Sample records for gene alternative splicing

  1. Frequent Alternative Splicing of Human Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey A. Mironov; James Wildon Fickett; Mikhail S. Gelfand

    1999-01-01

    Alternative splicing can produce variant proteins and expression patterns as different as the products of different genes, yet the prevalence of alternative splicing has not been quantified. Here the spliced alignment algorithm was used to make a first inventory of exon-intron structures of known human genes using EST contigs from the TIGR Human Gene Index. The results on any one

  2. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism. PMID:20617039

  3. Alternative splicing of DNA damage response genes and gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing, which is a common phenomenon in mammalian genomes, is a fundamental process of gene regulation and contributes to great protein diversity. Alternative splicing events not only occur in the normal gene regulation process but are also closely related to certain diseases including cancer. In this review, we briefly demonstrate the concept of alternative splicing and DNA damage and describe the association of alternative splicing and cancer pathogenesis, focusing on the potential relationship of alternative splicing, DNA damage, and gastrointestinal cancers. We will also discuss whether alternative splicing leads to genetic instability, which is considered to be a driving force for tumorigenesis. Better understanding of the role and mechanism of alternative splicing in tumorigenesis may provide new directions for future cancer studies. PMID:25516641

  4. Insights into alternative splicing of sarcomeric genes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Weeland, Cornelis J; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Creemers, Esther E

    2015-04-01

    Driven by rapidly evolving technologies in next-generation sequencing, alternative splicing has emerged as a crucial layer in gene expression, greatly expanding protein diversity and governing complex biological processes in the cardiomyocyte. At the core of cardiac contraction, the physical properties of the sarcomere are carefully orchestrated through alternative splicing to fit the varying demands on the heart. By the recent discovery of RBM20 and RBM24, two major heart and skeletal muscle-restricted splicing factors, it became evident that alternative splicing events in the heart occur in regulated networks rather than in isolated events. Analysis of knockout mice of these splice factors has shed light on the importance of these fundamental processes in the heart. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the role and regulation of alternative splicing in the developing and diseased heart, specifically within the sarcomere. Through various examples (titin, myomesin, troponin T, tropomyosin and LDB3) we illustrate how alternative splicing regulates the functional properties of the sarcomere. Finally, we evaluate opportunities and obstacles to modulate alternative splicing in therapeutic approaches for cardiac disease. PMID:25683494

  5. Gene Array Analyzer: alternative usage of gene arrays to study alternative splicing events

    PubMed Central

    Jenniches, Katharina; De Gaspari, Piera; John, David; grosse Kreymborg, Karsten; Braun, Thomas; Uchida, Shizuka

    2012-01-01

    Exon arrays are regularly used to analyze differential splicing events. GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Arrays (gene arrays) manufactured by Affymetrix, Inc. are primarily used to determine expression levels of transcripts, although their basic design is rather similar to GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (exon arrays). Here, we show that the newly developed Gene Array Analyzer (GAA), which evolved from our previously published Exon Array Analyzer (EAA), enables economic and user-friendly analysis of alternative splicing events using gene arrays. To demonstrate the applicability of GAA, we profiled alternative splicing events during embryonic heart development. In addition, we found that numerous developmental splicing events are also activated under pathological conditions. We reason that the usage of GAA considerably expands the analysis of gene expression based on gene arrays and supplies an additional level of information without further costs and with only little effort. PMID:22123740

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans Gene mfap-1 Encodes a Nuclear Protein That Affects Alternative Splicing

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H Robert

    RNA splicing is a major regulatory mechanism for controlling eukaryotic gene expression. By generating various splice isoforms from a single pre–mRNA, alternative splicing plays a key role in promoting the evolving complexity ...

  7. A serine–arginine-rich (SR) splicing factor modulates alternative splicing of over a thousand genes in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Lee M.; Goodman, Christopher D.; Hall, Nathan E.; van Dooren, Giel G.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Ralph, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Single genes are often subject to alternative splicing, which generates alternative mature mRNAs. This phenomenon is widespread in animals, and observed in over 90% of human genes. Recent data suggest it may also be common in Apicomplexa. These parasites have small genomes, and economy of DNA is evolutionarily favoured in this phylum. We investigated the mechanism of alternative splicing in Toxoplasma gondii, and have identified and localized TgSR3, a homologue of ASF/SF2 (alternative-splicing factor/splicing factor 2, a serine-arginine–rich, or SR protein) to a subnuclear compartment. In addition, we conditionally overexpressed this protein, which was deleterious to growth. qRT-PCR was used to confirm perturbation of splicing in a known alternatively-spliced gene. We performed high-throughput RNA-seq to determine the extent of splicing modulated by this protein. Current RNA-seq algorithms are poorly suited to compact parasite genomes, and hence we complemented existing tools by writing a new program, GeneGuillotine, that addresses this deficiency by segregating overlapping reads into distinct genes. In order to identify the extent of alternative splicing, we released another program, JunctionJuror, that detects changes in intron junctions. Using this program, we identified about 2000 genes that were constitutively alternatively spliced in T. gondii. Overexpressing the splice regulator TgSR3 perturbed alternative splicing in over 1000 genes. PMID:25870410

  8. The (In)dependence of Alternative Splicing and Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Modesto; Teichmann, Sarah A; de la Cruz, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) and gene duplication (GD) both are processes that diversify the protein repertoire. Recent examples have shown that sequence changes introduced by AS may be comparable to those introduced by GD. In addition, the two processes are inversely correlated at the genomic scale: large gene families are depleted in splice variants and vice versa. All together, these data strongly suggest that both phenomena result in interchangeability between their effects. Here, we tested the extent to which this applies with respect to various protein characteristics. The amounts of AS and GD per gene are anticorrelated even when accounting for different gene functions or degrees of sequence divergence. In contrast, the two processes appear to be independent in their influence on variation in mRNA expression. Further, we conducted a detailed comparison of the effect of sequence changes in both alternative splice variants and gene duplicates on protein structure, in particular the size, location, and types of sequence substitutions and insertions/deletions. We find that, in general, alternative splicing affects protein sequence and structure in a more drastic way than gene duplication and subsequent divergence. Our results reveal an interesting paradox between the anticorrelation of AS and GD at the genomic level, and their impact at the protein level, which shows little or no equivalence in terms of effects on protein sequence, structure, and function. We discuss possible explanations that relate to the order of appearance of AS and GD in a gene family, and to the selection pressure imposed by the environment. PMID:17335345

  9. ASD: the Alternative Splicing Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj; Stefan Stamm; Francis Clark; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Juha Muilu

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is widespread in mammalian gene expression, and variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development, particular tissues or a disease state. There is a need to systematically collect data on alternatively spliced exons, introns and splice isoforms, and to annotate this data. The Alternative Splicing Database consortium has been addressing this need, and is committed

  10. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  11. Alternative splice variants of the human PD1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Nielsen; Line Ohm-Laursen; Torben Barington; Steffen Husby; Søren T. Lillevang

    2005-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We describe four alternatively spliced PD-1 mRNA transcripts (PD-1?ex2, PD-1?ex3, PD-1?ex2,3, and PD-1?ex2,3,4) in addition to the full length isoform. PD-1?ex2 and PD-1?ex3 are generated by alternative splicing where exon 2 (extracellular IgV-like domain) and exon 3 (transmembrane domain) respectively are spliced out.

  12. Alternative Splicing Events Is Not a Key Event for Gene Expression Regulation in Uremia

    PubMed Central

    Sallée, Marion; Fontès, Michel; Louis, Laurence; Cérini, Claire; Brunet, Philippe; Burtey, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Background The control of gene expression in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well addressed. Alternative splicing is a common way to increase complexity of proteins. More than 90% of human transcripts are alternatively spliced. We hypothesised that CKD can induce modification of the alternative splicing machinery. Methods During mutation screening in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, we identified in mononuclear cells (PBMC), an alternative splicing event on the exon 30 of PKD1 gene, the gene implicated in this disease. This alternative splice variant was not correlated with the cystic disease but with CKD. To confirm the association between this variant and CKD, a monocentric clinical study was performed with 3 different groups according to their kidney function (CKD5D, CKD3-5 and normal kidney function). An exon microarray approach was used to highlight splicing events in whole human genome in a normal cell model (fibroblasts) incubated with uremic serum. Alternative splicing variants identified were confirmed by RT-PCR. Results The splicing variant of the exon 30 of PKD1 was more frequent in PBMCs from patients with CKD compared to control. With the microarray approach, despite the analysis of more than 230 000 probes, we identified 36 genes with an abnormal splicing index evocating splicing event in fibroblasts exposed to uremic serum. Only one abnormal splicing event in one gene, ADH1B, was confirmed by RT-PCR. Conclusion We observed two alternative spliced genes in two different cell types associated with CKD. Alternative splicing could play a role in the control of gene expression during CKD but it does not seem to be a major mechanism. PMID:24358217

  13. The Evolutionary Fate of Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons after Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Tress, Michael L.; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are the two main processes responsible for expanding protein functional diversity. Although gene duplication can generate new genes and alternative splicing can introduce variation through alternative gene products, the interplay between the two processes is complex and poorly understood. Here, we have carried out a study of the evolution of alternatively spliced exons after gene duplication to better understand the interaction between the two processes. We created a manually curated set of 97 human genes with mutually exclusively spliced homologous exons and analyzed the evolution of these exons across five distantly related vertebrates (lamprey, spotted gar, zebrafish, fugu, and coelacanth). Most of these exons had an ancient origin (more than 400 Ma). We found examples supporting two extreme evolutionary models for the behaviour of homologous axons after gene duplication. We observed 11 events in which gene duplication was accompanied by splice isoform separation, that is, each paralog specifically conserved just one distinct ancestral homologous exon. At other extreme, we identified genes in which the homologous exons were always conserved within paralogs, suggesting that the alternative splicing event cannot easily be separated from the function in these genes. That many homologous exons fall in between these two extremes highlights the diversity of biological systems and suggests that the subtle balance between alternative splicing and gene duplication is adjusted to the specific cellular context of each gene. PMID:25931610

  14. Copy Number Variations in Alternative Splicing Gene Networks Impact Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph T.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Panossian, Saarene; Kim, Cecilia E.; Takahashi, Nagahide; Thomas, Kelly A.; Wang, Fengxiang; Seidler, Kallyn; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Keating, Brendan; Connolly, John; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Longevity has a strong genetic component evidenced by family-based studies. Lipoprotein metabolism, FOXO proteins, and insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathways in model systems have shown polygenic variations predisposing to shorter lifespan. To test the hypothesis that rare variants could influence lifespan, we compared the rates of CNVs in healthy children (0–18 years of age) with individuals 67 years or older. CNVs at a significantly higher frequency in the pediatric cohort were considered risk variants impacting lifespan, while those enriched in the geriatric cohort were considered longevity protective variants. We performed a whole-genome CNV analysis on 7,313 children and 2,701 adults of European ancestry genotyped with 302,108 SNP probes. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 2,079 pediatric and 4,692 geriatric subjects. We detected 8 deletions and 10 duplications that were enriched in the pediatric group (P?=?3.33×10?8–1.6×10?2 unadjusted), while only one duplication was enriched in the geriatric cohort (P?=?6.3×10?4). Population stratification correction resulted in 5 deletions and 3 duplications remaining significant (P?=?5.16×10?5–4.26×10?2) in the replication cohort. Three deletions and four duplications were significant combined (combined P?=?3.7×10?4?3.9×10?2). All associated loci were experimentally validated using qPCR. Evaluation of these genes for pathway enrichment demonstrated ?50% are involved in alternative splicing (P?=?0.0077 Benjamini and Hochberg corrected). We conclude that genetic variations disrupting RNA splicing could have long-term biological effects impacting lifespan. PMID:23382853

  15. Structure of the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene and multiple alternative spliced isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pham-Dinh, D.; Gaspera, D.B.; Dautigny, A. [Universite de Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-09-20

    Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a special component of the central nervous system localization on the outermost lamellae of mature myelin, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. We report here the organization of the human MOG gene, which spans approximately 17 kb, and the characterization of six MOG mRNA splicing variants. The intron/exon structure of the human MOG gene confirmed the splicing pattern, supporting the hypothesis that mRNA isoforms could arise by alternative splicing of a single gene. In addition to the eight exons coding for the major MOG isoform, the human MOG gene also contains 3` region, a previously unknown alternatively spliced coding exon, VIA. Alternative utilization of two acceptor splicing sites for exon VIII could produce two different C-termini. The nucleotide sequences presented here may be a useful tool to study further possible involvement if the MOG gene in hereditary neurological disorders. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Increasing the Coding Potential of Genomes Through Alternative Splicing: The Case of PARK2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Cognata, Valentina La; Iemmolo, Rosario; D’Agata, Velia; Scuderi, Soraya; Drago, Filippo; Zappia, Mario; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project aroused renewed interest in alternative splicing, an efficient and widespread mechanism that generates multiple protein isoforms from individual genes. Although our knowledge about alternative splicing is growing exponentially, its real impact on cellular life is still to be clarified. Connecting all splicing features (genes, splice transcripts, isoforms, and relative functions) may be useful to resolve this tangle. Herein, we will start from the case of a single gene, Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), one of the largest in our genome. This gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism and it has been recently linked to cancer, leprosy, autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification and protein diversity in tissues and cells. This review will provide an update of all human PARK2 alternative splice transcripts and isoforms presently known, and correlate them to those in rat and mouse, two common animal models for studying human disease genes. Alternative splicing relies upon a complex process that could be easily altered by both cis and trans-acting mutations. Although the contribution of PARK2 splicing in human disease remains to be fully explored, some evidences show disruption of this versatile form of genetic regulation may have pathological consequences. PMID:24955028

  17. Genome-wide detection of alternative splicing in expressed sequences of human genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barmak Modrek; Alissa Resch; Catherine Grasso; Christopher Lee

    2001-01-01

    We have identified 6201 alternative splice relation- ships in human genes, through a genome-wide analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Starting with ?2.1 million human mRNA and EST sequences, we mapped expressed sequences onto the draft human genome sequence and only accepted splices that obeyed the standard splice site consensus. A large fraction (47%) of these were observed multiple times,

  18. Regulation of Translation Factor EEF1D Gene Function by Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Kaitsuka, Taku; Matsushita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an exquisite mechanism that allows one coding gene to have multiple functions. The alternative splicing machinery is necessary for proper development, differentiation and stress responses in a variety of organisms, and disruption of this machinery is often implicated in human diseases. Previously, we discovered a long form of eukaryotic elongation factor 1B? (eEF1B?; this long-form eEF1B? results from alternative splicing of EEF1D transcripts and regulates the cellular stress response by transcriptional activation, not translational enhancement, of heat-shock responsive genes. In this review, we discuss the molecular function of EEF1D alternative splicing products and the estimated implication of human diseases. PMID:25686034

  19. Alternative Splicing and Gene Duplication in the Evolution of the FoxP Gene Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M. Emília; Athanasiadis, Alekos; Leitão, Alexandre B.; DuPasquier, Louis; Sucena, Élio

    2011-01-01

    The FoxP gene subfamily of transcription factors is defined by its characteristic 110 amino acid long DNA-binding forkhead domain and plays essential roles in vertebrate biology. Its four members, FoxP1–P4, have been extensively characterized functionally. FoxP1, FoxP2, and FoxP4 are involved in lung, heart, gut, and central nervous system (CNS) development. FoxP3 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of regulatory T cells (Tregs) of the adaptive immune system. In Drosophila melanogaster, in silico predictions identify one unique FoxP subfamily gene member (CG16899) with no described function. We characterized this gene and established that it generates by alternative splicing two isoforms that differ in the forkhead DNA-binding domain. In D. melanogaster, both isoforms are expressed in the embryonic CNS, but in hemocytes, only isoform A is expressed, hinting to a putative modulation through alternative splicing of FoxP1 function in immunity and/or other hemocyte-dependent processes. Furthermore, we show that in vertebrates, this novel alternative splicing pattern is conserved for FoxP1. In mice, this new FoxP1 isoform is expressed in brain, liver, heart, testes, thymus, and macrophages (equivalent in function to hemocytes). This alternative splicing pattern has arisen at the base of the Bilateria, probably through exon tandem duplication. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that in vertebrates, FoxP1 is more related to the FoxP gene ancestral form and the other three paralogues, originated through serial duplications, which only retained one of the alternative exons. Also, the newly described isoform differs from the other in amino acids critical for DNA-binding specificity. The integrity of its fold is maintained, but the molecule has lost the direct hydrogen bonding to DNA bases leading to a putatively lower specificity and possibly affinity toward DNA. With the present comparative study, through the integration of experimental and in silico studies of the FoxP gene subfamily across the animal kingdom, we establish a new model for the FoxP gene in invertebrates and for the vertebrate FoxP1 paralogue. Furthermore, we present a scenario for the structural evolution of this gene class and reveal new previously unsuspected levels of regulation for FoxP1 in the vertebrate system. PMID:20651048

  20. Identification and characterization of six new alternatively spliced variants of the human ? opioid receptor gene, Oprm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pan; J. Xu; R. Yu; M.-M. Xu; Y.-X. Pan; G. W. Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    The ? opioid receptor plays an important role in mediating the actions of morphine and morphine-like drugs. Receptor binding and a wide range of pharmacological studies have proposed several ? receptor subtypes, but only one ? opioid receptor (Oprm) gene has been isolated. Like the mouse and rat, the human Oprm gene undergoes alternative splicing. In the present studies, we

  1. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing switches modulate gene expression in late erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Miki L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Gee, Sherry L.; Kang, Jeong-Ah; Schweitzer, Anthony C.; Wickrema, Amittha; Conboy, John G.

    2009-02-03

    Differentiating erythroid cells execute a unique gene expression program that insures synthesis of the appropriate proteome at each stage of maturation. Standard expression microarrays provide important insight into erythroid gene expression but cannot detect qualitative changes in transcript structure, mediated by RNA processing, that alter structure and function of encoded proteins. We analyzed stage-specific changes in the late erythroid transcriptome via use of high-resolution microarrays that detect altered expression of individual exons. Ten differentiation-associated changes in erythroblast splicing patterns were identified, including the previously known activation of protein 4.1R exon 16 splicing. Six new alternative splicing switches involving enhanced inclusion of internal cassette exons were discovered, as well as 3 changes in use of alternative first exons. All of these erythroid stage-specific splicing events represent activated inclusion of authentic annotated exons, suggesting they represent an active regulatory process rather than a general loss of splicing fidelity. The observation that 3 of the regulated transcripts encode RNA binding proteins (SNRP70, HNRPLL, MBNL2) may indicate significant changes in the RNA processing machinery of late erythroblasts. Together, these results support the existence of a regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing program that is critical for late erythroid differentiation.

  2. Alternative splicing and gene duplication differentially shaped the regulation of isochorismate synthase in Populus and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yinan; Chung, Jeng-Der; Fu, Xueyan; Johnson, Virgil E.; Ranjan, Priya; Booth, Sarah L.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2009-01-01

    Isochorismate synthase (ICS) converts chorismate to isochorismate for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone, an essential cofactor for photosynthetic electron transport. ICS is also required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis during Arabidopsis defense. In several other species, including Populus, SA is derived primarily from the phenylpropanoid pathway. We therefore sought to investigate ICS regulation in Populus to learn the extent of ICS involvement in SA synthesis and defense. Arabidopsis harbors duplicated AtICS genes that differ in their exon-intron structure, basal expression, and stress inducibility. In contrast, we found a single ICS gene in Populus and six other sequenced plant genomes, pointing to the AtICS duplication as a lineage-specific event. The Populus ICS encodes a functional plastidic enzyme, and was not responsive to stresses that stimulated phenylpropanoid accumulation. Populus ICS underwent extensive alternative splicing that was rare for the duplicated AtICSs. Sequencing of 184 RT-PCR Populus clones revealed 37 alternative splice variants, with normal transcripts representing ?50% of the population. When expressed in Arabidopsis, Populus ICS again underwent alternative splicing, but did not produce normal transcripts to complement AtICS1 function. The splice-site sequences of Populus ICS are unusual, suggesting a causal link between junction sequence, alternative splicing, and ICS function. We propose that gene duplication and alternative splicing of ICS evolved independently in Arabidopsis and Populus in accordance with their distinct defense strategies. AtICS1 represents a divergent isoform for inducible SA synthesis during defense. Populus ICS primarily functions in phylloquinone biosynthesis, a process that can be sustained at low ICS transcript levels. PMID:19996170

  3. Review: Alternative Splicing (AS) of Genes As An Approach for Generating Protein Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bishakha; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the completion of the human genome project, the human genome was thought to have a greater number of genes as it seemed structurally and functionally more complex than other simpler organisms. This along with the belief of “one gene, one protein”, were demonstrated to be incorrect. The inequality in the ratio of gene to protein formation gave rise to the theory of alternative splicing (AS). AS is a mechanism by which one gene gives rise to multiple protein products. Numerous databases and online bioinformatic tools are available for the detection and analysis of AS. Bioinformatics provides an important approach to study mRNA and protein diversity by various tools such as expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences obtained from completely processed mRNA. Microarrays and deep sequencing approaches also aid in the detection of splicing events. Initially it was postulated that AS occurred only in about 5% of all genes but was later found to be more abundant. Using bioinformatic approaches, the level of AS in human genes was found to be fairly high with 35-59% of genes having at least one AS form. Our ability to determine and predict AS is important as disorders in splicing patterns may lead to abnormal splice variants resulting in genetic diseases. In addition, the diversity of proteins produced by AS poses a challenge for successful drug discovery and therefore a greater understanding of AS would be beneficial. PMID:24179441

  4. Alternative splicing and retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Melissa M.; Zack, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is highly regulated in tissue-specific and development-specific patterns, and it has been estimated that 15% of disease-causing point mutations affect pre-mRNA splicing. In this review, we consider the cis-acting splice site and trans-acting splicing factor mutations that affect pre-mRNA splicing and contribute to retinal degeneration. Numerous splice site mutations have been identified in retinitis pigmentosa and various cone-rod dystrophies. For example, mutations in alternatively spliced retina-specific exons of the widely expressed RPGR and COL2A1 genes lead primarily to X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and ocular variants of Stickler Syndrome, respectively. Furthermore, mutations in general pre-mRNA splicing factors, such as PRPF31, PRPF8, and PRPF3, predominantly cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest an important role for pre-mRNA splicing in retinal homeostasis and the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. The development of novel therapeutic strategies to modulate aberrant splicing, including small molecule based therapies, has the potential to lead to the development of new treatments for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23647439

  5. Alternative splicing of a group II intron in a surface layer protein gene in Clostridium tetani

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Simon, Dawn M.; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes and retroelements found in bacteria, and are thought to have been the ancestors of nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Whereas nuclear introns undergo prolific alternative splicing in some species, group II introns are not known to carry out equivalent reactions. Here we report a group II intron in the human pathogen Clostridium tetani, which undergoes four alternative splicing reactions in vivo. Together with unspliced transcript, five mRNAs are produced, each encoding a distinct surface layer protein isoform. Correct fusion of exon reading frames requires a shifted 5? splice site located 8 nt upstream of the canonical boundary motif. The shifted junction is accomplished by an altered IBS1-EBS1 pairing between the intron and 5? exon. Growth of C. tetani under a variety of conditions did not result in large changes in alternative splicing levels, raising the possibility that alternative splicing is constitutive. This work demonstrates a novel type of gene organization and regulation in bacteria, and provides an additional parallel between group II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. PMID:24214997

  6. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junyu; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liao, Yong; Guo, Luo; Wang, Honglian; He, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser) in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203) containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1. PMID:23342054

  7. A Recently Evolved Alternative Splice Site in the BRANCHED1a Gene Controls Potato Plant Architecture.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michael; Rodríguez-Buey, María Luisa; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Cubas, Pilar

    2015-07-20

    Amplification and diversification of transcriptional regulators that control development is a driving force of morphological evolution. A major source of protein diversity is alternative splicing, which leads to the generation of different isoforms from a single gene. The mechanisms and timing of intron evolution nonetheless remain unclear, and the functions of alternative splicing-generated protein isoforms are rarely studied. In Solanum tuberosum, the BRANCHED1a (BRC1a) gene encodes a TCP transcription factor that controls lateral shoot outgrowth. Here, we report the recent evolution in Solanum of an alternative splice site in BRC1a that leads to the generation of two BRC1a protein isoforms with distinct C-terminal regions, BRC1a(Long) and BRC1a(Short), encoded by unspliced and spliced mRNA, respectively. The BRC1a(Long) C-terminal region has a strong activation domain, whereas that of BRC1a(S) lacks an activation domain and is predicted to form an amphipathic helix, the H domain, which prevents protein nuclear targeting. BRC1a(Short) is thus mainly cytoplasmic, while BRC1a(Long) is mainly nuclear. BRC1a(Long) functions as a transcriptional activator, whereas BRC1a(Short) appears to have no transcriptional activity. Moreover, BRC1a(Short) can heterodimerize with BRC1a(Long) and act as a dominant-negative factor; it increases BRC1a(Long) concentration in cytoplasm and reduces its transcriptional activity. This alternative splicing mechanism is regulated by hormones and external stimuli that control branching. The evolution of a new alternative splicing site and a novel protein domain in Solanum BRC1a led to a multi-level mechanism of post-transcriptional and post-translational BRC1a regulation that effectively modulates its branch suppressing activity in response to environmental and endogenous cues. PMID:26119747

  8. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  9. The evolution of an alternatively spliced exon in the alphaA-crystallin gene.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, M A; Sweers, M A; de Jong, W W

    2001-06-01

    The evolutionary aspects of alternative splicing, as a mechanism to increase the diversity of gene products, are poorly understood. Here we analyse the evolution of a 69-bp exon that is alternatively spliced in the primary transcript of the gene for the mammalian eye lens protein alphaA-crystallin. In rodents, the skipping of this exon 2 is attributed to the presence of a non-consensus 5' splice site GC, and results in the expression of 10-20% of alphaA(ins)-crystallin, with an insert of 23 residues, as compared with normal alphaA-crystallin. alphaA(ins)-crystallin is also expressed in some non-rodent mammals, including kangaroo, while lacking in others. We now demonstrate that the alternatively spliced exon 2 is present in mammals from different orders that do not express alphaA(ins)-crystallin. The expression of this exon has thus been silenced independently in various lineages. Sequence comparison in 16 species reveals that--whether or not alphaA(ins)-crystallin is expressed--exon 2 is always flanked by the non-consensus donor splice site GC, while a consensus branch point sequence and 3' pyrimidine-rich region are hardly detectable in the downstream intron. Increased numbers of amino acid replacements in the peptide encoded by exon 2 indicate that it is subject to much lower selective constraints than the exons that code for normal alphaA-crystallin. The absence of any apparent advantage at the protein level may suggest that exon 2 DNA sequences are conserved as cis-acting factors for proper splicing of the alphaA-crystallin transcript. PMID:11443354

  10. Gene selection, alternative splicing, and post-translational processing regulate neuroligin selectivity for beta-neurexins.

    PubMed

    Comoletti, Davide; Flynn, Robyn E; Boucard, Antony A; Demeler, Borries; Schirf, Virgil; Shi, Jianxin; Jennings, Lori L; Newlin, Helen R; Südhof, Thomas C; Taylor, Palmer

    2006-10-24

    Neuroligins 1-4 are postsynaptic transmembrane proteins capable of initiating presynaptic maturation via interactions with beta-neurexin. Both neuroligins and beta-neurexins have alternatively spliced inserts in their extracellular domains. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, we determined that the extracellular domains of the neuroligins sediment as dimers, whereas the extracellular domains of the beta-neurexins appear monomeric. Sedimentation velocity experiments of titrated stoichiometry ratios of beta-neurexin and neuroligin suggested a 2:2 complex formation. The recognition properties of individual neuroligins toward beta-neurexin-1 (NX1beta), along with the influence of their splice inserts, were explored by surface plasmon resonance and affinity chromatography. Different neuroligins display a range of NX1beta affinities spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. Whereas splice insert 4 in beta-neurexin appears to act only as a modulator of the neuroligin/beta-neurexin association, splice insert B in neuroligin-1 (NL1) is the key element regulating the NL1/NX1beta binding. Our data indicate that gene selection, mRNA splicing, and post-translational modifications combine to give rise to a controlled neuroligin recognition code with a rank ordering of affinities for particular neurexins that is conserved for the neuroligins across mammalian species. PMID:17042500

  11. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. Results We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5? UTR and/or 3? UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. Conclusions We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum. PMID:23324402

  12. ASAP: the Alternative Splicing Annotation Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Lee; Levan Atanelov; Barmak Modrek; Yi Xing

    2003-01-01

    Recently, genomics analyses have demonstrated that alternative splicing is widespread in mammalian genomes (30-60% of genes reported to have multiple isoforms), and maybe one of their most important mechanisms of functional regulation. However, by comparison with other genomics data such as genome annotation, SNPs, or gene expression, there exists relativelylittle database infrastructure for the studyof alternative splicing. We have constructed

  13. Molecular structure of the human argininosuccinate synthetase gene: Occurrence of alternative mRNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, S.O.; Beaudet, A.L.; Bock, H.G.O.; O'Brien, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    The human genome contains one expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene and ca. 14 pseudogenes that are dispersed to at least 11 human chromosomes. Eleven clones isolated from a human genomic DNA library were characterized extensively by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and nucleotide sequencing. These 11 clones represent the entire expressed argininosuccinate synthetase gene that spans 63 kilobases and contains at least 13 exons. The expressed gene codes for two mRNAs that differ in their 5' untranslated sequences and arise by alternative splicing involving the inclusion or deletion of an entire exon. In normal human liver and cultured fibroblasts, the predominant mature argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA lacks sequences encoded by exon 2 in the expressed gene. In contrast, the predominant argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA in baboon liver contains exon 2 sequences. A transformed canavanine-resistant human cell line in which argininosuccinate synthetase activity is 180-fold higher than that in wild-type cells contains abundant amounts of both forms of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. The mRNA lacking exon 2 sequences is the more abundant mRNA species in the canavanine-resistant cells. These observations show that splicing of the argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA is species specific in primates and varies among different human cell types.

  14. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Stamm; Jean-jack M. Riethoven; Vincent Le Texier; Chellappa Gopalakrishnan; Vasudev Kumanduri; Yesheng Tang; Nuno L. Barbosa-morais; Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD (T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) NucleicAcidsRes.32,D64-D69)thatconsistsofcom- putationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts

  15. Alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 dominate the expression of fragile X mental retardation 1 gene in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianguo; Zheng, Dezhu; Liao, Juan; Li, Qingqin; Lin, Yuxiang; Zhang, Duo; Yan, Aizhen; Lan, Fenghua

    2015-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) expression is associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and exhibits several splicing products. However, the proportion of spliced isoforms that are expressed in different tissues remains unclear. In the present study, long?chain reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction with a T cloning?sequencing method was conducted in order to analyze the entire coding region of the FMR1 gene in human tissues. In particular, FXS?associated tissues were analyzed, including the brain and testis. Twenty alternatively spliced isoforms were observed among 271 recombinants, including six novel ones. The isoform that consisted of the entire FMR1 coding region (ISO1) accounted for a small proportion of all isoforms. Isoforms lacking exon 12 were the most abundant. In particular, spliced isoforms ISO7 and ISO17 were the most abundant. However, their relative abundance varied between the peripheral blood cells, and the testis and brain tissues. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that exon 12 may be the sole exon undergoing positive selection. The results of the present study suggested that the mechanisms underlying alternative splicing (AS) of the FMR1 gene may be more complex. Furthermore, the functions of alternatively spliced products lacking exon 12 require further investigation. The results of the present study provide novel insights into the association between AS and the structure and function of the FMR1 gene. PMID:25847585

  16. Dual utilization of an acceptor/donor splice site governs the alternative splicing of the IRF-3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Karpova, Alla Y.; Howley, Peter M.; Ronco, Lucienne V.

    2000-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors constitute a family of transcriptional activators and repressors involved in a large number of vital cellular processes. Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) has been implicated in virus and double-stranded RNA mediated induction of IFN? and RANTES, in DNA damage signaling, and in virus-induced apoptosis. With its critical role in these pathways, the activity of IRF-3 is tightly regulated in myriad ways. Here we describe novel regulation of IRF-3 at the level of RNA splicing. We show that an unprecedented dual utilization of a splice acceptor/donor site within the IRF-3 mRNA governs the production of two alternative splice isoforms. PMID:11090129

  17. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. PMID:25520388

  18. The evolving roles of alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liana F Lareau; Richard E Green; Rajiv S Bhatnagar; Steven E Brenner

    2004-01-01

    Alternative splicing is now commonly thought to affect more than half of all human genes. Recent studies have investigated not only the scope but also the biological impact of alternative splicing on a large scale, revealing that its role in generating proteome diversity may be augmented by a role in regulation. For instance, protein function can be regulated by the

  19. Myosin light-chain 1/3 gene alternative splicing: cis regulation is based upon a hierarchical compatibility between splice sites.

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, M E; Nadal-Ginard, B

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the selective joining of appropriate 5' and 3' splice sites are still poorly understood in both constitutive and alternatively spliced genes. With two promoters associated with different exons, the myosin light-chain 1/3 gene generates two pre-mRNAs that also differ by the use of a pair of internal exons, 3 and 4, that are spliced in a mutually exclusive fashion. When the promoter upstream from exon 1 is used, only exon 4 is included. If the promoter upstream from exon 2 is used, only exon 3 is included. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis for the mutually exclusive behavior of these two exons and the basis of their specific selection, a number of minigene constructs containing exons 3 and 4 were tested in a variety of homologous or heterologous cis and trans environments. The results demonstrate that the mutually exclusive behavior of myosin light-chain exons 3 and 4 and selection between the two exons are cis regulated and are affected by the nature of the flanking sequences. Both exons competed for the common flanking 5' and 3' splice sites. Flanking exons were found that favored inclusion into mature mRNA of exon 3, exon 4, both, or neither, suggesting a specific cooperative interaction between certain 5' and 3' splice sites. Thus, alternative splicing of myosin light-chain 1/3 pre-mRNAs is regulated in cis by a hierarchy of compatibilities between pairs of 5' and 3' splice sites. Images PMID:2325649

  20. Gene structure, chromosomal location, and basis for alternative mRNA splicing of the human VCAM1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cybulsky, M.I.; Fries, J.W.U.; Williams, A.J.; Sultan, P.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Collins, T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Eddy, R.; Byers, M.; Shows, T. (Roswell Park Memorial Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein adhesive for certain blood leukocytes and tumor cells, which is expressed by activated endothelium in a variety of pathologic conditions including atherosclerosis. Genomic clones encoding the VCAM1 gene were isolated and the organization of the gene was determined. The gene, which is present in a single copy in the human genome, contains 9 exons spanning {approx}25 kilobases of DNA. Exons 2-8 contain C2 or H-type immunoglobulin domains. At least two different VCAM-1 precursors can be generated from the human gene as a result of alternative mRNA splicing events, which include or exclude exon 5. A consensus TATAA element is located upstream of the transcriptional start site. The VCAM1 promoter contains consensus binding sites for NF-{kappa}B, the GATA family of transcription factors, as well as an AP1 site. The VCAM1 gene was assigned to the 1p31-32 region of chromosome 1 based on the analysis of human-mouse hybrid cell lines and in situ hybridization. Structural analysis of the human VCAM1 gene provides the basis for alternative mRNA splicing and an initial approach to elucidating the regulation of VCAM-1 expression.

  1. Developmentally regulated alternative splicing of transcripts from the Drosophila homeotic gene Antennapedia can produce four different proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, J R; Scott, M P

    1988-01-01

    Antennapedia (Antp) is a Drosophila homeotic gene that controls differentiation of the thoracic segments. Antp transcripts are produced from either of two promoters that are independently regulated in temporally and spatially distinct patterns. In addition, Antp transcripts utilize either of two major polyadenylation sites. Antp primary transcripts contain the same protein coding sequences. Alternative RNA splicing at two positions within the primary transcripts produces mRNAs that can encode four slightly different Antp proteins. Different classes of alternatively spliced transcript predominate early and late in Drosophila development, indicating that the Antp gene is regulated by the processing of its transcripts as well as by controlling their transcription. Alternative splicing appears to be independent of which promoter and which polyadenylation site is used. Images PMID:2903048

  2. Genomic organization, expression, and alternate splicing of the mouse fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Carney, G; Rizzo, W B

    2000-11-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Mutations in the FALDH gene are responsible for the human genetic disorder Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) which is characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spasticity. To better understand SLS and the expression of FALDH in mammalian tissues, we investigated the organization and expression of the mouse FALDH gene (recently named ALDH3A2). The mouse gene consists of 11 exons and spans about 25 kb. Primer extension experiments identified the transcription initiation site at nt -121 relative to the translation initiating codon. The major FALDH transcript was 3 kb long and was composed of exons 1-10. A less abundant alternately spliced transcript contained an additional exon (exon 9') inserted between exons 9 and 10 and encodes a protein (FALDHv) with a variant carboxy-terminal domain of unknown function. Northern analysis usingRNA from different tissues showed widespread but variable expression of the gene, which generally correlated with FALDH enzyme activity. Expression of the alternate exon 9' transcript in tissues often differed from that of the major transcript and did not reflect enzyme activity. These results provide a basis for investigating the in vivo expression of FALDH in response to physiologic and pharmacologic manipulation, and are essential for the development of an animal model of SLS. PMID:11073717

  3. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Venables, Julian P.; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This directly purifies the single-stranded regions of heteroduplexes between alternative splices formed in the PCR, enabling direct sequencing of all the rare alternative splice forms of any gene. As a proof of principle the alternative transcripts of three tumour suppressor genes, TP53, MLH1 and MSH2, were isolated from testis cDNA. These contain missing exons, cryptic splice sites or include completely novel exons. EASI beads are stable for months in the fridge and can be easily combined with standard protocols to speed the cloning of novel transcripts. PMID:16951290

  4. Alternative transcription and two modes of splicing result in two myosin light chains from one gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yo-Ichi Nabeshima; Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama; Masami Muramatsu; Kikuo Ogata

    1984-01-01

    Chicken skeletal muscle myosin alkali light chains are encoded by a single gene of size 18 kilobases (kb). This gene has two transcription initiation sites from which 17.5- and 8-kb precursor RNAs are transcribed. These RNAs are processed by different modes of splicing to form mRNAs encoding distinct light-chain (LC1 and LC3) proteins.

  5. Splicing and alternative splicing in rice and humans.

    PubMed

    E, Zhiguo; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    Rice is a monocot gramineous crop, and one of the most important staple foods. Rice is considered a model species for most gramineous crops. Extensive research on rice has provided critical guidance for other crops, such as maize and wheat. In recent years, climate change and exacerbated soil degradation have resulted in a variety of abiotic stresses, such as greenhouse effects, lower temperatures, drought, floods, soil salinization and heavy metal pollution. As such, there is an extremely high demand for additional research, in order to address these negative factors. Studies have shown that the alternative splicing of many genes in rice is affected by stress conditions, suggesting that manipulation of the alternative splicing of specific genes may be an effective approach for rice to adapt to abiotic stress. With the advancement of microarrays, and more recently, next generation sequencing technology, several studies have shown that more than half of the genes in the rice genome undergo alternative splicing. This mini-review summarizes the latest progress in the research of splicing and alternative splicing in rice, compared to splicing in humans. Furthermore, we discuss how additional studies may change the landscape of investigation of rice functional genomics and genetically improved rice. PMID:24064058

  6. A method for identifying alternative or cryptic donor splice sites within gene and mRNA sequences. Comparisons among sequences from vertebrates, echinoderms and other groups

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Katherine M; Florea, Liliana D; Smith, L Courtney

    2009-01-01

    Background As the amount of genome sequencing data grows, so does the problem of computational gene identification, and in particular, the splicing signals that flank exon borders. Traditional methods for identifying splicing signals have been created and optimized using sequences from model organisms, mostly vertebrate and yeast species. However, as genome sequencing extends across the animal kingdom and includes various invertebrate species, the need for mechanisms to recognize splice signals in these organisms increases as well. With that aim in mind, we generated a model for identifying donor and acceptor splice sites that was optimized using sequences from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This model was then used to assess the possibility of alternative or cryptic splicing within the highly variable immune response gene family known as 185/333. Results A donor splice site model was generated from S. purpuratus sequences that incorporates non-adjacent dependences among positions within the 9 nt splice signal and uses position weight matrices to determine the probability that the site is used for splicing. The Purpuratus model was shown to predict splice signals better than a similar model created from vertebrate sequences. Although the Purpuratus model was able to correctly predict the true splice sites within the 185/333 genes, no evidence for alternative or trans-gene splicing was observed. Conclusion The data presented herein describe the first published analyses of echinoderm splice sites and suggest that the previous methods of identifying splice signals that are based largely on vertebrate sequences may be insufficient. Furthermore, alternative or trans-gene splicing does not appear to be acting as a diversification mechanism in the 185/333 gene family. PMID:19607703

  7. Accurate identification of alternatively spliced exons using support vector machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon Dror; Rotem Sorek; Ron Shamir

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: Alternative splicing is a major component of the regulation acting on mammalian transcriptomes. It is esti- mated that over half of all human genes have more than one splice variant. Previous studies have shown that alterna- tively spliced exons possess several features that distinguish them from constitutively spliced ones. Recently, we have demonstrated that such features can be used

  8. Skipping of exons by premature termination of transcription and alternative splicing within intron-5 of the sheep SCF gene: a novel splice variant.

    PubMed

    Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Pediconi, Dario; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor, essential for haemopoiesis, mast cell development and melanogenesis. In the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), SCF is produced either as a membrane-bound (-) or soluble (+) forms. Skin expression of SCF stimulates melanocyte migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. We report for the first time, a novel mRNA splice variant of SCF from the skin of white merino sheep via cloning and sequencing. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and molecular prediction revealed two different cDNA products of SCF. Full-length cDNA libraries were enriched by the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). Nucleotide sequencing and molecular prediction revealed that the primary 1519 base pair (bp) cDNA encodes a precursor protein of 274 amino acids (aa), commonly known as 'soluble' isoform. In contrast, the shorter (835 and/or 725 bp) cDNA was found to be a 'novel' mRNA splice variant. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) corresponding to a truncated protein of 181 aa (vs 245 aa) with an unique C-terminus lacking the primary proteolytic segment (28 aa) right after the D(175)G site which is necessary to produce 'soluble' form of SCF. This alternative splice (AS) variant was explained by the complete nucleotide sequencing of splice junction covering exon 5-intron (5)-exon 6 (948 bp) with a premature termination codon (PTC) whereby exons 6 to 9/10 are skipped (Cassette Exon, CE 6-9/10). We also demonstrated that the Northern blot analysis at transcript level is mediated via an intron-5 splicing event. Our data refine the structure of SCF gene; clarify the presence (+) and/or absence (-) of primary proteolytic-cleavage site specific SCF splice variants. This work provides a basis for understanding the functional role and regulation of SCF in hair follicle melanogenesis in sheep beyond what was known in mice, humans and other mammals. PMID:22719917

  9. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kejun; Chen, Yaoming; Dai, Zongming; Bi, Yuan; Cai, Tongjian [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Hou, Lichao [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Chai, Yubo; Song, Qinghe; Chen, Sumin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province (China)

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  10. Characterization of Conserved Tandem Donor Sites and Intronic Motifs Required for Alternative Splicing in Corticosteroid Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Matthews, Laura; Lightman, Stafford; Ray, David; Norman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing events from tandem donor sites result in mRNA variants coding for additional amino acids in the DNA binding domain of both the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. We now show that expression of both splice variants is extensively conserved in mammalian species, providing strong evidence for their functional significance. An exception to the conservation of the MR tandem splice site (an A at position +5 of the MR+12 donor site in the mouse) was predicted to decrease U1 small nuclear RNA binding. In accord with this prediction, we were unable to detect the MR+12 variant in this species. The one exception to the conservation of the GR tandem splice site, an A at position +3 of the platypus GR? donor site that was predicted to enhance binding of U1 snRNA, was unexpectedly associated with decreased expression of the variant from the endogenous gene as well as a minigene. An intronic pyrimidine motif present in both GR and MR genes was found to be critical for usage of the downstream donor site, and overexpression of TIA1/TIAL1 RNA binding proteins, which are known to bind such motifs, led to a marked increase in the proportion of GR? and MR+12. These results provide striking evidence for conservation of a complex splicing mechanism that involves processes other than stochastic spliceosome binding and identify a mechanism that would allow regulation of variant expression. PMID:19819975

  11. TWO ISOFORMS OF RUBISCO ACTIVASE IN COTTON, THE PRODUCTS OF SEPARATE GENES NOT ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In several plants, Rubisco activase consists of two isoforms that are produced by alternative splicing of a pre-mRNA. Two forms of activase corresponding to the longer, alpha and the shorter, beta forms were detected in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves, but their N-termini differed. The cDNAs...

  12. The dynamics of the alternatively spliced NOL7 gene products and role in nucleolar architecture

    PubMed Central

    Kinor, Noa

    2011-01-01

    Three alternatively spliced forms of the human NOL7 gene coding for relatively small proteins were identified. The two shorter forms were generated by intron retention events, and each isoform was differently localized within the cell. The NOL7-SP1 long form (29 kD) localized to the nucleolus, SP2 was nucleoplasmic, while SP3 was distributed throughout the whole cell. NOL7-SP1 was confined to the nucleolar granular component, and during cell division disassociated from the nucleolus. Knockdown of NOL7-SP1 levels abrogated nucleolar architecture, in particular the internal regions, and reduced cell proliferation. Analysis of the nucleolar dynamics of the SP1 protein during interphase showed nucleolar high binding affinity. Dissection of protein domains showed that nucleolar targeting was mediated by a unique C-terminal nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS). However, this sequence was not sufficient for conferring high binding affinity, which required additional regions of the protein. Our analysis shows that NOL7 is important for maintaining internal nucleolar structure and cell growth rates, and that while specific protein localization can be obtained by specific short localization motifs, nucleolar residency through binding must be mediated by a synergistic combination of protein modules. PMID:21818416

  13. Regulation of Splicing Factors by Alternative Splicing and NMD Is Conserved between Kingdoms Yet Evolutionarily Flexible

    PubMed Central

    Lareau, Liana F.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraconserved elements, unusually long regions of perfect sequence identity, are found in genes encoding numerous RNA-binding proteins including arginine-serine rich (SR) splicing factors. Expression of these genes is regulated via alternative splicing of the ultraconserved regions to yield mRNAs that are degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a process termed unproductive splicing (Lareau et al. 2007; Ni et al. 2007). As all human SR genes are affected by alternative splicing and NMD, one might expect this regulation to have originated in an early SR gene and persisted as duplications expanded the SR family. But in fact, unproductive splicing of most human SR genes arose independently (Lareau et al. 2007). This paradox led us to investigate the origin and proliferation of unproductive splicing in SR genes. We demonstrate that unproductive splicing of the splicing factor SRSF5 (SRp40) is conserved among all animals and even observed in fungi; this is a rare example of alternative splicing conserved between kingdoms, yet its effect is to trigger mRNA degradation. As the gene duplicated, the ancient unproductive splicing was lost in paralogs, and distinct unproductive splicing evolved rapidly and repeatedly to take its place. SR genes have consistently employed unproductive splicing, and while it is exceptionally conserved in some of these genes, turnover in specific events among paralogs shows flexible means to the same regulatory end. PMID:25576366

  14. Correspondence Alternative Splicing at NAGNAG

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    Correspondence Alternative Splicing at NAGNAG Acceptors: Simply Noise or Noise and More? Michael splicing at NAGNAGs mainly results in the insertion/deletion of one amino acid. While such subtle events noise tolerated by cells? Zavolan and colleagues [3,4] suggest that these variations are the result

  15. Alternative splicing of VEGFA, APP and NUMB genes in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi-Jun; Han, Hua-Zhong; Liang, Yong; Shi, Chen-Zhang; Zhu, Qing-Chao; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate alternative splicing in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), and Numb homolog (NUMB) in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were performed to detect the expression of VEGFA, APP, and NUMB mRNA in 20 CRC tissues and matched adjacent normal tissues, as well as their alternative splicing variants. RESULTS: qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of APP, NUMB, and VEGFA165b mRNA were significantly downregulated, while VEGFA mRNA was upregulated, in CRC tissues (all P < 0.05). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the expression of VEGFA165a/b in CRC tissues was significantly higher than in adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05). Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the expression of NUMB-PRRS in CRC tissues was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of NUMB-PRRL was increased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alternative splicing of VEGFA, APP, and NUMB may regulate the development of CRC, and represent new targets for its diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.

  16. Alternative splicing and mRNA expression analysis of bovine SLAMF7 gene in healthy and mastitis mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Changfa; Li, Qiuling; Hou, Minghai; Gao, Shuai; Hou, Qinlei; Li, Jianbin; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng

    2012-04-01

    The signaling lymphocyte-activating molecule family 7 (SLAMF7) proteins serve as adhesion molecules on the surface of a variety of mature hematopoietic cells, and also partially control certain innate and adaptive immune responses. We characterized three novel bovine SLAMF7 splice variants, designated as SLAMF7-AS1, AS2, and AS3. All three novel SLAMF7 isoforms are derived from the complete transcripts (SLAMF7-complete) via alternative splicing (AS). The patterns of the three splice variants are exon skipping and alternative 5' splice sites. Bovine SLAMF7 transcripts are expressed in mammary tissue, as demonstrated by real-time PCR. The levels of the complete transcript expression in the normal mammary tissues were higher than that in Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus)-induced mastitis mammary tissues. However, it was not significant for the mRNA expression level comparison between these two kinds of mammary. The SLAMF-AS2 isoforms are expressed the lowest levels among the three transcripts in both normal and infected mammary tissues. This study provides clues for a better understanding of bovine SLAMF7 gene function. PMID:21769477

  17. Genomics of alternative splicing: evolution, development and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Gamazon, Eric R; Stranger, Barbara E

    2014-06-01

    Alternative splicing is a major cellular mechanism in metazoans for generating proteomic diversity. A large proportion of protein-coding genes in multicellular organisms undergo alternative splicing, and in humans, it has been estimated that nearly 90 % of protein-coding genes-much larger than expected-are subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analyses of alternative splicing have illuminated its universal role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. Disruption of the splicing machinery has been found to drive pathophysiology, and indeed reprogramming of aberrant splicing can provide novel approaches to the development of molecular therapy. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of alternative splicing brought about by the unprecedented explosive growth of genomic data and highlights the relevance of human splicing variation on disease and therapy. PMID:24378600

  18. Mechanism of alternative splicing and its regulation

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAN; LIU, JING; HUANG, BO; XU, YAN-MEI; LI, JING; HUANG, LIN-FENG; LIN, JIN; ZHANG, JING; MIN, QING-HUA; YANG, WEI-MING; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor mRNA is an essential mechanism to increase the complexity of gene expression, and it plays an important role in cellular differentiation and organism development. Regulation of alternative splicing is a complicated process in which numerous interacting components are at work, including cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, and is further guided by the functional coupling between transcription and splicing. Additional molecular features, such as chromatin structure, RNA structure and alternative transcription initiation or alternative transcription termination, collaborate with these basic components to generate the protein diversity due to alternative splicing. All these factors contributing to this one fundamental biological process add up to a mechanism that is critical to the proper functioning of cells. Any corruption of the process may lead to disruption of normal cellular function and the eventuality of disease. Cancer is one of those diseases, where alternative splicing may be the basis for the identification of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as new strategies for therapy. Thus, an in-depth understanding of alternative splicing regulation has the potential not only to elucidate fundamental biological principles, but to provide solutions for various diseases. PMID:25798239

  19. Recognition of Unknown Conserved Alternatively Spliced Exons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Ohler; Noam Shomron; Christopher B. Burge

    2005-01-01

    The split structure of most mammalian protein-coding genes allows for the potential to produce multiple different mRNA and protein isoforms from a single gene locus through the process of alternative splicing (AS). We propose a computational approach called UNCOVER based on a pair hidden Markov model to discover conserved coding exonic sequences subject to AS that have so far gone

  20. Alternative splicing at GYNNGY 5? splice sites: more noise, less regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Peiwei; Shu, Yang; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuchao; Zhou, You; Jiang, Min; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Kong, Xiangyin; Zhang, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous eukaryotic genes are alternatively spliced. Recently, deep transcriptome sequencing has skyrocketed proportion of alternatively spliced genes; over 95% human multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced. One fundamental question is: are all these alternative splicing (AS) events functional? To look into this issue, we studied the most common form of alternative 5? splice sites—GYNNGYs (Y = C/T), where both GYs can function as splice sites. Global analyses suggest that splicing noise (due to stochasticity of splicing process) can cause AS at GYNNGYs, evidenced by higher AS frequency in non-coding than in coding regions, in non-conserved than in conserved genes and in lowly expressed than in highly expressed genes. However, ?20% AS GYNNGYs in humans and ?3% in mice exhibit tissue-dependent regulation. Consistent with being functional, regulated GYNNGYs are more conserved than unregulated ones. And regulated GYNNGYs have distinctive sequence features which may confer regulation. Particularly, each regulated GYNNGY comprises two splice sites more resembling each other than unregulated GYNNGYs, and has more conserved downstream flanking intron. Intriguingly, most regulated GYNNGYs may tune gene expression through coupling with nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, rather than encode different proteins. In summary, AS at GYNNGY 5? splice sites is primarily splicing noise, and secondarily a way of regulation. PMID:25428370

  1. Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail M McGuire; Matthew D Pearson; Daniel E Neafsey; James E Galagan

    2008-01-01

    Background  Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly\\u000a appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries,\\u000a and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism.\\u000a We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across

  2. Riboswitch Control of Gene Expression in Plants by Splicing and Alternative 3? End Processing of mRNAs[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Andreas; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Grove, Beth C.; Green, Pamela J.; Shintani, David K.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    The most widespread riboswitch class, found in organisms from all three domains of life, is responsive to the vitamin B1 derivative thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). We have established that a TPP-sensing riboswitch is present in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the thiamin biosynthetic gene THIC of all plant species examined. The THIC TPP riboswitch controls the formation of transcripts with alternative 3? UTR lengths, which affect mRNA accumulation and protein production. We demonstrate that riboswitch-mediated regulation of alternative 3? end processing is critical for TPP-dependent feedback control of THIC expression. Our data reveal a mechanism whereby metabolite-dependent alteration of RNA folding controls splicing and alternative 3? end processing of mRNAs. These findings highlight the importance of metabolite sensing by riboswitches in plants and further reveal the significance of alternative 3? end processing as a mechanism of gene control in eukaryotes. PMID:17993623

  3. Differential Expressions of the Alternatively Spliced Variant mRNAs of the µ Opioid Receptor Gene, OPRM1, in Brain Regions of Four Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Lu, Zhigang; Xu, Mingming; Rossi, Grace C.; Kest, Benjamin; Waxman, Amanda R.; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing in rodents and humans, with dozens of alternatively spliced variants of the OPRM1 gene. The present studies establish a SYBR green quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify mouse OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs. Using these qPCR assays, we examined the expression of OPRM1 splice variant mRNAs in selected brain regions of four inbred mouse strains displaying differences in µ opioid-induced tolerance and physical dependence: C56BL/6J, 129P3/J, SJL/J and SWR/J. The complete mRNA expression profiles of the OPRM1 splice variants reveal marked differences of the variant mRNA expression among the brain regions in each mouse strain, suggesting region-specific alternative splicing of the OPRM1 gene. The expression of many variants was also strain-specific, implying a genetic influence on OPRM1 alternative splicing. The expression levels of a number of the variant mRNAs in certain brain regions appear to correlate with strain sensitivities to morphine analgesia, tolerance and physical dependence in four mouse strains. PMID:25343478

  4. The evolution of novelty in conserved genes; evidence of positive selection in the Drosophila fruitless gene is localised to alternatively spliced exons

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D J; Gardiner, A; Neville, M C; Ritchie, M G; Goodwin, S F

    2014-01-01

    There has been much debate concerning whether cis-regulatory or coding changes are more likely to produce evolutionary innovation or adaptation in gene function, but an additional complication is that some genes can dramatically diverge through alternative splicing, increasing the diversity of gene function within a locus. The fruitless gene is a major transcription factor with a wide range of pleiotropic functions, including a fundamental conserved role in sexual differentiation, species-specific morphology and an important influence on male sexual behaviour. Here, we examine the structure of fruitless in multiple species of Drosophila, and determine the patterns of selective constraint acting across the coding region. We found that the pattern of selection, estimated from the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions, varied considerably across the gene, with most regions of the gene evolutionarily conserved but with several regions showing evidence of divergence as a result of positive selection. The regions that showed evidence of positive selection were found to be localised to relatively consistent regions across multiple speciation events, and are associated with alternative splicing. Alternative splicing may thus provide a route to gene diversification in key regulatory loci. PMID:24149653

  5. Variation in alternative splicing across human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene; Holste, Dirk; Kreiman, Gabriel; Burge, Christopher B

    2004-01-01

    Background Alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) is widely used by higher eukaryotes to generate different protein isoforms in specific cell or tissue types. To compare AS events across human tissues, we analyzed the splicing patterns of genomically aligned expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from libraries of cDNAs from different tissues. Results Controlling for differences in EST coverage among tissues, we found that the brain and testis had the highest levels of exon skipping. The most pronounced differences between tissues were seen for the frequencies of alternative 3' splice site and alternative 5' splice site usage, which were about 50 to 100% higher in the liver than in any other human tissue studied. Quantifying differences in splice junction usage, the brain, pancreas, liver and the peripheral nervous system had the most distinctive patterns of AS. Analysis of available microarray expression data showed that the liver had the most divergent pattern of expression of serine-arginine protein and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein genes compared to the other human tissues studied, possibly contributing to the unusually high frequency of alternative splice site usage seen in liver. Sequence motifs enriched in alternative exons in genes expressed in the brain, testis and liver suggest specific splicing factors that may be important in AS regulation in these tissues. Conclusions This study distinguishes the human brain, testis and liver as having unusually high levels of AS, highlights differences in the types of AS occurring commonly in different tissues, and identifies candidate cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors likely to have important roles in tissue-specific AS in human cells. PMID:15461793

  6. Characterization of the human AMPD3 gene reveals that 5? exon useage is subject to transcriptional control by three tandem promoters and alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna K. Mahnke-Zizelman; Roger Eddy; Thomas B. Shows; Richard L. Sabina

    1996-01-01

    Previous work has identified multiple human AMPD3 transcripts proposed to differ by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of three exons located at, or near, the 5? end of the gene. In this study, we perform a more comprehensive evaluation of human AMPD3 gene expression. Combined Northern blot and RNase protection analyses show that alternative mRNAs are widely expressed in human tissues

  7. Alternative splicing of Myb-related genes MYR1 and MYR2 may modulate activities through changes in dimerization, localization, or protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengsong; Beers, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis genes MYR1 and MYR2 are regulators of flowering time under low light intensity. These Myb-related genes are expressed as alternative splice variants affected in their coiled-coil and DNA-binding domains. We tested whether alternative splicing could affect dimerization and localization of MYR1 and MYR2, thereby potentially affecting their activity. Using MYR1 as a model for variants within the coiled-coil region, we detected 2 types of homodimers. For MYR2, alternative splicing in the DNA-binding Myb-like domain abolished the ability of MYR2 to dimerize. Alternative splicing in the coiled-coil domain did not affect nuclear localization, as determined by transient expression in tobacco, while alternative splicing in the DNA-binding domain of MYR2 yielded a distinct intranuclear localization pattern that may reflect changes in phosphorylation-dependent protein folding. Thus alternative splicing of these genes may result in changes in dimerization or protein folding resulting in changes in activity and abundance of MYR1 or MYR2 protein. PMID:24309816

  8. The influence of Argonaute proteins on alternative RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Batsché, Eric; Ameyar-Zazoua, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of precursor RNAs is an important process in multicellular species because it impacts several aspects of gene expression: from the increase of protein repertoire to the level of expression. A large body of evidences demonstrates that factors regulating chromatin and transcription impact the outcomes of alternative splicing. Argonaute (AGO) proteins were known to play key roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. More recently, their role in the nucleus of human somatic cells has emerged. Here, we will discuss some of the nuclear functions of AGO, with special emphasis on alternative splicing. The AGO-mediated modulation of alternative splicing is based on several properties of these proteins: their binding to transcripts on chromatin and their interactions with many proteins, especially histone tail-modifying enzymes, HP1? and splicing factors. AGO proteins may favor a decrease in the RNA-polymerase II kinetics at actively transcribed genes leading to the modulation of alternative splicing decisions. They could also influence alternative splicing through their interaction with core components of the splicing machinery and several splicing factors. We will discuss the modes of AGO recruitment on chromatin at active genes. We suggest that long intragenic antisense transcripts (lincRNA) might be an important feature of genes containing splicing events regulated by AGO. PMID:25255778

  9. Functional consequences of developmentally regulated alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auinash Kalsotra; Thomas A. Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses of metazoan transcriptomes have revealed an unexpected level of mRNA diversity that is generated by alternative splicing. Recently, regulatory networks have been identified through which splicing promotes dynamic remodelling of the transcriptome to promote physiological changes, which involve robust and coordinated alternative splicing transitions. The regulation of splicing in yeast, worms, flies and vertebrates affects a variety of

  10. Alternative splicing is frequent during early embryonic development in mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothée Revil; Daniel Gaffney; Christel Dias; Jacek Majewski; Loydie A Jerome-Majewska

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing is known to increase the complexity of mammalian transcriptomes since nearly all mammalian genes express multiple pre-mRNA isoforms. However, our knowledge of the extent and function of alternative splicing in early embryonic development is based mainly on a few isolated examples. High throughput technologies now allow us to study genome-wide alternative splicing during mouse development. RESULTS: A

  11. Directing alternative splicing: cast and scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Chabot

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of alternative RNA splicing indicates that the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with specific target elements modulates splice site recognition and spliceosome assembly. The identity of splicing signals, the presence of modulating elements and differences in the distribution of RNA-binding proteins are key determinants involved in the tissue-specific regulation of splice site selection.

  12. Shotgun proteomics aids discovery of novel protein-coding genes, alternative splicing, and "resurrected" pseudogenes in the mouse genome.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Markus; Saunders, Gary I; Frankish, Adam; Collins, Mark O; Yu, Lu; Wright, James; Verstraten, Ruth; Adams, David J; Harrow, Jennifer; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Hubbard, Tim

    2011-05-01

    Recent advances in proteomic mass spectrometry (MS) offer the chance to marry high-throughput peptide sequencing to transcript models, allowing the validation, refinement, and identification of new protein-coding loci. We present a novel pipeline that integrates highly sensitive and statistically robust peptide spectrum matching with genome-wide protein-coding predictions to perform large-scale gene validation and discovery in the mouse genome for the first time. In searching an excess of 10 million spectra, we have been able to validate 32%, 17%, and 7% of all protein-coding genes, exons, and splice boundaries, respectively. Moreover, we present strong evidence for the identification of multiple alternatively spliced translations from 53 genes and have uncovered 10 entirely novel protein-coding genes, which are not covered in any mouse annotation data sources. One such novel protein-coding gene is a fusion protein that spans the Ins2 and Igf2 loci to produce a transcript encoding the insulin II and the insulin-like growth factor 2-derived peptides. We also report nine processed pseudogenes that have unique peptide hits, demonstrating, for the first time, that they are not just transcribed but are translated and are therefore resurrected into new coding loci. This work not only highlights an important utility for MS data in genome annotation but also provides unique insights into the gene structure and propagation in the mouse genome. All these data have been subsequently used to improve the publicly available mouse annotation available in both the Vega and Ensembl genome browsers (http://vega.sanger.ac.uk). PMID:21460061

  13. Allelic Variation, Alternative Splicing and Expression Analysis of Psy1 Gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Atienza, Sergio G.; Pistón, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Background The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1) is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. Methodology/Principal findings We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16) representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5? UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids), are functional in the bacterial system. Conclusions/Significance The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat. PMID:21603624

  14. Regulation of Alternative Splicing in Vivo by Overexpression of Antagonistic Splicing Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Javier F.; Stamm, Stefan; Helfman, David M.; Krainer, Adrian R.

    1994-09-01

    The opposing effects of SF2/ASF and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 influence alternative splicing in vitro. SF2/ASF or hnRNP A1 complementary DNAs were transiently overexpressed in HeLa cells, and the effect on alternative splicing of several cotransfected reporter genes was measured. Increased expression of SF2/ASF activated proximal 5' splice sites, promoted inclusion of a neuron-specific exon, and prevented abnormal exon skipping. Increased expression of hnRNP A1 activated distal 5' splice sites. Therefore, variations in the intracellular levels of antagonistic splicing factors influence different modes of alternative splicing in vivo and may be a natural mechanism for tissue-specific or developmental regulation of gene expression.

  15. Searching for Alternatively Spliced Variants of Phospholipase Domain-Containing 2 (Pnpla2), a Novel Gene in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    DesJardin, Jacqueline Talea; Becerra, S Patricia; Subramanian, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ensembl and other expressed sequence tag (EST) databases reveal putative alternative splice variants in mouse and rat for Pnpla2, the gene encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor-receptor (PEDF-R). The purpose of this study was to obtain experimental evidence for Pnpla2 splice variants in mouse. Materials and Methods Cultures of a mouse cell line derived from photoreceptors (661W cells) and mouse eye, heart, adipose, kidney, and liver tissues were used. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from cells and tissues, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs were designed to flank the putative splice sites. Exon exclusion real time PCR was used to reduce amplification of the full-length Pnpla2 transcript and enhance amplification of low abundant splice variants. PCR products were resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis and detected with a UV transilluminator. Recombinant plasmids containing a human full-length PNPLA2 cDNA or a PNPLA2 cDNA lacking exon 5b (E5b) were controls to validate the techniques. Total cell lysates from 661W cells were prepared. PEDF-R protein detection was performed using western blots. Results PCR products for Pnpla2 transcripts obtained from 661W cells or various mouse tissues resolved into a single band following amplification with multiple primer pairs. Simultaneous amplification of two PNPLA2 cDNAs at various molar ratios prevented the detection of lower abundant transcripts. However, even when the cDNA for the full-length Pnpla2 transcript was significantly excluded using the exon exclusion method, no bands corresponding to Pnpla2 splice variants were detectable. Nonetheless, western blots of total 661W cell lysates with two different antibodies revealed isoforms for the PEDF-R protein. Conclusions The data provide evidence for the existence of a single, full-length Pnpla2 transcript that could give rise to a single protein product that undergoes posttranslational processing. PMID:24482734

  16. Neuronal Signaling through Alternative Splicing: Some Exons CaRRE...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin J. O'Donovan (The Rockefeller University; Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology REV)

    2001-08-07

    Alternative splicing represents a mechanism by which a single gene can be used to create proteins with different functions. Neurons use alternative splicing to produce channels with different sequences and biophysical or regulatory properties. O'Donovan and Darnell discuss a mechanism by which neurons can alter channel splicing in response to neuronal activity through a signal generated by calcium and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity.

  17. Transcriptome profiling and sequencing of differentiated human hematopoietic stem cells reveal lineage-specific expression and alternative splicing of genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Poching; Barb, Jennifer; Woodhouse, Kimberly; Taylor, James G.; Munson, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic differentiation is strictly regulated by complex network of transcription factors that are controlled by ligands binding to cell surface receptors. Disruptions of the intricate sequences of transcriptional activation and suppression of multiple genes cause hematological diseases, such as leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, or myeloproliferative syndromes. From a clinical standpoint, deciphering the pattern of gene expression during hematopoiesis may help unravel disease-specific mechanisms in hematopoietic malignancies. Herein, we describe a human in vitro hematopoietic model system where lineage-specific differentiation of CD34+ cells was accomplished using specific cytokines. Microarray and RNAseq-based whole transcriptome and exome analysis was performed on the differentiated erythropoietic, granulopoietic, and megakaryopoietic cells to delineate changes in expression of whole transcripts and exons. Analysis on the Human 1.0 ST exon arrays indicated differential expression of 172 genes (P < 0.0000001) and significant alternate splicing of 86 genes during differentiation. Pathway analysis identified these genes to be involved in Rac/RhoA signaling, Wnt/B-catenin signaling and alanine/aspartate metabolism. Comparison of the microarray data to next generation RNAseq analysis during erythroid differentiation demonstrated a high degree of correlation in gene (R = 0.72) and exon (R = 0.62) expression. Our data provide a molecular portrait of events that regulate differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Knowledge of molecular processes by which the cells acquire their cell-specific fate would be beneficial in developing cell-based therapies for human diseases. PMID:21828245

  18. The importance of being divisible by three in alternative splicing

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    The importance of being divisible by three in alternative splicing Alon Magen and Gil Ast* Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Alternative splicing events that are conserved in orthologous genes in different species are commonly viewed

  19. Alternative splicing and biological heterogeneity in prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Elliott; Craig N. Robson; Hing Y. Leung; Prabhakar Rajan

    2009-01-01

    The biological diversity of prostate cancer confounds standardization of therapy. Advances in molecular profiling suggest that differences in the genetic composition of tumors significantly contribute to the complexity of the disease. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a key genetic process underlying biological diversity. During alternative splicing, coding and noncoding regions of a single gene are rearranged to generate several messenger RNA

  20. Alternative splicing: a novel mechanism of regulation identified in the chorismate mutase gene of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shun-Wen; Tian, Duanhua; Borchardt-Wier, Harmony B; Wang, Xiaohong

    2008-11-01

    Chorismate mutase (CM) secreted from the stylet of plant-parasitic nematodes plays an important role in plant parasitism. We isolated and characterized a new nematode CM gene (Gr-cm-1) from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis. The Gr-cm-1 gene was found to exist in the nematode genome as a single-copy gene that has two different alleles, Gr-cm-1A and Gr-cm-1B, both of which could give rise to two different mRNA transcripts of Gr-cm-1 and Gr-cm-1-IRII. In situ mRNA hybridization showed that the Gr-cm-1 gene was exclusively expressed within the subventral oesophageal gland cells of the nematode. Gr-cm-1 was demonstrated to encode a functional CM (GR-CM-1) potentially having a dimeric structure as the secreted bacterial *AroQ CMs. Gr-cm-1-IRII, generated by retention of intron 2 of the Gr-cm-1 pre-mRNA through alternative splicing (AS), would encode a truncated protein (GR-CM-1t) lacking the CM domain with no CM activity. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed that splicing of the Gr-cm-1 gene was developmentally regulated; Gr-cm-1 was up-regulated whereas Gr-cm-1-IRII was down-regulated in early nematode parasitic stages compared to the preparasitic juvenile stage. Low-temperature SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that GR-CM-1 could form homodimers when expressed in Escherichia coli and the dimerization domain was retained in the truncated GR-CM-1t protein. The specific interaction between the two proteins was demonstrated in yeast. Our data suggested that the novel splice variant might function as a dominant negative isoform through heterodimerization with the full-length GR-CM-1 protein and that AS may represent an important mechanism for regulating CM activity during nematode parasitism. PMID:18786575

  1. Global analysis of alternative splicing differences between humans and chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Calarco, John A.; Xing, Yi; Cáceres, Mario; Calarco, Joseph P.; Xiao, Xinshu; Pan, Qun; Lee, Christopher; Preuss, Todd M.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism affording extensive proteomic and regulatory diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. However, the extent to which alternative splicing has contributed to the evolution of primate species-specific characteristics has not been assessed previously. Using comparative genomics and quantitative microarray profiling, we performed the first global analysis of alternative splicing differences between humans and chimpanzees. Surprisingly, 6%–8% of profiled orthologous exons display pronounced splicing level differences in the corresponding tissues from the two species. Little overlap is observed between the genes associated with alternative splicing differences and the genes that display steady-state transcript level differences, indicating that these layers of regulation have evolved rapidly to affect distinct subsets of genes in humans and chimpanzees. The alternative splicing differences we detected are predicted to affect diverse functions including gene expression, signal transduction, cell death, immune defense, and susceptibility to diseases. Differences in expression at the protein level of the major splice variant of Glutathione S-transferase omega-2 (GSTO2), which functions in the protection against oxidative stress and is associated with human aging-related diseases, suggests that this enzyme is less active in human cells compared with chimpanzee cells. The results of this study thus support an important role for alternative splicing in establishing differences between humans and chimpanzees. PMID:17978102

  2. Analysis of smu-1, a Gene That Regulates the Alternative Splicing of unc-52 Pre-mRNA in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLINE A. SPIKE; JOCELYN E. SHAW; ROBERT K. HERMAN

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the smu-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans were previously shown to suppress mutations in the genes mec-8 and unc-52. mec-8 encodes a putative RNA binding protein that affects the accumulation of specific alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms produced by unc-52 and other genes. unc-52 encodes a set of basement membrane proteins, homologs of mammalian perlecan, that are important for body

  3. RASA: Robust Alternative Splicing Analysis for Human Transcriptome Arrays.

    PubMed

    Seok, Junhee; Xu, Weihong; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Human transcriptome arrays (HTA) have recently been developed for high-throughput alternative splicing analysis by measuring signals not only from exons but also from exon-exon junctions. Effective use of these rich signals requires the development of computational methods for better gene and alternative splicing analyses. In this work, we introduce a computational method, Robust Alternative Splicing Analysis (RASA), for the analysis of the new transcriptome arrays by effective integration of the exon and junction signals. To increase robustness, RASA calculates the expression of each gene by selecting exons classified as not alternatively spliced. It then identifies alternatively spliced exons that are supported by both exon and junction signals to reduce the false positives. Finally, it detects additional alternative splicing candidates that are supported by only exon signals because the signals from the corresponding junctions are not well detected. RASA was demonstrated with Affymetrix HTAs and its performance was evaluated with mRNA-Seq and RT-PCR. The validation rate is 52.4%, which is a 60% increase when compared with previous methods that do not use selected exons for gene expression calculation and junction signals for splicing detection. These results suggest that RASA significantly improves alternative splicing analyses on HTA platforms. PMID:26145443

  4. RASA: Robust Alternative Splicing Analysis for Human Transcriptome Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Junhee; Xu, Weihong; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Human transcriptome arrays (HTA) have recently been developed for high-throughput alternative splicing analysis by measuring signals not only from exons but also from exon-exon junctions. Effective use of these rich signals requires the development of computational methods for better gene and alternative splicing analyses. In this work, we introduce a computational method, Robust Alternative Splicing Analysis (RASA), for the analysis of the new transcriptome arrays by effective integration of the exon and junction signals. To increase robustness, RASA calculates the expression of each gene by selecting exons classified as not alternatively spliced. It then identifies alternatively spliced exons that are supported by both exon and junction signals to reduce the false positives. Finally, it detects additional alternative splicing candidates that are supported by only exon signals because the signals from the corresponding junctions are not well detected. RASA was demonstrated with Affymetrix HTAs and its performance was evaluated with mRNA-Seq and RT-PCR. The validation rate is 52.4%, which is a 60% increase when compared with previous methods that do not use selected exons for gene expression calculation and junction signals for splicing detection. These results suggest that RASA significantly improves alternative splicing analyses on HTA platforms. PMID:26145443

  5. Should pharmacologists care about alternative splicing? IUPHAR Review 4

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, T I

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in the majority of human genes, and most differential splicing results in different protein isoforms with possibly different functional properties. However, there are many reported splicing variations that may be quite rare, and not all combinatorially possible variants of a given gene are expressed at significant levels. Genes of interest to pharmacologists are frequently expressed at such low levels that they are not adequately represented in genome-wide studies of transcription. In single-gene studies, data are commonly available on the relative abundance and functional significance of individual alternatively spliced exons, but there are rarely data that quantitate the relative abundance of full-length transcripts and define which combinations of exons are significant. A number of criteria for judging the significance of splice variants and suggestions for their nomenclature are discussed. PMID:24670145

  6. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  7. Genome-wide survey of Alternative Splicing in Sorghum Bicolor.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Bahman; Abbaszadeh, Bahram; Taghizadeghan, Mehdi; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a member of grass family which is an attractive model plant for genome study due to interesting genome features like low genome size. In this research, we performed comprehensive investigation of Alternative Splicing and ontology aspects of genes those have undergone these events in sorghum bicolor. We used homology based alignments between gene rich transcripts, represented by tentative consensus (TC) transcript sequences, and genomic scaffolds to deduce the structure of genes and identify alternatively spliced transcripts in sorghum. Using homology mapping of assembled expressed sequence tags with genomics data, we identified 2,137 Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor. Our study showed that complex events and intron retention are the main types of Alternative Splicing events in S. bicolor and highlights the prevalence of splicing site recognition for definition of introns in this plant. Annotations of the alternatively spliced genes revealed that they represent diverse biological process and molecular functions, suggesting a fundamental role for Alternative Splicing in affecting the development and physiology of S. bicolor. PMID:25049459

  8. Mechanisms and Regulation of Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon; Rio, Donald C

    2015-06-01

    Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a critical step in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, providing significant expansion of the functional proteome of eukaryotic organisms with limited gene numbers. Split eukaryotic genes contain intervening sequences or introns disrupting protein-coding exons, and intron removal occurs by repeated assembly of a large and highly dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex termed the spliceosome, which is composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5. Biochemical studies over the past 10 years have allowed the isolation as well as compositional, functional, and structural analysis of splicing complexes at distinct stages along the spliceosome cycle. The average human gene contains eight exons and seven introns, producing an average of three or more alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies indicate that 100% of human genes produce at least two alternative mRNA isoforms. Mechanisms of alternative splicing include RNA-protein interactions of splicing factors with regulatory sites termed silencers or enhancers, RNA-RNA base-pairing interactions, or chromatin-based effects that can change or determine splicing patterns. Disease-causing mutations can often occur in splice sites near intron borders or in exonic or intronic RNA regulatory silencer or enhancer elements, as well as in genes that encode splicing factors. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insights into how spliceosome assembly, dynamics, and catalysis occur; how alternative splicing is regulated and evolves; and how splicing can be disrupted by cis- and trans-acting mutations leading to disease states. These findings make the spliceosome an attractive new target for small-molecule, antisense, and genome-editing therapeutic interventions. PMID:25784052

  9. Alternative RNA splicing in the nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula J. Grabowski; Douglas L. Black

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing profoundly effects animal physiology, development and disease, and this is nowhere more evident than in the nervous system. Alternative splicing is a versatile form of genetic control whereby a common pre-mRNA is processed into multiple mRNA isoforms differing in their precise combination of exon sequences. In the nervous system, thousands of alternatively spliced mRNAs are translated into

  10. Analysis of SRrp86-regulated alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Amanda S

    2010-01-01

    Previous work led to the hypothesis that SRrp86, a related member of the SR protein superfamily, can interact with and modulate the activity of other SR proteins. Here, we sought to test this hypothesis by examining the effect of changing SRrp86 concentrations on overall alternative splicing patterns. SpliceArrays were used to examine 9,854 splicing events in wild-type cells, cells overexpressing SRrp86, and cells treated with siRNAs to knockdown SRrp86. From among the 500 splicing events exhibiting altered splicing under these conditions, the splicing of c-Jun and I?B? were validated as being regulated by SRrp86 resulting in altered regulation of their downstream targets. In both cases, functionally distinct isoforms were generated that demonstrate the role SRrp86 plays in controlling alternative splicing. PMID:20400856

  11. [Alternative splicing regulation: implications in cancer diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montiel, Nancy; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Martínez-Contreras, Rebeca

    2015-04-01

    The accurate expression of the genetic information is regulated by processes like mRNA splicing, proposed after the discoveries of Phil Sharp and Richard Roberts, who demonstrated the existence of intronic sequences, present in almost every structural eukaryotic gene, which should be precisely removed. This intron removal is called "splicing", which generates different proteins from a single mRNA, with different or even antagonistic functions. We currently know that alternative splicing is the most important source of protein diversity, given that 70% of the human genes undergo splicing and that mutations causing defects in this process could originate up to 50% of genetic diseases, including cancer. When these defects occur in genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and cell cycle regulation, there is an impact on cancer progression, rising the opportunity to diagnose and treat some types of cancer according to a particular splicing profile. PMID:24725854

  12. The Orthologue of the Fruitfly Sex Behaviour Gene Fruitless in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti: Evolution of Genomic Organisation and Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Aceto, Serena; Nimmo, Derric; Neira, Marco; Alphey, Luke; Polito, Lino C.; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) regulatory genes act at the bottom of the somatic sex determination pathway. Both are regulated via alternative splicing by an upstream female-specific TRA/TRA-2 complex, recognizing a common cis element. dsx controls somatic sexual differentiation of non-neural as well as of neural tissues. fru, on the other hand, expresses male-specific functions only in neural system where it is required to built the neural circuits underlying proper courtship behaviour. In the mosquito Aedes aegypti sex determination is different from Drosophila. The key male determiner M, which is located on one of a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sex-specific splicing of the mosquito dsx orthologue. In this study we report the genomic organization and expression of the fru homologue in Ae. aegypti (Aeafru). We found that it is sex-specifically spliced suggesting that it is also under the control of the sex determination pathway. Comparative analyses between the Aeafru and Anopheles gambiae fru (Angfru) genomic loci revealed partial conservation of exon organization and extensive divergence of intron lengths. We find that Aeadsx and Aeafru share novel cis splicing regulatory elements conserved in the alternatively spliced regions. We propose that in Aedes aegypti sex-specific splicing of dsx and fru is most likely under the control of splicing regulatory factors which are different from TRA and TRA-2 found in other dipteran insects and discuss the potential use of fru and dsx for developing new genetic strategies in vector control. PMID:23418412

  13. Influence of Intron Length on Alternative Splicing of CD44

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Martyn V.; Cowper, Alison E.; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Bell, John I.; Screaton, Gavin R.

    1998-01-01

    Although the splicing of transcripts from most eukaryotic genes occurs in a constitutive fashion, some genes can undergo a process of alternative splicing. This is a genetically economical process which allows a single gene to give rise to several protein isoforms by the inclusion or exclusion of sequences into or from the mature mRNA. CD44 provides a unique example; more than 1,000 possible isoforms can be produced by the inclusion or exclusion of a central tandem array of 10 alternatively spliced exons. Certain alternatively spliced exons have been ascribed specific functions; however, independent regulation of the inclusion or skipping of each of these exons would clearly demand an extremely complex regulatory network. Such a network would involve the interaction of many exon-specific trans-acting factors with the pre-mRNA. Therefore, to assess whether the exons are indeed independently regulated, we have examined the alternative exon content of a large number of individual CD44 cDNA isoforms. This analysis shows that the downstream alternatively spliced exons are favored over those lying upstream and that alternative exons are often included in blocks rather than singly. Using a novel in vivo alternative splicing assay, we show that intron length has a major influence upon the alternative splicing of CD44. We propose a kinetic model in which short introns may overcome the poor recognition of alternatively spliced exons. These observations suggest that for CD44, intron length has been exploited in the evolution of the genomic structure to enable tissue-specific patterns of splicing to be maintained. PMID:9742110

  14. Alternative Splicing of Transcripts from crtI and crtYB Genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lodato; J. Alcaino; S. Barahona; P. Retamales; V. Cifuentes

    2003-01-01

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is one of the relevant sources of the carotenoid astaxanthin. In this paper, we describe for the first time cloning of unexpected cDNAs obtained from the crtI and crtYB genes of X. dendrorhous strain UCD 67-385. The cDNA of the crtI gene conserves 80 bp of the first intron, while the cDNA of the crtYB gene conserves 55

  15. Aberrant Splicing of an Alternative Exon in the Drosophila Troponin-T Gene Affects Flight Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Nongthomba, Upendra; Ansari, Maqsood; Thimmaiya, Divesh; Stark, Meg; Sparrow, John

    2007-01-01

    During myofibrillogenesis, many muscle structural proteins assemble to form the highly ordered contractile sarcomere. Mutations in these proteins can lead to dysfunctional muscle and various myopathies. We have analyzed the Drosophila melanogaster troponin T (TnT) up1 mutant that specifically affects the indirect flight muscles (IFM) to explore troponin function during myofibrillogenesis. The up1 muscles lack normal sarcomeres and contain “zebra bodies,” a phenotypic feature of human nemaline myopathies. We show that the up1 mutation causes defective splicing of a newly identified alternative TnT exon (10a) that encodes part of the TnT C terminus. This exon is used to generate a TnT isoform specific to the IFM and jump muscles, which during IFM development replaces the exon 10b isoform. Functional differences between the 10a and 10b TnT isoforms may be due to different potential phosphorylation sites, none of which correspond to known phosphorylation sites in human cardiac TnT. The absence of TnT mRNA in up1 IFM reduces mRNA levels of an IFM-specific troponin I (TnI) isoform, but not actin, tropomyosin, or troponin C, suggesting a mechanism controlling expression of TnT and TnI genes may exist that must be examined in the context of human myopathies caused by mutations of these thin filament proteins. PMID:17603127

  16. Unique gene organization: alternative splicing in Drosophila produces two structurally unrelated proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy C. Mottus; Ian P. Whitehead; Michael O'Grady; Richard E. Sobel; Rod H. L. Burr; George B. Spiegelman; Thomas A. Grigliatti

    1997-01-01

    The Ub80 gene in eukaryotes produces a ubiquitin fusion protein in which ubiquitin is fused in frame to a tail protein (Redman and Rechsteiner, 1988; Finley et al., 1989; Barrio et al., 1994). The tail protein is incorporated into the ribosome, and ubiquitin is thought to act as a chaperone. The DUb80 gene of Drosophila melanogaster was cloned by Barrio

  17. Human [delta]-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) gene: Structure and alternative splicing of the erythroid and housekeeping mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, A.H.; Plewinska, M.; Wong, D.M.; Desnick, R.J.; Wetmur, J.G. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States))

    1994-01-15

    Genomic clones containing ALAD, the second enzyme in the heme pathway, were isolated, and the entire sequence was determined in both orientations. The gene contained two alternative noncoding exons, 1A and 1B, and 1q coding exons, 2-12. Ten Alu-repetitive elements were within the gene, including an inverted repeat that may have resulted from gene conversion. The housekeeping transcript, which included exon 1A and not 1B, was identified in a human adult liver cDNA library, while an erythroid-specific transcript, which contained exon 1B and not 1A, was detected in a human K562 erythroleukemia cDNA library. The promoter region upstream of housekeeping exon 1A was GC-rich and contained three potential Sp1 elements and a CCAAT box. Further upstream, there were three potential GATA-1 binding sites and an AP1 site. The promoter region upstream of erythroid-specific exon 1B had several CACCC boxes and two potential GATA-1 binding sites. To assess the tissue-specific expression of exons 1A and 1B, HeLa and K562 cells were transduced with CAT constructs containing either exon 1A or 1B and their respective upstream promoter region. Two housekeeping CAT constructs, with 450 and 1400 bp upstream of exon 1A, were expressed at similar levels in HeLa cells, whereas the erythroid-specific construct, containing the entire 450-bp promoter region upstream of exon 1B, was not. In contrast, the housekeeping and erythroid constructs were both expressed in K562 cells. These findings demonstrate that the human ALAD gene contains two promoter regions that generate housekeeping and erythroid-specific transcripts by alternative splicing, analogous to the expression of the human hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene, which encodes the third enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The expression of housekeeping and erythroid-specific transcripts apparently evolved to ensure sufficient heme biosynthesis for the high-level tissue-specific production of hemoglobin required. 39 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Characterization of the interferon genes in homozygous rainbow trout reveals two novel genes, alternate splicing and differential regulation of duplicated genes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Laing, K.J.; Woodson, J.C.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Hansen, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the type I and type II interferons (IFNs) have previously been identified in rainbow trout and their proteins partially characterized. These previous studies reported a single type II IFN (rtIFN-??) and three rainbow trout type I IFN genes that are classified into either group I (rtIFN1, rtIFN2) or group II (rtIFN3). In this present study, we report the identification of a novel IFN-?? gene (rtIFN-??2) and a novel type I group II IFN (rtIFN4) in homozygous rainbow trout and predict that additional IFN genes or pseudogenes exist in the rainbow trout genome. Additionally, we provide evidence that short and long forms of rtIFN1 are actively and differentially transcribed in homozygous trout, and likely arose due to alternate splicing of the first exon. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were developed to systematically profile all of the rainbow trout IFN transcripts, with high specificity at an individual gene level, in na??ve fish and after stimulation with virus or viral-related molecules. Cloned PCR products were used to ensure the specificity of the qRT-PCR assays and as absolute standards to assess transcript abundance of each gene. All IFN genes were modulated in response to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a DNA vaccine based on the IHNV glycoprotein, and poly I:C. The most inducible of the type I IFN genes, by all stimuli tested, were rtIFN3 and the short transcript form of rtIFN1. Gene expression of rtIFN-??1 and rtIFN-??2 was highly up-regulated by IHNV infection and DNA vaccination but rtIFN-??2 was induced to a greater magnitude. The specificity of the qRT-PCR assays reported here will be useful for future studies aimed at identifying which cells produce IFNs at early time points after infection. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Alternative Splicing Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien Eveillard; Delphine Ropers; Hidde De Jong; Christiane Branlant; Alexander Bockmayr

    2003-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a key process in post-transcriptional regulation, by which several kinds of mature RNA can be obtained from the same premessenger RNA. Using a constraint programming approach, we model the alternative splicing regulation at different scales (single site vs. multiple sites), thus exploiting different types of available experimen- tal data.

  20. Organization, alternative splicing, polymorphism, and phylogenetic position of lamprey CD45 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Uinuk-ool; Nikolas Nikolaidis; Akie Sato; Werner E. Mayer; Jan Klein

    2005-01-01

    CD45 of jawed vertebrates is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating lymphocyte development and activation.\\u000a To shed light on the evolution of the CD45 gene, the organization of its orthologue in the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate,\\u000a was determined. Compared to its mammalian and fugu counterparts, the lamprey gene was found to be lacking several exons in\\u000a the segment encoding the

  1. Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Münk; Thomas Beck; Jörg Zielonka; Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt; Sarah Chareza; Marion Battenberg; Jens Thielebein; Klaus Cichutek; Ignacio G Bravo; Stephen J O'Brien; Martin Lochelt; Naoya Yuhki

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and\\/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents

  2. ASPMF: A new approach for identifying alternative splicing isoforms using peptide mass fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Won Lee; Jae-Pil Choi; Hyun-Jin Kim; Ji-Man Hong; Cheol-Goo Hur

    2008-01-01

    Alternative splicing is generally accepted as a mechanism that explains the discrepancy between the number of genes and proteins. We used peptide mass fingerprinting with a theoretical database and scoring method to discover and identify alternative splicing isoforms. Our theoretical database was built using published alternative splicing databases such as ECgene, H-DBAS, and TISA. According to our theoretical database of

  3. Genomic Organization, Expression, and Alternate Splicing of the Mouse Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhili Lin; Gael Carney; William B. Rizzo

    2000-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Mutations in the FALDH gene are responsible for the human genetic disorder Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) which is characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spasticity. To better understand SLS and the expression of FALDH in mammalian tissues, we investigated the organization and expression

  4. Human sex hormone-binding globulin gene expression- multiple promoters and complex alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atif M Nakhla; Daniel J Hryb; William Rosner; Nicholas A Romas; Zhaoying Xiang; Scott M Kahn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) regulates free sex steroid concentrations in plasma and modulates rapid, membrane based steroid signaling. SHBG is encoded by an eight exon-long transcript whose expression is regulated by a downstream promoter (PL). The SHBG gene was previously shown to express a second major transcript of unknown function, derived from an upstream promoter (PT), and two

  5. Alternative Splicing of SMPD1 in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Marcel; Quickert, Stefanie; Sponholz, Christoph; Menzel, Uwe; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias; Bauer, Michael; Claus, Ralf A.

    2015-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM or sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, SMPD) activity engages a critical role for regulation of immune response and development of organ failure in critically ill patients. Beside genetic variation in the human gene encoding ASM (SMPD1), alternative splicing of the mRNA is involved in regulation of enzymatic activity. Here we show that the patterns of alternatively spliced SMPD1 transcripts are significantly different in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and severe sepsis/septic shock compared to control subjects allowing discrimination of respective disease entity. The different splicing patterns might contribute to the better understanding of the pathophysiology of human sepsis. PMID:25898364

  6. A starch-branching enzyme gene in wheat produces alternatively spliced transcripts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Båga; Sarah Glaze; Clifford S. Mallard; Ravindra N. Chibbar

    1999-01-01

    A wheat gene, denoted Sbe1, encoding a type I starch-branching enzyme (SBEI) was isolated from a genomic library and shown to comprise 14 exons distributed over a 5.7 kb DNA region. Analyses of kernel RNA by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a considerable sequence variation at the 5' ends of SBEI

  7. Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Abigail M; Pearson, Matthew D; Neafsey, Daniel E; Galagan, James E

    2008-01-01

    Background Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries, and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism. We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across 42 eukaryotes to gain insight into how spliceosomal introns are recognized. Results All eukaryotes we studied exhibit RIs, which appear more frequently than previously thought. CEs are also present in all kingdoms and most of the organisms in our analysis. We observe that the ratio of CEs to RIs varies substantially among kingdoms, while the ratio of competing 3' acceptor and competing 5' donor sites remains nearly constant. In addition, we find the ratio of CEs to RIs in each organism correlates with the length of its introns. In all 14 fungi we examined, as well as in most of the 9 protists, RIs far outnumber CEs. This differs from the trend seen in 13 multicellular animals, where CEs occur much more frequently than RIs. The six plants we analyzed exhibit intermediate proportions of CEs and RIs. Conclusion Our results suggest that most extant eukaryotes are capable of recognizing splice sites via both ID and ED, although ED is most common in multicellular animals and ID predominates in fungi and most protists. PMID:18321378

  8. Alternative splicing can lead to chaos.

    PubMed

    Likhoshvai, Vitaly A; Kogai, Vladislav V; Fadeev, Stanislav I; Khlebodarova, Tamara M

    2015-02-01

    Alternative splicing is a widespread phenomenon in higher eukaryotes, where it serves as a mechanism to increase the functional diversity of proteins. This phenomenon has been described for different classes of proteins, including transcription regulatory proteins. We demonstrated that in the simplest genetic system model the formation of the alternatively spliced isoforms with opposite functions (activators and repressors) could be a cause of transition to chaotic dynamics. Under the simplest genetic system we understand a system consisting of a single gene encoding the structure of a transcription regulatory protein whose expression is regulated by a feedback mechanism. As demonstrated by numerical analysis of the models, if the synthesized isoforms regulate the expression of their own gene acting through different sites and independently of each other, for the generation of chaotic dynamics it is sufficient that the regulatory proteins have a dimeric structure. If regulatory proteins act through one site, the chaotic dynamics is generated in the system only when the repressor protein is either a tetrameric or a higher-dimensional multimer. In this case the activator can be a dimer. It was also demonstrated that if the transcription factor isoforms exhibit either activating or inhibiting activity and are lower-dimensional multimers (< 4), independently of the regulation type the model demonstrates either cyclic or stationary trajectories. PMID:25556917

  9. The distribution pattern of genetic variation in the transcript isoforms of the alternatively spliced protein-coding genes in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Lin, Kui

    2015-04-21

    By enabling the transcription of multiple isoforms from the same gene locus, alternative-splicing mechanisms greatly expand the diversity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Currently, the alternatively spliced transcripts from each protein-coding gene locus in the human genome can be classified as either principal or non-principal isoforms, providing that they differ with respect to cross-species conservation or biological features. By mapping the variants from the 1000 Genomes Project onto the coding region of each isoform, an interesting pattern of the genetic variation distributions of the coding regions for these two types of transcript isoforms was revealed on a whole-genome scale: compared with the principal isoform-specific coding regions, the non-principal isoform-specific coding regions are significantly enriched in amino acid-changing variants, particularly those that have a strong impact on protein function and have higher derived allele frequencies, suggesting that non-principal isoform-specific substitutions are less likely to be related to phenotype changes or disease. The results herein can help us better understand the potential consequences of alternatively spliced products from a population perspective. PMID:25820936

  10. Genome-Wide Survey of Human Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing with Exon Junction Microarrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Johnson; John Castle; Philip Garrett-Engele; Zhengyan Kan; Patrick M. Loerch; Christopher D. Armour; Ralph Santos; Eric E. Schadt; Roland Stoughton; Daniel D. Shoemaker

    2003-01-01

    Alternative pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing plays important roles in development, physiology, and disease, and more than half of human genes are alternatively spliced. To understand the biological roles and regulation of alternative splicing across different tissues and stages of development, systematic methods are needed. Here, we demonstrate the use of microarrays to monitor splicing at every exon-exon junction in more

  11. Dysfunctional Gene Splicing as a Potential Contributor to Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Cohen, Ori S.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism by which the proteomic diversity of eukaryotic genomes is amplified. Much akin to neuropsychiatric disorders themselves, alternative splicing events can be influenced by genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Here we review the evidence that abnormalities of splicing may contribute to the liability toward these disorders. First, we introduce the phenomenon of alternative splicing and describe the processes involved in its regulation. We then review the evidence for specific splicing abnormalities in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders (schizophrenia), affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder), suicide, substance abuse disorders (cocaine abuse and alcoholism), and neurodevelopmental disorders (autism). Next, we provide a theoretical reworking of the concept of “gene-focused” epidemiologic and neurobiologic investigations. Lastly, we suggest potentially fruitful lines for future research that should illuminate the nature, extent, causes, and consequences of alternative splicing abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21438146

  12. TassDB: a database of alternative tandem splice sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hiller; Swetlana Nikolajewa; Klaus Huse; Karol Szafranski; Philip Rosenstiel; Stefan Schuster; Rolf Backofen; Matthias Platzer

    2007-01-01

    Subtle alternative splice events at tandem splice sites are frequent in eukaryotes and substantially increase the complexity of transcriptomes and proteomes. We have developed a relational data- base, TassDB (TAndem Splice Site DataBase), which stores extensive data about alternative splice events at GYNGYN donors and NAGNAG acceptors. These splice events are of subtle nature since they mostly result in the

  13. Alternative Splicing Regulates Targeting of Malate Dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3?-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment. PMID:22368181

  14. Short communication: expression and alternative splicing of POU1F1 pathway genes in preimplantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Driver, A; Khatib, H

    2011-08-01

    Early embryo loss is a major contributing factor to cow infertility and that 70 to 80% of this loss occurs between d 8 and 16 postfertilization. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms and the nature of genes involved in normal and abnormal embryonic development. Moreover, information is limited on the contributions of the genomes of dams and of embryos to the development and survival of preimplantation embryos. We hypothesized that proper gene expression level in the developing embryo is essential for embryo survival and pregnancy success. As such, the characterization of expression profiles in early embryos could lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal embryo development. To test this hypothesis, 2 d-8 embryo populations (degenerate embryos and blastocysts) that differed in morphology and developmental status were investigated. Expression levels of POU1F1 pathway genes were estimated in 4 sets of biological replicate pools of degenerate embryos and blastocysts. The OPN and STAT5A genes were found to be upregulated in degenerate embryos compared with blastocysts, whereas STAT5B showed similar expression levels in both embryo groups. Analysis of splice variants of OPN and STAT5A revealed expression patterns different from the total expression values of these genes. As such, measuring expression of individual transcripts should be considered in gene expression studies. PMID:21787958

  15. SplicePie: a novel analytical approach for the detection of alternative, non-sequential and recursive splicing.

    PubMed

    Pulyakhina, Irina; Gazzoli, Isabella; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Verwey, Nisha; den Dunnen, Johan; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Laros, Jeroen F J

    2015-07-13

    Alternative splicing is a powerful mechanism present in eukaryotic cells to obtain a wide range of transcripts and protein isoforms from a relatively small number of genes. The mechanisms regulating (alternative) splicing and the paradigm of consecutive splicing have recently been challenged, especially for genes with a large number of introns. RNA-Seq, a powerful technology using deep sequencing in order to determine transcript structure and expression levels, is usually performed on mature mRNA, therefore not allowing detailed analysis of splicing progression. Sequencing pre-mRNA at different stages of splicing potentially provides insight into mRNA maturation. Although the number of tools that analyze total and cytoplasmic RNA in order to elucidate the transcriptome composition is rapidly growing, there are no tools specifically designed for the analysis of nuclear RNA (which contains mixtures of pre- and mature mRNA). We developed dedicated algorithms to investigate the splicing process. In this paper, we present a new classification of RNA-Seq reads based on three major stages of splicing: pre-, intermediate- and post-splicing. Applying this novel classification we demonstrate the possibility to analyze the order of splicing. Furthermore, we uncover the potential to investigate the multi-step nature of splicing, assessing various types of recursive splicing events. We provide the data that gives biological insight into the order of splicing, show that non-sequential splicing of certain introns is reproducible and coinciding in multiple cell lines. We validated our observations with independent experimental technologies and showed the reliability of our method. The pipeline, named SplicePie, is freely available at: https://github.com/pulyakhina/splicing_analysis_pipeline. The example data can be found at: https://barmsijs.lumc.nl/HG/irina/example_data.tar.gz. PMID:25800735

  16. Analysis of pollen-specific alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana via semi-quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Estrada, April D; Freese, Nowlan H; Blakley, Ivory C; Loraine, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing enables a single gene to produce multiple mRNA isoforms by varying splice site selection. In animals, alternative splicing of mRNA isoforms between cell types is widespread and supports cellular differentiation. In plants, at least 20% of multi-exon genes are alternatively spliced, but the extent and significance of tissue-specific splicing is less well understood, partly because it is difficult to isolate cells of a single type. Pollen is a useful model system to study tissue-specific splicing in higher plants because pollen grains contain only two cell types and can be collected in large amounts without damaging cells. Previously, we identified pollen-specific splicing patterns by comparing RNA-Seq data from Arabidopsis pollen and leaves. Here, we used semi-quantitative PCR to validate pollen-specific splicing patterns among genes where RNA-Seq data analysis indicated splicing was most different between pollen and leaves. PCR testing confirmed eight of nine alternative splicing patterns, and results from the ninth were inconclusive. In four genes, alternative transcriptional start sites coincided with alternative splicing. This study highlights the value of the low-cost PCR assay as a method of validating RNA-Seq results. PMID:25945312

  17. Alternative-Splicing in the Exon-10 Region of GABAA Receptor ?2 Subunit Gene: Relationships between Novel Isoforms and Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cunyou; Xu, Zhiwen; Wang, Feng; Chen, Jianhuan; Ng, Siu-Kin; Wong, Pak-Wing; Yu, Zhiliang; Pun, Frank W.; Ren, Lihuan; Lo, Wing-Sze; Tsang, Shui-Ying; Xue, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, the gene for ?2-subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, have been associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and quantitatively correlated to mRNA expression and alternative splicing. Methods and Findings Expression of the Exon 10 region of GABRB2 from minigene constructs revealed this region to be an “alternative splicing hotspot” that readily gave rise to differently spliced isoforms depending on intron sequences. This led to a search in human brain cDNA libraries, and the discovery of two novel isoforms, ?2S1 and ?2S2, bearing variations in the neighborhood of Exon-10. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of postmortem brain samples showed increased ?2S1 expression and decreased ?2S2 expression in both SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) compared to controls. Disease-control differences were significantly correlated with SNP rs187269 in BPD males for both ?2S1 and ?2S2 expressions, and significantly correlated with SNPs rs2546620 and rs187269 in SCZ males for ?2S2 expression. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that Thr365, a potential phosphorylation site in Exon-10, played a key role in determining the time profile of the ATP-dependent electrophysiological current run-down. Conclusion This study therefore provided experimental evidence for the importance of non-coding sequences in the Exon-10 region in GABRB2 with respect to ?2-subunit splicing diversity and the etiologies of SCZ and BPD. PMID:19763268

  18. Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition

    E-print Network

    McGuire, Abigail Manson

    Background: Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently ...

  19. Comprehensive analysis of mutually exclusive alternative splicing in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Takei, Satomi; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Mutually exclusive selection of one exon in a cluster of exons is a rare form of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, yet suggests strict regulation. However, the repertoires of regulation mechanisms for the mutually exclusive (ME) splicing in vivo are still unknown. Here, we experimentally explore putative ME exons in C. elegans to demonstrate that 29 ME exon clusters in 27 genes are actually selected in a mutually exclusive manner. Twenty-two of the clusters consist of homologous ME exons. Five clusters have too short intervening introns to be excised between the ME exons. Fidelity of ME splicing relies at least in part on nonsense-mediated mRNA decay for 14 clusters. These results thus characterize all the repertoires of ME splicing in this organism. PMID:25254147

  20. Characterization of the human AMPD3 gene reveals that 5' exon useage is subject to transcriptional control by three tandem promoters and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Mahnke-Zizelman, D K; Eddy, R; Shows, T B; Sabina, R L

    1996-04-10

    Previous work has identified multiple human AMPD3 transcripts proposed to differ by mutually exclusive alternative splicing of three exons located at, or near, the 5' end of the gene. In this study, we perform a more comprehensive evaluation of human AMPD3 gene expression. Combined Northern blot and RNase protection analyses show that alternative mRNAs are widely expressed in human tissues and cells, but at variable relative abundances. Sequencing of human genomic clones, together with human-mouse somatic cell hybrid analysis, demonstrates that the entire gene is comprised of seventeen exons spanning approx. 60 kilobases on the short arm of chromosome 11 in the region p13-pter. Together, RT-PCR and additional RNase protection analyses establish that exons 1a, 1b, and 1c are 5' terminal sequences in alternative transcripts. Transient transfection experiments show fusion constructs containing proximal flanking and 5' untranslated sequence from each of these exons are able to direct expression of a reporter luciferase gene in mammalian cell lines. These combined results reveal that AMPD3 gene expression is subject to transcriptional control by three tandem promoters. Differential regulation of the exon 1b promoter in skeletal myocytes, as compared to retinal pigment epithelial cells, is proposed to be mediated by skeletal muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix protein/E-box interactions. Finally, an internal splice acceptor site in exon 1c is shown to be used alternatively to retain the 3' portion of this exon in mature AMPD3 transcripts initiating upstream in exon 1b. PMID:8611627

  1. Alternative splicing produces structural and functional changes in CUGBP2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CELF/Bruno-like proteins play multiple roles, including the regulation of alternative splicing and translation. These RNA-binding proteins contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains at the N-terminus and another RRM at the C-terminus. CUGBP2 is a member of this family of proteins that possesses several alternatively spliced exons. Results The present study investigated the expression of exon 14, which is an alternatively spliced exon and encodes the first half of the third RRM of CUGBP2. The ratio of exon 14 skipping product (R3?) to its inclusion was reduced in neuronal cells induced from P19 cells and in the brain. Although full length CUGBP2 and the CUGBP2 R3? isoforms showed a similar effect on the inclusion of the smooth muscle (SM) exon of the ACTN1 gene, these isoforms showed an opposite effect on the skipping of exon 11 in the insulin receptor gene. In addition, examination of structural changes in these isoforms by molecular dynamics simulation and NMR spectrometry suggested that the third RRM of R3? isoform was flexible and did not form an RRM structure. Conclusion Our results suggest that CUGBP2 regulates the splicing of ACTN1 and insulin receptor by different mechanisms. Alternative splicing of CUGBP2 exon 14 contributes to the regulation of the splicing of the insulin receptor. The present findings specifically show how alternative splicing events that result in three-dimensional structural changes in CUGBP2 can lead to changes in its biological activity. PMID:22433174

  2. SASD: the Synthetic Alternative Splicing Database for identifying novel isoform from proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing is an important and widespread mechanism for generating protein diversity and regulating protein expression. High-throughput identification and analysis of alternative splicing in the protein level has more advantages than in the mRNA level. The combination of alternative splicing database and tandem mass spectrometry provides a powerful technique for identification, analysis and characterization of potential novel alternative splicing protein isoforms from proteomics. Therefore, based on the peptidomic database of human protein isoforms for proteomics experiments, our objective is to design a new alternative splicing database to 1) provide more coverage of genes, transcripts and alternative splicing, 2) exclusively focus on the alternative splicing, and 3) perform context-specific alternative splicing analysis. Results We used a three-step pipeline to create a synthetic alternative splicing database (SASD) to identify novel alternative splicing isoforms and interpret them at the context of pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity or custom gene set with maximum coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. First, we extracted information on gene structures of all genes in the Ensembl Genes 71 database and incorporated the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database. Then, we compiled artificial splicing transcripts. Lastly, we translated the artificial transcripts into alternative splicing peptides. The SASD is a comprehensive database containing 56,630 genes (Ensembl gene IDs), 95,260 transcripts (Ensembl transcript IDs), and 11,919,779 Alternative Splicing peptides, and also covering about 1,956 pathways, 6,704 diseases, 5,615 drugs, and 52 organs. The database has a web-based user interface that allows users to search, display and download a single gene/transcript/protein, custom gene set, pathway, disease, drug, organ related alternative splicing. Moreover, the quality of the database was validated with comparison to other known databases and two case studies: 1) in liver cancer and 2) in breast cancer. Conclusions The SASD provides the scientific community with an efficient means to identify, analyze, and characterize novel Exon Skipping and Intron Retention protein isoforms from mass spectrometry and interpret them at the context of pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity or custom gene set with maximum coverage and exclusive focus on alternative splicing. PMID:24267658

  3. Singular Value Decomposition-based Alternative Splicing Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianhua; He, Xuming; Cote, Gilbert J.; Krahe, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Altered alternative splicing has been identified as an important factor in tumorigenesis. The Affymetrix exon tiling array is designed for detecting alternative splicing events in a transcriptome-wide fashion; however, there are currently few analysis tools that are well studied for effective detection of alternative splicing events. We propose a new screening procedure based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the residual matrix from a robust additive model fit to probe selection region (PSR) data. With this approach, we analyze the exon tiling array data from a brain cancer study conducted at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, and show that the proposed SVD-based approach is able to better accommodate outlying measures and capitalize on the multidimensional group-by-PSR gene expression profiles for more effective detection of group-specific alternative splicing events as well as the PSRs that are most likely associated with the alternative splicing. Lab validation confirmed some of our findings, but the list of candidates detected with our proposed method may provide a better signpost to guide further investigations. PMID:20305737

  4. Calcium-mediated histone modifications regulate alternative splicing in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Nguyen, Hieu; Geng, Cuiyu; Hinman, Melissa N.; Luo, Guangbin; Lou, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium is known to control gene expression at the level of transcription, whereas its role in regulating alternative splicing has not been explored. Here we report that, in mouse primary or embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, increased calcium levels induce robust and reversible skipping of several alternative exons from endogenously expressed genes. Interestingly, we demonstrate a calcium-mediated splicing regulatory mechanism that depends on changes of histone modifications. Specifically, the regulation occurs through changes in calcium-responsive kinase activities that lead to alterations in histone modifications and subsequent changes in the transcriptional elongation rate and exon skipping. We demonstrate that increased intracellular calcium levels lead to histone hyperacetylation along the body of the genes containing calcium-responsive alternative exons by disrupting the histone deacetylase-to-histone acetyltransferase balance in the nucleus. Consequently, the RNA polymerase II elongation rate increases significantly on those genes, resulting in skipping of the alternative exons. These studies reveal a mechanism by which calcium-level changes in cardiomyocytes impact on the output of gene expression through altering alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns. PMID:25368158

  5. Genome-wide analysis of light-regulated alternative splicing mediated by photoreceptors in Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Light is one of the most important factors regulating plant growth and development. Light-sensing photoreceptors tightly regulate gene expression to control photomorphogenic responses. Although many levels of gene expression are modulated by photoreceptors, regulation at the mRNA splicing step remains unclear. Results We performed high-throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze light-responsive changes in alternative splicing in the moss Physcomitrella patens, and found that a large number of alternative splicing events were induced by light in the moss protonema. Light-responsive intron retention preferentially occurred in transcripts involved in photosynthesis and translation. Many of the alternatively spliced transcripts were expressed from genes with a function relating to splicing or light signaling, suggesting a potential impact on pre-mRNA splicing and photomorphogenic gene regulation in response to light. Moreover, most light-regulated intron retention was induced immediately upon light exposure, while motif analysis identified a repetitive GAA motif that may function as an exonic regulatory cis element in light-mediated alternative splicing. Further analysis in gene-disrupted mutants was consistent with a function for multiple red-light photoreceptors in the upstream regulation of light-responsive alternative splicing. Conclusions Our results indicate that intensive alternative splicing occurs in non-vascular plants and that, during photomorphogenesis, light regulates alternative splicing with transcript selectivity. We further suggest that alternative splicing is rapidly fine-tuned by light to modulate gene expression and reorganize metabolic processes, and that pre-mRNA cis elements are involved in photoreceptor-mediated splicing regulation. PMID:24398233

  6. Multiple factors influence the normal and UV-inducible alternative splicing of PIG3.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Chris D; Beattie, Tara L

    2008-12-01

    In addition to normal alternative splicing events (those that take place in untreated cells), there are also those that are inducible in response to environmental stimuli. We previously reported that the alternative splicing of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) exon 4 is modulated in response to UV radiation. Here, we investigate the mechanisms mediating the alternative splicing of this exon. Through the use of various minigene constructs our results reveal that numerous factors influence the normal alternative splicing of PIG3 exon 4, and that these ultimately affect its UV-inducible alternative splicing. Included among these are sequence elements located within exon 4 itself as well as adjacent sequences required for intron definition (the pyrimidine tract, 3'- and 5'-splice sites). Within exon 4, we identified a novel hnRNP A1-dependent exonic splicing silencer (ESS) whose mutation inhibited the alternative splicing of a PIG3 minigene. Although previously implicated in the UV-inducible alternative splicing of other transcripts, RNAi-mediated silencing of hnRNP A1/A2 or hSlu7 did not prevent the UV-enhancement of exon 4 skipping. Overall, our results suggest that numerous factors contribute to the normal alternative splicing of PIG3 exon 4 and that UV-inducible increases in this process require that the splicing of this exon be maintained in a sufficiently weakened state under normal conditions. PMID:18801469

  7. Alternative splicing of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 (GLT-1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Meyer; C Münch; B Knappenberger; S Liebau; H Völkel; A. C Ludolph

    1998-01-01

    The human glutamate transporter EAAT2 (GLT-1) is of major importance for synaptic glutamate reuptake, and reportedly, a candidate gene for neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Here we report the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of two novel EAAT2 transcripts, named EAAT2-C1 and EAAT2-C2, which originate from alternative splicing of the human EAAT2 gene. EAAT2-C1

  8. WT1 interacts with the splicing protein RBM4 and regulates its ability to modulate alternative splicing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Markus, M. Andrea [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heinrich, Bettina [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Raitskin, Oleg [Department of Genetics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Adams, David J. [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mangs, Helena [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Goy, Christine [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ladomery, Michael [Centre for Research in Biomedicine, Bristol Genomics Research Institute, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Sperling, Ruth [Department of Genetics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Stamm, Stefan [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Erlangen, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Morris, Brian J. [Basic and Clinical Genomics Laboratory, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, Building F13, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: brianm@medsci.usyd.edu.au

    2006-10-15

    Wilm's tumor protein 1 (WT1), a protein implicated in various cancers and developmental disorders, consists of two major isoforms: WT1(-KTS), a transcription factor, and WT1(+KTS), a post-transcriptional regulator that binds to RNA and can interact with splicing components. Here we show that WT1 interacts with the novel splicing regulator RBM4. Each protein was found to colocalize in nuclear speckles and to cosediment with supraspliceosomes in glycerol gradients. RBM4 conferred dose-dependent and cell-specific regulation of alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs transcribed from several reporter genes. We found that overexpressed WT1(+KTS) abrogated this effect of RBM4 on splice-site selection, whereas WT1(-KTS) did not. We conclude that the (+KTS) form of WT1 is able to inhibit the effect of RBM4 on alternative splicing.

  9. Alternative Splicing in Colon, Bladder, and Prostate Cancer Identified by Exon Array Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasper Thorsen; K. D. Sorensen; Anne Sofie Brems-Eskildsen; Charlotte Modin; Mette Gaustadnes; Anne-Mette K. Hein; M. Kruhoffer; Søren Laurberg; Michael Borre; Kai Wang; Søren Brunak; Adrian R. Krainer; N. Torring; L. Dyrskjot; Claus L. Andersen; T. F. Orntoft

    2008-01-01

    Alternative splicing enhances proteome diversity and modulates cancer-associated proteins. To identify tissue- and tumor-specific alternative splicing, we used the GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array to measure whole- genome exon expression in 102 normal and cancer tis- sue samples of different stages from colon, urinary bladder, and prostate. We identified 2069 candidate al- ternative splicing events between normal tissue sam-

  10. Global regulation of alternative splicing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Oz; Oren, Shirley; Safran, Michal; Deshet-Unger, Naamit; Akiva, Pinchas; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Cesarkas, Karen; Kabesa, Reut; Amariglio, Ninette; Unger, Ron; Rechavi, Gideon; Eyal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mRNA splicing is a major mechanism for gene regulation and transcriptome diversity. Despite the extent of the phenomenon, the regulation and specificity of the splicing machinery are only partially understood. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of pre-mRNA by ADAR enzymes has been linked to splicing regulation in several cases. Here we used bioinformatics approaches, RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray of ADAR knockdown cells to globally examine how ADAR and its A-to-I RNA editing activity influence alternative mRNA splicing. Although A-to-I RNA editing only rarely targets canonical splicing acceptor, donor, and branch sites, it was found to affect splicing regulatory elements (SREs) within exons. Cassette exons were found to be significantly enriched with A-to-I RNA editing sites compared with constitutive exons. RNA-seq and exon-specific microarray revealed that ADAR knockdown in hepatocarcinoma and myelogenous leukemia cell lines leads to global changes in gene expression, with hundreds of genes changing their splicing patterns in both cell lines. This global change in splicing pattern cannot be explained by putative editing sites alone. Genes showing significant changes in their splicing pattern are frequently involved in RNA processing and splicing activity. Analysis of recently published RNA-seq data from glioblastoma cell lines showed similar results. Our global analysis reveals that ADAR plays a major role in splicing regulation. Although direct editing of the splicing motifs does occur, we suggest it is not likely to be the primary mechanism for ADAR-mediated regulation of alternative splicing. Rather, this regulation is achieved by modulating trans-acting factors involved in the splicing machinery. PMID:23474544

  11. Distinct regulatory programs establish widespread sex-specific alternative splicing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Britta; Castelo, Robert; Miñana, Belén; Peden, Erin; Blanchette, Marco; Rio, Donald C.; Singh, Ravinder; Valcárcel, Juan

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (SXL) and Transformer (TRA) proteins controls sex-specific alternative splicing and/or translation of a handful of regulatory genes responsible for sexual differentiation and behavior. Recent findings in 2009 by Telonis-Scott et al. document widespread sex-biased alternative splicing in fruitflies, including instances of tissue-restricted sex-specific splicing. Here we report results arguing that some of these novel sex-specific splicing events are regulated by mechanisms distinct from those established by female-specific expression of SXL and TRA. Bioinformatic analysis of SXL/TRA binding sites, experimental analysis of sex-specific splicing in S2 and Kc cells lines and of the effects of SXL knockdown in Kc cells indicate that SXL-dependent and SXL-independent regulatory mechanisms coexist within the same cell. Additional determinants of sex-specific splicing can be provided by sex-specific differences in the expression of RNA binding proteins, including Hrp40/Squid. We report that sex-specific alternative splicing of the gene hrp40/squid leads to sex-specific differences in the levels of this hnRNP protein. The significant overlap between sex-regulated alternative splicing changes and those induced by knockdown of hrp40/squid and the presence of related sequence motifs enriched near subsets of Hrp40/Squid-regulated and sex-regulated splice sites indicate that this protein contributes to sex-specific splicing regulation. A significant fraction of sex-specific splicing differences are absent in germline-less tudor mutant flies. Intriguingly, these include alternative splicing events that are differentially spliced in tissues distant from the germline. Collectively, our results reveal that distinct genetic programs control widespread sex-specific splicing in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21233220

  12. Profiling alternative splicing on fiber-optic arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne M. Yeakley; Dennis Doucet; Lin Luo; Eliza Wickham; Zhen Ye; Mark S. Chee; Jian-Bing Fan; Xiang-Dong Fu

    2002-01-01

    The human transcriptome is marked by extensive alternative mRNA splicing and the expression of many closely related genes, which may be difficult to distinguish using standard microarray techniques. Here we describe a sensitive and specific assay for parallel analysis of mRNA isoforms on a fiber-optic microarray platform. The method permits analysis of mRNA transcripts without prior RNA purification or cDNA

  13. Characterization of a new alternatively spliced neuropilin-1 isoform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Tao; Simone C. Spring; Bruce I. Terman

    2003-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NP1) and neuropilin-2 (NP2) are receptors for semaphorins, which act as axonal chemorepellents, and for members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of angiogenic growth factors. The NP1 and NP2 genes consist of 17 exons, and protein isoforms are expressed because of alternative transcript splicing. Here we report the identification of a new NP1 transcript (designated NRP1(?exon16))

  14. Genome wide identification and classification of alternative splicing based on EST data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shobhit Gupta; Dorothea Zink; Bernhard Korn; Martin Vingron; Stefan A. Haas

    2004-01-01

    Motivation: Alternative splicing is currently seen to explain the vast disparity between the number of predicted genes in the human genome and the highly diverse proteome.The map- ping of expressed sequences tag (EST) consensus sequences derived from the GeneNest database onto the genome provides an efficient way of predicting exon-intron boundar- ies, gene structure and alternative splicing events. However, the

  15. Regulation of alternative splicing by PTB and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Spellman, R; Rideau, A; Matlin, A; Gooding, C; Robinson, F; McGlincy, N; Grellscheid, S N; Southby, J; Wollerton, M; Smith, C W J

    2005-06-01

    PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein) is a repressive regulator of alternative splicing. We have investigated the role of PTB in three model alternative splicing systems. In the alpha-actinin gene, PTB represses the SM (smooth muscle) exon by binding to key sites in the polypyrimidine tract. Repressive binding to these sites is assisted by co-operative binding to additional downstream sites. SM exon splicing can be activated by CELF proteins, which also bind co-operatively to interspersed sites and displace PTB from the pyrimidine tract. Exon 11 of PTB pre-mRNA is repressed by PTB in an autoregulatory feedback loop. Exon 11-skipped RNA gets degraded through nonsense-mediated decay. Less than 1% of steady-state PTB mRNA is represented by this isoform, but inhibition of nonsense-mediated decay by RNA interference against Upf1 shows that at least 20% of PTB RNA is consumed by this pathway. This represents a widespread but under-appreciated role of alternative splicing in the quantitative regulation of gene expression, an important addition to its role as a generator of protein isoform diversity. Repression of alpha-tropomyosin exon 3 is an exceptional example of PTB regulation, because repression only occurs at high levels in SM cells, despite the fact that PTB is widely expressed. In this case, a PTB-interacting cofactor, raver1, appears to play an important role. By the use of 'tethering' assays, we have identified discrete domains within both PTB and raver1 that mediate their repressive activities on this splicing event. PMID:15916540

  16. Phytochrome controls alternative splicing to mediate light responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Shikata, Hiromasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Ushijima, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Moeko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Matsushita, Tomonao

    2014-01-01

    Plants monitor the ambient light conditions using several informational photoreceptors, including red/far-red light absorbing phytochrome. Phytochrome is widely believed to regulate the transcription of light-responsive genes by modulating the activity of several transcription factors. Here we provide evidence that phytochrome significantly changes alternative splicing (AS) profiles at the genomic level in Arabidopsis, to approximately the same degree as it affects steady-state transcript levels. mRNA sequencing analysis revealed that 1,505 and 1,678 genes underwent changes in their AS and steady-state transcript level profiles, respectively, within 1 h of red light exposure in a phytochrome-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that splicing factor genes were the main early targets of AS control by phytochrome, whereas transcription factor genes were the primary direct targets of phytochrome-mediated transcriptional regulation. We experimentally validated phytochrome-induced changes in the AS of genes that are involved in RNA splicing, phytochrome signaling, the circadian clock, and photosynthesis. Moreover, we show that phytochrome-induced AS changes of SPA1-RELATED 3, the negative regulator of light signaling, physiologically contributed to promoting photomorphogenesis. Finally, photophysiological experiments demonstrated that phytochrome transduces the signal from its photosensory domain to induce light-dependent AS alterations in the nucleus. Taking these data together, we show that phytochrome directly induces AS cascades in parallel with transcriptional cascades to mediate light responses in Arabidopsis. PMID:25512548

  17. Cloning of human AMP deaminase isoform E cDNAs. Evidence for a third AMPD gene exhibiting alternatively spliced 5'-exons.

    PubMed

    Mahnke-Zizelman, D K; Sabina, R L

    1992-10-15

    Higher eukaryotes express multiple isoforms of AMP deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6). In humans, four AMP deaminase variants, termed M (muscle), L (liver), E1, and E2 (erythrocyte) can be distinguished by a variety of biochemical and immunological criteria. Previous molecular studies have reported two genes, AMPD1 and AMPD2, that produce isoform M and L transcripts, respectively. This study identifies a third human AMP deaminase gene, AMPD3. Nucleotide sequence alignments between AMPD3 cDNAs isolated from several human libraries indicate three different extreme 5'-ends. Alternate forms of the AMPD3 cDNAs contain a common 2301-bp open reading frame (ORF) and 3'-untranslated region of 1245 bp. Two of the three forms, however, exhibit additional 5'-end nucleotide sequences that would extend their respective ORFs by 21 and 27 nucleotides. RNase protection analyses and the partial characterization of human AMPD3 genomic clones demonstrate alternative splicing of three different 5'-terminal exons. Western blot analyses detect anti-E-specific immunoreactivity in affinity-purified extracts derived from the bacterial expression of a truncated AMPD3 cDNA. These results are discussed in relation to AMP deaminase isoform diversity. PMID:1400401

  18. Novel splice variants of the bovine PCK1 gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Zhang, W; Li, R L; Li, J B; Zhong, J F; Zhao, Z S; Huang, J M

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), also named PEPCK-C, is a multiple-function gene that is involved in gluconeogenesis, glyceroneogenesis, reproduction, female fertility, and development of obesity and diabetes. How its many functions are regulated was largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated mRNA expression and possible splice variants of PCK1 by screening cDNA in nine tissues from Holstein bulls and cows. PCK1 mRNA was highly expressed in the liver, kidney, ovary and testis; expression levels were low in the heart, spleen, and lung tissues. Expression of this gene was not detected in skeletal muscle. This led to the discovery of five novel bovine splice variants, named PCK1-AS1-PCK1-AS5. In PCK1-AS1, 51 nucleotides in the interior of exon 2 were spliced out. In PCK1-AS2, exons 2 and 3 were altered by the alternative 3' and 5' splice sites, respectively. PCK1-AS3 was truncated from the 3' end of exon 2 to the 5' end of exon 4. In PCK1-AS4, exon 5 was completely spliced out. In PCK1-AS5, exons 5 and 6 and the 5' end of exon 7 were spliced out. These splice variants (PCK1-AS1-PCK1-AS5) potentially encoded shorter proteins (605, 546, 373, 246 and 274 amino acids, respectively), when compared to the complete protein (622 amino acids). Considering the functional domains of the PCK1 protein, it is likely that these splice variants considerably affect the function of this protein; alternative splicing could be one of the mechanisms by which the diverse functions of PCK1 are regulated. PMID:24089092

  19. An EMT–Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Flytzanis, Nicholas C.; Balsamo, Michele; Condeelis, John S.; Oktay, Maja H.; Burge, Christopher B.; Gertler, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA–Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT–dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell–cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT–associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT–associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT–associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT–associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT–dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT–associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT–associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression. PMID:21876675

  20. Splicing factor SRSF1 negatively regulates alternative splicing of MDM2 under damage.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, Daniel F; Jacob, Aishwarya G; Singh, Ravi K; Tapia-Santos, Aixa S; Chandler, Dawn S

    2015-04-30

    Genotoxic stress induces alternative splicing of the oncogene MDM2 generating MDM2-ALT1, an isoform attributed with tumorigenic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying this event remain unclear. Here we explore MDM2 splicing regulation by utilizing a novel minigene that mimics endogenous MDM2 splicing in response to UV and cisplatinum-induced DNA damage. We report that exon 11 is necessary and sufficient for the damage-specific alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene and that the splicing factor SRSF1 binds exon 11 at evolutionarily conserved sites. Interestingly, mutations disrupting this interaction proved sufficient to abolish the stress-induced alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene. Furthermore, SRSF1 overexpression promoted exclusion of exon 11, while its siRNA-mediated knockdown prevented the stress-induced alternative splicing of endogenous MDM2. Additionally, we observed elevated SRSF1 levels under stress and in tumors correlating with the expression of MDM2-ALT1. Notably, we demonstrate that MDM2-ALT1 splicing can be blocked by targeting SRSF1 sites on exon 11 using antisense oligonucleotides. These results present conclusive evidence supporting a negative role for SRSF1 in MDM2 alternative splicing. Importantly, we define for the first time, a clear-cut mechanism for the regulation of damage-induced MDM2 splicing and present potential strategies for manipulating MDM2 expression via splicing modulation. PMID:25845590

  1. Splicing factor SRSF1 negatively regulates alternative splicing of MDM2 under damage

    PubMed Central

    Comiskey, Daniel F.; Jacob, Aishwarya G.; Singh, Ravi K.; Tapia-Santos, Aixa S.; Chandler, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic stress induces alternative splicing of the oncogene MDM2 generating MDM2-ALT1, an isoform attributed with tumorigenic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying this event remain unclear. Here we explore MDM2 splicing regulation by utilizing a novel minigene that mimics endogenous MDM2 splicing in response to UV and cisplatinum-induced DNA damage. We report that exon 11 is necessary and sufficient for the damage-specific alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene and that the splicing factor SRSF1 binds exon 11 at evolutionarily conserved sites. Interestingly, mutations disrupting this interaction proved sufficient to abolish the stress-induced alternative splicing of the MDM2 minigene. Furthermore, SRSF1 overexpression promoted exclusion of exon 11, while its siRNA-mediated knockdown prevented the stress-induced alternative splicing of endogenous MDM2. Additionally, we observed elevated SRSF1 levels under stress and in tumors correlating with the expression of MDM2-ALT1. Notably, we demonstrate that MDM2-ALT1 splicing can be blocked by targeting SRSF1 sites on exon 11 using antisense oligonucleotides. These results present conclusive evidence supporting a negative role for SRSF1 in MDM2 alternative splicing. Importantly, we define for the first time, a clear-cut mechanism for the regulation of damage-induced MDM2 splicing and present potential strategies for manipulating MDM2 expression via splicing modulation. PMID:25845590

  2. An EMT–Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina M. Shapiro; Albert W. Cheng; Nicholas C. Flytzanis; Michele Balsamo; John S. Condeelis; Maja H. Oktay; Christopher B. Burge; Frank B. Gertler

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established

  3. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; del Pozo, Angela; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved—all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago—and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles. PMID:26061177

  4. A house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) spleen transcriptome reveals intra- and interspecific patterns of gene expression, alternative splicing and genetic diversity in passerines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With its plumage color dimorphism and unique history in North America, including a recent population expansion and an epizootic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), the house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) is a model species for studying sexual selection, plumage coloration and host-parasite interactions. As part of our ongoing efforts to make available genomic resources for this species, here we report a transcriptome assembly derived from genes expressed in spleen. Results We characterize transcriptomes from two populations with different histories of demography and disease exposure: a recently founded population in the eastern US that has been exposed to MG for over a decade and a native population from the western range that has never been exposed to MG. We utilize this resource to quantify conservation in gene expression in passerine birds over approximately 50 MY by comparing splenic expression profiles for 9,646 house finch transcripts and those from zebra finch and find that less than half of all genes expressed in spleen in either species are expressed in both species. Comparative gene annotations from several vertebrate species suggest that the house finch transcriptomes contain ~15 genes not yet found in previously sequenced vertebrate genomes. The house finch transcriptomes harbour ~85,000 SNPs, ~20,000 of which are non-synonymous. Although not yet validated by biological or technical replication, we identify a set of genes exhibiting differences between populations in gene expression (n = 182; 2% of all transcripts), allele frequencies (76 FST ouliers) and alternative splicing as well as genes with several fixed non-synonymous substitutions; this set includes genes with functions related to double-strand break repair and immune response. Conclusions The two house finch spleen transcriptome profiles will add to the increasing data on genome and transcriptome sequence information from natural populations. Differences in splenic expression between house finch and zebra finch imply either significant evolutionary turnover of splenic expression patterns or different physiological states of the individuals examined. The transcriptome resource will enhance the potential to annotate an eventual house finch genome, and the set of gene-based high-quality SNPs will help clarify the genetic underpinnings of host-pathogen interactions and sexual selection. PMID:24758272

  5. Different forms of Go alpha mRNA arise by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene on human chromosome 16.

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, J J; Eddy, R; Shows, T B; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-01-01

    Go alpha, (gene symbol GNA01), a member of the signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein family, has been implicated in ion channel regulation. Some tissues contain multiple Go alpha mRNAs of different sizes that differ in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Using sequence-specific 48-base oligonucleotides, two complementary to the different 3' UTRs and one complementary to the coding region, we investigated the origin of the multiple Go alpha transcripts, the organization of the Go alpha gene, the interspecies conservation of 3' UTRs, and the chromosomal localization of Go alpha. Oligonucleotides labeled to high specific activity by using terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase each hybridized with a single band of restriction enzyme-digested mouse and human DNAs. In three of four digests of human DNA, the two probes specific for the different 3' UTRs hybridized with the same restriction fragment. Thus, these nucleotide sequences are in close proximity in the human genome. The order of the UTRs in the bovine, human, and mouse genomes was confirmed directly by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. Hybridization of bovine oligonucleotide sequence with mouse and human genomic DNA indicated a high degree of interspecies sequence conservation: conservation was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Bands detected by both UTR probes, as well as the predominant bands detected by a bovine Go alpha cDNA, segregated with human chromosome 16 on Southern blot analysis of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. We conclude that Go alpha mRNAs with different 3' UTRs arise by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene. The UTRs, which exhibit a high degree of interspecies conservation, may play a role in regulation of Go alpha expression during differentiation or in specific tissues. The use of oligonucleotide probes of the type described here represents a new strategy, potentially widely applicable for mapping and elucidating structural features of genes. Images PMID:1899283

  6. Chorismate mutase: an alternatively spliced parasitism gene and a diagnostic marker for three important Globodera nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chorismate mutase gene is widely distributed in both cyst and root-knot nematode species and believed to play a critical role in nematode parasitism. In this study, we cloned a new chorismate mutase gene (Gt-cm-1) from Globodera tabacum and further characterized the gene structure in both G. tab...

  7. Correcting for differential transcript coverage reveals a strong relationship between alternative splicing and organism complexity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Bush, Stephen J; Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2014-06-01

    What at the genomic level underlies organism complexity? Although several genomic features have been associated with organism complexity, in the case of alternative splicing, which has long been proposed to explain the variation in complexity, no such link has been established. Here, we analyzed over 39 million expressed sequence tags available for 47 eukaryotic species with fully sequenced genomes to obtain a comparable index of alternative splicing estimates, which corrects for the distorting effect of a variable number of transcripts per species--an important obstacle for comparative studies of alternative splicing. We find that alternative splicing has steadily increased over the last 1,400 My of eukaryotic evolution and is strongly associated with organism complexity, assayed as the number of cell types. Importantly, this association is not explained as a by-product of covariance between alternative splicing with other variables previously linked to complexity including gene content, protein length, proteome disorder, and protein interactivity. In addition, we found no evidence to suggest that the relationship of alternative splicing to cell type number is explained by drift due to reduced N(e) in more complex species. Taken together, our results firmly establish alternative splicing as a significant predictor of organism complexity and are, in principle, consistent with an important role of transcript diversification through alternative splicing as a means of determining a genome's functional information capacity. PMID:24682283

  8. Correcting for Differential Transcript Coverage Reveals a Strong Relationship between Alternative Splicing and Organism Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Bush, Stephen J.; Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2014-01-01

    What at the genomic level underlies organism complexity? Although several genomic features have been associated with organism complexity, in the case of alternative splicing, which has long been proposed to explain the variation in complexity, no such link has been established. Here, we analyzed over 39 million expressed sequence tags available for 47 eukaryotic species with fully sequenced genomes to obtain a comparable index of alternative splicing estimates, which corrects for the distorting effect of a variable number of transcripts per species—an important obstacle for comparative studies of alternative splicing. We find that alternative splicing has steadily increased over the last 1,400 My of eukaryotic evolution and is strongly associated with organism complexity, assayed as the number of cell types. Importantly, this association is not explained as a by-product of covariance between alternative splicing with other variables previously linked to complexity including gene content, protein length, proteome disorder, and protein interactivity. In addition, we found no evidence to suggest that the relationship of alternative splicing to cell type number is explained by drift due to reduced Ne in more complex species. Taken together, our results firmly establish alternative splicing as a significant predictor of organism complexity and are, in principle, consistent with an important role of transcript diversification through alternative splicing as a means of determining a genome’s functional information capacity. PMID:24682283

  9. The splicing fate of plant SPO11 genes

    PubMed Central

    Sprink, Thorben; Hartung, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Toward the global understanding of plant meiosis, it seems to be essential to decipher why all as yet sequenced plants need or at least encode for two different meiotic SPO11 genes. This is in contrast to mammals and fungi, where only one SPO11 is present. Both SPO11 in Arabidopsis thaliana are essential for the initiation of double strand breaks (DSBs) during the meiotic prophase. In nearly all eukaryotic organisms DSB induction during prophase I by SPO11 leads to meiotic DSB repair, thereby ensuring the formation of a necessary number of crossovers (CO) as physical connections between the homologous chromosomes. We aim to investigate the specific functions and evolution of both SPO11 genes in land plants. Therefore, we identified and cloned the respective orthologous genes from Brassica rapa, Carica papaya, Oryza sativa, and Physcomitrella patens. In parallel we determined the full length cDNA sequences of SPO11-1 and -2 from all of these plants by RT-PCR. During these experiments we observed that the analyzed plants exhibit a pattern of alternative splicing products of both SPO11 mRNAs. Such an aberrant splicing has previously been described for Arabidopsis and therefore seems to be conserved throughout evolution. Most of the splicing forms of SPO11-1 and -2 seem to be non-functional as they either showed intron retention (IR) or shortened exons. However, the positional distribution and number of alternative splicing events vary strongly between the different plants. The cDNAs showed in most cases premature termination codons (PTCs) due to frameshift. Nevertheless, in some cases we found alternatively spliced but functional cDNAs. These findings let us suggest that alternative splicing of SPO11 depends on the respective gene sequence and on the plant species. Therefore, this conserved mechanism might play a role concerning regulation of SPO11. PMID:25018755

  10. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a “splicing memory” hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. PMID:25934563

  11. Unmasking alternative splicing inside protein-coding exons defines exitrons and their role in proteome plasticity.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Yamile; Höpfler, Markus; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Barta, Andrea; Kalyna, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) diversifies transcriptomes and proteomes and is widely recognized as a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Previously, in an analysis of intron retention events in Arabidopsis, we found unusual AS events inside annotated protein-coding exons. Here, we also identify such AS events in human and use these two sets to analyse their features, regulation, functional impact, and evolutionary origin. As these events involve introns with features of both introns and protein-coding exons, we name them exitrons (exonic introns). Though exitrons were detected as a subset of retained introns, they are clearly distinguishable, and their splicing results in transcripts with different fates. About half of the 1002 Arabidopsis and 923 human exitrons have sizes of multiples of 3 nucleotides (nt). Splicing of these exitrons results in internally deleted proteins and affects protein domains, disordered regions, and various post-translational modification sites, thus broadly impacting protein function. Exitron splicing is regulated across tissues, in response to stress and in carcinogenesis. Intriguingly, annotated intronless genes can be also alternatively spliced via exitron usage. We demonstrate that at least some exitrons originate from ancestral coding exons. Based on our findings, we propose a "splicing memory" hypothesis whereby upon intron loss imprints of former exon borders defined by vestigial splicing regulatory elements could drive the evolution of exitron splicing. Altogether, our studies show that exitron splicing is a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in plants and animals, complementing the repertoire of AS events. PMID:25934563

  12. Unconstrained mining of transcript data reveals increased alternative splicing complexity in the human transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Mollet, I. G.; Ben-Dov, Claudia; Felício-Silva, Daniel; Grosso, A. R.; Eleutério, Pedro; Alves, Ruben; Staller, Ray; Silva, Tito Santos; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mining massive amounts of transcript data for alternative splicing information is paramount to help understand how the maturation of RNA regulates gene expression. We developed an algorithm to cluster transcript data to annotated genes to detect unannotated splice variants. A higher number of alternatively spliced genes and isoforms were found compared to other alternative splicing databases. Comparison of human and mouse data revealed a marked increase, in human, of splice variants incorporating novel exons and retained introns. Previously unannotated exons were validated by tiling array expression data and shown to correspond preferentially to novel first exons. Retained introns were validated by tiling array and deep sequencing data. The majority of retained introns were shorter than 500 nt and had weak polypyrimidine tracts. A subset of retained introns matching small RNAs and displaying a high GC content suggests a possible coordination between splicing regulation and production of noncoding RNAs. Conservation of unannotated exons and retained introns was higher in horse, dog and cow than in rodents, and 64% of exon sequences were only found in primates. This analysis highlights previously bypassed alternative splice variants, which may be crucial to deciphering more complex pathways of gene regulation in human. PMID:20385588

  13. Identification, mRNA Expression, and Functional Analysis of Chitin Synthase 1 Gene and Its Two Alternative Splicing Variants in Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Jia; Xu, Kang-Kang; Cong, Lin; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Two alternative splicing variants of chitin synthase 1 gene (BdCHS1) were cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The cDNA of both variants (BdCHS1a and BdCHS1b) consisted of 5,552 nucleotides (nt), with an open reading frame (ORF) of 4,776 nt, encoding a protein of 1,592 amino acid residues, plus 685- and 88-nt of 5?- and 3?-noncoding regions, respectively. The alternative splicing site was located between positions 3,784-3,960 and formed a pair of mutually exclusive exons (a/b) that were same in size (177 nt), but showed only 65% identity at the nucleotide level. During B. dorsalis growth and development, BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a were both mainly expressed during the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions, while BdCHS1b was mainly expressed during pupal-adult metamorphosis and in the middle of the pupal stage. BdCHS1a was predominately expressed in the integument whereas BdCHS1b was mainly expressed in the trachea. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced the expression of BdCHS1 and its variants. Injection of dsRNA of BdCHS1, BdCHS1a, and BdCHS1b into third-instar larvae significantly reduced the expression levels of the corresponding variants, generated phenotypic defects, and killed most of the treated larvae. Furthermore, silencing of BdCHS1 and BdCHS1a had a similar result in that the larva was trapped in old cuticle and died without tanning completely, while silencing of BdCHS1b has no effect on insect morphology. These results demonstrated that BdCHS1 plays an important role in the larval-pupal transition and the expression of BdCHS1 in B. dorsalis is regulated by 20E. PMID:23569438

  14. Molecular Characteristics, mRNA Expression, and Alternative Splicing of a Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  15. Molecular characteristics, mRNA expression, and alternative splicing of a ryanodine receptor gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. The emergence of diamide insecticides, which selectively target insect RyRs, has promoted the study of insect RyRs. In the present study, the full-length RyR cDNA (BdRyR) was cloned and characterized from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest of fruits and vegetables throughout East Asia and the Pacific Rim. The cDNA of BdRyR contains a 15,420-bp open reading frame encoding 5,140 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 582.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.38. BdRyR shows a high level of amino acid sequence identity (78 to 97%) to other insect RyR isoforms. All common structural features of the RyRs are present in the BdRyR, including a well-conserved C-terminal domain containing consensus calcium-binding EF-hands and six transmembrane domains, and a large N-terminal domain. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that BdRyR was expressed at the lowest and highest levels in egg and adult, respectively, and that the BdRyR expression levels in the third instar larva, pupa and adult were 166.99-, 157.56- and 808.56-fold higher, respectively, than that in the egg. Among different adult body parts, the highest expression level was observed in the thorax compared with the head and abdomen. In addition, four alternative splice sites were identified in the BdRyR gene, with the first, ASI, being located in the central part of the predicted second spore lysis A/RyR domain. Diagnostic PCR analyses revealed that alternative splice variants were generated not only in a tissue-specific manner but also in a developmentally regulated manner. These results lay the foundation for further understanding the structural and functional properties of BdRyR, and the molecular mechanisms for target site resistance in B. dorsalis. PMID:24740254

  16. Misregulation of Alternative Splicing Causes Pathogenesis in Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Muge Kuyumcu-Martinez, N.; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), the most common form of adult onset muscular dystrophy, affects skeletal muscle, heart, and the central nervous system (CNS). Mortality results primarily from muscle wasting and cardiac arrhythmias. There are two forms of the disease: DM 1 and DM 2. DM 1, which constitutes 98% of cases, is caused by a CTG expansion in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the DMPK gene. DM 2 is caused by a CCTG expansion in the first intron of the ZNF9 gene. RNA containing CUG- or CCUG-expanded repeats are transcribed but are retained in the nucleus in foci. Disease pathogenesis results primarily from a gain of function of the expanded RNAs, which alter developmentally regulated alternative splicing as well as pathways of muscle differentiation. The toxic RNA has been implicated in sequestration of splicing regulators and transcription factors thereby causing specific symptoms of the disease. Here we review the proposed mechanisms for the toxic effects of the expanded repeats and discuss the molecular mechanisms of splicing misregulation and disease pathogenesis. PMID:17076268

  17. nagnag: Identification and quantification of NAGNAG alternative splicing using RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Sablok, Gaurav; Feng, Gang; Ma, Jiaxin; Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Xiaoyong

    2015-07-01

    Regulation of proteome diversity by alternative splicing has been widely demonstrated in plants and animals. NAGNAG splicing, which was recently defined as a tissue specific event, results in the production of two distinct isoforms that are distinguished by three nucleotides (NAG) as a consequence of the intron proximal or distal to the splice site. Since the NAGNAG mechanism is not well characterized, tools for the identification and quantification of NAGNAG splicing events remain under-developed. Here we report nagnag, an R-based NAGNAG splicing detection tool, which accurately identifies and quantifies NAGNAG splicing events using RNA-Seq. Overall, nagnag produces user-friendly visualization reports and highlights differences between the DNA/RNA/protein across the identified isoforms of the reported gene. The package is available on https://sourceforge.net/projects/nagnag/files/; or http://genome.sdau.edu.cn/research/software/nagnag.html. PMID:26028313

  18. Cauliflower mosaic virus Transcriptome Reveals a Complex Alternative Splicing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Clément; Geldreich, Angèle; Ramel, Laëtitia; Ryabova, Lyubov A.; Dimitrova, Maria; Keller, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) uses alternative splic-ing to generate several isoforms from its polycistronic pregenomic 35S RNA. This pro-cess has been shown to be essential for infectivity. Previous works have identified four splice donor sites and a single splice acceptor site in the 35S RNA 5’ region and sug-gested that the main role of CaMV splicing is to downregulate expression of open read-ing frames (ORFs) I and II. In this study, we show that alternative splicing is a conserved process among CaMV isolates. In Cabb B-JI and Cabb-S isolates, splicing frequently leads to different fusion between ORFs, particularly between ORF I and II. The corresponding P1P2 fusion proteins expressed in E. coli interact with viral proteins P2 and P3 in vitro. However, they are detected neither during infection nor upon transient expression in planta, which suggests rapid degradation after synthesis and no important biological role in the CaMV infectious cycle. To gain a better understanding of the functional relevance of 35S RNA alternative splicing in CaMV infectivity, we inactivated the previously described splice sites. All the splicing mutants were as pathogenic as the corresponding wild-type isolate. Through RT-PCR-based analysis we demonstrate that CaMV 35S RNA exhibits a complex splicing pattern, as we identify new splice donor and acceptor sites whose selection leads to more than thirteen 35S RNA isoforms in infected turnip plants. Inactivating splice donor or acceptor sites is not lethal for the virus, since disrupted sites are systematically rescued by the activation of cryptic and/or seldom used splice sites. Taken together, our data depict a conserved, complex and flexible process, involving multiple sites, that ensures splicing of 35S RNA. PMID:26162084

  19. The ASAP II database: analysis and comparative genomics of alternative splicing in 15 animal species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namshin Kim; Alexander V. Alekseyenko; Meenakshi Roy; Christopher Lee

    2007-01-01

    We have greatly expanded the Alternative Splicing Annotation Project (ASAP) database: (i) its human alternative splicing data are expanded ? 3-fold over the previous ASAP database, to nearly 90000 distinct alternative splicing events; (ii) it now provides genome-wide alternative splicing analyses for 15 vertebrate, insect and other animal species; (iii) it provides comprehensive comparative genomics information for comparing alternative splicing

  20. Computational evidence of NAGNAG alternative splicing in human large intergenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyong; Lin, Simon M; Yan, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    NAGNAG alternative splicing plays an essential role in biological processes and represents a highly adaptable system for posttranslational regulation of gene function. NAGNAG alternative splicing impacts a myriad of biological processes. Previous studies of NAGNAG largely focused on messenger RNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study testing the hypothesis that NAGNAG alternative splicing is also operative in large intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA). The RNA-seq data sets from recent deep sequencing studies were queried to test our hypothesis. NAGNAG alternative splicing of human lincRNA was identified while querying two independent RNA-seq data sets. Within these datasets, 31 NAGNAG alternative splicing sites were identified in lincRNA. Notably, most exons of lincRNA containing NAGNAG acceptors were longer than those from protein-coding genes. Furthermore, presence of CAG coding appeared to participate in the splice site selection. Finally, expression of the isoforms of NAGNAG lincRNA exhibited tissue specificity. Together, this study improves our understanding of the NAGNAG alternative splicing in lincRNA. PMID:24995327

  1. Analysis of alternative splicing associated with aging and neurodegeneration in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tollervey, James R; Wang, Zhen; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Witten, Joshua T; Zarnack, Kathi; Kayikci, Melis; Clark, Tyson A; Schweitzer, Anthony C; Rot, Gregor; Curk, Tomaž; Zupan, Blaž; Rogelj, Boris; Shaw, Christopher E; Ule, Jernej

    2011-10-01

    Age is the most important risk factor for neurodegeneration; however, the effects of aging and neurodegeneration on gene expression in the human brain have most often been studied separately. Here, we analyzed changes in transcript levels and alternative splicing in the temporal cortex of individuals of different ages who were cognitively normal, affected by frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), or affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We identified age-related splicing changes in cognitively normal individuals and found that these were present also in 95% of individuals with FTLD or AD, independent of their age. These changes were consistent with increased polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)-dependent splicing activity. We also identified disease-specific splicing changes that were present in individuals with FTLD or AD, but not in cognitively normal individuals. These changes were consistent with the decreased neuro-oncological ventral antigen (NOVA)-dependent splicing regulation, and the decreased nuclear abundance of NOVA proteins. As expected, a dramatic down-regulation of neuronal genes was associated with disease, whereas a modest down-regulation of glial and neuronal genes was associated with aging. Whereas our data indicated that the age-related splicing changes are regulated independently of transcript-level changes, these two regulatory mechanisms affected expression of genes with similar functions, including metabolism and DNA repair. In conclusion, the alternative splicing changes identified in this study provide a new link between aging and neurodegeneration. PMID:21846794

  2. Molecular Characterization, mRNA Expression and Alternative Splicing of Ryanodine Receptor Gene in the Brown Citrus Aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Yi; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Shang, Feng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a critical role in regulating the release of intracellular calcium, which enables them to be effectively targeted by the two novel classes of insecticides, phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides. However, less information is available about this target site in insects, although the sequence and structure information of target molecules are essential for designing new control agents of high selectivity and efficiency, as well as low non-target toxicity. Here, we provided sufficient information about the coding sequence and molecular structures of RyR in T. citricida (TciRyR), an economically important pest. The full-length TciRyR cDNA was characterized with an open reading frame of 15,306 nucleotides, encoding 5101 amino acid residues. TciRyR was predicted to embrace all the hallmarks of ryanodine receptor, typically as the conserved C-terminal domain with consensus calcium-biding EF-hands (calcium-binding motif) and six transmembrane domains, as well as a large N-terminal domain. qPCR analysis revealed that the highest mRNA expression levels of TciRyR were observed in the adults, especially in the heads. Alternative splicing in TciRyR was evidenced by an alternatively spliced exon, resulting from intron retention, which was different from the case of RyR in Myzus persicae characterized with no alternative splicing events. Diagnostic PCR analysis indicated that the splicing of this exon was not only regulated in a body-specific manner but also in a stage-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide useful information for new insecticide design and further insights into the molecular basis of insecticide action. PMID:26154764

  3. RON alternative splicing regulation in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Sebastian; Hirschfeld, Marc; Jaeger, Markus; Pies, Susanne; Iborra, Severine; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar

    2015-07-01

    The proto-oncogene recepteur d'origine nantais (RON, MST1R) and its alternatively spliced variants are involved in various tumor biological processes, such as cell motility, adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RON overexpression and the occurrence of specific alternatively spliced RON isoforms have been detected in ovarian cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the role and regulation of cancer-related RON splicing isoforms in primary ovarian cancer. Expression of RON variants (RON?165, RON?160) was determined in 45 primary ovarian cancer and 4 physiological ovarian tissue specimens by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results were correlated to clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, expression of splicing factors with known involvement in RON alternative splicing regulation was examined. Increased RON levels were detected in all tumor samples (p=0.001) without differences between the primary tumors and metastases. Alternative RON variants were present in the majority of tumor samples (39 of 45; 86.67%). Potential RON?165 occurred more often (82.22%) than potential RON?160 or RON?155 (24.40%). Several significant correlations of RON and splicing factor expression [e.g. ASF/SFRS1 (p=0.035)] were detected. Correlations of RON expression to clinicopathological parameters were not observed. Significant splicing factor interactions (e.g. SRp55/SRp75: p<0.001) were observed in tumor samples with alternative RON splicing. Our data demonstrated upregulated RON isoform expression and significant changes in splicing factor expression in primary ovarian cancer. These findings account for an essential regulatory interplay of splicing factor-driven alterations in the RON alternative splicing pattern with subsequent tumor biological consequences in ovarian cancer. PMID:25997828

  4. Tissue-specific classification of alternatively spliced human exons

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Craig Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is involved in numerous cellular functions and is often disrupted and involved in disease. Previous research has identified methods to distinguish alternative conserved exons (ACEs) in human and mouse. ...

  5. Multiple alternative splicing and differential expression pattern of the glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) gene in goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuguo; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) has been identified as a key protein kinase involved in several signaling pathways, such as Wnt, IGF-? and Hedgehog. However, knowledge regarding GSK3? in the goat is limited. In this study, we cloned and characterized the goat GSK3? gene. Six novel GSK3? transcripts were identified in different tissues and designated as GSK3?1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. RT-PCR was used to further determine whether the six GSK3? transcripts existed in different goat tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain (S_TKc domain) is missing from GSK3?2 and GSK3?4. GSK3?3 and GSK3?6 do not contain the negative regulatory sites that are controlled by p38 MAPK. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that all the GSK3? transcripts were expressed at the highest level in the heart, whereas their expression levels in the liver, spleen, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle and uterus were different. These studies provide useful information for further research on the functions of GSK3? isoforms. PMID:25334049

  6. Multiple Alternative Splicing and Differential Expression Pattern of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? (GSK3?) Gene in Goat (Capra hircus)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yuguo; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) has been identified as a key protein kinase involved in several signaling pathways, such as Wnt, IGF-? and Hedgehog. However, knowledge regarding GSK3? in the goat is limited. In this study, we cloned and characterized the goat GSK3? gene. Six novel GSK3? transcripts were identified in different tissues and designated as GSK3?1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. RT-PCR was used to further determine whether the six GSK3? transcripts existed in different goat tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain (S_TKc domain) is missing from GSK3?2 and GSK3?4. GSK3?3 and GSK3?6 do not contain the negative regulatory sites that are controlled by p38 MAPK. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that all the GSK3? transcripts were expressed at the highest level in the heart, whereas their expression levels in the liver, spleen, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle and uterus were different. These studies provide useful information for further research on the functions of GSK3? isoforms. PMID:25334049

  7. Female-specific insect lethality engineered using alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guoliang; Condon, Kirsty C; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng; Jin, Li; Condon, George C; Morrison, Neil I; Dafa'alla, Tarig H; Alphey, Luke

    2007-03-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of pest control involving mass release of sterilized insects that reduce the wild population through infertile matings. Insects carrying a female-specific autocidal genetic system offer an attractive alternative to conventional sterilization methods while also eliminating females from the release population. We exploited sex-specific alternative splicing in insects to engineer female-specific autocidal genetic systems in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. These rely on the insertion of cassette exons from the C. capitata transformer gene into a heterologous tetracycline-repressible transactivator such that the transactivator transcript is disrupted in male splice variants but not in the female-specific one. As the key components of these systems function across a broad phylogenetic range, this strategy addresses the paucity of sex-specific expression systems (e.g., early-acting, female-specific promoters) in insects other than Drosophila melanogaster. The approach may have wide applicability for regulating gene expression in other organisms, particularly for combinatorial control with appropriate promoters. PMID:17322873

  8. Alternative splicing and evolution: diversification, exon definition and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galit Lev-Maor; Gil Ast; Hadas Keren

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has been shown that alternative splicing (AS) is a major mechanism for the enhancement of transcriptome and proteome diversity, particularly in mammals. Splicing can be found in species from bacteria to humans, but its prevalence and characteristics vary considerably. Evolutionary studies are helping to address questions that are fundamental to understanding this important process: how

  9. Alternative splicing of CD200 is regulated by an exonic splicing enhancer and SF2/ASF

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiqi; Ma, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Jim; Gorczynski, Reginald M.

    2010-01-01

    CD200, a type I membrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in prevention of inflammatory disorders, graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and spontaneous fetal loss. It also regulates tumor immunity. A truncated CD200 (CD200tr) resulting from alternative splicing has been identified and characterized as a functional antagonist to full-length CD200. Thus, it is important to explore the mechanism(s) controlling alternative splicing of CD200. In this study, we identified an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) located in exon 2, which is a putative binding site for a splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Deletion or mutation of the ESE site decreased expression of the full-length CD200. Direct binding of SF2/ASF to the ESE site was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Knockdown of expression of SF2/ASF resulted in the same splicing pattern as seen after deletion or mutation of the ESE, whereas overexpression of SF2/ASF increased expression of the full-length CD200. In vivo studies showed that viral infection reversed the alternative splicing pattern of CD200 with increased expression of SF2/ASF and the full-length CD200. Taken together, our data suggest for the first time that SF2/ASF regulates the function of CD200 by controlling CD200 alternative splicing, through direct binding to an ESE located in exon 2 of CD200. PMID:20558599

  10. Introns and alternative splicing in choanoflagellates

    E-print Network

    WESTBROOK, MARJORIE WRIGHT

    2011-01-01

    intron  definition.  Journal  of  Cell  Biology,  2008.  definition  in   Schizosaccharomyces  pombe.  Molecular  and  Cellular  Biology,  definition  may  facilitate  splice   site  selection  in  RNAs  with  multiple  exons.  Molecular  and  Cellular  Biology,  

  11. Comprehensive exon array data processing method for quantitative analysis of alternative spliced variants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Hu, Yizhou; Monni, Outi; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generates protein diversity. Dysfunction of splicing machinery and expression of specific transcripts has been linked to cancer progression and drug response. Exon microarray technology enables genome-wide quantification of expression levels of the majority of exons and facilitates the discovery of alternative splicing events. Analysis of exon array data is more challenging than the analysis of gene expression data and there is a need for reliable quantification of exons and alternatively spliced variants. We introduce a novel, computationally efficient methodology, Multiple Exon Array Preprocessing (MEAP), for exon array data pre-processing, analysis and visualization. We compared MEAP with existing pre-processing methods, and validation of six exons and two alternatively spliced variants with qPCR corroborated MEAP expression estimates. Analysis of exon array data from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines revealed several transcripts associated with 11q13 amplification, which is related with decreased survival and metastasis in HNSCC patients. Our results demonstrate that MEAP produces reliable expression values at exon, alternatively spliced variant and gene levels, which allows generating novel experimentally testable predictions. PMID:21745820

  12. A sequence compilation and comparison of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Zhang, M Q; Marr, T G; Helfman, D M

    1994-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism to create protein diversity. In order to elucidate possible regulatory elements common to neuron specific exons, we created and statistically analysed a database of exons that are alternatively spliced in neurons. The splice site comparison of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons reveals that some, but not all alternatively spliced exons have splice sites deviating from the consensus sequence, implying diverse patterns of regulation. The deviation from the consensus is most evident at the -3 position of the 3' splice site and the +4 and -3 position of the 5' splice site. The nucleotide composition of alternatively and constitutively spliced exons is different, with alternatively spliced exons being more AU rich. We performed overlapping k-tuple analysis to identify common motifs. We found that alternatively and constitutively spliced exons differ in the frequency of several trinucleotides that cannot be explained by the amino acid composition and may be important for splicing regulation. PMID:8202349

  13. Control of alternative splicing by forskolin through hnRNP K during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenguang; Razanau, Aleh; Feng, Dairong; Lobo, Vincent G; Xie, Jiuyong

    2012-09-01

    The molecular basis of cell signal-regulated alternative splicing at the 3' splice site remains largely unknown. We isolated a protein kinase A-responsive ribonucleic acid (RNA) element from a 3' splice site of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene for forskolin-inhibited splicing during neuronal differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The element binds specifically to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleo protein (hnRNP) K in a phosphatase-sensitive way, which directly competes with the U2 auxiliary factor U2AF65, an essential component of early spliceosomes. Transcripts with similarly localized hnRNP K target motifs upstream of alternative exons are enriched in genes often associated with neurological diseases. We show that such motifs upstream of the Runx1 exon 6 also bind hnRNP K, and importantly, hnRNP K is required for forskolin-induced repression of the exon. Interestingly, this exon encodes the peptide domain that determines the switch of the transcriptional repressor/activator activity of Runx1, a change known to be critical in specifying neuron lineages. Consistent with an important role of the target genes in neurons, knocking down hnRNP K severely disrupts forskolin-induced neurite growth. Thus, through hnRNP K, the neuronal differentiation stimulus forskolin targets a critical 3' splice site component of the splicing machinery to control alternative splicing of crucial genes. This also provides a regulated direct competitor of U2AF65 for cell signal control of 3' splice site usage. PMID:22684629

  14. Quantitative and evolutionary biology of alternative splicing: how changing the mix of alternative transcripts affects phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J H Marden

    2008-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-messenger RNA is a common phenomenon that creates different transcripts from a single gene, and these alternative transcripts affect phenotypes. The majority of AS research has examined tissue and developmental specificity of expression of particular AS transcripts, how this specificity affects cell function, and how aberrant AS is related to disease. Few studies have examined quantitative

  15. A pan-cancer analysis of alternative splicing events reveals novel tumor-associated splice variants of matriptase.

    PubMed

    Dargahi, Daryanaz; Swayze, Richard D; Yee, Leanna; Bergqvist, Peter J; Hedberg, Bradley J; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Dullaghan, Edie M; Dercho, Ryan; An, Jianghong; Babcook, John S; Jones, Steven Jm

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows identification of cancer-related changes that occur at the stages of transcription, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA), and splicing. In the current study, we devised a pipeline to predict novel alternative splicing (AS) variants from high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data and applied it to large sets of tumor transcriptomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified two novel tumor-associated splice variants of matriptase, a known cancer-associated gene, in the transcriptome data from epithelial-derived tumors but not normal tissue. Most notably, these variants were found in 69% of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) samples studied. We confirmed the expression of matriptase AS transcripts using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in an orthogonal panel of tumor tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis confirmed surface expression of matriptase splice variants in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transiently transfected with cDNA encoding the novel transcripts. Our findings further implicate matriptase in contributing to oncogenic processes and suggest potential novel therapeutic uses for matriptase splice variants. PMID:25506199

  16. Identification of genetic variants associated with alternative splicing using sQTLseekeR

    PubMed Central

    Monlong, Jean; Calvo, Miquel; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Guigó, Roderic

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genetic variants affecting splicing in RNA sequencing population studies is still in its infancy. Splicing phenotype is more complex than gene expression and ought to be treated as a multivariate phenotype to be recapitulated completely. Here we represent the splicing pattern of a gene as the distribution of the relative abundances of a gene’s alternative transcript isoforms. We develop a statistical framework that uses a distance-based approach to compute the variability of splicing ratios across observations, and a non-parametric analogue to multivariate analysis of variance. We implement this approach in the R package sQTLseekeR and use it to analyze RNA-Seq data from the Geuvadis project in 465 individuals. We identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as splicing QTLs (sQTLs), including some falling in genome-wide association study SNPs. By developing the appropriate metrics, we show that sQTLseekeR compares favorably with existing methods that rely on univariate approaches, predicting variants that behave as expected from mutations affecting splicing. PMID:25140736

  17. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunlan; Wu, Wei; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Guanglin; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:20097212

  18. Genomic organization of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta gene: alternative promoter usage and splicing yield transcripts exhibiting differential translational efficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Leif K; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Mandrup, Susanne; Pacot, Corinne; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta is ubiquitously expressed, but the level of expression differs markedly between different cell types. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms governing PPARbeta/delta gene expression, we have isolated and characterized the mouse gene encoding PPARbeta/delta. The gene spans approx. 41 kb and comprises 11 exons of which the six exons located in the 3'-end of the gene are included in all transcripts. Primer-extension and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments revealed the presence of multiple transcription start points and splice variants, originating from the use of at least four different promoters. One of these transcription start points was found to be used predominantly in all tissues examined. Initiation from this major transcription start point gives rise to a transcript with a 548 nt 5'-untranslated leader containing eight upstream AUG codons. We show that the presence of the 548 nt leader resulted in a low translational efficiency of the corresponding PPARbeta/delta mRNA and propose, based on structural features of the 5'-untranslated region, that translational initiation may be mediated via an internal ribosome entry site-dependent mechanism. PMID:12059785

  19. Assembly of splicing complexes on exon 11 of the human insulin receptor gene does not correlate with splicing efficiency in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Nicholas JG; Evans, Lui-Guojing; Caples, Matt; Erker, Laura; Chew, Shern L

    2004-01-01

    Background Incorporation of exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene is both developmentally and hormonally-regulated. Previously, we have shown the presence of enhancer and silencer elements that modulate the incorporation of the small 36-nucleotide exon. In this study, we investigated the role of inherent splice site strength in the alternative splicing decision and whether recognition of the splice sites is the major determinant of exon incorporation. Results We found that mutation of the flanking sub-optimal splice sites to consensus sequences caused the exon to be constitutively spliced in-vivo. These findings are consistent with the exon-definition model for splicing. In-vitro splicing of RNA templates containing exon 11 and portions of the upstream intron recapitulated the regulation seen in-vivo. Unexpectedly, we found that the splice sites are occupied and spliceosomal complex A was assembled on all templates in-vitro irrespective of splicing efficiency. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the exon-definition model explains alternative splicing of exon 11 in the IR gene in-vivo but not in-vitro. The in-vitro results suggest that the regulation occurs at a later step in spliceosome assembly on this exon. PMID:15233842

  20. The ASRG database: identification and survey of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in pre-mRNA splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing-Bing Wang; Volker Brendel

    2004-01-01

    A total of 74 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes and 395 genes encoding splicing-related proteins were identified in the Arabidopsis genome by sequence comparison and motif searches, including the previously elusive U4atac snRNA gene. Most of the genes have not been studied experimentally. Classification of these genes and detailed information on gene structure, alternative splicing, gene duplications and phylogenetic relationships

  1. Alternative Splicing of Amino-Terminal Tau mRNA in Rat Spinal Cord during Development and Following Axonal Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn A. Halverson; Christopher B. Chambers; Nancy A. Muma

    2001-01-01

    Tau is a family of microtubule-associated phosphoproteins in which isoform variation is produced by alternative splicing of a single gene and posttranslational modifications. Tau isoforms that include exon 10 are overexpressed in frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy. Therefore, we examined the expression of tau mRNA splice variants during axonal regeneration and abortive regeneration. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated

  2. Systematically Differentiating Functions for Alternatively Spliced Isoforms through Integrating RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rajasree; Wen, Yuchen; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Kretzler, Matthias; Guan, Yuanfang

    2013-01-01

    Integrating large-scale functional genomic data has significantly accelerated our understanding of gene functions. However, no algorithm has been developed to differentiate functions for isoforms of the same gene using high-throughput genomic data. This is because standard supervised learning requires ‘ground-truth’ functional annotations, which are lacking at the isoform level. To address this challenge, we developed a generic framework that interrogates public RNA-seq data at the transcript level to differentiate functions for alternatively spliced isoforms. For a specific function, our algorithm identifies the ‘responsible’ isoform(s) of a gene and generates classifying models at the isoform level instead of at the gene level. Through cross-validation, we demonstrated that our algorithm is effective in assigning functions to genes, especially the ones with multiple isoforms, and robust to gene expression levels and removal of homologous gene pairs. We identified genes in the mouse whose isoforms are predicted to have disparate functionalities and experimentally validated the ‘responsible’ isoforms using data from mammary tissue. With protein structure modeling and experimental evidence, we further validated the predicted isoform functional differences for the genes Cdkn2a and Anxa6. Our generic framework is the first to predict and differentiate functions for alternatively spliced isoforms, instead of genes, using genomic data. It is extendable to any base machine learner and other species with alternatively spliced isoforms, and shifts the current gene-centered function prediction to isoform-level predictions. PMID:24244129

  3. The human decorin gene: Intron-exon organization, discovery of two alternatively spliced exons in the 5[prime] untralsated region, and mapping of the gene to chromosome 12q23

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, K.G.; Fazzio, A.; Cohen, I.; Cannizzaro, L.A.; Eichstetter, I.; Iozzo, R.V. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Decorin is a chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan expressed by most vascular and avascular connective tissues and, because of its ability to interact with collagen and growth factors, has been implicated in the control of matrix assembly and cellular growth. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating its tissue expression, we have isolated a number of genomic clones encoding the complete decorin gene. The human decorin gene spans over 38 kb of continuous DNA sequence and contains eight exons and very large introns, two of which are 5.4 and > 13.2 kb. We have discovered two alternatively spliced leader exons, exons Ia and Ib, in the 5[prime] untranslated region. These exons were identified by cloning and sequencing cDNAs obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fibroblast cDNA library. Using Northern blotting or reverse transcriptase PCR, we detected the two leader exons in a variety of mRNAs isolated from human cell lines and tissues. Interestingly, sequences highly (74-87%) homologous to exons Ia and lb are found in the 5[prime]untranslated region of avian and bovine decorin, respectively. This high degree of conservation among species suggests regulatory functions for these leader exons. In the 3' untranslated region there are several polyadenylation sites, and at least two of these sites could give rise to the transcripts of [approx]1.6 and [approx]1.9 kb, typically detected in a variety of tissues and cells. Using a genomic clone as the labeled probe and in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes, we have mapped the decorin gene to the discrete region of human chromosome 12q23. This sturdy provides the molecular basis for discerning the transcriptional control of the decorin gene and offers the opportunity to investigate genetic disorders linked to this important human gene. 57 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Autoregulation of transformer-2 alternative splicing is necessary for normal male fertility in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    McGuffin, M E; Chandler, D; Somaiya, D; Dauwalder, B; Mattox, W

    1998-01-01

    In the male germline of Drosophila the transformer-2 protein is required for differential splicing of pre-mRNAs from the exuperantia and att genes and autoregulates alternative splicing of its own pre-mRNA. Autoregulation of TRA-2 splicing results in production of two mRNAs that differ by the splicing/retention of the M1 intron and encode functionally distinct protein isoforms. Splicing of the intron produces an mRNA encoding TRA-2(226), which is necessary and sufficient for both male fertility and regulation of downstream target RNAs. When the intron is retained, an mRNA is produced encoding TRA-2(179), a protein with no known function. We have previously shown that repression of M1 splicing is dependent on TRA-2(226), suggesting that this protein quantitatively limits its own expression through a negative feedback mechanism at the level of splicing. Here we examine this idea, by testing the effect that variations in the level of tra-2 expression have on the splicing of M1 and on male fertility. Consistent with our hypothesis, we observe that as tra-2 gene dosage is increased, smaller proportions of TRA-2(226) mRNA are produced, limiting expression of this isoform. Feedback regulation is critical for male fertility, since it is significantly decreased by a transgene in which repression of M1 splicing cannot occur and TRA-2(226) mRNA is constitutively produced. The effect of this transgene becomes more severe as its dosage is increased, indicating that fertility is sensitive to an excess of TRA-2(226). Our results suggest that autoregulation of TRA-2(226) expression in male germ cells is necessary for normal spermatogenesis. PMID:9649535

  5. Gene and splicing therapies for neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Benchaouir, Rachid; Robin, Valerie; Goyenvalle, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) are heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by muscle weakness and wasting. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common and severe forms in humans and although the molecular mechanisms of these diseases have been extensively investigated, there is currently no effective treatment. However, new gene-based therapies have recently emerged with particular noted advances in using conventional gene replacement strategies and RNA-based technology. Whilst proof of principle have been demonstrated in animal models, several clinical trials have recently been undertaken to investigate the feasibility of these strategies in patients. In particular, antisense mediated exon skipping has shown encouraging results and hold promise for the treatment of dystrophic muscle. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of therapeutic approaches to neuromuscular diseases, with an emphasis on gene therapy and splicing modulation for DMD and SMA, focusing on the advantages offered by these technologies but also their challenges. PMID:25961553

  6. Splicing of many human genes involves sites embedded within introns.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven; Georgomanolis, Theodore; Zirkel, Anne; Diermeier, Sarah; O'Reilly, Dawn; Murphy, Shona; Längst, Gernot; Cook, Peter R; Papantonis, Argyris

    2015-05-19

    The conventional model for splicing involves excision of each intron in one piece; we demonstrate this inaccurately describes splicing in many human genes. First, after switching on transcription of SAMD4A, a gene with a 134 kb-long first intron, splicing joins the 3' end of exon 1 to successive points within intron 1 well before the acceptor site at exon 2 is made. Second, genome-wide analysis shows that >60% of active genes yield products generated by such intermediate intron splicing. These products are present at ?15% the levels of primary transcripts, are encoded by conserved sequences similar to those found at canonical acceptors, and marked by distinctive structural and epigenetic features. Finally, using targeted genome editing, we demonstrate that inhibiting the formation of these splicing intermediates affects efficient exon-exon splicing. These findings greatly expand the functional and regulatory complexity of the human transcriptome. PMID:25897131

  7. Splicing of many human genes involves sites embedded within introns

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Steven; Georgomanolis, Theodore; Zirkel, Anne; Diermeier, Sarah; O'Reilly, Dawn; Murphy, Shona; Längst, Gernot; Cook, Peter R.; Papantonis, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    The conventional model for splicing involves excision of each intron in one piece; we demonstrate this inaccurately describes splicing in many human genes. First, after switching on transcription of SAMD4A, a gene with a 134 kb-long first intron, splicing joins the 3? end of exon 1 to successive points within intron 1 well before the acceptor site at exon 2 is made. Second, genome-wide analysis shows that >60% of active genes yield products generated by such intermediate intron splicing. These products are present at ?15% the levels of primary transcripts, are encoded by conserved sequences similar to those found at canonical acceptors, and marked by distinctive structural and epigenetic features. Finally, using targeted genome editing, we demonstrate that inhibiting the formation of these splicing intermediates affects efficient exon–exon splicing. These findings greatly expand the functional and regulatory complexity of the human transcriptome. PMID:25897131

  8. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  9. New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process.

    PubMed

    Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

    2014-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases. PMID:25414781

  10. Fine Mapping of Calcineurin (PPP3CA) Gene Reveals Novel Alternative Splicing Patterns, Association of 5?UTR Trinucleotide Repeat With Addiction Vulnerability, and Differential Isoform Expression in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    CHIOCCO, MATTHEW J.; ZHU, XUGUANG; WALTHER, DONNA; PLETNIKOVA, OLGA; TRONCOSO, JUAN C.; UHL, GEORGE R.; LIU, QING-RONG

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping of calcineurin (PPP3CA) gene identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeat polymorphisms that are associated with addiction vulnerability. A trinucleotide repeat marker, located in the 5? untranslated region (5?UTR) of the PPP3CA mRNA, exhibited significantly different genotype and allele frequencies between abusers and controls in the NIDA African–American sample. The polymorphism showed allelic-specific expression in mRNA extracted from postmortem brain specimens. Novel alternatively spliced isoforms of PPP3CA were identified and their expressions were found altered in brain regions of postmortem Alzheimer's disease patients. These data underscore the importance of calcineurin gene in the molecular mechanism of addiction and Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:20590401

  11. Alternatively spliced isoforms of the human constitutive androstane receptor

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA and 3 Department of Veterinary Science, 115 Henning of genes encoding xenobiotic- and steroid- metabolizing enzymes. Regulatory processes that are mediated mRNA splice tran- scripts were expressed in all human livers evalu- ated. Molecular modeling

  12. Rbfox3-regulated alternative splicing of Numb promotes neuronal differentiation during development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee K; Nam, Joseph; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke; Kawamoto, Sachiyo

    2013-02-18

    Alternative premRNA splicing is a major mechanism to generate diversity of gene products. However, the biological roles of alternative splicing during development remain elusive. Here, we focus on a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein, Rbfox3, recently identified as the antigen of the widely used anti-NeuN antibody. siRNA-mediated loss-of-function studies using the developing chicken spinal cord revealed that Rbfox3 is required to promote neuronal differentiation of postmitotic neurons. Numb premRNA encoding a signaling adaptor protein was found to be a target of Rbfox3 action, and Rbfox3 repressed the inclusion of an alternative exon via binding to the conserved UGCAUG element in the upstream intron. Depleting a specific Numb splice isoform reproduced similar neuronal differentiation defects. Forced expression of the relevant Numb splice isoform was sufficient to rescue, in an isoform-specific manner, postmitotic neurons from defects in differentiation caused by Rbfox3 depletion. Thus, Rbfox3-dependent Numb alternative splicing plays an important role in the progression of neuronal differentiation during vertebrate development. PMID:23420872

  13. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5? splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  14. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Pamela; Busà, Roberta; Di Stasi, Savino M; Munoz, Manuel J; Botti, Flavia; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Sette, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is tightly coupled to transcription for the majority of human genes. However, how these two processes are linked is not well understood. Here, we unveil a direct role for the transcription factor FBI-1 in the regulation of AS. FBI-1 interacts with the splicing factor SAM68 and reduces its binding to BCL-X mRNA. This, in turn, results in the selection of the proximal 5' splice site in BCL-X exon 2, thereby favoring the anti-apoptotic BCL-XL variant and counteracting SAM68-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, depletion of FBI-1, or expression of a SAM68 mutant lacking the FBI-1 binding region, restores the ability of SAM68 to induce BCL-XS splicing and apoptosis. FBI-1's role in splicing requires the activity of histone deacetylases, whose pharmacological inhibition recapitulates the effects of FBI-1 knockdown. Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival. PMID:24514149

  15. Ex vivo splicing assays of mutations at noncanonical positions of splice sites in USHER genes.

    PubMed

    Le Guédard-Méreuze, Sandie; Vaché, Christel; Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Larrieu, Lise; Abadie, Caroline; Janecke, Andreas; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Molecular diagnosis in Usher syndrome type 1 and 2 patients led to the identification of 21 sequence variations located in noncanonical positions of splice sites in MYO7A, CDH23, USH1C, and USH2A genes. To establish experimentally the splicing pattern of these substitutions, whose impact on splicing is not always predictable by available softwares, ex vivo splicing assays were performed. The branch-point mapping strategy was also used to investigate further a putative branch-point mutation in USH2A intron 43. Aberrant splicing was demonstrated for 16 of the 21 (76.2%) tested sequence variations. The mutations resulted more frequently in activation of a nearby cryptic splice site or use of a de novo splice site than exon skipping (37.5%). This study allowed the reclassification as splicing mutations of one silent (c.7872G>A (p.Glu2624Glu) in CDH23) and four missense mutations (c.2993G>A (p.Arg998Lys) in USH2A, c.592G>A (p.Ala198Thr), c.3503G>C [p.Arg1168Pro], c.5944G>A (p.Gly1982Arg) in MYO7A), whereas it provided clues about a role in structure/function in four other cases: c.802G>A (p.Gly268Arg), c.653T>A (p.Val218Glu) (USH2A), and c.397C>T (p.His133Tyr), c.3502C>T (p.Arg1168Trp) (MYO7A). Our data provide insights into the contribution of splicing mutations in Usher genes and illustrate the need to define accurately their splicing outcome for diagnostic purposes. PMID:20052763

  16. Disturbed Expression of Splicing Factors in Renal Cancer Affects Alternative Splicing of Apoptosis Regulators, Oncogenes, and Tumor Suppressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka Piekielko-Witkowska; Hanna Wiszomirska; Anna Wojcicka; Piotr Poplawski; Joanna Boguslawska; Zbigniew Tanski; Alicja Nauman; Juan Valcarcel

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundClear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cancer. One of the processes disturbed in this cancer type is alternative splicing, although phenomena underlying these disturbances remain unknown. Alternative splicing consists of selective removal of introns and joining of residual exons of the primary transcript, to produce mRNA molecules of different sequence. Splicing aberrations may

  17. Alternative Splicing Regulated by Butyrate in Bovine Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitao Wu; Congjun Li; Wen Huang; Weizhong Li; Robert W. Li

    2012-01-01

    As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for

  18. An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    An Alternative Splicing Switch Regulates Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency and Reprogramming Mathieu for Systems Biology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute 4Center for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Samuel expression. Here, we identify an evolutionarily conserved embryonic stem cell (ESC)- specific AS event

  19. Expanded alternative splice isoform profiling of the mouse Cav3.1\\/?1G T-type calcium channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne L Ernst; Jeffrey L Noebels

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels contributes to the molecular and functional diversity mediating complex network oscillations in the normal brain. Transcript scanning of the human CACNA1G gene has revealed the presence of 11 regions within the coding sequence subjected to alternative splicing, some of which enhance T-type current. In mouse models of absence epilepsy, elevated T-type calcium

  20. Isolation and characterization of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: identification of 5' alternative splice sites responsible for multiple mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, K.L.; Anhalt, M.J.; Martin, B.M.; Kelsoe, J.R.; Winfield, S.L.; Ginns, E.I.

    1987-11-03

    A full-length genomic clone for human tyrosine hydroxylase (L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.16.2) has been isolated. A human brain genomic library constructed in EMBL3 was screened by using a rat cDNA for tyrosine hydroxylase as a probe. Out of one million recombinant phage, one clone was identified that hybridized to both 5' and 3' rat cDNA probes. Restriction endonuclease mapping, Southern blotting, and sequence analysis revealed that, like its rodent counterpart, the human gene is single copy, contains 13 primary exons, and spans approximately 8 kilobases (kb). In contrast to the rat gene, human tyrosine hydroxylase undergoes alternative RNA processing within intron 1, generating at least three distinct mRNAs. A comparison of the human tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase genes indicates that although both probably evolved from a common ancestral gene, major changes in the size of introns have occurred since their divergence.

  1. Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Thomas L.; Arribere, Joshua A.; Geurts, Paul A.; Exner, Cameron R. T.; McDonald, Kent L.; Dill, Kariena K.; Marr, Henry L.; Adkar, Shaunak S.; Garnett, Aaron T.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Conboy, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Rbfox RNA binding proteins are implicated as regulators of phylogenetically-conserved alternative splicing events important for muscle function. To investigate the function of rbfox genes, we used morpholino-mediated knockdown of muscle-expressed rbfox1l and rbfox2 in zebrafish embryos. Single and double morphant embryos exhibited changes in splicing of overlapping sets of bioinformatically-predicted rbfox target exons, many of which exhibit a muscle-enriched splicing pattern that is conserved in vertebrates. Thus, conservation of intronic Rbfox binding motifs is a good predictor of Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing. Morphology and development of single morphant embryos was strikingly normal; however, muscle development in double morphants was severely disrupted. Defects in cardiac muscle were marked by reduced heart rate and in skeletal muscle by complete paralysis. The predominance of wavy myofibers and abnormal thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle revealed that myofibril assembly is defective and disorganized in double morphants. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that although sarcomeres with electron dense M- and Z-bands are present in muscle fibers of rbfox1l/rbox2 morphants, they are substantially reduced in number and alignment. Importantly, splicing changes and morphological defects were rescued by expression of morpholino-resistant rbfox cDNA. Additionally, a target-blocking MO complementary to a single UGCAUG motif adjacent to an rbfox target exon of fxr1 inhibited inclusion in a similar manner to rbfox knockdown, providing evidence that Rbfox regulates the splicing of target exons via direct binding to intronic regulatory motifs. We conclude that Rbfox proteins regulate an alternative splicing program essential for vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle function. PMID:21925157

  2. Exon 9 of the CFTR gene: splice site haplotypes and cystic fibrosis mutations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thilo Dörk; Rainer Fislage; Thomas Neumann; Brigitte Wulf; Burkhard Tümmler

    1994-01-01

    The alternatively spliced exon 9 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene codes for the initial part of the amino-terminal nucleotide-binding fold of CFTR. A unique feature of the acceptor splice site preceding this exon is a variable length polymorphism within the polypyrimidine tract influencing the extent of exon 9 skipping in CFTR mRNA. We investigated this repeat

  3. Different levels of alternative splicing among Eddo Kim, Alon Magen and Gil Ast*

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    Different levels of alternative splicing among eukaryotes Eddo Kim, Alon Magen and Gil Ast* Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat ABSTRACT Alternative splicing increases transcriptome and proteome diversification. Previous analyses

  4. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Giblin, P; Ledbetter, J A; Kavathas, P

    1989-01-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. We demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8+ T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern we observe differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation. Images PMID:2536941

  5. claudin-18, a Novel Downstream Target Gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 Homeodomain Transcription Factor, Encodes Lung- and Stomach-Specific Isoforms through Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, Tomoaki; Nagashima, Kunio; Ward, Jerrold M.; Minoo, Parviz; Zimonjic, Drazen B.; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Kimura, Shioko

    2001-01-01

    T/EBP/NKX2.1, a member of the NKX family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors, regulates the expression of a number of genes in lung and thyroid. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel target gene, termed claudin-18, that is down-regulated in the lungs of T/ebp/Nkx2.1-null mouse embryos. The gene product exhibits an amino acid sequence similar to those of the claudin multigene family of proteins that constitute tight junction strands in epithelial cells. The gene was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization to mouse chromosome 9 at region 9E3-F1 and to human chromosome 3 at region 3q21–23. The claudin-18 gene has two promoters, each with its own unique exon 1 that is spliced to common exons 2 through 5. Alternative usage of these promoters leads to production of lung and stomach-specific transcripts. The downstream lung-specific promoter contains two T/EBP/NKX2.1 binding sites responsible for trans activation of the gene by T/EBP/NKX2.1 in lung cells. Only claudin-18 was down-regulated in T/ebp/Nkx2.1-null embryo lungs among 11 claudin transcripts examined. Furthermore, the claudin-18 transcript has an alternative 12-bp insertion derived from the 5? end of intron 4, which produces a C-terminally truncated isoform in lung and stomach. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated complete membrane localization of claudin-18 with small focal dots in the lung and stomach epithelial cells. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis revealed that claudin-18 is concentrated at the cell-cell borders of epithelial cells. These unique features suggest a potentially important role for claudin-18 in the structure and function of tight junctions in lung and stomach. PMID:11585919

  6. Exon Organization and Novel Alternative Splicing of Ank3 in Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Yamankurt, Gokay; Wu, Henry C.; McCarthy, Michael; Cunha, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Ankyrin-G is an adaptor protein that links membrane proteins to the underlying cytoskeletal network. Alternative splicing of the Ank3 gene gives rise to multiple ankyrin-G isoforms in numerous tissues. To date, only one ankyrin-G isoform has been characterized in heart and transcriptional regulation of the Ank3 gene is completely unknown. In this study, we describe the first comprehensive analysis of Ank3 expression in heart. Using a PCR-based screen of cardiac mRNA transcripts, we identify two new exons and 28 alternative splice variants of the Ank3 gene. We measure the relative expression of each splice variant using quantitative real-time PCR and exon-exon boundary spanning primers that specifically amplify individual Ank3 variants. Six variants are rarely expressed (<1%), while the remaining variants display similar expression patterns in three hearts. Of the five first exons in the Ank3 gene, exon 1d is only expressed in heart and skeletal muscle as it was not detected in brain, kidney, cerebellum, and lung. Immunoblot analysis reveals multiple ankyrin-G isoforms in heart, and two ankyrin-G subpopulations are detected in adult cardiomyocytes by immunofluorescence. One population co-localizes with the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 at the intercalated disc, while the other population expresses at the Z-line. Two of the rare splice variants excise a portion of the ZU5 motif, which encodes the minimal spectrin-binding domain, and these variants lack ?-spectrin binding. Together, these data demonstrate that Ank3 is subject to complex splicing regulation resulting in a diverse population of ankyrin-G isoforms in heart. PMID:26024478

  7. 20-hydroxyecdysone mediates non-canonical regulation of mosquito vitellogenins through alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Provost-Javier, K N; Rasgon, J L

    2014-08-01

    Vitellogenesis is one of the most well-studied physiological processes in mosquitoes. Expression of mosquito vitellogenin genes is classically described as being restricted to female adult reproduction. We report premature vitellogenin transcript expression in three vector mosquitoes: Culex tarsalis, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. Vitellogenins expressed during non-reproductive stages are alternatively spliced to retain their first intron and encode premature termination codons. We show that intron retention results in transcript degradation by translation-dependent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This is probably an example of regulated unproductive splicing and translation (RUST), a mechanism known to regulate gene expression in numerous organisms but which has never been described in mosquitoes. We demonstrate that the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is responsible for regulating post-transcriptional splicing of vitellogenin. After exposure of previtellogenic fat bodies to 20E, vitellogenin expression switches from a non-productive intron-retaining transcript to a spliced protein-coding transcript. This effect is independent of factors classically known to influence transcription, such as juvenile hormone-mediated competence and amino acid signalling through the target of rapamycin pathway. Non-canonical regulation of vitellogenesis through RUST is a novel role for the multifunctional hormone 20E, and may have important implications for general patterns of gene regulation in mosquitoes. PMID:24720618

  8. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events conserved in human and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene W.; Van Nostrand, Eric; Holste, Dirk; Poggio, Tomaso; Burge, Christopher B.

    2005-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing affects a majority of human genes and plays important roles in development and disease. Alternative splicing (AS) events conserved since the divergence of human and mouse are likely of primary biological importance, but relatively few of such events are known. Here we describe sequence features that distinguish exons subject to evolutionarily conserved AS, which we call alternative conserved exons (ACEs), from other orthologous human/mouse exons and integrate these features into an exon classification algorithm, acescan. Genome-wide analysis of annotated orthologous human–mouse exon pairs identified ?2,000 predicted ACEs. Alternative splicing was verified in both human and mouse tissues by using an RT-PCR-sequencing protocol for 21 of 30 (70%) predicted ACEs tested, supporting the validity of a majority of acescan predictions. By contrast, AS was observed in mouse tissues for only 2 of 15 (13%) tested exons that had EST or cDNA evidence of AS in human but were not predicted ACEs, and AS was never observed for 11 negative control exons in human or mouse tissues. Predicted ACEs were much more likely to preserve the reading frame and less likely to disrupt protein domains than other AS events and were enriched in genes expressed in the brain and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, and development. Our results also imply that the vast majority of AS events represented in the human EST database are not conserved in mouse. PMID:15708978

  9. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bonnie A.; Zimmerly, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are ribozymes in bacterial and organellar genomes that function as self-splicing introns and as retroelements. Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs. Accurate fusion of upstream and downstream reading frames requires a shifted 5? splice site located 8 nt upstream of the usual 5? GUGYG motif. This site is specified by the ribozyme through an altered intron/exon-binding site 1 (IBS1–EBS1) pairing. Here we use mutagenesis and self-splicing assays to investigate in more detail the significance of the structural features of the C.te.I1 ribozyme. The shifted 5? splice site is shown to be affected by structures in addition to IBS1–EBS1, and unlike other group II introns, C.te.I1 appears to require a spacer between IBS1 and the GUGYG motif. In addition, the mechanism of 3? exon recognition is modified from the ancestral IIB mechanism to a IIA-like mechanism that appears to be longer than the typical single base-pair interaction and may extend up to 4 bp. The novel ribozyme properties that have evolved for C.te.I1 illustrate the plasticity of group II introns in adapting new structural and catalytic properties that can be utilized to affect gene expression. PMID:24751650

  10. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huelga, Stephanie C.; Vu, Anthony Q.; Arnold, Justin D.; Liang, Tiffany Y.; Liu, Patrick P.; Yan, Bernice Y.; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins, and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and auto-regulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells. PMID:22574288

  11. Differential Requirements for Alternative Splicing and Nuclear Export Functions of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Rev Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW E. HARRIS; RICHARD R. GONTAREK; DAVID DERSE; THOMAS J. HOPE

    1998-01-01

    The Rev protein of equine infectious anemia virus (ERev) exports unspliced and partially spliced viral RNAs from the nucleus. Like several cellular proteins, ERev regulates its own mRNA by mediating an alternative splicing event. To determine the requirements for these functions, we have identified ERev mutants that affect RNA export or both export and alternative splicing. Mutants were further characterized

  12. Cross-species EST alignments reveal novel and conserved alternative splicing events in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing-Bing; O'Toole, Mike; Brendel, Volker; Young, Nevin D

    2008-01-01

    Background Although originally thought to be less frequent in plants than in animals, alternative splicing (AS) is now known to be widespread in plants. Here we report the characteristics of AS in legumes, one of the largest and most important plant families, based on EST alignments to the genome sequences of Medicago truncatula (Mt) and Lotus japonicus (Lj). Results Based on cognate EST alignments alone, the observed frequency of alternatively spliced genes is lower in Mt (~10%, 1,107 genes) and Lj (~3%, 92 genes) than in Arabidopsis and rice (both around 20%). However, AS frequencies are comparable in all four species if EST levels are normalized. Intron retention is the most common form of AS in all four plant species (~50%), with slightly lower frequency in legumes compared to Arabidopsis and rice. This differs notably from vertebrates, where exon skipping is most common. To uncover additional AS events, we aligned ESTs from other legume species against the Mt genome sequence. In this way, 248 additional Mt genes were predicted to be alternatively spliced. We also identified 22 AS events completely conserved in two or more plant species. Conclusion This study extends the range of plant taxa shown to have high levels of AS, confirms the importance of intron retention in plants, and demonstrates the utility of using ESTs from related species in order to identify novel and conserved AS events. The results also indicate that the frequency of AS in plants is comparable to that observed in mammals. Finally, our results highlight the importance of normalizing EST levels when estimating the frequency of alternative splicing. PMID:18282305

  13. Alternative splicing of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA: expression and stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Sellers; A I Luchin; V Richard; R M Brena; D Lima; T J Rosol

    2004-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a multifunctional protein that is often dysregulated in cancer. The human PTHrP gene is alternatively spliced into three isoforms, each with a unique 3'-untranslated region (38-UTR), encoding 139, 173 and 141 amino acid proteins. The regulation of PTHrP mRNA isoform expression has not been completely elucidated, but it may be affected by transforming growth factor-1

  14. Complement receptor 2 polymorphisms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus modulate alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Katherine B.; Windels, Daniel C.; Zhao, Jian; Gadeliya, Agnessa V.; Wu, Hui; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Harley, John B.; Merrill, Joan; Kimberly, Robert P.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; James, Judith A.; Moser, Kathy L.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Ulgiati, Daniela; Tsao, Betty P.; Boackle, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic factors influence susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A recent family-based analysis in Caucasian and Chinese populations provided evidence for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) gene with SLE. Here we confirmed this result in a case-control analysis of an independent European-derived population including 2084 patients with SLE and 2853 healthy controls. A haplotype formed by the minor alleles of three CR2 SNPs (rs1048971, rs17615, rs4308977) showed significant association with decreased risk of SLE (30.4% in cases vs. 32.6% in controls, P = 0.016, OR = 0.90 [0.82-0.98]). Two of these SNPs are in exon 10, directly 5? of an alternatively spliced exon preferentially expressed in follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and the third is in the alternatively spliced exon. Effects of these SNPs as well as a fourth SNP in exon 11 (rs17616) on alternative splicing were evaluated. We found that the minor alleles of these SNPs decreased splicing efficiency of exon 11 both in vitro and ex vivo. These findings further implicate CR2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest that CR2 variants alter the maintenance of tolerance and autoantibody production in the secondary lymphoid tissues where B cells and FDCs interact. PMID:19387458

  15. Differential subcellular localization of the two alternatively spliced isoforms of the Kv3.1 potassium channel subunit in brain.

    PubMed

    Ozaita, A; Martone, M E; Ellisman, M H; Rudy, B

    2002-07-01

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels containing pore-forming subunits of the Kv3 subfamily have specific roles in the fast repolarization of action potentials and enable neurons to fire repetitively at high frequencies. Each of the four known Kv3 genes encode multiple products by alternative splicing of 3' ends resulting in the expression of K(+) channel subunits differing only in their C-terminal sequence. The alternative splicing does not affect the electrophysiological properties of the channels, and its physiological role is unknown. It has been proposed that one of the functions of the alternative splicing of Kv3 genes is to produce subunit isoforms with differential subcellular membrane localizations in neurons and differential modulation by signaling pathways. We investigated the role of the alternative splicing of Kv3 subunits in subcellular localization by examining the brain distribution of the two alternatively spliced versions of the Kv3.1 gene (Kv3.1a and Kv3.1b) with antibodies specific for the alternative spliced C-termini. Kv3.1b proteins were prominently expressed in the somatic and proximal dendritic membrane of specific neuronal populations in the mouse brain. The axons of most of these neurons also expressed Kv3.1b protein. In contrast, Kv3.1a proteins were prominently expressed in the axons of some of the same neuronal populations, but there was little to no Kv3.1a protein expression in somatodendritic membrane. Exceptions to this pattern were seen in two neuronal populations with unusual targeting of axonal proteins, mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, and mesencephalic trigeminal neurons, which expressed Kv3.1a protein in dendritic and somatic membrane, respectively. The results support the hypothesis that the alternative spliced C-termini of Kv3 subunits regulate their subcellular targeting in neurons. PMID:12091563

  16. Modeling alternative splicing variants from RNA-Seq data with isoform graphs.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Stefano; Bonizzoni, Paola; Vedova, Gianluca Della; Pirola, Yuri; Rizzi, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies need new methodologies for alternative splicing (AS) analysis. Current computational methods for AS analysis from NGS data are mainly based on aligning short reads against a reference genome, while methods that do not need a reference genome are mostly underdeveloped. In this context, the main developed tools for NGS data focus on de novo transcriptome assembly (Grabherr et al., 2011 ; Schulz et al., 2012). While these tools are extensively applied for biological investigations and often show intrinsic shortcomings from the obtained results, a theoretical investigation of the inherent computational limits of transcriptome analysis from NGS data, when a reference genome is unknown or highly unreliable, is still missing. On the other hand, we still lack methods for computing the gene structures due to AS events under the above assumptions--a problem that we start to tackle with this article. More precisely, based on the notion of isoform graph (Lacroix et al., 2008), we define a compact representation of gene structures--called splicing graph--and investigate the computational problem of building a splicing graph that is (i) compatible with NGS data and (ii) isomorphic to the isoform graph. We characterize when there is only one representative splicing graph compatible with input data, and we propose an efficient algorithmic approach to compute this graph. PMID:24200390

  17. Plasma proteomics, the Human Proteome Project, and cancer-associated alternative splice variant proteins.

    PubMed

    Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-05-01

    This article addresses three inter-related subjects: the development of the Human Plasma Proteome Peptide Atlas, the launch of the Human Proteome Project, and the emergence of alternative splice variant transcripts and proteins as important features of evolution and pathogenesis. The current Plasma Peptide Atlas provides evidence on which peptides have been detected for every protein confidently identified in plasma; there are links to their spectra and their estimated abundance, facilitating the planning of targeted proteomics for biomarker studies. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) combines a chromosome-centric C-HPP with a biology and disease-driven B/D-HPP, upon a foundation of mass spectrometry, antibody, and knowledgebase resource pillars. The HPP aims to identify the approximately 7000 "missing proteins" and to characterize all proteins and their many isoforms. Success will enable the larger research community to utilize newly-available peptides, spectra, informative MS transitions, and databases for targeted analyses of priority proteins for each organ and disease. Among the isoforms of proteins, splice variants have the special feature of greatly enlarging protein diversity without enlarging the genome; evidence is accumulating of striking differential expression of splice variants in cancers. In this era of RNA-sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, it is no longer sufficient to speak simply of increased or decreased expression of genes or proteins without carefully examining the splice variants in the protein mixture produced from each multi-exon gene. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. PMID:24211518

  18. Novel female-specific trans-spliced and alternative splice forms of dsx in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jianping; Xu, Hanfu; Wang, Feng; Ma, Sanyuan; Zha, Xingfu; Guo, Huizhen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-02-15

    The Bombyx mori doublesex gene (Bmdsx) plays an important role in somatic sexual development. Its pre-mRNA splices in a sex-specific manner to generate two female-specific and one male-specific splice forms. The present study investigated six novel dsx variants generated by trans-splicing between female dsx transcripts and two additional novel genes, dsr1 and dsr2. Expression analysis indicated that Bmdsx-dsr1 represented splicing noise, whereas dsr2, which trans-spliced with dsx to generate five variants, regulated the expression of the female-specific B. mori dsx transcript Bmdsx(F)s. We unexpectedly found a novel exon 2n insertion during Bmdsx transcription, which did not influence the validity of the novel protein, BmDSX(F3). Ectopic expression of BmDSX(F3) repressed the pheromone-binding protein gene and the testis-specific gene A2 in males, and activated of the storage protein 1 gene. Our findings suggest that trans-splicing is a novel regulatory function of Bmdsx, which participates in female sexual development by regulating the expression of three BmDSX(F) proteins. PMID:23261436

  19. Highlights of Alternative Splicing Regulation Session: Yes, No, Maybe--A History of Paradigm Shifts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas A. Cooper (Baylor College of Medicine; Departments of Pathology and Molecular and Cellular Biology REV)

    2001-10-23

    Cooper summarizes the discussions and presentations from the session entitled "Control of Splice Site Selection" held at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the RNA Society. Paradigms are shifting as experiments show that some of the proteins involved in regulating splicing can act as splicing enhancers or repressors, depending on the cellular context. The complex interactions among the ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and proteins, and the role of cis elements, in controlling cell-specific splicing are highlighted. The importance of properly regulated splicing is emphasized by examples of disease pathologies in which alternative splicing is aberrant.

  20. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing contribute to mRNA heterogeneity of mouse monocarboxylate transporter 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shelley X L; Searcy, Tina R; Wu, Yiman; Gozal, David; Wang, Yang

    2007-12-19

    Expression patterns of monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) display mRNA diversity in a tissue-specific fashion. We cloned and characterized multiple mct2 5'-cDNA ends from the mouse and determined the structural organization of the mct2 gene. We found that transcription of this gene was initiated from five independent genomic regions that spanned >80 kb on chromosome 10, resulting in five unique exon 1 variants (exons 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1e) that were then spliced to the common exon 2. Alternative splicing of four internal exons (exons AS1, AS2, AS3, and exon 3) greatly increased the complexity of mRNA diversity. While exon 1c was relatively commonly used for transcription initiation in various tissues, other exon 1 variants were used in a tissue-specific fashion, especially exons 1b and 1d that were used exclusively for testis-specific expression. Sequence analysis of 5'-flanking regions upstream of exons 1a, 1b, and 1c revealed the presence of numerous potential binding sites for ubiquitous transcription factors in all three regions and for transcription factors implicated in testis-specific or hypoxia-induced gene expression in the 1b region. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that each of the three regions contained a functional promoter and that the in vitro, cell type-specific activities of these promoters were consistent with the tissue-specific expression pattern of the mct2 gene in vivo. These results indicate that tissue-specific expression of the mct2 gene is controlled by multiple alternative promoters and that both alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing contribute to the remarkable mRNA diversity of the gene. PMID:17911380

  1. Alternative Splicing of the Cyclin D1 Proto-Oncogene Is Regulated by the RNA-Binding Protein Sam68

    PubMed Central

    Paronetto, Maria Paola; Cappellari, Manuela; Busà, Roberta; Pedrotti, Simona; Vitali, Roberta; Comstock, Clay; Hyslop, Terry; Knudsen, Karen E.; Sette, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Human cyclin D1 is expressed as two isoforms derived by alternate RNA splicing, termed D1a and D1b, which differ for the inclusion of intron 4 in the D1b mRNA. Both isoforms are frequently upregulated in human cancers, but cyclin D1b displays relatively higher oncogenic potential. The splicing factors that regulate alternative splicing of cyclin D1b remain unknown despite the likelihood that they contribute to cyclin D1 oncogenicity. In this study, we report that Sam68, an RNA-binding protein frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, enhances splicing of cyclin D1b and supports its expression in prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that Sam68 is recruited to the human CCND1 gene encoding cyclin D1 and that it binds to cyclin D1 mRNA. Transient overexpression and RNAi knockdown experiments indicated that Sam68 acts to enhance endogenous expression of cyclin D1b. Minigene reporter assays showed that Sam68 directly affected alternative splicing of CCND1 message, with a preference for the A870 allele that is known to favor cyclin D1b splicing. Sam68 interacted with the proximal region of intron 4, and its binding correlated inversely with recruitment of the spliceosomal component U1-70K. Sam68-mediated splicing was modulated by signal transduction pathways that elicit phosphorylation of Sam68 and regulate its affinity for CCND1 intron 4. Notably, Sam68 expression positively correlates with levels of cyclin D1b, but not D1a, in human prostate carcinomas. Our results identify Sam68 as the first splicing factor to affect CCND1 alternative splicing in prostate cancer cells, and suggest that increased levels of Sam68 may stimulate cyclin D1b expression in human prostate cancers. PMID:20028857

  2. cDNA cloning reveals a tissue specific expression of alternatively spliced transcripts of the ryanodine receptor type 3 (RyR3) calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Marziali, G; Rossi, D; Giannini, G; Charlesworth, A; Sorrentino, V

    1996-09-23

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels. Three cDNAs encoding different isoforms of RyR have been identified and cloned. We report the complete sequence of the mink RyR3 cDNA and the characterization of three alternative spliced regions. The first two splicing sites are represented by insertions of five and six amino acids, respectively. The third site is represented by a mutually exclusive splicing. The tissue distribution of the alternatively spliced transcripts revealed a ubiquitous expression of splicing site I and a differential distribution of sites II and III, indicating that a further level of complexity in RyR3 expression may result from alternative splicings in this gene. PMID:8925932

  3. Regulation of alternative splicing through coupling with transcription and chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Naftelberg, Shiran; Schor, Ignacio E; Ast, Gil; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-06-01

    Alternative precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing plays a pivotal role in the flow of genetic information from DNA to proteins by expanding the coding capacity of genomes. Regulation of alternative splicing is as important as regulation of transcription to determine cell- and tissue-specific features, normal cell functioning, and responses of eukaryotic cells to external cues. Its importance is confirmed by the evolutionary conservation and diversification of alternative splicing and the fact that its deregulation causes hereditary disease and cancer. This review discusses the multiple layers of cotranscriptional regulation of alternative splicing in which chromatin structure, DNA methylation, histone marks, and nucleosome positioning play a fundamental role in providing a dynamic scaffold for interactions between the splicing and transcription machineries. We focus on evidence for how the kinetics of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation and the recruitment of splicing factors and adaptor proteins to chromatin components act in coordination to regulate alternative splicing. PMID:26034889

  4. The cardiotonic steroid digitoxin regulates alternative splicing through depletion of the splicing factors SRSF3 and TRA2B

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Erik S.

    Modulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a potential approach to therapeutic targeting for a variety of human diseases. We investigated the mechanism by which digitoxin, a member of the cardiotonic steroid class of ...

  5. Multiple non-coding exons and alternative splicing in the mouse Mas protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Alenina, Natalia; Böhme, Ilka; Bader, Michael; Walther, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The Mas protooncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with the common seven transmembrane domains, expressed mainly in the testis and brain. We provided evidence that Mas is a functional angiotensin-(1-7) receptor and can interact with the angiotensin II type1 (AT1) receptor. The gene is transcriptionally regulated during development in the brain and testis, but its structure was unresolved. In this study we used 5'- and 3'-RACE, RT-PCR, and RNase-protection assays to elucidate the complete Mas gene structure and organization. We identified 12 exons in the mouse Mas gene with 11 in the 5' untranslated mRNA, which can be alternatively spliced. We also showed that Mas transcription can start from 4 tissue-specific promoters, whereby testis-specific Mas mRNA is transcribed from two upstream promoters, and the expression of Mas in the brain starts from two downstream promoters. Alternative splicing and multiple promoter usage result in at least 12 Mas transcripts in which different 5' untranslated regions are fused to a common coding sequence. Moreover, termination of Mas mRNA is regulated by two different polyadenylation signals. The gene spans approximately 27kb, and the longest detected mRNA contains 2451bp. Thus, our results characterize the Mas protooncogene as the gene with the most complex gene structure of all described members of the gene family coding for G protein-coupled receptors. PMID:26003294

  6. Regulation of alternative VEGF-A mRNA splicing is a therapeutic target for analgesia?

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, R.P.; Beazley-Long, N.; Hua, J.; Kennedy, H.; Prager, J.; Bevan, H.; Qiu, Y.; Fernandes, E.S.; Gammons, M.V.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Gittenberger de Groot, A.C.; Churchill, A.J.; Harper, S.J.; Brain, S.D.; Bates, D.O.; Donaldson, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is best known as a key regulator of the formation of new blood vessels. Neutralization of VEGF-A with anti-VEGF therapy e.g. bevacizumab, can be painful, and this is hypothesized to result from a loss of VEGF-A-mediated neuroprotection. The multiple vegf-a gene products consist of two alternatively spliced families, typified by VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b (both contain 165 amino acids), both of which are neuroprotective. Under pathological conditions, such as in inflammation and cancer, the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A165a is upregulated and predominates over the VEGF-A165b isoform. We show here that in rats and mice VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b have opposing effects on pain, and that blocking the proximal splicing event – leading to the preferential expression of VEGF-A165b over VEGF165a – prevents pain in vivo. VEGF-A165a sensitizes peripheral nociceptive neurons through actions on VEGFR2 and a TRPV1-dependent mechanism, thus enhancing nociceptive signaling. VEGF-A165b blocks the effect of VEGF-A165a. After nerve injury, the endogenous balance of VEGF-A isoforms switches to greater expression of VEGF-Axxxa compared to VEGF-Axxxb, through an SRPK1-dependent pre-mRNA splicing mechanism. Pharmacological inhibition of SRPK1 after traumatic nerve injury selectively reduced VEGF-Axxxa expression and reversed associated neuropathic pain. Exogenous VEGF-A165b also ameliorated neuropathic pain. We conclude that the relative levels of alternatively spliced VEGF-A isoforms are critical for pain modulation under both normal conditions and in sensory neuropathy. Altering VEGF-Axxxa/VEGF-Axxxb balance by targeting alternative RNA splicing may be a new analgesic strategy. PMID:25151644

  7. A post-transcriptional regulatory switch in polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins reprograms alternative splicing in developing neurons

    PubMed Central

    Boutz, Paul L.; Stoilov, Peter; Li, Qin; Lin, Chia-Ho; Chawla, Geetanjali; Ostrow, Kristin; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Black, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Many metazoan gene transcripts exhibit neuron-specific splicing patterns, but the developmental control of these splicing events is poorly understood. We show that the splicing of a large group of exons is reprogrammed during neuronal development by a switch in expression between two highly similar polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins, PTB and nPTB (neural PTB). PTB is a well-studied regulator of alternative splicing, but nPTB is a closely related paralog whose functional relationship to PTB is unknown. In the brain, nPTB protein is specifically expressed in post-mitotic neurons, whereas PTB is restricted to neuronal precursor cells (NPC), glia, and other nonneuronal cells. Interestingly, nPTB mRNA transcripts are found in NPCs and other nonneuronal cells, but in these cells nPTB protein expression is repressed. This repression is due in part to PTB-induced alternative splicing of nPTB mRNA, leading to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). However, we find that even properly spliced mRNA fails to express nPTB protein when PTB is present, indicating contributions from additional post-transcriptional mechanisms. The PTB-controlled repression of nPTB results in a mutually exclusive pattern of expression in the brain, where the loss of PTB in maturing neurons allows the synthesis of nPTB in these cells. To examine the consequences of this switch, we used splicing-sensitive microarrays to identify different sets of exons regulated by PTB, nPTB, or both proteins. During neuronal differentiation, the splicing of these exon sets is altered as predicted from the observed changes in PTB and nPTB expression. These data show that the post-transcriptional switch from PTB to nPTB controls a widespread alternative splicing program during neuronal development. PMID:17606642

  8. Mutations in Tau Gene Exon 10 Associated with FTDP-17 Alter the Activity of an Exonic Splicing Enhancer to Interact with Tra2?*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhihong; Tang, Hao; Havlioglu, Necat; Zhang, Xiaochun; Stamm, Stefan; Yan, Riqiang; Wu, Jane Y.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the human tau gene leading to aberrant splicing have been identified in FTDP-17, an autosomal dominant hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Molecular mechanisms by which such mutations cause tau aberrant splicing were not understood. We characterized two mutations in exon 10 of the tau gene, N279K and Del280K. Our results revealed an exonic splicing enhancer element located in exon 10. The activity of this AG-rich splicing enhancer was altered by N279K and Del280K mutations. This exonic enhancer element interacts with human Tra2? protein. The interaction between Tra2? and the exonic splicing enhancer correlates with the activity of this enhancer element in stimulating splicing. Biochemical studies including in vitro splicing and RNA interference experiments in transfected cells support a role for Tra2? protein in regulating alternative splicing of human tau gene. Our results implicate the human tau gene as a target gene for the alternative splicing regulator Tra2?, suggesting that Tra2? may play a role in aberrant tau exon 10 alternative splicing and in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. PMID:12649279

  9. Functional coordination of alternative splicing in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Fagnani, Matthew; Barash, Yoseph; Ip, Joanna Y; Misquitta, Christine; Pan, Qun; Saltzman, Arneet L; Shai, Ofer; Lee, Leo; Rozenhek, Aviad; Mohammad, Naveed; Willaime-Morawek, Sandrine; Babak, Tomas; Zhang, Wen; Hughes, Timothy R; van der Kooy, Derek; Frey, Brendan J; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) functions to expand proteomic complexity and plays numerous important roles in gene regulation. However, the extent to which AS coordinates functions in a cell and tissue type specific manner is not known. Moreover, the sequence code that underlies cell and tissue type specific regulation of AS is poorly understood. Results Using quantitative AS microarray profiling, we have identified a large number of widely expressed mouse genes that contain single or coordinated pairs of alternative exons that are spliced in a tissue regulated fashion. The majority of these AS events display differential regulation in central nervous system (CNS) tissues. Approximately half of the corresponding genes have neural specific functions and operate in common processes and interconnected pathways. Differential regulation of AS in the CNS tissues correlates strongly with a set of mostly new motifs that are predominantly located in the intron and constitutive exon sequences neighboring CNS-regulated alternative exons. Different subsets of these motifs are correlated with either increased inclusion or increased exclusion of alternative exons in CNS tissues, relative to the other profiled tissues. Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence that specific cellular processes in the mammalian CNS are coordinated at the level of AS, and that a complex splicing code underlies CNS specific AS regulation. This code appears to comprise many new motifs, some of which are located in the constitutive exons neighboring regulated alternative exons. These data provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the tissue specific functions of widely expressed genes are coordinated at the level of AS. PMID:17565696

  10. Multivariate Analysis and Visualization of Splicing Correlations in Single-Gene Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Emerick, Mark C; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Agnew, William S

    2007-01-01

    Background RNA metabolism, through 'combinatorial splicing', can generate enormous structural diversity in the proteome. Alternative domains may interact, however, with unpredictable phenotypic consequences, necessitating integrated RNA-level regulation of molecular composition. Splicing correlations within transcripts of single genes provide valuable clues to functional relationships among molecular domains as well as genomic targets for higher-order splicing regulation. Results We present tools to visualize complex splicing patterns in full-length cDNA libraries. Developmental changes in pair-wise correlations are presented vectorially in 'clock plots' and linkage grids. Higher-order correlations are assessed statistically through Monte Carlo analysis of a log-linear model with an empirical-Bayes estimate of the true probabilities of observed and unobserved splice forms. Log-linear coefficients are visualized in a 'spliceprint,' a signature of splice correlations in the transcriptome. We present two novel metrics: the linkage change index, which measures the directional change in pair-wise correlation with tissue differentiation, and the accuracy index, a very simple goodness-of-fit metric that is more sensitive than the integrated squared error when applied to sparsely populated tables, and unlike chi-square, does not diverge at low variance. Considerable attention is given to sparse contingency tables, which are inherent to single-gene libraries. Conclusion Patterns of splicing correlations are revealed, which span a broad range of interaction order and change in development. The methods have a broad scope of applicability, beyond the single gene – including, for example, multiple gene interactions in the complete transcriptome. PMID:17233916

  11. Identification and molecular characterization of three new K+-channel specific toxins from the Chinese scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch revealing intronic number polymorphism and alternative splicing in duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-Chun; Zhang, Lei; Nie, Yao; Luo, Xuesong

    2012-04-01

    K(+)-channel specific toxins from scorpions are powerful probes used in the structural and functional characterization of different subfamilies of K(+)-channels which are thought to be the most diverse ion channels. However, only a limited number of K(+)-channel toxins have been identified from scorpions so far; moreover, little is known about the mechanisms for the generation of a combinatorial peptide library in a venom gland of a scorpion. Here, we identified and characterized three new K(+)-channel toxin-like peptides from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, which were referred to as BmKcug1, BmKcug2 and BmKcugx, respectively. BmKcug1 and BmKcug2 are two new members of ?-KTx1 subfamily, and have been classified as ?-KTx1.14 and ?-KTx1.15, respectively. BmKcugx represents a new subfamily of K(+)-channel specific toxins which was classified into ?-KTx22. BmKcugx was thus classified as ?-KTx22.1. Genomic analysis demonstrated that BmKcugx gene has two exons interrupted by an intron inserted in the signal peptide encoding region, whereas BmKcug1a (a close homologue of BmKcug1)/BmKcug2 gene was interrupted by two introns, located within the 5'UTR of the gene and in the signal peptide encoding region, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis for the venom glands of M. martensii Karsch indicated that the abundances of the transcripts of BmKcug1a and BmKcug2 are much higher than that of BmKcugx; it suggests that the intron in 5'UTR could markedly increase the expression level of the K(+)-channel toxins. Alignment of the genomic sequences of BmKcug1a and BmKcug2 revealed that an alternative splicing event occurred at the intron 1-exon 2 junction in the 5'UTR of BmKcug2 transcript. PMID:22230549

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

    2014-04-28

    Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

  13. Mouse Models of Mutations and Variations in Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Genes: Mice Expressing Caps2/Cadps2 Copy Number and Alternative Splicing Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Shinoda, Yo; Sato, Akira; Iguchi, Hirotoshi; Ishii, Chiaki; Matsuo, Makoto; Yamaga, Ryosuke; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disturbances in interpersonal relationships and behavior. Although the prevalence of autism is high, effective treatments have not yet been identified. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified many mutations or variations associated with ASD risk on many chromosome loci and genes. Identification of the biological roles of these mutations or variations is necessary to identify the mechanisms underlying ASD pathogenesis and to develop clinical treatments. At present, mice harboring genetic modifications of ASD-associated gene candidates are the best animal models to analyze hereditary factors involved in autism. In this report, the biological significance of ASD-associated genes is discussed by examining the phenotypes of mouse models with ASD-associated mutations or variations in mouse homologs, with a focus on mice harboring genetic modifications of the Caps2/Cadps2 (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2) gene. PMID:24287856

  14. Generation of functionally distinct isoforms of PTBP3 by alternative splicing and translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lit-Yeen; Whitfield, Peter; Llorian, Miriam; Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Diaz-Munoz, Manuel D; Turner, Martin; Smith, Christopher W J

    2015-06-23

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a widely expressed RNA binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative splicing and of cytoplasmic mRNA functions. Vertebrates contain two closely-related paralogs with >75% amino acid sequence identity. Early replacement of PTBP1 by PTBP2 during neuronal differentiation causes a concerted set of splicing changes. By comparison, very little is known about the molecular functions or physiological roles of PTBP3, although its expression and conservation throughout the vertebrates suggest a role in haematopoietic cells. To begin to understand its functions we have characterized the mRNA and protein isoform repertoire of PTBP3. Combinatorial alternative splicing events at the 5' end of the gene allow for the generation of eight mRNA and three major protein isoforms. Individual mRNAs generate up to three protein isoforms via alternative translation initiation by re-initiation and leaky scanning using downstream AUG codons. The N-terminally truncated PTBP3 isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and/or most of the RRM1 domain and vary in their RNA binding properties and nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution, suggesting that PTBP3 may have major post-transcriptional cytoplasmic roles. Our findings set the stage for understanding the non-redundant physiological roles of PTBP3. PMID:25940628

  15. Generation of functionally distinct isoforms of PTBP3 by alternative splicing and translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lit-Yeen; Whitfield, Peter; Llorian, Miriam; Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Diaz-Munoz, Manuel D.; Turner, Martin; Smith, Christopher W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a widely expressed RNA binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative splicing and of cytoplasmic mRNA functions. Vertebrates contain two closely-related paralogs with >75% amino acid sequence identity. Early replacement of PTBP1 by PTBP2 during neuronal differentiation causes a concerted set of splicing changes. By comparison, very little is known about the molecular functions or physiological roles of PTBP3, although its expression and conservation throughout the vertebrates suggest a role in haematopoietic cells. To begin to understand its functions we have characterized the mRNA and protein isoform repertoire of PTBP3. Combinatorial alternative splicing events at the 5? end of the gene allow for the generation of eight mRNA and three major protein isoforms. Individual mRNAs generate up to three protein isoforms via alternative translation initiation by re-initiation and leaky scanning using downstream AUG codons. The N-terminally truncated PTBP3 isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and/or most of the RRM1 domain and vary in their RNA binding properties and nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution, suggesting that PTBP3 may have major post-transcriptional cytoplasmic roles. Our findings set the stage for understanding the non-redundant physiological roles of PTBP3. PMID:25940628

  16. The role played by alternative splicing in antigenic variability in human endo-parasites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endo-parasites that affect humans include Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, which remains one of the leading causes of death in human beings. Despite decades of research, vaccines to this and other endo-parasites remain elusive. This is in part due to the hyper-variability of the parasites surface proteins. Generally these surface proteins are encoded by a large family of genes, with only one being dominantly expressed at certain life stages. Another layer of complexity can be introduced through the alternative splicing of these surface proteins. The resulting isoforms may differ from each other with regard to cell localisation, substrate affinities and functions. They may even differ in structure to the extent that they are no longer recognised by the host’s immune system. In many cases this leads to changes in the N terminus of these proteins. The geographical localisation of endo-parasitic infections around the tropics and the highest incidences of HIV-1 infection in the same areas, adds a further layer of complexity as parasitic infections affect the host immune system resulting in higher HIV infection rates, faster disease progression, and an increase in the severity of infections and complications in HIV diagnosis. This review discusses some examples of parasite surface proteins that are alternatively spliced in trypanosomes, Plasmodium and the parasitic worm Schistosoma as well as what role alternate splicing may play in the interaction between HIV and these endo-parasites. PMID:24472559

  17. A statistical method for predicting splice variants between two groups of samples using GeneChip® expression array data

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenhong; Khalid, Najma; Hallahan, Andrew R; Olson, James M; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2006-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA results in RNA variants with combinations of selected exons. It is one of the essential biological functions and regulatory components in higher eukaryotic cells. Some of these variants are detectable with the Affymetrix GeneChip® that uses multiple oligonucleotide probes (i.e. probe set), since the target sequences for the multiple probes are adjacent within each gene. Hybridization intensity from a probe correlates with abundance of the corresponding transcript. Although the multiple-probe feature in the current GeneChip® was designed to assess expression values of individual genes, it also measures transcriptional abundance for a sub-region of a gene sequence. This additional capacity motivated us to develop a method to predict alternative splicing, taking advance of extensive repositories of GeneChip® gene expression array data. Results We developed a two-step approach to predict alternative splicing from GeneChip® data. First, we clustered the probes from a probe set into pseudo-exons based on similarity of probe intensities and physical adjacency. A pseudo-exon is defined as a sequence in the gene within which multiple probes have comparable probe intensity values. Second, for each pseudo-exon, we assessed the statistical significance of the difference in probe intensity between two groups of samples. Differentially expressed pseudo-exons are predicted to be alternatively spliced. We applied our method to empirical data generated from GeneChip® Hu6800 arrays, which include 7129 probe sets and twenty probes per probe set. The dataset consists of sixty-nine medulloblastoma (27 metastatic and 42 non-metastatic) samples and four cerebellum samples as normal controls. We predicted that 577 genes would be alternatively spliced when we compared normal cerebellum samples to medulloblastomas, and predicted that thirteen genes would be alternatively spliced when we compared metastatic medulloblastomas to non-metastatic ones. We checked the consistency of some of our findings with information in UCSC Human Genome Browser. Conclusion The two-step approach described in this paper is capable of predicting some alternative splicing from multiple oligonucleotide-based gene expression array data with GeneChip® technology. Our method employs the extensive repositories of gene expression array data available and generates alternative splicing hypotheses, which can be further validated by experimental studies. PMID:16603076

  18. Alternative splicing modulates Kv channel clustering through a molecular ball and chain mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandany, Nitzan; Marciano, Shir; Magidovich, Elhanan; Frimerman, Teddy; Yehezkel, Rinat; Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Lewin, Limor; Abdu, Uri; Orr, Irit; Yifrach, Ofer

    2015-03-01

    Ion channel clustering at the post-synaptic density serves a fundamental role in action potential generation and transmission. Here, we show that interaction between the Shaker Kv channel and the PSD-95 scaffold protein underlying channel clustering is modulated by the length of the intrinsically disordered C terminal channel tail. We further show that this tail functions as an entropic clock that times PSD-95 binding. We thus propose a ‘ball and chain’ mechanism to explain Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins, analogous to the mechanism describing channel fast inactivation. The physiological relevance of this mechanism is demonstrated in that alternative splicing of the Shaker channel gene to produce variants of distinct tail lengths resulted in differential channel cell surface expression levels and clustering metrics that correlate with differences in affinity of the variants for PSD-95. We suggest that modulating channel clustering by specific spatial-temporal spliced variant targeting serves a fundamental role in nervous system development and tuning.

  19. Muscleblind-like 1 (Mbnl1) regulates pre-mRNA alternative splicing during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Albert W; Shi, Jiahai; Wong, Piu; Luo, Katherine L; Trepman, Paula; Wang, Eric T; Choi, Heejo; Burge, Christopher B; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-07-24

    The scope and roles of regulated isoform gene expression during erythroid terminal development are poorly understood. We identified hundreds of differentiation-associated isoform changes during terminal erythropoiesis. Sequences surrounding cassette exons of skipped exon events are enriched for motifs bound by the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of splicing factors. Knockdown of Mbnl1 in cultured murine fetal liver erythroid progenitors resulted in a strong block in erythroid differentiation and disrupted the developmentally regulated exon skipping of Ndel1 mRNA, which is bound by MBNL1 and critical for erythroid terminal proliferation. These findings reveal an unanticipated scope of the alternative splicing program and the importance of Mbnl1 during erythroid terminal differentiation. PMID:24869935

  20. NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A.; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P.; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J.; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G.; Stone, Richard M.; Griffin, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34+ bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

  1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Ischemic Stroke of Different Etiologies Have Distinct Alternatively Spliced mRNA Profiles in the Blood: a Pilot RNA-seq Study.

    PubMed

    Dykstra-Aiello, Cheryl; Jickling, Glen C; Ander, Bradley P; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, DaZhi; Hull, Heather; Orantia, Miles; Ho, Carolyn; Stamova, Boryana

    2015-08-01

    Whole transcriptome studies have used 3'-biased expression microarrays to study genes regulated in the blood of stroke patients. However, alternatively spliced messenger RNA isoforms have not been investigated for ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in animals or humans. Alternative splicing is the mechanism whereby different combinations of exons of a single gene produce distinct mRNA and protein isoforms. Here, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine if alternative splicing differs for ICH and cardioembolic, large vessel and lacunar causes of ischemic stroke compared to controls. RNA libraries from 20 whole blood samples were sequenced to 200 M 2?×?100 bp reads using Illumina sequencing-by-synthesis technology. Differential alternative splicing was assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and differential exon usage was calculated. Four hundred twelve genes displayed differential alternative splicing among the groups (false discovery rate, FDR; p?genes) differentiated the groups (p?|1.2|). This pilot study demonstrates that alternatively spliced genes from whole blood differ in ICH compared to ischemic stroke and differ between different ischemic stroke etiologies. These results require validation in a separate cohort. PMID:25994285

  2. Quantification of type II procollagen splice forms using Alternative Transcript-qPCR (AT-qPCR)

    PubMed Central

    McAlinden, Audrey; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Wirthlin, Louisa; Ravindran, Soumya; Hering, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    During skeletal development, the onset of chondrogenic differentiation is marked by expression of the ?1(II) procollagen Col2a1) gene. Exon 2 of Col2a1 codes for a cysteine-rich von Willebrand factor C-like domain. Chondroprogenitors express the exon 2-containing IIA and IID splice forms by utilizing adjacent 5? splice sites separated by 3 base pairs. There is a shift to expression of the shorter, exon 2-lacking IIB splice form with further differentiation. Alternative splicing analysis of Col2a1 splice forms has often relied upon semi-quantitative PCR, using a single set of PCR primers to amplify multiple splice forms. We show that this widely used method is inaccurate due to mismatched amplification efficiency of different-sized PCR products. We have developed the TaqMan®-based AT-qPCR (Alternative Transcript-qPCR) assay to more accurately quantify alternatively spliced mRNA, and demonstrate the measurement of Col2a1 splice form expression in differentiating ATDC5 cells in vitro and in wild type mouse embryonic and postnatal cartilage in vivo. The AT-qPCR assay is based on the use of a multiple amplicon standard (MAS) plasmid, containing a chemically synthesized cluster of splice site-spanning PCR amplicons, to quantify alternative splice forms by standard curve-based qPCR. The MAS plasmid designed for Col2a1 also contained an 18S rRNA amplicon for sample normalization, and an amplicon corresponding to a region spanning exon 52-53 to measure total Col2a1 mRNA. In mouse E12.5 to P70 cartilage, we observed the expected switch between the IIA and IIB splice forms; no IID or IIC splice products were observed. However, in the ATDC5 cultures, predominant expression of the IIA and IID splice forms was found at all times in culture. Additionally, we observed that the sum of the IIA, IIB and IID splice forms comprises only a small fraction of Col2a1 transcripts containing the constitutive exon 52-53 junction. We conclude from our results that the majority of ATDC5 cells in the assay described in this study remained as chondroprogenitors during culture in standard differentiation conditions, and that additional Col2a1 transcripts may be present. The validity of this novel AT-qPCR assay was confirmed by demonstrating the expected Col2a1 isoform expression patterns in vivo in developing mouse cartilage. The ability to measure true levels of procollagen type II splice forms will provide better monitoring of chondrocyte differentiation in other model systems. In addition, the AT-qPCR assay described here could be applied to any gene of interest to detect and quantify known and predicted alternative splice forms and can be scaled up for high throughput assays. PMID:22974592

  3. Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

  4. A new AOX homologous gene OsIM1 from rice ( Oryza sativa L.) with an alternative splicing mechanism under salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Kong; Ji-Ming Gong; Zhi-Gang Zhang; Jin-Song Zhang; Shou-Yi Chen

    2003-01-01

    A differentially expressed OsIM1 gene was isolated from rice salt-tolerant mutant M-20 by differential display. Sequence analysis revealed that the amino-acid sequence of OsIM1 showed 66% and 62% identity with PTOX from tomato ( Capsicum annuum) and AtIM from Arabidopsis, both of which encoded chloroplast-orientated terminal oxidase. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the OsIM1 cDNA with its genomic sequence

  5. FUS-mediated alternative splicing in the nervous system: consequences for ALS and FTLD.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Denise; Edbauer, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS) in a subset of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) linked this DNA/RNA-binding protein to neurodegeneration. Most of the mutations disrupt the nuclear localization signal which strongly suggests a loss-of-function pathomechanism, supported by cytoplasmic inclusions. FUS-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are also found in a subset of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we discuss recent data on the role of alternative splicing in FUS-mediated pathology in the central nervous system. Several groups have shown that FUS binds broadly to many transcripts in the brain and have also identified a plethora of putative splice targets; however, only ABLIM1, BRAF, Ewing sarcoma protein R1 (EWSR1), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), NgCAM cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM), and netrin G1 (NTNG1) have been identified in at least three of four studies. Gene ontology analysis of all putative targets unanimously suggests a role in axon growth and cytoskeletal organization, consistent with the altered morphology of dendritic spines and axonal growth cones reported upon loss of FUS. Among the axonal targets, MAPT/tau and NTNG1 have been further validated in biochemical studies. The next challenge will be to confirm changes of FUS-mediated alternative splicing in patients and define their precise role in the pathophysiology of ALS and FTLD. PMID:23974990

  6. The distribution of phosphorylated SR proteins and alternative splicing are regulated by RANBP2

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Noriko; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Agredano-Moreno, Lourdes T.; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian cell nucleus is functionally compartmentalized into various substructures. Nuclear speckles, also known as interchromatin granule clusters, are enriched with SR splicing factors and are implicated in gene expression. Here we report that nuclear speckle formation is developmentally regulated; in certain cases phosphorylated SR proteins are absent from the nucleus and are instead localized at granular structures in the cytoplasm. To investigate how the nuclear architecture is formed, we performed a phenotypic screen of HeLa cells treated with a series of small interfering RNAs. Depletion of Ran-binding protein 2 induced cytoplasmic intermediates of nuclear speckles in G1 phase. Detailed analyses of these structures suggested that a late step in the sequential nuclear entry of mitotic interchromatin granule components was disrupted and that phosphorylated SR proteins were sequestered in an SR protein kinase–dependent manner. As a result, the cells had an imbalanced subcellular distribution of phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated SR proteins, which affected alternative splicing patterns. This study demonstrates that the speckled distribution of phosphorylated pre-mRNA processing factors is regulated by the nucleocytoplasmic transport system in mammalian cells and that it is important for alternative splicing. PMID:22262462

  7. MATS: a Bayesian framework for flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shihao; Park, Juw Won; Huang, Jian; Dittmar, Kimberly A.; Lu, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, Qing; Carstens, Russ P.; Xing, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-deep RNA sequencing has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We develop MATS (multivariate analysis of transcript splicing), a Bayesian statistical framework for flexible hypothesis testing of differential alternative splicing patterns on RNA-Seq data. MATS uses a multivariate uniform prior to model the between-sample correlation in exon splicing patterns, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method coupled with a simulation-based adaptive sampling procedure to calculate the P-value and false discovery rate (FDR) of differential alternative splicing. Importantly, the MATS approach is applicable to almost any type of null hypotheses of interest, providing the flexibility to identify differential alternative splicing events that match a given user-defined pattern. We evaluated the performance of MATS using simulated and real RNA-Seq data sets. In the RNA-Seq analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1, we obtained a high RT–PCR validation rate of 86% for differential exon skipping events with a MATS FDR of <10%. Additionally, over the full list of RT–PCR tested exons, the MATS FDR estimates matched well with the experimental validation rate. Our results demonstrate that MATS is an effective and flexible approach for detecting differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data. PMID:22266656

  8. The Emergence of Alternative 39 and 59 Splice Site Exons from Constitutive Exons

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    The Emergence of Alternative 39 and 59 Splice Site Exons from Constitutive Exons Eli Koren, Galit Lev-Maor, Gil Ast* Department of Human Molecular Genetics, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Alternative 39 and 59 splice site (ss) events constitute a significant part

  9. PTBP-dependent PSD-95 and CamKII? alternative splicing in the lens

    PubMed Central

    Nandanoor, Anoop; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Parallels described between neurons and lens fiber cells include detailed similarities in sub-cellular structures that increasingly show shared expression of genes involved in the construction and function of these structures in neurons. Intriguingly, associated modes of molecular regulation of these genes that had been thought to distinguish neurons have been identified in the lens as well. Both elongated cell types form membrane protrusions with similar size, shape, and spacing that exclude microtubules, contain F-actin, and are coated with the clathrin/AP-2 adaptor. Lenses express glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors with signaling and channel proteins shown to act together at neuronal membranes. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII?) expression and functions illustrate the integration of aspects of neuronal molecular and cell biology and were investigated here in the lens. Methods Immunofluorescence, immunoblot, and RT–PCR methods were used to assess protein expression and alternative transcript splicing. Results We showed the essential dendritic spine scaffold protein PSD-95 is expressed in lenses and demonstrated lens PSD-95 transcripts undergo polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP)-dependent alternative splicing of its pivotal exon 18 required to avoid nonsense-mediated decay, and showed PTBP-dependent alternative splicing of CaMKII? transcripts in the lens. The PSD-95 protein was observed at fiber cell membranes overlapping with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate and GABA receptor proteins, tyrosine phosphatase STEP, CaMKII?, the Ca(V)1.3 calcium channel, and clathrin, which were previously identified at lens fiber cell membranes. During neurogenesis, miR-124 is expressed that suppresses PTBP1 and promotes these splicing events. miR-124 is also expressed in mammalian lenses and upregulated during lens regeneration in amphibians, consistent with previous demonstrations of PTBP1,2 and PTBP-dependent PTBP2 exon 10 splicing in rodent lenses. Conclusions Findings of this dendritic spine scaffold protein and conservation of its key mode of molecular regulation in the lens provides further evidence that key aspects of the neuron morphogenetic program are shared with the lens. PMID:25540577

  10. Alternative splicing regulates the expression of G9A and SUV39H2 methyltransferases, and dramatically changes SUV39H2 functions

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Oriane; Klinck, Roscoe; Chabot, Benoit; Muchardt, Christian; Allemand, Eric; Batsché, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is the main source of proteome diversity. Here, we have investigated how alternative splicing affects the function of two human histone methyltransferases (HMTase): G9A and SUV39H2. We show that exon 10 in G9A and exon 3 in SUV39H2 are alternatively included in a variety of tissues and cell lines, as well as in a different species. The production of these variants is likely tightly regulated because both constitutive and alternative splicing factors control their splicing profiles. Based on this evidence, we have assessed the link between the inclusion of these exons and the activity of both enzymes. We document that these HMTase genes yield several protein isoforms, which are likely issued from alternative splicing regulation. We demonstrate that inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 is a determinant of the stability, the sub-nuclear localization, and the HMTase activity. Genome-wide expression analysis further revealed that alternative inclusion of SUV39H2 exon 3 differentially modulates the expression of target genes. Our data also suggest that a variant of G9A may display a function that is independent of H3K9 methylation. Our work emphasizes that expression and function of genes are not collinear; therefore alternative splicing must be taken into account in any functional study. PMID:25605796

  11. New Insights into the Genomic Organization and Splicing of the Doublesex Gene, a Terminal Regulator of Sexual Differentiation in the Silkworm Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huizhen; O'Brochta, David A.; Wang, Feng; Ma, Sanyuan; Zhang, Liying; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-01-01

    Sex-determination mechanisms differ among organisms. The primary mechanism is diverse, whereas the terminal regulator is relatively-conserved. We analyzed the transcripts of the Bombyx mori doublesex gene (Bmdsx), and reported novel results concerning the genomic organization and expression of Bmdsx. Bmdsx consists of nine exons and eight introns, of which two exons are novel and have not been reported previously. Bmdsx transcripts are spliced to generate seventeen alternatively-spliced forms and eleven putative trans-spliced variants. Thirteen of the alternatively-spliced forms and five of the putative trans-spliced forms are reported here for the first time. Sequence analysis predicts that ten female-specific, six male-specific splice forms and one splice form found in males and females will result in four female-specific, two male-specific Dsx proteins and one Dsx protein common to males and females. The Dsx proteins are expected to be functional and regulate downstream target genes. Some of the predicted Dsx proteins are described here for the first time. Therefore the expression of the dsx gene in B. mori results in a variety of cis- and trans-spliced transcripts and multiple Dsx proteins. These findings show that in B. mori there is a complicated pattern of dsx splicing, and that the regulation of splicing and sex-specific functions of lepidopteran dsx have evolved complexity. PMID:24244545

  12. LSD1 Neurospecific Alternative Splicing Controls Neuronal Excitability in Mouse Models of Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Francesco; Paganini, Leda; Braida, Daniela; Ponzoni, Luisa; Toffolo, Emanuela; Maroli, Annalisa; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Bedogni, Francesco; Turco, Emilia; Pattini, Linda; Altruda, Fiorella; De Biasi, Silvia; Sala, Mariaelvina; Battaglioli, Elena

    2014-04-15

    Alternative splicing in the brain is dynamic and instrumental to adaptive changes in response to stimuli. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) is a ubiquitously expressed histone H3Lys4 demethylase that acts as a transcriptional co-repressor in complex with its molecular partners CoREST and HDAC1/2. In mammalian brain, alternative splicing of LSD1 mini-exon E8a gives rise to neuroLSD1, a neurospecific isoform that, upon phosphorylation, acts as a dominant-negative causing disassembly of the co-repressor complex and de-repression of target genes. Here we show that the LSD1/neuroLSD1 ratio changes in response to neuronal activation and such effect is mediated by neurospecific splicing factors NOVA1 and nSR100/SRRM4 together with a novel cis-silencer. Indeed, we found that, in response to epileptogenic stimuli, downregulation of NOVA1 reduces exon E8a splicing and expression of neuroLSD1. Using behavioral and EEG analyses we observed that neuroLSD1-specific null mice are hypoexcitable and display decreased seizure susceptibility. Conversely, in a mouse model of Rett syndrome characterized by hyperexcitability, we measured higher levels of NOVA1 protein and upregulation of neuroLSD1. In conclusion, we propose that, in the brain, correct ratio between LSD1 and neuroLSD1 contributes to excitability and, when altered, could represent a pathogenic event associated with neurological disorders involving altered E/I. PMID:24735673

  13. Characteristics of CD44 alternative splice pattern in the course of human colorectal adenocarcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CD44 is considered as ‘a’ metastasis associated gene, despite the fact that it is an umbrella term for a group of molecules produced from a single gene by alternative splicing. However, little consideration is given to the above in the literature of colorectal carcinomas as well as other tumour types, leading to confusion and contradictory results about its possible role in tumour progression. Methods We compared the CD44 alternative splice pattern (ASP) of three genetically different human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT25, HT29, HCT116) using a series of PCR reactions and next- generation sequencing method, as well as identified a colorectal adenocarcinoma specific CD44 ASP. This ASP was further investigated in terms of its qualitative and quantitative stability in our experimental iso- and xenograft mouse models for colorectal cancer progression. A complex preclinical experimental set-up was established to separately test the different steps of tumour progression and the role of tumour microenvironment, respectively, focusing on the role of ‘CD44’ in this process. Results We managed to present a colorectal cancer-specific CD44 ASP, which remained unchanged from cell lines throughout primary tumour formation and metastatic progression. Furthermore, we report a unique roster of all expressed CD44 variant isoforms characteristic to colorectal cancer. Finally, on quantitative assessment of the variable exons v3 and v6, higher co-expression levels were found to be characteristic to metastatically potent tumour cells. Conclusion Particular CD44 variant isoforms seem to act as “metastasis genes” via tumour microenvironment-driven shifts in v3 and v6 expressions. However, this function may just affect a minority of tumour subclones. This fact and the huge potential number of different CD44 splice variants that can contain v3 and v6 domains can explain incoherence of clinical studies regarding functional asessment of CD44 variants, as well as diminish the chances of using CD44 variants for predictive purpose. PMID:23151220

  14. Functional implications of the emergence of alternative splicing in hnRNP A/B transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Han, Siew Ping; Kassahn, Karin S.; Skarshewski, Adam; Ragan, Mark A.; Rothnagel, Joseph A.; Smith, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A/B are a family of RNA-binding proteins that participate in various aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including mRNA trafficking, telomere maintenance, and splicing. They are both regulators and targets of alternative splicing, and the patterns of alternative splicing of their transcripts have diverged between paralogs and between orthologs in different species. Surprisingly, the extent of this splicing variation and its implications for post-transcriptional regulation have remained largely unexplored. Here, we conducted a detailed analysis of hnRNP A/B sequences and expression patterns across six vertebrates. Alternative exons emerged via the introduction of new splice sites, changes in the strengths of existing splice sites, and the accumulation of auxiliary splicing regulatory motifs. Observed isoform expression patterns could be attributed to the frequency and strength of cis-elements. We found a trend toward increased splicing variation in mammals and identified novel alternatively spliced isoforms in human and chicken. Pulldown and translational assays demonstrated that the inclusion of alternative exons altered the affinity of hnRNP A/B proteins for their cognate nucleic acids and modified protein expression levels. As the hnRNPs A/B regulate several key steps in mRNA processing, the involvement of diverse hnRNP isoforms in multiple cellular contexts and species implies concomitant differences in the transcriptional output of these systems. We conclude that the emergence of alternative splicing in the hnRNPs A/B has contributed to the diversification of their roles in the regulation of alternative splicing and has thus added an unexpected layer of regulatory complexity to transcription in vertebrates. PMID:20651029

  15. Human Tra2 proteins jointly control a CHEK1 splicing switch among alternative and constitutive target exons

    PubMed Central

    Best, Andrew; James, Katherine; Dalgliesh, Caroline; Hong, Elaine; Kheirolahi-Kouhestani, Mahsa; Curk, Tomaz; Xu, Yaobo; Danilenko, Marina; Hussain, Rafiq; Keavney, Bernard; Wipat, Anil; Klinck, Roscoe; Cowell, Ian G.; Cheong Lee, Ka; Austin, Caroline A.; Venables, Julian P.; Chabot, Benoit; Santibanez Koref, Mauro; Tyson-Capper, Alison; Elliott, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing—the production of multiple messenger RNA isoforms from a single gene—is regulated in part by RNA binding proteins. While the RBPs transformer2 alpha (Tra2?) and Tra2? have both been implicated in the regulation of alternative splicing, their relative contributions to this process are not well understood. Here we find simultaneous—but not individual—depletion of Tra2? and Tra2? induces substantial shifts in splicing of endogenous Tra2? target exons, and that both constitutive and alternative target exons are under dual Tra2?–Tra2? control. Target exons are enriched in genes associated with chromosome biology including CHEK1, which encodes a key DNA damage response protein. Dual Tra2 protein depletion reduces expression of full-length CHK1 protein, results in the accumulation of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX and decreased cell viability. We conclude Tra2 proteins jointly control constitutive and alternative splicing patterns via paralog compensation to control pathways essential to the maintenance of cell viability. PMID:25208576

  16. Identification of recurrent regulated alternative splicing events across human solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Eisenberg, Eli; Meir, Keren; Karni, Rotem; Levanon, Erez Y

    2015-05-26

    Cancer is a complex disease that involves aberrant gene expression regulation. Discriminating the modified expression patterns driving tumor biology from the many that have no or little contribution is important for understanding cancer molecular basis. Recurrent deregulation patterns observed in multiple cancer types are enriched for such driver events. Here, we studied splicing alterations in hundreds of matched tumor and normal RNA-seq samples of eight solid cancer types. We found hundreds of cassette exons for which splicing was altered in multiple cancer types and identified a set of highly frequent altered splicing events. Specific splicing regulators, including RBFOX2, MBNL1/2 and QKI, appear to account for many splicing alteration events in multiple cancer types. Together, our results provide a first global analysis of regulated splicing alterations in cancer and identify common events with a potential causative role in solid tumor development. PMID:25908786

  17. Identification of recurrent regulated alternative splicing events across human solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Danan-Gotthold, Miri; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Eisenberg, Eli; Meir, Keren; Karni, Rotem; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that involves aberrant gene expression regulation. Discriminating the modified expression patterns driving tumor biology from the many that have no or little contribution is important for understanding cancer molecular basis. Recurrent deregulation patterns observed in multiple cancer types are enriched for such driver events. Here, we studied splicing alterations in hundreds of matched tumor and normal RNA-seq samples of eight solid cancer types. We found hundreds of cassette exons for which splicing was altered in multiple cancer types and identified a set of highly frequent altered splicing events. Specific splicing regulators, including RBFOX2, MBNL1/2 and QKI, appear to account for many splicing alteration events in multiple cancer types. Together, our results provide a first global analysis of regulated splicing alterations in cancer and identify common events with a potential causative role in solid tumor development. PMID:25908786

  18. Genome-wide analysis of alternative splicing landscapes modulated during plant-virus interactions in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Mandadi, Kranthi K; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, alternative splicing (AS) promotes transcriptome and proteome diversity. The extent of genome-wide AS changes occurring during a plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. Here, using high-throughput, paired-end RNA sequencing, we generated an isoform-level spliceome map of Brachypodium distachyon infected with Panicum mosaic virus and its satellite virus. Overall, we detected ?44,443 transcripts in B. distachyon, ?30% more than those annotated in the reference genome. Expression of ?28,900 transcripts was ?2 fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped fragments, and ?42% of multi-exonic genes were alternatively spliced. Comparative analysis of AS patterns in B. distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Arabidopsis thaliana, potato (Solanum tuberosum), Medicago truncatula, and poplar (Populus trichocarpa) revealed conserved ratios of the AS types between monocots and dicots. Virus infection quantitatively altered AS events in Brachypodium with little effect on the AS ratios. We discovered AS events for >100 immune-related genes encoding receptor-like kinases, NB-LRR resistance proteins, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and splicing-associated proteins. Cloning and molecular characterization of SCL33, a serine/arginine-rich splicing factor, identified multiple novel intron-retaining splice variants that are developmentally regulated and modulated during virus infection. B. distachyon SCL33 splicing patterns are also strikingly conserved compared with a distant Arabidopsis SCL33 ortholog. This analysis provides new insights into AS landscapes conserved among monocots and dicots and uncovered AS events in plant defense-related genes. PMID:25634987

  19. Intronic Alus Influence Alternative Splicing Galit Lev-Maor1.

    E-print Network

    Ast, Gil

    in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from

  20. PMD patient mutations reveal a long-distance intronic interaction that regulates PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Taube, Jennifer R; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Seeman, Pavel; Cavan, Barbra Charina V; Garbern, James Y; Hobson, Grace M

    2014-10-15

    Alternative splicing of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) produces two forms, PLP1 and DM20, due to alternative use of 5' splice sites with the same acceptor site in intron 3. The PLP1 form predominates in central nervous system RNA. Mutations that reduce the ratio of PLP1 to DM20, whether mutant or normal protein is formed, result in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We investigated the ability of sequences throughout PLP1 intron 3 to regulate alternative splicing using a splicing minigene construct transfected into the oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu. Our data reveal that the alternative splice of PLP1 is regulated by a long-distance interaction between two highly conserved elements that are separated by 581 bases within the 1071-base intron 3. Further, our data suggest that a base-pairing secondary structure forms between these two elements, and we demonstrate that mutations of either element designed to destabilize the secondary structure decreased the PLP1/DM20 ratio, while swap mutations designed to restore the structure brought the PLP1/DM20 ratio to near normal levels. Sequence analysis of intron 3 in families with clinical symptoms of PMD who did not have coding-region mutations revealed mutations that segregated with disease in three families. We showed that these patient mutations, which potentially destabilize the secondary structure, also reduced the PLP1/DM20 ratio. This is the first report of patient mutations causing disease by disruption of a long-distance intronic interaction controlling alternative splicing. This finding has important implications for molecular diagnostics of PMD. PMID:24890387

  1. Differential regulation of alternative 3{prime} splicing of {epsilon} messenger RNA variants

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Zhang, K.; Saxon, A. [Univ. of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-15

    Alternative 3{prime} splicing of the one active human {epsilon} heavy chain gene results in variants of {epsilon} mRNA encoding distinct IgE proteins. The same relative amounts of these {epsilon} mRNA variants were produced by non-atopic donor B cells when driven in a variety of T-dependent or T-independent systems. The most abundant variants were those for classic secreted {epsilon} and a novel secreted form (CH4-M2{double_prime}). In contrast, cells from subjects with high levels of serum IgE secondary to parasitic infection or atopy spontaneously produced higher relative levels of the CH4-M2{prime} {epsilon} mRNA variant, lower relative amounts of both the membrane and CH4-M2{double_prime} secreted variants, and very low levels of the CH4{prime}-CH5 variant. The existence of and corresponding changes in levels of the CH4-M2{prime}-enclosed secreted protein were demonstrated. IL-10 induced this same differential expression of {epsilon} splice variants in vitro when used to costimulate IL-4 plus CD40-driven B cells and could differentially enhance the production of CH4-M2{prime} protein by established IgE-secreting cell lines. Inhibition of IgE by cross-linking the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23) decreased the levels of {epsilon} mRNA and resulted in a distinct pattern of {epsilon} mRNA characterized by a dramatic decrease in CH4-M2{prime} splice variant. IL-6, IL-2, or IFN-{gamma} did not change the {epsilon} mRNA pattern. Overall, the absolute and relative amounts of the different {epsilon} mRNA splice variants produced appear to be controlled in a differentiation-related fashion.

  2. Activation of cryptic 3' splice sites within introns of cellular genes following gene entrapment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna B. Osipovich; Erica K. White-Grindley; Geoffrey G. Hicks; Michael J. Roshon; Christian Shaffer; Jason H. Moore; H. Earl Ruley

    2004-01-01

    Gene trap vectors developed for genome-wide muta- genesis can be used to study factors governing the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome. For example, entrapment vectors consist- ing of a partial 3¢-terminal exon (i.e. a neomycin resistance gene (Neo), a poly(A) site, but no 3¢ splice site) were typically expressed following insertion into introns, from cellular transcripts that spliced

  3. Mechanisms for U2AF to define 3? splice sites and regulate alternative splicing in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Tang, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Jie; Qiu, Jinsong; Jiang, Li; Li, Hairi; Chen, Geng; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Yi; Denise, Alain; Zhang, Dong-Er; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer has been well studied for its role in defining functional 3? splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing, but many fundamental questions still remain unaddressed regarding the function of U2AF in mammalian genomes. Through genome-wide analysis of U2AF-RNA interactions, we report that U2AF has the capacity to directly define ~88% of functional 3? splice sites in the human genome, but numerous U2AF binding events also occur in intronic locations. Mechanistic dissection reveals that upstream intronic binding events interfere with the immediate downstream 3? splice site associated either with the alternative exon, to cause exon skipping, or with the competing constitutive exon, to induce exon inclusion. We further demonstrate partial functional impairment with leukemia-associated mutations in U2AF35, but not U2AF65, in regulated splicing. These findings reveal the genomic function and regulatory mechanism of U2AF in both normal and disease states. PMID:25326705

  4. Widespread and subtle: alternative splicing at short-distance tandem sites

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    ], and the regulation of alternative splicing is important for diverse biological processes. For example, the brain-specific species. It results in subtle changes in the transcripts and often in the encoded proteins. Several of these tandem splice events contribute to the repertoire of functionally different proteins, whereas many

  5. Alternative Splicing of RNA Triplets Is Often Regulated and Accelerates Proteome Evolution

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Robert K.

    Thousands of human genes contain introns ending in NAGNAG (N any nucleotide), where both NAGs can function as 3? splice sites, yielding isoforms that differ by inclusion/exclusion of three bases. However, few models exist ...

  6. Exon 9 of the CFTR gene: splice site haplotypes and cystic fibrosis mutations.

    PubMed

    Dörk, T; Fislage, R; Neumann, T; Wulf, B; Tümmler, B

    1994-01-01

    The alternatively spliced exon 9 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene codes for the initial part of the amino-terminal nucleotide-binding fold of CFTR. A unique feature of the acceptor splice site preceding this exon is a variable length polymorphism within the polypyrimidine tract influencing the extent of exon 9 skipping in CFTR mRNA. We investigated this repeat for its relationship to CFTR mutations and intragenic markers on 200 chromosomes from German patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Four frequent length variations were strongly associated with the four predominant haplotypes previously defined by intragenic marker dimorphisms. One of these alleles displayed absolute linkage disequilibrium to the major CF mutation delta F508. Other frequent CFTR mutations were linked to one particular splice site haplotype indicating that differential exon 9 skipping contributes little to the clinical heterogeneity among CF patients with an identical mutation. We also identified a novel missense mutation (V456F) and a novel nonsense mutation (Q414X) within the coding region of exon 9. The missense mutation V456F adjacent to Walker motif A was present in a pancreas-sufficient CF patient. In contrast, the pancreas-insufficient Q414X/delta F508 compound heterozygote suffered from a severe form of the disease, indicating that alternative splicing of exon 9 does not overcome the deleterious effect of a stop codon with this exon. PMID:7505767

  7. Physiological state co-regulates thousands of mammalian mRNA splicing events at tandem splice sites and alternative exons

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Karol; Fritsch, Claudia; Schumann, Frank; Siebel, Lisa; Sinha, Rileen; Hampe, Jochen; Hiller, Michael; Englert, Christoph; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with small size differences. Recent work has concentrated on the question of biological relevance in general, and the physiological regulation of TASS in particular. We have quantitatively studied 11 representative TASS cases in comparison to one mutually exclusive exon case and two cassette exons (CEs) using a panel of human and mouse tissues, as well as cultured cell lines. Tissues show small but significant differences in TASS isoform ratios, with a variance 4- to 20-fold lower than seen for CEs. Remarkably, in cultured cells, all studied alternative splicing (AS) cases showed a cell-density-dependent shift of isoform ratios with similar time series profiles. A respective genome-wide co-regulation of TASS splicing was shown by next-generation mRNA sequencing data. Moreover, data from human and mouse organs indicate that this co-regulation of TASS occurs in vivo, with brain showing the strongest difference to other organs. Together, the results indicate a physiological AS regulation mechanism that functions almost independently from the splice site context and sequence. PMID:25030907

  8. Identification of Novel Alternative Splice Isoforms of Circulating Proteins in a Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rajasree; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Fermin, Damian; Bardeesy, Nabeel; DePinho, Ronald A.; Lu, Chunxia; Hanash, Samir M.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; States, David J.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the potential of tumor-associated alternatively spliced gene products as a source of biomarkers in biological fluids, we have analyzed a large dataset of mass spectra derived from the plasma proteome of a mouse model of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. MS/MS spectra were interrogated for novel splice isoforms using a non-redundant database containing an exhaustive 3-frame translation of Ensembl transcripts and gene models from ECgene. This integrated analysis identified 420 distinct splice isoforms, of which 92 did not match any previously annotated mouse protein sequence. We chose seven of those novel variants for validation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were concordant with the proteomic analysis. All seven novel peptides were successfully amplified in pancreas specimens from both wild-type and mutant mice. Isotopic labeling of cysteine-containing peptides from tumor-bearing mice and wild-type controls enabled relative quantification of the proteins. Differential expression between tumor-bearing and control mice was notable for peptides from novel variants of muscle pyruvate kinase, malate dehydrogenase 1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, proteoglycan 4, minichromosome maintenance, complex component 9, high mobility group box 2 and hepatocyte growth factor activator. Our results show that, in a mouse model for human pancreatic cancer, novel and differentially expressed alternative splice isoforms are detectable in plasma and may be a source of candidate biomarkers. PMID:19118015

  9. New Splice Site Acceptor Mutation in AIRE Gene in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Mireia; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Pradas-Juni, Marta; Aranda, Gloria B.; Halperin, Irene; Puig-Domingo, Manuel; Aguiló, Sira; Fernández-Rebollo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 240300) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by the presence of at least two of three major diseases: hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We aim to identify the molecular defects and investigate the clinical and mutational characteristics in an index case and other members of a consanguineous family. We identified a novel homozygous mutation in the splice site acceptor (SSA) of intron 5 (c.653-1G>A) in two siblings with different clinical outcomes of APS-1. Coding DNA sequencing revealed that this AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the constitutive SSA of intron 5, splicing upstream onto a nearby cryptic SSA in intron 5. Surprisingly, the use of an alternative SSA entails the uncovering of a cryptic donor splice site in exon 5. This new transcript generates a truncated protein (p.A214fs67X) containing the first 213 amino acids and followed by 68 aberrant amino acids. The mutation affects the proper splicing, not only at the acceptor but also at the donor splice site, highlighting the complexity of recognizing suitable splicing sites and the importance of sequencing the intron-exon junctions for a more precise molecular diagnosis and correct genetic counseling. As both siblings were carrying the same mutation but exhibited a different APS-1 onset, and one of the brothers was not clinically diagnosed, our finding highlights the possibility to suspect mutations in the AIRE gene in cases of childhood chronic candidiasis and/or hypoparathyroidism otherwise unexplained, especially when the phenotype is associated with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988226

  10. Temporal Requirement of the Alternative Splicing Factor Sfrs1 for the Survival of Retinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kanadia, Rahul N; Clark, Victoria E; Punzo, Claudio; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Cepko, Constance L

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is the primary mechanism by which a limited number of protein coding genes can generate the proteome diversity. We have investigated the role of an alternative splicing factor (ASF), Sfrs1, an arginine/serine (SR) rich-protein family member, during retinal development. Here we report that loss of Sfrs1 function during embryonic retinal development had a profound effect such that it led to a small retina at birth. In addition, the retina underwent further degeneration in the postnatal period. Loss of Sfrs1 function resulted in the death of retinal neurons that were born during early and mid-embryonic development. Ganglion cells, cone photoreceptors, horizontal cells and amacrine cells were produced and initiated differentiation. However, these neurons subsequently underwent cell death through apoptosis. In contrast, Sfrs1 was not required for the survival of the neurons generated later, including later born amacrine cells, rod photoreceptors, bipolar cells and Müller glia. Our results highlight the requirement of Sfrs1-mediated AS for the survival of retinal neurons, with sensitivity defined by the window of time in which the neuron was generated. In all, this is the first description addressing the function of an ASF in vertebrate retinal development. PMID:18987029

  11. Steroid Hormone Receptor Coactivation and Alternative RNA Splicing by U2AF 65Related Proteins CAPER? and CAPER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis H. Dowhan; Eugene P. Hong; Didier Auboeuf; Andrew P. Dennis; Michelle M. Wilson; Susan M. Berget; Bert W. O'Malley

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that transcription and pre-mRNA processing are functionally coupled to modulate gene expression. Here, we report that two members of the U2AF65 family of proteins, hCC1.3, which we call CAPER?, and a related protein, CAPER?, regulate both steroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription and alternative splicing. The CAPER proteins coactivate the progesterone receptor in luciferase transcription reporter assays and alter

  12. Alternative splicing isoform in succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C causes downregulation of succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase activity in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    SATOH, NANA; YOKOYAMA, CHIKAKO; ITAMURA, NORIAKI; MIYAJIMA-NAKANO, YOSHIHARU; HISATOMI, HISASHI

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane and is responsible for the redox of succinic acid. SDH is a tetrameric iron-sulfur flavoprotein of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain. The SDH complex, subunit C (SDHC) transcript has deletion-type alternative splicing sites. Generally, alternative splicing produces variant proteins and expression patterns, as products of different genes. In certain cases, specific alternative splicing variants (ASVs) have been associated with human disease. Due to a frameshift mutation causing loss of the heme binding region, the SDHC ?5 isoform (lacking exon 5) exhibits no SDHC activity. To investigate whether the SDHC splicing variants can function as dominant-negative inhibitors, SDHC ASVs were overexpressed in HCT-15 human colorectal cancer cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, a dominant-negative effect of the ?5 isoform on SDHC mRNA was shown. In addition, ?5 overexpression increased the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, in the ?5 isoform-overexpressing cells, SDH activity was reduced. SDHC activation is a significant event during the electron transport chain, and the function of the SDHC ?5 variant may be significant for the differentiation of tumor cells. PMID:25435987

  13. It's a bit over, is that ok? The subtle surplus from tandem alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Karol; Kramer, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Tandem alternative splice sites (TASS) form a defined class of alternative splicing and give rise to mRNA insertion/deletion variants with only small size differences. Previous work has confirmed evolutionary conservation of TASS elements while many cases show only low tissue specificity of isoform ratios. We pinpoint stochasticity and noise as important methodological issues for the dissection of TASS isoform patterns. Resolving such uncertainties, a recent report showed regulation in a cell culture system, with shifts of alternative splicing isoform ratios dependent on cell density. This novel type of regulation affects not only multiple TASS isoforms, but also other alternative splicing classes, in a concerted manner. Here, we discuss how specific regulatory network architectures may be realized through the novel regulation type and highlight the role of differential isoform functions as a key step in order to better understand the functional role of TASS. PMID:25826565

  14. PTBP1-dependent Regulation of USP5 Alternative RNA Splicing Plays a Role in Glioblastoma Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, Daisy I.; Zhu, Wen; Hai, Tao; Cheung, Hannah C.; Krahe, Ralf; Cote, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant RNA splicing is thought to play a key role in tumorigenesis. The assessment of its specific contributions is limited by the complexity of information derived from genome-wide array-based approaches. We describe how performing splicing factor-specific comparisons using both tumor and cell line datasets may more readily identify physiologically relevant tumor-specific splicing events. Affymetrix exon array data derived from glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples with defined PTBP1 levels were compared with data from U251 GBM cells with and without PTBP1 knockdown. This comparison yielded overlapping gene sets that comprised only a minor fraction of each dataset. The identification of a novel GBM-specific splicing event involving the USP5 gene led us to further examine its role in tumorigenesis. In GBM, USP5 generates a shorter isoform 2 through recognition of a 5? splice site within exon 15. Production of the USP5 isoform 2 was strongly correlated with PTBP1 expression in GBM tumor samples and cell lines. Splicing regulation was consistent with the presence of an intronic PTBP1 binding site and could be modulated through antisense targeting of the isoform 2 splice site to force expression of isoform 1 in GBM cells. The forced expression of USP5 isoform 1 in two GBM cell lines inhibited cell growth and migration, implying an important role for USP5 splicing in gliomagenesis. These results support a role for aberrant RNA splicing in tumorigenesis and suggest that changes in relatively few genes may be sufficient to drive the process. PMID:21976412

  15. Alternative Splicing of Human NrCAMin Neural and Nonneural Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Wang; Hawys Williams; Jian-Sheng Du; Jonathan Terrett; Sue Kenwrick

    1998-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule NrCAM exists in a variety of isoforms as a result of alternative splicing of individual exons during RNA processing. In this report we demonstrate that many of the alternative splicing events described for chick are conserved in man and describe a novel variant of NrCAM cDNA. Furthermore, we show that NrCAM is expressed at significant levels

  16. Opioid inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels and spinal analgesia couple to alternative splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Andrade; Sylvia Denome; Yu-Qiu Jiang; Spiro Marangoudakis; Diane Lipscombe

    2010-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing occurs extensively in the nervous systems of complex organisms, including humans, considerably expanding the potential size of the proteome. Cell-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing is thought to optimize protein function for specialized cellular tasks, but direct evidence for this is limited. Transmission of noxious thermal stimuli relies on the activity of N-type CaV2.2 calcium channels in nociceptors. Using

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Alternatively Spliced Isoform Negatively Regulates TLR9 Signaling in Teleost Fish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Frank Fang-Yao; Chuang, Hsiang-Chieh; Chen, Nai-Yu; Nagarajan, Govindarajulu; Chiou, Pinwen Peter

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes and binds unmethylated CpG motifs in DNA, which are found in the genomes of bacteria and DNA viruses. In fish, Tlr9 is highly diverse, with the number of introns ranging from 0 to 4. A fish Tlr9 gene containing two introns has been reported to express two alternatively spliced isoforms, namely gTLR9A (full-length) and gTLR9B (with a truncated C'-terminal signal transducing domain), whose regulation and function remain unclear. Here, we report a unique regulatory mechanism of gTLR9 signaling in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), whose gTlr9 sequence also contains two introns. We demonstrated that the grouper gTlr9 gene indeed has the capacity to produce two gTLR9 isoforms via alternative RNA splicing. We found that gTLR9B could function as a negative regulator to suppress gTLR9 signaling as demonstrated by the suppression of downstream gene expression. Following stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), gTLR9A and gTLR9B were observed to translocate into endosomes and co-localize with ODN and the adaptor protein gMyD88. Both gTLR9A and gTLR9B could interact with gMyD88; however, gTLR9B could not interact with downstream IRAK4 and TRAF6. Further analysis of the expression profile of gTlr9A and gTlr9B upon immune-stimulation revealed that the two isoforms were differentially regulated in a time-dependent manner. Overall, these data suggest that fish TLR9B functions as a negative regulator, and that its temporal expression is mediated by alternative RNA splicing. This has not been observed in mammalian TLR9s and might have been acquired relatively recently in the evolution of fish. PMID:25955250

  18. Finding alternative splicing patterns with strong support from expressed sequences on individual exons/introns.

    PubMed

    Wong, Thomas K F; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yang, Wanling; Yiu, S M

    2008-10-01

    We consider the problem of predicting alternative splicing patterns from a set of expressed sequences (cDNAs and ESTs). Some of these expressed sequences may be errorous, thus forming incorrect exons/introns. These incorrect exons/introns may cause a lot of false positives. For example, we examined a popular alternative splicing database, ECgene, which predicts alternate splicing patterns from expressed sequences. The result shows that about 81.3%-81.6% (sensitivity) of known patterns are found, but the specificity can be as low as 5.9%. Based on the idea that errorous sequences are usually not consistent with other sequences, in this paper we provide an alternative approach for finding alternative splicing patterns which ensures that individual exons/introns of the reported patterns have enough support from the expressed sequences. On the same dataset, our approach can achieve a much higher specificity and a slight increase in sensitivity (38.9% and 84.9%, respectively). Our approach also gives better results compared with popular alternative splicing databases (ASD, ECgene, SpliceNest) and the software ClusterMerge. PMID:18942164

  19. Alternative splicing within the ligand binding domain of the human constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Savkur, Rajesh S; Wu, Yifei; Bramlett, Kelli S; Wang, Minmin; Yao, Sufang; Perkins, Douglas; Totten, Michelle; Searfoss, George; Ryan, Timothy P; Su, Eric W; Burris, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    The human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR; NR1I3) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activity of hCAR is regulated by a variety of xenobiotics including clotrimazole and acetaminophen metabolites. hCAR, in turn, regulates a number of genes responsible for xenobiotic metabolism and transport including several cytochrome P450s (CYP 2B5, 2C9, and 3A4) and the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2). Thus, hCAR is believed to be a mediator of drug-drug interactions. We identified two novel hCAR splice variants: hCAR2 encodes a receptor in which alternative splice acceptor sites are utilized resulting in a 4 amino acid insert between exons 6 and 7, and a 5 amino acid insert between 7 and 8, and hCAR3 encodes a receptor with exon 7 completely deleted resulting in a 39 amino acid deletion. Both hCAR2 and hCAR3 mRNAs are expressed in a pattern similar to the initially described MB67 (hCAR1) with some key distinctions. Although the levels of expression vary depending on the tissue examined, hCAR2 and hCAR3 contribute 6-8% of total hCAR mRNA in liver. Analysis of the activity of these variants indicates that both hCAR2 and hCAR3 lose the ability to heterodimerize with RXR and lack transactivation activity in cotransfection experiments where either full-length receptor or GAL4 DNA-binding domain/CAR ligand binding domain chimeras were utilized. Although the role of hCAR2 and hCAR3 is currently unclear, these additional splice variants may provide for increased diversity in terms of responsiveness to xenobiotics. PMID:14567971

  20. Tissue-Specific Effects of Genetic and Epigenetic Variation on Gene Regulation and Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Buil, Alfonso; Yurovsky, Alisa; Bryois, Julien; Padioleau, Ismael; Romano, Luciana; Planchon, Alexandra; Falconnet, Emilie; Bielser, Deborah; Gagnebin, Maryline; Giger, Thomas; Borel, Christelle; Letourneau, Audrey; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Guipponi, Michel; Gehrig, Corinne; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how genetic variation affects distinct cellular phenotypes, such as gene expression levels, alternative splicing and DNA methylation levels, is essential for better understanding of complex diseases and traits. Furthermore, how inter-individual variation of DNA methylation is associated to gene expression is just starting to be studied. In this study, we use the GenCord cohort of 204 newborn Europeans’ lymphoblastoid cell lines, T-cells and fibroblasts derived from umbilical cords. The samples were previously genotyped for 2.5 million SNPs, mRNA-sequenced, and assayed for methylation levels in 482,421 CpG sites. We observe that methylation sites associated to expression levels are enriched in enhancers, gene bodies and CpG island shores. We show that while the correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression can be positive or negative, it is very consistent across cell-types. However, this epigenetic association to gene expression appears more tissue-specific than the genetic effects on gene expression or DNA methylation (observed in both sharing estimations based on P-values and effect size correlations between cell-types). This predominance of genetic effects can also be reflected by the observation that allele specific expression differences between individuals dominate over tissue-specific effects. Additionally, we discover genetic effects on alternative splicing and interestingly, a large amount of DNA methylation correlating to alternative splicing, both in a tissue-specific manner. The locations of the SNPs and methylation sites involved in these associations highlight the participation of promoter proximal and distant regulatory regions on alternative splicing. Overall, our results provide high-resolution analyses showing how genome sequence variation has a broad effect on cellular phenotypes across cell-types, whereas epigenetic factors provide a secondary layer of variation that is more tissue-specific. Furthermore, the details of how this tissue-specificity may vary across inter-relations of molecular traits, and where these are occurring, can yield further insights into gene regulation and cellular biology as a whole. PMID:25634236

  1. The splicing regulator Sam68 binds to a novel exonic splicing silencer and functions in SMN2 alternative splicing in spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pedrotti, Simona; Bielli, Pamela; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Stamm, Stefan; Manley, James L; Sette, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of motor neurons in patients with null mutations in the SMN1 gene. An almost identical SMN2 gene is unable to compensate for this deficiency because a single C-to-T transition at position +6 in exon-7 causes skipping of the exon by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. We observed that the C-to-T transition in SMN2 creates a putative binding site for the RNA-binding protein Sam68. RNA pull-down assays and UV-crosslink experiments showed that Sam68 binds to this sequence. In vivo splicing assays showed that Sam68 triggers SMN2 exon-7 skipping. Moreover, mutations in the Sam68-binding site of SMN2 or in the RNA-binding domain of Sam68 completely abrogated its effect on exon-7 skipping. Retroviral infection of dominant-negative mutants of Sam68 that interfere with its RNA-binding activity, or with its binding to the splicing repressor hnRNP A1, enhanced exon-7 inclusion in endogenous SMN2 and rescued SMN protein expression in fibroblasts of SMA patients. Our results thus indicate that Sam68 is a novel crucial regulator of SMN2 splicing. PMID:20186123

  2. Proteins Associated with the Exon Junction Complex Also Control the Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Michelle, Laetitia; Cloutier, Alexandre; Toutant, Johanne; Shkreta, Lulzim; Thibault, Philippe; Durand, Mathieu; Garneau, Daniel; Gendron, Daniel; Lapointe, Elvy; Couture, Sonia; Le Hir, Hervé; Klinck, Roscoe; Elela, Sherif Abou; Prinos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Several apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-x, are alternatively spliced to produce isoforms with opposite functions. We have used an RNA interference strategy to map the regulatory landscape controlling the expression of the Bcl-x splice variants in human cells. Depleting proteins known as core (Y14 and eIF4A3) or auxiliary (RNPS1, Acinus, and SAP18) components of the exon junction complex (EJC) improved the production of the proapoptotic Bcl-xS splice variant. This effect was not seen when we depleted EJC proteins that typically participate in mRNA export (UAP56, Aly/Ref, and TAP) or that associate with the EJC to enforce nonsense-mediated RNA decay (MNL51, Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3b). Core and auxiliary EJC components modulated Bcl-x splicing through different cis-acting elements, further suggesting that this activity is distinct from the established EJC function. In support of a direct role in splicing control, recombinant eIF4A3, Y14, and Magoh proteins associated preferentially with the endogenous Bcl-x pre-mRNA, interacted with a model Bcl-x pre-mRNA in early splicing complexes, and specifically shifted Bcl-x alternative splicing in nuclear extracts. Finally, the depletion of Y14, eIF4A3, RNPS1, SAP18, and Acinus also encouraged the production of other proapoptotic splice variants, suggesting that EJC-associated components are important regulators of apoptosis acting at the alternative splicing level. PMID:22203037

  3. Alternative mRNA Splicing Produces a Novel Biologically Active Short Isoform of PGC-1?*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yubin; Huypens, Peter; Adamson, Aaron W.; Chang, Ji Suk; Henagan, Tara M.; Boudreau, Anik; Lenard, Natalie R.; Burk, David; Klein, Johannes; Perwitz, Nina; Shin, Jeho; Fasshauer, Mathias; Kralli, Anastasia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1? regulates functional plasticity in adipose tissue by linking sympathetic input to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis. We report here a novel truncated form of PGC-1? (NT-PGC-1?) produced by alternative 3? splicing that introduces an in-frame stop codon into PGC-1? mRNA. The expressed protein includes the first 267 amino acids of PGC-1? and 3 additional amino acids from the splicing insert. NT-PGC-1? contains the transactivation and nuclear receptor interaction domains but is missing key domains involved in nuclear localization, interaction with other transcription factors, and protein degradation. Expression and subcellular localization of NT-PGC-1? are dynamically regulated in the context of physiological signals that regulate full-length PGC-1?, but the truncated domain structure conveys unique properties with respect to protein-protein interactions, protein stability, and recruitment to target gene promoters. Therefore, NT-PGC-1? is a co-expressed, previously unrecognized form of PGC-1? with functions that are both unique from and complementary to PGC-1?. PMID:19773550

  4. Alternative mRNA splicing produces a novel biologically active short isoform of PGC-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubin; Huypens, Peter; Adamson, Aaron W; Chang, Ji Suk; Henagan, Tara M; Boudreau, Anik; Lenard, Natalie R; Burk, David; Klein, Johannes; Perwitz, Nina; Shin, Jeho; Fasshauer, Mathias; Kralli, Anastasia; Gettys, Thomas W

    2009-11-20

    The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1alpha regulates functional plasticity in adipose tissue by linking sympathetic input to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis. We report here a novel truncated form of PGC-1alpha (NT-PGC-1alpha) produced by alternative 3' splicing that introduces an in-frame stop codon into PGC-1alpha mRNA. The expressed protein includes the first 267 amino acids of PGC-1alpha and 3 additional amino acids from the splicing insert. NT-PGC-1alpha contains the transactivation and nuclear receptor interaction domains but is missing key domains involved in nuclear localization, interaction with other transcription factors, and protein degradation. Expression and subcellular localization of NT-PGC-1alpha are dynamically regulated in the context of physiological signals that regulate full-length PGC-1alpha, but the truncated domain structure conveys unique properties with respect to protein-protein interactions, protein stability, and recruitment to target gene promoters. Therefore, NT-PGC-1alpha is a co-expressed, previously unrecognized form of PGC-1alpha with functions that are both unique from and complementary to PGC-1alpha. PMID:19773550

  5. Alternatively spliced insertions in the paired domain restrict the DNA sequence specificity of Pax6 and Pax8.

    PubMed Central

    Kozmik, Z; Czerny, T; Busslinger, M

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factors of the Pax family bind to their target genes via the paired domain which is known to be composed of two subdomains each recognizing distinct half-sites in adjacent major grooves of the DNA helix. We now demonstrate that the mammalian Pax8 gene gives rise, by alternative mRNA splicing, to a protein isoform containing an extra serine residue in the recognition alpha-helix 3 of the paired domain. This Pax8(S) protein does not interact with bipartite paired domain-binding sites, indicating that inactivation of the N-terminal DNA-binding motif severely restricts the sequence specificity of the paired domain. However, the Pax8(S) protein binds in vitro and in vivo to the 5aCON sequence which was previously identified as a high-affinity binding site for the Pax6(5a) splice variant carrying a 14-amino-acid insertion in the paired domain. The 5aCON sequence is shown to consist of four interdigitated 5' half-sites of the bipartite consensus sequence and is thus bound by four Pax8(S) molecules via the intact C-terminal DNA-binding motif of the paired domain. Together these data suggest that inactivation of the N-terminal region of the paired domain by alternative splicing is used in vivo to selectively target Pax transcription factors to gene regulatory regions containing highly specialized 5aCON-like sequences. PMID:9362493

  6. Variation in sequence and organization of splicing regulatory elements in vertebrate genes

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gene; Hoon, Shawn; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Burge, Christopher B.

    2004-01-01

    Although core mechanisms and machinery of premRNA splicing are conserved from yeast to human, the details of intron recognition often differ, even between closely related organisms. For example, genes from the pufferfish Fugu rubripes generally contain one or more introns that are not properly spliced in mouse cells. Exploiting available genome sequence data, a battery of sequence analysis techniques was used to reach several conclusions about the organization and evolution of splicing regulatory elements in vertebrate genes. The classical splice site and putative branch site signals are completely conserved across the vertebrates studied (human, mouse, pufferfish, and zebrafish), and exonic splicing enhancers also appear broadly conserved in vertebrates. However, another class of splicing regulatory elements, the intronic splicing enhancers, appears to differ substantially between mammals and fish, with G triples (GGG) very abundant in mammalian introns but comparatively rare in fish. Conversely, short repeats of AC and GT are predicted to function as intronic splicing enhancers in fish but are not enriched in mammalian introns. Consistent with this pattern, exonic splicing enhancer-binding SR proteins are highly conserved across all vertebrates, whereas heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, which bind many intronic sequences, vary in domain structure and even presence/absence between mammals and fish. Exploiting differences in intronic sequence composition, a statistical model was developed to predict the splicing phenotype of Fugu introns in mammalian systems and was used to engineer the spliceability of a Fugu intron in human cells by insertion of specific sequences, thereby rescuing splicing in human cells. PMID:15505203

  7. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  8. Negative feedback control of jasmonate signaling by an alternative splice variant of JAZ10.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Javier E; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L; Patel, Lalita C; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A

    2013-06-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

  9. Alternative splicing generates a second isoform of the catalytic A subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, N; Bartkiewicz, M; Collin-Osdoby, P; Osdoby, P; Baron, R

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a second isoform of the catalytic A subunit of the vacuolar H+ pump in chicken osteoclasts. In this isoform (A2) a 72-bp cassette replaces a 90-bp cassette present in the classical A1 isoform. The A1-specific cassette encodes a region of the protein that contains one of the three ATP-binding consensus sequences (the P-loop) identified in this polypeptide, as well as the pharmacologically relevant Cys254. In contrast, the A2-specific cassette does not contain any of these features. These two isoforms, which appear to be ubiquitously expressed, are encoded by a single gene and are generated by alternative splicing of two mutually exclusive exons. The alternative RNA processing involves the recognition of a single site, the boundary between the A2- and A1-specific exons, as either acceptor (in A1) or donor (in A2) splice site. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7597085

  10. An alternative protein splicing mechanism for inteins lacking an N-terminal nucleophile

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, Maurice W.; Benner, Jack; Perler, Francine B.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in the intein-mediated protein splicing mechanism are becoming more apparent as polymorphisms in conserved catalytic residues are identified. The conserved Ser or Cys at the intein N-terminus and the conserved intein penultimate His are absent in the KlbA family of inteins. These inteins were predicted to be inactive, since an N-terminal Ala cannot perform the initial reaction of the standard protein splicing pathway to yield the requisite N-terminal splice junction (thio)ester. Despite the presence of an N-terminal Ala and a penultimate Ser, the KlbA inteins splice efficiently using an alternative protein splicing mechanism. In this non-canonical pathway, the C-extein nucleophile attacks a peptide bond at the N-terminal splice junction rather than a (thio)ester bond, alleviating the need to form the initial (thio)ester at the N-terminal splice junction. The remainder of the two pathways is the same: branch resolution by Asn cyclization is followed by an acyl rearrangement to form a native peptide bond between the ligated exteins. PMID:10990465

  11. Functional characterization of BRCA1 gene variants by mini-gene splicing assay

    PubMed Central

    Steffensen, Ane Y; Dandanell, Mette; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas vO

    2014-01-01

    Mutational screening of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 leads to the identification of numerous pathogenic variants such as frameshift and nonsense variants, as well as large genomic rearrangements. The screening moreover identifies a large number of variants, for example, missense, silent, and intron variants, which are classified as variants of unknown clinical significance owing to the lack of causal evidence. Variants of unknown clinical significance can potentially have an impact on splicing and therefore functional examinations are warranted to classify whether these variants are pathogenic or benign. Here we validate a mini-gene splicing assay by comparing the results of 24 variants with previously published data from RT-PCR analysis on RNA from blood samples/lymphoblastoid cell lines. The analysis showed an overall concordance of 100%. In addition, we investigated 13 BRCA1 variants of unknown clinical significance or putative variants affecting splicing by in silico analysis and mini-gene splicing assay. Both the in silico analysis and mini-gene splicing assay classified six BRCA1 variants as pathogenic (c.80+1G>A, c.132C>T (p.=), c.213?1G>A, c.670+1delG, c.4185+1G>A, and c.5075?1G>C), whereas six BRCA1 variants were classified as neutral (c.-19-22_-19-21dupAT, c.302?15C>G, c.547+14delG, c.4676?20A>G, c.4987?21G>T, and c.5278?14C>G) and one BRCA1 variant remained unclassified (c.670+16G>A). In conclusion, our study emphasizes that in silico analysis and mini-gene splicing assays are important for the classification of variants, especially if no RNA is available from the patient. This knowledge is crucial for proper genetic counseling of patients and their family members. PMID:24667779

  12. Splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor contributes to extracellular signal?regulated kinase activation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yawei; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Qingyang; Zhang, Jiyan; Ji, Wenbin; Ma, Yuanfang

    2015-09-01

    The splicing factor is important in cancer development, modulation numerous tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and regulation of multiple signaling pathways. Splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) is a proto?oncogene, which has been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was identified that SF2 knockdown had no effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)???induced activation of the c?Jun N?terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway, the p38 pathway, or the IKK pathway in hepatoma cell lines. However, SF2 knockdown led to reduced levels of basal ERK activation and TNF???induced ERK activation, without changing the protein levels of ERK. Consequently, SF2 knockdown marginally enhanced TNF???induced cell death. Furthermore, SF2 knockdown and blockade of ERK activation partially suppressed TNF???induced interleukin?6 expression. As SF2 knockdown exhibited no role in basal Akt activation and serum?induced Akt activation, it is unlikely that SF2 affects ERK activation through modulating the protein levels of certain growth factor receptors. In conclusion, the data suggest that SF2 contributes to the elevated levels of ERK activation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through modulating key component(s) downstream of growth factor receptors and upstream of ERK. PMID:26018840

  13. The Choice of Alternative 5' Splice Sites in Influenza Virus M1 mRNA is Regulated by the Viral Polymerase Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Shin-Ru; Nemeroff, Martin E.; Krug, Robert M.

    1995-07-01

    The influenza virus M1 mRNA has two alternative 5' splice sites: a distal 5' splice site producing mRNA_3 that has the coding potential for 9 amino acids and a proximal 5' splice site producing M2 mRNA encoding the essential M2 ion-channel protein. Only mRNA_3 was made in uninfected cells transfected with DNA expressing M1 mRNA. Similarly, using nuclear extracts from uninfected cells, in vitro splicing of M1 mRNA yielded only mRNA_3. Only when the mRNA_3 5' splice site was inactivated by mutation was M2 mRNA made in uninfected cells and in uninfected cell extracts. In influenza virus-infected cells, M2 mRNA was made, but only after a delay, suggesting that newly synthesized viral gene product(s) were needed to activate the M2 5' splice site. We present strong evidence that these gene products are the complex of the three polymerase proteins, the same complex that functions in the transcription and replication of the viral genome. Gel shift experiments showed that the viral polymerase complex bound to the 5' end of the viral M1 mRNA in a sequence-specific and cap-dependent manner. During in vitro splicing catalyzed by uninfected cell extracts, the binding of the viral polymerase complex blocked the mRNA_3 5' splice site, resulting in the switch to the M2 mRNA 5' splice site and the production of M2 mRNA.

  14. PrimerSeq: Design and visualization of RT-PCR primers for alternative splicing using RNA-seq data.

    PubMed

    Tokheim, Collin; Park, Juw Won; Xing, Yi

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of multi-exon genes in higher eukaryotes are alternatively spliced and changes in alternative splicing (AS) can impact gene function or cause disease. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become a powerful technology for transcriptome-wide analysis of AS, but RT-PCR still remains the gold-standard approach for quantifying and validating exon splicing levels. We have developed PrimerSeq, a user-friendly software for systematic design and visualization of RT-PCR primers using RNA-seq data. PrimerSeq incorporates user-provided transcriptome profiles (i.e., RNA-seq data) in the design process, and is particularly useful for large-scale quantitative analysis of AS events discovered from RNA-seq experiments. PrimerSeq features a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the RNA-seq data juxtaposed with the expected RT-PCR results. To enable primer design and visualization on user-provided RNA-seq data and transcript annotations, we have developed PrimerSeq as a stand-alone software that runs on local computers. PrimerSeq is freely available for Windows and Mac OS X along with source code at http://primerseq.sourceforge.net/. With the growing popularity of RNA-seq for transcriptome studies, we expect PrimerSeq to help bridge the gap between high-throughput RNA-seq discovery of AS events and molecular analysis of candidate events by RT-PCR. PMID:24747190

  15. Presynaptic neurexin-3 alternative splicing trans-synaptically controls postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Aoto, Jason; Martinelli, David C; Malenka, Robert C; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Südhof, Thomas C

    2013-07-01

    Neurexins are essential presynaptic cell adhesion molecules that are linked to schizophrenia and autism and are subject to extensive alternative splicing. Here, we used a genetic approach to test the physiological significance of neurexin alternative splicing. We generated knockin mice in which alternatively spliced sequence #4 (SS4) of neuexin-3 is constitutively included but can be selectively excised by cre-recombination. SS4 of neurexin-3 was chosen because it is highly regulated and controls neurexin binding to neuroligins, LRRTMs, and other ligands. Unexpectedly, constitutive inclusion of SS4 in presynaptic neurexin-3 decreased postsynaptic AMPA, but not NMDA receptor levels, and enhanced postsynaptic AMPA receptor endocytosis. Moreover, constitutive inclusion of SS4 in presynaptic neurexin-3 abrogated postsynaptic AMPA receptor recruitment during NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. These phenotypes were fully rescued by constitutive excision of SS4 in neurexin-3. Thus, alternative splicing of presynaptic neurexin-3 controls postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking, revealing an unanticipated alternative splicing mechanism for trans-synaptic regulation of synaptic strength and long-term plasticity. PMID:23827676

  16. Evidence that talin alternative splice variants from Ciona intestinalis have different roles in cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Singiser, Richard H; McCann, Richard O

    2006-01-01

    Background Talins are large, modular cytoskeletal proteins found in animals and amoebozoans such as Dictyostelium discoideum. Since the identification of a second talin gene in vertebrates, it has become increasingly clear that vertebrate Talin1 and Talin2 have non-redundant roles as essential links between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton in distinct plasma membrane-associated adhesion complexes. The conserved C-terminal I/LWEQ module is important for talin function. This structural element mediates the interaction of talins with F-actin. The I/LWEQ module also targets mammalian Talin1 to focal adhesion complexes, which are dynamic multicomponent assemblies required for cell adhesion and cell motility. Although Talin1 is essential for focal adhesion function, Talin2 is not targeted to focal adhesions. The nonvertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis has only one talin gene, but alternative splicing of the talin mRNA produces two proteins with different C-terminal I/LWEQ modules. Thus, C. intestinalis contains two talins, Talin-a and Talin-b, with potentially different activities, despite having only one talin gene. Results We show here that, based on their distribution in cDNA libraries, Talin-a and Talin-b are differentially expressed during C. intestinalis development. The I/LWEQ modules of the two proteins also have different affinities for F-actin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Talin-a and Talin-b have different roles in cell adhesion, the distinct I/LWEQ modules of Talin-a and Talin-b possess different subcellular targeting determinants. The I/LWEQ module of Talin-a is targeted to focal adhesions, where it most likely serves as the link between integrin and the actin cytoskeleton. The Talin-b I/LWEQ module is not targeted to focal adhesions, but instead preferentially labels F-actin stress fibers. These different properties of C. intestinalis the Talin-a and Talin-b I/LWEQ modules mimic the differences between mammalian Talin1 and Talin2. Conclusion Vertebrates and D. discoideum contain two talin genes that encode proteins with different functions. The urochordate C. intestinalis has a single talin gene but produces two separate talins by alternative splicing that vary in a domain crucial for talin function. This suggests that multicellular organisms require multiple talins as components of adhesion complexes. In C. intestinalis, alternative splicing, rather than gene duplication followed by neo-functionalization, accounts for the presence of multiple talins with different properties. Given that C. intestinalis is an excellent model system for chordate biology, the study of Talin-a and Talin-b will lead to a deeper understanding of cell adhesion in the chordate lineage and how talin functions have been parceled out to multiple proteins during metazoan evolution. PMID:17150103

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Heat-Sensitive Alternative Splicing in Physcomitrella patens1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiung-Yun; Lin, Wen-Dar; Tu, Shih-Long

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth and development are constantly influenced by temperature fluctuations. To respond to temperature changes, different levels of gene regulation are modulated in the cell. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism increasing transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity. Although genome-wide studies have revealed complex AS patterns in plants, whether AS impacts the stress defense of plants is not known. We used heat shock (HS) treatments at nondamaging temperature and messenger RNA sequencing to obtain HS transcriptomes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Data analysis identified a significant number of novel AS events in the moss protonema. Nearly 50% of genes are alternatively spliced. Intron retention (IR) is markedly repressed under elevated temperature but alternative donor/acceptor site and exon skipping are mainly induced, indicating differential regulation of AS in response to heat stress. Transcripts undergoing heat-sensitive IR are mostly involved in specific functions, which suggests that plants regulate AS with transcript specificity under elevated temperature. An exonic GAG-repeat motif in these IR regions may function as a regulatory cis-element in heat-mediated AS regulation. A conserved AS pattern for HS transcription factors in P. patens and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) reveals that heat regulation for AS evolved early during land colonization of green plants. Our results support that AS of specific genes, including key HS regulators, is fine-tuned under elevated temperature to modulate gene regulation and reorganize metabolic processes. PMID:24777346

  18. Differential expression of the alternatively spliced forms of prosaposin mRNAs in rat choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shouichiro; Saito, Kyoko; Nabeka, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Naoto; Matsuda, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    Prosaposin has two distinct profiles. One is a precursor form that is processed into saposins thus promoting lysosomal sphingolipid hydrolase function, whereas the other is an intact form that is not processed into saposins but is abundant in certain tissues and secretory fluids, including the cerebrospinal fluid. In rats, alternative splicing in the prosaposin gene generates mRNAs with and without a 9-base insertion (Pro+9 and Pro+0 mRNAs, respectively). Pro+9 mRNA is reported to be preferentially expressed in tissues in which the intact form of prosaposin dominates, whereas Pro+0 mRNA is preferentially expressed in tissues in which the precursor dominates. The expression patterns of Pro+9 and Pro+0 mRNAs in the rat choroid plexus are examined in the present study. The specificities of 36-mer oligonucleotide probes used to detect the 9-base insertion by in situ hybridization were demonstrated by dot-blot hybridization. Next, these probes were used for in situ hybridization, which showed predominant expression of Pro+0 mRNA and weak expression of Pro+9 mRNA in the choroid plexus. These expression patterns were confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction with AlwI restriction enzyme treatment. Expression of the intact form of prosaposin in the choroid plexus was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Because the choroid plexus is responsible for the generation of cerebrospinal fluid containing the intact form of prosaposin, the present study raises the possibility that Pro+0 mRNA is related to the intact form in the choroid plexus and that the alternatively spliced forms of mRNAs do not simply correspond to the precursor and intact forms of prosaposin. PMID:24414178

  19. Intronic Non-CG DNA hydroxymethylation and alternative mRNA splicing in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing experiments showed that DNA cytosine methylation in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) is almost exclusively at CG dinucleotides in exons. However, the most commonly used method, bisulfite sequencing, cannot distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine that is catalyzed by the TET family of dioxygenases. Furthermore, some analysis software programs under-represent non-CG DNA methylation and hydryoxymethylation for a variety of reasons. Therefore, we used an unbiased analysis of bisulfite sequencing data combined with molecular and bioinformatics approaches to distinguish 5-methylcytosine from 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. By doing this, we have performed the first whole genome analyses of DNA modifications at non-CG sites in honey bees and correlated the effects of these DNA modifications on gene expression and alternative mRNA splicing. Results We confirmed, using unbiased analyses of whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) data, with both new data and published data, the previous finding that CG DNA methylation is enriched in exons in honey bees. However, we also found evidence that cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Using antibodies against 5-hydroxmethylcytosine, we confirmed that DNA hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites is enriched in introns. Additionally, using a new technique, Pvu-seq (which employs the enzyme PvuRts1l to digest DNA at 5-hydroxymethylcytosine sites followed by next-generation DNA sequencing), we further confirmed that hydroxymethylation is enriched in introns at non-CG sites. Conclusions Cytosine hydroxymethylation at non-CG sites might have more functional significance than previously appreciated, and in honey bees these modifications might be related to the regulation of alternative mRNA splicing by defining the locations of the introns. PMID:24079845

  20. Alternative splicing contributes to the coordinated regulation of ferritin subunit levels in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Cong, Lin; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A constant ratio of ferritin heavy chain homolog (HCH) and light chain homolog (LCH) subunits seems to be required to compose the ferritin heteropolymer protein in insects. However, the mechanism by which insect LCH genes regulate protein levels remains unclear. We report that alternative promoters and alternative splicing contribute to maintaining a constant ratio of the two subunits, BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH (ferritin 1 HCH and ferritin 2 LCH), in Bactrocera dorsalis, a notorious quarantine pest. The genes BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were identified with a series of potential transcription factor binding sites and were shown to be clustered within the genome in a “head to head” fashion. Thus, we unearthed a potential post-transcriptional mechanism to regulate the levels of LCH subunits, and confirmed that the expressions of BdFer1HCH and BdFer2LCH were induced by 20-hydroecdysone, iron overload, and immune challenge. PMID:24763285

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of Postmortem Brain identifies Dysregulated Splicing Events in Novel Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ori S.; Mccoy, Sarah Y.; Middleton, Frank A.; Bialosuknia, Sean; Zhang-James, Yanli; Liu, Lu; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The diverse spatial and temporal expression of alternatively spliced transcript isoforms shapes neurodevelopment and plays a major role in neuronal adaptability. Although alternative splicing is extremely common in the brain, its role in mental illnesses such as schizophrenia has received little attention. To examine this relationship, postmortem brain tissue was obtained from 20 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 neuropsychiatrically normal comparison subjects. Gray matter samples were extracted from two brain regions implicated in the disorder: Brodmann area 10 and caudate. Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays were used on four subjects per group to attain an initial profile of differential expression of transcribed elements within and across brain regions in SZ. Numerous genes of interest with altered mRNA transcripts were identified by microarray through the differential expression of particular exons and 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) between diagnostic groups. Select microarray results—including dysregulation of ENAH exon 11a and CPNE3 3?UTR—were verified by qRTPCR and replicated in the remaining independent sample of 16 SZ patients and 16 normal comparison subjects. These results, if further replicated, clearly illustrate the importance of Identifying transcriptomic variants in expression studies, and implicate novel candidate genes in the disorder. PMID:23062752

  2. Cell surface modulation of the neural cell adhesion molecule resulting from alternative mRNA splicing in a tissue-specific developmental sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben A. Murray; Geoffrey C. Owens; Ellen A. Prediger; Kathryn L. Crossin; Bruce A. Cunningham; Gerald M. Edelman

    1986-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that is expressed in the embryonic chicken nervous system as two differ- ent polypeptide chains encoded by alternatively spliced transcripts of a single gene. Because they differ by the presence or absence of ~250 amino acids in their cytoplasmic domains, these polypeptides are desig- nated ld and sd, for

  3. MBNL proteins repress embryonic stem cell-specific alternative splicing and reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hong; Irimia, Manuel; Ross, P. Joel; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Alipanahi, Babak; David, Laurent; Golipour, Azadeh; Gabut, Mathieu; Michael, Iacovos P.; Nachman, Emil N.; Wang, Eric; Trcka, Dan; Thompson, Tadeo; O’Hanlon, Dave; Slobodeniuc, Valentina; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Burge, Christopher B.; Moffat, Jason; Frey, Brendan J.; Nagy, Andras; Ellis, James; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations of the core gene regulatory circuitry that controls embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency have largely focused on the roles of transcription, chromatin and non-coding RNA regulators1–3. Alternative splicing (AS) represents a widely acting mode of gene regulation4–8, yet its role in regulating ESC pluripotency and differentiation is poorly understood. Here, we identify the Muscleblind-like RNA binding proteins, MBNL1 and MBNL2, as conserved and direct negative regulators of a large program of cassette exon AS events that are differentially regulated between ESCs and other cell types. Knockdown of MBNL proteins in differentiated cells causes switching to an ESC-like AS pattern for approximately half of these events, whereas over-expression of MBNL proteins in ESCs promotes differentiated cell-like AS patterns. Among the MBNL-regulated events is an ESC-specific AS switch in the forkhead family transcription factor FOXP1 that controls pluripotency9. Consistent with a central and negative regulatory role for MBNL proteins in pluripotency, their knockdown significantly enhances the expression of key pluripotency genes and the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) during somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:23739326

  4. Identification of a novel splice site mutation of CLCN5 gene and characterization of a new alternative 5' UTR end of ClC-5 mRNA in human renal tissue and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Forino, Monica; Graziotto, Romina; Tosetto, Enrica; Gambaro, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Angela; Anglani, Franca

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the CLCN5 gene have been detected in Dent's disease and its phenotypic variants (X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis, X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, and idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria of Japanese children). Dent's disease is a tubular disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, and nephrolithiasis associated with nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria. ClC-5 is the first chloride channel for which a definitive role in the trafficking and acidification-dependent recycling of apical membrane proteins has been established. In the course of CLCN5 SSCP analysis in patients with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, we detected a novel mutation at intron 2 of the CLCN5 gene, a T-to-G substitution, located 17 bp upstream of the AG acceptor site. To determine the effect of IVS2-17 T>G mutation on the correct splicing of intron 2, we studied ClC-5 transcripts in a patient's peripheral blood leukocytes by means of quantitative comparative RT/PCR, and found a new ClC-5 5' UTR isoform characterized by the untranslated exon 1b and by retention of intron 1b. This new isoform--isoform B1--was not correlated with mutation since it was detected also in control leukocytes and in renal tissues of kidney donors, thus confirming its physiological role. By RACE analysis we determined the putative transcriptional start site which is located at intron 1a, 251 nt upstream of the first nucleotide of the untranslated exon 1b. ORF analysis revealed that intron 1b retention in isoform B1 stabilizes the initiation of translation to the AGT at position 297 of the ClC-5 cDNA coding region. PMID:14673707

  5. Impairment of alternative splice sites defining a novel gammaretroviral exon within gag modifies the oncogenic properties of Akv murine leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Annette Balle; Lund, Anders H; Kunder, Sandra; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schmidt, Jörg; Wang, Bruce; Wabl, Matthias; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations of an alternative splice donor site located within the gag region has previously been shown to broaden the pathogenic potential of the T-lymphomagenic gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus, while the equivalent mutations in the erythroleukemia inducing Friend murine leukemia virus seem to have no influence on the disease-inducing potential of this virus. In the present study we investigate the splice pattern as well as the possible effects of mutating the alternative splice sites on the oncogenic properties of the B-lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. Results By exon-trapping procedures we have identified a novel gammaretroviral exon, resulting from usage of alternative splice acceptor (SA') and splice donor (SD') sites located in the capsid region of gag of the B-cell lymphomagenic Akv murine leukemia virus. To analyze possible effects in vivo of this novel exon, three different alternative splice site mutant viruses, mutated in either the SA', in the SD', or in both sites, respectively, were constructed and injected into newborn inbred NMRI mice. Most of the infected mice (about 90%) developed hematopoietic neoplasms within 250 days, and histological examination of the tumors showed that the introduced synonymous gag mutations have a significant influence on the phenotype of the induced tumors, changing the distribution of the different types as well as generating tumors of additional specificities such as de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and histiocytic sarcoma. Interestingly, a broader spectrum of diagnoses was made from the two single splice-site mutants than from as well the wild-type as the double splice-site mutant. Both single- and double-spliced transcripts are produced in vivo using the SA' and/or the SD' sites, but the mechanisms underlying the observed effects on oncogenesis remain to be clarified. Likewise, analyses of provirus integration sites in tumor tissues, which identified 111 novel RISs (retroviral integration sites) and 35 novel CISs (common integration sites), did not clearly point to specific target genes or pathways to be associated with specific tumor diagnoses or individual viral mutants. Conclusion We present here the first example of a doubly spliced transcript within the group of gammaretroviruses, and we show that mutation of the alternative splice sites that define this novel RNA product change the oncogenic potential of Akv murine leukemia virus. PMID:17617899

  6. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. PMID:25863591

  7. Alternative splicing detection workflow needs a careful combination of sample prep and bioinformatics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background RNA-Seq provides remarkable power in the area of biomarkers discovery and disease characterization. Two crucial steps that affect RNA-Seq experiment results are Library Sample Preparation (LSP) and Bioinformatics Analysis (BA). This work describes an evaluation of the combined effect of LSP methods and BA tools in the detection of splice variants. Results Different LSPs (TruSeq unstranded/stranded, ScriptSeq, NuGEN) allowed the detection of a large common set of splice variants. However, each LSP also detected a small set of unique transcripts that are characterized by a low coverage and/or FPKM. This effect was particularly evident using the low input RNA NuGEN v2 protocol. A benchmark dataset, in which synthetic reads as well as reads generated from standard (Illumina TruSeq 100) and low input (NuGEN) LSPs were spiked-in was used to evaluate the effect of LSP on the statistical detection of alternative splicing events (AltDE). Statistical detection of AltDE was done using as prototypes for splice variant-quantification Cuffdiff2 and RSEM-EBSeq. As prototype for exon-level analysis DEXSeq was used. Exon-level analysis performed slightly better than splice variant-quantification approaches, although at most only 50% of the spiked-in transcripts was detected. The performances of both splice variant-quantification and exon-level analysis improved when raising the number of input reads. Conclusion Data, derived from NuGEN v2, were not the ideal input for AltDE, especially when the exon-level approach was used. We observed that both splice variant-quantification and exon-level analysis performances were strongly dependent on the number of input reads. Moreover, the ribosomal RNA depletion protocol was less sensitive in detecting splicing variants, possibly due to the significant percentage of the reads mapping to non-coding transcripts. PMID:26050971

  8. CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF)-mediated alternative splicing regulation in the brain during health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Andrea N

    2013-09-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating transcript and protein diversity. In the brain, alternative splicing is particularly prevalent, and alternative splicing factors are highly enriched. These include the six members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF). This review summarizes what is known about the expression of different CELF proteins in the nervous system and the evidence that they are important in neural development and function. The involvement of CELF proteins in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including myotonic dystrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, fragile X syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is discussed. Finally, the known targets of CELF-mediated alternative splicing regulation in the nervous system and the functional consequences of these splicing events are reviewed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "RNA and splicing regulation in neurodegeneration." PMID:23247071

  9. A germline mutation in SRRM2, a splicing factor gene, is implicated in papillary thyroid carcinoma predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Tomsic, Jerneja; He, Huiling; Akagi, Keiko; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Pan, Qun; Bertani, Blake; Nagy, Rebecca; Symer, David E.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Chapelle, Albert de la

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) displays strong but so far largely uncharacterized heritability. Here we studied genetic predisposition in a family with six affected individuals. We genotyped all available family members and conducted whole exome sequencing of blood DNA from two affected individuals. Haplotype analysis and other genetic criteria narrowed our list of candidates to a germline variant in the serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2 gene (SRRM2). This heterozygous variant, c.1037C?>?T (Ser346Phe or S346F; rs149019598) cosegregated with PTC in the family. It was not found in 138 other PTC families. It was found in 7/1,170 sporadic PTC cases and in 0/1,404 controls (p?=?0.004). The encoded protein SRRM2 (also called SRm300) is part of the RNA splicing machinery. To evaluate the possibility that the S346F missense mutation affects alternative splicing, we compared RNA-Seq data in leukocytes from three mutation carriers and three controls. Significant differences in alternative splicing were identified for 1,642 exons, of which a subset of 7 exons was verified experimentally. The results confirmed a higher ratio of inclusion of exons in mutation carriers. These data suggest that the S346F mutation in SRRM2 predisposes to PTC by affecting alternative splicing of unidentified downstream target genes. PMID:26135620

  10. A germline mutation in SRRM2, a splicing factor gene, is implicated in papillary thyroid carcinoma predisposition.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Jerneja; He, Huiling; Akagi, Keiko; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Pan, Qun; Bertani, Blake; Nagy, Rebecca; Symer, David E; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Chapelle, Albert de la

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) displays strong but so far largely uncharacterized heritability. Here we studied genetic predisposition in a family with six affected individuals. We genotyped all available family members and conducted whole exome sequencing of blood DNA from two affected individuals. Haplotype analysis and other genetic criteria narrowed our list of candidates to a germline variant in the serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2 gene (SRRM2). This heterozygous variant, c.1037C?>?T (Ser346Phe or S346F; rs149019598) cosegregated with PTC in the family. It was not found in 138 other PTC families. It was found in 7/1,170 sporadic PTC cases and in 0/1,404 controls (p?=?0.004). The encoded protein SRRM2 (also called SRm300) is part of the RNA splicing machinery. To evaluate the possibility that the S346F missense mutation affects alternative splicing, we compared RNA-Seq data in leukocytes from three mutation carriers and three controls. Significant differences in alternative splicing were identified for 1,642 exons, of which a subset of 7 exons was verified experimentally. The results confirmed a higher ratio of inclusion of exons in mutation carriers. These data suggest that the S346F mutation in SRRM2 predisposes to PTC by affecting alternative splicing of unidentified downstream target genes. PMID:26135620

  11. Ultra-deep profiling of alternatively spliced Drosophila Dscam isoforms by circularization-assisted multi-segment sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; You, Xintian; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; He, Haihuai; Kise, Yoshiaki; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Tao; Klebes, Ansgar; Schmucker, Dietmar; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gene Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) can generate thousands of different ectodomains via mutual exclusive splicing of three large exon clusters. The isoform diversity plays a profound role in both neuronal wiring and pathogen recognition. However, the isoform expression pattern at the global level remained unexplored. Here, we developed a novel method that allows for direct quantification of the alternatively spliced exon combinations from over hundreds of millions of Dscam transcripts in one sequencing run. With unprecedented sequencing depth, we detected a total of 18?496 isoforms, out of 19?008 theoretically possible combinations. Importantly, we demonstrated that alternative splicing between different clusters is independent. Moreover, the isoforms were expressed across a broad dynamic range, with significant bias in cell/tissue and developmental stage-specific patterns. Hitherto underappreciated, such bias can dramatically reduce the ability of neurons to display unique surface receptor codes. Therefore, the seemingly excessive diversity encoded in the Dscam locus might nevertheless be essential for a robust self and non-self discrimination in neurons. PMID:23792425

  12. Myc and SAGA rewire an alternative splicing network during early somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Calley L; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Wang, Li; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Trcka, Dan; Weiss, Alexander; Hernandez, J Javier; Pan, Qun; Han, Hong; Xu, Xueping; Xia, Zheng; Salinger, Andrew P; Wilson, Marenda; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Datti, Alessandro; Li, Wei; Cooney, Austin J; Barton, Michelle C; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2015-04-15

    Embryonic stem cells are maintained in a self-renewing and pluripotent state by multiple regulatory pathways. Pluripotent-specific transcriptional networks are sequentially reactivated as somatic cells reprogram to achieve pluripotency. How epigenetic regulators modulate this process and contribute to somatic cell reprogramming is not clear. Here we performed a functional RNAi screen to identify the earliest epigenetic regulators required for reprogramming. We identified components of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, in particular Gcn5, as critical regulators of reprogramming initiation. Furthermore, we showed in mouse pluripotent stem cells that Gcn5 strongly associates with Myc and that, upon initiation of somatic reprogramming, Gcn5 and Myc form a positive feed-forward loop that activates a distinct alternative splicing network and the early acquisition of pluripotency-associated splicing events. These studies expose a Myc-SAGA pathway that drives expression of an essential alternative splicing regulatory network during somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:25877919

  13. Alternative splicing of Tcf7l2 transcripts generates protein variants with differential promoter-binding and transcriptional activation properties at Wnt/?-catenin targets

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Andreas; Bruser, Katja; Elfert, Susanne; Wallmen, Britta; Wittel, Yvonne; Wöhrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing can produce multiple protein products with variable domain composition from a single gene. The mouse Tcf7l2 gene is subject to alternative splicing. It encodes TCF4, a member of the T-cell factor (TCF) family of DNA-binding proteins and a nuclear interaction partner of ?-catenin which performs essential functions in Wnt growth factor signalling. Multiple TCF4 isoforms, potentially exhibiting cell-type-specific distribution and differing in gene regulatory properties, could strongly influence tissue-specific Wnt responses. Therefore, we have examined mouse Tcf7l2 splice variants in neonatal tissues, embryonic stem cells and neural progenitors. By polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning and sequencing, we identify a large number of alternatively spliced transcripts and report a highly flexible combinatorial repertoire of alternative exons. Many, but not all of the variants exhibit a broad tissue distribution. Moreover, two functionally equivalent versions of the C-clamp, thought to represent an auxiliary DNA-binding domain, were identified. Depending upon promoter context and precise domain composition, TCF4 isoforms exhibit strikingly different transactivation potentials at natural Wnt/?-catenin target promoters. However, differences in C-clamp-mediated DNA binding can only partially explain functional differences among TCF4 variants. Still, the cell-type-specific complement of TCF4 isoforms is likely to be a major determinant for the context-dependent transcriptional output of Wnt/?-catenin signalling. PMID:20044351

  14. MBNL and CELF proteins regulate alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1.

    PubMed

    Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Oma, Yoko; Onishi, Hayato; Nezu, Yuriko; Sasagawa, Noboru; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2009-10-01

    The expression and function of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1/ClC-1 is regulated by alternative splicing. Inclusion of the CLCN1 exon 7A is aberrantly elevated in myotonic dystrophy (DM), a genetic disorder caused by the expansion of a CTG or CCTG repeat. Increased exon 7A inclusion leads to a reduction in CLCN1 function, which can be causative of myotonia. Two RNA-binding protein families--muscleblind-like (MBNL) and CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor (CELF) proteins--are thought to mediate the splicing misregulation in DM. Here, we have identified multiple factors that regulate the alternative splicing of a mouse Clcn1 minigene. The inclusion of exon 7A was repressed by MBNL proteins while promoted by an expanded CUG repeat or CELF4, but not by CUG-BP. Mutation analyses suggested that exon 7A and its flanking region mediate the effect of MBNL1, whereas another distinct region in intron 6 mediates that of CELF4. An exonic splicing enhancer essential for the inclusion of exon 7A was identified at the 5' end of this exon, which might be inhibited by MBNL1. Collectively, these results provide a mechanistic model for the regulation of Clcn1 splicing, and reveal novel regulatory properties of MBNL and CELF proteins. PMID:19720736

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Splicing Events in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chamala, Srikar; Feng, Guanqiao; Chavarro, Carolina; Barbazuk, W. Brad

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) plays important roles in many plant functions, but its conservation across the plant kingdom is not known. We describe a methodology to identify AS events and identify conserved AS events across large phylogenetic distances using RNA-Seq datasets. We applied this methodology to transcriptome data from nine angiosperms including Amborella, the single sister species to all other extant flowering plants. AS events within 40–70% of the expressed multi-exonic genes per species were found, 27,120 of which are conserved among two or more of the taxa studied. While many events are species specific, many others are shared across long evolutionary distances suggesting they have functional significance. Conservation of AS event data provides an estimate of the number of ancestral AS events present at each node of the tree representing the nine species studied. Furthermore, the presence or absence of AS isoforms between species with different whole genome duplication (WGD) histories provides the opportunity to examine the impact of WDG on AS potential. Examining AS in gene families identifies those with high rates of AS, and conservation can distinguish ancient events vs. recent or species specific adaptations. The MADS-box and SR protein families are found to represent families with low and high occurrences of AS, respectively, yet their AS events were likely present in the MRCA of angiosperms. PMID:25859541

  16. Informational structure of genetic sequences and nature of gene splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, E. N.

    1991-10-01

    Only about 1/20 of DNA of higher organisms codes for proteins, by means of classical triplet code. The rest of DNA sequences is largely silent, with unclear functions, if any. The triplet code is not the only code (message) carried by the sequences. There are three levels of molecular communication, where the same sequence ``talks'' to various bimolecules, while having, respectively, three different appearances: DNA, RNA and protein. Since the molecular structures and, hence, sequence specific preferences of these are substantially different, the original DNA sequence has to carry simultaneously three types of sequence patterns (codes, messages), thus, being a composite structure in which one had the same letter (nucleotide) is frequently involved in several overlapping codes of different nature. This multiplicity and overlapping of the codes is a unique feature of the Gnomic, language of genetic sequences. The coexisting codes have to be degenerate in various degrees to allow an optimal and concerted performance of all the encoded functions. There is an obvious conflict between the best possible performance of a given function and necessity to compromise the quality of a given sequence pattern in favor of other patterns. It appears that the major role of various changes in the sequences on their ``ontogenetic'' way from DNA to RNA to protein, like RNA editing and splicing, or protein post-translational modifications is to resolve such conflicts. New data are presented strongly indicating that the gene splicing is such a device to resolve the conflict between the code of DNA folding in chromatin and the triplet code for protein synthesis.

  17. Alternative Splicing Factor/Splicing Factor 2 Regulates the Expression of the ? Subunit of the Human T Cell Receptor-associated CD3 Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Vaishali R.; Tsokos, George C.

    2010-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus express decreased levels of the T cell receptor-associated CD3 ? chain, a feature directly linked to their aberrant function. The decrease in CD3? protein expression is in part due to decreased levels of functional wild type isoform of the 3?-untranslated region (UTR) of CD3? mRNA with concomitant increased levels of an unstable alternatively spliced isoform. In order to identify factors involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of CD3?, we performed mass spectrometric analysis of Jurkat T cell nuclear proteins “pulled down” by a CD3? 3?-UTR oligonucleotide, which identified the splicing protein alternative splicing factor/splicing factor 2 (ASF/SF2). We show for the first time that ASF/SF2 binds specifically to the 3?-UTR of CD3? and regulates expression of CD3? protein by limiting the production of the alternatively spliced isoform. During activation of human T cells, an increase in the wild type CD3? mRNA is associated with increased expression of ASF/SF2. Finally, we show a significant correlation between ASF/SF2 and CD3? protein levels in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Thus, our results identify ASF/SF2 as a novel factor in the regulation of alternative splicing of the 3?-UTR of CD3? and protein expression in human T cells. PMID:20118245

  18. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing of a Bioengineering and c Molecular and Cellular Physiology, School of Medicine, b Department of Applied Physics. Indirect evidence has indicated that exten- sive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce

  19. Nuclear matrix-associated protein SMAR1 regulates alternative splicing via HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of Sam68

    PubMed Central

    Nakka, Kiran Kumar; Chaudhary, Nidhi; Joshi, Shruti; Bhat, Jyotsna; Singh, Kulwant; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Malhotra, Renu; De, Abhijit; Santra, Manas Kumar; Dilworth, F. Jeffrey; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a complex regulatory nexus modulated by various trans-factors and their posttranslational modifications to create a dynamic transcriptome through alternative splicing. Signal-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of trans-factors are known to regulate alternative splicing. However, the role of other posttranslational modifications, such as deacetylation/acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, that could modulate alternative splicing in either a signal-dependent or -independent manner remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that Scaffold/matrix-associated region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1) negatively regulates alternative splicing through histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated deacetylation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa). SMAR1 is enriched in nuclear splicing speckles and associates with the snRNAs that are involved in splice site recognition. ERK–MAPK pathway that regulates alternative splicing facilitates ERK-1/2–mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 at threonines 345 and 360 and localizes SMAR1 to the cytoplasm, preventing its interaction with Sam68. We showed that endogenously, SMAR1 through HDAC6 maintains Sam68 in a deacetylated state. However, knockdown or ERK-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 releases the inhibitory SMAR1–HDAC6–Sam68 complex, facilitating Sam68 acetylation and alternative splicing. Furthermore, loss of heterozygosity at the Chr.16q24.3 locus in breast cancer cells, wherein the human homolog of SMAR1 (BANP) has been mapped, enhances Sam68 acetylation and CD44 variant exon inclusion. In addition, tail-vein injections in mice with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells depleted for SMAR1 showed increased CD44 variant exon inclusion and concomitant metastatic propensity, confirming the functional role of SMAR1 in regulation of alternative splicing. Thus, our results reveal the complex molecular mechanism underlying SMAR1-mediated signal-dependent and -independent regulation of alternative splicing via Sam68 deacetylation. PMID:26080397

  20. Nuclear matrix-associated protein SMAR1 regulates alternative splicing via HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of Sam68.

    PubMed

    Nakka, Kiran Kumar; Chaudhary, Nidhi; Joshi, Shruti; Bhat, Jyotsna; Singh, Kulwant; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Malhotra, Renu; De, Abhijit; Santra, Manas Kumar; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2015-06-30

    Pre-mRNA splicing is a complex regulatory nexus modulated by various trans-factors and their posttranslational modifications to create a dynamic transcriptome through alternative splicing. Signal-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of trans-factors are known to regulate alternative splicing. However, the role of other posttranslational modifications, such as deacetylation/acetylation, methylation, and ubiquitination, that could modulate alternative splicing in either a signal-dependent or -independent manner remain enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that Scaffold/matrix-associated region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1) negatively regulates alternative splicing through histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-mediated deacetylation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 (Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa). SMAR1 is enriched in nuclear splicing speckles and associates with the snRNAs that are involved in splice site recognition. ERK-MAPK pathway that regulates alternative splicing facilitates ERK-1/2-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 at threonines 345 and 360 and localizes SMAR1 to the cytoplasm, preventing its interaction with Sam68. We showed that endogenously, SMAR1 through HDAC6 maintains Sam68 in a deacetylated state. However, knockdown or ERK-mediated phosphorylation of SMAR1 releases the inhibitory SMAR1-HDAC6-Sam68 complex, facilitating Sam68 acetylation and alternative splicing. Furthermore, loss of heterozygosity at the Chr.16q24.3 locus in breast cancer cells, wherein the human homolog of SMAR1 (BANP) has been mapped, enhances Sam68 acetylation and CD44 variant exon inclusion. In addition, tail-vein injections in mice with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells depleted for SMAR1 showed increased CD44 variant exon inclusion and concomitant metastatic propensity, confirming the functional role of SMAR1 in regulation of alternative splicing. Thus, our results reveal the complex molecular mechanism underlying SMAR1-mediated signal-dependent and -independent regulation of alternative splicing via Sam68 deacetylation. PMID:26080397

  1. Alternatively spliced forms of MICA and MICB lacking exon 3 in a human cell line and evidence of presence of similar RNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zou; Peter Stastny

    2002-01-01

    MICA and MICB genes encode MHC class I chain-related proteins, which are polymorphic, do not appear to present peptides or associate with Š-microglobulin, and are expressed predominantly in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and several cultured cell lines. Alternatively spliced isoforms are known to exist for HLA-A and B, as well as HLA-G and the MHC class I-related gene, MR1.

  2. Evidence for the widespread coupling of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    E-print Network

    that are alternatively spliced (Fig. 1a). To exclude errors from genome sequencing and assembly, and to simplify the task to the genomic sequence over the full length of the coding sequence, without gaps in the exons. We further in humans Benjamin P. Lewis* , Richard E. Green*§ , and Steven E. Brenner*§¶ Departments of *Plant

  3. The Alternatively Spliced Acid Box Region Plays a Key Role in FGF Receptor Autoinhibition

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    a family of 18 ligands that signal through four FGF receptor tyro- sine kinases (FGFR1 and ligand from one 1:1 FGF-FGFR pro- tomer interacts with the receptor from the other 1:1 FGF-FGFR protomerStructure Article The Alternatively Spliced Acid Box Region Plays a Key Role in FGF Receptor

  4. A subtle alternative splicing event gives rise to a widely expressed human RNase k isoform.

    PubMed

    Karousis, Evangelos D; Sideris, Diamantis C

    2014-01-01

    Subtle alternative splicing leads to the formation of RNA variants lacking or including a small number of nucleotides. To date, the impact of subtle alternative splicing phenomena on protein biosynthesis has been studied in frame-preserving incidents. On the contrary, mRNA isoforms derived from frame-shifting events were poorly studied and generally characterized as non-coding. This work provides evidence for a frame-shifting subtle alternative splicing event which results in the production of a novel protein isoform. We applied a combined molecular approach for the cloning and expression analysis of a human RNase ? transcript (RNase ?-02) which lacks four consecutive bases compared to the previously isolated RNase ? isoform. RNase ?-02 mRNA is expressed in all human cell lines tested end encodes the synthesis of a 134-amino-acid protein by utilizing an alternative initiation codon. The expression of RNase ?-02 in the cytoplasm of human cells was verified by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis using a specific polyclonal antibody developed on the basis of the amino-acid sequence difference between the two protein isoforms. The results presented here show that subtle changes during mRNA splicing can lead to the expression of significantly altered protein isoforms. PMID:24797913

  5. Identification, basic characterization and evolutionary analysis of differentially spliced mRNA isoforms of human YAP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Christian J; Oka, Tsutomu; Mazack, Virginia; Hilman, Dror; Gat, Uri; Muramatsu, Tomoki; Inazawa, Johji; Golden, Alicia; Carey, David J; Farooq, Amjad; Tromp, Gerard; Sudol, Marius

    2012-11-10

    The YAP1 gene encodes a potent new oncogene and stem cell factor. However, in some cancers, the YAP1 gene plays a role of tumor suppressor. At present, the gene and its products are intensely studied and its cDNAs are used as transgenes in cellular and animal models. Here, we report 4 new potential mRNA splicing isoforms of the YAP1 gene, bringing the total number of isoforms to 8. We detected all 8 YAP1 isoforms in a panel of human tissues and evaluated the expression of the longest isoform of YAP1 (YAP1-2?) using Real Time PCR. All YAP1 isoforms are barely detectable in human leukocytes compared to fair levels of expression found in other human tissues. We analyzed the structure of the genomic region that gave rise to alternatively spliced YAP1 transcripts in different metazoans. We found that YAP1 isoforms, which utilize exon 6 emerged in evolution with the appearance of amniotes. Interestingly, 6 YAP1 isoforms, which contain the exon 5 extension, exon 6 or both would have their leucine zipper region disrupted in the predicted protein product, compared to the intact leucine zipper found in two YAP1 (?) isoforms. This observation has direct functional ramifications for YAP1 signaling. We also propose a normalized nomenclature for the mRNA splice variants of the YAP1 gene, which should aid in the characterization of signaling differences among the potential protein products of the YAP1 gene. PMID:22939869

  6. Identification, basic characterization and evolutionary analysis of differentially spliced mRNA isoforms of human YAP1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Christian J; Oka, Tsutomu; Mazack, Virginia; Hilman, Dror; Gat, Uri; Muramatsu, Tomoki; Inazawa, Johji; Golden, Alicia; Carey, David J; Farooq, Amjad; Tromp, Gerard; Sudol, Marius

    2012-01-01

    The YAP1 gene encodes a potent new oncogene and stem cell factor. However, in some cancers, the YAP1 gene plays a role of tumor suppressor. At present, the gene and its products are intensely studied and its cDNAs are used as transgenes in cellular and animal models. Here, we report 4 new potential mRNA splicing isoforms of the YAP1 gene, bringing the total number of isoforms to 8. We detected all 8 YAP1 isoforms in a panel of human tissues and evaluated the expression of the longest isoform of YAP1 (YAP1-2?) using Real Time PCR. All YAP1 isoforms are barely detectable in human leukocytes compared to fair levels of expression found in other human tissues. We analyzed the structure of the genomic region that gave rise to alternatively spliced YAP1 transcripts in different metazoans. We found that YAP1 isoforms, which utilize exon 6 emerged in evolution with the appearance of amniotes. Interestingly, 6 YAP1 isoforms, which contain the exon 5 extension, exon 6 or both would have their leucine zipper region disrupted in the predicted protein product, compared to the intact leucine zipper found in two YAP1 (?) isoforms. This observation has direct functional ramifications for YAP1 signaling. We also propose a normalized nomenclature for the mRNA splice variants of YAP1 gene, which should aid in the characterization of signaling differences among the potential protein products of the YAP1 gene. PMID:22939869

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tau Alternative Splicing and Frontotemporal Dementia

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jane Y.

    supranuclear palsy (PSP), FTDs, Down Syndrome (DS), several variants of Prion Diseases and Alzheimer disease of the human tau gene is under complex regulation. Mutations in the tau gene have been identified in patients of tauopa- thies may help in developing effective therapies for neurodegenerative tauopathies and related

  8. Splicing regulation of the Survival Motor Neuron genes and implications for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bebee, Thomas W.; Gladman, Jordan T.; Chandler, Dawn S.

    2010-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. The reduced SMN levels are due to loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene. Humans carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene that generates a truncated protein, due to a C to T nucleotide alteration in exon 7 that leads to inefficient RNA splicing of exon 7. This exclusion of SMN exon 7 is central to the onset of the SMA disease, however, this offers a unique therapeutic intervention in which corrective splicing of the SMN2 gene would restore SMN function. Exon 7 splicing is regulated by a number of exonic and intronic splicing regulatory sequences and trans-factors that bind them. A better understanding of the way SMN pre-mRNA is spliced has lead to the development of targeted therapies aimed at correcting SMN2 splicing. As therapeutics targeted toward correction of SMN2 splicing continue to be developed available SMA mouse models can be utilized in validating their potential in disease treatment. PMID:20515750

  9. Functional Characterization of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3a (IRF-3a), an Alternative Splice Isoform of IRF-3

    PubMed Central

    Karpova, Alla Y.; Ronco, Lucienne V.; Howley, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Virus infection of numerous cell types results in the transcriptional induction of a subset of virus- and interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes. The beta IFN (IFN-?) gene is one of these rapidly induced genes; it serves as a fundamental component of the cellular defense response in eliciting potent antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiproliferative effects. One of the transcription factors involved in the stringent regulation of IFN-? production following virus infection is interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 (IRF-3). We have characterized an alternatively spliced isoform of IRF-3 that we have called IRF-3a. IRF-3a can selectively and potently inhibit virus-induced activation of the IFN-? promoter. IRF-3a lacks half of the DNA binding domain found in IRF-3 and is unable to bind to the classical IRF binding elements, IFN-stimulated response elements. These studies suggest that IRF-3a may act as a modulator of IRF-3. PMID:11390646

  10. Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 alternative splicing events in basal chordates and vertebrates: a focus on paired box domain

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Peter; Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.

    2015-01-01

    Paired box transcription factors play important role in development and tissue morphogenesis. The number of Pax homologs varies among species studied so far, due to genome and gene duplications that have affected PAX family to a great extent. Based on sequence similarity and functional domains, four Pax classes have been identified in chordates, namely Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, and Pax4/6. Numerous splicing events have been reported mainly for Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes. Of significant interest are those events that lead to Pax proteins with presumed novel properties, such as altered DNA-binding or transcriptional activity. In the current study, a thorough analysis of Pax2/5/8 splicing events from cephalochordates and vertebrates was performed. We focused more on Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 splicing events in which the paired domain is involved. Three new splicing events were identified in Oryzias latipes, one of which seems to be conserved in Acanthomorphata. Using representatives from deuterostome and protostome phyla, a comparative analysis of the Pax6 exon-intron structure of the paired domain was performed, during an attempt to estimate the time of appearance of the Pax6(5a) mRNA isoform. As shown in our analysis, this splicing event is characteristic of Gnathostomata and is absent in the other chordate subphyla. Moreover, expression pattern of alternative spliced variants was compared between cephalochordates and fish species. In summary, our data indicate expansion of alternative mRNA variants in paired box region of Pax2/5/8 and Pax6 genes during the course of vertebrate evolution.

  11. Short antisense-locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) correct alternative splicing abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowiak-Szlachcic, Agnieszka; Taylor, Katarzyna; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa; Sznajder, Lukasz J; Mykowska, Agnieszka; Sroka, Joanna; Thornton, Charles A; Sobczak, Krzysztof

    2015-03-31

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder caused by expansion of CTG triplet repeats in 3'-untranslated region of DMPK gene. The pathomechanism of DM1 is driven by accumulation of toxic transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUG(exp)) in nuclear foci which sequester several factors regulating RNA metabolism, such as Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs). In this work, we utilized very short chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides composed exclusively of locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) complementary to CUG repeats, as potential therapeutic agents against DM1. Our in vitro data demonstrated that very short, 8- or 10-unit all-LNAs effectively bound the CUG repeat RNA and prevented the formation of CUG(exp)/MBNL complexes. In proliferating DM1 cells as well as in skeletal muscles of DM1 mouse model the all-LNAs induced the reduction of the number and size of CUG(exp) foci and corrected MBNL-sensitive alternative splicing defects with high efficacy and specificity. The all-LNAs had low impact on the cellular level of CUG(exp)-containing transcripts and did not affect the expression of other transcripts with short CUG repeats. Our data strongly indicate that short all-LNAs complementary to CUG repeats are a promising therapeutic tool against DM1. PMID:25753670

  12. An alternatively spliced IL-15 isoform modulates abrasion-induced keratinocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Lin; Chang, Mei-Ling; Lin, Yu-Jei; Tsai, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Hsuan; Chuang, Che-Ming; Chien, Yun; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Wang, Chih-Hsiu; Chen, Yi-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Wang, Li-Fang; Kung, John T; Ku, Chia-Chi

    2015-05-01

    In a routine phenotype-driven screen, we identified a point mutation in exon 7 of the IL-15 gene in Pedigree 191 (deficient memory (DM)) of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized mice. The DM epidermis expressed an alternatively spliced IL-15 mRNA isoform, IL-15?E7, and a wild-type (WT) IL-15 isoform at comparable levels. Mechanical stimulation of DM skin or DM skin graft transplanted onto the WT host resulted in reduced keratinocyte activation and inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into the dermis, demonstrating that DM keratinocytes produced less inflammatory response to external stimulation. Ectopic expression of IL-15?E7 in WT skin prevented abrasion-induced epidermal thickening, blocked the accumulation of nuclear antigen Ki67(+) cells in the basal and the suprabasal cell layers, increased loricrin expression, and also increased keratinocyte CXCL1 and G-CSF production. IL-15?E7 also profoundly blocked neutrophil infiltration in SDS- or immiquimod (IMQ)-treated WT skin. Recombinant IL-15?E7 failed to activate STAT-5 and its downstream target bcl-2 expression. Our study points to IL-15?E7 as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neutrophilia-associated inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:25615554

  13. Ectopic expression of new alternative splice variant of Smac/DIABLO increases mammospheres formation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo U; Victoria-Acosta, Georgina; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla I; Jimenez-Hernandez, Luis; Muñoz-Galindo, Laura; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Smac-? is a mitochondrial protein that, during apoptosis, is translocated to the cytoplasm, where it negatively regulates members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family via the IAP-binding motif (IBM) contained within its amino-terminus. Here, we describe a new alternative splice variant from Smac gene, which we have named Smac-?. Smac-? lacks both an IBM and a mitochondrial-targeting signal (MTS) element. Smac-? mRNA exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in healthy human tissues as well as in several cancer cell lines. The steady-state levels of endogenous Smac-? protein is regulated by the proteasomal pathway. When ectopically expressed, this isoform presents a cytosolic localization and is unable to associate with or to regulate the expression of X-linked Inhibitor of apoptosis protein, the best-studied member of IAP family. Nevertheless, over-expression of Smac-? increases mammosphere formation. Whole genome expression analyses from these mammospheres show activation of several pro-survival and growth pathways, including Estrogen-Receptor signaling. In conclusion, our results support the functionality of this new Smac isoform. PMID:25337193

  14. Short antisense-locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) correct alternative splicing abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wojtkowiak-Szlachcic, Agnieszka; Taylor, Katarzyna; Stepniak-Konieczna, Ewa; Sznajder, Lukasz J.; Mykowska, Agnieszka; Sroka, Joanna; Thornton, Charles A.; Sobczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder caused by expansion of CTG triplet repeats in 3?-untranslated region of DMPK gene. The pathomechanism of DM1 is driven by accumulation of toxic transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUGexp) in nuclear foci which sequester several factors regulating RNA metabolism, such as Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs). In this work, we utilized very short chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides composed exclusively of locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) complementary to CUG repeats, as potential therapeutic agents against DM1. Our in vitro data demonstrated that very short, 8- or 10-unit all-LNAs effectively bound the CUG repeat RNA and prevented the formation of CUGexp/MBNL complexes. In proliferating DM1 cells as well as in skeletal muscles of DM1 mouse model the all-LNAs induced the reduction of the number and size of CUGexp foci and corrected MBNL-sensitive alternative splicing defects with high efficacy and specificity. The all-LNAs had low impact on the cellular level of CUGexp-containing transcripts and did not affect the expression of other transcripts with short CUG repeats. Our data strongly indicate that short all-LNAs complementary to CUG repeats are a promising therapeutic tool against DM1. PMID:25753670

  15. Ca(V)2.1 P/Q-type calcium channel alternative splicing affects the functional impact of familial hemiplegic migraine mutations: implications for calcium channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Paul J; Garcia, Esperanza; David, Laurence S; Mulatz, Kirk J; Spacey, Sian D; Snutch, Terrance P

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing is known to generate multiple functionally distinct calcium channel variants that exhibit unique spatial and temporal expression patterns. In humans, naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding calcium channel pore forming alpha(1)-subunits are associated with several severe hereditary disorders although it remains to be described whether there exists any relationship between the physiological effects of these mutations and calcium channel splice variation. In the present study, we systematically compare the biophysical effects of three type-1 familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM-1) mutations in two predominant splice variants of the neuronal Ca(V)2.1 P/Q-type channel. All three FHM-1 mutations cause a greater hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent properties when expressed in the short carboxyl terminus variant (Ca(V)2.1 Delta47) compared to the long variant (Ca(V)2.1 +47). Furthermore, the FHM-1 mutations also exhibit differential splice variant-specific effects on recovery from inactivation and accumulation of inactivation during tonic and burst firing. Our findings provide important insight concerning the role of calcium channel alternatively spliced variants and the molecular pathophysiology of FHM-1 and potentially of other calcium channelopathies. PMID:19242091

  16. Alternative Splicing: Functionality, Evolution and Selection Motivation and Background

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    : an interesting way to generate several proteins from one gene (Ast, 2004). With the advent of large scale genome the Drosophilas role as central model species from a genomics perspective as well. These projects will generate the variety of proteins encoded by the genome. For the researcher it creates the challenge of determining

  17. Multiple Promoters and Alternative Splicing: Hoxa5 Transcriptional Complexity in the Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Yan; Lemieux, Margot; Moreau, Julie; Aubin, Josée; Joksimovic, Milan; Bérubé-Simard, Félix-Antoine; Tabariès, Sébastien; Boucherat, Olivier; Guillou, François; Larochelle, Christian; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Jeannotte, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomic organization of Hox clusters is fundamental for the precise spatio-temporal regulation and the function of each Hox gene, and hence for correct embryo patterning. Multiple overlapping transcriptional units exist at the Hoxa5 locus reflecting the complexity of Hox clustering: a major form of 1.8 kb corresponding to the two characterized exons of the gene and polyadenylated RNA species of 5.0, 9.5 and 11.0 kb. This transcriptional intricacy raises the question of the involvement of the larger transcripts in Hox function and regulation. Methodology/Principal Findings We have undertaken the molecular characterization of the Hoxa5 larger transcripts. They initiate from two highly conserved distal promoters, one corresponding to the putative Hoxa6 promoter, and a second located nearby Hoxa7. Alternative splicing is also involved in the generation of the different transcripts. No functional polyadenylation sequence was found at the Hoxa6 locus and all larger transcripts use the polyadenylation site of the Hoxa5 gene. Some larger transcripts are potential Hoxa6/Hoxa5 bicistronic units. However, even though all transcripts could produce the genuine 270 a.a. HOXA5 protein, only the 1.8 kb form is translated into the protein, indicative of its essential role in Hoxa5 gene function. The Hoxa6 mutation disrupts the larger transcripts without major phenotypic impact on axial specification in their expression domain. However, Hoxa5-like skeletal anomalies are observed in Hoxa6 mutants and these defects can be explained by the loss of expression of the 1.8 kb transcript. Our data raise the possibility that the larger transcripts may be involved in Hoxa5 gene regulation. Significance Our observation that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts possess a developmentally-regulated expression combined to the increasing sum of data on the role of long noncoding RNAs in transcriptional regulation suggest that the Hoxa5 larger transcripts may participate in the control of Hox gene expression. PMID:20485555

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of Alternative Splice Forms Down-Regulated by Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in

    E-print Network

    Genome-Wide Identification of Alternative Splice Forms Down-Regulated by Nonsense-Mediated m of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States is of general utility for interpreting splicing-sensitive microarrays and high-throughput sequence data. Using

  19. Cartography of neurexin alternative splicing mapped by single-molecule long-read mRNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Treutlein, Barbara; Gokce, Ozgun; Quake, Stephen R.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurexins are evolutionarily conserved presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for normal synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Indirect evidence has indicated that extensive alternative splicing of neurexin mRNAs may produce hundreds if not thousands of neurexin isoforms, but no direct evidence for such diversity has been available. Here we use unbiased long-read sequencing of full-length neurexin (Nrxn)1?, Nrxn1?, Nrxn2?, Nrxn3?, and Nrxn3? mRNAs to systematically assess how many sites of alternative splicing are used in neurexins with a significant frequency, and whether alternative splicing events at these sites are independent of each other. In sequencing more than 25,000 full-length mRNAs, we identified a novel, abundantly used alternatively spliced exon of Nrxn1? and Nrxn3? (referred to as alternatively spliced sequence 6) that encodes a 9-residue insertion in the flexible hinge region between the fifth LNS (laminin-?, neurexin, sex hormone-binding globulin) domain and the third EGF-like sequence. In addition, we observed several larger-scale events of alternative splicing that deleted multiple domains and were much less frequent than the canonical six sites of alternative splicing in neurexins. All of the six canonical events of alternative splicing appear to be independent of each other, suggesting that neurexins may exhibit an even larger isoform diversity than previously envisioned and comprise thousands of variants. Our data are consistent with the notion that ?-neurexins represent extracellular protein-interaction scaffolds in which different LNS and EGF domains mediate distinct interactions that affect diverse functions and are independently regulated by independent events of alternative splicing. PMID:24639501

  20. Alteration of splice site selection in the LMNA gene and inhibition of progerin production via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2014-11-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype and an average life span of 13years. Patients typically exhibit extensive pathophysiological vascular alterations, eventually resulting in death from stroke or myocardial infarction. A silent point mutation at position 1824 (C1824T) of the LMNA gene, generating a truncated form of lamin A (progerin), has been shown to be the cause of most cases of HGPS. Interestingly, this mutation induces the use of an internal 5' cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, leading to the generation of progerin via aberrant alternative splicing. The serine-arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1 or ASF/SF2) has been shown to function as an oncoprotein and is upregulated in many cancers and other age-related disorders. Indeed, SRSF1 inhibition results in a splicing ratio in the LMNA pre-mRNA favoring lamin A production over that of progerin. It is our hypothesis that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular metabolism, may lead to a reduction in SRSF1 and thus a decrease in the use of the LMNA 5' cryptic splice site in exon 11 through upregulation of p32, a splicing factor-associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone that has been shown to inhibit SRSF1 and enhance mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and oxidative phosphorylation. AMPK activation by currently available compounds such as metformin, resveratrol, and berberine may thus have wide-ranging implications for disorders associated with increased production and accumulation of progerin. PMID:25216752

  1. Sequence variation and differential splicing of the midgut cadherin gene in Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Kain, Wendy; Wang, Ping

    2013-08-01

    The insect midgut cadherin serves as an important receptor for the Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Variation of the cadherin in insect populations provides a genetic potential for development of cadherin-based Bt resistance in insect populations. Sequence analysis of the cadherin from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, together with cadherins from 18 other lepidopterans showed a similar phylogenetic relationship of the cadherins to the phylogeny of Lepidoptera. The midgut cadherin in three laboratory populations of T. ni exhibited high variability, although the resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the T. ni strain is not genetically associated with cadherin gene mutations. A total of 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the cadherin cDNAs from the T. ni strains, including 20 missense mutations. In addition, insertion and deletion polymorphisms (indels) were also identified in the cadherin alleles in T. ni. More interestingly, the results from this study reveal that differential splicing of mRNA also occurs in the cadherin gene expression. Therefore, variation of the midgut cadherin in insects may not only be caused by cadherin gene mutations, but could also result from alternative splicing of its mRNA regulated by factors acting in trans. Analysis of cadherin gene alleles in F2, F3 and F4 progenies from the cross between the Cry1Ac resistant and the susceptible strain after consecutive selections with Cry1Ac for three generations showed that selection with Cry1Ac did not result in an increase of frequencies of the cadherin alleles originated from the resistant strain. PMID:23743444

  2. CD20 alternative splicing isoform generates immunogenic CD4 helper T epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Charline; Gamonet, Clementine; Ferrand, Christophe; Daguindau, Etienne; Galaine, Jeanne; Beziaud, Laurent; Chauchet, Adrien; Henry Dunand, Carole J; Deschamps, Marina; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Borg, Christophe; Adotevi, Olivier; Godet, Yann

    2015-07-01

    Cancer-specific splice variants gain significant interest as they generate neo-antigens that could be targeted by immune cells. CD20, a membrane antigen broadly expressed in mature B cells and in B cell lymphomas, is subject to an alternative splicing named D393-CD20 leading to loss of membrane expression of the spliced isoform. D393-CD20 expression is detectable in transformed B cells and upregulated in various lymphoma B cells. In this study, we show that D393-CD20 is translated in malignant B cells and that D393-CD20 specific CD4 T cells producing IFN-? are present in B-cell lymphoma patients. Then, we have investigated whether the 20mer D393-CD20 peptide spanning the splicing site might be targeted by the immune system and we have shown that D393-CD20-specific CD4 Th1 clones could directly recognize malignant B cell lines and kill autologous lymphoma B cells indicating that D393-CD20-derived epitopes are naturally processed and presented on tumor cells. Finally, D393-CD20 peptide-based vaccination induced specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses in HLA-humanized transgenic mice suggesting the presentation of D393-CD20 derived peptides on both HLA Class-I and -II. These findings support further investigations on the potential use of D393-CD20 directed specific immunotherapy in B cell malignancies. PMID:25449106

  3. Novel splice variants in the 5'UTR of Gtf2i expressed in the rat brain: alternative 5'UTRs and differential expression in the neuronal dendrites.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2015-08-01

    General transcription factor II-I (Gtf2i) is a transcription factor and one of the genes implicated in Willams-Beuren syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder. In this study, we investigated splice variants of the Gtf2i gene in both the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) and the coding region. To search for novel 5'UTRs of Gtf2i, we utilized the cap analysis gene expression database of the mouse. We identified seven novel Gtf2i transcripts with alternatively spliced 5'UTRs in the rat brain. We also identified four novel splice variants in the coding sequence of Gtf2i. Furthermore, we identified a selective usage of certain types of 5'UTR by coding variants. In situ hybridization demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of Gtf2i mRNAs with alternatively spliced 5'UTRs among neuronal cells, and the localization of one of the variants in neuronal dendrites in the rat brain. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated a distribution of Gtf2i-immunoreactivity in the dendrites. These results suggest multiple pathways of expression of Gtf2i gene in the brain. The expression patterns may be under the control of alternative promoters coupled to the alternative splicing in the coding region. Differential localization of mRNA to neuronal dendrites suggests spatiotemporal-specific translation at the post-synaptic sites that is involved in transfer of synaptic activity to expression of specific sets of genes in the nucleus. Gtf2i is a transcription factor and implicated in Willams-Beuren syndrome. We identified seven novel Gtf2i transcripts with alternatively spliced 5'UTRs in the rat brain. In situ hybridization demonstrated a differential expression of Gtf2i mRNAs with different 5'UTRs in somas and dendrites of neuronal cells. Differential localization of mRNA to neuronal dendrites suggests spatiotemporal-specific translation at the postsynaptic sites. The scheme shows genomic structure showing the positions of the potential transcription start tags (rDEC695, rDEC3D7, rDEC1D3, rDEC104, rDEC072 and rDEBE25). Newly identified exons (1.1-1.6) are shown with the white boxes. The distances from rDEC695-5'end are indicated in bp. PMID:25913238

  4. Regulation of Alternative Splicing by SRrp86 and Its Interacting Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Ian C. Hawkins; Christopher D. Harvey; Jennifer L. Jennings; Andrew J. Link; James G. Patton

    2003-01-01

    SRrp86 is a unique member of the SR protein superfamily containing one RNA recognition motif and two serine-arginine (SR)-rich domains separated by an unusual glutamic acid-lysine (EK)-rich region. Previously, we showed that SRrp86 could regulate alternative splicing by both positively and negatively modulating the activity of other SR proteins and that the unique EK domain could inhibit both constitutive and

  5. Identification of alternatively spliced Dab1 and Fyn isoforms in pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan Long; Hans H Bock; Ting Lei; Xuejun Chai; Jihong Yuan; Joachim Herz; Michael Frotscher; Zaiqing Yang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disabled-1 (Dab1) is an adaptor protein that is essential for the intracellular transduction of Reelin signaling, which regulates the migration and differentiation of postmitotic neurons during brain development in vertebrates. Dab1 function depends on its tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases, especially Fyn. RESULTS: We have isolated alternatively spliced forms of porcine Dab1 from brain (sDab1) and liver (sDab1-Li)

  6. Alternative Splicing, Muscle Calcium Sensitivity, and the Modulation of Dragonfly Flight Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Marden; Gail H. Fitzhugh; Melisande R. Wolf; Kristina D. Arnold; Barry Rowan

    1999-01-01

    Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and

  7. Alternative Splicing in the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiac Precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Salomonis; Brandon Nelson; Karen Vranizan; Alexander R. Pico; Kristina Hanspers; Allan Kuchinsky; Linda Ta; Mark Mercola; Bruce R. Conklin

    2009-01-01

    The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors

  8. An Alternatively Spliced Cyclin D1 Isoform, Cyclin D1b, Is a Nuclear Oncogene1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengmin Lu; Andrew B. Gladden; J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at a conserved COOH-terminal residue, Thr-286, promotes CRM1- dependent cyclin D1 nuclear export at the G1-S boundary. Mutations that perturb the phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at Thr-286 contribute to cell transformation, although to date, no such mutations have been found in human cancers. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) undergoes alternative splicing leading to the production

  9. Chemical Hypoxia Facilitates Alternative Splicing of EAAT2 in Presymptomatic APP23 Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Münch; Bing-gen Zhu; Andreas Mink; Ulrich Seefried; Matthias W. Riepe; Albert C. Ludolph; Thomas Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is one of the major common components of vascular risk factors for pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study\\u000a investigated the possible relationship between hypoxia and alternative splicing of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2\\u000a (EAAT2) in a transgenic model for Alzheimer’s disease. We used an APP23 mouse model prior to amyloid deposition and subjected\\u000a it to chemical hypoxia treatment

  10. Regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I by alternative splicing in mononuclear cellsq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wuh-Liang Hwu; Hui-Ying Yeh; Hao-Sen Chiang; Yu-Wei Chiou; Yu-May Leeb

    2003-01-01

    GTPcyclohydrolase I (GCH, EC 3.5.4.16) regulates the level of tetrahydrobiopterin and in turn the activities of nitric oxide synthase and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Type II GCH mRNA, an alternatively spliced species abundant in blood cells, encodes a truncated and nonfunctional protein. When we stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PHA, the transcription of full-length GCH mRNA increased, but that

  11. Nematogalectin, a nematocyst protein with GlyXY and galectin domains, demonstrates nematocyte-specific alternative splicing in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Shan; Takaku, Yasuharu; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Adamczyk, Patrizia; Özbek, Suat; Ikeo, Kazuho; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C G; Holstein, Thomas W; David, Charles N; Gojobori, Takashi

    2010-10-26

    Taxonomically restricted genes or lineage-specific genes contribute to morphological diversification in metazoans and provide unique functions for particular taxa in adapting to specific environments. To understand how such genes arise and participate in morphological evolution, we have investigated a gene called nematogalectin in Hydra, which has a structural role in the formation of nematocysts, stinging organelles that are unique to the phylum Cnidaria. Nematogalectin is a 28-kDa protein with an N-terminal GlyXY domain (glycine followed by two hydrophobic amino acids), which can form a collagen triple helix, followed by a galactose-binding lectin domain. Alternative splicing of the nematogalectin transcript allows the gene to encode two proteins, nematogalectin A and nematogalectin B. We demonstrate that expression of nematogalectin A and B is mutually exclusive in different nematocyst types: Desmonemes express nematogalectin B, whereas stenoteles and isorhizas express nematogalectin B early in differentiation, followed by nematogalectin A. Like Hydra, the marine hydrozoan Clytia also has two nematogalectin transcripts, which are expressed in different nematocyte types. By comparison, anthozoans have only one nematogalectin gene. Gene phylogeny indicates that tandem duplication of nematogalectin B exons gave rise to nematogalectin A before the divergence of Anthozoa and Medusozoa and that nematogalectin A was subsequently lost in Anthozoa. The emergence of nematogalectin A may have played a role in the morphological diversification of nematocysts in the medusozoan lineage. PMID:20937891

  12. Nematogalectin, a nematocyst protein with GlyXY and galectin domains, demonstrates nematocyte-specific alternative splicing in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Shan; Takaku, Yasuharu; Momose, Tsuyoshi; Adamczyk, Patrizia; Özbek, Suat; Ikeo, Kazuho; Khalturin, Konstantin; Hemmrich, Georg; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Holstein, Thomas W.; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomically restricted genes or lineage-specific genes contribute to morphological diversification in metazoans and provide unique functions for particular taxa in adapting to specific environments. To understand how such genes arise and participate in morphological evolution, we have investigated a gene called nematogalectin in Hydra, which has a structural role in the formation of nematocysts, stinging organelles that are unique to the phylum Cnidaria. Nematogalectin is a 28-kDa protein with an N-terminal GlyXY domain (glycine followed by two hydrophobic amino acids), which can form a collagen triple helix, followed by a galactose-binding lectin domain. Alternative splicing of the nematogalectin transcript allows the gene to encode two proteins, nematogalectin A and nematogalectin B. We demonstrate that expression of nematogalectin A and B is mutually exclusive in different nematocyst types: Desmonemes express nematogalectin B, whereas stenoteles and isorhizas express nematogalectin B early in differentiation, followed by nematogalectin A. Like Hydra, the marine hydrozoan Clytia also has two nematogalectin transcripts, which are expressed in different nematocyte types. By comparison, anthozoans have only one nematogalectin gene. Gene phylogeny indicates that tandem duplication of nematogalectin B exons gave rise to nematogalectin A before the divergence of Anthozoa and Medusozoa and that nematogalectin A was subsequently lost in Anthozoa. The emergence of nematogalectin A may have played a role in the morphological diversification of nematocysts in the medusozoan lineage. PMID:20937891

  13. ELAVL1 regulates alternative splicing of eIF4E transporter to promote postnatal angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sung-Hee; Elemento, Olivier; Zhang, Jiasheng; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Simons, Michael; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptional RNA regulation is important in determining the plasticity of cellular phenotypes. However, mechanisms of how RNA binding proteins (RBPs) influence cellular behavior are poorly understood. We show here that the RBP embryonic lethal abnormal vision like 1 (ELAVL1, also know as HuR) regulates the alternative splicing of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1 (Eif4enif1), which encodes an eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E transporter (4E-T) protein and suppresses the expression of capped mRNAs. In the absence of ELAVL1, skipping of exon 11 of Eif4enif1 forms the stable, short isoform, 4E-Ts. This alternative splicing event results in the formation of RNA processing bodies (PBs), enhanced turnover of angiogenic mRNAs, and suppressed sprouting behavior of vascular endothelial cells. Further, endothelial-specific Elavl1 knockout mice exhibited reduced revascularization after hind limb ischemia and tumor angiogenesis in oncogene-induced mammary cancer, resulting in attenuated blood flow and tumor growth, respectively. ELAVL1-regulated alternative splicing of Eif4enif1 leading to enhanced formation of PB and mRNA turnover constitutes a novel posttranscriptional mechanism critical for pathological angiogenesis. PMID:25422430

  14. ELAVL1 regulates alternative splicing of eIF4E transporter to promote postnatal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung-Hee; Elemento, Olivier; Zhang, Jiasheng; Zhuang, Zhen W; Simons, Michael; Hla, Timothy

    2014-12-23

    Posttranscriptional RNA regulation is important in determining the plasticity of cellular phenotypes. However, mechanisms of how RNA binding proteins (RBPs) influence cellular behavior are poorly understood. We show here that the RBP embryonic lethal abnormal vision like 1 (ELAVL1, also know as HuR) regulates the alternative splicing of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1 (Eif4enif1), which encodes an eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E transporter (4E-T) protein and suppresses the expression of capped mRNAs. In the absence of ELAVL1, skipping of exon 11 of Eif4enif1 forms the stable, short isoform, 4E-Ts. This alternative splicing event results in the formation of RNA processing bodies (PBs), enhanced turnover of angiogenic mRNAs, and suppressed sprouting behavior of vascular endothelial cells. Further, endothelial-specific Elavl1 knockout mice exhibited reduced revascularization after hind limb ischemia and tumor angiogenesis in oncogene-induced mammary cancer, resulting in attenuated blood flow and tumor growth, respectively. ELAVL1-regulated alternative splicing of Eif4enif1 leading to enhanced formation of PB and mRNA turnover constitutes a novel posttranscriptional mechanism critical for pathological angiogenesis. PMID:25422430

  15. Missense mutations in cancer suppressor gene TP53 are colocalized with exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan P. Gorlov; Olga Y. Gorlova; Marsha L. Frazier; Christopher I. Amos

    2004-01-01

    Mutation databases can be viewed as footprints of functional organization of a gene and thus can be used to infer its functional organization. We studied the association of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) with missense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) mutation database. The goals of the study were: (i) to

  16. Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes

    E-print Network

    Distribution of SR protein exonic splicing enhancer motifs in human protein-coding genes Jinhua for the presence of ESE motifs recognized by the human SR proteins SF2/ASF, SRp40, SRp55 and SC35 (http distribution in human protein-coding genes. Significantly higher frequencies of ESE motifs were observed

  17. Discrimination of Alternative Spliced Isoforms by Real-Time PCR Using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) Substituted Primer

    E-print Network

    Wan, Guoqiang

    Determination of quantitative expression levels of alternatively spliced isoforms provides an important approach to the understanding of the functional significance of each isoform. Real-time PCR using exon junction ...

  18. Principles of 3 splice site selection and alternative splicing for an unusual group II intron from Bacillus anthracis

    E-print Network

    Zimmerly, Steven

    Bacillus anthracis AARON R. ROBART,1 NANCY KRISTINE MONTGOMERY,2 KIMOTHY L. SMITH,2 and STEVEN ZIMMERLY1 1 Bacillus anthracis. One intron (B.a.I1) splices poorly in vitro despite having typical structural motifs

  19. Functional correction by antisense therapy of a splicing mutation in the GALT gene.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana I; Lourenço, Sílvia; Trabuco, Matilde; Silva, Maria João; Oliveira, Anabela; Gaspar, Ana; Diogo, Luísa; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Vicente, João B; Rivera, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, antisense therapy has emerged as an increasingly important therapeutic approach to tackle several genetic disorders, including inborn errors of metabolism. Intronic mutations activating cryptic splice sites are particularly amenable to antisense therapy, as the canonical splice sites remain intact, thus retaining the potential for restoring constitutive splicing. Mutational analysis of Portuguese galactosemic patients revealed the intronic variation c.820+13A>G as the second most prevalent mutation, strongly suggesting its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize this intronic variation, to elucidate its pathogenic molecular mechanism(s) and, ultimately, to correct it by antisense therapy. Minigene splicing assays in two distinct cell lines and patients' transcript analyses showed that the mutation activates a cryptic donor splice site, inducing an aberrant splicing of the GALT pre-mRNA, which in turn leads to a frameshift with inclusion of a premature stop codon (p.D274Gfs*17). Functional-structural studies of the recombinant wild-type and truncated GALT showed that the latter is devoid of enzymatic activity and prone to aggregation. Finally, two locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides, designed to specifically recognize the mutation, successfully restored the constitutive splicing, thus establishing a proof of concept for the application of antisense therapy as an alternative strategy for the clearly insufficient dietary treatment in classic galactosemia. PMID:25052314

  20. Drosophila ferritin mRNA: alternative RNA splicing regulates the presence of the iron-responsive element

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria I. Lind; Sophia Ekengren; Öjar Melefors; Kenneth Söderhäll

    1998-01-01

    Several mRNAs encoding the same ferritin subunit of Drosophila melanogaster were identified. Alternative RNA splicing and utilisation of different polyadenylation sites were found to generate the transcripts. The alternative RNA splicing results in ferritin transcripts with four unique 5? untranslated regions. Only one of them contains an iron-responsive element. The iron-responsive element was found to bind in vitro specifically to

  1. Functional Characterization of Putative Novel Splicing Mutations in the Cardiomyopathy-Causing Genes.

    PubMed

    Millat, Gilles; Lafont, Estèle; Nony, Séverine; Rouvet, Isabelle; Bozon, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Molecular diagnosis of cardiomyopathies remains difficult not only because of the large number of causative genes and the high rate of private mutations but also due to the large number of unclassified variants (UVs) found in patients' DNA. This study reports the functional splicing impact of nine novel genomic variations previously identified in unrelated patients with cardiomyopathies. To identify splice variants among these UVs, a combination of in silico and in vitro hybrid minigene tools was used as transcript is not available. Using this two-step approach, these UVs were reclassified as splicing mutations (MYBPC3-c.655-25A>G, MYBPC3-c.1790G>A (p.Arg597Gln), MYBPC3-c.2414-36G>T) or as mutations with a majority of abnormally spliced transcripts (MYBPC3-c.1182C>A, TNNT2-c.460G>A (p.Glu154Lys), and TNNT2-c.822-3C>A) or as variations with a weak splicing effect (TNNT2-c.1000-38C>A). For the two remaining variations in intron 11 of the TNNT2 gene in the vicinity of the acceptor splice site (c.571-7G>A, c.571-29G>A), a minigene assay was inconclusive as exon 12 is neither recognized as an exon by HeLa nor by H9c2 cells. Our study highlights the importance of the combined use of in silico and in vitro splicing assays to improve the prediction of the functional splicing impact of identified genetic variants if the RNA sample from the patient is not easily available. PMID:25849606

  2. Role of Pnn in alternative splicing of a specific subset of lncRNAs of the corneal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jeong Hoon; Ryu, Danny; Peng, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: GG-H whole transcriptome array analysis suggested involvement of PININ (PNN) in the alternative splicing of multiple long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). To further investigate PNN’s role in regulating the alternative splicing of lncRNAs in a corneal epithelial context, we performed detailed analyses for detecting and identifying alternatively spliced lncRNAs. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from PNN knockdown human corneal epithelial (HCET) cells or Pnn-deficient mouse corneas, and subjected to real-time–PCR (RT–PCR) assays, and the alternatively spliced lncRNAs were counted. Alternatively spliced lncRNAs were detected with in situ hybridization with variant-specific RNA probes on human cornea sections. Results: Our analysis uncovered PNN’s impact on the transcript levels of several lncRNAs including Linc00085 and HAS2-AS1. Interestingly, a mouse ortholog of HAS2-AS1, Has2as, clearly exhibited a differential splicing pattern among three major splice variants in the Pnn-deficient mouse cornea. The sequence analyses and quantification of splice variants of candidate lncRNAs, including RP11-295B20.2, RP11–18I14.1, and RP11–322M19.1, demonstrated complex configuration of their splicing changes, with a significant impact of PNN on the process. Knockdown of PNN in HCET cells led to specific changes in the inclusion of multiple cassette exons as well as in the use of alternative splice sites in RP11–322M19.1 and RP11–18I14.1, resulting in considerable net changes in the ratio between the splice variants. Finally, in situ hybridization analyses revealed the presence of RP11–295G20.2 in the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells, but not in the stromal cells of the human cornea, while RP11–322M19.1 was present in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Conclusions: The data suggest PNN’s role in the alternative splicing of a specific subset of lncRNAs might have a significant impact on the corneal epithelium. PMID:25489234

  3. Identification of the alternative splicing of the UL49 locus of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Li, Wei; Liao, Wenzhen; Zhang, Xin; Zou, Yi; Dai, Jianfeng; Li, Yueqin; Jing, Chunxia; Zhou, Tianhong

    2015-01-01

    The UL49 ORF of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential for viral replication; conserved among all herpes viruses; however, the function is unclear. Once the UL49 ORF was precisely deleted from the start to stop codon, the mutant did not yield infectious progeny. In this study, we find out many alternatively processed ESTs in UL49 locus in HCMV-infected cells, in which there are two novel transcription termination sites in UL49 locus. Most of these ESTs are rare transcripts that contain directed repeat sequences in the intron splicing regions. There is a typical GU-AG intron splicing site in UL49Y transcripts. The 1847 bp UL49Y cDNA spans an ORF from 335 to 1618 and encodes a putative protein of 427 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47.1 kDa. All the new EST sequences and UL49Y cDNA sequence have been deposited in the GenBank database (GenBank Accession nos. GW314860-GW314900 and GU376796). This study provides us with very important clues for revealing the importance of the UL49 locus alternative splicing. PMID:25866769

  4. OXIDANTS INDUCE ALTERNATIVE SPLICING OF ?-SYNUCLEIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kalivendi, Shasi V.; Yedlapudi, Deepthi; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Kalyanaraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    ?-Synuclein (?-syn) is a presynaptic protein that is widely implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates a strong correlation between ?-syn aggregation and proteasomal dysfunction as one of the major pathways responsible for destruction of the dopamine neurons. Using Parkinsonism mimetics (MPP+, rotenone) and related oxidants, we have identified an oxidant-induced alternative splicing of ?-syn mRNA, generating a shorter isoform of ?-syn with deleted exon-5 (112-syn). This spliced isoform has an altered localization and profoundly inhibits proteasomal function. The generation of 112-syn was suppressed by constitutively active MEK-1 and enhanced by inhibition of the Erk-MAP kinase pathway. Overexpression of 112-syn exacerbated cell death in a human dopaminergic cell line compared to full length protein. Expression of 112-syn and proteasomal dysfunction were also evident in the substantia nira and to a lesser extent in striatum, but not in the cortex of MPTP treated mice. We conclude that oxidant-induced alternative splicing of ?-syn plays a crucial role in the mechanism of dopamine neuron cell death and thus contributes to PD. PMID:19857570

  5. The functional role of alternative splicing of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, E M; Gray-Keller, M; Art, J J; Fettiplace, R

    1999-04-30

    Turtle auditory hair cells are frequency tuned by the activity of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels, the frequency range being dictated primarily by the channel kinetics. Seven alternatively spliced isoforms of the KCa channel alpha-subunit, resulting from exon insertion at two splice sites, were isolated from turtle hair cells. These, when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, produced KCa channels with a range of apparent calcium sensitivities and channel kinetics. However, most expressed channels were less calcium sensitive than the hair cells' native KCa channels. Coexpression of alpha-subunit with a bovine beta-subunit substantially increased the channel's calcium sensitivity while markedly slowing its kinetics, but kinetic differences between isoforms were preserved. These data suggest a molecular mechanism for hair cell frequency tuning involving differential expression of different KCa channel alpha-subunits in conjunction with an expression gradient of a regulatory beta-subunit. PMID:10414307

  6. Control of fibroblast fibronectin expression and alternative splicing via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    White, Eric S., E-mail: docew@umich.edu [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sagana, Rommel L.; Booth, Adam J.; Yan, Mei; Cornett, Ashley M.; Bloomheart, Christopher A.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Wilke, Carol A.; Moore, Bethany B. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; Roman, Jesse [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Muro, Andres F. [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)] [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2010-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a ubiquitous glycoprotein that plays critical roles in physiologic and pathologic conditions, undergoes alternative splicing which distinguishes plasma FN (pFN) from cellular FN (cFN). Although both pFN and cFN can be incorporated into the extracellular matrix, a distinguishing feature of cFN is the inclusion of an alternatively spliced exon termed EDA (for extra type III domain A). The molecular steps involved in EDA splicing are well-characterized, but pathways influencing EDA splicing are less clear. We have previously found an obligate role for inhibition of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the primary regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, in fibroblast activation. Here we show TGF-{beta}, a potent inducer of both EDA splicing and fibroblast activation, inhibits PTEN expression and activity in mesenchymal cells, corresponding with enhanced PI3K/Akt signaling. In pten{sup -/-} fibroblasts, which resemble activated fibroblasts, inhibition of Akt attenuated FN production and decreased EDA alternative splicing. Moreover, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pten{sup -/-} cells also blocked FN production and EDA splicing. This effect was due to inhibition of Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the primary EDA splicing regulatory protein SF2/ASF. Importantly, FN silencing in pten{sup -/-} cells resulted in attenuated proliferation and migration. Thus, our results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis is instrumental in FN transcription and alternative splicing, which regulates cell behavior.

  7. Post-Transcriptional Regulation of 5-Lipoxygenase mRNA Expression via Alternative Splicing and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Meike J.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Pufahl, Laura; Grez, Manuel; Suess, Beatrix; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the two initial steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LT), a group of inflammatory lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid. Here, we investigated the regulation of 5-LO mRNA expression by alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). In the present study, we report the identification of 2 truncated transcripts and 4 novel 5-LO splice variants containing premature termination codons (PTC). The characterization of one of the splice variants, 5-LO?3, revealed that it is a target for NMD since knockdown of the NMD factors UPF1, UPF2 and UPF3b in the human monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 (MM6) altered the expression of 5-LO?3 mRNA up to 2-fold in a cell differentiation-dependent manner suggesting that cell differentiation alters the composition or function of the NMD complex. In contrast, the mature 5-LO mRNA transcript was not affected by UPF knockdown. Thus, the data suggest that the coupling of alternative splicing and NMD is involved in the regulation of 5-LO gene expression. PMID:22363630

  8. [Functional characterization of two novel splicing mutations in glucoki nase gene in monogenic diabetes MODY2].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Two novel mutations in glucokinase (GCK) gene-G to C substitution at -1 position of intron 7 acceptor splice site (c. 864-1G>C) and synonymous substitution c. 666C>G (GTC>GTG, p.V222V) in exon 6--were identified in patients with monogenic diabetes MODY2 (Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young). GCK minigenes with these mutations were constructed. Analysis of splicing products upon transfection of minigenes into human embryonic cell line HEK293 has shown that each of these nucleotide substitutions impair normal splicing. Mutation c.864-1G>C blocks the usage of normal acceptor site which activates cryptic acceptor splice sites within intron 7 and generates aberrant RNAs containing the portions ofintron 7. Synonymous substitution c.666C>G creates novel donor splice site in exon 6 that leads to formation of defective GCK mRNA with deletion of 16 nucleotides of exon 6. Analysis of in vitro splicing of minigenes confirms the inactivating action of novel mutations on glucokinase expression. PMID:25850297

  9. Alternative splicing, muscle calcium sensitivity, and the modulation of dragonfly flight performance.

    PubMed

    Marden, J H; Fitzhugh, G H; Wolf, M R; Arnold, K D; Rowan, B

    1999-12-21

    Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and that the mixture of TnT splice variants explains significant portions of the variation in muscle calcium sensitivity, wing-beat frequency, and an index of aerodynamic power output during free flight. Two size-distinguishable morphs differ in their maturational pattern of TnT splicing, yet they show the same relationship between TnT transcript mixture and calcium sensitivity and between calcium sensitivity and aerodynamic power output. This consistency of effect in different developmental and physiological contexts strengthens the hypothesis that TnT isoform variation modulates muscle calcium sensitivity and whole-organism locomotor performance. Modulating muscle power output appears to provide the ecologically important ability to operate at different points along a tradeoff between performance and energetic cost. PMID:10611380

  10. Alternative splicing, muscle calcium sensitivity, and the modulation of dragonfly flight performance

    PubMed Central

    Marden, James H.; Fitzhugh, Gail H.; Wolf, Melisande R.; Arnold, Kristina D.; Rowan, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Calcium sensitivity of myosin cross-bridge activation in striated muscles commonly varies during ontogeny and in response to alterations in muscle usage, but the consequences for whole-organism physiology are not well known. Here we show that the relative abundances of alternatively spliced transcripts of the calcium regulatory protein troponin T (TnT) vary widely in flight muscle of Libellula pulchella dragonflies, and that the mixture of TnT splice variants explains significant portions of the variation in muscle calcium sensitivity, wing-beat frequency, and an index of aerodynamic power output during free flight. Two size-distinguishable morphs differ in their maturational pattern of TnT splicing, yet they show the same relationship between TnT transcript mixture and calcium sensitivity and between calcium sensitivity and aerodynamic power output. This consistency of effect in different developmental and physiological contexts strengthens the hypothesis that TnT isoform variation modulates muscle calcium sensitivity and whole-organism locomotor performance. Modulating muscle power output appears to provide the ecologically important ability to operate at different points along a tradeoff between performance and energetic cost. PMID:10611380

  11. Alternative splicing and co-option of transposable elements: the case of TMPO/LAP2? and ZNF451 in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Abascal, Federico; Tress, Michael L.; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of vertebrate genomes and, during evolution, may be co-opted for new functions. Exonization of transposable elements inserted within or close to host genes is one possible way to generate new genes, and alternative splicing of the new exons may represent an intermediate step in this process. The genes TMPO and ZNF451 are present in all vertebrate lineages. Although they are not evolutionarily related, mammalian TMPO and ZNF451 do have something in common—they both code for splice isoforms that contain LAP2alpha domains. We found that these LAP2alpha domains have sequence similarity to repetitive sequences in non-mammalian genomes, which are in turn related to the first ORF from a DIRS1-like retrotransposon. This retrotransposon domestication happened separately and resulted in proteins that combine retrotransposon and host protein domains. The alternative splicing of the retrotransposed sequence allowed the production of both the new and the untouched original isoforms, which may have contributed to the success of the colonization process. The LAP2alpha-specific isoform of TMPO (LAP2?) has been co-opted for important roles in the cell, whereas the ZNF451 LAP2alpha isoform is evolving under strong purifying selection but remains uncharacterized. Contact: mtress@cnio.es or valencia@cnio.es Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25735770

  12. MIR846 and MIR842 comprise a cistronic MIRNA pair that is regulated by abscisic acid by alternative splicing in roots of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fan; Rock, Christopher D

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~21-nucleotide long endogenous small RNAs that regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional or transcriptional gene silencing and/or translational inhibition. miRNAs can arise from the "exon" of a MIRNA gene, from an intron (e.g. mirtrons in animals), or from the antisense strand of a protein coding gene (natural antisense microRNAs, nat-miRNAs). Here we demonstrate that two functionally related miRNAs, miR842 and miR846, arise from the same transcription unit but from alternate splicing isoforms. miR846 is expressed only from Isoform1 while in Isoforms2 and -3, a part of pre-miR846 containing the miRNA* sequence is included in the intron. The splicing of the intron truncates the pre-MIRNA and disrupts the expression of the mature miR846. We name this novel phenomenon splicing-regulated miRNA. Abscisic acid (ABA) is shown to mediate the alternative splicing event by reducing the functional Isoform1 and increasing the non-functional Isoform3, thus repressing the expression of miR846 concomitant with accumulation of an ABA-inducible target jacalin At5g28520 mRNA, whose cleavage was shown by modified 5'-RACE. This regulation shows the functional importance of splicing-regulated miRNA and suggests possible mechanisms for altered ABA response phenotypes of miRNA biogenesis mutants. Arabidopsis lyrata-MIR842 and Aly-MIR846 have conserved genomic arrangements with A. thaliana and candidate target jacalins, similar primary transcript structures and intron processing, and better miRNA-miRNA* pairings, suggesting that the interactions between ABA, MIR842, MIR846 and jacalins are similar in A. lyrata. Together, splicing-regulated miRNAs, nat-miRNAs/inc-miRNAs and mirtrons illustrate the complexity of MIRNA genes, the importance of introns in the biogenesis and regulation of miRNAs, and raise questions about the processes and molecular mechanisms that drive MIRNA evolution. PMID:23341152

  13. RBFOX and PTBP1 proteins regulate the alternative splicing of micro-exons in human brain transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Haerty, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-four percent of mammalian protein-coding exons exceed 51 nucleotides (nt) in length. The paucity of micro-exons (? 51 nt) suggests that their recognition and correct processing by the splicing machinery present greater challenges than for longer exons. Yet, because thousands of human genes harbor processed micro-exons, specialized mechanisms may be in place to promote their splicing. Here, we survey deep genomic data sets to define 13,085 micro-exons and to study their splicing mechanisms and molecular functions. More than 60% of annotated human micro-exons exhibit a high level of sequence conservation, an indicator of functionality. While most human micro-exons require splicing-enhancing genomic features to be processed, the splicing of hundreds of micro-exons is enhanced by the adjacent binding of splice factors in the introns of pre-messenger RNAs. Notably, splicing of a significant number of micro-exons was found to be facilitated by the binding of RBFOX proteins, which promote their inclusion in the brain, muscle, and heart. Our analyses suggest that accurate regulation of micro-exon inclusion by RBFOX proteins and PTBP1 plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue-specific protein–protein interactions. PMID:25524026

  14. Negative Feedback Control of Jasmonate Signaling by an Alternative Splice Variant of JAZ101[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Javier E.; Shyu, Christine; Campos, Marcelo L.; Patel, Lalita C.; Chung, Hoo Sun; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Howe, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses. PMID:23632853

  15. Lysyl oxidase-like 4 is alternatively spliced in an anatomic site-specific manner in tumors involving the serosal cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shulamit Sebban; Ben Davidson; Reuven Reich

    2009-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like enzymes (LOXL) are expressed in various cancers. We analyzed the expression of LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4\\u000a in cancers involving the serosal cavities—breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma using reverse-transcriptase\\u000a polymerase chain reaction. We discovered two new alternative splice variants of LOXL4. The spliced segments were exon 9 (splice\\u000a variant 1) or both exons 8 and 9 (splice

  16. Splicing factor Spf30 assists exosome-mediated gene silencing in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Pascal; Drogat, Julie; Dheur, Sonia; Genier, Sylvie; Javerzat, Jean-Paul

    2010-03-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast relies on the processing of cognate noncoding RNAs by both the RNA interference and the exosome degradation pathways. Recent evidence indicates that splicing factors facilitate the cotranscriptional processing of centromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In contrast, how the exosome contributes to heterochromatin assembly and whether it also relies upon splicing factors were unknown. We provide here evidence that fission yeast Spf30 is a splicing factor involved in the exosome pathway of heterochromatin silencing. Spf30 and Dis3, the main exosome RNase, colocalize at centromeric heterochromatin and euchromatic genes. At the centromeres, Dis3 helps recruiting Spf30, whose deficiency phenocopies the dis3-54 mutant: heterochromatin is impaired, as evidenced by reduced silencing and the accumulation of polyadenylated centromeric transcripts, but the production of siRNAs appears to be unaffected. Consistent with a direct role, Spf30 binds centromeric transcripts and locates at the centromeres in an RNA-dependent manner. We propose that Spf30, bound to nascent centromeric transcripts, perhaps with other splicing factors, assists their processing by the exosome. Splicing factor intercession may thus be a common feature of gene silencing pathways. PMID:20028739

  17. Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2012-01-01

    How mechanochemical signals induced by the amount of weight borne by the skeletal musculature are translated into modifications to muscle sarcomeres is poorly understood. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in response to experimentally induced increases in the weight load borne by a rat, alternative splicing of the fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3) pre-mRNA in gastrocnemius was adjusted in a correlated fashion with the amount of added weight. (Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH, Jefferson LS. J Exp Biol 214: 1523–1532, 2011). Thus muscle load is perceived quantitatively by the body, and mechanisms that sense it appear to control processes that generate muscle sarcomere composition plasticity, such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Here we demonstrate how mechanical stretch (see earlier comment) of C2C12 muscle cells in culture results in changes to Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing that are qualitatively similar to those observed in response to added weight in rats. Moreover, inhibition of Akt signaling, but not that of ERK1/2, prevents the stretch-induced effect on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing. These findings suggest that effects of muscle load on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing are controlled by a cell-autonomous mechanism, rather than systemically. They also indicate that, in addition to its regulatory role in protein synthesis and muscle mass plasticity, Akt signaling may regulate muscle sarcomere composition by modulating alternative splicing events in response to load. Manipulation of Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing by mechanical stretch of cells in culture provides a model to investigate the biology of weight sensing by skeletal muscles and facilitates identification of mechanisms through which skeletal muscles match their performance and experienced load. PMID:22592404

  18. Aberrant alternative splicing pattern of ADAR2 downregulates adenosine-to-inosine editing in glioma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Tian, Yu; Tian, Nan; Zhao, Xingli; Du, Chao; Han, Liang; Zhang, Haishan

    2015-06-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most common type of RNA editing in mammals, and is catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). ADAR2 is the main enzyme responsible for A-to-I editing in humans, and A-to-I underediting at the glutamine (Q)/arginine (R) site of the glutamate receptor subunit B (GluR-B) is associated with the pathogenesis and invasiveness of glioma. The level of ADAR2 mRNA expression and the alternative splicing of the ADAR2 pre-mRNA both affect the catalytic activity of ADAR2. However, reports of ADAR2 mRNA expression in glioma are inconsistent. The mechanism regulating ADAR2 pre-mRNA splicing is also unknown. In this study, we explored the deregulation of A-to-I RNA editing in glioma. We confirmed the underediting at the Q/R site of GluR-B mRNA in the glioma cell lines U87, U251 and A172 compared with that in normal human astrocytes (NHAs) HA1800. However, we demonstrated with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) that the expression of ADAR2 mRNA was not significantly altered in the glioma cell lines. Three alternative splicing sites are utilized in the glioma cell lines and NHAs: the first, located between exons -1 and 1, causes the inclusion of exon 1a; the second causes the removal of exon 2, which encodes two double-stranded RNA-binding domains; and the third, located between exons 4 and 6, causes the inclusion of alternative exon 5a, introducing a 120-nucleotide coding Alu-repeat sequence in frame. However, the expression ratio of two types of transcripts (with and without exon 5a) was altered in the glioma cells. Transcripts with exon 5a, which generate an ADAR2 isoform with ~50% reduced activity, were predominantly expressed in the glioma cell lines, whereas transcripts without exon 5a were predominantly expressed in the NHAs. From these results, we conclude that this aberrant alternative splicing pattern of ADAR2 downregulates A-to-I editing in glioma. PMID:25873329

  19. Alternative splicing in Acad8 resulting a mitochondrial defect and progressive hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabbagha, Nagham George Abd Al-Ahad; Kao, Hsiao-Jung; Yang, Chih-Fu; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Wei-De; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Tzu-Ho; Tarn, Woan-Yuh; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2011-07-01

    Using a combination of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mediated mutagenesis and metabolomics-guided screening, we identified mice with elevated blood levels of short-chain C4-acylcarnitine and increased urine isobutyryl-glycine. Genome-wide homozygosity screening, followed by fine mapping, located the disease gene to 15-25 Mb of mouse chromosome 9 where a candidate gene, Acad8, encoding mitochondrial isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase was located. Genomic DNA sequencing revealed a single-nucleotide mutation at -17 of the first intron of Acad8 in affected mice. cDNA sequencing revealed an intronic 28-bp insertion at the site of the mutation, which caused a frame shift with a premature stop codon. In vitro splicing assay confirmed that the mutation was sufficient to activate an upstream, aberrant 3' splice site. There was a reduction in the expression of Acad8 at both the mRNA and protein levels. The mutant mice grew normally but demonstrated cold intolerance at young age with a progressive hepatic steatosis. Homozygous mutant mice hepatocytes had abnormal mitochondria with crystalline inclusions, suggestive of mitochondriopathy. This mouse model of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency could provide us a better understanding of the possible role of IBD deficiency in mitochondriopathy and fatty liver. PMID:21659959

  20. Challenges in estimating percent inclusion of alternatively spliced junctions from RNA-seq data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Transcript quantification is a long-standing problem in genomics and estimating the relative abundance of alternatively-spliced isoforms from the same transcript is an important special case. Both problems have recently been illuminated by high-throughput RNA sequencing experiments which are quickly generating large amounts of data. However, much of the signal present in this data is corrupted or obscured by biases resulting in non-uniform and non-proportional representation of sequences from different transcripts. Many existing analyses attempt to deal with these and other biases with various task-specific approaches, which makes direct comparison between them difficult. However, two popular tools for isoform quantification, MISO and Cufflinks, have adopted a general probabilistic framework to model and mitigate these biases in a more general fashion. These advances motivate the need to investigate the effects of RNA-seq biases on the accuracy of different approaches for isoform quantification. We conduct the investigation by building models of increasing sophistication to account for noise introduced by the biases and compare their accuracy to the established approaches. We focus on methods that estimate the expression of alternatively-spliced isoforms with the percent-spliced-in (PSI) metric for each exon skipping event. To improve their estimates, many methods use evidence from RNA-seq reads that align to exon bodies. However, the methods we propose focus on reads that span only exon-exon junctions. As a result, our approaches are simpler and less sensitive to exon definitions than existing methods, which enables us to distinguish their strengths and weaknesses more easily. We present several probabilistic models of of position-specific read counts with increasing complexity and compare them to each other and to the current state-of-the-art methods in isoform quantification, MISO and Cufflinks. On a validation set with RT-PCR measurements for 26 cassette events, some of our methods are more accurate and some are significantly more consistent than these two popular tools. This comparison demonstrates the challenges in estimating the percent inclusion of alternatively spliced junctions and illuminates the tradeoffs between different approaches. PMID:22537040

  1. Changes in type II procollagen isoform expression during chondrogenesis by disruption of an alternative 5’ splice site within Col2a1 exon 2

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Thomas M.; Wirthlin, Louisa; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a new mechanism controlling the production of alternatively-spliced isoforms of type II procollagen (Col2a1) in vivo. During chondrogenesis, precursor chondrocytes predominantly produce isoforms containing alternatively-spliced exon 2 (type IIA and IID) while Col2a1 mRNA devoid of exon 2 (type IIB) is the major isoform produced by differentiated chondrocytes. We previously identified an additional Col2a1 isoform containing a truncated exon 2 and premature termination codons in exon 6 (type IIC). This transcript is produced by utilization of another 5’ splice site present in exon 2. To determine the role of this IIC splicing event in vivo, we generated transgenic mice containing silent knock-in mutations at the IIC 5’ splice site (Col2a1-mIIC), thereby inhibiting production of IIC transcripts. Heterozygous and homozygous knock-in mice were viable and display no overt skeletal phenotype to date. However, RNA expression profiles revealed that chondrocytes in cartilage from an age range of Col2a1-mIIC mice produced higher levels of IIA and IID mRNAs and decreased levels of IIB mRNAs throughout pre-natal and post-natal development, when compared to chondrocytes from littermate control mice. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a clear increase in expression of embryonic type II collagen protein isoforms (i.e. containing the exon 2-encoded cysteine-rich (CR) protein domain) in cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Interestingly, at P14, P28 and P56, expression of embryonic Col2a1 isoforms in Col2a1-mIIC mice persisted in the pericellular domain of the ECM in articular and growth plate cartilage. We also show that persistent expression of the exon 2-encoded CR domain in the ECM of post-natal cartilage tissue may be due, in part, to the embryonic form of type XI collagen (the ?3 chain of which is also encoded by the Col2a1 gene). In conclusion, expression of the Col2a1 IIC splice form may have a regulatory function in controlling alternative splicing of exon 2 to generate defined proportions of IIA, IID and IIB procollagen isoforms during cartilage development. Future studies will involve ultrastructural and biomechanical analysis of the collagen ECM to determine the effects of persistent mis-expression of embryonic collagen isoforms in mature cartilage tissue. PMID:24735995

  2. Splicing of the Maize Sh1 First Intron Is Essential for Enhancement of Gene Expression, and a T-Rich Motif Increases Expression without Affecting Splicing1

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Maureen; Hannah, L. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    Certain plant and animal introns increase expression of protein-coding sequences when placed in the 5? region of the transcription unit. The mechanisms of intron-mediated enhancement have not been defined, but are generally accepted to be post- or cotranscriptional in character. One of the most effective plant introns in stimulating gene expression is the 1,028-bp first intron of the Sh1 gene that encodes maize (Zea mays) sucrose synthase. To address the mechanisms of intron-mediated enhancement, we used reporter gene fusions to identify features of the Sh1 first intron required for enhancement in cultured maize cells. A 145-bp derivative conferred approximately the same 20- to 50-fold stimulation typical for the full-length intron in this transient expression system. A 35-bp motif contained within the intron is required for maximum levels of enhancement but not for efficient transcript splicing. The important feature of this redundant 35-bp motif is T-richness rather than the specific sequence. When transcript splicing was abolished by mutations at the intron borders, enhancement was reduced to about 2-fold. The requirement of splicing for enhancement was not because of upstream translation initiation codons contained in unspliced transcripts. On the basis of our current findings, we conclude that splicing of the Sh1 intron is integral to enhancement, and we hypothesize that transcript modifications triggered by the T-rich motif and splicing may link the mRNA with the trafficking system of the cell. PMID:12376656

  3. Contribution of bioinformatics predictions and functional splicing assays to the interpretation of unclassified variants of the BRCA genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Christophe Théry; Sophie Krieger; Pascaline Gaildrat; Françoise Révillion; Marie-Pierre Buisine; Audrey Killian; Christiane Duponchel; Antoine Rousselin; Dominique Vaur; Jean-Philippe Peyrat; Pascaline Berthet; Thierry Frébourg; Alexandra Martins; Agnès Hardouin; Mario Tosi

    2011-01-01

    A large fraction of sequence variants of unknown significance (VUS) of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 may induce splicing defects. We analyzed 53 VUSs of BRCA1 or BRCA2, detected in consecutive molecular screenings, by using five splicing prediction programs, and we classified them into two groups according to the strength of the predictions. In parallel,

  4. Gene structure prediction from consensus spliced alignment of multiple ESTs matching the same genomic locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Brendel; Liqun Xing; Wei Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Motivation: Accurate gene structure annotation is a challenging computational problem in genomics. The best results are achieved with spliced alignment of full-length cDNAs or multiple expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with suf- ficient overlap to cover the entire gene. For most species, cDNA and EST collections are far from comprehensive. We sought to overcome this bottleneck by exploring the possibility of

  5. Structural basis by which alternative splicing confers specificity in fibroblast growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Brian K.; Igarashi, Makoto; Eliseenkova, Anna V.; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Sher, Ifat; Ron, Dina; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2003-01-01

    Binding specificity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) is essential for mammalian development and is regulated primarily by two alternatively spliced exons, IIIb (“b”) and IIIc (“c”), that encode the second half of Ig-like domain 3 (D3) of FGFRs. FGF7 and FGF10 activate only the b isoform of FGFR2 (FGFR2b). Here, we report the crystal structure of the ligand-binding portion of FGFR2b bound to FGF10. Unique contacts between divergent regions in FGF10 and two b-specific loops in D3 reveal the structural basis by which alternative splicing provides FGF10-FGFR2b specificity. Structure-based mutagenesis of FGF10 confirms the importance of the observed contacts for FGF10 biological activity. Interestingly, FGF10 binding induces a previously unobserved rotation of receptor Ig domain 2 (D2) to introduce specific contacts with FGF10. Hence, both D2 and D3 of FGFR2b contribute to the exceptional specificity between FGF10 and FGFR2b. We propose that ligand-induced conformational change in FGFRs may also play an important role in determining specificity for other FGF-FGFR complexes. PMID:12591959

  6. Alternative splicing modulates Disabled-1 (Dab1) function in the developing chick retina

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Sachin; Godbout, Roseline

    2004-01-01

    The Reelin–Disabled 1 (Dab1)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in neuronal cell positioning in the brain. We have isolated two alternatively spliced variants of Dab1 from chick retina, an early form (chDab1-E) expressed in undifferentiated cells and a late form (chDab1-L) expressed in amacrine and ganglion cells. A key difference between the two forms is the exclusion in chDab1-E of two Src-related tyrosine kinase recognition sites implicated in Reelin-mediated Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Retinal cultures transfected with a chDab1-L expression construct undergo a dramatic change in morphology, accompanied by the formation of numerous thin elongated processes, increased tyrosine phosphorylation, activation of Src family kinase(s) and increased levels of the axonal outgrowth protein growth-associated protein-43. In contrast, chDab1-E transfectants retain an undifferentiated morphology. Mutational analysis implicates a specific tyrosine (tyr-198) in the morphological and biochemical alterations associated with chDab1-L expression. We propose that alternative splicing of chDab1 represents an effective and flexible way of regulating the Reelin–Dab1-signaling pathway in a mixed cell population, by ensuring that secreted Reelin activates the signaling cascade only in target neuronal cells. PMID:15057276

  7. A knockin mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 exhibits prominent aggregate pathology and aberrant splicing of the disease gene transcript.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Biswarathan; Harris, Ginny M; Huang, Rogerio; Seki, Takahiro; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Costa, Maria do Carmo; Fischer, Svetlana; Saunders, Thomas L; Xia, Guangbin; McEachin, Richard C; Paulson, Henry L

    2015-03-01

    Polyglutamine diseases, including spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), are caused by CAG repeat expansions that encode abnormally long glutamine repeats in the respective disease proteins. While the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration remain uncertain, evidence supports a proteotoxic role for the mutant protein dictated in part by the specific genetic and protein context. To further define pathogenic mechanisms in SCA3, we generated a mouse model in which a CAG expansion of 82 repeats was inserted into the murine locus by homologous recombination. SCA3 knockin mice exhibit region-specific aggregate pathology marked by intranuclear accumulation of the mutant Atxn3 protein, abundant nuclear inclusions and, in select brain regions, extranuclear aggregates localized to neuritic processes. Knockin mice also display altered splicing of the disease gene, promoting expression of an alternative isoform in which the intron immediately downstream of the CAG repeat is retained. In an independent mouse model expressing the full human ATXN3 disease gene, expression of this alternatively spliced transcript is also enhanced. These results, together with recent findings in other polyglutamine diseases, suggest that CAG repeat expansions can promote aberrant splicing to produce potentially more aggregate-prone isoforms of the disease proteins. This report of a SCA3 knockin mouse expands the repertoire of existing models of SCA3, and underscores the potential contribution of alternative splicing to disease pathogenesis in SCA3 and other polyglutamine disorders. PMID:25320121

  8. Widespread sex differences in gene expression and splicing in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Imran, Sabaena; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Weale, Michael E.; Hardy, John; Ryten, Mina

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence to show that men and women differ in terms of neurodevelopment, neurochemistry and susceptibility to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease. The molecular basis of these differences remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in gene expression and in particular splicing in the human brain. Here we address this issue by using post-mortem adult human brain and spinal cord samples originating from 137 neuropathologically confirmed control individuals to study whole-genome gene expression and splicing in 12 CNS regions. We show that sex differences in gene expression and splicing are widespread in adult human brain, being detectable in all major brain regions and involving 2.5% of all expressed genes. We give examples of genes where sex-biased expression is both disease-relevant and likely to have functional consequences, and provide evidence suggesting that sex biases in expression may reflect sex-biased gene regulatory structures. PMID:24264146

  9. Identification of a novel splice site mutation of CLCN5 gene and characterization of a new alternative 5’ UTR end of ClC5 mRNA in human renal tissue and leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Forino; Romina Graziotto; Enrica Tosetto; Giovanni Gambaro; Angela D’Angelo; Franca Anglani

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the CLCN5 gene have been detected in Dent’s disease and its phenotypic variants (X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis, X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, and idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria of Japanese children). Dent’s disease is a tubular disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, and nephrolithiasis associated with nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria. ClC-5 is the first chloride channel for which a definitive role in the trafficking

  10. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2014-04-25

    Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4? and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4? have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4? (missing 168-245 nt of exon1), Fbx4? (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4?, Fbx4? and Fbx4? could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4? that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4?, Fbx4?, and Fbx4? locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant cyclin D1 expression in human cancers. PMID:24704453

  11. Human slow troponin T (TNNT1) pre-mRNA alternative splicing is an indicator of skeletal muscle response to resistance exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Choi, Seung Jun; Wang, Zhong-Min; Birbrair, Alexander; Messi, María L; Jin, Jian-Ping; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-12-01

    Slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) pre-messenger RNA alternative splicing (AS) provides transcript diversity and increases the variety of proteins the gene encodes. Here, we identified three major TNNT1 splicing patterns (AS1-3), quantified their expression in the vastus lateralis muscle of older adults, and demonstrated that resistance training modifies their relative abundance; specifically, upregulating AS1 and downregulating AS2 and AS3. In addition, abundance of TNNT1 AS2 correlated negatively with single muscle fiber-specific force after resistance training, while abundance of AS1 correlated negatively with V max. We propose that TNNT1 AS1, AS2 and the AS1/AS2 ratio are potential quantitative biomarkers of skeletal muscle adaptation to resistance training in older adults, and that their profile reflects enhanced single fiber muscle force in the absence of significant increases in fiber cross-sectional area. PMID:24368775

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Splicing Isoforms in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Divella, Chiara; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia; Picardi, Ernesto; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Battaglia, Michele; Gesualdo, Loreto; Pesole, Graziano; Ranieri, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common malignant renal epithelial tumor and also the most deadly. To identify molecular changes occurring in ccRCC, in the present study we performed a genome wide analysis of its entire complement of mRNAs. Gene and exon-level analyses were carried out by means of the Affymetrix Exon Array platform. To achieve a reliable detection of differentially expressed cassette exons we implemented a novel methodology that considered contiguous combinations of exon triplets and candidate differentially expressed cassette exons were identified when the expression level was significantly different only in the central exon of the triplet. More detailed analyses were performed for selected genes using quantitative RT-PCR and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our analysis detected over 2,000 differentially expressed genes, and about 250 genes alternatively spliced and showed differential inclusion of specific cassette exons comparing tumor and non-tumoral tissues. We demonstrated the presence in ccRCC of an altered expression of the PTP4A3, LAMA4, KCNJ1 and TCF21 genes (at both transcript and protein level). Furthermore, we confirmed, at the mRNA level, the involvement of CAV2 and SFRP genes that have previously been identified. At exon level, among potential candidates we validated a differentially included cassette exon in DAB2 gene with a significant increase of DAB2 p96 splice variant as compared to the p67 isoform. Based on the results obtained, and their robustness according to both statistical analysis and literature surveys, we believe that a combination of gene/isoform expression signature may remarkably contribute, after suitable validation, to a more effective and reliable definition of molecular biomarkers for ccRCC early diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response. PMID:24194935

  13. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of an alternatively spliced human Mu class glutathione S-transferase transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, V L; Board, P G

    1993-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding a new Mu class glutathione S-transferase (GST) have been isolated from a human testis cDNA library. Both clones are incomplete and appear to result from alternative splicing. One clone is missing the sequence encoding exon 4 and the other is missing exon 8. The complete sequence of the previously undescribed isoenzyme can be deduced from the two cDNA clones. This is the first report of alternative splicing in a GST transcript and may represent either a novel form of regulation in this multigene family or illegitimate transcription and experimental alternative splicing as part of the evolutionary process. By combining components from each clone a complete cDNA has been constructed and the encoded protein expressed in Escherichia coli. In general, the recombinant enzyme has relatively low activity when compared with all the previously described human Mu class GST isoenzymes. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8373352

  14. SpliceMiner: a high-throughput database implementation of the NCBI Evidence Viewer for microarray splice variant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Ari B; Ryan, Michael C; Liu, Hongfang; Zeeberg, Barry R; Jamison, D Curtis; Weinstein, John N

    2007-01-01

    Background There are many fewer genes in the human genome than there are expressed transcripts. Alternative splicing is the reason. Alternatively spliced transcripts are often specific to tissue type, developmental stage, environmental condition, or disease state. Accurate analysis of microarray expression data and design of new arrays for alternative splicing require assessment of probes at the sequence and exon levels. Description SpliceMiner is a web interface for querying Evidence Viewer Database (EVDB). EVDB is a comprehensive, non-redundant compendium of splice variant data for human genes. We constructed EVDB as a queryable implementation of the NCBI Evidence Viewer (EV). EVDB is based on data obtained from NCBI Entrez Gene and EV. The automated EVDB build process uses only complete coding sequences, which may or may not include partial or complete 5' and 3' UTRs, and filters redundant splice variants. Unlike EV, which supports only one-at-a-time queries, SpliceMiner supports high-throughput batch queries and provides results in an easily parsable format. SpliceMiner maps probes to splice variants, effectively delineating the variants identified by a probe. Conclusion EVDB can be queried by gene symbol, genomic coordinates, or probe sequence via a user-friendly web-based tool we call SpliceMiner (). The EVDB/SpliceMiner combination provides an interface with human splice variant information and, going beyond the very valuable NCBI Evidence Viewer, supports fluent, high-throughput analysis. Integration of EVDB information into microarray analysis and design pipelines has the potential to improve the analysis and bioinformatic interpretation of gene expression data, for both batch and interactive processing. For example, whenever a gene expression value is recognized as important or appears anomalous in a microarray experiment, the interactive mode of SpliceMiner can be used quickly and easily to check for possible splice variant issues. PMID:17338820

  15. Comparative Analysis of Serine\\/Arginine-Rich Proteins across 27 Eukaryotes: Insights into SubFamily Classification and Extent of Alternative Splicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale N. Richardson; Mark F. Rogers; Adam Labadorf; Asa Ben-Hur; Hui Guo; Andrew H. Paterson; Anireddy S. N. Reddy; Shin-Han Shiu

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) at the N-terminus and an arg\\/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic

  16. Drosophila Muscleblind Is Involved in troponin T Alternative Splicing and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Crespo, Marta; Pascual, Maya; Fernandez-Costa, Juan M.; Garcia-Lopez, Amparo; Monferrer, Lidón; Miranda, M. Eugenia; Zhou, Lei; Artero, Ruben D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNL) have been involved in a developmental switch in the use of defined cassette exons. Such transition fails in the CTG repeat expansion disease myotonic dystrophy due, in part, to sequestration of MBNL proteins by CUG repeat RNA. Four protein isoforms (MblA-D) are coded by the unique Drosophila muscleblind gene. Methodology/Principal Findings We used evolutionary, genetic and cell culture approaches to study muscleblind (mbl) function in flies. The evolutionary study showed that the MblC protein isoform was readily conserved from nematods to Drosophila, which suggests that it performs the most ancestral muscleblind functions. Overexpression of MblC in the fly eye precursors led to an externally rough eye morphology. This phenotype was used in a genetic screen to identify five dominant suppressors and 13 dominant enhancers including Drosophila CUG-BP1 homolog aret, exon junction complex components tsunagi and Aly, and pro-apoptotic genes Traf1 and reaper. We further investigated Muscleblind implication in apoptosis and splicing regulation. We found missplicing of troponin T in muscleblind mutant pupae and confirmed Muscleblind ability to regulate mouse fast skeletal muscle Troponin T (TnnT3) minigene splicing in human HEK cells. MblC overexpression in the wing imaginal disc activated apoptosis in a spatially restricted manner. Bioinformatics analysis identified a conserved FKRP motif, weakly resembling a sumoylation target site, in the MblC-specific sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif revealed no change in activity of mutant MblC on TnnT3 minigene splicing or aberrant binding to CUG repeat RNA, but altered the ability of the protein to form perinuclear aggregates and enhanced cell death-inducing activity of MblC overexpression. Conclusions/Significance Taken together our genetic approach identify cellular processes influenced by Muscleblind function, whereas in vivo and cell culture experiments define Drosophila troponin T as a new Muscleblind target, reveal a potential involvement of MblC in programmed cell death and recognize the FKRP motif as a putative regulator of MblC function and/or subcellular location in the cell. PMID:18286170

  17. Two unusual forms of human immunoglobulin E encoded by alternative RNA splicing of epsilon heavy chain membrane exons

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence for RNA transcripts encoding two forms of human epsilon immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain that differ significantly from those of other isotypes. We previously demonstrated three human epsilon mRNA species, instead of the two, corresponding to membrane and secreted proteins, seen with other heavy chain transcripts. In human genomic DNA downstream of the C epsilon gene, we identified sequences homologous to the two putative murine exons M1 (encoding a hydrophobic, presumably transmembrane region) and M2 (encoding hydrophilic residues). To determine the structures of epsilon transcripts containing these sequences, we amplified epsilon-related RNAs with the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RNA was examined from fresh human B cells stimulated to IgE production by interleukin 4 plus anti-CD40, as well as from the human IgE-producing line AF10. Instead of the single CH4-M1-M2 splice product predicted for murine membrane IgE, we found two other RNA species. One form has the structure CH4-M1'- M2, in which M1' includes the human sequence homologous to the murine M1 as well as a unique segment of 52 codons further upstream in the genomic sequence; this RNA species apparently encodes the IgE expressed on the membrane of IgE-producing lymphocytes. The other RNA has the structure CH4-M2', in which M2' is spliced in an alternative reading frame that includes an additional 109 codons downstream of the termination codon of the CH4-M1'-M2 form. Because the CH4-M2' mRNA form does not encode a hydrophobic segment, its translated product should be secreted. A secreted epsilon protein of approximately the size predicted for this form was identified by Western blotting. This novel IgE protein could play a significant and distinctive role in allergic disorders. PMID:1613458

  18. Protein trans-splicing in transgenic plant chloroplast: Reconstruction of herbicide resistance from split genes

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Hang Gyeong; Kim, Gun-Do; Marin, Ivan; Mersha, Fana; Evans, Thomas C.; Chen, Lixin; Xu, Ming-Qun; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2003-01-01

    Inteins are intervening protein sequences that undergo self-excision from a precursor protein with concomitant joining of the flanking sequences. Here, we demonstrate intein trans-splicing in Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts by using the naturally split Ssp DnaE intein. Trans-splicing occurred whether both intein fragments were encoded in the chloroplast or were separated into the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. A biolistic approach was used to integrate two fusion genes, one encoding aminoglycoside-3-adenyltransferase (aadA) and the first 123 aa of the Ssp DnaE intein (In) and the other encoding 36 C-terminal amino acid residues of the Ssp DnaE intein (Ic) and soluble modified green fluorescent protein (smGFP) into N. tabacum plastids. Expression of these gene fragments in the chloroplast resulted in ligated aadA-smGFP due to In-Ic-mediated trans-splicing. Furthermore, an N-terminal portion of the herbicide resistance gene 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) containing a chloroplast localization signal fused to In (EPSPSn-In) was integrated into the nuclear DNA of N. tabacum by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The remaining EPSPS gene fragment (EPSPSc) fused to Ic (Ic-EPSPSc) was integrated into the chloroplast genome by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis of cell extracts from these plants showed a full-length EPSPS, demonstrating that the EPSPSn-In gene product migrated to the chloroplast and underwent trans-splicing. Furthermore, these transgenic plants displayed improved resistance to the herbicide N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) when compared with wild-type N. tabacum. PMID:12671070

  19. Repression of nuclear CELF activity can rescue CELF-regulated alternative splicing defects in skeletal muscle models of myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Dara S.; Ladd, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of CUG repeats in the 3’ UTR of DMPK transcripts. DM1 pathogenesis has been attributed in part to alternative splicing dysregulation via elevation of CUG-BP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1). Several therapeutic approaches have been tested in cells and mice, but no previous studies had specifically targeted CELF1. Here, we show that repressing CELF activity rescues CELF-dependent alternative splicing in cell culture and transgenic mouse models of DM1. CELF-independent splicing, however, remained dysregulated. These data highlight both the potential and limitations of targeting CELF1 for the treatment of DM1. PMID:22453899

  20. SAW: A Method to Identify Splicing Events from RNA-Seq Data Based on Splicing Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Kang; Fermin, Damian

    2010-01-01

    Splicing event identification is one of the most important issues in the comprehensive analysis of transcription profile. Recent development of next-generation sequencing technology has generated an extensive profile of alternative splicing. However, while many of these splicing events are between exons that are relatively close on genome sequences, reads generated by RNA-Seq are not limited to alternative splicing between close exons but occur in virtually all splicing events. In this work, a novel method, SAW, was proposed for the identification of all splicing events based on short reads from RNA-Seq. It was observed that short reads not in known gene models are actually absent words from known gene sequences. An efficient method to filter and cluster these short reads by fingerprint fragments of splicing events without aligning short reads to genome sequences was developed. Additionally, the possible splicing sites were also determined without alignment against genome sequences. A consensus sequence was then generated for each short read cluster, which was then aligned to the genome sequences. Results demonstrated that this method could identify more than 90% of the known splicing events with a very low false discovery rate, as well as accurately identify, a number of novel splicing events between distant exons. PMID:20706591

  1. Sense Transgene-Induced Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing in Tobacco Compromises the Splicing of Endogenous Counterpart Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi-Rae; Natsuume, Masaya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Imai, Misaki; Iijima, Ken; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Adachi, Eri; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Sense transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (S-PTGS) is thought to be a type of RNA silencing in which ARGONAUTE1 directs the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cleavage of a target mRNA in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that the altered splicing of endogenous counterpart genes is a main cause for the reduction of their mature mRNA levels. After the S-PTGS of a tobacco endoplasmic reticulum ?-3 fatty acid desaturase (NtFAD3) gene, 3?-truncated, polyadenylated endo-NtFAD3 transcripts and 5?-truncated, intron-containing endo-NtFAD3 transcripts were detected in the total RNA fraction. Although transcription proceeded until the last exon of the endogenous NtFAD3 gene, intron-containing NtFAD3 transcripts accumulated in the nucleus of the S-PTGS plants. Several intron-containing NtFAD3 transcripts harboring most of the exon sequences were generated when an endogenous silencing suppressor gene, rgs-CaM, was overexpressed in the S-PTGS plants. These intron-containing NtFAD3 splice variants were generated in the presence of NtFAD3 siRNAs that are homologous to the nucleotide sequences of these splice variants. The results of this study indicate that the inhibition of endo-NtFAD3 gene expression is primarily directed via the alteration of splicing and not by cytoplasmic slicer activity. Our results suggest that the transgene and intron-containing endogenous counterpart genes are differentially suppressed in S-PTGS plants. PMID:24586294

  2. Evolutionarily Dynamic Alternative Splicing of GPR56 Regulates Regional Cerebral Cortical Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Byoung-Il; Tietjen, Ian; Atabay, Kutay D.; Evrony, Gilad D.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Asare, Ebenezer; Wang, Peter P.; Murayama, Ayako Y.; Im, Kiho; Lisgo, Steven N.; Overman, Lynne; Šestan, Nenad; Chang, Bernard S.; Barkovich, A. James; Grant, P. Ellen; Topçu, Meral; Politsky, Jeffrey; Okano, Hideyuki; Piao, Xianhua; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The human neocortex has numerous specialized functional areas whose formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a 15–base pair deletion mutation in a regulatory element of GPR56 that selectively disrupts human cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure bilaterally including “Broca’s area,” the primary language area, by disrupting regional GPR56 expression and blocking RFX transcription factor binding. GPR56 encodes a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptor required for normal cortical development and is expressed in cortical progenitor cells. GPR56 expression levels regulate progenitor proliferation. GPR56 splice forms are highly variable between mice and humans, and the regulatory element of gyrencephalic mammals directs restricted lateral cortical expression. Our data reveal a mechanism by which control of GPR56 expression pattern by multiple alternative promoters can influence stem cell proliferation, gyral patterning, and, potentially, neocortex evolution. PMID:24531968

  3. Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Is Due to Splicing Mutations in the CLN2 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaana M. Hartikainen; Weina Ju; Krystyna E. Wisniewski; Dorota N. Moroziewicz; Alexandra L. Kaczmarski; Lucille McLendon; David Zhong; Carolin T. Suarez; W. Ted Brown; Nan Zhong

    1999-01-01

    Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, LINCL, is one of the most common pediatric neurodegenerative disorders. It is caused by mutations in the CLN2 gene, which encodes a lysosomal pepstatin-insensitive peptidase (LPIP). We have identified a novel mutation, T523-1G ? A, by molecular analyses of three unrelated LINCL cases. The mutation was found to affect a 3? intronic splicing acceptor site,

  4. Conditional gene expression and RNAi using MEC-8–dependent splicing in C. elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Calixto; Charles Ma; Martin Chalfie

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for conditional regulation of gene expression based on the processing of an intron cassette. The RNA processing factor MEC-8 is necessary for the function of the Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons; mec-8 mutants are touch insensitive. We show here that this insensitivity involves the loss of MEC-8–dependent splicing of mec-2, which encodes a component of the

  5. Design of a High-Throughput Assay for Alternative Splicing Using Polymerase Colonies J.D. Buhler, R.M. Souvenir, W. Zhang, and R.D. Mitra

    E-print Network

    Mitra, Rob

    Design of a High-Throughput Assay for Alternative Splicing Using Polymerase Colonies J.D. Buhler, R-THROUGHPUT ASSAY FOR ALTERNATIVE SPLICING USING POLYMERASE COLONIES J. D. BUHLER, R. M. SOUVENIR, AND W. ZHANG University School of Medicine 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110 Email: rmitra@genetics.wustl.edu We

  6. Comparison of intron-containing and intron-lacking human genes elucidates putative exonic splicing enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Alexei; Saxonov, Serge; Fedorova, Larisa; Daizadeh, Iraj

    2001-01-01

    Of the rules used by the splicing machinery to precisely determine intron–exon boundaries only a fraction is known. Recent evidence suggests that specific short sequences within exons help in defining these boundaries. Such sequences are known as exonic splicing enhancers (ESE). A possible bioinformatical approach to studying ESE sequences is to compare genes that harbor introns with genes that do not. For this purpose two non-redundant samples of 719 intron-containing and 63 intron-lacking human genes were created. We performed a statistical analysis on these datasets of intron-containing and intron-lacking human coding sequences and found a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01) between these samples in terms of 5–6mer oligonucleotide distributions. The difference is not created by a few strong signals present in the majority of exons, but rather by the accumulation of multiple weak signals through small variations in codon frequencies, codon biases and context-dependent codon biases between the samples. A list of putative novel human splicing regulation sequences has been elucidated by our analysis. PMID:11266547

  7. Comparison of intron-containing and intron-lacking human genes elucidates putative exonic splicing enhancers.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, A; Saxonov, S; Fedorova, L; Daizadeh, I

    2001-04-01

    Of the rules used by the splicing machinery to precisely determine intron-exon boundaries only a fraction is known. Recent evidence suggests that specific short sequences within exons help in defining these boundaries. Such sequences are known as exonic splicing enhancers (ESE). A possible bioinformatical approach to studying ESE sequences is to compare genes that harbor introns with genes that do not. For this purpose two non-redundant samples of 719 intron-containing and 63 intron-lacking human genes were created. We performed a statistical analysis on these datasets of intron-containing and intron-lacking human coding sequences and found a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01) between these samples in terms of 5-6mer oligonucleotide distributions. The difference is not created by a few strong signals present in the majority of exons, but rather by the accumulation of multiple weak signals through small variations in codon frequencies, codon biases and context-dependent codon biases between the samples. A list of putative novel human splicing regulation sequences has been elucidated by our analysis. PMID:11266547

  8. Mis-splicing of the ABCC2 gene linked with Bt toxin resistance in Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chenxi; Heckel, David G.; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previous work showed that mutations in a gene encoding the transporter protein ABCC2 are linked with resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or both in four species of Lepidoptera. Here we compared the ABCC2 gene of Helicoverpa armigera (HaABCC2) between susceptible strains and a laboratory-selected strain with >1,000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac relative its susceptible parent strain. We discovered a 73-base pair (bp) insertion in the cDNA of the resistant strain that generates a premature stop codon expected to yield a truncated ABCC2 protein. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed that this insertion is an intron that is not spliced out because of a 6-bp deletion at its splicing site. Analysis of progeny from crosses revealed tight genetic linkage between HaABCC2 and resistance to Cry1Ac. These results provide the first evidence that mis-splicing of a gene encoding an ABCC2 protein confers resistance to a Bt toxin. PMID:25154974

  9. Expression Map of the Human Exome in CD34+ Cells and Blood Cells: Increased Alternative Splicing in Cell Motility

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Expression Map of the Human Exome in CD34+ Cells and Blood Cells: Increased Alternative Splicing knowledge on AS events in hematopoietic cells. Principal Findings: Using Human Exon ST 1.0 microarrays Y, Benmahdi R, et al. (2010) Expression Map of the Human Exome in CD34+ Cells and Blood Cells

  10. Ankyrin-G in skeletal muscle: Tissue-specific alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of the sarcolemmal cytoskeleton.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    muscle-specific ankyrin-G. Here we combined cDNA and database analyses to gain novel insight1 Ankyrin-G in skeletal muscle: Tissue-specific alternative splicing contributes to the complexity into the ankyrins-G of skeletal muscle. We find: (i) that Ank3 is composed of at least 53 exons, many of which

  11. In vitro analysis of splice site mutations in the CLCN1 gene using the minigene assay.

    PubMed

    Ulzi, Gianna; Sansone, Valeria A; Magri, Francesca; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Lucchiari, Sabrina

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in the chloride channel gene CLCN1 cause the allelic disorders Thomsen (dominant) and Becker (recessive) myotonia congenita (MC). The encoded protein, ClC-1, is the primary channel that mediates chloride (Cl-) conductance in skeletal muscle. Mutations in CLCN1 lower the channel's threshold voltage, leading to spontaneous action potentials that are not coupled to neuromuscular transmission and resulting in myotonia. Over 120 mutations in CLCN1 have been described, 10% of which are splicing defects. Biological specimens suitable for RNA extraction are not always available, but obtaining genomic DNA for analysis is easy and non-invasive. This is the first study to evaluate the pathogenic potential of novel splicing mutations using the minigene approach, which is based on genomic DNA analysis. Splicing mutations accounted for 23% of all pathogenic variants in our cohort of MC patients. Four were heterozygous mutations in four unrelated individuals, belonging to this cohort: c.563G>T in exon 5; c.1169-5T>G in intron 10; c.1251+1G>A in intron 11, and c.1931-2A>G in intron 16. These variants were expressed in HEK 293 cells, and aberrant splicing was verified by in vitro transcription and sequencing of the cDNA. Our findings confirm the need to further investigate the nature of rearrangements associated with this class of mutations and their effects on mature transcripts. In particular, splicing mutations predicted to generate in-frame transcripts may generate out-of-frame mRNA transcripts that do not produce functional ClC-1. Clinically, incomplete molecular evaluation could lead to delayed or faulty diagnosis. PMID:24452722

  12. Mutational Analysis of pre-mRNA Splicing in Saccharomyces cerarisiae Using a Sensitive New Reporter Gene, CUPl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cammie F. Lesser; Christine Guthrie

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new reporter gene fusion to monitor mRNA splicing in yeast. An intron- containing fragment from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACTl gene has been fused to CUPl, the yeast metallothionein homolog. CUPl is a nonessential gene that allows cells to grow in the presence of copper in a dosage-dependent manner. By inserting previously characterized intron mutations into the

  13. RNA splicing mutation in an aberrantly rearranged immunoglobulin lambda I gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hozumi, N; Wu, G E; Murialdo, H; Roberts, L; Vetter, D; Fife, W L; Whiteley, M; Sadowski, P

    1981-01-01

    The mouse cell line MOPC 315 is an IgA (lambda II)-producing myeloma. We have studied a derivative of MOPC 315 that secretes normal lambda II chains but no heavy chain. This derivative, MOPC 315-26, was found to contain a rearranged lambda I gene in addition to a rearranged lambda II gene. The rearranged lambda I gene was cloned into bacteriophage lambda DNA and its structure was studied. The lambda I gene was found to have arisen by an aberrant recombination event that resulted in a single base insertion at the site of V-J region joining. In addition, the gene contained numerous point mutations in the vicinity of the junction of the V and J regions. Two point mutations occurred in the donor splice sequence normally used for the removal of the intron between the J and C regions, suggesting that the RNA synthesized from the aberrantly rearranged lambda I gene would be unable to undergo proper RNA splicing. Images PMID:6171827

  14. Alternative Splicing at a NAGNAG Acceptor Site as a Novel Phenotype Modifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Hinzpeter; Abdel Aissat; Elvira Sondo; Catherine Costa; Nicole Arous; Christine Gameiro; Natacha Martin; Agathe Tarze; Laurence Weiss; Alix de Becdelièvre; Bruno Costes; Michel Goossens; Luis J. Galietta; Emmanuelle Girodon; Pascale Fanen

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 30% of alleles causing genetic disorders generate premature termination codons (PTCs), which are usually associated with severe phenotypes. However, bypassing the deleterious stop codon can lead to a mild disease outcome. Splicing at NAGNAG tandem splice sites has been reported to result in insertion or deletion (indel) of three nucleotides. We identified such a mechanism as the origin of

  15. Non-coding RNAs derived from an alternatively spliced REST transcript (REST-003) regulate breast cancer invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Sook Lee, Nan; Evgrafov, Oleg V.; Souaiaia, Tade; Bonyad, Adrineh; Herstein, Jennifer; Yeun Lee, Joo; Kim, Jihong; Ning, Yan; Sixto, Marcos; Weitz, Andrew C.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Wang, Kai; Knowles, James A.; Press, Michael F.; Salvaterra, Paul M.; Kirk Shung, K.; Chow, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    RE1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) has a well-established role in regulating transcription of genes important for neuronal development. Its role in cancer, though significant, is less well understood. We show that REST downregulation in weakly invasive MCF-7 breast cancer cells converts them to a more invasive phenotype, while REST overexpression in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells suppresses invasiveness. Surprisingly, the mechanism responsible for these phenotypic changes does not depend directly on the transcriptional function of REST protein. Instead, it is driven by previously unstudied mid-size (30–200?nt) non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) derived from the first exon of an alternatively spliced REST transcript: REST-003. We show that processing of REST-003 into ncRNAs is controlled by an uncharacterized serine/arginine repeat-related protein, SRRM3. SRRM3 expression may be under REST-mediated transcriptional control, as it increases following REST downregulation. The SRRM3-dependent regulation of REST-003 processing into ncRNAs has many similarities to recently described promoter-associated small RNA-like processes. Targeting ncRNAs that control invasiveness could lead to new therapeutic approaches to limit breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26053433

  16. Complex Patterns of Alternative Splicing Mediate the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Perlecan/UNC-52 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Gregory P.; Rogalski, Teresa M.; Bush, Jason A.; Gorji, Poupak Rahmani; Moerman, Donald G.

    1999-01-01

    The unc-52 gene encodes the nematode homologue of mammalian perlecan, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix. This is a large complex protein with regions similar to low-density lipoprotein receptors, laminin, and neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs). In this study, we extend our earlier work and demonstrate that a number of complex isoforms of this protein are expressed through alternative splicing. We identified three major classes of perlecan isoforms: a short form lacking the NCAM region and the C-terminal agrin-like region; a medium form containing the NCAM region, but still lacking the agrin-like region; and a newly identified long form that contains all five domains present in mammalian perlecan. ?Using region-specific antibodies and unc-52 mutants, we reveal a complex spatial and temporal expression pattern for these UNC-52 isoforms. As well, using a series of mutations affecting different regions and thus different isoforms of UNC-52, we demonstrate that the medium NCAM-containing isoforms are sufficient for myofilament lattice assembly in developing nematode body-wall muscle. Neither short isoforms nor isoforms containing the C-terminal agrin-like region are essential for sarcomere assembly or muscle cell attachment, and their role in development remains unclear. PMID:10512861

  17. A liver X receptor (LXR)-{beta} alternative splicing variant (LXRBSV) acts as an RNA co-activator of LXR-{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Koshi, E-mail: khashi@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Ishida, Emi; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Okada, Shuichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Monden, Tsuyoshi [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dokkyo Medical College, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)] [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dokkyo Medical College, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Satoh, Tetsurou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    We report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel transcriptional co-activator, termed LXRBSV. LXRBSV is an alternative splicing variant of liver X receptor (LXR)-{beta} LXRBSV has an intronic sequence between exons 2 and 3 in the mouse LXR-{beta} gene. The LXRBSV gene is expressed in various tissues including the liver and brain. We sub-cloned LXRBSV into pSG5, a mammalian expression vector, and LXRBSV in pSG5 augmented human Sterol Response Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c promoter activity in HepG2 cells in a ligand (TO901317) dependent manner. The transactivation mediated by LXRBSV is selective for LXR-{beta}. The LXRBSV protein was deduced to be 64 amino acids in length; however, a GAL4-LXRBSV fusion protein was not able to induce transactivation. Serial deletion constructs of LXRBSV demonstrated that the intronic sequence inserted in LXRBSV is required for its transactivation activity. An ATG mutant of LXRBSV was able to induce transactivation as wild type. Furthermore, LXRBSV functions in the presence of cycloheximide. Taken together, we have concluded that LXRBSV acts as an RNA transcript not as a protein. In the current study, we have demonstrated for the first time that an alternative splicing variant of a nuclear receptor acts as an RNA co-activator.

  18. Comparative analysis of sequence features involved in the recognition of tandem splice sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Bortfeldt; Stefanie Schindler; Karol Szafranski; Stefan Schuster; Dirk Holste

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The splicing of pre-mRNAs is conspicuously often variable and produces multiple alternatively spliced (AS) isoforms that encode different messages from one gene locus. Computational studies uncovered a class of highly similar isoforms, which were related to tandem 5'-splice sites (5'ss) and 3'-splice sites (3'ss), yet with very sparse anecdotal evidence in experimental studies. To compare the types and levels

  19. A Novel Pathway for Sensory-Mediated Arousal Involves Splicing of an Intron in the period Clock Gene

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weihuan; Edery, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: D. melanogaster is an excellent animal model to study how the circadian (? 24-h) timing system and sleep regulate daily wake-sleep cycles. Splicing of a temperature-sensitive 3'-terminal intron (termed dmpi8) from the circadian clock gene period (per) regulates the distribution of daily activity in Drosophila. The role of dmpi8 splicing on daily behavior was further evaluated by analyzing sleep. Design: Transgenic flies of the same genetic background but expressing either a wild-type recombinant per gene or one where the efficiency of dmpi8 splicing was increased were exposed to different temperatures in daily light-dark cycles and sleep parameters measured. In addition, transgenic flies were briefly exposed to a variety of sensory-mediated stimuli to measure arousal responses. Results: Surprisingly, we show that the effect of dmpi8 splicing on daytime activity levels does not involve a circadian role for per but is linked to adjustments in sensory-dependent arousal and sleep behavior. Genetically altered flies with high dmpi8 splicing efficiency remain aroused longer following short treatments with light and non-photic cues such as mechanical stimulation. Conclusions: We propose that the thermal regulation of dmpi8 splicing acts as a temperature-calibrated rheostat in a novel arousal mechanism, so that on warm days the inefficient splicing of the dmpi8 intron triggers an increase in quiescence by decreasing sensory-mediated arousal, thus ensuring flies minimize being active during the hot midday sun despite the presence of light in the environment, which is usually a strong arousal cue for diurnal animals. Citation: Cao W, Edery I. A novel pathway for sensory-mediated arousal involves splicing of an intron in the period clock gene. SLEEP 2015;38(1):41–51. PMID:25325457

  20. Normal and aberrant splicing of LMNA.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yue-Bei; Mastaglia, Frank L; Wilton, Steve D

    2014-04-01

    The LMNA gene gives rise to at least three isoforms (lamin A, C, lamin A?10) as a result of normal alternative splicing, regulated by cis- and trans-acting regulatory factors, as well as the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the gene. The two main isoforms, lamin A and C, are constitutive components of the fibrous nuclear lamina and have diverse physiological roles, ranging from mechanical nuclear membrane maintenance to gene regulation. The clinical spectrum of diseases (called 'laminopathies') caused by LMNA mutations is broad, including at least eight well-characterised phenotypes, some of which are confined to the skeletal muscles or skin, while others are multisystemic. This review discusses the different alternatively spliced isoforms of LMNA and the regulation of LMNA splicing, as well as the subgroup of mutations that affect splicing of LMNA pre-mRNA, and also seeks to bridge the mis-splicing of LMNA at transcript level and the resulting clinical phenotypes. Finally, we discuss the manipulation of LMNA splicing by splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides and its therapeutic potential for the treatment of some laminopathies. PMID:24459210

  1. Identification of a Neurite Outgrowth-Promoting Motif within the Alternatively Spliced Region of Human Tenascin-C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Meiners; Mohammed S. A. Nur-e-Kamal; Mary Lynn; T. Mercado

    2001-01-01

    Our work centers on understanding how the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-C regulates neuronal growth. We have found that the region of tenascin-C containing only alternately spliced fibronectin type-III repeat D, called fnD, when used by itself, dramatically increases neurite outgrowth in culture. We used overlapping synthetic peptides to localize the neurite outgrowth-promoting site within fnD to a 15 amino acid

  2. Neurite Outgrowth by the Alternatively Spliced Region of Human Tenascin-C Is Mediated by Neuronal71 Integrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Lynn; T. Mercado; Alam Nur-e-Kamal; Hsing-Yin Liu; Stephane R. Gross; Reza Movahed; Sally Meiners

    2004-01-01

    The region of tenascin-C containing only alternately spliced fibronectin type-III repeat D (fnD) increases neurite outgrowth by itself and also as part of tenascin-C. We previously localized the active site within fnD to an eight amino acid sequence unique to tenascin-C, VFDNFVLK, and showed that the amino acids FD and FV are required for activity. The purpose of this study

  3. Ott1 (Rbm15) regulates thrombopoietin response in hematopoietic stem cells through alternative splicing of c-Mpl.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Nan; Laha, Suparna; Das, Shankar P; Morlock, Kayla; Jesneck, Jonathan L; Raffel, Glen D

    2015-02-01

    Thrombopoietin (Thpo) signaling through the c-Mpl receptor promotes either quiescence or proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner; however, in vivo Thpo serum levels are responsive to platelet mass rather than HSC demands, suggesting additional regulation exists. Ott1 (Rbm15), a spliceosomal component originally identified as a fusion partner in t(1;22)-associated acute megakaryocytic leukemia, is also essential for maintaining HSC quiescence under stress. Ott1 controls the alternative splicing of a dominant negative isoform, Mpl-TR, capable of inhibiting HSC engraftment and attenuating Thpo signaling. Ott1, which associates with Hdac3 and the histone methyltransferase, Setd1b, binds to both c-Mpl RNA and chromatin and regulates H4 acetylation and H3K4me3 marks. Histone deacetylase or histone methyltransferase inhibition also increases Mpl-TR levels, suggesting that Ott1 uses an underlying epigenetic mechanism to control alternative splicing of c-Mpl. Manipulation of Ott1-dependent alternative splicing may therefore provide a novel pharmacologic avenue for regulating HSC quiescence and proliferation in response to Thpo. PMID:25468569

  4. Expression proteomics of UPF1 knockdown in HeLa cells reveals autoregulation of hnRNP A2\\/B1 mediated by alternative splicing resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J McGlincy; Lit-Yeen Tan; Nicodeme Paul; Mihaela Zavolan; Kathryn S Lilley; Christopher WJ Smith

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to acting as an RNA quality control pathway, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) plays roles in regulating normal gene expression. In particular, the extent to which alternative splicing is coupled to NMD and the roles of NMD in regulating uORF containing transcripts have been a matter of debate. RESULTS: In order to achieve a greater understanding of NMD

  5. Missense mutations in cancer suppressor gene TP53 are colocalized with exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs).

    PubMed

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Gorlova, Olga Y; Frazier, Marsha L; Amos, Christopher I

    2004-10-01

    Mutation databases can be viewed as footprints of functional organization of a gene and thus can be used to infer its functional organization. We studied the association of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) with missense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) mutation database. The goals of the study were: (i) to verify the hypothesis that deleterious missense mutations are colocalized with ESEs; (ii) to identify potentially functional ESE sites in the open reading frame (ORF) of the TP53. If some sequence functions as a splicing enhancer, then nucleotide substitutions in the site will disturb splicing, abrogate p53 function, and cause an increased susceptibility to cancer. Therefore, among cancers showing p53 mutations, more missense mutations are expected within functional ESE sites as compared to non-functional ESE motifs. Using several statistical tests, we found that missense mutations in TP53 are strongly colocalized with ESEs, and that only a small fraction of ESE sites contributes to the association. There are usually one or two ESEs per exon showing a statistically significant association with missense mutations--so-called significant ESE sites. In many respects significant ESE sites are different from those that do not show association with missense mutations. We found that positions of significant ESE sites are codon-dependent--significant ESEs preferentially start from the first position of a codon, whereas non-significant ESEs show no position dependence. Significant ESEs showed a more limited set of sequences compared to non-significant ESEs. These findings suggest that there is a limited number of missense mutations that influence ESE sites and our analysis provides further insight into the types of sites that harbor exonic enhancer elements. PMID:15450416

  6. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM by peptide- and steroid-producing endocrine cells and tumors: Alternatively spliced forms and polysialylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia Lahr; Artur Mayerhofer

    1995-01-01

    The adhesive properties of neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) can be modified by alternative splicing of the primary transcript\\u000a or by posttranslational modifications, such as sialylation. In this article, we describe distinct forms of alternative splicing\\u000a and posttranslational modification of the extracellular domain of NCAM of various endocrine tissues and derived tumor cells\\u000a of the rat and of steroid- and

  7. Identification by high-throughput imaging of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2 as an epigenetic regulator of VEGFA alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Salton, Maayan; Voss, Ty C.; Misteli, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a role of chromatin in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS). In order to identify novel chromatin regulators of AS, we screened an RNAi library of chromatin proteins using a cell-based high-throughput in vivo assay. We identified a set of chromatin proteins that regulate AS. Using simultaneous genome-wide expression and AS analysis, we demonstrate distinct and non-overlapping functions of these chromatin modifiers on transcription and AS. Detailed mechanistic characterization of one dual function chromatin modifier, the H3K9 methyltransferase EHMT2 (G9a), identified VEGFA as a major chromatin-mediated AS target. Silencing of EHMT2, or its heterodimer partner EHMT1, affects AS by promoting exclusion of VEGFA exon 6a, but does not alter total VEGFA mRNA levels. The epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS by EHMT2 involves an adaptor system consisting of the chromatin modulator HP1?, which binds methylated H3K9 and recruits splicing regulator SRSF1. The epigenetic regulation of VEGFA is physiologically relevant since EHMT2 is transcriptionally induced in response to hypoxia and triggers concomitant changes in AS of VEGFA. These results characterize a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism of AS and they demonstrate separate roles of epigenetic modifiers in transcription and alternative splicing. PMID:25414343

  8. The RNA-binding protein Arrest (Bruno) regulates alternative splicing to enable myofibril maturation in Drosophila flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Spletter, Maria L; Barz, Christiane; Yeroslaviz, Assa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Ferreira, Irene R S; Sarov, Mihail; Gerlach, Daniel; Stark, Alexander; Habermann, Bianca H; Schnorrer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA-binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between the cytoplasm and nuclei and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific splicing of various salm-dependent sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. PMID:25532219

  9. Alternative Splicing and Highly Variable Cadherin Transcripts Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance of Pink Bollworm to Bt Cotton in India

    PubMed Central

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  10. Alternative splicing and highly variable cadherin transcripts associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to bt cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  11. Serine-arginine-rich protein p30 directs alternative splicing of glucocorticoid receptor pre-mRNA to glucocorticoid receptor beta in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Leung, Donald Y M; Kisich, Kevin O

    2003-07-18

    Glucocorticoid (GC) insensitivity is a major clinical challenge in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. It has been shown previously that GC insensitivity, in several inflammatory cell types, is due to an overabundance of the beta isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor (GCRbeta) relative to the ligand binding isoform, GCRalpha. GCRbeta functions as a dominant inhibitor of GCRalpha action. A number of GCR isoforms are created from the same pre-mRNA transcript via alternative splicing, and the factor or factors that control alternative splicing of GCR pre-mRNA are of great importance. In the current study, we have identified the predominant alternative splicing factor present in human neutrophils, which is known to be exceptionally GC-insensitive. The predominant alternative splicing factor in neutrophils is SRp30c, which is one of several highly conserved serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in both constitutive and alternative splicing in eukaryotic cells. Inhibition of SRp30c expression with antisense oligonucleotide strongly inhibited expression of GCRbeta and stimulated expression of GCRalpha. Antisense molecules targeted to other SR proteins had no effect. Our data indicate that SRp30c is necessary for alternative splicing of the GCR pre-mRNA to create mRNA encoding GCRbeta. PMID:12738786

  12. Repair of pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Nlend, Rachel Nlend; Meyer, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of complete genomes have revealed that alternative splicing became more prevalent and important during eukaryotic evolution. Alternative splicing augments the protein repertoire—particularly that of the human genome—and plays an important role in the development and function of differentiated cell types. However, splicing is also extremely vulnerable, and defects in the proper recognition of splicing signals can give rise to a variety of diseases. In this review, we discuss splicing correction therapies, by using the inherited disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) as an example. This lethal early childhood disorder is caused by deletions or other severe mutations of SMN1, a gene coding for the essential survival of motoneurons protein. A second gene copy present in humans and few non-human primates, SMN2, can only partly compensate for the defect because of a single nucleotide change in exon 7 that causes this exon to be skipped in the majority of mRNAs. Thus SMN2 is a prime therapeutic target for SMA. In recent years, several strategies based on small molecule drugs, antisense oligonucleotides or in vivo expressed RNAs have been developed that allow a correction of SMN2 splicing. For some of these, a therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated in mouse models for SMA. This means that clinical trials of such splicing therapies for SMA may become possible in the near future. PMID:20523126

  13. Translational control of intron splicing in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Olivier; Bouhouche, Khaled; Gout, Jean-François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Noel, Benjamin; Saudemont, Baptiste; Nowacki, Mariusz; Serrano, Vincent; Porcel, Betina M; Ségurens, Béatrice; Le Mouël, Anne; Lepère, Gersende; Schächter, Vincent; Bétermier, Mireille; Cohen, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Sperling, Linda; Duret, Laurent; Meyer, Eric

    2008-01-17

    Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short introns recognized by the intron definition mechanism cannot be efficiently predicted solely on the basis of sequence motifs. In multicellular eukaryotes, long introns are recognized through exon definition and most genes produce multiple mRNA variants through alternative splicing. The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway may further shape the observed sets of variants by selectively degrading those containing premature termination codons, which are frequently produced in mammals. Here we show that the tiny introns of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia are under strong selective pressure to cause premature termination of mRNA translation in the event of intron retention, and that the same bias is observed among the short introns of plants, fungi and animals. By knocking down the two P. tetraurelia genes encoding UPF1, a protein that is crucial in NMD, we show that the intrinsic efficiency of splicing varies widely among introns and that NMD activity can significantly reduce the fraction of unspliced mRNAs. The results suggest that, independently of alternative splicing, species with large intron numbers universally rely on NMD to compensate for suboptimal splicing efficiency and accuracy. PMID:18202663

  14. Control of human PLP1 expression through transcriptional regulatory elements and alternatively spliced exons in intron 1.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Hamdan; Kockara, Neriman T; Jolly, Lee Ann; Haun, Shirley; Wight, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (PLP1) encodes the most abundant protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin, not much is known about the mechanisms that govern expression of the human gene (hPLP1). Much more is known about the processes that regulate Plp1 gene expression in rodents. From studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice, it was determined that the first intron of mouse Plp1 (mPlp1) is required to attain high levels of expression in brain, concurrent with the active myelination period. Other studies have suggested that within mPlp1 intron 1 (>8?kb) lie several regions with enhancer-like activity. To test whether these sequences (and possibly others) in hPLP1 intron 1 are functional, deletion-transfection analysis was performed with hPLP1-lacZ constructs that contain various portions of the intron, or lack it altogether. Results presented here demonstrate the importance of hPLP1 intron 1 in achieving maximal levels of expression in the immortalized oligodendroglial cell line, Oli-neu. Deletion analysis indicates that the intron contains multiple positive regulatory elements which are active in Oli-neu cells. Some of these elements appear to be functionally conserved between human and mouse, while others are not. Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that multiple splice variants can be formed due to inclusion of extra (supplementary) exons from what is classically thought of as hPLP1 intron 1. Thus, splicing of these novel exons (which are not recognized as such in mPlp1 due to lack of conserved splice sites) must utilize factors common to both human and mouse since Oli-neu cells are of mouse origin. PMID:25694552

  15. Control of Human PLP1 Expression Through Transcriptional Regulatory Elements and Alternatively Spliced Exons in Intron 1

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Hamdan; Kockara, Neriman T.; Jolly, Lee Ann; Haun, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to this work.Although the myelin proteolipid protein gene (PLP1) encodes the most abundant protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin, not much is known about the mechanisms that govern expression of the human gene (hPLP1). Much more is known about the processes that regulate Plp1 gene expression in rodents. From studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice, it was determined that the first intron of mouse Plp1 (mPlp1) is required to attain high levels of expression in brain, concurrent with the active myelination period. Other studies have suggested that within mPlp1 intron 1 (>8?kb) lie several regions with enhancer-like activity. To test whether these sequences (and possibly others) in hPLP1 intron 1 are functional, deletion-transfection analysis was performed with hPLP1-lacZ constructs that contain various portions of the intron, or lack it altogether. Results presented here demonstrate the importance of hPLP1 intron 1 in achieving maximal levels of expression in the immortalized oligodendroglial cell line, Oli-neu. Deletion analysis indicates that the intron contains multiple positive regulatory elements which are active in Oli-neu cells. Some of these elements appear to be functionally conserved between human and mouse, while others are not. Furthermore, our studies demonstrate that multiple splice variants can be formed due to inclusion of extra (supplementary) exons from what is classically thought of as hPLP1 intron 1. Thus, splicing of these novel exons (which are not recognized as such in mPlp1 due to lack of conserved splice sites) must utilize factors common to both human and mouse since Oli-neu cells are of mouse origin. PMID:25694552

  16. RNA-Seq of Aradopsis pollen uncovers novel transcription and alternative splicing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen grains of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contain two haploid sperm cells enclosed in a haploid vegetative cell. Upon germination, the vegetative cell extrudes a pollen tube that carries the sperm to an ovule for fertilization. Knowing the identity, relative abundance, and splicing pattern...

  17. Muscleblind-Like 2 Mediated Alternative Splicing in the Developing Brain and Dysregulation in Myotonic Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Charizanis, Konstantinos; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Batra, Ranjan; Goodwin, Marianne; Zhang, Chaolin; Yuan, Yuan; Shiue, Lily; Cline, Melissa; Scotti, Marina M.; Xia, Guangbin; Kumar, Ashok; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Clark, H. Brent; Kimura, Takashi; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Jinnai, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Gourdon, Geneviève; Sakai, Noriaki; Nishino, Seiji; Foster, Thomas C.; Ares, Manuel; Darnell, Robert B.; Swanson, Maurice S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The RNA-mediated disease model for myotonic dystrophy (DM) proposes that microsatellite C(C)TG expansions express toxic RNAs which disrupt splicing regulation by altering MBNL1 and CELF1 activities. While this model explains DM manifestations in muscle, less is known about the effects of C(C)UG expression on the brain. Here, we report that Mbnl2 knockout mice develop several DM-associated CNS features including abnormal REM sleep propensity and deficits in spatial memory. Mbnl2 is prominently expressed in the hippocampus and Mbnl2 knockouts show a decrease in NMDAR synaptic transmission and impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity. While Mbnl2 loss did not significantly alter target transcript levels in the hippocampus, mis-regulated splicing of hundreds of exons was detected using splicing microarrays, RNA-seq and HITS-CLIP. Importantly, the majority of the Mbnl2-regulated exons examined were similarly mis-regulated in DM. We propose that major pathological features of the DM brain result from disruption of the MBNL2-mediated developmental splicing program. PMID:22884328

  18. Reduced Mobility of the Alternate Splicing Factor (ASF) through the Nucleoplasm and Steady State Speckle Compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Kruhlak; Melody A. Lever; Wolfgang Fischle; Eric Verdin; David P. Bazett-Jones; Michael J. Hendzel

    2000-01-01

    Compartmentalization of the nucleus is now recognized as an important level of regulation influenc- ing specific nuclear processes. The mechanism of factor organization and the movement of factors in nuclear space have not been fully determined. Splicing factors, for example, have been shown to move in a directed manner as large intact structures from sites of concen- tration to sites

  19. A rare polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) gene that affects mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Sun, X-M; Soutar, A K

    2007-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is usually caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDLR) that impair clearance of LDL from the circulation. The increased risk of premature coronary heart disease associated with FH can be reduced by dietary advice and treatment with lipid-lowering drug therapy, but it is important to identify affected individuals at an early stage. Several programmes for genetic diagnosis of FH that rely on identifying nucleotide substitutions in genomic DNA have been initiated, but the validity of these is dependent on distinguishing between a silent nucleotide variant and a mutation that affects LDL-receptor function. Here we describe a single nucleotide substitution in the coding region of exon 9 of LDLR that is an apparently silent polymorphism: CGG (Arg406) to AGG (Arg). Analysis of mRNA from the patient's cells showed that the mutation introduces a new splice site that is used to the exclusion of the natural splice site and causes a deletion of 31 bp from the mRNA, predicted to introduce premature termination four codons after R406. This finding emphasizes the caution needed in genetic diagnosis of FH based on genomic DNA sequence alone. PMID:17335829

  20. Early diagnostic value of survivin and its alternative splice variants in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin and its splice variants are differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues. Our previous work showed Survivin is released from tumor cells via small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes. We, therefore, hypothesize that analysis of serum exosomal Survivin and its splice variants may provide a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods We collected sera from forty breast cancer patients and ten control patients who were disease free for 5 years after treatment. In addition, twenty-three paired breast cancer tumor tissues from those same 40 patients were analyzed for splice variants. Serum levels of Survivin were analyzed using ELISA and exosomes were isolated from this serum using the commercially available ExoQuick kit, with subsequent Western blots and immunohistochemistry performed. Results Survivin levels were significantly higher in all the breast cancer samples compared to controls (p?splice variant expression and localization was identical in serum exosomes, differential expression of Survivin-2B protein existed in the exosomes. Similarly, Survivin and Survivin-?Ex3 proteins were the predominant forms detected in all of the breast cancer tissues evaluated in this study, whereas a more variable expression of Survivin-2B level was found at different cancer stages. Conclusion In this study we show for the first time that like Survivin, the Survivin splice variants are also exosomally packaged in the breast cancer patients’ sera, mimicking the survivin splice variant pattern that we also report in breast cancer tissues. Differential expression of exosomal-Survivin, particularly Survivin-2B, may serve as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker, a “liquid biopsy” if you will, in early breast cancer patients. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of the role of this prominent antiapoptotic pathway could lead to the development of potential therapeutics for breast cancer patients. PMID:24620748

  1. Predicting Splice Variant from DNA Chip Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang Ken; Madore, Steven J; Moldover, Brian; Jatkoe, Tim; Balaban, David; Thomas, Jeffrey; Wang, Yixin

    2001-01-01

    Alternative splicing of premessenger RNA is an important layer of regulation in eukaryotic gene expression. Splice variation of a large number of genes has been implicated in various cell growth and differentiation processes. To measure tissue-specific splicing of genes on a large scale, we collected gene expression data from 11 rat tissues using a high-density oligonucleotide array representing 1600 rat genes. Expression of each gene on the chip is measured by 20 pairs of independent oligonucleotide probes. Two algorithms have been developed to normalize and compare the chip hybridization signals among different tissues at individual oligonucleotide probe level. Oligonucleotide probes (the perfect match [PM] probe of each probe pair), detecting potential tissue-specific splice variants, were identified by the algorithms. The identified candidate splice variants have been compared to the alternatively spliced transcripts predicted by an EST clustering program. In addition, 50% of the top candidates predicted by the algorithms were confirmed by RT-PCR experiment. The study indicates that oligonucleotide probe-based DNA chip assays provide a powerful approach to detect splice variants at genome scale. PMID:11435406

  2. Lysyl oxidase-like 4 is alternatively spliced in an anatomic site-specific manner in tumors involving the serosal cavities.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Davidson, Ben; Reich, Reuven

    2009-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like enzymes (LOXL) are expressed in various cancers. We analyzed the expression of LOXL2, LOXL3, and LOXL4 in cancers involving the serosal cavities-breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and malignant mesothelioma using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We discovered two new alternative splice variants of LOXL4. The spliced segments were exon 9 (splice variant 1) or both exons 8 and 9 (splice variant 2). In ovarian carcinoma, splice variant 1 was significantly elevated in effusions compared to solid lesions (p < 0.001). Splice variant 2 appeared only in effusions. In breast carcinoma, LOXL4 was expressed only in the effusion samples. In malignant mesothelioma, LOXL4 and its splice variants were expressed at all sites. Breast carcinoma effusions showed significantly higher LOXL2 (p = 0.003) and lower LOXL3 (p < 0.001) expression compared to primary carcinomas. Our data show differences in LOXL messenger RNA expression as a function of anatomic site and tumor type in cancers affecting the serosal cavities. PMID:19015874

  3. Variant max protein, derived by alternative splicing, associates with c-Myc in vivo and inhibits transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Arsura, M.; Deshpande, A.; Sonenshein, G.E. [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    This report identifies a variant form of Myc-associated factor X (Max) protein, which plays a central role in the functional activity of c-Myc as a transcriptional activator. This variation, termed dMax, lacks the basic region as well as helix 1 and loop regions as a result of alternative splicing of max mRNA. This nuclear dMax was unable to bind E-box Myc site DNA but associated with c-Myc in vitro and in vivo and repressed transactivation. 42 refs., 8 figs.

  4. ADAM15 gene structure and differential alternative exon use in human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kleino, Iivari; Ortiz, Rebekka M; Huovila, Ari-Pekka J

    2007-01-01

    Background ADAM15 is a metalloprotease-disintegrin implicated in ectodomain shedding and cell adhesion. Aberrant ADAM15 expression has been associated with human cancer and other disorders. We have previously shown that the alternative splicing of ADAM15 transcripts is mis-regulated in cancer cells. To gain a better understanding of ADAM15 regulation, its genomic organization and regulatory elements as well as the alternative exon use in human tissues were characterized. Results Human ADAM15, flanked by the FLJ32785/DCST1 and ephrin-A4 genes, spans 11.4 kb from the translation initiation codon to the polyadenylation signal, being the shortest multiple-exon ADAM gene. The gene contains 23 exons varying from 63 to 316 bp and 22 introns from 79 to 1283 bp. The gene appeared to have several transcription start sites and their location suggested the promoter location within a CpG island proximal to the translation start. Reporter expression experiments confirmed the location of functional GC-rich, TATAless and CAATless promoter, with the most critical transcription-supporting elements located -266 to -23 bp relative to the translation start. Normal human tissues showed different complex patterns of at least 13 different ADAM15 splice variants arising from the alternative use of the cytosolic-encoding exons 19, 20a/b, and 21a/b. The deduced ADAM15 protein isoforms have different combinations of cytosolic regulatory protein interaction motifs. Conclusion Characterization of human ADAM15 gene and identification of elements involved in the regulation of transcription and alternative splicing provide important clues for elucidation of physiological and pathological roles of ADAM15. The present results also show that the alternative exon use is a physiological post-transcriptional mechanism regulating ADAM15 expression in human tissues. PMID:17937806

  5. Intronic Polymorphisms Affecting Alternative Splicing of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Are Associated with Cocaine Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A Moyer; Danxin Wang; Audrey C Papp; Ryan M Smith; Linda Duque; Deborah C Mash; Wolfgang Sadee

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine receptor D2 (encoded by DRD2) is implicated in susceptibility to mental disorders and cocaine abuse, but mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain uncertain. DRD2 mRNA exists in two main splice isoforms with distinct functions: D2 long (D2L) and D2 short (D2S, lacking exon 6), expressed mainly postsynaptically and presynaptically, respectively. Two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs2283265 (intron 5)

  6. MBNL and CELF proteins regulate alternative splicing of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kino; Chika Washizu; Yoko Oma; Hayato Onishi; Yuriko Nezu; Noboru Sasagawa; Nobuyuki Nukina; Shoichi Ishiura

    2009-01-01

    The expression and function of the skeletal muscle chloride channel CLCN1\\/ClC-1 is regulated by alter- native splicing. Inclusion of the CLCN1 exon 7A is aberrantly elevated in myotonic dystrophy (DM), a genetic disorder caused by the expansion of a CTG or CCTG repeat. Increased exon 7A inclusion leads to a reduction in CLCN1 function, which can be causative of myotonia.

  7. The spfash mouse: a missense mutation in the ornithine transcarbamylase gene also causes aberrant mRNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, P E; Rosenberg, L E

    1989-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (ornithine carbamoyltransferase; carbamoyl-phosphate:L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase, EC 2.1.3.3) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme of the mammalian urea cycle. The X chromosome-linked spfash mutation in the mouse causes partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and has served as a model for the human disease. We show here that the spfash mutation is a guanine to adenine transition of the last nucleotide of the fourth exon of the ornithine transcarbamylase gene. This nucleotide change produces two remarkably different effects. First, this transition causes ornithine transcarbamylase mRNA deficiency because the involved exon nucleotide plays a part in the recognition of the adjacent splice donor site. As a result of the mutation, ornithine transcarbamylase pre-mRNA is spliced inefficiently both at this site and at a cryptic splice donor site 48 bases into the adjacent intron. Second, two mutant proteins are translated from these mRNAs. From the correctly spliced mRNA, the transition results in a change of amino acid 129 from arginine to histidine. This missense substitution has no discernable effect on mitochondrial import, subunit assembly, or enzyme activity. On the other hand, the elongated mRNA resulting from mis-splicing is translated into a dysfunctional ornithine transcarbamylase subunit elongated by the insertion of 16 amino acid residues. Images PMID:2471197

  8. Discovery of CTCF-Sensitive Cis-Spliced Fusion RNAs between Adjacent Genes in Human Prostate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Fujun; Song, Zhenguo; Babiceanu, Mihaela; Song, Yansu; Facemire, Loryn; Singh, Ritambhara; Adli, Mazhar; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Genes or their encoded products are not expected to mingle with each other unless in some disease situations. In cancer, a frequent mechanism that can produce gene fusions is chromosomal rearrangement. However, recent discoveries of RNA trans-splicing and cis-splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) support for other mechanisms in generating fusion RNAs. In our transcriptome analyses of 28 prostate normal and cancer samples, 30% fusion RNAs on average are the transcripts that contain exons belonging to same-strand neighboring genes. These fusion RNAs may be the products of cis-SAGe, which was previously thought to be rare. To validate this finding and to better understand the phenomenon, we used LNCaP, a prostate cell line as a model, and identified 16 additional cis-SAGe events by silencing transcription factor CTCF and paired-end RNA sequencing. About half of the fusions are expressed at a significant level compared to their parental genes. Silencing one of the in-frame fusions resulted in reduced cell motility. Most out-of-frame fusions are likely to function as non-coding RNAs. The majority of the 16 fusions are also detected in other prostate cell lines, as well as in the 14 clinical prostate normal and cancer pairs. By studying the features associated with these fusions, we developed a set of rules: 1) the parental genes are same-strand-neighboring genes; 2) the distance between the genes is within 30kb; 3) the 5? genes are actively transcribing; and 4) the chimeras tend to have the second-to-last exon in the 5? genes joined to the second exon in the 3? genes. We then randomly selected 20 neighboring genes in the genome, and detected four fusion events using these rules in prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. These results suggest that splicing between neighboring gene transcripts is a rather frequent phenomenon, and it is not a feature unique to cancer cells. PMID:25658338

  9. Modulation of SMN pre-mRNA splicing by inhibition of alternative 3' splice site pairing Sharlene R. Lim and Klemens J. Hertel*

    E-print Network

    Hertel, Klemens J.

    (SMA), Survival Motor Neuron (SMN), antisense oligonucleotide Running Title: SMN Differential Splicing inclusion. These results suggest that antisense oligonucleotides could be used as a therapeutic strategy but more importantly, increase the efficiency of the competing exon 7 skipping pathway. Antisense

  10. Conservation and Sex-Specific Splicing of the transformer Gene in the Calliphorids Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Lucilia sericata

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Vensko, Steven P.; Belikoff, Esther J.; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2013-01-01

    Transformer (TRA) promotes female development in several dipteran species including the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, the Mediterranean fruit fly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced such that only the female form encodes full length functional protein. The presence of six predicted TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the sex-specific female intron of the L. cuprina gene suggested that tra splicing is auto-regulated as in medfly and housefly. With the aim of identifying conserved motifs that may play a role in tra sex-specific splicing, here we have isolated and characterized the tra gene from three additional blowfly species, L. sericata, Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria. The blowfly adult male and female transcripts differ in the choice of splice donor site in the first intron, with males using a site downstream of the site used in females. The tra genes all contain a single TRA/TRA2 site in the male exon and a cluster of four to five sites in the male intron. However, overall the sex-specific intron sequences are poorly conserved in closely related blowflies. The most conserved regions are around the exon/intron junctions, the 3? end of the intron and near the cluster of TRA/TRA2 sites. We propose a model for sex specific regulation of tra splicing that incorporates the conserved features identified in this study. In L. sericata embryos, the male tra transcript was first detected at around the time of cellular blastoderm formation. RNAi experiments showed that tra is required for female development in L. sericata and C. macellaria. The isolation of the tra gene from the New World screwworm fly C. hominivorax, a major livestock pest, will facilitate the development of a “male-only” strain for genetic control programs. PMID:23409170

  11. Alternative splice isoforms of small conductance calcium-activated SK2 channels differ in molecular interactions and surface levels.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Elizabeth Storer; Pirone, Antonella; Cox, Daniel H; Duncan, R Keith; Jacob, Michele H

    2014-01-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (SK2) channels are voltage-independent, Ca(2+)-activated ion channels that conduct potassium cations and thereby modulate the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of neurons and sensory hair cells. In the cochlea, SK2 channels are functionally coupled to the highly Ca(2+) permeant ?9/10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at olivocochlear postsynaptic sites. SK2 activation leads to outer hair cell hyperpolarization and frequency-selective suppression of afferent sound transmission. These inhibitory responses are essential for normal regulation of sound sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and suppression of background noise. However, little is known about the molecular interactions of these key functional channels. Here we show that SK2 channels co-precipitate with ?9/10-nAChRs and with the actin-binding protein ?-actinin-1. SK2 alternative splicing, resulting in a 3 amino acid insertion in the intracellular 3' terminus, modulates these interactions. Further, relative abundance of the SK2 splice variants changes during developmental stages of synapse maturation in both the avian cochlea and the mammalian forebrain. Using heterologous cell expression to separately study the 2 distinct isoforms, we show that the variants differ in protein interactions and surface expression levels, and that Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-bound calmodulin differentially regulate their protein interactions. Our findings suggest that the SK2 isoforms may be distinctly modulated by activity-induced Ca(2+) influx. Alternative splicing of SK2 may serve as a novel mechanism to differentially regulate the maturation and function of olivocochlear and neuronal synapses. PMID:24394769

  12. Alternative Splicing Objective: To give a presentation of about 60 minutes at the end of the week covering the key aspects of the alternative splicing.

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    ): bridging the gap between genome and transcriptome. Nucleic Acids Res. 32(13): 3977-83. Maniatis, T one gene (Ast, 2004). With the advent of large scale genome sequencing and EST determination, it has encoded by the genome. For the researcher it creates the challenge of determining which

  13. Los1p, Involved in Yeast Pre-Trna Splicing, Positively Regulates Members of the Sol Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Shen, W. C.; Stanford, D. R.; Hopper, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the role of Los1p in pre-tRNA splicing, we sought los1 multicopy suppressors. We found SOL1 that suppresses both point and null LOS1 mutations. Since, when fused to the Gal4p DNA-binding domain, Los1p activates transcription, we tested whether Los1p regulates SOL1. We found that los1 mutants have depleted levels of SOL1 mRNA and Sollp. Thus, LOS1 appears to positively regulate SOL1. SOL1 belongs to a multigene family with at least two additional members, SOL2 and SOL3. Sol proteins have extensive similarity to an unusual group of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases. As the similarities are restricted to areas separate from the catalytic domain, these G6PDs may have more than one function. The SOL family appears to be unessential since cells with a triple disruption of all three SOL genes are viable. SOL gene disruptions negatively affect tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression and the severity increases with the number of mutant SOL genes. However, tRNA levels do not vary with either multicopy SOL genes or with SOL disruptions. Therefore, the Sol proteins affect tRNA expression/function at steps other than transcription or splicing. We propose that LOS1 regulates gene products involved in tRNA expression/function as well as pre-tRNA splicing. PMID:8725220

  14. The oncogenic role of JC virus T antigen in lens tumors without cell specificity of alternative splicing of its intron

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Wen-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Liu, Yun-peng; Sun, Hong-zhi; Luo, Jun-sheng; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2015-01-01

    JC virus (JCV), a ubiquitous polyoma virus that commonly infects the human, is identified as the etiologic agent for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and some malignancies. To clarify the oncogenic role of JCV T antigen, we established two transgenic mice of T antigen using either ?-crystallin A (?AT) or cytokeratin 19(KT) promoter. Lens tumors were found in high-copy ?AT mice with the immunopositivity of T antigen, p53, ?-catenin and N-cadherin. Enlarged eyeballs were observed and tumor invaded into the brain by magnetic resonance imaging and hematoxylin-and-eosin staining. The overall survival time of homozygous mice was shorter than that of hemizygous mice (p<0.01), the latter than wild-type mice (p<0.01). The spontaneous salivary tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma were seen in ?AT5 transgenic mice with no positivity of T antigen. KT7 mice suffered from lung tumor although JCV T antigen was strongly expressed in gastric epithelial cells. The alternative splicing of T antigen intron was detectable in the lens tumor of ?AT mice, gastric mucosa of KT mice, and various cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-T antigen. It was suggested that JCV T antigen might induce carcinogenesis at a manner of cell specificity, which is not linked to alternative splicing of its intron. Both spontaneous lens and lung tumor models provide good tools to investigate the oncogenic role of JCV T antigen. PMID:25868857

  15. Age-Dependent Decrease and Alternative Splicing of Methionine Synthase mRNA in Human Cerebral Cortex and an Accelerated Decrease in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Christina R.; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Persico, Antonio M.; Lintas, Carla; De La Monte, Suzanne; Deth, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin) from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-?, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:23437274

  16. Hematopoietic differentiation activity of a recombinant human interleukin-6 (IL-6) isoform resulting from alternatively spliced deletion of the second exon.

    PubMed

    Kestler, D P; Goldstein, K M; Agarwal, S; Fuhr, J E; Andrews, R; Hall, R E

    1999-07-01

    We have previously identified and cloned an alternatively spliced form of human interleukin-6 mRNA lacking exon II, which encodes amino acid residues known to be important in gp130-mediated signal transduction pathways. We expressed and purified the recombinant protein (rIL6-alt) resulting from this alternatively spliced mRNA and now report the initial characterization of its biologic activities with comparison to full length IL6 (rIL6-full). rIL6-alt was found to have 10(4) to 10(5) fold less activity in proliferation assays with 7TD1 murine plasmacytoma cells and did not competitively inhibit the stimulatory activity of rIL6-full. In addition, like rIL6-full, rIL6-alt had antiproliferative activity toward M1 murine myeloblast cells and was 10-200-fold less active than rIL6-full. In contrast, in assays with human HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells, rIL6-alt had greater antiproliferative activity than rIL6-full and more strongly upregulated phagocytosis as well as surface expression of the differentiation antigen CD11b. rIL6-full and rIL6-alt upregulated the level of lysozyme mRNA in HL60 cells approximately equally. These findings suggest that IL6-alt, which lacks amino acid residues encoded by the second exon of the gene, is not a natural inhibitor of IL6-full but may be relatively tissue specific and may play a role in modulation of hematopoietic cell growth and differentiation. PMID:10398309

  17. Male-specific expression of Sox9 during gonad development of crocodile and mouse is mediated by alternative splicing of its proline-glutamine-alanine rich domain.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Raman; Wessely, Oliver; Anand, Amit; Singh, Lalji; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2009-08-01

    The initial trigger for sexual differentiation is regulated by multiple ways during embryonic development. In vertebrates, chromosome-based mechanisms generally known as genetic sex determination are prevalent; however, some species, such as many reptilians, display temperature-dependent sex determination. The Sry-related transcription factor, Sox9, which is expressed by an evolutionary conserved gene, has been shown to be a key player in the process of sex determination. In the present study, we report the identification and expression of crocodile homolog of Sox9 (cpSox9) from the Indian Mugger, Crocodylus palustris. We show that cpSox9 undergoes extensive alternative splicing around the proline-glutamine-alanine rich transactivation domain that results in cpSox9 variants with presumably impaired or reduced transactivation potential. The multiple isoforms were also detected in various embryonic tissues, with some of them displaying a differential expression profile. With respect to sex differentiation, a putative unspliced full-length cpSox9 could be detected only in the genital ridge-adrenal-mesonephros complex of male, but not female embryos during the temperature-sensitive period. Importantly, we further show that this phenomenon was not restricted to the temperature-dependent sex determination species C. palustris, but was also observed in the mouse, a species exhibiting genetic sex determination. Thus, the present study describes, for the first time, a complete coding locus of Sox9 homolog from a temperature-dependent sex determination species. More importantly, we demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved role of alternative splicing resulting in transcriptional diversity and male-sex specific expression of Sox9 during testis development in vertebrates (i.e. irrespective of their underlying sex-determination mechanisms). PMID:19594829

  18. Global analysis of aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in glioblastoma using exon expression arrays

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Hannah C; Baggerly, Keith A; Tsavachidis, Spiridon; Bachinski, Linda L; Neubauer, Valerie L; Nixon, Tamara J; Aldape, Kenneth D; Cote, Gilbert J; Krahe, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumor-predominant splice isoforms were identified during comparative in silico sequence analysis of EST clones, suggesting that global aberrant alternative pre-mRNA splicing may be an epigenetic phenomenon in cancer. We used an exon expression array to perform an objective, genome-wide survey of glioma-specific splicing in 24 GBM and 12 nontumor brain samples. Validation studies were performed using RT-PCR on glioma cell lines, patient tumor and nontumor brain samples. Results In total, we confirmed 14 genes with glioma-specific splicing; seven were novel events identified by the exon expression array (A2BP1, BCAS1, CACNA1G, CLTA, KCNC2, SNCB, and TPD52L2). Our data indicate that large changes (> 5-fold) in alternative splicing are infrequent in gliomagenesis (< 3% of interrogated RefSeq entries). The lack of splicing changes may derive from the small number of splicing factors observed to be aberrantly expressed. Conclusion While we observed some tumor-specific alternative splicing, the number of genes showing exclusive tumor-specific isoforms was on the order of tens, rather than the hundreds suggested previously by in silico mining. Given the important role of alternative splicing in neural differentiation, there may be selective pressure to maintain a majority of splicing events in order to retain glial-like characteristics of the tumor cells. PMID:18474104

  19. Shared Gene Structures and Clusters of Mutually Exclusive Spliced Exons within the Metazoan Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin; Hatje, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals possess two to three different types of muscle tissues. Striated muscles have considerable ultrastructural similarity and contain a core set of proteins including the muscle myosin heavy chain (Mhc) protein. The ATPase activity of this myosin motor protein largely dictates muscle performance at the molecular level. Two different solutions to adjusting myosin properties to different muscle subtypes have been identified so far: Vertebrates and nematodes contain many independent differentially expressed Mhc genes while arthropods have single Mhc genes with clusters of mutually exclusive spliced exons (MXEs). The availability of hundreds of metazoan genomes now allowed us to study whether the ancient bilateria already contained MXEs, how MXE complexity subsequently evolved, and whether additional scenarios to control contractile properties in different muscles could be proposed, By reconstructing the Mhc genes from 116 metazoans we showed that all intron positions within the motor domain coding regions are conserved in all bilateria analysed. The last common ancestor of the bilateria already contained a cluster of MXEs coding for part of the loop-2 actin-binding sequence. Subsequently the protostomes and later the arthropods gained many further clusters while MXEs got completely lost independently in several branches (vertebrates and nematodes) and species (for example the annelid Helobdella robusta and the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Several bilateria have been found to encode multiple Mhc genes that might all or in part contain clusters of MXEs. Notable examples are a cluster of six tandemly arrayed Mhc genes, of which two contain MXEs, in the owl limpet Lottia gigantea and four Mhc genes with three encoding MXEs in the predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis. Our analysis showed that similar solutions to provide different myosin isoforms (multiple genes or clusters of MXEs or both) have independently been developed several times within bilaterian evolution. PMID:24498429

  20. Illegitimate splicing of the NF1 gene in healthy individuals mimics mutation-induced splicing alterations in NF1 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Wimmer; Markus Eckart; Helga Rehder; Christa Fonatsch

    2000-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common inherited disease affecting one in 3500 individuals. The mutation rate in the NF1 gene is one of the highest known for human genes. Compared to other methods, the protein truncation test (PTT) and subsequent sequence analysis of cloned cDNA provides improved efficiency in detecting NF1 mutations that are dispersed throughout the gene spanning

  1. A novel homozygous splicing mutation in PSAP gene causes metachromatic leukodystrophy in two Moroccan brothers.

    PubMed

    Siri, Laura; Rossi, Andrea; Lanza, Federica; Mazzotti, Raffaella; Costa, Anna; Stroppiano, Marina; Gaiero, Alberto; Cohen, Amnon; Biancheri, Roberta; Filocamo, Mirella

    2014-05-01

    Prosaposin (PSAP) gene mutations, affecting saposin B (Sap-B) domain, cause a rare metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) variant in which arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity is normal. To date, only 10 different PSAP mutations have been associated with a total of 18 unrelated MLD patients worldwide. In this study, we report for the first time a family with Moroccan origins in which the proband, presenting with a late-infantile onset of neurological involvement and a brain MRI with the typical tigroid MLD pattern, showed normal values of ARSA activity in the presence of an abnormal pattern of urinary sulfatides. In view of these findings, PSAP gene was analyzed, identifying the newly genomic homozygous c.909 + 1G > A mutation occurring within the invariant GT dinucleotide of the intron 8 donor splice site. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing the direct junction of exon 7 to exon 9, confirmed the skipping of the entire exon 8 (p.Gln260_Lys303) which normally contains two cysteine residues (Cys271 and Cys265) involved in disulfide bridges. Our report provides further evidence that phenotypes of patients with Sap-B deficiency vary widely depending on age of onset, type, and severity of symptoms. Awareness of this rare MLD variant is crucial to prevent delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and to promptly provide an accurate genetic counseling, including prenatal diagnosis, to families. PMID:24478108

  2. MED1 mediates androgen receptor splice variant induced gene