkers can be much more sensitive than traditional lab tests. Discriminating disease biomarkers by traditional method such as DNA microarray has proved challenging. Alternative splicing isoform represents a new class of diagnostic biomarkers. Recent scientific evidence is demonstrating that the differentiation and quantification of individual alternative splicing isoforms could improve insights into disease diagnosis and management. Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing isoforms are essential to the study of molecular mechanisms and early detection of complex diseases such as breast cancer. However, there are limitations with traditional methods used for alternative splicing isoform determination such as transcriptome-level, low level of coverage and poor focus on alternative splicing. Results Therefore, we presented a peptidomics approach to searching novel alternative splicing isoforms in clinical proteomics. Our results showed that the approach has significant potential in enabling discovery of new types of high-quality alternative splicing isoform biomarkers. Conclusions We developed a peptidomics approach for the proteomics community to analyze, identify, and characterize alternative splicing isoforms from MS-based proteomics experiments with more coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. The approach can help generate novel hypotheses on molecular risk factors and molecular mechanisms of cancer in early stage, leading to identification of potentially highly specific alternative splicing isoform biomarkers for early detection of cancer. PMID:24565027

2013-01-01

223

Alternative splicing of the mRNA encoding the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein  

SciTech Connect

The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is known to facilitate the transfer of lipids between plasma lipoproteins. The human CETP gene is a complex locus encompassing 16 exons. The CETP mRNA is found in liver and small intestine as well as in a variety of peripheral tissues. While the CETP cDNA from human adipose tissue was being cloned, a variant CETP cDNA was discovered which excluded the complete sequence encoded by exon 9, but which was otherwise identical to the full-length CETP cDNA, suggesting modification of the CETP gene transcript by an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. RNase protection analysis of tissue RNA confirmed the presence of exon 9 deleted transcripts and showed that they represented a variable proportion of the total CETP mRNA in various human tissues including adipose tissue (25%), liver (33%), and spleen (46%). Transient expression of the exon 9 deleted cDNA in COS cells or stable expression in CHO cells showed that the protein encoded by the alternatively spliced transcript was inactive in neutral lipid transfer, smaller, and poorly secreted compared to the protein derived from the full-length cDNA. Endo H digestion suggested that the inactive, cell-associated protein was present within the endoplasmic reticulum. The experiments show that the expression of the human CETP gene is modified by alternative splicing of the ninth exon, in a tissue-specific fashion. The function of alternative splicing is unknown but could serve to produce a protein with a function other than plasma neutral lipid transfer, or as an on-off switch to regulate the local concentration of biologically active protein.

Inazu, Akihiro; Quinet, E.M.; Suke Wang; Brown, M.L.; Stevenson, S.; Barr, M.L.; Moulin, P.; Tall, A.R. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1992-03-03

224

Whole Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression and Splicing Differences in Brain Regions Affected by Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent studies strongly indicate that aberrations in the control of gene expression might contribute to the initiation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, alternative splicing has been suggested to play a role in spontaneous cases of AD. Previous transcriptome profiling of AD models and patient samples using microarrays delivered conflicting results. This study provides, for the first time, transcriptomic analysis for distinct regions of the AD brain using RNA-Seq next-generation sequencing technology. Illumina RNA-Seq analysis was used to survey transcriptome profiles from total brain, frontal and temporal lobe of healthy and AD post-mortem tissue. We quantified gene expression levels, splicing isoforms and alternative transcript start sites. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis revealed an overrepresentation of genes associated with a neuron's cytological structure and synapse function in AD brain samples. Analysis of the temporal lobe with the Cufflinks tool revealed that transcriptional isoforms of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE-001, -002 and -005, are under the control of different promoters in normal and AD brain tissue. We also observed differing expression levels of APOE-001 and -002 splice variants in the AD temporal lobe. Our results indicate that alternative splicing and promoter usage of the APOE gene in AD brain tissue might reflect the progression of neurodegeneration. PMID:21283692

Twine, Natalie A.; Janitz, Karolina; Wilkins, Marc R.; Janitz, Michal

2011-01-01

225

A Novel Cryptic Exon in Intron 2 of the Human Dystrophin Gene Evolved from an Intron by Acquiring Consensus Sequences for Splicing at Different Stages of Anthropoid Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dystrophin gene, which is mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is thus the largest human gene. A full spectrum of splicing of the dystrophin transcript has not been elucidated yet, though more than 10 alternative splicings have been identified in the 5? region of the dystrophin gene. In this study, two novel dystrophin transcripts containing a 140-nucleotide insertion precisely between

Zacharias Aloysius Dwi Pramono; Yasuhiro Takeshima; Agus Surono; Takafumi Ishida; Masafumi Matsuo

2000-01-01

226

Distinctive Features of Drosophila Alternative Splicing Factor RS Domain: Implication for Specific Phosphorylation, Shuttling, and Splicing Activation  

PubMed Central

The human splicing factor 2, also called human alternative splicing factor (hASF), is the prototype of the highly conserved SR protein family involved in constitutive and regulated splicing of metazoan mRNA precursors. Here we report that the Drosophila homologue of hASF (dASF) lacks eight repeating arginine-serine dipeptides at its carboxyl-terminal region (RS domain), previously shown to be important for both localization and splicing activity of hASF. While this difference has no effect on dASF localization, it impedes its capacity to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and abolishes its phosphorylation by SR protein kinase 1 (SRPK1). dASF also has an altered splicing activity. While being competent for the regulation of 5? alternative splice site choice and activation of specific splicing enhancers, dASF fails to complement S100-cytoplasmic splicing-deficient extracts. Moreover, targeted overexpression of dASF in transgenic flies leads to higher deleterious developmental defects than hASF overexpression, supporting the notion that the distinctive structural features at the RS domain between the two proteins are likely to be functionally relevant in vivo. PMID:11158320

Allemand, Eric; Gattoni, Renata; Bourbon, Henri-Marc; Stevenin, James; Caceres, Javier F.; Soret, Johann; Tazi, Jamal

2001-01-01

227

SKIP Is a Component of the Spliceosome Linking Alternative Splicing and the Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks generate endogenous rhythms in most organisms from cyanobacteria to humans and facilitate entrainment to environmental diurnal cycles, thus conferring a fitness advantage. Both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms are prominent in the basic network architecture of circadian systems. Posttranscriptional regulation, including mRNA processing, is emerging as a critical step for clock function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking RNA metabolism to the circadian clock network. Here, we report that a conserved SNW/Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) domain protein, SKIP, a splicing factor and component of the spliceosome, is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of circadian clock genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutation in SKIP lengthens the circadian period in a temperature-sensitive manner and affects light input and the sensitivity of the clock to light resetting. SKIP physically interacts with the spliceosomal splicing factor Ser/Arg-rich protein45 and associates with the pre-mRNA of clock genes, such as PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR7 (PRR7) and PRR9, and is necessary for the regulation of their alternative splicing and mRNA maturation. Genome-wide investigations reveal that SKIP functions in regulating alternative splicing of many genes, presumably through modulating recognition or cleavage of 5? and 3? splice donor and acceptor sites. Our study addresses a fundamental question on how the mRNA splicing machinery contributes to circadian clock function at a posttranscriptional level. PMID:22942380

Wang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Fangming; Xie, Qiguang; Wang, Huamei; Wang, Ying; Yue, Yanling; Gahura, Ondrej; Ma, Shuangshuang; Liu, Lei; Cao, Ying; Jiao, Yuling; Puta, Frantisek; McClung, C. Robertson; Xu, Xiaodong; Ma, Ligeng

2012-01-01

228

Role of SR protein modular domains in alternative splicing specificity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SR proteins constitute a family of nuclear phos- phoproteins which are required for constitutive splicing and also influence alternative splicing regulation. They have a modular structure consisting of one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal domain, rich in arginine and serine residues. The functional role of the different domains of SR proteins in constitutive splicing activity

Kathryn Newton; Gavin R. Screaton; Javier F. Cáceres

2000-01-01

229

Widespread binding of FUS along nascent RNA regulates alternative splicing in the brain  

PubMed Central

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are RNA-binding proteins pathogenetically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but it is not known if they regulate the same transcripts. We addressed this question using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) in mouse brain, which showed that FUS binds along the whole length of the nascent RNA with limited sequence specificity to GGU and related motifs. A saw-tooth binding pattern in long genes demonstrated that FUS remains bound to pre-mRNAs until splicing is completed. Analysis of FUS?/? brain demonstrated a role for FUS in alternative splicing, with increased crosslinking of FUS in introns around the repressed exons. We did not observe a significant overlap in the RNA binding sites or the exons regulated by FUS and TDP-43. Nevertheless, we found that both proteins regulate genes that function in neuronal development. PMID:22934129

Rogelj, Boris; Easton, Laura E.; Bogu, Gireesh K.; Stanton, Lawrence W.; Rot, Gregor; Curk, Tomaz; Zupan, Blaz; Sugimoto, Yoichiro; Modic, Miha; Haberman, Nejc; Tollervey, James; Fujii, Ritsuko; Takumi, Toru; Shaw, Christopher E.; Ule, Jernej

2012-01-01

230

Widespread binding of FUS along nascent RNA regulates alternative splicing in the brain.  

PubMed

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are RNA-binding proteins pathogenetically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but it is not known if they regulate the same transcripts. We addressed this question using crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) in mouse brain, which showed that FUS binds along the whole length of the nascent RNA with limited sequence specificity to GGU and related motifs. A saw-tooth binding pattern in long genes demonstrated that FUS remains bound to pre-mRNAs until splicing is completed. Analysis of FUS(-/-) brain demonstrated a role for FUS in alternative splicing, with increased crosslinking of FUS in introns around the repressed exons. We did not observe a significant overlap in the RNA binding sites or the exons regulated by FUS and TDP-43. Nevertheless, we found that both proteins regulate genes that function in neuronal development. PMID:22934129

Rogelj, Boris; Easton, Laura E; Bogu, Gireesh K; Stanton, Lawrence W; Rot, Gregor; Curk, Tomaž; Zupan, Blaž; Sugimoto, Yoichiro; Modic, Miha; Haberman, Nejc; Tollervey, James; Fujii, Ritsuko; Takumi, Toru; Shaw, Christopher E; Ule, Jernej

2012-01-01

231

Differential evolution of signal-responsive RNA elements and upstream factors that control alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Cell signal-regulated alternative splicing occurs for many genes but the evolutionary origin of the regulatory components and their relationship remain unclear. This review focuses on the alternative splicing components of several systems based on the available bioinformatics data. Eight mammalian RNA elements for signal-regulated splicing were aligned among corresponding sequences from dozens of representative vertebrate species to allow for assessment of the trends in evolutionary changes. Four distinct trends were observed. Four of the elements are highly conserved in bird, reptile and fish species examined (i); two elements can be found in fish but the sequences have been changing till in marsupials or higher mammals (ii); one element is almost exclusively found in mammals with mostly the same sequence (iii); and one element can be found in birds or lower vertebrates but expanded abruptly to have variable numbers of copies in mammals (iv). All examined prototype trans-acting factors and protein kinases emerged earlier than the RNA elements but additional (paralog) factors emerged in the same or later species. Thus, after their emergence mainly in fish or mammals with pre-existing prototype trans-acting factors/kinases, half of the elements have been highly conserved from fish to humans but the other half have evolved differentially with additional trans-acting factors. Their differential evolution likely contributes to the exon- and species/class-specific control of alternative splicing and its regulation by cell signals. The evolvement of a group of mammal-specific components would help relay signals from extracellular stimuli to the splicing machinery and thus contribute to higher proteomic diversity. PMID:25064062

Xie, Jiuyong

2014-11-01

232

Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event - leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a - prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

Hulse, R P; Beazley-Long, N; Hua, J; Kennedy, H; Prager, J; Bevan, H; Qiu, Y; Fernandes, E S; Gammons, M V; Ballmer-Hofer, K; Gittenberger de Groot, A C; Churchill, A J; Harper, S J; Brain, S D; Bates, D O; Donaldson, L F

2014-11-01

233

Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia?  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event – leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a – prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

Hulse, R.P.; Beazley-Long, N.; Hua, J.; Kennedy, H.; Prager, J.; Bevan, H.; Qiu, Y.; Fernandes, E.S.; Gammons, M.V.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Gittenberger de Groot, A.C.; Churchill, A.J.; Harper, S.J.; Brain, S.D.; Bates, D.O.; Donaldson, L.F.

2014-01-01

234

Cell-specific alternative splicing of Drosophila dscam2 is crucial for proper neuronal wiring.  

PubMed

How a finite number of genes specify a seemingly infinite number of neuronal connections is a central question in neurobiology. Alternative splicing has been proposed to increase proteome diversity in the brain. Here we show that cell-specific alternative splicing of a cell-surface protein is crucial for neuronal wiring. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 2 (Dscam2) is a conserved homophilic binding protein that can induce repulsion between opposing neurons. In the fly visual system, L1 and L2 neurons both require Dscam2 repulsion, but paradoxically, they also physically contact each other. We found that the cell-specific expression of two biochemically distinct alternative isoforms of Dscam2 prevents these cells from repelling each other. Phenotypes were observed in the axon terminals of L1 and L2 when they expressed the incorrect isoform, demonstrating a requirement for distinct isoforms. We conclude that cell-specific alternative splicing is a mechanism for achieving proper connectivity between neurons. PMID:25175881

Lah, Grace Ji-Eun; Li, Joshua Shing Shun; Millard, S Sean

2014-09-17

235

EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism. PMID:23707073

Babic, Ivan; Anderson, Erik S.; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Guo, Deliang; Masui, Kenta; Li, Bing; Zhu, Shaojun; Gu, Yuchao; Villa, Genaro; Akhavan, David; Nathanson, David; Gini, Beatrice; Mareninov, Sergey; Li, Rui; Espindola C., Carolina; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F.; Yong, William H.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Christofk, Heather R.; Black, Douglas L.; Mischel, Paul S.

2013-01-01

236

EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full-length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism. PMID:23707073

Babic, Ivan; Anderson, Erik S; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Guo, Deliang; Masui, Kenta; Li, Bing; Zhu, Shaojun; Gu, Yuchao; Villa, Genaro R; Akhavan, David; Nathanson, David; Gini, Beatrice; Mareninov, Sergey; Li, Rui; Camacho, Carolina Espindola; Kurdistani, Siavash K; Eskin, Ascia; Nelson, Stanley F; Yong, William H; Cavenee, Webster K; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Christofk, Heather R; Black, Douglas L; Mischel, Paul S

2013-06-01

237

Mutations in Tau Gene Exon 10 Associated with FTDP-17 Alter the Activity of an Exonic Splicing Enhancer to Interact with Tra2?*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the human tau gene leading to aberrant splicing have been identified in FTDP-17, an autosomal dominant hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Molecular mechanisms by which such mutations cause tau aberrant splicing were not understood. We characterized two mutations in exon 10 of the tau gene, N279K and Del280K. Our results revealed an exonic splicing enhancer element located in exon 10. The activity of this AG-rich splicing enhancer was altered by N279K and Del280K mutations. This exonic enhancer element interacts with human Tra2? protein. The interaction between Tra2? and the exonic splicing enhancer correlates with the activity of this enhancer element in stimulating splicing. Biochemical studies including in vitro splicing and RNA interference experiments in transfected cells support a role for Tra2? protein in regulating alternative splicing of human tau gene. Our results implicate the human tau gene as a target gene for the alternative splicing regulator Tra2?, suggesting that Tra2? may play a role in aberrant tau exon 10 alternative splicing and in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. PMID:12649279

Jiang, Zhihong; Tang, Hao; Havlioglu, Necat; Zhang, Xiaochun; Stamm, Stefan; Yan, Riqiang; Wu, Jane Y.

2007-01-01

238

HNRNPA1 regulates HMGCR alternative splicing and modulates cellular cholesterol metabolism.  

PubMed

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and is inhibited by statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs. Expression of an alternatively spliced HMGCR transcript lacking exon 13, HMGCR13(-), has been implicated in the variation of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and is the single most informative molecular marker of LDL-C response to statins. Given the physiological importance of this transcript, our goal was to identify molecules that regulate HMGCR alternative splicing. We recently reported gene expression changes in 480 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) after in vitro simvastatin treatment, and identified a number of statin-responsive genes involved in mRNA splicing. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) was chosen for follow-up since rs3846662, an HMGCR SNP that regulates exon 13 skipping, was predicted to alter an HNRNPA1 binding motif. Here, we not only demonstrate that rs3846662 modulates HNRNPA1 binding, but also that sterol depletion of human hepatoma cell lines reduced HNRNPA1 mRNA levels, an effect that was reversed with sterol add-back. Overexpression of HNRNPA1 increased the ratio of HMGCR13(-) to total HMGCR transcripts by both directly increasing exon 13 skipping in an allele-related manner and specifically stabilizing the HMGCR13(-) transcript. Importantly, HNRNPA1 overexpression also diminished HMGCR enzyme activity, enhanced LDL-C uptake and increased cellular apolipoprotein B (APOB). rs1920045, an SNP associated with HNRNPA1 exon 8 alternative splicing, was also associated with smaller statin-induced reduction in total cholesterol from two independent clinical trials. These results suggest that HNRNPA1 plays a role in the variation of cardiovascular disease risk and statin response. PMID:24001602

Yu, Chi-Yi; Theusch, Elizabeth; Lo, Kathleen; Mangravite, Lara M; Naidoo, Devesh; Kutilova, Mariya; Medina, Marisa W

2014-01-15

239

Detecting Splicing Variants in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis from Non-Differentially Expressed Genes  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease of unknown cause that lacks a proven therapy for altering its high mortality rate. Microarrays have been employed to investigate the pathogenesis of IPF, but are presented mostly at the gene-expression level due to technologic limitations. In as much as, alternative RNA splicing isoforms are increasingly identified as potential regulators of human diseases, including IPF, we propose a new approach with the capacity to detect splicing variants using RNA-seq data. We conducted a joint analysis of differential expression and differential splicing on annotated human genes and isoforms, and identified 122 non-differentially expressed genes with a high degree of “switch” between major and minor isoforms. Three cases with variant mechanisms for alternative splicing were validated using qRT-PCR, among the group of genes in which expression was not significantly changed at the gene level. We also identified 35 novel transcripts that were unique to the fibrotic lungs using exon-exon junction evidence, and selected a representative for qRT-PCR validation. The results of our study are likely to provide new insight into the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and may eventuate in new treatment targets. PMID:23844188

Deng, Nan; Sanchez, Cecilia G.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Zhu, Dongxiao

2013-01-01

240

Epigenetic features are significantly associated with alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background While alternative splicing (AS) contributes greatly to protein diversities, the relationship between various types of AS and epigenetic factors remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we discover that a number of epigenetic features, including DNA methylation, nucleosome occupancy, specific histone modifications and protein features, are strongly associated with AS. To further enhance our understanding of the association between these features and AS, we cluster our investigated features based on their association patterns with each AS type into four groups, with H3K36me3, EGR1, GABP, SRF, SIN3A and RNA Pol II grouped together and showing strongest association with AS. In addition, we find that the AS types can be classified into two general classes, namely the exon skipping related process (ESRP), and the alternative splice site selection process (ASSP), based on their association levels with the epigenetic features. Conclusion Our analysis thus suggests that epigenetic features are likely to play important roles in regulating AS. PMID:22455468

2012-01-01

241

The role played by alternative splicing in antigenic variability in human endo-parasites  

PubMed Central

Endo-parasites that affect humans include Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, which remains one of the leading causes of death in human beings. Despite decades of research, vaccines to this and other endo-parasites remain elusive. This is in part due to the hyper-variability of the parasites surface proteins. Generally these surface proteins are encoded by a large family of genes, with only one being dominantly expressed at certain life stages. Another layer of complexity can be introduced through the alternative splicing of these surface proteins. The resulting isoforms may differ from each other with regard to cell localisation, substrate affinities and functions. They may even differ in structure to the extent that they are no longer recognised by the host’s immune system. In many cases this leads to changes in the N terminus of these proteins. The geographical localisation of endo-parasitic infections around the tropics and the highest incidences of HIV-1 infection in the same areas, adds a further layer of complexity as parasitic infections affect the host immune system resulting in higher HIV infection rates, faster disease progression, and an increase in the severity of infections and complications in HIV diagnosis. This review discusses some examples of parasite surface proteins that are alternatively spliced in trypanosomes, Plasmodium and the parasitic worm Schistosoma as well as what role alternate splicing may play in the interaction between HIV and these endo-parasites. PMID:24472559

2014-01-01

242

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and alternative splicing in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are associated with pleiomorphic neuropathology. We hypothesize that LRRK2 mediates its pathogenic effect through alternative splicing of neurodegeneration genes. Methods used in this study included western blotting analysis of subcellular protein fractions, exon-array analysis of RNA from cultured neuroblastoma cells transfected with LRRK2 expression vectors, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of RNA from cultured cells and postmortem tissue. Overexpression of the LRRK2 G2019S mutant resulted in a significant (2.6-fold; P = 0.020) decrease in nuclear transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 levels. Exon-array analyses revealed that wild-type LRRK2 had a significant effect on the expression of genes with nuclear (P < 10(-22) ) and cell-cycle functions (P < 10(-15) ). We replicated changes in gene expression in 30% of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Overexpression of LRRK2 resulted in the altered splicing of two genes associated with PD, with an increased inclusion of exon 10 of microtubule-associated protein tau (1.7-fold; P = 0.001) and exon 5 of the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene (1.6-fold; P =0.005). Moreover, overexpression of LRRK2 (G2019S) and two mutant genes associated with neurodegeneration, TARDBP (M337V) and FUS (R521H), were associated with decreased inclusion out of the dystonin (DST) 1e precursor exons in SK-N-MC cells. Altered splicing of SNCA (1.9-fold; P < 0.001) and DST genes (log(2) 2.3-fold; P = 0.005) was observed in a cohort of PD, compared with neurologically healthy, brains. This suggests that aberrant RNA metabolism is an important contributor to idiopathic PD. PMID:22528366

Elliott, David A; Kim, Woojin S; Gorissen, Sarsha; Halliday, Glenda M; Kwok, John B J

2012-07-01

243

Psip1\\/Ledgf p52 Binds Methylated Histone H3K36 and Splicing Factors and Contributes to the Regulation of Alternative Splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence suggests that chromatin modifications have important roles in modulating constitutive or alternative splicing. Here we demonstrate that the PWWP domain of the chromatin-associated protein Psip1\\/Ledgf can specifically recognize tri-methylated H3K36 and that, like this histone modification, the Psip1 short (p52) isoform is enriched at active genes. We show that the p52, but not the long (p75), isoform of

Madapura M. Pradeepa; Heidi G. Sutherland; Jernej Ule; Graeme R. Grimes; Wendy A. Bickmore

2012-01-01

244

Context-dependent control of alternative splicing by RNA-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) bind to pre-mRNA to control alternative splicing, but it is not yet possible to read the 'splicing code' that dictates splicing regulation on the basis of genome sequence. Each alternative splicing event is controlled by multiple RBPs, the combined action of which creates a distribution of alternatively spliced products in a given cell type. As each cell type expresses a distinct array of RBPs, the interpretation of regulatory information on a given RNA target is exceedingly dependent on the cell type. RBPs also control each other's functions at many levels, including by mutual modulation of their binding activities on specific regulatory RNA elements. In this Review, we describe some of the emerging rules that govern the highly context-dependent and combinatorial nature of alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25112293

Fu, Xiang-Dong; Ares, Manuel

2014-10-01

245

Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region  

PubMed Central

Background Periostin (POSTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed in a broad range of human cancers, including breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Here, we combine genomic and transcriptomic sequence data from vertebrate organisms to study the evolution of periostin and particularly of its C-terminal region. Results We found that the C-terminal part of periostin is markedly more variable among vertebrates than the rest of periostin in terms of exon count, length, and splicing pattern, which we interpret as a consequence of neofunctionalization after the split between periostin and its paralog transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI). We also defined periostin's sequential 13-amino acid repeat units - well conserved in teleost fish, but more obscure in higher vertebrates - whose secondary structure is predicted to be consecutive beta strands. We suggest that these beta strands may mediate binding interactions with other proteins through an extended beta-zipper in a manner similar to the way repeat units in bacterial cell wall proteins have been reported to bind human fibronectin. Conclusions Our results, obtained with the help of the increasingly large collection of complete vertebrate genomes, document the evolutionary plasticity of periostin's C-terminal region, and for the first time suggest a basis for its functional role. PMID:20109226

2010-01-01

246

Clathrin light chain B: gene structure and neuron-specific splicing.  

PubMed

The clathrin light chains are components of clathrin coated vesicles, structural constituents involved in endocytosis and membrane recycling. The clathrin light chain B (LCB) gene encodes two isoforms, termed LCB2 and LCB3, via an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. We have determined the structure of the rat clathrin light chain B gene. The gene consists of six exons that extend over 11.9 kb. The first four exons and the last exon are common to the LCB2 and LCB3 isoforms. The fifth exon, termed EN, is included in the mRNA in brain, giving rise to the brain specific form LCB2 but is excluded in other tissues, generating the LCB3 isoform. Primary rat neuronal cell cultures express predominantly the brain specific LCB2 isoform, whereas primary rat cultures of glia express only the LCB3 isoform, suggesting that expression of the brain-specific LCB2 form is limited to neurons. Further evidence for neuronal localization of the LCB2 form is provided using a teratocarcinoma cell line, P19, which can be induced by retinoic acid to express a neuronal phenotype, concomitant with the induction of the LCB2 form. In order to determine the sequences involved in alternative splice site selection, we constructed a minigene containing the alternative spliced exon EN and its flanking intron and exon sequences. This minigene reflects the splicing pattern of the endogenous gene upon transfection in HeLa cell and primary neuronal cell cultures, indicating that this region of the LCB gene contains all the necessary information for neuron-specific splicing. PMID:1408826

Stamm, S; Casper, D; Dinsmore, J; Kaufmann, C A; Brosius, J; Helfman, D M

1992-10-11

247

Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP) - data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due to alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Background It is often the case that mammalian genes are alternatively spliced; the resulting alternate transcripts often encode protein isoforms that differ in amino acid sequences. Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. The effect can range from a subtle modulation to a complete loss of function. Results (i) We examined human splice-mediated protein isoforms (as extracted from a manually curated data set, and from a computationally predicted data set) for differences in the annotation for protein signatures (Pfam domains and PRINTS fingerprints) and we characterized the differences & their effects on protein functionalities. An important question addressed relates to the extent of protein isoforms that may lack any known function in the cell. (ii) We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences. Conclusion (i) Characterization: The work points to distinct sets of alternatively spliced genes with varying degrees of annotation for the splice-mediated protein isoforms. Protein molecular functions seen to be often affected are those that relate to: binding, catalytic, transcription regulation, structural molecule, transporter, motor, and antioxidant; and the processes that are often affected are nucleic acid binding, signal transduction, and protein-protein interactions. Signatures are often included/excluded and truncated in length among protein isoforms; truncation is seen as the predominant type of change. Analysis points to the following novel aspects: (a) Analysis using data from the manually curated Vega indicates that one in 8.9 genes can lead to a protein isoform of no "known" function; and one in 18 expressed protein isoforms can be such an "orphan" isoform; the corresponding numbers as seen with computationally predicted ASD data set are: one in 4.9 genes and one in 9.8 isoforms. (b) When swapping of signatures occurs, it is often between those of same functional classifications. (c) Pfam domains can occur in varying lengths, and PRINTS fingerprints can occur with varying number of constituent motifs among isoforms – since such a variation is seen in large number of genes, it could be a general mechanism to modulate protein function. (ii) Data: The reported resource (at ) provides the community ability to access data on splice-mediated protein isoforms (with value-added annotation such as association with diseases) through changes in protein signatures. PMID:18831736

Floris, Matteo; Orsini, Massimiliano; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

2008-01-01

248

Phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral character states for gene expression and mRNA splicing data  

PubMed Central

Background As genomes evolve after speciation, gene content, coding sequence, gene expression, and splicing all diverge with time from ancestors with close relatives. A minimum evolution general method for continuous character analysis in a phylogenetic perspective is presented that allows for reconstruction of ancestral character states and for measuring along branch evolution. Results A software package for reconstruction of continuous character traits, like relative gene expression levels or alternative splice site usage data is presented and is available for download at . This program was applied to a primate gene expression dataset to detect transcription factor binding sites that have undergone substitution, potentially having driven lineage-specific differences in gene expression. Conclusion Systematic analysis of lineage-specific evolution is becoming the cornerstone of comparative genomics. New methods, like phyrex, extend the capabilities of comparative genomics by tracing the evolution of additional biomolecular processes. PMID:15921519

Rossnes, Roald; Eidhammer, Ingvar; Liberles, David A

2005-01-01

249

Alternative splicing and proteome diversity in plants: the tip of the iceberg has just emerged  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing has recently emerged as one of the most significant generators of functional complexity in several relatively well-studied animal genomes, but little is known about the extent of this phenomenon in higher plants. However, recent computational and experimental studies discussed here suggest that alternative splicing probably plays a far more significant role in the generation of proteome diversity in

Kemal Kazan

2003-01-01

250

Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells  

PubMed Central

The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

Allo, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gomez Acuna, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolas; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matias; Minana, Belen; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elias; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Luhrmann, Reinhard; Valcarcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

2014-01-01

251

Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells.  

PubMed

The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

2014-11-01

252

Mouse Models of Mutations and Variations in Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Genes: Mice Expressing Caps2/Cadps2 Copy Number and Alternative Splicing Variants  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disturbances in interpersonal relationships and behavior. Although the prevalence of autism is high, effective treatments have not yet been identified. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified many mutations or variations associated with ASD risk on many chromosome loci and genes. Identification of the biological roles of these mutations or variations is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying ASD pathogenesis and to develop clinical treatments. At present, mice harboring genetic modifications of ASD-associated gene candidates are the best animal models to analyze hereditary factors involved in autism. In this report, the biological significance of ASD-associated genes is discussed by examining the phenotypes of mouse models with ASD-associated mutations or variations in mouse homologs, with a focus on mice harboring genetic modifications of the Caps2/Cadps2 (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2) gene. PMID:24287856

Sadakata, Tetsushi; Shinoda, Yo; Sato, Akira; Iguchi, Hirotoshi; Ishii, Chiaki; Matsuo, Makoto; Yamaga, Ryosuke; Furuichi, Teiichi

2013-01-01

253

Structural organization of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (mPPARγ) gene: Alternative promoter use and different splicing yield two mPPARγ isoforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into the regulation of expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, we have determined the structural organization of the mouse PPAR γ (mPPARγ) gene. This gene extends >105 kb and gives rise to two mRNAs (mPPARγ1 and mPPARγ2) that differ at their 5Ⲡends. The mPPARγ2 cDNA encodes an additional 30 amino acids N-terminal to the first

Y. Zhu; C. Qi; M. S. Rao

1995-01-01

254

Innovations in Proteomic Profiling of Cancers: Alternative Splice Variants as a New Class of Cancer Biomarker Candidates and Bridging of Proteomics with Structural Biology  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing allows a single gene to generate multiple RNA transcripts which can be translated into functionally diverse protein isoforms. Current knowledge of splicing is derived mainly from RNA transcripts, with very little known about the expression level, 3D structures, and functional differences of the proteins. Splicing is a remarkable phenomenon of molecular and biological evolution. Studies which simply report up-regulation or down-regulation of protein or mRNA expression are confounded by the effects of mixtures of these isoforms. Besides understanding the net biological effects of the mixtures, we may be able to develop biomarker tests based on the observable differential expression of particular splice variants or combinations of splice variants in specific disease states. Here we review our work on differential expression of splice variant proteins in cancers and the feasibility of integrating proteomic analysis with structure-based conformational predictions of the differences between such isoforms. PMID:23603631

Omenn, Gilbert S.; Menon, Rajasree; Zhang, Yang

2013-01-01

255

NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML.  

PubMed

Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34(+) bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

Adamia, Sophia; Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G; Stone, Richard M; Griffin, James D

2014-05-01

256

Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2?) and Tra2? have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2? and Tra2? induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2? target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2?–Tra2? control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. PMID:25208576

Best, Andrew; James, Katherine; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Hong, Elaine; Kheirolahi-Kouhestani, Mahsa; Curk, Tomaz; Xu, Yaobo; Danilenko, Marina; Hussain, Rafiq; Keavney, Bernard; Wipat, Anil; Klinck, Roscoe; Cowell, Ian G.; Cheong Lee, Ka; Austin, Caroline A.; Venables, Julian P.; Chabot, Benoit; Santibanez Koref, Mauro; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Elliott, David J.

2014-01-01

257

From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.  

PubMed

Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

2014-03-01

258

From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: Stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing  

PubMed Central

Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30–100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

Marinov, Georgi K.; Williams, Brian A.; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P.; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M.; Wold, Barbara J.

2014-01-01

259

Species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression of sno-lncRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background Intron-derived long noncoding RNAs with snoRNA ends (sno-lncRNAs) are highly expressed from the imprinted Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) region on human chromosome 15. However, sno-lncRNAs from other regions of the human genome or from other genomes have not yet been documented. Results By exploring non-polyadenylated transcriptomes from human, rhesus and mouse, we have systematically annotated sno-lncRNAs expressed in all three species. In total, using available data from a limited set of cell lines, 19 sno-lncRNAs have been identified with tissue- and species-specific expression patterns. Although primary sequence analysis revealed that snoRNAs themselves are conserved from human to mouse, sno-lncRNAs are not. PWS region sno-lncRNAs are highly expressed in human and rhesus monkey, but are undetectable in mouse. Importantly, the absence of PWS region sno-lncRNAs in mouse suggested a possible reason why current mouse models fail to fully recapitulate pathological features of human PWS. In addition, a RPL13A region sno-lncRNA was specifically revealed in mouse embryonic stem cells, and its snoRNA ends were reported to influence lipid metabolism. Interestingly, the RPL13A region sno-lncRNA is barely detectable in human. We further demonstrated that the formation of sno-lncRNAs is often associated with alternative splicing of exons within their parent genes, and species-specific alternative splicing leads to unique expression pattern of sno-lncRNAs in different animals. Conclusions Comparative transcriptomes of non-polyadenylated RNAs among human, rhesus and mouse revealed that the expression of sno-lncRNAs is species-specific and that their processing is closely linked to alternative splicing of their parent genes. This study thus further demonstrates a complex regulatory network of coding and noncoding parts of the mammalian genome. PMID:24734784

2014-01-01

260

PMD patient mutations reveal a long-distance intronic interaction that regulates PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) produces two forms, PLP1 and DM20, due to alternative use of 5' splice sites with the same acceptor site in intron 3. The PLP1 form predominates in central nervous system RNA. Mutations that reduce the ratio of PLP1 to DM20, whether mutant or normal protein is formed, result in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We investigated the ability of sequences throughout PLP1 intron 3 to regulate alternative splicing using a splicing minigene construct transfected into the oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu. Our data reveal that the alternative splice of PLP1 is regulated by a long-distance interaction between two highly conserved elements that are separated by 581 bases within the 1071-base intron 3. Further, our data suggest that a base-pairing secondary structure forms between these two elements, and we demonstrate that mutations of either element designed to destabilize the secondary structure decreased the PLP1/DM20 ratio, while swap mutations designed to restore the structure brought the PLP1/DM20 ratio to near normal levels. Sequence analysis of intron 3 in families with clinical symptoms of PMD who did not have coding-region mutations revealed mutations that segregated with disease in three families. We showed that these patient mutations, which potentially destabilize the secondary structure, also reduced the PLP1/DM20 ratio. This is the first report of patient mutations causing disease by disruption of a long-distance intronic interaction controlling alternative splicing. This finding has important implications for molecular diagnostics of PMD. PMID:24890387

Taube, Jennifer R; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Seeman, Pavel; Cavan, Barbra Charina V; Garbern, James Y; Hobson, Grace M

2014-10-15

261

Global impact of RNA polymerase II elongation inhibition on alternative splicing regulation  

PubMed Central

The rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation can influence splice site selection in nascent transcripts, yet the extent and physiological relevance of this kinetic coupling between transcription and alternative splicing (AS) is not well understood. We performed experiments to perturb Pol II elongation and then globally compared AS patterns with genome-wide Pol II occupancy. RNA binding and RNA processing functions were significantly enriched among the genes with Pol II elongation inhibition-dependent changes in AS. Under conditions that interfere with Pol II elongation, including cell stress, increased Pol II occupancy was detected in the intronic regions flanking the alternative exons in these genes, and these exons generally became more included. A disproportionately high fraction of these exons introduced premature termination codons that elicited nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), thereby further reducing transcript levels. Our results provide evidence that kinetic coupling between transcription, AS, and NMD affords a rapid mechanism by which cells can respond to changes in growth conditions, including cell stress, to coordinate the levels of RNA processing factors with mRNA levels. PMID:21163941

Ip, Joanna Y.; Schmidt, Dominic; Pan, Qun; Ramani, Arun K.; Fraser, Andrew G.; Odom, Duncan T.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

2011-01-01

262

The human skeletal muscle transcriptome: sex differences, alternative splicing, and tissue homogeneity assessed with RNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Human skeletal muscle health is important for quality of life and several chronic diseases, including type II diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Skeletal muscle is a tissue widely used to study mechanisms behind different diseases and adaptive effects of controlled interventions. For such mechanistic studies, knowledge about the gene expression profiles in different states is essential. Since the baseline transcriptome has not been analyzed systematically, the purpose of this study was to provide a deep reference profile of female and male skeletal muscle. RNA sequencing data were analyzed from a large set of 45 resting human muscle biopsies. We provide extensive information on the skeletal muscle transcriptome, including 5 previously unannotated protein-coding transcripts. Global transcriptional tissue homogeneity was strikingly high, within both a specific muscle and the contralateral leg. We identified >23,000 known isoforms and found >5000 isoforms that differ between the sexes. The female and male transcriptome was enriched for genes associated with oxidative metabolism and protein catabolic processes, respectively. The data demonstrate remarkably high tissue homogeneity and provide a deep and extensive baseline reference for the human skeletal muscle transcriptome, with regard to alternative splicing, novel transcripts, and sex differences in functional ontology.-Lindholm, M. E., Huss, M., Solnestam, B. W., Kjellqvist, S., Lundeberg, J., Sundberg, C. J. The human skeletal muscle transcriptome: sex differences, alternative splicing, and tissue homogeneity assessed with RNA sequencing. PMID:25016029

Lindholm, Malene E; Huss, Mikael; Solnestam, Beata W; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lundeberg, Joakim; Sundberg, Carl J

2014-10-01

263

T cell activation regulates CD6 alternative splicing by transcription dynamics and SRSF1.  

PubMed

The T cell-surface glycoprotein CD6 is a modulator of cellular responses and has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. During Ag presentation, CD6 is targeted to the immunological synapse in a ligand binding-dependent manner, in which CD6 domain 3 directly contacts CD166, expressed on the APC. T cell activation results in the induction of CD6?d3, an alternatively spliced isoform that lacks the ligand-binding domain and thus no longer localizes at the immunological synapse. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of CD6?d3 upon human primary T cell activation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we observed an increase in RNA polymerase II occupancy along the CD6 gene and augmented CD6 transcription. We showed that activation leads to transcription-related chromatin modifications, revealed by higher CD6 acetylation levels. Modulation of chromatin conformation using a histone deacetylase inhibitor that increases transcription rate causes an increase of exon 5 skipping. We further showed that the splicing factor SRSF1 binds to a regulatory element in CD6 intron 4, activating exon 5 splicing and promoting exon 5 inclusion. Concomitant with T cell activation-induced exon 5 skipping, we observed a downregulation of SRSF1. Using RNA immunoprecipitation, we showed that in activated T cells, SRSF1 recruitment to the CD6 transcript is impaired by increased chromatin acetylation levels. We propose that upon T cell activation, SRSF1 becomes limiting, and its function in CD6 exon 5 splicing is countered by an increase in CD6 transcription, dependent on chromatin acetylation. PMID:24890719

da Glória, Vânia G; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Mafalda Santos, Ana; Leal, Rafaela; de Almeida, Sérgio F; Carmo, Alexandre M; Moreira, Alexandra

2014-07-01

264

Alternative splicing and genetic diversity: silencers are more frequently modified by SNVs associated with alternative exon/intron borders  

PubMed Central

With the availability of a large amount of genomic data it is expected that the influence of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in many biological phenomena will be elucidated. Here, we approached the problem of how SNVs affect alternative splicing. First, we observed that SNVs and exonic splicing regulators (ESRs) independently show a biased distribution in alternative exons. More importantly, SNVs map more frequently in ESRs located in alternative exons than in ESRs located in constitutive exons. By looking at SNVs associated with alternative exon/intron borders (by their common presence in the same cDNA molecule), we observed that a specific type of ESR, the exonic splicing silencers (ESSs), are more frequently modified by SNVs. Our results establish a clear association between genetic diversity and alternative splicing involving ESSs. PMID:21398627

de Souza, Jorge E. S.; Ramalho, Rodrigo F.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Meyer, Diogo; de Souza, Sandro J.

2011-01-01

265

Tra2? Protein Is Required for Tissue-specific Splicing of a Smooth Muscle Myosin Phosphatase Targeting Subunit Alternative Exon*  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of the smooth muscle myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (Mypt1) exon 23 (E23) is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated and, thus, an attractive model for the study of smooth muscle phenotypic specification. We have proposed that Tra2? functions as a tissue-specific activator of Mypt1 E23 splicing on the basis of concordant expression patterns and Tra2? activation of Mypt1 E23 mini-gene splicing in vitro. In this study we examined the relationship between Tra2? and Mypt1 E23 splicing in vivo in the mouse. Tra2? was 2- to 5-fold more abundant in phasic smooth muscle tissues, such as the portal vein, small intestine, and small mesenteric artery, in which Mypt1 E23 is predominately included as compared with the tonic smooth muscle tissues, such as the aorta and inferior vena cava, in which Mypt1 E23 is predominately skipped. Tra2? was up-regulated in the small intestine postnatally, concordant with a switch to Mypt1 E23 splicing. Targeting of Tra2? in smooth muscle cells using SM22?-Cre caused a substantial reduction in Mypt1 E23 inclusion specifically in the intestinal smooth muscle of heterozygotes, indicating sensitivity to Tra2? gene dosage. The switch to the Mypt1 E23 skipped isoform coding for the C-terminal leucine zipper motif caused increased sensitivity of the muscle to the relaxant effects of 8-Br-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We conclude that Tra2? is necessary for the tissue-specific splicing of Mypt1 E23 in the phasic intestinal smooth muscle. Tra2?, by regulating the splicing of Mypt1 E23, sets the sensitivity of smooth muscle to cGMP-mediated relaxation. PMID:22437831

Fu, Kang; Mende, Ylva; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Baker, Salah; Perrino, Brian A.; Wirth, Brunhilde; Fisher, Steven A.

2012-01-01

266

Identification and characterization of a novel cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene ( PDE9A ) that maps to 21q22.3: alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts, genomic structure and sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play an essential role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular\\u000a concentration of second messengers (cAMP and cGMP). We have identified and made an initial characterization of a full-length\\u000a cDNA encoding a novel human cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE9A. At least four different mRNA transcripts (PDE9A1,\\u000a A2, A3, A4) are produced as a result of alternative splicing

Michel Guipponi; Hamish S. Scott; Jun Kudoh; Kazuhiko Kawasaki; Kazunori Shibuya; Ai Shintani; Shuichi Asakawa; Haiming Chen; Maria D. Lalioti; Colette Rossier; Shinsei Minoshima; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Stylianos E. Antonarakis

1998-01-01

267

Alternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2) gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. Parkin deficiency has also been linked to other human pathologies, for example, sporadic Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and cancer. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification. To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. By analyzing the literature, we highlight the existing data showing the presence of multiple parkin isoforms in the brain. Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations. PMID:25136611

Drago, Filippo

2014-01-01

268

Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons  

PubMed Central

Thousands of tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with small size differences. Recent work has concentrated on the question of biological relevance in general, and the physiological regulation of TASS in particular. We have quantitatively studied 11 representative TASS cases in comparison to one mutually exclusive exon case and two cassette exons (CEs) using a panel of human and mouse tissues, as well as cultured cell lines. Tissues show small but significant differences in TASS isoform ratios, with a variance 4- to 20-fold lower than seen for CEs. Remarkably, in cultured cells, all studied alternative splicing (AS) cases showed a cell-density-dependent shift of isoform ratios with similar time series profiles. A respective genome-wide co-regulation of TASS splicing was shown by next-generation mRNA sequencing data. Moreover, data from human and mouse organs indicate that this co-regulation of TASS occurs in vivo, with brain showing the strongest difference to other organs. Together, the results indicate a physiological AS regulation mechanism that functions almost independently from the splice site context and sequence. PMID:25030907

Szafranski, Karol; Fritsch, Claudia; Schumann, Frank; Siebel, Lisa; Sinha, Rileen; Hampe, Jochen; Hiller, Michael; Englert, Christoph; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias

2014-01-01

269

Co-option of the piRNA Pathway for Germline-Specific Alternative Splicing of C. elegans TOR.  

PubMed

Many eukaryotic genes contain embedded antisense transcripts and repetitive sequences of unknown function. We report that male germline-specific expression of an antisense transcript contained in an intron of C. elegans Target of Rapamycin (TOR, let-363) is associated with (1) accumulation of endo-small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against an embedded Helitron transposon and (2) activation of an alternative 3' splice site of TOR. The germline-specific Argonaute proteins PRG-1 and CSR-1, which participate in self/nonself RNA recognition, antagonistically regulate the generation of these endo-siRNAs, TOR mRNA levels, and 3' splice-site selection. Supply of exogenous double-stranded RNA against the region of sense/antisense overlap reverses changes in TOR expression and splicing and suppresses the progressive multigenerational sterility phenotype of prg-1 mutants. We propose that recognition of a "nonself" intronic transposon by endo-siRNAs/the piRNA system provides physiological regulation of expression and alternative splicing of a host gene that, in turn, contributes to the maintenance of germline function across generations. PMID:25220461

Barberán-Soler, Sergio; Fontrodona, Laura; Ribó, Anna; Lamm, Ayelet T; Iannone, Camilla; Cerón, Julián; Lehner, Ben; Valcárcel, Juan

2014-09-25

270

Mechanisms of activation and repression by the alternative splicing factors RBFOX1/2  

PubMed Central

RBFOX1 and RBFOX2 are alternative splicing factors that are predominantly expressed in the brain and skeletal muscle. They specifically bind the RNA element UGCAUG, and regulate alternative splicing positively or negatively in a position-dependent manner. The molecular basis for the position dependence of these and other splicing factors on alternative splicing of their targets is not known. We explored the mechanisms of RBFOX splicing activation and repression using an MS2-tethering assay. We found that the Ala/Tyr/Gly-rich C-terminal domain is sufficient for exon activation when tethered to the downstream intron, whereas both the C-terminal domain and the central RRM are required for exon repression when tethered to the upstream intron. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified hnRNP H1, RALY, and TFG as proteins that specifically interact with the C-terminal domain of RBFOX1 and RBFOX2. RNA interference experiments showed that hnRNP H1 and TFG modulate the splicing activity of RBFOX1/2, whereas RALY had no effect. However, TFG is localized in the cytoplasm, and likely modulates alternative splicing indirectly. PMID:22184459

Sun, Shuying; Zhang, Zuo; Fregoso, Oliver; Krainer, Adrian R.

2012-01-01

271

Alternative splicing isoform in succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C causes downregulation of succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase activity in mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for the redox of succinic acid. SDH is a tetrameric iron-sulfur flavoprotein of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain. The SDH complex, subunit C (SDHC) transcript has deletion-type alternative splicing sites. Generally, alternative splicing produces variant proteins and expression patterns, as products of different genes. In certain cases, specific alternative splicing variants (ASVs) have been associated with human disease. Due to a frameshift mutation causing loss of the heme binding region, the SDHC ?5 isoform (lacking exon 5) exhibits no SDHC activity. To investigate whether the SDHC splicing variants can function as dominant-negative inhibitors, SDHC ASVs were overexpressed in HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a dominant-negative effect of the ?5 isoform on SDHC mRNA was shown. In addition, ?5 overexpression increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in the ?5 isoform-overexpressing cells, SDH activity was reduced. SDHC activation is a significant event during the electron transport chain, and the function of the SDHC ?5 variant may be significant for the differentiation of tumor cells.

SATOH, NANA; YOKOYAMA, CHIKAKO; ITAMURA, NORIAKI; MIYAJIMA-NAKANO, YOSHIHARU; HISATOMI, HISASHI

2015-01-01

272

Short Alternative Splice Transcripts of the mdm2 Oncogene Correlate to Malignancy in Human Astrocytic Neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inilnû oncogene encodes a 90-kDa nuclear phosphoprotein that binds and inhibits the function of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. It was recently reported that the expression of alternatively spliced variants of uiclm2 correlated with malignancy in ovarian tumors and bladder carci nomas. We analyzed the presence of alternatively spliced mdm2 variants and studied their correlation to p53 status in

Ryoji Matsumoto; Mitsuhiro Tada; Michimasa Nozaki; Chang-Liang Zhang; Yutaka Sawamura; Hiroshi Abe

1998-01-01

273

Ecdysteroid-responsive genes, RXR and E75, in the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: differential tissue expression of multiple RXR isoforms generated at three alternative splicing sites in the hinge and ligand-binding domains.  

PubMed

In order to study the potential role of the steroid molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) in regulating molt-induced claw muscle atrophy, full-length cDNAs encoding retinoid-X receptor (Gl-RXR) and E75 early ecdysone inducible gene (Gl-E75) were obtained from land crab (Gecarcinus lateralis) skeletal muscle mRNA using RT-PCR and 3' and 5' RACE. Gl-E75A (3528bp), which encoded a protein of 828 amino acids, had highest sequence identity to Me-E75A from a shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis). It was expressed in skeletal muscle and gonads. The deduced amino acid sequence of Gl-RXR was highly similar to that of the fiddler crab RXR (Up-RXR) and insect ultraspiracle (USP). Nine variant sequences occurred in Gl-RXR mRNAs at three alternative splicing sites, one in the "T box" in the linker D domain and two in the ligand-binding domain (LBD). The three T-box variants, termed T(+8), T(+7), and T(+12), contained insertions of 8, 7, or 12 amino acids, respectively. Four variants were generated at the first site in the LBD. Two of the LBD site 1 variants differed in the presence (+33) or absence (-33) of a 33-amino acid sequence; the other two were LBD truncations with or without the 33 amino acid sequence (+33DeltaE/F and -33DeltaE/F, respectively). Two variants differing in the presence (+35) or absence (-35) of a 35-amino acid sequence were generated at the second site in the LBD. The Gl-RXRa isoform (1516 bp) with the longest open reading frame (+12/+33/+35) encoded a protein of 436 amino acids. Thoracic muscle expressed only isoforms with the T(+12) sequence. In contrast, claw muscle expressed isoforms with T(+7) or T(+12) and fewer isoforms with T(+8). Ovary and testis expressed a greater number of RXR isoforms than skeletal muscle. All tissues expressed full-length and truncated RXR isoforms. These data suggest that differences in response of claw and thoracic muscles to elevated ecdysteroid are due in part to differences in the expression of RXR isoforms. PMID:16150535

Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Sung Gu; Mykles, Donald L

2005-10-20

274

Donor site competition is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing of the rat beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA.  

PubMed

The rat beta-tropomyosin (beta-TM) gene encodes both skeletal muscle beta-TM mRNA and nonmuscle TM-1 mRNA via alternative RNA splicing. This gene contains eleven exons: exons 1-5, 8, and 9 are common to both mRNAs; exons 6 and 11 are used in fibroblasts as well as in smooth muscle, whereas exons 7 and 10 are used in skeletal muscle. Previously we demonstrated that utilization of the 3' splice site of exon 7 is blocked in nonmuscle cells. In this study, we use both in vitro and in vivo methods to investigate the regulation of the 5' splice site of exon 7 in nonmuscle cells. The 5' splice site of exon 7 is used efficiently in the absence of flanking sequences, but its utilization is suppressed almost completely when the upstream exon 6 and intron 6 are present. The suppression of the 5' splice site of exon 7 does not result from the sequences at the 3' end of intron 6 that block the use of the 3' splice site of exon 7. However, mutating two conserved nucleotides GU at the 5' splice site of exon 6 results in the efficient use of the 5' splice site of exon 7. In addition, a mutation that changes the 5' splice site of exon 7 to the consensus U1 snRNA binding site strongly stimulates the splicing of exon 7 to the downstream common exon 8. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that 5' splice site competition is responsible, in part, for the suppression of exon 7 usage in nonmuscle cells. PMID:10024180

Chen, C D; Helfman, D M

1999-02-01

275

Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10). Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR) rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD. PMID:24098751

Karunakaran, Devi Krishna Priya; Banday, Abdul Rouf; Wu, Qian; Kanadia, Rahul

2013-01-01

276

Evidence for the widespread coupling of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay  

E-print Network

that are differentially subjected to NMD. We propose that regulated un- productive splicing and translation (RUST genes in the entire genome (6), to mediate the formation of neuronal cell­cell contacts. Moreover, alter

277

Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution  

E-print Network

Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist ...

Bradley, Robert K.

278

Genomic organisation of the human MDM2 oncogene and relationship to its alternatively spliced mRNAs.  

PubMed

The MDM2 proto-oncogene, which encodes a protein that binds to the p53 tumour suppressor, has been found amplified and overexpressed in a range of human tumours. Although the human MDM2 cDNA sequence has been reported, the genomic organisation of the human gene has not been documented. We have previously reported the detection of five alternative internally deleted MDM2 transcripts in human tumours and suggested these may represent alternatively spliced forms. Here we demonstrate two novel MDM2 transcripts with internal deletions, using RT-PCR followed by sequencing. To definitively ascribe these variant transcript forms to alternative splicing, and to explore associated mechanisms, we have determined the intron--exon organisation of the human genomic sequence. The human MDM2 gene spans approximately 33 kb and is divided into 12 exons. Exon sizes range from 50 to > or =1161 bp and intron sizes vary from 121 to approximately 7000 bp. The positions of intron--exon boundaries are compared with the deletion junctions of the multiple-sized transcripts and discussed in relation to alternative splicing mechanism. PMID:15315825

Liang, Huiling; Atkins, Helen; Abdel-Fattah, Rana; Jones, Stephen N; Lunec, John

2004-09-01

279

New Splice Site Acceptor Mutation in AIRE Gene in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 240300) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the presence of at least two of three major diseases: hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We aim to identify the molecular defects and investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics in an index case and other members of a consanguineous family. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor (SSA) of intron 5 (c.653-1G>A) in two siblings with different clinical outcomes of APS-1. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that this AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the constitutive SSA of intron 5, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSA in intron 5. Surprisingly, the use of an alternative SSA entails the uncovering of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 5. This new transcript generates a truncated protein (p.A214fs67X) containing the first 213 amino acids and followed by 68 aberrant amino acids. The mutation affects the proper splicing, not only at the acceptor but also at the donor splice site, highlighting the complexity of recognizing suitable splicing sites and the importance of sequencing the intron-exon junctions for a more precise molecular diagnosis and correct genetic counseling. As both siblings were carrying the same mutation but exhibited a different APS-1 onset, and one of the brothers was not clinically diagnosed, our finding highlights the possibility to suspect mutations in the AIRE gene in cases of childhood chronic candidiasis and/or hypoparathyroidism otherwise unexplained, especially when the phenotype is associated with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988226

Mora, Mireia; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Pradas-Juni, Marta; Aranda, Gloria B.; Halperin, Irene; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Aguilo, Sira; Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo

2014-01-01

280

Identification of rare alternative splicing events in MS/MS data reveals a significant fraction of alternative translation initiation sites  

PubMed Central

Integration of transcriptome data is a crucial step for the identification of rare protein variants in mass-spectrometry (MS) data with important consequences for all branches of biotechnology research. Here, we used Splooce, a database of splicing variants recently developed by us, to search MS data derived from a variety of human tumor cell lines. More than 800 new protein variants were identified whose corresponding MS spectra were specific to protein entries from Splooce. Although the types of splicing variants (exon skipping, alternative splice sites and intron retention) were found at the same frequency as in the transcriptome, we observed a large variety of modifications at the protein level induced by alternative splicing events. Surprisingly, we found that 40% of all protein modifications induced by alternative splicing led to the use of alternative translation initiation sites. Other modifications include frameshifts in the open reading frame and inclusion or deletion of peptide sequences. To make the dataset generated here available to the community in a more effective form, the Splooce portal (http://www.bioinformatics-brazil.org/splooce) was modified to report the alternative splicing events supported by MS data.

Kroll, Jose E.; de Souza, Sandro J.

2014-01-01

281

Alternative splicing and immune response of Crassostrea gigas tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3.  

PubMed

Diverse alternative splicing isoforms play an important role in immune diversity and specificity. Their role in molluscan host-defense is however poorly understood. We characterized two alternative isoforms of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, which were named CgTRAF3-S and CgTRAF3-L. An intron was retained in CgTRAF3-L, introducing a premature termination codon. Comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CgTRAF3 shared a higher identity with other species, suggesting the conservation of the two gene transcripts. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed and the expression levels of CgTRAF3 isoforms were found to be significantly changed after Vibrio anguillarum and ostreid herpesvirus 1 challenges. These two isoforms represented contrary trends, indicating that CgTRAF3-L might function as a negative regulator of CgTRAF3-S. We also investigated the expression level of the transcripts of the two CgTRAF3 isoforms, following the silence of C. gigas mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein like gene (CgMAVS-like). We concluded that CgTRAF3 might be involved in a MAVS-mediated immune signaling pathway. This study suggests that CgTRAF3 may be a response to bacterial and viral stimulation and that the two isoforms may be involved in immune response pathways. It is also possible that the two alternative splicing isoforms could be inter-coordinated and may promote survival of these oysters under immune stress conditions. PMID:25012913

Huang, Baoyu; Zhang, Linlin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Li; Qu, Tao; Meng, Jie; Zhang, Guofan

2014-10-01

282

Alternative Splicing of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor IgIII Loops in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of the IgIII loop of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) 1–3 produces b- and c-variants of the receptors with distinctly different biological impact based on their distinct ligand-binding spectrum. Tissue-specific expression of these splice variants regulates interactions in embryonic development, tissue maintenance and repair, and cancer. Alterations in FGFR2 splicing are involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition that produces invasive, metastatic features during tumor progression. Recent research has elucidated regulatory factors that determine the splice choice both on the level of exogenous signaling events and on the RNA-protein interaction level. Moreover, methodology has been developed that will enable the in depth analysis of splicing events during tumorigenesis and provide further insight on the role of FGFR 1–3 IIIb and IIIc in the pathophysiology of various malignancies. This paper aims to summarize expression patterns in various tumor types and outlines possibilities for further analysis and application. PMID:22203889

Holzmann, Klaus; Grunt, Thomas; Heinzle, Christine; Sampl, Sandra; Steinhoff, Heinrich; Reichmann, Nicole; Kleiter, Miriam; Hauck, Marlene; Marian, Brigitte

2012-01-01

283

An F-Domain Introduced by Alternative Splicing Regulates Activity of the Zebrafish Thyroid Hormone Receptor ?  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in vertebrate development; however, the underlying mechanisms of their actions are still poorly understood. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emerging vertebrate model system to study the roles of THs during development. In general, the response to THs relies on closely related proteins and mechanisms across vertebrate species, however some species-specific differences exist. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish has two TR? genes (thraa, thrab). Moreover, the zebrafish thraa gene expresses a TR? isoform (TR?A1) that differs from other TRs by containing additional C-terminal amino acids. C-terminal extensions, called “F domains”, are common in other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and modulate the response of these receptors to hormones. Here we demonstrate that the F-domain constrains the transcriptional activity of zebrafish TR? by altering the selectivity of this receptor for certain coactivator binding motifs. We found that the F-domain of zebrafish TR?A1 is encoded on a separate exon whose inclusion is regulated by alternative splicing, indicating a regulatory role of the F-domain in vivo. Quantitative expression analyses revealed that TR?A1 is primarily expressed in reproductive organs whereas TR?B and the TR?A isoform that lacks the F-domain (TR?A1-2) appear to be ubiquitous. The relative expression levels of these TR? transcripts differ in a tissue-specific manner suggesting that zebrafish uses both alternative splicing and differential expression of TR? genes to diversify the cellular response to THs. PMID:17583703

Takayama, Sachiko; Hostick, Ute; Haendel, Melissa; Eisen, Judith; Darimont, Beatrice

2013-01-01

284

Validation of three splice donor and three splice acceptor sites for regulating four novel low-abundance spliced transcripts of human cytomegalovirus UL21.5 gene locus.  

PubMed

In a previous study, one spliced transcript of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), named UL21.5 was identified. UL21.5 has been found to be one of the viral transcripts packaged within HCMV particles. The UL21.5 mRNA is translated into a secreted glycoprotein, which is a viral chemokine decoy receptor specifically interacting with regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). In the present study, four novel low-abundance 3'-coterminal spliced transcripts were identified to be transcribed from the UL21.5 gene region of a low-passage HCMV strain during the late infection phase by cDNA library screening, northern blot hybridization, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Three splicing donor and three splicing acceptor sites found in the UL21.5 gene region were validated to be functional in an in vitro expression system. In addition, the determinant regulatory region that is necessary for the splice donor site at nucleotide (nt) 25533 was located in a 9-bp sequence around the site; the regulatory regions for the splice acceptor sites at nt 26597 and nt 26633 were located in a 20-bp sequence upstream of the site at nt 26597 and in a 10-bp sequence from nt 26641 to nt 26650 downstream of the site at nt 26633, respectively. PMID:25370414

Gao, Shuang; Ruan, Qiang; Ma, Yanping; Li, Mali; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Bo; Qi, Ying; Ji, Yaohua; Sun, Zhengrong; Huang, Yujing

2015-01-01

285

Alternative splicing in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): a novel therapeutic target?  

PubMed

Although the imatinib based therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents a triumph of medicine, not all patients with CML benefit from this drug due to the development of resistance and intolerance. The interruption of imatinib treatment is often followed by clinical relapse, suggesting a failure in the killing of residual leukaemic stem cells. There is need to identify alternative selective molecular targets for this disease and develop more effective therapeutic approaches. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is an epigenetic process that greatly diversifies the repertoire of the transcriptome. AS orchestrates interactions between various types of proteins and between proteins and nucleic acids. Changes caused by individual splicing events in the cells are small, however, "splicing programs" typically react to these individual changes with considerable effects in cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis. Current evidence suggests a pivotal role of AS in leukemias, particularly in myelodisplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic lymphocyte leukemia (CLL). From these studies and studies in other malignances, it is clear that splicing abnormalities play a significant role in malignant transformation. Evaluation of AS events in CML can be used to identify novel disease markers and drugsensitive targets to overcome the limits of the small molecule inhibitors currently used for treating patients with CML. The use of aberrant splice variants as disease markers has been reported, however, little is known about the use of splicing abnormalities as drug targets in CML. Herein we discuss potential therapeutic approaches that can be used to target splicing abnormalities in CML. PMID:23906050

Adamia, Sophia; Pilarski, Patrick M; Bar-Natan, Michal; Stone, Richard M; Griffin, James D

2013-09-01

286

Two new and distinct roles for Drosophila Argonaute-2 in the nucleus: alternative pre-mRNA splicing and transcriptional repression  

PubMed Central

Transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing are highly regulated processes that play major roles in modulating eukaryotic gene expression. It is increasingly apparent that other pathways of RNA metabolism, including small RNA biogenesis, can regulate these processes. However, a direct link between alternative pre-mRNA splicing and small RNA pathways has remained elusive. Here we show that the small RNA pathway protein Argonaute-2 (Ago-2) regulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns of specific transcripts in the Drosophila nucleus using genome-wide methods in conjunction with RNAi in cell culture and Ago-2 deletion or catalytic site mutations in Drosophila adults. Moreover, we show that nuclear Argonaute-2 binds to specific chromatin sites near gene promoters and negatively regulates the transcription of the Ago-2-associated target genes. These transcriptional target genes are also bound by Polycomb group (PcG) transcriptional repressor proteins and change during development, implying that Ago-2 may regulate Drosophila development. Importantly, both of these activities were independent of the catalytic activity of Ago-2, suggesting new roles for Ago-2 in the nucleus. Finally, we determined the nuclear RNA-binding profile of Ago-2, found it bound to several splicing target transcripts, and identified a G-rich RNA-binding site for Ago-2 that was enriched in these transcripts. These results suggest two new nuclear roles for Ago-2: one in pre-mRNA splicing and one in transcriptional repression. PMID:23392611

Taliaferro, J. Matthew; Aspden, Julie L.; Bradley, Todd; Marwha, Dhruv; Blanchette, Marco; Rio, Donald C.

2013-01-01

287

Splicing in disease: disruption of the splicing code and the decoding machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genes contain a dense array of diverse cis-acting elements that make up a code required for the expression of correctly spliced mRNAs. Alternative splicing generates a highly dynamic human proteome through networks of coordinated splicing events. Cis- and trans-acting mutations that disrupt the splicing code or the machinery required for splicing and its regulation have roles in various diseases,

Guey-Shin Wang; Thomas A. Cooper

2007-01-01

288

A Gammaherpesvirus Uses Alternative Splicing to Regulate Its Tropism and Its Sensitivity to Neutralization  

PubMed Central

Human gammaherpesviruses are associated with the development of lymphomas and epithelial malignancies. The heterogeneity of these tumors reflects the ability of these viruses to route infection to different cell types at various stages of their lifecycle. While the Epstein Barr virus uses gp42 – human leukocyte antigen class II interaction as a switch of cell tropism, the molecular mechanism that orientates tropism of rhadinoviruses is still poorly defined. Here, we used bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) to further elucidate how rhadinoviruses regulate their infectivity. In the absence of any gp42 homolog, BoHV-4 exploits the alternative splicing of its Bo10 gene to produce distinct viral populations that behave differently based on the originating cell. While epithelial cells produce virions with high levels of the accessory envelope protein gp180, encoded by a Bo10 spliced product, myeloid cells express reduced levels of gp180. As a consequence, virions grown in epithelial cells are hardly infectious for CD14+ circulating cells, but are relatively resistant to antibody neutralization due to the shielding property of gp180 for vulnerable entry epitopes. In contrast, myeloid virions readily infect CD14+ circulating cells but are easily neutralized. This molecular switch could therefore allow BoHV-4 to promote either, on the one hand, its dissemination into the organism, or, on the other hand, its transmission between hosts. PMID:24204281

Machiels, Benedicte; Stevenson, Philip G.; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Gillet, Laurent

2013-01-01

289

Quaking I controls a unique cytoplasmic pathway that regulates alternative splicing of myelin-associated glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Precise control of alternative splicing governs oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system (CNS). A well-known example is the developmentally regulated expression of splice variants encoding myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which generates two protein isoforms that associate with distinct cellular components crucial for axon-glial recognition during myelinogenesis and axon-myelin stability. In the quakingviable (qk(v)) hypomyelination mutant mouse, diminished expression of isoforms of the selective RNA-binding protein quaking I (QKI) leads to severe dysregulation of MAG splicing. The nuclear isoform QKI-5 was previously shown to bind an intronic element of MAG and modulate alternative exon inclusion from a MAG minigene reporter. Thus, QKI-5 deficiency was thought to underlie the defects of MAG splicing in the qk(v) mutant. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic expression of the cytoplasmic isoform QKI-6 in the qk(v) OLs completely rescues the dysregulation of MAG splicing without increasing expression or nuclear abundance of QKI-5. In addition, cytoplasmic QKI-6 selectively associates with the mRNA that encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), a well-characterized splicing factor. Furthermore, QKI deficiency in the qk(v) mutant results in abnormally enhanced hnRNPA1 translation and overproduction of the hnRNPA1 protein but not hnRNPA1 mRNA, which can be successfully rescued by the QKI-6 transgene. Finally, we show that hnRNPA1 binds MAG pre-mRNA and modulates alternative inclusion of MAG exons. Together, these results reveal a unique cytoplasmic pathway in which QKI-6 controls translation of the splicing factor hnRNPA1 to govern alternative splicing in CNS myelination. PMID:20956316

Zhao, Lixia; Mandler, Mariana D; Yi, Hong; Feng, Yue

2010-11-01

290

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing and proteome expansion in metazoans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein coding sequences of most eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) are interrupted by non-coding sequences called introns. Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing selectively joins different protein coding elements to form mRNAs that encode proteins with distinct functions, and is therefore an important

Tom Maniatis; Bosiljka Tasic

2002-01-01

291

Quaking I controls a unique cytoplasmic pathway that regulates alternative splicing of myelin-associated glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Precise control of alternative splicing governs oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system (CNS). A well-known example is the developmentally regulated expression of splice variants encoding myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), which generates two protein isoforms that associate with distinct cellular components crucial for axon-glial recognition during myelinogenesis and axon-myelin stability. In the quakingviable (qkv) hypomyelination mutant mouse, diminished expression of isoforms of the selective RNA-binding protein quaking I (QKI) leads to severe dysregulation of MAG splicing. The nuclear isoform QKI-5 was previously shown to bind an intronic element of MAG and modulate alternative exon inclusion from a MAG minigene reporter. Thus, QKI-5 deficiency was thought to underlie the defects of MAG splicing in the qkv mutant. Surprisingly, we found that transgenic expression of the cytoplasmic isoform QKI-6 in the qkv OLs completely rescues the dysregulation of MAG splicing without increasing expression or nuclear abundance of QKI-5. In addition, cytoplasmic QKI-6 selectively associates with the mRNA that encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), a well-characterized splicing factor. Furthermore, QKI deficiency in the qkv mutant results in abnormally enhanced hnRNPA1 translation and overproduction of the hnRNPA1 protein but not hnRNPA1 mRNA, which can be successfully rescued by the QKI-6 transgene. Finally, we show that hnRNPA1 binds MAG pre-mRNA and modulates alternative inclusion of MAG exons. Together, these results reveal a unique cytoplasmic pathway in which QKI-6 controls translation of the splicing factor hnRNPA1 to govern alternative splicing in CNS myelination. PMID:20956316

Zhao, Lixia; Mandler, Mariana D.; Yi, Hong; Feng, Yue

2010-01-01

292

The splicing regulator Sam68 binds to a novel exonic splicing silencer and functions in SMN2 alternative splicing in spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of motor neurons in patients with null mutations in the SMN1 gene. An almost identical SMN2 gene is unable to compensate for this deficiency because a single C-to-T transition at position +6 in exon-7 causes skipping of the exon by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. We observed that the C-to-T transition in SMN2 creates a putative binding site for the RNA-binding protein Sam68. RNA pull-down assays and UV-crosslink experiments showed that Sam68 binds to this sequence. In vivo splicing assays showed that Sam68 triggers SMN2 exon-7 skipping. Moreover, mutations in the Sam68-binding site of SMN2 or in the RNA-binding domain of Sam68 completely abrogated its effect on exon-7 skipping. Retroviral infection of dominant-negative mutants of Sam68 that interfere with its RNA-binding activity, or with its binding to the splicing repressor hnRNP A1, enhanced exon-7 inclusion in endogenous SMN2 and rescued SMN protein expression in fibroblasts of SMA patients. Our results thus indicate that Sam68 is a novel crucial regulator of SMN2 splicing. PMID:20186123

Pedrotti, Simona; Bielli, Pamela; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Stamm, Stefan; Manley, James L; Sette, Claudio

2010-01-01

293

Evolution of the Plasma and Tissue Kallikreins, and Their Alternative Splicing Isoforms  

PubMed Central

Kallikreins are secreted serine proteases with important roles in human physiology. Human plasma kallikrein, encoded by the KLKB1 gene on locus 4q34-35, functions in the blood coagulation pathway, and in regulating blood pressure. The human tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles, including cancer-related processes such as cell growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the product of the KLK3 gene, is the most widely used biomarker in clinical practice today. A total of 15 KLKs are encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome (19q13.3-13.4), which makes them ideal for evolutionary analysis of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs have traced mammalian homologs as well as a probable early origin of the family in aves, amphibia and reptilia. The aim of this study was to address the evolutionary and functional relationships between tissue KLKs and plasma kallikrein, and to examine the evolution of alternative splicing isoforms. Sequences of plasma and tissue kallikreins and their alternative transcripts were collected from the NCBI and Ensembl databases, and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed by Bayesian as well as maximum likelihood methods. Plasma and tissue kallikreins exhibit high sequence similarity in the trypsin domain (>50%). Phylogenetic analysis indicates an early divergence of KLKB1, which groups closely with plasminogen, chymotrypsin, and complement factor D (CFD), in a monophyletic group distinct from trypsin and the tissue KLKs. Reconstruction of the earliest events leading to the diversification of the tissue KLKs is not well resolved, indicating rapid expansion in mammals. Alternative transcripts of each KLK gene show species-specific divergence, while examination of sequence conservation indicates that many annotated human KLK isoforms are missing the catalytic triad that is crucial for protease activity. PMID:23874499

Koumandou, Vassiliki Lila; Scorilas, Andreas

2013-01-01

294

Regulatory Roles of Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein M and Nova-1 Protein in Alternative Splicing of Dopamine D2 Receptor Pre-mRNA*  

PubMed Central

The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays a crucial role in the regulation of diverse key physiological functions, including motor control, reward, learning, and memory. This receptor is present in vivo in two isoforms, D2L and D2S, generated from the same gene by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Each isoform has a specific role in vivo, underlining the importance of a strict control of its synthesis, yet the molecular mechanism modulating alternative D2R pre-mRNA splicing has not been completely elucidated. Here, we identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M) as a key molecule controlling D2R splicing. We show that binding of hnRNP M to exon 6 inhibited the inclusion of this exon in the mRNA. Importantly, the splicing factor Nova-1 counteracted hnRNP M effects on D2R pre-mRNA splicing. Indeed, mutations of the putative Nova-1-binding site on exon 6 disrupted Nova-1 RNA assembly and diminished the inhibitory effect of Nova-1 on hnRNP M-dependent exon 6 exclusion. These results identify Nova-1 and hnRNP M as D2R pre-mRNA-binding proteins and show their antagonistic role in the alternative splicing of D2R pre-mRNA. PMID:21622564

Park, Eonyoung; Iaccarino, Ciro; Lee, Jiwon; Kwon, Ilmin; Baik, Sun Mi; Kim, Myungjin; Seong, Jae Young; Son, Gi Hoon; Borrelli, Emiliana; Kim, Kyungjin

2011-01-01

295

Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

2014-01-01

296

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein interacts with sequences involved in alternative splicing of beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA.  

PubMed

Previous studies of alternative splicing of the rat beta-tropomyosin gene have shown that nonmuscle cells contain factors that block the use of the skeletal muscle exon 7 (Guo, W., Mulligan, G. J., Wormsley, S., and Helfman, D. M. (1991) Genes & Dev. 5, 2095-2106). Using an RNA mobility-shift assay we have identified factors in HeLa cell nuclear extracts that specifically interact with sequences responsible for exon blockage. Here we present the purification to apparent homogeneity of a protein that exhibits these sequence specific RNA binding properties. This protein is identical to the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) which other studies have suggested is involved in the recognition and efficient use of 3'-splice sites. PTB binds to two distinct functional elements within intron 6 of the beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA: 1) the polypyrimidine tract sequences required for the use of branch points associated with the splicing of exon 7, and 2) the intron regulatory element that is involved in the repression of exon 7. Our results demonstrate that the sequence requirements for PTB binding are different than previously reported and shows that PTB binding cannot be predicted solely on the basis of pyrimidine content. In addition, PTB fails to bind stably to sequences within intron 5 and intron 7 of beta-TM pre-mRNA, yet forms a stable complex with sequences in intron 6, which is not normally spliced in HeLa cells in vitro and in vivo. The nature of the interactions of PTB within this regulated intron reveals several new details about the binding specificity of PTB and suggests that PTB does not function exclusively in a positive manner in the recognition and use of 3'-splice sites. PMID:1460042

Mulligan, G J; Guo, W; Wormsley, S; Helfman, D M

1992-12-15

297

Positive and negative intronic regulatory elements control muscle-specific alternative exon splicing of Drosophila myosin heavy chain transcripts.  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) transcripts is precisely regulated to ensure the expression of specific MHC isoforms required for the distinctive contractile activities of physiologically specialized muscles. We have used transgenic expression analysis in combination with mutagenesis to identify cis-regulatory sequences that are required for muscle-specific splicing of exon 11, which is encoded by five alternative exons that produce alternative "converter" domains in the MHC head. Here, we report the identification of three conserved intronic elements (CIE1, -2, and -3) that control splicing of exon 11e in the indirect flight muscle (IFM). Each of these CIE elements has a distinct function: CIE1 acts as a splice repressor, while CIE2 and CIE3 behave as splice enhancers. These CIE elements function in combination with a nonconsensus splice donor to direct IFM-specific splicing of exon 11e. An additional cis-regulatory element that is essential in coordinating the muscle-specific splicing of other alternative exon 11s is identified. Therefore, multiple interacting intronic and splice donor elements establish the muscle-specific splicing of alternative exon 11s. PMID:11139507

Standiford, D M; Sun, W T; Davis, M B; Emerson, C P

2001-01-01

298

The Choice of Alternative 5' Splice Sites in Influenza Virus M1 mRNA is Regulated by the Viral Polymerase Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influenza virus M1 mRNA has two alternative 5' splice sites: a distal 5' splice site producing mRNA_3 that has the coding potential for 9 amino acids and a proximal 5' splice site producing M2 mRNA encoding the essential M2 ion-channel protein. Only mRNA_3 was made in uninfected cells transfected with DNA expressing M1 mRNA. Similarly, using nuclear extracts from uninfected cells, in vitro splicing of M1 mRNA yielded only mRNA_3. Only when the mRNA_3 5' splice site was inactivated by mutation was M2 mRNA made in uninfected cells and in uninfected cell extracts. In influenza virus-infected cells, M2 mRNA was made, but only after a delay, suggesting that newly synthesized viral gene product(s) were needed to activate the M2 5' splice site. We present strong evidence that these gene products are the complex of the three polymerase proteins, the same complex that functions in the transcription and replication of the viral genome. Gel shift experiments showed that the viral polymerase complex bound to the 5' end of the viral M1 mRNA in a sequence-specific and cap-dependent manner. During in vitro splicing catalyzed by uninfected cell extracts, the binding of the viral polymerase complex blocked the mRNA_3 5' splice site, resulting in the switch to the M2 mRNA 5' splice site and the production of M2 mRNA.

Shih, Shin-Ru; Nemeroff, Martin E.; Krug, Robert M.

1995-07-01

299

Expanding the action of duplex RNAs into the nucleus: redirecting alternative splicing  

PubMed Central

Double-stranded RNAs are powerful agents for silencing gene expression in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. The potential for duplex RNAs to control expression in the nucleus has received less attention. Here, we investigate the ability of small RNAs to redirect splicing. We identify RNAs targeting an aberrant splice site that restore splicing and production of functional protein. RNAs can target sequences within exons or introns and affect the inclusion of exons within SMN2 and dystrophin, genes responsible for spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, respectively. Duplex RNAs recruit argonaute 2 (AGO2) to pre-mRNA transcripts and altered splicing requires AGO2 expression. AGO2 promotes transcript cleavage in the cytoplasm, but recruitment of AGO2 to pre-mRNAs does not reduce transcript levels, exposing a difference between cytoplasmic and nuclear pathways. Involvement of AGO2 in splicing, a classical nuclear process, reinforces the conclusion from studies of RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing that RNAi pathways can be adapted to function in the mammalian nucleus. These data provide a new strategy for controlling splicing and expand the reach of small RNAs within the nucleus of mammalian cells. PMID:21948593

Liu, Jing; Hu, Jiaxin; Corey, David R.

2012-01-01

300

Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

S?rensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jorg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

2007-01-01

301

Transcriptomic Analysis of Postmortem Brain identifies Dysregulated Splicing Events in Novel Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The diverse spatial and temporal expression of alternatively spliced transcript isoforms shapes neurodevelopment and plays a major role in neuronal adaptability. Although alternative splicing is extremely common in the brain, its role in mental illnesses such as schizophrenia has received little attention. To examine this relationship, postmortem brain tissue was obtained from 20 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 neuropsychiatrically normal comparison subjects. Gray matter samples were extracted from two brain regions implicated in the disorder: Brodmann area 10 and caudate. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used on four subjects per group to attain an initial profile of differential expression of transcribed elements within and across brain regions in SZ. Numerous genes of interest with altered mRNA transcripts were identified by microarray through the differential expression of particular exons and 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) between diagnostic groups. Select microarray results—including dysregulation of ENAH exon 11a and CPNE3 3?UTR—were verified by qRTPCR and replicated in the remaining independent sample of 16 SZ patients and 16 normal comparison subjects. These results, if further replicated, clearly illustrate the importance of Identifying transcriptomic variants in expression studies, and implicate novel candidate genes in the disorder. PMID:23062752

Cohen, Ori S.; Mccoy, Sarah Y.; Middleton, Frank A.; Bialosuknia, Sean; Zhang-James, Yanli; Liu, Lu; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

302

Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in Digitalis purpurea by strand-specific RNA-Seq.  

PubMed

Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health. PMID:25167195

Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

2014-01-01

303

Redirecting splicing with bifunctional oligonucleotides  

PubMed Central

Ectopic modulators of alternative splicing are important tools to study the function of splice variants and for correcting mis-splicing events that cause human diseases. Such modulators can be bifunctional oligonucleotides made of an antisense portion that determines target specificity, and a non-hybridizing tail that recruits proteins or RNA/protein complexes that affect splice site selection (TOSS and TOES, respectively, for targeted oligonucleotide silencer of splicing and targeted oligonucleotide enhancer of splicing). The use of TOSS and TOES has been restricted to a handful of targets. To generalize the applicability and demonstrate the robustness of TOSS, we have tested this approach on more than 50 alternative splicing events. Moreover, we have developed an algorithm that can design active TOSS with a success rate of 80%. To produce bifunctional oligonucleotides capable of stimulating splicing, we built on the observation that binding sites for TDP-43 can stimulate splicing and improve U1 snRNP binding when inserted downstream from 5? splice sites. A TOES designed to recruit TDP-43 improved exon 7 inclusion in SMN2. Overall, our study shows that bifunctional oligonucleotides can redirect splicing on a variety of genes, justifying their inclusion in the molecular arsenal that aims to alter the production of splice variants. PMID:24375754

Brosseau, Jean-Philippe; Lucier, Jean-François; Lamarche, Andrée-Anne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Paquet, Éric; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Abou Elela, Sherif; Chabot, Benoit

2014-01-01

304

Noisy Splicing Drives mRNA Isoform Diversity in Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the majority of multiexonic human genes show some evidence of alternative splicing, it is unclear what fraction of observed splice forms is functionally relevant. In this study, we examine the extent of alternative splicing in human cells using deep RNA sequencing and de novo identification of splice junctions. We demonstrate the existence of a large class of low abundance

Joseph K. Pickrell; Athma A. Pai; Yoav Gilad; Jonathan K. Pritchard

2010-01-01

305

Complete human gene structure of obscurin: implications for isoform generation by differential splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete gene giant muscle protein obscurin, a modular protein composed largely of tandem Ig-domains, GDP\\/GTP exchange factor domains (GEF) for small G-proteins, and differentially spliced kinase domains, was analysed. The splice donor and acceptor sites of the 117 exons give important clues for potential splice pathways. The fusion of the conventional obscurin A, containing only the GEF domain, and

Atsushi Fukuzawa; Seraphina Idowu; Mathias Gautel

2005-01-01

306

Selective increase in specific alternative splice variants of tyrosinase in murine melanomas: A projected basis for immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Melanomas tend to become less pigmented in the course of malignant progression. Thus, as proliferation increases, the tumors are decreasingly characterized by the tissue-specific phenotype of normally differentiated melanocytes. To learn whether the decline in melanization is associated with a shift from constitutive to alternative splicing of some pigment gene pre-mRNAs, melanomas were collected from Tyr-SV40E transgenic mice of the standard C57BL/6 strain. The mRNAs of the tyrosinase gene, which has a key role in melanogenesis, were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase–PCR in 34 samples from 16 cutaneous tumors and 9 metastases. The cutaneous tumors included some cases with distinct melanotic and amelanotic zones, which were separately analyzed. All tyrosinase transcripts found in the melanomas were also found in normal skin melanocytes. However, the ?1b and ?1d alternatively spliced transcripts, due to deletions within the first exon, were specifically augmented in most of the tumors over their very low levels in skin; the exceptions were some all-amelanotic tumors in which no tyrosinase transcripts were detected. The level of ?1b rose as high as 11.3% of total tyrosinase mRNAs as compared with 0.6% in skin; ?1d reached 4.0% as compared with 0.8% in skin. Expression of these splice variants was highest in the melanotic components of zonal primary tumors, relatively lower in their amelanotic components, and still lower in all-amelanotic primary tumors and amelanotic metastases. The increase in ?1b and ?1d transcripts may be predicted to increase the levels of unusual peptides, which could have antigenic potential in the tumors, especially in the relatively early phases of malignancy. Analyses of the alternative transcripts of other pigment genes may identify additional candidate antigens, ultimately enabling melanoma cells in all phases of the disease to be represented as a basis for immune intervention. PMID:9144237

Le Fur, Nathalie; Kelsall, Stephen R.; Silvers, Willys K.; Mintz, Beatrice

1997-01-01

307

Functional properties of p54, a novel SR protein active in constitutive and alternative splicing.  

PubMed Central

The p54 protein was previously identified by its reactivity with an autoantiserum. We report here that p54 is a new member of the SR family of splicing factors, as judged from its structural, antigenic, and functional characteristics. Consistent with its identification as an SR protein, p54 can function as a constitutive splicing factor in complementing splicing-deficient HeLa cell S100 extract. However, p54 also shows properties distinct from those of other SR family members, p54 can directly interact with the 65-kDa subunit of U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF65), a protein associated with the 3' splice site. In addition, p54 interacts with other SR proteins but does not interact with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1-70K or the 35-kDa subunit of U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF35). This protein-protein interaction profile is different from those of prototypical SR proteins SC35 and ASF/SF2, both of which interact with U1-70K and U2AF35 but not with U2AF65. p54 promotes the use of the distal 5' splice site in E1A pre-mRNA alternative splicing, while the same site is suppressed by ASF/SF2 and SC35. These findings and the differential tissue distribution of p54 suggest that this novel SR protein may participate in regulation of alternative splicing in a tissue- and substrate-dependent manner. PMID:8816452

Zhang, W J; Wu, J Y

1996-01-01

308

Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Small Subunits of ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Maize, Bt2 and L2 , Replace the Single Alternatively Spliced Gene Found in Other Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of gene encoding small subunits (SSU) of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a starch-biosynthetic enzyme, have been\\u000a found in cereals and other grasses. One of these genes encodes two SSU proteins. These are targeted to different subcellular\\u000a compartments and expressed in different organs of the plant: the endosperm cytosol and the leaf plastids. The SSU gene encoding\\u000a two proteins evolved from

Sandrine Rösti; Kay Denyer

2007-01-01

309

Differential alternative splicing activity of isoforms of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB).  

PubMed Central

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates splicing by repressing specific splicing events. It also has roles in 3'-end processing, internal initiation of translation, and RNA localization. PTB exists in three alternatively spliced isoforms, PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4, which differ by the insertion of 19 or 26 amino acids, respectively, between the second and third RNA recognition motif domains. Here we show that the PTB isoforms have distinct activities upon alpha-tropomyosin (TM) alternative splicing. PTB1 reduced the repression of TM exon 3 in transfected smooth muscle cells, whereas PTB4 enhanced TM exon 3 skipping in vivo and in vitro. PTB2 had an intermediate effect. The PTB4 > PTB2 > PTB1 repressive hierarchy was observed in all in vivo and in vitro assays with TM, but the isoforms were equally active in inducing skipping of alpha-actinin exons and showed the opposite hierarchy of activity when tested for activation of IRES-driven translation. These findings establish that the ratio of PTB isoforms could form part of a cellular code that in turn controls the splicing of various other pre-mRNAs. PMID:11421360

Wollerton, M C; Gooding, C; Robinson, F; Brown, E C; Jackson, R J; Smith, C W

2001-01-01

310

Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 through coactivation and repression of specific SR proteins.  

PubMed Central

SRrp86 is an 86-kDa member of the SR protein superfamily that is unique in that it can alter splice site selection by regulating the activity of other SR proteins. To study the function of SRrp86, inducible cell lines were created in which the concentration of SRrp86 could be varied and its effects on alternative splicing determined. Here, we show that SRrp86 can activate SRp20 and repress SC35 in a dose-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. These effects are apparently mediated through direct protein-protein interaction, as pull-down assays showed that SRrp86 interacts with both SRp20 and SC35. Consistent with the hypothesis that relatively modest changes in the concentration or activity of one or more splicing factors can combinatorially regulate overall splicing, protein expression patterns of SRrp86, SRp20, and SC35 reveal that each tissue maintains a unique ratio of these factors. Regulation of SR protein activity, coupled with regulated protein expression, suggest that SRrp86 may play a crucial role in determining tissue specific patterns of alternative splicing. PMID:11991645

Barnard, Daron C; Li, Jun; Peng, Rui; Patton, James G

2002-01-01

311

Model for alternative RNA processing in human calcitonin gene expression.  

PubMed

The alternative RNA processing pathways in human calcitonin gene (CALC-I gene) expression were investigated using steady state RNA isolated from human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and from a culture line derived from this tumor. On Northern blots the mature 1.0 kilobases (Kb) calcitonin (CT) - and 1.1 Kb calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mRNAs were detected with CALCI gene specific probes as well as high molecular weight poly (A) containing RNAs of 2.1, 2.3, 3.3, 4.2, 5.0 and 5.7 Kb. The 5.7 Kb RNA was identified as the poly(A) tailed primary transcript containing sequences corresponding to all 6 exons and 5 introns of the CALC-I gene. From the composition of the other RNAs the splicing order of the different introns could be deduced. The results suggest the following model. First all introns not involved in alternative processing (introns 1, 2 and 5) are spliced from the 5.7 Kb RNA in rapid successive reactions yielding a 3.3 Kb RNA, which accumulates. From this 3.3 Kb RNA, the last common intermediate in the alternative processing pathway, CT mRNA is formed by splicing of intron 3 and poly(A) addition at exon 4, in this order or the reverse order via 2.3 Kb or 2.1 Kb RNA intermediates respectively. Alternatively, the whole intron 3-exon 4-intron 4 region is spliced from the 3.3 Kb RNA yielding CGRP mRNA. The temporal sequence of poly(A) addition at exons 4 and 6 may relate to the observed structural differences between the poly(A) addition signals at these sites. The ratio of CT- to CGRP mRNA may relate also to the differences in the primary structures of the intron 3- and intron 4 splice acceptor sites. PMID:3024119

Bovenberg, R A; van de Meerendonk, W P; Baas, P D; Steenbergh, P H; Lips, C J; Jansz, H S

1986-11-25

312

Alternative Splicing in the Aldo-Keto Reductase Superfamily: Implications for Protein Nomenclature  

PubMed Central

The aldo-keto reductase superfamily contains 173 proteins which are present in all phyla. Examination of the human and mouse genomes has identified that in some instances a single AKR gene can give rise to alternatively spliced mRNA variants which in some cases can give rise to more than one protein isoform. This is currently well documented in the AKR6A subfamily which contains the ?-subunits of the voltage-gated potassium ion channels. With the emergence of second generation sequencing it is likely that the occurrence of transcript variants and protein isoforms from a single AKR gene may become common place. To deal with this issue we recommend that the Ensembl data-base nomenclature be used to annotate the transcript variants from a single AKR gene. However, since multiple transcript variants could give rise to either the same or multiple protein isoforms from the same AKR gene we also propose to expand the nomenclature of the AKR protein superfamily, so that when a protein isoform is shown to be expressed and is functional it would be assigned the standard AKR name followed by a “period or full-stop” and a number for that unique isoform. Numbers will be assigned chronologically and linked to the respective transcripts annotated in Ensembl e.g. AKR6A5.1 (Kv?2.1) (AKR6A5-001, -006 and -201), followed by AKR6A5.2 (Kv?2.2) (AKR6A5-002,-202). This nomenclature is expandable and it enables multiple protein isoforms to be assigned to their respective transcripts when they arise from the same AKR gene or for a single protein isoform to be assigned to multiple transcripts when the transcripts encode the same AKR protein. PMID:23298867

Barski, Oleg A.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Penning, Trevor M.

2013-01-01

313

Aberrant Alternative Splicing of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in a TSH-Secreting Pituitary Tumor Is  

E-print Network

Aberrant Alternative Splicing of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in a TSH-Secreting Pituitary Tumor serum TSH levels despite elevated thyroid hormone levels. The mechanism for this defect in the negative detected in the tumoral genomic DNA. This TR variant (TR 2spl) lacked thyroid hormone binding and had

314

A Subtle Alternative Splicing Event Gives Rise to a Widely Expressed Human RNase k Isoform  

PubMed Central

Subtle alternative splicing leads to the formation of RNA variants lacking or including a small number of nucleotides. To date, the impact of subtle alternative splicing phenomena on protein biosynthesis has been studied in frame-preserving incidents. On the contrary, mRNA isoforms derived from frame-shifting events were poorly studied and generally characterized as non-coding. This work provides evidence for a frame-shifting subtle alternative splicing event which results in the production of a novel protein isoform. We applied a combined molecular approach for the cloning and expression analysis of a human RNase ? transcript (RNase ?-02) which lacks four consecutive bases compared to the previously isolated RNase ? isoform. RNase ?-02 mRNA is expressed in all human cell lines tested end encodes the synthesis of a 134-amino-acid protein by utilizing an alternative initiation codon. The expression of RNase ?-02 in the cytoplasm of human cells was verified by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis using a specific polyclonal antibody developed on the basis of the amino-acid sequence difference between the two protein isoforms. The results presented here show that subtle changes during mRNA splicing can lead to the expression of significantly altered protein isoforms. PMID:24797913

Karousis, Evangelos D.; Sideris, Diamantis C.

2014-01-01

315

Cell Type and Culture ConditionDependent Alternative Splicing in Human Breast Cancer Cells Revealed by  

E-print Network

lead to predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer (2, 3). A G-to-T transversion mutation of breast and ovarian cancer within a family (4). This mutation leads to the skipping of exon 18 in the BRCACell Type and Culture Condition­Dependent Alternative Splicing in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Ares Jr., Manny

316

Position-dependent FUS-RNA interactions regulate alternative splicing events and transcriptions  

PubMed Central

FUS is an RNA-binding protein that regulates transcription, alternative splicing, and mRNA transport. Aberrations of FUS are causally associated with familial and sporadic ALS/FTLD. We analyzed FUS-mediated transcriptions and alternative splicing events in mouse primary cortical neurons using exon arrays. We also characterized FUS-binding RNA sites in the mouse cerebrum with HITS-CLIP. We found that FUS-binding sites tend to form stable secondary structures. Analysis of position-dependence of FUS-binding sites disclosed scattered binding of FUS to and around the alternatively spliced exons including those associated with neurodegeneration such as Mapt, Camk2a, and Fmr1. We also found that FUS is often bound to the antisense RNA strand at the promoter regions. Global analysis of these FUS-tags and the expression profiles disclosed that binding of FUS to the promoter antisense strand downregulates transcriptions of the coding strand. Our analysis revealed that FUS regulates alternative splicing events and transcriptions in a position-dependent manner. PMID:22829983

Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Masuda, Akio; Fujioka, Yusuke; Iguchi, Yohei; Katsuno, Masahisa; Shibata, Akihide; Urano, Fumihiko; Sobue, Gen; Ohno, Kinji

2012-01-01

317

SpliceNet: recovering splicing isoform-specific differential gene networks from RNA-Seq data of normal and diseased samples  

PubMed Central

Conventionally, overall gene expressions from microarrays are used to infer gene networks, but it is challenging to account splicing isoforms. High-throughput RNA Sequencing has made splice variant profiling practical. However, its true merit in quantifying splicing isoforms and isoform-specific exon expressions is not well explored in inferring gene networks. This study demonstrates SpliceNet, a method to infer isoform-specific co-expression networks from exon-level RNA-Seq data, using large dimensional trace. It goes beyond differentially expressed genes and infers splicing isoform network changes between normal and diseased samples. It eases the sample size bottleneck; evaluations on simulated data and lung cancer-specific ERBB2 and MAPK signaling pathways, with varying number of samples, evince the merit in handling high exon to sample size ratio datasets. Inferred network rewiring of well established Bcl-x and EGFR centered networks from lung adenocarcinoma expression data is in good agreement with literature. Gene level evaluations demonstrate a substantial performance of SpliceNet over canonical correlation analysis, a method that is currently applied to exon level RNA-Seq data. SpliceNet can also be applied to exon array data. SpliceNet is distributed as an R package available at http://www.jjwanglab.org/SpliceNet. PMID:25034693

Yalamanchili, Hari Krishna; Li, Zhaoyuan; Wang, Panwen; Wong, Maria P.; Yao, Jianfeng; Wang, Junwen

2014-01-01

318

Regulation of mRNA Abundance by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Controlled Alternate 5? Splice Site Choice  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5? and 3? splice site (5?ss and 3?ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5?ss (u5?ss and d5?ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5?ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5?ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5?ss and d5?ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5?ss is intrinsically weaker than d5?ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5?ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5?ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

Hamid, Fursham M.; Makeyev, Eugene V.

2014-01-01

319

Regulation of mRNA abundance by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-controlled alternate 5' splice site choice.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5' and 3' splice site (5'ss and 3'ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5'ss (u5'ss and d5'ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5'ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5'ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5'ss and d5'ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5'ss is intrinsically weaker than d5'ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5'ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5'ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

Hamid, Fursham M; Makeyev, Eugene V

2014-11-01

320

Phosphorylation of the alternative mRNA splicing factor 45 (SPF45) by Clk1 regulates its splice site utilization, cell migration and invasion  

PubMed Central

Alternative mRNA splicing is a mechanism to regulate protein isoform expression and is regulated by alternative splicing factors. The alternative splicing factor 45 (SPF45) is overexpressed in cancer, although few biological effects of SPF45 are known, and few splicing targets have been identified. We previously showed that Extracellular Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation of SPF45 regulates cell proliferation and adhesion to fibronectin. In this work, we show that Cdc2-like kinase 1 (Clk1) phosphorylates SPF45 on eight serine residues. Clk1 expression enhanced, whereas Clk1 inhibition reduced, SPF45-induced exon 6 exclusion from Fas mRNA. Mutational analysis of the Clk1 phosphorylation sites on SPF45 showed both positive and negative regulation of splicing, with a net effect of inhibiting SPF45-induced exon 6 exclusion, correlating with reduced Fas mRNA binding. However, Clk1 enhanced SPF45 protein expression, but not mRNA expression, whereas inhibition of Clk1 increased SPF45 degradation through a proteasome-dependent pathway. Overexpression of SPF45 or a phospho-mimetic mutant, but not a phospho-inhibitory mutant, stimulated ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, correlating with increased fibronectin expression, ERK activation and enhanced splicing and phosphorylation of full-length cortactin. Our results demonstrate for the first time that SPF45 overexpression enhances cell migration and invasion, dependent on biochemical regulation by Clk1. PMID:23519612

Liu, Yuying; Conaway, LaShardai; Rutherford Bethard, Jennifer; Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M.; Thompson Bradley, Amber; Zheng, Hui; Weed, Scott A.; Eblen, Scott T.

2013-01-01

321

Regulation of TMEM16A Chloride Channel Properties by Alternative Splicing*  

PubMed Central

Expression of TMEM16A protein is associated with the activity of Ca2+-activated Cl? channels. TMEM16A primary transcript undergoes alternative splicing. thus resulting in the generation of multiple isoforms. We have determined the pattern of splicing and assessed the functional properties of the corresponding TMEM16A variants. We found three alternative exons, 6b, 13, and 15, coding for segments of 22, 4, and 26 amino acids, respectively, which are differently spliced in human organs. By patch clamp experiments on transfected cells, we found that skipping of exon 6b changes the Ca2+ sensitivity by nearly 4-fold, resulting in Cl? currents requiring lower Ca2+ concentrations to be activated. At the membrane potential of 80 mV, the apparent half-effective concentration decreases from 350 to 90 nm when the segment corresponding to exon 6b is excluded. Skipping of exon 13 instead strongly reduces the characteristic time-dependent activation observed for Ca2+-activated Cl? channels at positive membrane potentials. This effect was also obtained by deleting only the second pair of amino acids corresponding to exon 13. Alternative splicing appears as an important mechanism to regulate the voltage and Ca2+ dependence of the TMEM16A-dependent Cl? channels in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:19819874

Ferrera, Loretta; Caputo, Antonella; Ubby, Ifeoma; Bussani, Erica; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Pagani, Franco; Galietta, Luis J. V.

2009-01-01

322

Expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of human Sp7 in osteoblast-like cells  

PubMed Central

Background Osteogenic and chondrocytic differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated transcription factor gene expression that regulates proliferation and matrix protein formation in a defined temporo-spatial manner. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces expression of the murine Osterix/Specificity protein-7 (Sp7) transcription factor that is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Regulation of its expression may prove useful for mediating skeletal repair. Results Sp7, the human homologue of the mouse Osterix gene, maps to 12q13.13, close to Sp1 and homeobox gene cluster-C. The first two exons of the 3-exon gene are alternatively spliced, encoding a 431-residue long protein isoform and an amino-terminus truncated 413-residue short protein isoform. The human Sp7 protein is a member of the Sp family having 78% identity with Sp1 in the three, Cys2-His2 type, DNA-binding zinc-fingers, but there is little homology elsewhere. The Sp7 mRNA was expressed in human foetal osteoblasts and craniofacial osteoblasts, chondrocytes and the osteosarcoma cell lines HOS and MG63, but was not detected in adult femoral osteoblasts. Generally, the expression of the short (or beta) protein isoform of Sp7 was much higher than the long (or alpha) protein isoform. No expression of either isoform was found in a panel of other cell types. However, in tissues, low levels of Sp7 were detected in testis, heart, brain, placenta, lung, pancreas, ovary and spleen. Conclusions Sp7 expression in humans is largely confined to osteoblasts and chondrocytes, both of which differentiate from the mesenchymal lineage. Of the two protein isoforms, the short isoform is most abundant. PMID:14604442

Milona, Maria-athina; Gough, Julie E; Edgar, Alasdair J

2003-01-01

323

Protein interaction network of alternatively spliced isoforms from brain links genetic risk factors for autism  

PubMed Central

Increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is attributed to hundreds of genetic loci. The convergence of ASD variants have been investigated using various approaches, including protein interactions extracted from the published literature. However, these datasets are frequently incomplete, carry biases and are limited to interactions of a single splicing isoform, which may not be expressed in the disease-relevant tissue. Here we introduce a new interactome mapping approach by experimentally identifying interactions between brain-expressed alternatively spliced variants of ASD risk factors. The Autism Spliceform Interaction Network reveals that almost half of the detected interactions and about 30% of the newly identified interacting partners represent contribution from splicing variants, emphasizing the importance of isoform networks. Isoform interactions greatly contribute to establishing direct physical connections between proteins from the de novo autism CNVs. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of spliceform networks for translating genetic knowledge into a better understanding of human diseases. PMID:24722188

Corominas, Roser; Yang, Xinping; Lin, Guan Ning; Kang, Shuli; Shen, Yun; Ghamsari, Lila; Broly, Martin; Rodriguez, Maria; Tam, Stanley; Trigg, Shelly A.; Fan, Changyu; Yi, Song; Tasan, Murat; Lemmens, Irma; Kuang, Xingyan; Zhao, Nan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Michaelson, Jacob J.; Vacic, Vladimir; Calderwood, Michael A.; Roth, Frederick P.; Tavernier, Jan; Horvath, Steve; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Korkin, Dmitry; Sebat, Jonathan; Hill, David E.; Hao, Tong; Vidal, Marc; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

2014-01-01

324

Identification of alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding potential new regulatory proteins in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus.  

PubMed Central

The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and characterize low-abundance bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mRNAs. In infected cattle we could detect spliced mRNA with a splice pattern consistent with a Tax/Rex mRNA, as well as at least four alternatively spliced RNAs. Two of the alternatively spliced mRNAs encoded hitherto unrecognized BLV proteins, designated RIII and GIV. The Tax/Rex and alternatively spliced mRNAs could be detected at their highest levels in BLV-infected cell cultures; the next highest levels were found in samples from calves experimentally infected at 6 weeks postinoculation. Alternatively spliced mRNAs were also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in naturally infected animals; they were detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, the GIV mRNA was specifically detected in naturally infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis and in two of five calves at 6 months after experimental infection with BLV. Furthermore, the calf with the strongest signal for GIV had the highest lymphocyte counts. These data may suggest a correlation between expression of the GIV product and development of persistent lymphocytosis. Some of the donor and acceptor sites in the alternatively spliced mRNAs were highly unusual. The biological mechanisms and significance of such a choice of unexpected splice sites are currently unknown. Images PMID:8380084

Alexandersen, S; Carpenter, S; Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Viuff, B; Wannemuehler, Y; Belousov, J; Roth, J A

1993-01-01

325

Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g?a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant. PMID:16061557

Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

2005-01-01

326

A Gene Expression and Pre-mRNA Splicing Signature That Marks the Adenoma-Adenocarcinoma Progression in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that most colorectal cancers (CRCs) arise from colorectal adenomas (CRAs), but transcriptomic data characterizing the progression from colorectal normal mucosa to adenoma, and then to adenocarcinoma are scarce. These transition steps were investigated using microarrays, both at the level of gene expression and alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Many genes and exons were abnormally expressed in CRAs, even more than in CRCs, as compared to normal mucosae. Known biological pathways involved in CRC were altered in CRA, but several new enriched pathways were also recognized, such as the complement and coagulation cascades. We also identified four intersectional transcriptional signatures that could distinguish CRAs from normal mucosae or CRCs, including a signature of 40 genes differentially deregulated in both CRA and CRC samples. A majority of these genes had been described in different cancers, including FBLN1 or INHBA, but only a few in CRC. Several of these changes were also observed at the protein level. In addition, 20% of these genes (i.e. CFH, CRYAB, DPT, FBLN1, ITIH5, NR3C2, SLIT3 and TIMP1) showed altered pre-mRNA splicing in CRAs. As a global variation occurring since the CRA stage, and maintained in CRC, the expression and splicing changes of this 40-gene set may mark the risk of cancer occurrence from analysis of CRA biopsies. PMID:24516561

Pesson, Marine; Volant, Alain; Uguen, Arnaud; Trillet, Kilian; De La Grange, Pierre; Aubry, Marc; Daoulas, Melanie; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Le Gac, Gerald; Morel, Alain; Simon, Brigitte; Corcos, Laurent

2014-01-01

327

LAR tyrosine phosphatase receptor: alternative splicing is preferential to the nervous system, coordinated with cell growth and generates novel isoforms containing extensive CAG repeats.  

PubMed

Receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases regulate cell growth by dephosphorylating proteins involved in tyrosine kinase signal transduction. The leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) tyrosine phosphatase receptor has sequence similarity to the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM and is located in a chromosomal region (1p32-33) frequently altered in neuroectodermal tumors. To understand the function of receptor-linked tyrosine phosphatases in neural development, we sought to identify LAR isoforms preferentially expressed in the nervous system and cellular processes regulating LAR alternative splicing. We report here the isolation of a series of rat LAR cDNA clones arising from complex combinatorial alternative splicing, not previously demonstrated for the tyrosine phosphatase-receptor gene family in general. Isoforms included: (a) deletions of the fourth, sixth and seventh fibronectin type III-like domains; (b) an alternatively spliced novel cassette exon in the fifth fibronectin type III-like domain; (c) two alternatively spliced novel cassette exons in the juxtamembrane region; (d) a retained intron in the extracellular region with in-frame stop codons predicting a secreted LAR isoform; and (e) an LAR transcript including an alternative 3' untranslated region containing multiple stretches of tandem CAG repeats up to 21 repeats in length. This number of repeats was in the range found in normal alleles of genes in which expansions of repeats are associated with neurodegenerative disease and the genetic phenomenon of anticipation. RT-PCR and Northern analysis demonstrated that LAR alternative splicing occurred preferentially in neuromuscular tissue in vivo and in neurons compared to astrocytes in vitro and was developmentally regulated. Alternative splicing was also regulated in PC12 cells by NGF, in 3T3 fibroblasts by cell confluence and in sciatic nerve and muscle subsequent to nerve transection. Western blot analysis demonstrated that alternatively spliced cassette exons result in the presence of corresponding amino acid segments of LAR protein in vivo. These studies suggest specialized functions of LAR isoforms in the nervous system and support our hypothesis that LAR-like tyrosine phosphatase receptors play a role in neural development and regeneration. PMID:7844155

Zhang, J S; Longo, F M

1995-02-01

328

Evolution of a Potential Hormone Antagonist following Gene Splicing during Primate Evolution  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of genes generates novel mRNAs, leading to the evolution of new functional proteins. Cholecystokinin (CCK) induces the release of pancreatic enzymes and the contraction of the gallbladder to promote the digestion of fat and proteins. CCK activates two G-protein-coupled receptors, CCKA and CCKB. Here, we showed that a CCKsv (splicing variant), originated de novo during Catarrhini evolution by including a portion of intronic sequence of the CCK gene, encodes novel C-terminal peptide sequence followed by a new poly-adenylation signal. CCKsv is expressed in many human tissues and likely a secreted peptide retaining the original signal peptide and the N-terminal proteolytic processing signal, together with novel C-terminal sequences. Although CCKsv cannot activate CCK receptors, it partially inhibits the CRE- or SRF-driven reporter activities stimulated by wide type CCK-8 mediated by both CCK receptors. Co-treatment with CCKsv also partially antagonizes Ewing tumor cell growth stimulated by CCK-8. Our study provides an example of new peptide hormone antagonist evolution in primates. PMID:23724068

Deng, Cheng; Hsueh, Aaron J. W.

2013-01-01

329

Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing.  

PubMed

Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1?, Nrxn1?, Nrxn2?, Nrxn3?, and Nrxn3? mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1? and Nrxn3? (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-?, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that ?-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing. PMID:24639501

Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

2014-04-01

330

Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1?, Nrxn1?, Nrxn2?, Nrxn3?, and Nrxn3? mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1? and Nrxn3? (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-?, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that ?-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing. PMID:24639501

Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R.; Sudhof, Thomas C.

2014-01-01

331

Alternative splicing of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta):effects on translation efficiency and trans-activation ability  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR?) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Numerous studies have aimed at unravelling the physiological role of PPAR? as a transcriptional regulator whereas the regulation of PPAR? gene expression has been less studied. Results The principal transcription start site in the human PPAR? gene identified here is positioned upstream of exon 1, although four alternative 5'-ends related to downstream exons were identified. The demonstration of multiple 5'-UTR splice variants of PPAR? mRNA, with an impact on translation efficiency, suggests a translational regulation of human PPAR? expression. Five untranslated exons identified in this study contribute to the variability among the 5'-UTRs of human PPAR? mRNAs. Moreover, in vitro studies of a 3'-splice transcript encoding a truncated variant of PPAR? (designated PPAR?2) show that this isoform constitutes a potential dominant negative form of the receptor. Conclusion We propose that alternative splicing of human PPAR? constitutes an intrinsic role for the regulation of PPAR? expression and thus activity, and highlight the significance of alternative splicing of this nuclear receptor in physiology and disease. PMID:17705821

Lundell, Kerstin; Thulin, Petra; Hamsten, Anders; Ehrenborg, Ewa

2007-01-01

332

Ectopic expression of new alternative splice variant of Smac/DIABLO increases mammospheres formation  

PubMed Central

Smac-? is a mitochondrial protein that, during apoptosis, is translocated to the cytoplasm, where it negatively regulates members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family via the IAP-binding motif (IBM) contained within its amino-terminus. Here, we describe a new alternative splice variant from Smac gene, which we have named Smac-?. Smac-? lacks both an IBM and a mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS) element. Smac-? mRNA exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in healthy human tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The steady-state levels of endogenous Smac-? protein is regulated by the proteasomal pathway. When ectopically expressed, this isoform presents a cytosolic localization and is unable to associate with or to regulate the expression of X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the best-studied member of IAP family. Nevertheless, over-expression of Smac-? increases mammosphere formation. Whole genome expression analyses from these mammospheres show activation of several pro-survival and growth pathways, including Estrogen-Receptor signaling. In conclusion, our results support the functionality of this new Smac isoform. PMID:25337193

Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo U; Victoria-Acosta, Georgina; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla I; Jimenez-Hernandez, Luis; Munoz-Galindo, Laura; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

2014-01-01

333

Functional variations modulating PRKCA expression and alternative splicing predispose to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene, encoding a Th17-cell-selective kinase, was repeatedly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. We replicated the association in Italians (409 cases, 723 controls), identifying a protective signal in the PRKCA promoter (P = 0.033), and a risk haplotype in intron 3 (P = 7.7 × 10(-4); meta-analysis with previously published data: P = 4.01 × 10(-8)). Expression experiments demonstrated that the protective signal is associated with alleles conferring higher PRKCA expression levels, well fitting our observation that MS patients have significantly lower PRKCA mRNA levels in blood. The risk haplotype was shown to be driven by a GGTG ins/del polymorphism influencing the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H-dependent inclusion/skipping of a PRKCA alternative exon 3*. Indeed, exon 3* can be present in two different versions in PRKCA mRNAs (out-of-frame 61 bp or in-frame 66 bp long), and is preferentially included in transcripts generated through a premature polyadenylation event. The GGTG insertion downregulates 3* inclusion and shifts splicing towards the 66 bp isoform. Both events reduce the nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay-induced degradation of exon 3*-containing mRNAs. Since we demonstrated that the protein isoform produced through premature polyadenylation aberrantly localizes to the plasma membrane and/or in cytoplasmic clusters, dysregulated PRKCA 3* inclusion may represent an additional mechanism relevant to MS susceptibility. PMID:25080502

Paraboschi, Elvezia M; Rimoldi, Valeria; Soldà, Giulia; Tabaglio, Tommaso; Dall'Osso, Claudia; Saba, Elena; Vigliano, Marco; Salviati, Alessandro; Leone, Maurizio; Benedetti, Maria D; Fornasari, Diego; Saarela, Janna; De Jager, Philip L; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Gemmati, Donato; Duga, Stefano; Asselta, Rosanna

2014-12-20

334

Histone deacetylase inhibitors control the transcription and alternative splicing of prohibitin in thyroid tumor cells.  

PubMed

Prohibitin (PHB) is a ubiquitous protein with a number of different molecular functions. PHB is involved in tumorigenesis by exerting either a permissive or blocking action on tumor growth, depending on the cell context. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on PHB expression in the thyroid tumor cell lines, TPC-1 and FRO. Both TSA and NaB increased PHB mRNA levels. Transfection experiments showed that the overexpression of HDAC1 or 2, but not 3, inhibited PHB promoter activity. The effects of TSA and NaB on the two major PHB mRNA splicing isoforms, were also investigated. Both TSA and NaB decreased the mRNA levels of the shorter isoform, but increased those of the longer isoform. Only the latter isoform contains a 3'UTR, which has been reported to exert a growth suppressive action. Thus, our data demonstrate that HDACis control both PHB transcription and alternative splicing. The effect of HDACis on PHB alternative splicing was not due to the modification of the expression of the ASF/SF2 splicing factor. PMID:21152868

Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

2011-02-01

335

Endogenous p53 protein generated from wild-type alternatively spliced p53 RNA in mouse epidermal cells.  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that a wild-type alternatively spliced p53 (p53as) RNA exists in mouse cultured cells and normal mouse tissues at approximately 25 to 33% of the level of the major p53 RNA form. The alternative RNA transcript is 96 nucleotides longer than the major transcript as a result of alternative splicing of intron 10 sequences. The protein expected to be generated from the p53as transcript is 9 amino acids shorter than the major p53 protein and has 17 different amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. We report here that p53as protein exists in nontransformed and malignant epidermal cells and is localized to the nucleus. In addition, p53as protein is preferentially expressed during the G2 phase of the cell cycle and in cells with greater than G2 DNA content compared with the major p53 protein, which is preferentially expressed in G1. The p53as immunoreactivity is elevated and shifted to the G1 phase of the cell cycle following actinomycin D treatment of nontransformed cells but not malignant cells. In view of the dimerization and tetramerization of p53 protein which may be necessary for its DNA binding and transcriptional activation activities, the presence of p53as protein in cells has important implications for understanding the physiological function(s) of the p53 gene. Images PMID:8114705

Kulesz-Martin, M F; Lisafeld, B; Huang, H; Kisiel, N D; Lee, L

1994-01-01

336

Multiple splice variants within the bovine silver homologue (SILV) gene affecting coat color in cattle indicate a function additional to fibril formation in melanophores  

PubMed Central

Background The silver homologue(SILV) gene plays a major role in melanosome development. SILV is a target for studies concerning melanoma diagnostics and therapy in humans as well as on skin and coat color pigmentation in many species ranging from zebra fish to mammals. However, the precise functional cellular mechanisms, in which SILV is involved, are still not completely understood. While there are many studies addressing SILV function upon a eumelaneic pigment background, there is a substantial lack of information regarding the further relevance of SILV, e.g. for phaeomelanosome development. Results In contrast to previous results in other species reporting SILV expression exclusively in pigmented tissues, our experiments provide evidence that the bovine SILV gene is expressed in a variety of tissues independent of pigmentation. Our data show that the bovine SILV gene generates an unexpectedly large number of different transcripts occurring in skin as well as in non-pigmented tissues, e.g. liver or mammary gland. The alternative splice sites are generated by internal splicing and primarily remove complete exons. Alternative splicing predominantly affects the repeat domain of the protein, which has a functional key role in fibril formation during eumelanosome development. Conclusion The expression of the bovine SILV gene independent of pigmentation suggests SILV functions exceeding melanosome development in cattle. This hypothesis is further supported by transcript variants lacking functional key elements of the SILV protein relevant for eumelanosome development. Thus, the bovine SILV gene can serve as a model for the investigation of the putative additional functions of SILV. Furthermore, the splice variants of the bovine SILV gene represent a comprehensive natural model to refine the knowledge about functional domains in the SILV protein. Our study exemplifies that the extent of alternative splicing is presumably much higher than previously estimated and that alternatively spliced transcripts presumably can generate molecules of deviating function compared to their constitutive counterpart. PMID:17892572

Kuehn, Christa; Weikard, Rosemarie

2007-01-01

337

The proto-oncogene PKC? regulates the alternative splicing of Bcl-x pre-mRNA  

PubMed Central

Two splice variants derived from the BCL-x gene via alternative 5? splice site selection (5?SS) are pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(s) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-x(L). Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that apoptotic signaling pathways regulated the alternative 5?SS selection via protein phosphatase-1 and de novo ceramide. In this study, we examined the elusive pro-survival signaling pathways that regulate the 5?SS selection of Bcl-x pre-mRNA in cancer cells. Taking a broad-based approach by utilizing a number of small molecule inhibitors of various mitogenic/survival pathways, we found that only treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 (50 ?M) or the pan-PKC inhibitor GÖ6983 (25 ?M) decreased the Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA ratio. Pan-PKC inhibitors that did not target the atypical PKCs, PKC? and PKC?, had no effect on the Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA ratio. Additional studies demonstrated that downregulation of the proto-oncogene, PKC?, in contrast to PKC?, also resulted in a decrease in the Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(s) mRNA ratio. Furthermore, downregulation of PKC? correlated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of SAP155, an RNA trans-acting factor that regulates the 5?SS selection of Bcl-x pre-mRNA. Inhibition of the PI3K or atypical PKC pathway induced a dramatic loss of SAP155 complex formation at ceramide-responsive RNA cis-element 1. Lastly, forced expression of Bcl-x(L) “rescued” the loss of cell survival induced by PKC? siRNA. In summary, the PI3K/PKC? regulates the alternative splicing of Bcl-x pre-mRNA with implications in the cell survival of NSCLC cells. PMID:22522453

Shultz, Jacqueline C.; Vu, Ngoc; Shultz, Michael D.; Mba, Uzoma; Shapiro, Brian A.; Chalfant, Charles E.

2012-01-01

338

Alternative Splicing of the Cardiac Sodium Channel Creates Multiple Variants of Mutant T1620K Channels  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing creates several Nav1.5 transcripts in the mammalian myocardium and in various other tissues including brain, dorsal root ganglia, breast cancer cells as well as neuronal stem cell lines. In total nine Nav1.5 splice variants have been discovered. Four of them, namely Nav1.5a, Nav1.5c, Nav1.5d, and Nav1.5e, generate functional channels in heterologous expression systems. The significance of alternatively spliced transcripts for cardiac excitation, in particular their role in SCN5A channelopathies, is less well understood. In the present study, we systematically investigated electrophysiological properties of mutant T1620K channels in the background of all known functional Nav1.5 splice variants in HEK293 cells. This mutation has been previously associated with two distinct cardiac excitation disorders: with long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) and isolated cardiac conduction disease (CCD). When investigating the effect of the T1620K mutation, we noticed similar channel defects in the background of hNav1.5, hNav1.5a, and hNav1.5c. In contrast, the hNav1.5d background produced differential effects: In the mutant channel, some gain-of-function features did not emerge, whereas loss-of-function became more pronounced. In case of hNav1.5e, the neonatal variant of hNav1.5, both the splice variant itself as well as the corresponding mutant channel showed electrophysiological properties that were distinct from the wild-type and mutant reference channels, hNav1.5 and T1620K, respectively. In conclusion, our data show that alternative splicing is a mechanism capable of generating a variety of functionally distinct wild-type and mutant hNav1.5 channels. Thus, the cellular splicing machinery is a potential player affecting genotype-phenotype correlations in SCN5A channelopathies. PMID:21552533

Walzik, Stefan; Schroeter, Annett; Benndorf, Klaus; Zimmer, Thomas

2011-01-01

339

Multiple Promoters and Alternative Splicing: Hoxa5 Transcriptional Complexity in the Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

Background The genomic organization of Hox clusters is fundamental for the precise spatio-temporal regulation and the function of each Hox gene, and hence for correct embryo patterning. Multiple overlapping transcriptional units exist at the Hoxa5 locus reflecting the complexity of Hox clustering: a major form of 1.8 kb corresponding to the two characterized exons of the gene and polyadenylated RNA species of 5.0, 9.5 and 11.0 kb. This transcriptional intricacy raises the question of the involvement of the larger transcripts in Hox function and regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We have undertaken the molecular characterization of the Hoxa5 larger transcripts. They initiate from two highly conserved distal promoters, one corresponding to the putative Hoxa6 promoter, and a second located nearby Hoxa7. Alternative splicing is also involved in the generation of the different transcripts. No functional polyadenylation sequence was found at the Hoxa6 locus and all larger transcripts use the polyadenylation site of the Hoxa5 gene. Some larger transcripts are potential Hoxa6/Hoxa5 bicistronic units. However, even though all transcripts could produce the genuine 270 a.a. HOXA5 protein, only the 1.8 kb form is translated into the protein, indicative of its essential role in Hoxa5 gene function. The Hoxa6 mutation disrupts the larger transcripts without major phenotypic impact on axial specification in their expression domain. However, Hoxa5-like skeletal anomalies are observed in Hoxa6 mutants and these defects can be explained by the loss of expression of the 1.8 kb transcript. Our data raise the possibility that the larger transcripts may be involved in Hoxa5 gene regulation. Significance Our observation that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts possess a developmentally-regulated expression combined to the increasing sum of data on the role of long noncoding RNAs in transcriptional regulation suggest that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts may participate in the control of Hox gene expression. PMID:20485555

Coulombe, Yan; Lemieux, Margot; Moreau, Julie; Aubin, Josee; Joksimovic, Milan; Berube-Simard, Felix-Antoine; Tabaries, Sebastien; Boucherat, Olivier; Guillou, Francois; Larochelle, Christian; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Jeannotte, Lucie

2010-01-01

340

Activity-dependent alternative splicing increases persistent sodium current and promotes seizure  

PubMed Central

Activity of voltage-gated Na channels (Nav) is modified by alternative splicing. However, whether altered splicing of human Nav’s contributes to epilepsy remains to be conclusively shown. We show here that altered splicing of the Drosophila Nav (paralytic, DmNav) contributes to seizure-like behaviour in identified seizure-mutants. We focus attention on a pair of mutually-exclusive alternate exons (termed K and L), which form part of the voltage sensor (S4) in domain III of the expressed channel. The presence of exon L results in a large, non-inactivating, persistent INap. Many forms of human epilepsy are associated with an increase in this current. In wildtype (WT) Drosophila larvae ~70-80% of DmNav transcripts contain exon L, the remainder contain exon K. Splicing of DmNav to include exon L is increased to ~100% in both the slamdance and easily-shocked seizure-mutants. This change to splicing is prevented by reducing synaptic activity levels through exposure to the antiepileptic phenytoin or the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Conversely, enhancing synaptic activity in WT, by feeding of picrotoxin, is sufficient to increase INap and promote seizure through increased inclusion of exon L to 100%. We also show that the underlying activity-dependent mechanism requires the presence of Pasilla, an RNA-binding protein. Finally, we use computational modelling to show that increasing INap is sufficient to potentiate membrane excitability consistent with a seizure phenotype. Thus, increased synaptic excitation favors inclusion of exon L which, in turn, further increases neuronal excitability. Thus, at least in Drosophila, this self-reinforcing cycle may promote the incidence of seizure. PMID:22623672

Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Gunay, Cengiz; Marley, Richard; Prinz, Astrid A.; Baines, Richard A.

2012-01-01

341

Tailoring of Membrane Proteins by Alternative Splicing of Pre-mRNA†  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (ASfootnote_1) of RNA is a key mechanism for diversification of the eukaryotic proteome. In this process, different mRNA transcripts can be produced through altered excision/inclusion of exons during processing of the pre-mRNA molecule. Since its discovery, AS has been shown to play roles in protein structure, function, and localization. Dysregulation of this process can result in disease phenotypes. Moreover, AS pathways are promising therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Integral membrane proteins (MPs) represent a class of proteins that may be particularly amenable to regulation by alternative splicing due to the distinctive topological restraints associated with their folding, structure, trafficking, and function. Here, we review the impact of AS on MP form and function, and the roles of AS in MP-related disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22708632

Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Deatherage, Catherine L.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Sanders, Charles R.

2012-01-01

342

Splicing regulation of the Survival Motor Neuron genes and implications for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The reduced SMN levels are due to loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene. Humans carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene that generates a truncated protein, due to a C to T nucleotide alteration in exon 7 that leads to inefficient RNA splicing of exon 7. This exclusion of SMN exon 7 is central to the onset of the SMA disease, however, this offers a unique therapeutic intervention in which corrective splicing of the SMN2 gene would restore SMN function. Exon 7 splicing is regulated by a number of exonic and intronic splicing regulatory sequences and trans-factors that bind them. A better understanding of the way SMN pre-mRNA is spliced has lead to the development of targeted therapies aimed at correcting SMN2 splicing. As therapeutics targeted toward correction of SMN2 splicing continue to be developed available SMA mouse models can be utilized in validating their potential in disease treatment. PMID:20515750

Bebee, Thomas W.; Gladman, Jordan T.; Chandler, Dawn S.

2010-01-01

343

Identification and characterization of a novel splice-site mutation in the Wilson disease gene.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify aberrant transcripts of the new splice-site mutation c.3244-2A>C in the Wilson disease (WD) gene (ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide, ATP7B) and discuss its genotype and clinical phenotype. DNA and RNA were extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-nested PCR) to characterize the aberrant transcripts. RT-nested PCR product sequencing comparison showed that c.3244-2A>C splice-site mutation caused aberrant transcripts and formatted a new splice acceptor. Patient carrying the splice-site mutation c.3244-2A>C presented early onset age, severe clinical manifestations, and poor prognosis. WD patients with the splice-site mutation show severe clinical manifestations, indicating that aberrant transcripts have important implications for WD phenotype. PMID:25086856

Diao, Sheng-Peng; Hong, Ming-Fan; Huang, Ye-Qing; Wei, Zhi-Sheng; Su, Quan-Xi; Peng, Zhong-Xing; Yu, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ai-Qun; Chen, Jin; Hu, Li

2014-10-15

344

Alternative Splicing, Muscle Calcium Sensitivity, and the Modulation of Dragonfly Flight Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and

James H. Marden; Gail H. Fitzhugh; Melisande R. Wolf; Kristina D. Arnold; Barry Rowan

1999-01-01

345

Identification of alternative splice variants in Aspergillus flavus through comparison of multiple tandem MS search algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Database searching is the most frequently used approach for automated peptide assignment and protein inference of tandem mass\\u000a spectra. The results, however, depend on the sequences in target databases and on search algorithms. Recently by using an\\u000a alternative splicing database, we identified more proteins than with the annotated proteins in Aspergillus flavus. In this study, we aimed at finding a

Kung-Yen Chang; David C Muddiman

2011-01-01

346

Identification and characterization of seven new exon 11-associated splice variants of the rat mu opioid receptor gene, OPRM1  

PubMed Central

Background The mouse mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing at both the 3'- and 5'-ends of the gene. Previously, several C-terminal variants generated through 3' splicing have been identified in the rat OPRM1 gene. In both mice and humans 5' splicing generates a number of exon 11-containing variants. Studies in an exon 11 knockout mouse suggest the functional importance of these exon 11-associated variants in mediating the analgesic actions of a subset of mu opioids, including morphine-6?-glucuronide (M6G) and heroin, but not others such as morphine and methadone. We now have examined 5' splicing in the rat. Results The current studies identified in the rat a homologous exon 11 and seven exon 11-associated variants, suggesting conservation of exon 11 and its associated variants among mouse, rat and human. RT-PCR revealed marked differences in the expression of these variants across several brain regions, implying region-specific mRNA processing of the exon 11-associated variants. Of the seven rat exon 11-associated variants, four encoded the identical protein as found in rMOR-1, two predicted 6 TM variants, and one, rMOR-1H2, generated a novel N-terminal variant in which a stretch of an additional 50 amino acids was present at the N-terminus of the previously established rMOR-1 sequence. When expressed in CHO cells, the presence of the additional 50 amino acids in rMOR-1H2 significantly altered agonist-induced G protein activation with little effect on opioid binding. Conclusion The identification of the rat exon 11 and its associated variants further demonstrated conservation of 5' splicing in OPRM1 genes among rodents and humans. The functional relevance of these exon 11 associated variants was suggested by the region-specific expression of their mRNAs and the influence of the N-terminal sequence on agonist-induced G protein coupling in the novel N-terminal variant, rMOR-1H2. The importance of the exon 11-associated variants in mice in M6G and heroin analgesia revealed in the exon 11 knockout mouse implies that these analogous rat variants may also play similar roles in rat. The complexity created by alternative splicing of the rat OPRM1 gene may provide important insights of understanding the diverse responses to the various mu opioids seen in rats. PMID:21255438

2011-01-01

347

Regulation of Neurexin 1[beta] Tertiary Structure and Ligand Binding through Alternative Splicing  

SciTech Connect

Neurexins and neuroligins play an essential role in synapse function, and their alterations are linked to autistic spectrum disorder. Interactions between neurexins and neuroligins regulate inhibitory and excitatory synaptogenesis in vitro through a splice-insert signaling code. In particular, neurexin 1{beta} carrying an alternative splice insert at site SS{number_sign}4 interacts with neuroligin 2 (found predominantly at inhibitory synapses) but much less so with other neuroligins (those carrying an insert at site B and prevalent at excitatory synapses). The structure of neurexin 1{beta}+SS{number_sign}4 reveals dramatic rearrangements to the 'hypervariable surface', the binding site for neuroligins. The splice insert protrudes as a long helix into space, triggers conversion of loop {beta}10-{beta}11 into a helix rearranging the binding site for neuroligins, and rearranges the Ca{sup 2+}-binding site required for ligand binding, increasing its affinity. Our structures reveal the mechanism by which neurexin 1{beta} isoforms acquire neuroligin splice isoform selectivity.

Shen, Kaiser C.; Kuczynska, Dorota A.; Wu, Irene J.; Murray, Beverly H.; Sheckler, Lauren R.; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

2008-08-04

348

Combination of Clk family kinase and SRp75 modulates alternative splicing of Adenovirus E1A.  

PubMed

SR proteins are non-snRNP splicing factors harbouring a domain rich in Arg-Ser repeats, which are extensively phosphorylated by several kinases. We performed a comparative study of different SR kinases, including SRPK, Clk, PRP4 and DYRK, and found that only Clks efficiently altered 5' splice site selection of Adenovirus E1A. The phosphorylation state of SR proteins was examined using a phospho-SR specific antibody mAb1H4 and a 75 kDa protein was most evidently hyperphosphorylated by Clks. Administration of TG003, a specific inhibitor for the Clk family members, specifically and rapidly induced dephosphorylation of 75 kDa SR protein. Imaging with mRFP-SRp75 in living cells revealed that its nuclear distribution was rapidly altered upon inhibition of the Clk activity by TG003. Co-transfection experiments demonstrated that HA-tagged SRp75 was hyperphosphorylated by Clk family members, but not by other SR kinases. These results indicate that Clks specifically hyperphosphorylate SRp75. Furthermore, SRp75 over-expression promoted the selection of 12S 5' splice site in E1A pre-mRNA, which is stimulated by co-expression of Clks. These results suggest that the specific combination of SR protein and SR kinase plays a distinct role in alternative splicing through dynamic balance of phosphorylation. PMID:18298798

Yomoda, Jun-ichiro; Muraki, Michiko; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi

2008-03-01

349

Discrimination of Alternative Spliced Isoforms by Real-Time PCR Using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Substituted Primer  

E-print Network

Determination of quantitative expression levels of alternatively spliced isoforms provides an important approach to the understanding of the functional significance of each isoform. Real-time PCR using exon junction ...

Wan, Guoqiang

350

A Hierarchical HMM Implementation for Vertebrate Gene Splice Site Mike Hu, Chris Ingram, Monica Sirski, Chris Pal, Sajani Swamy, Cheryl Patten  

E-print Network

in Genomic Sequences Introns are sequences of nucleotides within genes that do not code for amino acids remaining in the mRNA (called exons), which were joined after intron splicing, specify the amino acid, is involved in such processes as sex determination in fruit flies, and the synthe­ sis of alternate proteins

Pal, Chris

351

Genetic variations regulate alternative splicing in the 5' untranslated regions of the mouse glioma-associated oncogene 1, Gli1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms that generate biological diversity. Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, the understanding of the significance and the regulation of these variations is rather limited. RESULTS: We investigated 5' UTR mRNA variants of the mouse Gli1 oncogene, which is the terminal transcriptional

Ramesh Palaniswamy; Stephan Teglund; Matthias Lauth; Peter G Zaphiropoulos; Takashi Shimokawa

2010-01-01

352

An alternative splice form of Mdm2 induces p53-independent cell growth and tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mdm2 gene is amplified in approximately one-third of human sarcomas and overexpressed in a variety of other human cancers. Mdm2 functions as an oncoprotein, in part, by acting as a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Multiple spliced forms of Mdm2 transcripts have been observed in human tumors; however, the contribution of these variant transcripts to tumorigenesis

Heather Anne Steinman; Ezra Burstein; Christopher J. Lengner; Joseph R. Gosselin; German A. Pihan; Colin S. Duckett; Stephen N. Jones

2003-01-01

353

Immunohistochemical studies on regulation of alternative splicing of fast skeletal muscle troponin T: non-uniform distribution of the exon x3 epitope in a single muscle fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of chicken fast skeletal muscle are classified into two types, breast-muscle-type (B-type) and leg-muscle-type (L-type) isoforms. These isoforms are produced from a single gene by differential alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. We investigated immunohistochemically the distribution of B-type TnT isoforms in chicken leg muscle (musculus biceps femoris), using anti-exon x3 that was raised against a synthetic peptide

Kazuto Nakada; Fuminori Kimura; Tamio Hirabayashi; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

2000-01-01

354

Identical Splicing of Aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcripts from Amplified Rearranged Genes in Human Glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor gene has been found to be amplified and rearranged in human glioblastomas in vivo. Here we present the sequence across a splice junction of aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor transcripts derived from corresponding and uniquely rearranged genes that are coamplified and coexpressed with non-rearranged epidermal growth factor receptor genes in six primary human glioblastomas. Each

Noriaki Sugawa; A. Jonas Ekstrand; C. David James; V. Peter Collins

1990-01-01

355

Cell signalling and the control of pre-mRNA splicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcripts of most metazoan protein-coding genes are alternatively spliced, but the mechanisms that are involved in the control of splicing are not well understood. Recent evidence supports the potential of both extra- and intracellular signalling to the splicing machinery as a means of regulating gene expression, and indicates that this form of gene control is widespread and mechanistically complex.

Chanseok Shin; James L. Manley

2004-01-01

356

Splice variants and promoter methylation status of the Bovine Vasa Homology (Bvh) gene may be involved in bull spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Vasa is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. Bovine vasa homology (Bvh) of Bos taurus has been reported, however, its function in bovine testicular tissue remains obscure. This study aimed to reveal the functions of Bvh and to determine whether Bvh is a candidate gene in the regulation of spermatogenesis in bovine, and to illustrate whether its transcription is regulated by alternative splicing and DNA methylation. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, alternative splicing pattern, expression and promoter methylation status of Bvh. The full-length coding region of Bvh was 2190 bp, which encodes a 729 amino acid (aa) protein containing nine consensus regions of the DEAD box protein family. Bvh is expressed only in the ovary and testis of adult cattle. Two splice variants were identified and termed Bvh-V4 (2112 bp and 703 aa) and Bvh-V45 (2040 bp and 679 aa). In male cattle, full-length Bvh (Bvh-FL), Bvh-V4 and Bvh-V45 are exclusively expressed in the testes in the ratio of 2.2:1.6:1, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed significantly reduced mRNA expression of Bvh-FL, Bvh-V4 and Bvh-V45 in testes of cattle-yak hybrids, with meiotic arrest compared with cattle and yaks with normal spermatogenesis (P?gene in testes were regulated by alternative splice and promoter methylation. PMID:23815438

2013-01-01

357

The RNA-binding protein hnRNPLL induces a T cell alternative splicing program delineated by differential intron retention in polyadenylated RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Retention of a subset of introns in spliced polyadenylated mRNA is emerging as a frequent, unexplained finding from RNA deep sequencing in mammalian cells. Results Here we analyze intron retention in T lymphocytes by deep sequencing polyadenylated RNA. We show a developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein, hnRNPLL, induces retention of specific introns by sequencing RNA from T cells with an inactivating Hnrpll mutation and from B lymphocytes that physiologically downregulate Hnrpll during their differentiation. In Ptprc mRNA encoding the tyrosine phosphatase CD45, hnRNPLL induces selective retention of introns flanking exons 4 to 6; these correspond to the cassette exons containing hnRNPLL binding sites that are skipped in cells with normal, but not mutant or low, hnRNPLL. We identify similar patterns of hnRNPLL-induced differential intron retention flanking alternative exons in 14 other genes, representing novel elements of the hnRNPLL-induced splicing program in T cells. Retroviral expression of a normally spliced cDNA for one of these targets, Senp2, partially corrects the survival defect of Hnrpll-mutant T cells. We find that integrating a number of computational methods to detect genes with differentially retained introns provides a strategy to enrich for alternatively spliced exons in mammalian RNA-seq data, when complemented by RNA-seq analysis of purified cells with experimentally perturbed RNA-binding proteins. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that intron retention in mRNA is induced by specific RNA-binding proteins and suggest a biological significance for this process in marking exons that are poised for alternative splicing. PMID:24476532

2014-01-01

358

Expression and Alternative Splicing of N-RAP during Mouse Skeletal Muscle Development  

PubMed Central

N-RAP alternative splicing and protein localization were studied in developing skeletal muscle tissue from pre- and postnatal mice and in fusing primary myotubes in culture. Messages encoding N-RAP-s and N-RAP-c, the predominant isoforms of N-RAP detected in adult skeletal muscle and heart, respectively, were present in a 5:1 ratio in skeletal muscle isolated from E16.5 embryos. N-RAP-s mRNA levels increased three-fold over the first three weeks of postnatal development, while N-RAP-c mRNA levels remained low. N-RAP alternative splicing during myotube differentiation in culture was similar to the pattern observed in embryonic and neonatal muscle, with N-RAP-s expression increasing and N-RAP-c mRNA levels remaining low. In both developing skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes, N-RAP protein was primarily associated with developing myofibrillar structures containing ?-actinin, but was not present in mature myofibrils. The results establish that N-RAP-s is the predominant spliced form of N-RAP present throughout skeletal muscle development. PMID:18792955

Lu, Shajia; Borst, Diane E.; Horowits, Robert

2009-01-01

359

Control of fibroblast fibronectin expression and alternative splicing via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway  

SciTech Connect

Fibronectin (FN), a ubiquitous glycoprotein that plays critical roles in physiologic and pathologic conditions, undergoes alternative splicing which distinguishes plasma FN (pFN) from cellular FN (cFN). Although both pFN and cFN can be incorporated into the extracellular matrix, a distinguishing feature of cFN is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon termed EDA (for extra type III domain A). The molecular steps involved in EDA splicing are well-characterized, but pathways influencing EDA splicing are less clear. We have previously found an obligate role for inhibition of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the primary regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in fibroblast activation. Here we show TGF-{beta}, a potent inducer of both EDA splicing and fibroblast activation, inhibits PTEN expression and activity in mesenchymal cells, corresponding with enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling. In pten{sup -/-} fibroblasts, which resemble activated fibroblasts, inhibition of Akt attenuated FN production and decreased EDA alternative splicing. Moreover, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pten{sup -/-} cells also blocked FN production and EDA splicing. This effect was due to inhibition of Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the primary EDA splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Importantly, FN silencing in pten{sup -/-} cells resulted in attenuated proliferation and migration. Thus, our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis is instrumental in FN transcription and alternative splicing, which regulates cell behavior.

White, Eric S., E-mail: docew@umich.edu [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sagana, Rommel L.; Booth, Adam J.; Yan, Mei; Cornett, Ashley M.; Bloomheart, Christopher A.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Jesse [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Muro, Andres F. [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)] [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

2010-10-01

360

L1 mediated homophilic binding and neurite outgrowth are modulated by alternative splicing of exon 2.  

PubMed

The neural cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been implicated in neuronal adhesion, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. The clinical importance of L1 is illustrated by pathological mutations that lead to hydrocephalus, mental retardation, motor defects, and early mortality. The L1 gene is composed of 28 exons, including exons 2 and 27 that are spliced alternatively, and mutations in exon 2 are associated with severe neurological abnormalities in humans. To elucidate the role of L1 exon 2, a recombinant Fc fusion protein called Delta2L1 was constructed lacking the second exon in the extracellular domain of L1. When bound to fluorescent beads, L1 exhibited homophilic binding while Delta2L1 did not. However, L1 beads coaggregated with the Delta2L1 beads. Similarly, in cell binding studies, L1 bound to L1 and Delta2L1 did not bind to Delta2L1 but it bound moderately to L1. Given the reduced binding of Delta2L1, we tested its effect on neurons. By comparison to L1, a lower percentage of dissociated neurons extended neurites on Delta2L1, and there was a modest decrease in the length of the neurites that grew. Neurite outgrowth from reaggregated neurons was much less robust on Delta2L1 than on L1. The combined results indicate that Delta2L1 does not bind homophilically but it can interact with L1 containing exon 2. The reduced binding and neurite promoting activity of Delta2L1 provides an explanation for certain pathological mutations in L1 that lead to clinically apparent disease in the absence of the normal form of L1 in the nervous system. PMID:11984840

Jacob, Jeffrey; Haspel, Jeffrey; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Grumet, Martin

2002-06-01