Sample records for gene inhibiting oca2

  1. Computational screening of disease-associated mutations in OCA2 gene.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Balu; Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), caused by mutations of OCA2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced biosynthesis of melanin pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The OCA2 gene encodes instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein plays a crucial role in melanosome biogenesis, and controls the eumelanin content in melanocytes in part via the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase which is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. In this study we analyzed the pathogenic effect of 95 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms reported in OCA2 gene using computational methods. We found R305W mutation as most deleterious and disease associated using SIFT, PolyPhen, PANTHER, PhD-SNP, Pmut, and MutPred tools. To understand the atomic arrangement in 3D space, the native and mutant (R305W) structures were modeled. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to observe the structural significance of computationally prioritized disease-associated mutation (R305W). Root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent accessibility surface area, hydrogen bond (NH bond), trace of covariance matrix, eigenvector projection analysis, and density analysis results showed prominent loss of stability and rise in mutant flexibility values in 3D space. This study presents a well designed computational methodology to examine the albinism-associated SNPs. PMID:23824587

  2. Mutational Analysis of the TYR and OCA2 Genes in Four Chinese Families with Oculocutaneous Albinism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengping; Fan, Ning; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xuyang

    2015-01-01

    Background Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder. The most common type OCA1 and OCA2 are caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA2 gene, respectively. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular basis of oculocutaneous albinism in four Chinese families. Patients and Methods Four non-consanguineous OCA families were included in the study. The TYR and OCA2 genes of all individuals were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and compared with a reference database. Results Four patients with a diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism, presented with milky skin, white or light brown hair and nystagmus. Genetic analyses demonstrated that patient A was compound heterozygous for c.1037-7T.A, c.1037-10_11delTT and c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene; patient B was heterozygous for c.593C>T and c.1426A>G mutations in the OCA2 gene, patients C and D were compound heterozygous mutations in the TYR gene (c.549_550delGT and c.896G>A, c.832C>T and c.985T>C, respectively). The heterozygous c.549_550delGT and c.1114delG alleles in the TYR gene were two novel mutations. Interestingly, heterozygous members in these pedigrees who carried c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene or c.1426A>G mutations in the OCA2 gene presented with blond or brown hair and pale skin, but no ocular disorders when they were born; the skin of these patients accumulated pigment over time and with sun exposure. Conclusion This study expands the mutation spectrum of oculocutaneous albinism. It is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to report that c.549_550delGT and c.1114delG mutations in the TYR gene were associated with OCA. The two mutations (c.1114delG in the TYR gene and c.1426A>G in the OCA2 gene) may be responsible for partial clinical manifestations of OCA. PMID:25919014

  3. A nonsense nucleotide substitution in the oculocutaneous albinism II gene underlies the original pink-eyed dilution allele (Oca2(p)) in mice.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Haruka; Kiniwa, Yukiko; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Yang, Mu; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2015-05-13

    The original pink-eyed dilution (p) on chromosome 7 is a very old spontaneous mutation in mice. The oculocutaneous albinism II (Oca2) gene has previously been identified as the p gene. Oca2 transcripts have been shown to be absent in the skin of SJL/J mice with the original p mutant allele (Oca2(p)); however, the molecular genetic lesion underlying the original Oca2(p) allele has never been reported. The NCT mouse (commonly known as Nakano cataract mouse) has a pink-eyed dilution phenotype, which prompted us to undertake a molecular genetic analysis of the Oca2 gene of this strain. Our genetic linkage analysis suggests that the locus for the pink-eyed dilution phenotype of NCT is tightly linked to the Oca2 locus. PCR cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the NCT mouse has a nonsense nucleotide substitution at exon 7 of the Oca2 gene. Examination of three mouse strains (NZW/NSlc, SJL/J, and 129X1/SvJJmsSlc) with the original Oca2(p) allele revealed the presence of a nonsense nucleotide substitution identical to that in the NCT strain. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Oca2 transcripts were absent in the skin of NCT mice, suggesting intervention of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Collectively, the data in this study indicate that the nonsense nucleotide substitution in the Oca2 gene underlies the Oca2(p) allele. Our data also indicate that the NCT mouse can be used not only as a cataract model, but also as a model for human type II oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:25736709

  4. A Potential Benefit of Albinism in Astyanax Cavefish: Downregulation of the oca2 Gene Increases Tyrosine and Catecholamine Levels as an Alternative to Melanin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment. PMID:24282555

  5. Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in sub-Saharan Africa: distribution of the common 2.7-kb P gene deletion mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwynneth Stevens; Michèle Ramsay; Trefor Jenkins

    1997-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in the South African Negroid population, occurring\\u000a with a prevalence of 1\\/3900 individuals. The OCA2 locus, P, has been mapped to chromosome 15q11–q13 and a 2.7-kb interstitial deletion has been found to be the common mutation in Africa.\\u000a This study reports the detection of the deletion allele in OCA2-affected individuals

  6. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of proapoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  7. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  8. Association of the OCA2 Polymorphism His615Arg with Melanin Content in East Asian Populations: Further Evidence of Convergent Evolution of Skin Pigmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Edwards; Abigail Bigham; Jinze Tan; Shilin Li; Agnes Gozdzik; Kendra Ross; Li Jin; Esteban J. Parra

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT,

  9. HERC2 rs12913832 modulates human pigmentation by attenuating chromatin-loop formation between a long-range enhancer and the OCA2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Mijke; Kayser, Manfred; Palstra, Robert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of skin, eye, and hair reflects some of the most evident common phenotypes in humans. Several candidate genes for human pigmentation are identified. The SNP rs12913832 has strong statistical association with human pigmentation. It is located within an intron of the nonpigment gene HERC2, 21 kb upstream of the pigment gene OCA2, and the region surrounding rs12913832 is highly conserved among animal species. However, the exact functional role of HERC2 rs12913832 in human pigmentation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the HERC2 rs12913832 region functions as an enhancer regulating OCA2 transcription. In darkly pigmented human melanocytes carrying the rs12913832 T-allele, we detected binding of the transcription factors HLTF, LEF1, and MITF to the HERC2 rs12913832 enhancer, and a long-range chromatin loop between this enhancer and the OCA2 promoter that leads to elevated OCA2 expression. In contrast, in lightly pigmented melanocytes carrying the rs12913832 C-allele, chromatin-loop formation, transcription factor recruitment, and OCA2 expression are all reduced. Hence, we demonstrate that allelic variation of a common noncoding SNP located in a distal regulatory element not only disrupts the regulatory potential of this element but also affects its interaction with the relevant promoter. We provide the key mechanistic insight that allele-dependent differences in chromatin-loop formation (i.e., structural differences in the folding of gene loci) result in differences in allelic gene expression that affects common phenotypic traits. This concept is highly relevant for future studies aiming to unveil the functional basis of genetically determined phenotypes, including diseases. PMID:22234890

  10. Association Between a Germline OCA2 Polymorphism at Chromosome 15q13.1 and Estrogen Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, Jonathan; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Arias, José Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benítez, Javier; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Bolton, Kelly L.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Elliott, Graeme C.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Greenberg, David; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Humphreys, Manjeet; Easton, Douglas F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. Methods We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10?621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26?978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5? nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14?096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70?019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case–control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C>G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 × 10?5). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 × 10?4). Conclusion The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer. PMID:20308648

  11. Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing

    E-print Network

    de Gruijter, Johanna Maria; Lao, Oscar; Vermeulen, Mark; Xue, Yali; Woodwark, Cara; Gillson, Christopher J; Coffey, Alison J; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S QASIM; Kayser, Manfred; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2011-12-01

    involved in pigmentation traits. However, it is unclear how well the signatures discovered by such haplotype-based test statistics can be reproduced in tests based on full resequencing data. Four genes (oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), tyrosinase...

  12. Expression of a truncated tomato polygalacturonase gene inhibits expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; C. R. Bird; J. Ray; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

    1990-01-01

    Tomato plants were transformed with a chimaeric polygalacturonase (PG) gene, designed to produce a truncated PG transcript constitutively. In these plants expression of the endogenous PG gene was inhibited during ripening, resulting in a substantial reduction in PG mRNA and enzyme accumulation. This inhibition was comparable to that achieved previously using antisense genes. The expression of the truncated gene in

  13. Linkage and Association Analysis of Spectrophotometrically Quantified Hair Color in Australian Adolescents: the Effect of OCA2 and HERC2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sri N. Shekar; David L. Duffy; Tony Frudakis; Richard A. Sturm; Zhen Z. Zhao; Grant W. Montgomery; Nicholas G. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies of pigmentation have benefited from spectrophotometric measures of light–dark hair color. Here we use one of those measures, absorbance at 650 nm, to look for chromosomal regions that harbor genes affecting hair pigmentation. At 7p15.1, marker D7S1808 was suggestive of linkage to light–dark hair color (LOD?2.99). Marker D1S235 at 1q42.3 was suggestive of linkage to hair color (light–dark

  14. Inhibition of ?-globin gene expression by RNAi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orawan Sarakul; Phantip Vattanaviboon; Prapon Wilairat; Suthat Fucharoen; Yasunobu Abe; Koichiro Muta

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), a process by which target messenger RNA (mRNA) is cleaved by small interfering complementary RNA (siRNA), is widely used for investigations of regulation of gene expression in various cells. In this study, siRNA complementary to 5? region of exon II of ?-globin mRNA was examined for its role in erythroid colony forming cells (ECFCs) isolated from normal

  15. Contact inhibition and interferon (IFN)-modulated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesh, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between cell morphology, proliferation and contact inhibition was studied in normal and malignant human cells which varied in their sensitivity to contact inhibition. Their ability to proliferate was examined under conditions where the cells were constrained into different shapes. Cell proliferation was quantitated by labeling indices, which were inferred by autoradiography, and by total cell counts. The normal cells (JHU-1, IMR-90) were dependent on cell shape for proliferation capability while the transformed cells (RT4, HT1080) were shape-dependent for proliferation. Interferon (IFN) induced shape-dependent proliferation and contact inhibition in the transformed cells when used at subantiproliferative concentrations. This ability of B-IFN to confer a level of proliferation control which is characteristic of normal fibroblasts suggests a possible relationship between gene expression mediated by IFN and those genes involved in the maintenance of regulated cell proliferation. To evaluate this possibility, cDNA libraries were constructed from IFN-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. The resulting 10 IFN-induced and 11 IFN-repressed sequences were then differentially rescreened using /sup 32/P-cDNA probes. This screening resulted in the identification of at least four cDNA sequences which appeared to be proliferation regulated as well as IFN-modulated. These cloned, regulated cDNA sequences were then used as /sup 32/P-labeled probes to study both the gene expression at the mRNA level employing Northern blotting and slot blotting techniques.

  16. In vitro DNA methylation inhibits gene expression in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, H; Ziechmann, C; Graessmann, A

    1990-01-01

    A hemimethylated chimeric gene, containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the beta-glucuronidase coding region and the polyadenylation signal of nopaline synthase, was introduced into tobacco protoplasts by polyethylene glycol mediated transfection. Hemimethylation led to complete inhibition of transient gene expression. In regenerated transgenic plants the integrated gene was constitutively hypermethylated at the sequences CpG and CpNpG and this was correlated with an inactivation of beta-glucuronidase in 12 out of 18 analyzed plant lines whereas two showed slight and four strong activity. From 10 control lines transformed with nonmethylated DNA, only two were inactive; three showed slight and five strong activity. 5-aza-cytidine treatment of plant tissue from 'hypermethylated' lines led to induction of beta-glucuronidase in most cases. Shoots regenerated from azaC treated calli revealed stable enzyme restoration and demethylation of the integrated transgene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1702383

  17. Concerning antisense inhibition of the multiple drug resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Jaroszewski, J W; Kaplan, O; Syi, J L; Sehested, M; Faustino, P J; Cohen, J S

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Vasanthakumar and Ahmed reported (Vasanthakumar, G.; Ahmed, N.K., Cancer Communications 1:225-232; 1989) a complete inhibition of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in the K562/III erythroleukemia cells, using a 15 bases-long methylphosphonate oligodeoxynucleotide analog. The sequence used, however, contained three mismatches relative to the corresponding fragment of the human MDR1 gene and, hence, the results reported cannot at present be regarded as a classical antisense effect. We have made attempts to inhibit the expression of the MDR1 gene in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells selected for resistance to Adriamycin using phosphorothioate analogs of oligodeoxynucleotides. Studies with model 35S-labeled-phosphorothioates indicated poor uptake of the compounds into the cells; the radioactivity was located mainly in the soluble fraction (cytoplasm), but membranes and the nuclear fraction were also labeled. Unmodified oligodeoxynucleotides were toxic to the cells, whereas the phosphorothioates were not. The MDR1 inhibition with phosphorothioates was studied by measuring their effects on adriamycin toxicity and by immunocytochemical titration of P170. Elevation of adriamycin cytotoxicity consistent with a decreased drug resistance was observed with one antisense sequence, but the immunocytochemical assay indicated only slight inhibition of the synthesis of P170. In the wild type (drug sensitive) MCF-7 cells phosphorothioates decreased adriamycin toxicity in a sequence-independent manner. The results indicate that the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides on cells are complex. Computer simulation of the secondary structure of MDR1 mRNA indicated not only extensive folding but, also, the presence of many regions not involved in intramolecular hybridization, which are of potential interest as targets for antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. PMID:2202383

  18. Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes Joseph analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6 and inhibit apoptosis. IL-6 and TG activated different p53-independent pathways of gene expression

  19. Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated Ang

  20. Cycloheximide inhibition of delayed early gene expression in baculovirus-infected cells 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Larry Dale

    1998-01-01

    The baculovirus protein IE I is required for the transactivation of many early viral genes in transient expression assays. However, cycloheximide inhibition studies have failed to reveal a dependence of early gene transcription on expression of IE I...

  1. Gene therapeutic approaches to inhibit hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Gebbing, Maren; Bergmann, Thorsten; Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections remain to present a major global health problem. The infection can be associated with acute symptomatic or asymptomatic hepatitis which can cause chronic inflammation of the liver and over years this can lead to cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. Currently available therapeutics for chronically infected individuals aim at reducing viral replication and to slow down or stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, novel treatment options are needed to efficiently combat and eradicate this disease. Here we provide a state of the art overview of gene therapeutic approaches to inhibit HBV replication. We discuss non-viral and viral approaches which were explored to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids aiming at reducing HBV replication. Types of delivered therapeutic nucleic acids which were studied since many years include antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and antisense RNA, ribozymes and DNAzymes, RNA interference, and external guide sequences. More recently designer nucleases gained increased attention and were exploited to destroy the HBV genome. In addition we mention other strategies to reduce HBV replication based on delivery of DNA encoding dominant negative mutants and DNA vaccination. In combination with available cell culture and animal models for HBV infection, in vitro and in vivo studies can be performed to test efficacy of gene therapeutic approaches. Recent progress but also challenges will be specified and future perspectives will be discussed. This is an exciting time to explore such approaches because recent successes of gene therapeutic strategies in the clinic to treat genetic diseases raise hope to find alternative treatment options for patients chronically infected with HBV. PMID:25729471

  2. The Homeobox Gene Gax Inhibits Angiogenesis through Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-k kB-Dependent Endothelial Cell Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sejal Patel; Alejandro D. Leal; David H. Gorski

    2005-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors are heavily dependent on angiogenesis, but much of the transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial cell gene expression responsible for angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. The homeobox gene Gax is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and inhibits proliferation and tube formation in vitro. We hypothesized that Gax is a negative transcriptional regulator of the endothelial

  3. Cyclo(valine-valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M; Bina, X Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Bina, James E

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine-valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  4. Cyclo(valine–valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M.; Bina, X. Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine–proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine–valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. PMID:24644247

  5. BMP7 Gene Transfer via Gold Nanoparticles into Stroma Inhibits Corneal Fibrosis In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Tandon, Ashish

    This study examined the effects of BMP7 gene transfer on corneal wound healing and fibrosis inhibition in vivo using a rabbit model. Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with the excimer laser performing -9 diopters ...

  6. Inhibition of ERK and p38 MAP Kinases Inhibits Binding of Nrf2 and Induction of GCS Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie M. Zipper; R. Timothy Mulcahy

    2000-01-01

    Genes encoding the catalytic (GCSh) and regulatory (GCSl) subunits of human ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?GCS), which catalyzes the rate limiting step in glutathione synthesis, are up-regulated in response to xenobiotics through Electrophile Response Elements (EpREs). Exposure of HepG2 cells to the GCS-inducing agent, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), results in ERK and p38 MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of ERK or p38 kinases by

  7. Adherens Junction Formation Inhibits Lentivirus Entry and Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Padmashali, Roshan; You, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila; Lei, Pedro; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cellular signaling pathways that affect lentivirus infection have been investigated, the role of cell-cell interactions in lentiviral gene delivery remains elusive. In the course of our studies we observed that lentiviral gene transfer was a strong function of the position of epithelial cells within colonies. While peripheral cells were transduced efficiently, cells in the center of colonies were resistant to gene transfer. In addition, gene delivery was enhanced significantly under culture conditions that disrupted adherens junctions (AJ) but decreased upon AJ formation. In agreement, gene knockdown and gain-of-function approaches showed that ?-catenin, a key component of the AJ complex prevented lentivirus gene transfer. Using a doxycycline regulatable system we showed that expression of dominant negative E-cadherin enhanced gene transfer in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, dissolution of AJ by doxycycline increased entry of lentiviral particles into the cell cytoplasm in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together our results demonstrate that AJ formation renders cells non-permissive to lentiviral gene transfer and may facilitate development of simple means to enhance gene delivery or combat virus infection. PMID:24236116

  8. Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase on Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are important regulators of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form the corresponding diols, thus altering and reducing the activity of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic impact of sEH disruption, we compared the effect of EPHX2 gene knockout (EPHX2?/?) and sEH inhibition in mouse models. Measurement of plasma oxylipin profiles confirmed that the ratio of EETs/DHETs was increased in EPHX2?/? and sEH-inhibited mice. However, plasma concentrations of 9, 11, 15, 19-HETE were elevated in EPHX2?/? but not sEH-inhibited mice. Next, we investigated the role of this difference in cardiac dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II (AngII). Both EPHX2 gene deletion and inhibition protected against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, cardiac dysfunction was attenuated by sEH inhibition rather than gene deletion. Histochemical staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated AngII-induced myocardial fibrosis; the mRNA levels of fibrotic-related genes were increased. Furthermore, cardiac inflammatory response was greater in EPHX2?/? than sEH-inhibited mice with AngII treatment, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. In vitro, AngII-upregulated MCP-1 and IL-6 expression was significantly attenuated by sEH inhibition but promoted by EPHX2 deletion in cardiofibroblasts. Thus, compared with pharmacological inhibition of sEH, EPHX2 deletion caused the shift in arachidonic acid metabolism, which may led to pathological cardiac remodeling, especially cardiac fibrosis. PMID:24718617

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Gene Deficiency or Inhibition

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease in IL-10(2/2) Mice Wanying Zhang · Allison L. Yang · Jie Liao · Haonan Li · Hua Dong or inhibition of sEH would attenuate the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a mouse model of IBD be a highly potential in the treatment of IBD. Keywords Inflammatory bowel disease Á Soluble epoxide hydrolase

  10. Anti-oxidant inhibition of hyaluronan fragment-induced inflammatory gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Scheibner, Kara A; Black, Katharine E; Collins, Samuel L; Chan-Li, Yee; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R

    2008-01-01

    Background The balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endogenous anti-oxidants is important in maintaining healthy tissues. Excessive ROS states occur in diseases such as ARDS and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Redox imbalance breaks down the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) into fragments that activate innate immune responses and perpetuate tissue injury. HA fragments, via a TLR and NF-?B pathway, induce inflammatory gene expression in macrophages and epithelial cells. NAC and DMSO are potent anti-oxidants which may help balance excess ROS states. Methods We evaluated the effect of H2O2, NAC and DMSO on HA fragment induced inflammatory gene expression in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Results NAC and DMSO inhibit HA fragment-induced expression of TNF-? and KC protein in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. NAC and DMSO also show a dose dependent inhibition of IP-10 protein expression, but not IL-8 protein, in alveolar epithelial cells. In addition, H2O2 synergizes with HA fragments to induce inflammatory genes, which are inhibited by NAC. Mechanistically, NAC and DMSO inhibit HA induced gene expression by inhibiting NF-?B activation, but NAC had no influence on HA-fragment-AP-1 mediated gene expression. Conclusion ROS play a central role in a pathophysiologic "vicious cycle" of inflammation: tissue injury generates ROS, which fragment the extracellular matrix HA, which in turn synergize with ROS to activate the innate immune system and further promote ROS, HA fragment generation, inflammation, tissue injury and ultimately fibrosis. The anti-oxidants NAC and DMSO, by inhibiting the HA induced inflammatory gene expression, may help re-balance excessive ROS induced inflammation. PMID:18986521

  11. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Iwao [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J. [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Suzuki, Iwao [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Uruno, Akira [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Unno, Michiaki [Department of Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Okamoto, Hiroshi [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)], E-mail: okamotoh@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp; Sugawara, Akira [Department of Advanced Biological Sciences for Regeneration (Kotobiken Medical Laboratories), Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)], E-mail: akiras2i@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2009-02-13

    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  12. Inhibition of Stat1-Mediated Gene Activation by PIAS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Liu; Jiayu Liao; Xiaoping Rao; Steven A. Kushner; Chan D. Chung; David D. Chang; Ke Shuai

    1998-01-01

    STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that become activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. Tyrosine phosphorylated STATs dimerize and translocate into the nucleus to activate specific genes. Different members of the STAT protein family have distinct functions in cytokine signaling. Biochemical and genetic analysis has demonstrated that Stat1 is essential

  13. Pinctada fucata mantle gene 5 (PFMG5) from pearl oyster mantle inhibits osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Hinshaw, Stephen; Liu, Shangfeng; Wang, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    PFMG5 (Pinctada fucata mantle gene 5) was identified from mantle tissue of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucada (P. fucada). Here we report that PFMG5 decreased osteoblast differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the transcript levels of osteoblast differentiation specific marker genes in MC3T3-E1 cells. PFMG5 was identified as a new molecule inhibiting osteoblast differentiation. PMID:21597173

  14. Transformation of persimmon with a pear fruit polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tamura; M. Gao; R. Tao; J. M. Labavitch; A. M. Dandekar

    2004-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Jiro) was transformed with the gene encoding the pear fruit (Pyrus communis) polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101. Two plasmid constructions were used for transformation; pDU94.0928 containing chimeric genes of PGIP, GUS and NPTII in its T-DNA region, and pYS95.091 containing only the GUS and NPTII sequences (control transformations). Among 165 callus lines obtained

  15. Deoxyribozymes inhibit the expression of period1 gene in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhou; Yueqi Wang; Yanyou Liu; Wenzhen Peng; Jing Xiao; Bin Zhu; Zhengrong Wang

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of two deoxyribozymes targetingperiod1 (per1) mRNAin vitro for exploring a novel gene therapy approach about circadian rhythm diseases, the specific deoxyribozymes targetingper1 were designed and synthesized chemically following MFold analysis according to its mRNA secondary structure.per1 RNA fragments were prepared byin vitro transcription of pcDNA3.1(+)-per1 164:256. The cleavage reactions containing deoxyribozymes andper1 RNA fragments were performed

  16. Modulation of apoptotic and inflammatory genes by bioflavonoids and angiotensin II inhibition in ureteral obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A Jones; Asha Shahed; Daniel A Shoskes

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. Ureteral obstruction results in an injury response that can progress to irreversible renal fibrosis and tubular atrophy by apoptosis. The molecular events leading to apoptosis from obstruction are not well understood. We investigated the effect of bioflavonoids and angiotensin II inhibition on apoptotic and inflammatory gene expression in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO).Methods. Complete UUO was produced

  17. MODULATION OF APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENES BY BIOFLAVONOIDS AND ANGIOTENSIN II INHIBITION IN URETERAL OBSTRUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC A. JONES; ASHA SHAHED; DANIEL A. SHOSKES

    Objectives. Ureteral obstruction results in an injury response that can progress to irreversible renal fibrosis and tubular atrophy by apoptosis. The molecular events leading to apoptosis from obstruction are not well understood. We investigated the effect of bioflavonoids and angiotensin II inhibition on apoptotic and inflammatory gene expression in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Methods. Complete UUO was

  18. Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene expression

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene-a and IL-1b) and chemokines (MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IL-8) in monocytes. We determined whether curcumin expression of cytochemokines. We show that curcumin (12.5­25 lM) sup- presses the activation of Egr-1 DNA

  19. Organization and sequence of the human P gene and identification of a new family of transport proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.T.; Fukai, K.; Spritz, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); and others

    1995-03-20

    We have determined the structure, nucleotide sequence, and polymorphisms of the human P gene. Mutations of the P gene result in type H oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in humans and pink-eyed dilution (p) in mice. We find that the human P gene is quite large, consisting of 25 exons spanning 250 to 600 kb in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. The P polypeptide appears to define a novel family of small molecule transporters and may be involved in transport of tyrosine, the precursor to melanin synthesis, within the melanocyte. These results provide the basis for analyses of patients with OCA2 and may point toward eventual pharmacologic treatment of this and related disorders of pigmentation. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Structural features of GmIRCHS, candidate of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation in soybean: implications for inducing endogenous RNA silencing of chalcone synthase genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Kasai; Kosuke Kasai; Setsuzo Yumoto; Mineo Senda

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial soybean varieties have yellow seeds due to loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. The I gene inhibits pigmentation over the entire seed coat, resulting in a uniform yellow color of mature harvested seeds. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation by the I gene results from post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS)

  1. Resveratrol inhibits LXR?-dependent hepatic lipogenesis through novel antioxidant Sestrin2 gene induction

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, So Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Shin, Bo Yeon; Seo, Kyuhwa; Shin, Sang Mi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Il Je, E-mail: skek023@dhu.ac.kr [MRC-GHF, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbukdo 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Sung Hwan, E-mail: shki@chosun.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Liver X receptor-? (LXR?), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates de novo fatty acid synthesis that leads to stimulate hepatic steatosis. Although, resveratrol has beneficial effects on metabolic disease, it is not known whether resveratrol affects LXR?-dependent lipogenic gene expression. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-mediated lipogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Resveratrol inhibited the ability of LXR? to activate sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and thereby inhibited target gene expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, resveratrol decreased LXR?–RXR? DNA binding activity and LXRE-luciferase transactivation. Resveratrol is known to activate Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although its precise mechanism of action remains controversial. We found that the ability of resveratrol to repress T0901317-induced SREBP-1c expression was not dependent on AMPK and Sirt1. It is well established that hepatic steatosis is associated with antioxidant and redox signaling. Our data showing that expression of Sestrin2 (Sesn2), which is a novel antioxidant gene, was significantly down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, resveratrol up-regulated Sesn2 expression, but not Sesn1 and Sesn3. Sesn2 overexpression repressed LXR?-activated SREBP-1c expression and LXRE-luciferase activity. Finally, Sesn2 knockdown using siRNA abolished the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-induced FAS luciferase gene transactivation. We conclude that resveratrol affects Sesn2 gene induction and contributes to the inhibition of LXR?-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-mediated lipogenesis. • Resveratrol attenuated the ability of the LXR?-mediated lipogenic gene expression. • Resveratrol’s effects on T090-induced lipogenesis is not dependent on Sirt1 or AMPK. • Sestrin2 induction by resveratrol contributes to the inhibition of the LXR? activity.

  2. Planar polarity genes and inhibition of supernumerary neurites.

    PubMed

    Colavita, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have recently emerged as important players in sculpting neuronal connections. The bipolar VC neurons display stereotypical differences in axon extension along the anterior-posterior (AP) body axis: VC1-3 and VC6 polarize along the AP axis while VC4 and VC5 polarize along the orthogonal left-right (LR) axis generated by the developing vulva. vang-1 and prkl-1, the worm orthologs of Van Gogh and Prickle, are required to restrict the polarity of neurite emergence to a specific tissue axis. vang-1 and prkl-1 loss results in ectopic VC4 and VC5 neurites extending inappropriately along the AP axis. Conversely, prkl-1 overexpression in VC neurons suppresses neurite formation. These findings suggest that a PCP-like pathway acts to silence or antagonize neuronal responses to polarity cues that would otherwise be permissive for neurite growth. PMID:24058835

  3. Tissue specific expression of suicide genes delivered by nanoparticles inhibits gastric carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Guiying; Chen, Yong-Heng; Chen, Yuxiang; Liu, Xionghao; Peng, Jie; Xu, Mei Hua; Yuan, Jian Wei

    2006-12-01

    Developing an efficient and safe strategy to introduce a therapeutic gene into targeting cells in vivo is a key issue in cancer gene therapy nowadays. Novel non-viral gene carriers, such as nanoparticles, have been shown to be able to deliver DNA into cancer cells efficiently. Suicide gene therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting tumor growth, however, the lack of tumor specificity limits its application in clinic. Developing a targeting system for suicide gene is an attractive strategy in cancer gene therapy. In this study, the CMV enhancer and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter was fused to a chimeric suicide gene yCDglyTK. This construct was delivered into SGC7901 gastric cancer cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNPs). The expression of yCDglyTK in SGC7901 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that yCDglyTK is only expressed in CEA-positive cancer cells, but not in CEA-negative cells. The expression of yCDglyTK induced cancer cell death following the addition of the prodrug 5-FC, and also elicit "bystander effect" to kill the neighboring cells. Intratumoral injection of CPNP-yCDglyTK complex followed by administration of 5-FC produced marked regression in gastric cancer xenografts. Taken together, our study suggests that the combination of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and suicide gene therapy represents a novel approach for targeting gastric cancer gene therapy. PMID:17224635

  4. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sorscher, E.J.; Kirk, K.L.; Weaver, M.L.; Jilling, T.; Blalock, J.E.; LeBoeuf, R.D. (Univ of Alabama, Birmingham (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The authors have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropryl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl{sup {minus}} transport in sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br{sup {minus}} uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatments, but not after treatments for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl{sup {minus}} transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability.

  5. Glucose Deprivation Inhibits Multiple Key Gene Expression Events and Effector Functions in CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Candace M.; Driessens, Gregory; O'Keefe, James P.; Gajewski, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We recently reported that differentiation of CD8+ T cells from the naïve to the effector state involves the upregulation of glucose-dependent metabolism. Glucose deprivation or inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) selectively inhibited production of IFN-? but not of IL-2. To determine a more global role of glucose metabolism on effector T cell function, we performed gene array analysis on CD8+ effector T cells stimulated in the presence or absence of 2-DG. We observed that expression of only 10% of genes induced by TCR/CD28 signaling was inhibited by 2-DG. Among these were genes for key cytokines, cell cycle molecules, and cytotoxic granule proteins. Consistent with these results, production of IFN-? and GM-CSF, cell cycle progression, upregulation of cyclin D2 protein, cytolytic activity, and upregulation of granzyme B protein but also conjugate formation were exquisitely glucose-dependent. In contrast to glucose, oxygen was little utilized by CD8+ effector T cells, and relative oxygen deprivation did not inhibit these CTL functional properties. Our results indicate a particularly critical role for glucose in regulating specific effector functions of CD8+ T cells, and have implications for the maintenance of the effector phase of cellular immune responses in target tissue microenvironments such as a solid tumor. PMID:18792400

  6. ALLOANTISERUM-INDUCED INHIBITION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE PRODUCT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Shevach, Ethan M.; Paul, William E.; Green, Ira

    1974-01-01

    It has been previously shown that alloantisera prepared by reciprocal immunization of strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs specifically block the activation of T lymphocytes from immune guinea pigs by antigens, the response to which is controlled by Ir genes. In this report we have examined the effect of absorption of the 13 anti-2 serum with different populations of lymphoid cells. It is unlikely that the inhibitory activity of the anti-2 serum on the proliferation of (2 x 13)F1 lymphocytes to a DNP derivative of a copolymer of L-glutamic and L-lysine (DNP-GL) is due to the presence of antibodies specific for the unique antigenic determinants (idiotypes) of clonally distributed T-lymphocyte receptors. Thus, cells obtained from a normal animal and a DNP-GL immune animal were equivalent in their absorptive capacity. Populations of T lymphocytes were ineffective in absorbing either the cytotoxic or inhibitory activity of the anti-2 serum, while L2C leukemia cells, a malignant B-cell population, were most efficient in absorbing both activities. Thus, the antigen(s) against which the cytotoxic and inhibitory activities are directed are present to a greater extent on B lymphocytes than on T lymphocytes. However, these results do not allow us to definitively determine whether the inhibitory activity of the alloantisera is due to antibodies specific for Ir gene products or antibodies specific for linked antigens in the MHC. We also examined the effect of a number of anti-immunoglobulin reagents which had specificity for the heavy and/or light chains of guinea pig immunoglobulin on the in vitro lymphocyte proliferative response to antigen. Under conditions in which we were able to completely and specifically suppress the response of (2 x 13)F1 lymphocytes to DNP-GL with anti-2 serum, the anti-immunoglobulin reagents were devoid of inhibitory effect on the response of these same F1 cells to DNP-GL, a copolymer of L-glutamic and L-tyrosine (GT), or purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). These results strongly suggest that conventional serum-type immunoglobulin is not important in antigen recognition by the T cells involved in the DNA synthetic response. PMID:4591174

  7. Inhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth by Nanoparticle-Mediated p53 Gene Therapy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Swayam; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, the most common genetic alteration in human cancers, results in more aggressive disease and increased resistance to conventional therapies. Aggressiveness may be related to the increased angiogenic activity of cancer cells containing mutant p53. To restore wild-type p53 function in cancer cells, we developed polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for p53 gene delivery. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of these NPs to provide sustained intracellular release of DNA, thus sustained gene transfection and decreased tumor cell proliferation. We investigated in vivo mechanisms involved in NP-mediated p53 tumor inhibition, with focus on angiogenesis. We hypothesize that sustained p53 gene delivery will help decrease tumor angiogenic activity and thus reduce tumor growth and improve animal survival. Xenografts of p53 mutant tumors were treated with a single intratumoral injection of p53NPs. We observed intratumoral p53 gene expression corresponding to tumor growth inhibition, over 5 weeks. Treated tumors showed upregulation of thrombospondin-1, a potent antiangiogenic factor, and a decrease in microvessel density vs. controls (saline, p53 DNA alone, and control NPs). Greater levels of apoptosis were also observed in p53NP-treated tumors. Overall, this led to significantly improved survival in p53NP-treated animals. NP-mediated p53 gene delivery slowed cancer progression and improved survival in an in vivo cancer model. One mechanism by which this is accomplished is disruption of tumor angiogenesis. We conclude that the NP-mediated sustained tumor p53 gene therapy can effectively be used for tumor growth inhibition. PMID:22595792

  8. HDAC inhibition attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by acetylation and deacetylation of target genes.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Tuano, Natasha K; Rafehi, Haloom; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ziemann, Mark; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2015-05-01

    Pharmacological histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors attenuate pathological cardiac remodeling and hypertrophic gene expression; yet, the direct histone targets remain poorly characterized. Since the inhibition of HDAC activity is associated with suppressing hypertrophy, we hypothesized histone acetylation would target genes implicated in cardiac remodeling. Trichostatin A (TSA) regulates cardiac gene expression and attenuates transverse aortic constriction (TAC) induced hypertrophy. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to map, for the first time, genome-wide histone acetylation changes in a preclinical model of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and attenuation of pathogenesis with TSA. Pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy was associated with histone acetylation of genes implicated in cardiac contraction, collagen deposition, inflammation, and extracellular matrix identified by ChIP-seq. Gene set enrichment analysis identified NF-kappa B (NF-?B) transcription factor activation with load induced hypertrophy. Increased histone acetylation was observed on the promoters of NF?B target genes (Icam1, Vcam1, Il21r, Il6ra, Ticam2, Cxcl10) consistent with gene activation in the hypertrophied heart. Surprisingly, TSA attenuated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the suppression of NF?B target genes by broad histone deacetylation. Our results suggest a mechanism for cardioprotection subject to histone deacetylation as a previously unknown target, implicating the importance of inflammation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition. The results of this study provides a framework for HDAC inhibitor function in the heart and argues the long held views of acetylation is subject to more flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25941940

  9. Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

  10. Molecular relatedness of the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein genes in Eucalyptus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Chimwamurombe; A.-M. Botha; M. J. Wingfield; B. D. Wingfield

    2001-01-01

    Plants produce polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) as part of their defense against disease. PGIPs have leucine-rich\\u000a motifs, a characteristic shared by many proteins involved in plant resistance against pathogens. The objective of this study\\u000a was to clone and analyse the partial sequences of the pgip genes from five selected commercially important Eucalyptus species. Genomic DNA from E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. nitens

  11. Lentiviral gene transfer to reduce atherosclerosis progression by long-term CC-chemokine inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C A Bursill; E McNeill; L Wang; O C Hibbitt; R Wade-Martins; D J Paterson; D R Greaves; K M Channon

    2009-01-01

    CC-chemokines are important mediators in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis progression is reduced by high-level, short-term inhibition of CC-chemokine activity, for example by adenoviral gene transfer. However, atherosclerosis is a chronic condition where short-term effects, while demonstrating proof-of-principle, are unlikely to provide maximum therapeutic benefit. Accordingly, we generated a recombinant lentivirus, lenti35K, encoding the broad-spectrum CC chemokine inhibitor, 35K, derived

  12. Activation and inhibition of transient receptor potential TRPM3-induced gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lesch, Andrea; Rubil, Sandra; Thiel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential-3 (TRPM3) channels function as Ca2+ permeable cation channels. While the natural ligands for these channels are still unknown, several compounds have been described that either activate or inhibit TRPM3 channel activity. Experimental Approach We assessed TRPM3-mediated gene transcription, which relies on the induction of intracellular signalling to the nucleus following activation of TRPM3 channels. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and Egr-1-responsive reporter genes were integrated into the chromatin of the cells. This strategy enabled us to analyse gene transcription of the AP-1 and Egr-1-responsive reporter genes that were packed into an ordered chromatin structure. Key Results The neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate strikingly up-regulated AP-1 and Egr-1 transcriptional activity, while nifedipine and D-erythro-sphingosine, also putative activators of TRPM3 channels, exhibited either no or TRPM3-independent effects on gene transcription. In addition, pregnenolone sulfate robustly enhanced the transcriptional activation potential of the ternary complex factor Elk-1. Pregnenolone sulfate-induced activation of gene transcription was blocked by treatment with mefenamic acid and, to a lesser extent, by the polyphenol naringenin. In contrast, progesterone, pregnenolone and rosiglitazone reduced AP-1 activity in the cells, but had no inhibitory effect on Egr-1 activity in pregnenolone sulfate-stimulated cells. Conclusion and Implications Pregnenolone sulfate is a powerful activator of TRPM3-mediated gene transcription, while transcription is completely inhibited by mefenamic acid in cells expressing activated TRPM3 channels. Both compounds are valuable tools for further investigating the biological functions of TRPM3 channels. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24895737

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis nuoG Is a Virulence Gene That Inhibits Apoptosis of Infected Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Chen, Bing; Miller, Jessica L; Azogue, Sharon; Gurses, Serdar; Hsu, Tsungda; Glickman, Michael; Jacobs, William R; Porcelli, Steven A; Briken, Volker

    2007-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its capacity to manipulate multiple host defense pathways, including the ability to actively inhibit the death by apoptosis of infected host cells. The genetic basis for this anti-apoptotic activity and its implication for mycobacterial virulence have not been demonstrated or elucidated. Using a novel gain-of-function genetic screen, we demonstrated that inhibition of infection-induced apoptosis of macrophages is controlled by multiple genetic loci in M. tuberculosis. Characterization of one of these loci in detail revealed that the anti-apoptosis activity was attributable to the type I NADH-dehydrogenase of M. tuberculosis, and was mainly due to the subunit of this multicomponent complex encoded by the nuoG gene. Expression of M. tuberculosis nuoG in nonpathogenic mycobacteria endowed them with the ability to inhibit apoptosis of infected human or mouse macrophages, and increased their virulence in a SCID mouse model. Conversely, deletion of nuoG in M. tuberculosis ablated its ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis and significantly reduced its virulence in mice. These results identify a key component of the genetic basis for an important virulence trait of M. tuberculosis and support a direct causal relationship between virulence of pathogenic mycobacteria and their ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis. PMID:17658950

  14. Haplotype polymorphism in the alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor gene influences response inhibition in a large chinese sample

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    relevance for genetic research in attention- deficit/research (including biochemical, pharmacological, genetic, andgenetic effects of the ADRA2B gene on response inhibition observed in this study can be interpreted based on previous biochemical research

  15. 20(S)-protopanaxatriol inhibits liver X receptor ?-mediated expression of lipogenic genes in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin; Lee, Gang Gu; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Seung-Whan

    2015-06-01

    20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) is an aglycone of ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng and has several interesting activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects. Herein, PPT was identified as an inhibitor against the ligand-dependent transactivation of liver X receptor ? (LXR?) using a Gal4-TK-luciferase reporter system. LXR? is a transcription factor of nuclear hormone receptor family and stimulates the transcription of many metabolic genes, such as lipogenesis- or reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)-related genes. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that PPT inhibited the LXR?-dependent transcription of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1. These inhibitory effects of PPT are, at least in part, a consequence of the reduced recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the LXR response element (LXRE) of the SREBP-1c promoter. Furthermore, LXR?-dependent triglyceride accumulation in primary mouse hepatocytes was significantly reduced by PPT. Interestingly, PPT did not inhibit the LXR?-dependent transcription of ABCA1, a crucial LXR? target gene involved in RCT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PPT repressed recruitment of the lipogenic coactivator TRAP80 to the SREBP-1c LXRE, but not the ABCA1 LXRE. Overall, these data suggest that PPT has selective inhibitory activity against LXR?-mediated lipogenesis, but not LXR?-stimulated RCT. PMID:26109499

  16. Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, David L.; Zhao, Z. Z.; Sturm, Richard A.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously described the role of red hair (Melanocortin 1 Receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye and skin colour. In this paper, we test a selected set of polymorphisms in pigmentation loci (ASIP, TYR, TYRP1, MC1R, OCA2, IRF4, SLC24A4, SLC45A2) for association with CMM risk in a large Australian population-based case control study. Variants in IRF4 and SLC24A4, despite being strongly associated with pigmentation in our sample, did not modify CMM risk, but the other six did. Three SNPs (rs28777, rs35391, rs16891982) in the MATP gene (SLC45A2) exhibited the strongest crude association with risk, but this was attenuated to approximately the same effect size as that of a MC1R red hair color allele by controlling for ancestry of cases and controls. We also detected significant epistatic interactions between SLC45A2 and OCA2 alleles, and MC1R and ASIP alleles. Overall, these measured variants account for 12% of the familial risk of CMM in our population. PMID:19710684

  17. Hepatitis B virus core protein with hot-spot mutations inhibit MxA gene transcription but has no effect on inhibition of virus replication by interferon ?.

    PubMed

    Zhijian, Yu; Zhen, Huang; Fan, Zhang; Jin, Yang; Qiwen, Deng; Zhongming, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) can inhibit the transcription of human interferon-induced MxA gene. In this study, we investigated whether HBc protein mutations at hot spots (L60V, S87G and I97L) could still inhibit MxA transcription and the potential significance of this inhibition in virus replication in vitro. Our data indicated that the IFN-induced MxA mRNA expression level and MxA promoter activity was significantly down-regulated by mutant protein of HBc(I97L), compared to WT and the other two mutated HBc proteins(L60V or S87G). However, in Huh7 cells stably expressing WT or the mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G or I97L), IFN-? could inhibit the extra- and intracellular HBV DNA level and HBsAg secretion to a similar level compared to that in cells transfected with control plasmids. In conclusion, HBc protein with I97L mutation may play an special role in suppressing the transcription of MxA gene. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on MxA gene transcription by the WT or mutated HBc proteins (L60V, S87G and I97L) has no impact on inhibition of HBV replication by IFN-? in Huh7 cells. The clinical significance of the inhibitory effect of MxA gene transcription by HBc protein requires further study. PMID:20959021

  18. Inhibition of gene expression by triple helix-directed DNA cross-linking at specific sites.

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriev, M; Praseuth, D; Guieysse, A L; Robin, P; Thuong, N T; Hélène, C; Harel-Bellan, A

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides represent promising tools for gene inhibition in live systems. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides, which bind to double-stranded DNA, are of special interest since they are targeted to the gene itself rather than to its mRNA product, as in the antisense strategy. Triple helix-forming oligonucleotides can be coupled to DNA-modifying agents and used to introduce modifications in the DNA target in a highly sequence-specific manner. We have recently designed psoralen-oligonucleotide conjugates, which, upon binding to double-stranded DNA sequences via triple helix formation, may be cross-linked in vitro to both strands of the DNA following UV irradiation. A psoralen-oligonucleotide conjugate was targeted to the promoter of the alpha subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R alpha) gene. The triple helix site overlaps the binding site for the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which activates transcription from the IL-2R alpha promoter. After UV irradiation, the oligonucleotide conjugate becomes cross-linked to the target site and inhibits transcription of reporter plasmids transfected in live cells. Inhibition is observed when UV-induced cross-linking occurs both in vitro (before transfection) and in vivo (after transfection). We directly demonstrate that this inhibitory effect is due to triple helix formation at the target site, since a mutant of the promoter, to which oligonucleotide binding was inhibited, was not affected by the psoralen-oligonucleotide conjugate after UV irradiation. In addition, we demonstrate that site-specific cross-linking upstream of the promoter has no effect on transcription. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8475098

  19. RNF20 inhibits TFIIS-facilitated transcriptional elongation to suppress pro-oncogenic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shema, Efrat; Kim, Jaehoon; Roeder, Robert G.; Oren, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Summary hBRE1/RNF20 is the major E3 ubiquitin ligase for histone H2B. RNF20 depletion causes a global reduction of monoubiquitylated H2B (H2Bub) levels and augments the expression of growth promoting, pro-oncogenic genes. Those genes reside preferentially in compact chromatin, and are inefficiently transcribed under basal conditions. We now report that RNF20, presumably via H2Bub, represses selectively those genes by interfering with chromatin recruitment of TFIIS, a factor capable of relieving stalled RNA polymerase II. RNF20 inhibits the interaction between TFIIS and the PAF1 complex and hinders transcriptional elongation. TFIIS ablation selectively abolishes the upregulation of those genes upon RNF20 depletion, and attenuates the cellular response to EGF. Consistent with its positive role in transcription of pro-oncogenic genes, TFIIS expression is elevated in various human tumors. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism for selective gene repression by RNF20, and position TFIIS as a key target of RNF20's tumor suppressor activity. PMID:21596312

  20. Jumonji Represses Atrial Natriuretic Factor Gene Expression by Inhibiting Transcriptional Activities of Cardiac Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-gyun; Chen, Junqin; Sadoshima, Junich; Lee, Youngsook

    2004-01-01

    Mice with a homozygous knockout of the jumonji (jmj) gene showed abnormal heart development and defective regulation of cardiac-specific genes, including the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). ANF is one of the earliest markers of cardiac differentiation and a hallmark for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that JMJ represses ANF gene expression by inhibiting transcriptional activities of Nkx2.5 and GATA4. JMJ represses the Nkx2.5- or GATA4-dependent activation of the reporter genes containing the ANF promoter-enhancer or containing the Nkx2.5 or GATA4-binding consensus sequence. JMJ physically associates with Nkx2.5 and GATA4 in vitro and in vivo as determined by glutathione S-transferase pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays. Using mutational analyses, we mapped the protein-protein interaction domains in JMJ, Nkx2.5, and GATA4. We identified two DNA-binding sites of JMJ in the ANF enhancer by gel mobility shift assays. However, these JMJ-binding sites do not seem to mediate ANF repression by JMJ. Mutational analysis of JMJ indicates that the protein-protein interaction domain of JMJ mediates the repression of ANF gene expression. Therefore, JMJ may play important roles in the down-regulation of ANF gene expression and in heart development. PMID:15542826

  1. Inhibition of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Gene Expression by Cyclin A2-Dependent Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oduro, Jennifer D.; Uecker, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) starts its lytic replication cycle only in the G0/G1 phase of the cell division cycle. S/G2 cells can be infected but block the onset of immediate-early (IE) gene expression. This block can be overcome by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), suggesting that cyclin A2, the only cyclin with an S/G2-specific activity profile, may act as a negative regulator of viral gene expression. To directly test this hypothesis, we generated derivatives of an HCMV-permissive glioblastoma cell line that express cyclin A2 in a constitutive, cell cycle-independent manner. We demonstrate that even moderate cyclin A2 overexpression in G1 was sufficient to severely compromise the HCMV replicative cycle after high-multiplicity infection. This negative effect was composed of a strong but transient inhibition of IE gene transcription and a more sustained alteration of IE mRNA processing, resulting in reduced levels of UL37 and IE2, an essential transactivator of viral early gene expression. Consistently, cyclin A2-overexpressing cells showed a strong delay of viral early and late gene expression, as well as virus reproduction. All effects were dependent on CDK activity, as a cyclin A2 mutant deficient in CDK binding was unable to interfere with the HCMV infectious cycle. Interestingly, murine CMV, whose IE gene expression is known to be cell cycle independent, is not affected by cyclin A2. Instead, it upregulates cyclin A2-associated kinase activity upon infection. Understanding the mechanisms behind the HCMV-specific action of cyclin A2-CDK might reveal new targets for antiviral strategies. PMID:22718829

  2. The Transcriptional Co-Repressor Myeloid Translocation Gene 16 Inhibits Glycolysis and Stimulates Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parveen; Sharoyko, Vladimir V.; Spégel, Peter; Gullberg, Urban; Mulder, Hindrik; Olsson, Inge; Ajore, Ram

    2013-01-01

    The myeloid translocation gene 16 product MTG16 is found in multiple transcription factor–containing complexes as a regulator of gene expression implicated in development and tumorigenesis. A stable Tet-On system for doxycycline–dependent expression of MTG16 was established in B-lymphoblastoid Raji cells to unravel its molecular functions in transformed cells. A noticeable finding was that expression of certain genes involved in tumor cell metabolism including 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK1) was rapidly diminished when MTG16 was expressed. Furthermore, hypoxia–stimulated production of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 was inhibited by MTG16 expression. The genes in question encode key regulators of glycolysis and its coupling to mitochondrial metabolism and are commonly found to be overexpressed in transformed cells. The MTG16 Nervy Homology Region 2 (NHR2) oligomerization domain and the NHR3 protein–protein interaction domain were required intact for inhibition of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 expression to occur. Expression of MTG16 reduced glycolytic metabolism while mitochondrial respiration and formation of reactive oxygen species increased. The metabolic changes were paralleled by increased phosphorylation of mitogen–activated protein kinases, reduced levels of amino acids and inhibition of proliferation with a decreased fraction of cells in S-phase. Overall, our findings show that MTG16 can serve as a brake on glycolysis, a stimulator of mitochondrial respiration and an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Hence, elevation of MTG16 might have anti–tumor effect. PMID:23840896

  3. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of hepatitis C virus gene expression in transformed hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hanecak, R; Brown-Driver, V; Fox, M C; Azad, R F; Furusako, S; Nozaki, C; Ford, C; Sasmor, H; Anderson, K P

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have provided convincing evidence that the 5' noncoding region (5' NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly conserved among viral isolates worldwide and that translation of HCV is directed by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located within the 5' NCR. We have investigated inhibition of HCV gene expression using antisense oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' NCR, translation initiation codon, and core protein coding sequences. Oligonucleotides were evaluated for activity after treatment of a human hepatocyte cell line expressing the HCV 5' NCR, core protein coding sequences, and the majority of the envelope gene (E1). More than 50 oligonucleotides were evaluated for inhibition of HCV RNA and protein expression. Two oligonucleotides, ISIS 6095, targeted to a stem-loop structure within the 5' NCR known to be important for IRES function, and ISIS 6547, targeted to sequences spanning the AUG used for initiation of HCV polyprotein translation, were found to be the most effective at inhibiting HCV gene expression. ISIS 6095 and 6547 caused concentration-dependent reductions in HCV RNA and protein levels, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.1 to 0.2 microM. Reduction of RNA levels, and subsequently protein levels, by these phosphorothioate oligonucleotides was consistent with RNase H cleavage of RNA at the site of oligonucleotide hybridization. Chemically modified HCV antisense phosphodiester oligonucleotides were designed and evaluated for inhibition of core protein expression to identify oligonucleotides and HCV target sequences that do not require RNase H activity to inhibit expression. A uniformly modified 2'-methoxyethoxy phosphodiester antisense oligonucleotide complementary to the initiator AUG reduced HCV core protein levels as effectively as phosphorothioate oligonucleotide ISIS 6095 but without reducing HCV RNA levels. Results of our studies show that HCV gene expression is reduced by antisense oligonucleotides and demonstrate that it is feasible to design antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of translation that do not require RNase H activation. The data demonstrate that chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides can be used as tools to identify important regulatory sequences and/or structures important for efficient translation of HCV. PMID:8764029

  4. BMP7 Gene Transfer via Gold Nanoparticles into Stroma Inhibits Corneal Fibrosis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Ashish; Sharma, Ajay; Rodier, Jason T.; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Rieger, Frank G.; Mohan, Rajiv R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of BMP7 gene transfer on corneal wound healing and fibrosis inhibition in vivo using a rabbit model. Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with the excimer laser performing -9 diopters photorefractive keratectomy. BMP7 gene was introduced into rabbit keratocytes by polyethylimine-conjugated gold nanoparticles (PEI2-GNPs) transfection solution single 5-minute topical application on the eye. Corneal haze and ocular health in live animals was gauged with stereo- and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The levels of fibrosis [?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), F-actin and fibronectin], immune reaction (CD11b and F4/80), keratocyte apoptosis (TUNEL), calcification (alizarin red, vonKossa and osteocalcin), and delivered-BMP7 gene expression in corneal tissues were quantified with immunofluorescence, western blotting and/or real-time PCR. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and in vitro experiments were used to characterize the molecular mechanism mediating BMP7’s anti-fibrosis effects. PEI2-GNPs showed substantial BMP7 gene delivery into rabbit keratocytes in vivo (2×104 gene copies/ug DNA). Localized BMP7 gene therapy showed a significant corneal haze decrease (1.68±0.31 compared to 3.2±0.43 in control corneas; p<0.05) in Fantes grading scale. Immunostaining and immunoblot analyses detected significantly reduced levels of ?SMA (46±5% p<0.001) and fibronectin proteins (48±5% p<0.01). TUNEL, CD11b, and F4/80 assays revealed that BMP7 gene therapy is nonimmunogenic and nontoxic for the cornea. Furthermore, alizarin red, vonKossa and osteocalcin analyses revealed that localized PEI2-GNP-mediated BMP7 gene transfer in rabbit cornea does not cause calcification or osteoblast recruitment. Immunofluorescence of BMP7-transefected HCFs showed significantly increased pSmad-1/5/8 nuclear localization (>88%; p<0.0001), and immunoblotting of BMP7-transefected HCFs grown in the presence of TGF? demonstrated significantly enhanced pSmad-1/5/8 (95%; p<0.001) and Smad6 (53%, p<0.001), and decreased ?SMA (78%; p<0.001) protein levels. These results suggest that localized BMP7 gene delivery in rabbit cornea modulates wound healing and inhibits fibrosis in vivo by counter balancing TGF?1-mediated profibrotic Smad signaling. PMID:23799103

  5. Stably paused genes revealed through inhibition of transcription initiation by the TFIIH inhibitor triptolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Gao, Xin; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in metazoans is regulated in several steps, including preinitiation complex (PIC) formation, initiation, Pol II escape, productive elongation, cotranscriptional RNA processing, and termination. Genome-wide studies have demonstrated that the phenomenon of promoter-bound Pol II pausing is widespread, especially for genes involved in developmental and stimulus-responsive pathways. However, a mechanistic understanding of the paused Pol II state at promoters is limited. For example, at a global level, it is unclear to what extent the engaged paused Pol II is stably tethered to the promoter or undergoes rapid cycles of initiation and termination. Here we used the small molecule triptolide (TPL), an XPB/TFIIH inhibitor, to block transcriptional initiation and then measured Pol II occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). This inhibition of initiation enabled us to investigate different states of paused Pol II. Specifically, our global analysis revealed that most genes with paused Pol II, as defined by a pausing index, show significant clearance of Pol II during the period of TPL treatment. Our study further identified a group of genes with unexpectedly stably paused Pol II, with unchanged Pol II occupancy even after 1 h of inhibition of initiation. This group of genes constitutes a small portion of all paused genes defined by the conventional criterion of pausing index. These findings could pave the way for evaluating the contribution of different elongation/pausing factors on different states of Pol II pausing in developmental and other stimulus-responsive pathways. PMID:25561494

  6. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus gene expression and replication by ribonuclease P.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chuan; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Gong, Hao; Zeng, Wenbo; Vu, Gia-Phong; Trang, Phong; Lu, Sangwei; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2013-05-01

    Nucleic acid-based gene interfering approaches, such as those mediated by RNA interference and RNase P-associated external guide sequence (EGS), have emerged as promising antiviral strategies. The RNase P-based technology is unique, because a custom-designed EGS can bind to any complementary mRNA sequence and recruit intracellular RNase P for specific degradation of the target mRNA. In this study, a functional EGS was constructed to target hepatitis B virus (HBV) essential transcripts. Furthermore, an attenuated Salmonella strain was constructed and used for delivery of anti-HBV EGS in cells and in mice. Substantial reduction in the levels of HBV gene expression and viral DNA was detected in cells treated with the Salmonella vector carrying the functional EGS construct. Furthermore, oral inoculation of Salmonella carrying the EGS construct led to an inhibition of ~95% in the levels of HBV gene expression and a reduction of ~200,000-fold in viral DNA level in the livers and sera of the treated mice transfected with a HBV plasmid. Our results suggest that EGSs are effective in inhibiting HBV replication in cultured cells and mammalian livers, and demonstrate the use of Salmonella-mediated delivery of EGS as a promising therapeutic approach for human diseases including HBV infection. PMID:23481322

  7. Immunoglobulin gamma 2b transgenes inhibit heavy chain gene rearrangement, but cannot promote B cell development

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice with a gamma 2b transgene were produced to investigate whether gamma 2b can replace mu in the development of B lymphocytes. Transgenic gamma 2b is present on the surface of B cells. Young transgenic mice have a dramatic decrease in B cell numbers, however, older mice have almost normal B cell numbers. Strikingly, all gamma 2b- expressing B cells in the spleen also express mu. The same is true for mice with a hybrid transgene in which the mu transmembrane and intracytoplasmic sequences replace those of gamma 2b (gamma 2b-mumem). The B cell defect is not due to toxicity of gamma 2b since crosses between gamma 2b transgenic and mu transgenic mice have normal numbers of B cells. Presence of the gamma 2b transgene strongly enhances the feedback inhibition of endogenous heavy chain gene rearrangement. Light chain genes are expressed normally, and the early expression of transgenic light chains does not improve B cell maturation. When the endogenous mu locus is inactivated, B cells do not develop at all in gamma 2b transgenic mice. The data suggest that gamma 2b cannot replace mu in promoting the developmental maturation of B cells, but that it can cause feedback inhibition of heavy chain gene rearrangement. Thus, the signals for heavy chain feedback and B cell maturation appear to be different. PMID:8245779

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  9. Effects of inhibiting phenolic biosynthesis on penetration resistance of barley isolines containing seven powdery mildew resistance genes or alleles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M Kruger; T. L. W Carver; R. J Zeyen

    2002-01-01

    Barley leaf epidermal cells actively resist penetration by germinated conidia of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). Penetration resistance to the appropriateforma specialis (f. sp.) of Bg is sensitive to inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis but its genetic basis relative to known race-specific powdery mildew resistance genes (R-genes) and alleles is confusing. In this study, the effects

  10. Prediction on the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase based on gene expression programming.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqin; You, Guirong; Jia, Baoxiu; Si, Hongzong; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM was also used for the preselection of 5 appropriate molecular descriptors. Linear and nonlinear QSAR models were developed based on the HM and GEP separately and two prediction models lead to a good correlation coefficient (R (2)) of 0.93 and 0.94. The two QSAR models are useful in predicting the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase during the discovery of new anticancer drugs and providing theory information for studying the new drugs. PMID:24971318

  11. In vitro expression of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein genes: autogenous inhibition of translation.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, J L; Arfsten, A E; Nomura, M

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L1 (0.5 micro M) was found to inhibit the synthesis of both proteins of the L11 operon, L11 and L1, but not the synthesis of other proteins directed by lambda rifd 18 DNA. Similarly, S4 (1 micro M) selectively inhibited the synthesis of three proteins of the alpha operon, S13, S11, and S4, directed by lambda spcI DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment obtained from this DNA. S8 (3.6 micro M) also showed preferential inhibitory effects on the synthesis of some proteins encoded in the spc operon, L24 and L5 (and probably S14 and S8), directed by lambda spcl DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment carrying the genes for these proteins. The inhibitory effect of L1 was observed only with L1 and not with other proteins examined, including S4 and S8. Similarly, the effect of S4 was not observed with L1 or S8, and that of S8 was not seen with L1 or S4. Inhibition was shown to take place at the level of translation rather than transcription. Thus, at least some ribosomal proteins (L1 S4, and S8) have the ability to cause selective translational inhibition of the synthesis of certain ribosomal proteins whose genes are in the same operon as their own. These results support the hypothesis that certain free ribosomal proteins not assembled into ribosomes act as "autogenous" feedback inhibitors to regulate the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:6445562

  12. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium. PMID:20698994

  13. The inhibiting effect of 1·4 recombinant P chromosome of wheat- Agropyron cristatum addition line on the Ph gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GuoHui Yang; XinMing Yang; RuiHui Wang; AiNong Gao; LiHui Li; WeiHua Liu

    2010-01-01

    P chromosomes may carry a genetic system that inhibits the Ph gene in wheat. Abnormal chromosome synapsis in wheat-Agropyron cristatum addition line II-21-2 (additional 1·4 recombinant P chromosome) was observed in this study. The results of cytogenetics and\\u000a Ph1 gene amplification showed that the Ph1 gene was normal and the average number of quadrivalents or hexavalents was determined to be

  14. Inference of gene regulatory networks with the strong-inhibition Boolean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qinzhi; Liu, Lulu; Ye, Weiming; Hu, Gang

    2011-08-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an important topic in biology. In this paper, a logic-based algorithm that infers the strong-inhibition Boolean genetic regulatory networks (where regulation by any single repressor can definitely suppress the expression of the gene regulated) from time series is discussed. By properly ordering various computation steps, we derive for the first time explicit formulae for the probabilities at which different interactions can be inferred given a certain number of data. With the formulae, we can predict the precision of reconstructions of regulation networks when the data are insufficient. Numerical simulations coincide well with the analytical results. The method and results are expected to be applicable to a wide range of general dynamic networks, where logic algorithms play essential roles in the network dynamics and the probabilities of various logics can be estimated well.

  15. Expression of the baculovirus p35 gene inhibits mammalian neural cell death.

    PubMed

    Rabizadeh, S; LaCount, D J; Friesen, P D; Bredesen, D E

    1993-12-01

    Expression of the apoptosis suppressor gene p35, derived from the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, markedly inhibited the cell death of stably transfected mammalian neural cells whether the cell death was induced by glucose withdrawal, calcium ionophore, or serum withdrawal. The p35 protein, which is required to block virus-induced apoptosis of cultured insect cells, is only the second gene product shown to block mammalian neural cell death, with Bcl-2 being the first. Because there is no apparent homology between p35 and Bcl-2, the existence of a cellular death program that may be modulated at multiple points is suggested. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the putative cellular death program is conserved across species and cell types. PMID:8245984

  16. Hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis in middle age obese mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianglan; McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Slater, Andrew; Huang, Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamus-adipocyte axis is associated with an antiobesity and anticancer phenotype in animal models of melanoma and colon cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator in the hypothalamus leading to preferential sympathoneural activation of adipose tissue and the ensuing resistance to obesity and cancer. Here, we generated middle age obese mice by high fat diet feeding for a year and investigated the effects of hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF on a hormone receptor-positive mammary tumor model. The recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-mediated overexpression of BDNF led to marked weight loss and decrease of adiposity without change of food intake. BDNF gene therapy improved glucose tolerance, alleviated steatosis, reduced leptin level, inhibited mouse breast cancer EO771 growth, and prevented the metastasis. The reduced tumor growth in BDNF-treated mice was associated with reduced angiogenesis, decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced adipocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation. Moreover, BDNF gene therapy reduced inflammation markers in the hypothalamus, the mammary gland, the subcutaneous fat, and the mammary tumor. Our results suggest that manipulating a single gene in the brain may influence multiple mechanisms implicated in obesity-cancer association and provide a target for the prevention and treatment of both obesity and cancer. PMID:24637454

  17. Butylated Hydroxyanisole Stimulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression and Inhibits Neointima Formation in Rat Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Azam, Mohammed A.; Peyton, Kelly J.; Ensenat, Diana; Keswani, Amit N.; Wang, Hong; Durante, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound that is a potent inducer of phase II genes. Since heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vasoprotective protein that is upregulated by phase II inducers, the present study examined the effects of BHA on HO-1 gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Methods The regulation of HO-1 gene expression and vascular cell growth by BHA was studied in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and in balloon injured rat carotid arteries. Results Treatment of cultured smooth muscle cells with BHA stimulated the expression of HO-1 protein, mRNA and promoter activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. BHA-mediated HO-1 expression was dependent on the activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. BHA also inhibited cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis in a HO-1-dependent manner. In addition, the local perivascular delivery of BHA immediately after arterial injury of rat carotid arteries induced HO-1 protein expression and markedly attenuated neointima formation. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that BHA stimulates HO-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, and that the induction of HO-1 contributes to the antiproliferative actions of this phenolic antioxidant. BHA represents a potentially novel therapeutic agent in treating or preventing vasculoproliferative disease. PMID:17320844

  18. Inhibiting I?B?-NF?B signaling attenuates the expression of select pro-inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Sarah; Wright, Clyde J

    2015-06-01

    Multiple mediators of septic shock are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF?B). However, complete NF?B inhibition can exacerbate disease, necessitating evaluation of targeted strategies to attenuate the pro-inflammatory response. Here, we demonstrate that in murine macrophages, low-dose NF?B inhibitors specifically attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced I?B? degradation and the expression of a select subset of target genes (encoding IL1?, IL6, IL12?). Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrate the necessary and sufficient role of inhibitor of NF?B family member I?B? (also known as NFKBIB) in the expression of these genes. Furthermore, both fibroblasts and macrophages isolated from I?B? overexpressing mice demonstrate attenuated LPS-induced I?B?-NF?B signaling and IL1?, IL6 and IL12? expression. Further confirming the role of I?B? and its NF?B subunit binding partner cRel in LPS-induced gene expression, pre-treatment of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a cell-permeable peptide containing the cRel nuclear localization sequence attenuated IL6 expression. We prove that LPS-induced I?B?-NF?B signaling can be selectively modulated to attenuate the expression of select pro-inflammatory target genes, thus providing therapeutic insights for patients exposed to systemic inflammatory stress. PMID:25908863

  19. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase II expression by the product of the gstI gene.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M; Riccio, A; Mandrich, L; Manco, G; Lamberti, A; Iaccarino, M; Merrick, M; Patriarca, E J

    2000-07-01

    We report the identification of a previously unrecognized gene that is involved in the regulation of the Rhizobium leguminosarum glnII (glutamine synthetase II) gene. This gene, which is situated immediately upstream of glnII, was identified by means of a deletion/complementation analysis performed in the heterologous background of Klebsiella pneumoniae. It has been designated gstI (glutamine synthetase translational Inhibitor) because, when a complete version of gstI is present, it is possible to detect glnII-specific mRNA, but neither GSII activity nor GSII protein. The gstI gene encodes a small (63 amino acids) protein, which acts in cis or in trans with respect to glnII and is transcribed divergently with respect to glnII from a promoter that was found to be strongly repressed by the nitrogen transcriptional regulator NtrC. A mutated version of GstI lacking the last 14 amino acids completely lost its capacity to repress glnII expression. Our results indicate that gstI mediates the translation inhibition of glnII mRNA and, based on in silico analyses, a mechanism for GstI action is proposed. PMID:10931338

  20. Gene 5. 5 protein of bacteriophaze T7 inhibits the nucleoid protein H-NS of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Richardson, C.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Gene 5.5 of coliphage T7 is one of the most highly expressed genes during T7 infection. Gene 5.5 protein, purified from cells overexpressing the cloned gene, purifies with the nucleoid protein H-NS of Escherichia coli during three chromatographic steps. A fusion protein of gene 5.5 protein and maltose binding protein also purifies with H-NS. The fusion protein binds to the DNA-H-NS complex and abolishes H-NS-mediated inhibition of transcription by Escherichia coli and T7 RNA polymerases in vitro. Expression of gene 5.5 also relieves the repression of the Escherichia coli proU promoter by H-NS in vivo. The change of leucine to proline at residue 30 of gene 5.5 protein abolishes the interaction between gene 5.5 protein and H-NS. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of redox modulation by inhibition of thioredoxin reductase on radiosensitivity and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Selenius, Markus; Hedman, Mattias; Brodin, David; Gandin, Valentina; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Flygare, Jenny; Marzano, Christine; Bindoli, Alberto; Brodin, Ola; Björnstedt, Mikael; Fernandes, Aristi P

    2012-07-01

    The thioredoxin system is a promising target when aiming to overcome the problem of clinical radiation resistance. Altered cellular redox status and redox sensitive thiols contributing to induction of resistance strongly connect the ubiquitous redox enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to the cellular response to ionizing radiation. To further investigate possible strategies in combating clinical radiation resistance, human radio-resistant lung cancer cells were subjected to a combination of single fractions of ?-radiation at clinically relevant doses and non-toxic levels of a well-characterized thioredoxin reductase inhibitor, the phosphine gold(I) compound [Au(SCN)(PEt(3))]. The combination of the TrxR-inhibitor and ionizing radiation reduced the surviving fractions and impaired the ability of the U1810 cells to repopulate by approximately 50%. In addition, inhibition of thioredoxin reductase caused changes in the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a disturbance of the mitotic process. Global gene expression analysis also revealed clustered genetic expression changes connected to several major cellular pathways such as cell cycle, cellular response to stress and DNA damage. Specific TrxR-inhibition as a factor behind the achieved results was confirmed by correlation of gene expression patterns between gold and siRNA treatment. These results clearly demonstrate TrxR as an important factor conferring resistance to irradiation and the use of [Au(SCN)(PEt(3))] as a promising radiosensitizing agent. PMID:22003958

  2. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang Fengmin [College of Basic Medical Science, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: jwu@edu.edu.cn

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  3. Inhibition of activated Ras suppresses multiple oncogenic Hub genes in human epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Wang, Ping; Luo, Hui; Wang, Xi-Rui; Wang, Xie-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Ying-Yi; Yao, Lei; Liu, Ning; You, Yong-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Cancer cells may involve diverse mutations, but they often rely on continued expression of a single oncoprotein for survival, as a response to targeting this protein. Generally, Ras is overexpressed in human epithelial tumors and cancellation of activated Ras inhibits carcinoma cell proliferation and differentiation ability, and induces apoptotosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms of inhibition of activated Ras that suppress the malignancy activity of human epithelial tumors remain to be illuminated. We utilized text-mining of MEDLINE abstracts with natural language processing to establish the Ras biologic association network, and identified several interactions of this network with the Ras pathway. Our investigation not only examined the expression of Ras and Hub genes (PIK3CA, MDM2, CCND1, EGFR, JUN, MYC, VEGFA, ERK1 and ERK2) but also confirmed inhibition of activated Ras reduced expression of multiple oncogene in vitro studies. Our studies provide strong support for the conclusion that cancellation of activated Ras specifically regulates defective Ras pathways in human tumor cells. PMID:24993178

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhichao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yu, Xuemei [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wu, Weibin; Jia, Dongwei; Chen, Yinle; Ji, Lingling; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Yintao [Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Lili [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ren, Shifang, E-mail: renshifang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Songwen, E-mail: songwenzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated that the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.

  5. BMP inhibition initiates neural induction via FGF signaling and Zic genes.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Leslie; Luxardi, Guillaume; Thomé, Virginie; Kodjabachian, Laurent

    2009-10-13

    Neural induction is the process that initiates nervous system development in vertebrates. Two distinct models have been put forward to describe this phenomenon in molecular terms. The default model states that ectoderm cells are fated to become neural in absence of instruction, and do so when bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals are abolished. A more recent view implicates a conserved role for FGF signaling that collaborates with BMP inhibition to allow neural fate specification. Using the Xenopus embryo, we obtained evidence that may unite the 2 views. We show that a dominant-negative R-Smad, Smad5-somitabun-unlike the other BMP inhibitors used previously-can trigger conversion of Xenopus epidermis into neural tissue in vivo. However, it does so only if FGF activity is uncompromised. We report that this activity may be encoded by FGF4, as its expression is activated upon BMP inhibition, and its knockdown suppresses endogenous, as well as ectopic, neural induction by Smad5-somitabun. Supporting the importance of FGF instructive activity, we report the isolation of 2 immediate early neural targets, zic3 and foxD5a. Conversely, we found that zic1 can be activated by BMP inhibition in the absence of translation. Finally, Zic1 and Zic3 are required together for definitive neural fate acquisition, both in ectopic and endogenous situations. We propose to merge the previous models into a unique one whereby neural induction is controlled by BMP inhibition, which activates directly, and, via FGF instructive activity, early neural regulators such as Zic genes. PMID:19805078

  6. B?cell translocation 1 gene inhibits cellular metastasis?associated behavior in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zou, Shi-Tao; Zhu, Ran; Wan, Jian-Mei; Xu, Yan; Wu, Hao-Rong

    2014-06-01

    B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) is a member of the BTG/transducer of ERBB2 family, which regulates cell cycle progression in a variety of cell types and may have a role in inhibiting proliferation, promoting apoptosis and stimulating cellular differentiation in numerous cell types. However, the role of BTG1 in cancer metastasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, analysis of clinical specimens revealed that BTG1 mRNA levels were lower in lymph node metastases than those in benign breast tumors and normal human breast tissue. The effect of BTG1 on the metastatic behavior of breast cancer cells following stable transfection with a BTG1 expression vector was also investigated. The overexpression of BTG1 was observed to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the overexpression of BTG1 was found to be involved in the inhibition of the metastasis-related proteins matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, as well as the promotion of the cell-cell adhesion-associated protein E-cadherin. In syngeneic nude mice breast tumor models, hepatic metastasis and angiogenesis were observed in the mice injected with the control cells, but not in those injected with pcDNA3-BTG1 cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that overexpression of BTG1 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that BTG1 overexpression decreases migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and thereby inhibits distant metastasis in mice breast tumor models. PMID:24714932

  7. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present study we report that cotreatment of human endothelial cells with certain hydroxyflavones and flavanols blocks cytokine-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression on human endothelial cells. One of the most potent flavones, apigenin, exhibited a dose- and time-dependent, reversible effect on adhesion protein expression as well as inhibiting adhesion protein upregulation at the transcriptional level. Apigenin also inhibited IL-1 alpha-induced prostaglandin synthesis and TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production, suggesting that the hydroxyflavones may act as general inhibitors of cytokine-induced gene expression. Although apigenin did not inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B(p50(NFKB1)/p65(RelA)) we found this flavonoid did inhibit TNF-alpha induced beta-galactosidase activity in SW480 cells stably transfected with a beta-galactosidase reporter construct driven by four NF-kappa B elements, suggesting an action on NF-kappa B transcriptional activation. Adhesion of leukocytes to cytokine-treated endothelial cells was blocked in endothelial cells cotreated with apigenin. Finally, apigenin demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and delayed type hypersensitivity in the mouse. We conclude that flavonoids offer important therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases involving an increase in leukocyte adhesion and trafficking. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:7543732

  8. Astragaloside IV inhibits NF- ? B activation and inflammatory gene expression in LPS-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Jian; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active constituents purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceus, in LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses in mice in vivo and examined possible underlying mechanisms. Mice were assigned to four groups: vehicle-treated control animals; AS-IV-treated animals (10?mg/kg?b.w. AS-IV daily i.p. injection for 6 days); LPS-treated animals; and AS-IV plus LPS-treated animals. We found that AS-IV treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced increases in serum levels of MCP-1 and TNF by 82% and 49%, respectively. AS-IV also inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory gene expression in different organs. Lung mRNA levels of cellular adhesion molecules, MCP-1, TNF?, IL-6, and TLR4 were significantly attenuated, and lung neutrophil infiltration and activation were strongly inhibited, as reflected by decreased myeloperoxidase content, when the mice were pretreated with AS-IV. Similar results were observed in heart, aorta, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, AS-IV significantly suppressed LPS-induced NF-?B and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in lung and heart. In conclusion, our data provide new in vivo evidence that AS-IV effectively inhibits LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses by modulating NF-?B and AP-1 signaling pathways. Our results suggest that AS-IV may be useful for the prevention or treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25960613

  9. The Rel/NF-?B pathway and transcription of immediate early genes in T cell activation are inhibited by microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy T.; Walther, Isabelle; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Galleri, Grazia; Meloni, Maria Antonia; Pippia, Proto; Cogoli, Augusto; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that transcription of immediate early genes is inhibited in T cells activated in ?g. Immunosuppression during spaceflight is a major barrier to safe, long-term human space habitation and travel. The goals of these experiments were to prove that ?g was the cause of impaired T cell activation during spaceflight, as well as understand the mechanisms controlling early T cell activation. T cells from four human donors were stimulated with Con A and anti-CD28 on board the ISS. An on-board centrifuge was used to generate a 1g simultaneous control to isolate the effects of ?g from other variables of spaceflight. Microarray expression analysis after 1.5 h of activation demonstrated that ?g- and 1g-activated T cells had distinct patterns of global gene expression and identified 47 genes that were significantly, differentially down-regulated in ?g. Importantly, several key immediate early genes were inhibited in ?g. In particular, transactivation of Rel/NF-?B, CREB, and SRF gene targets were down-regulated. Expression of cREL gene targets were significantly inhibited, and transcription of cREL itself was reduced significantly in ?g and upon anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation in simulated ?g. Analysis of gene connectivity indicated that the TNF pathway is a major early downstream effector pathway inhibited in ?g and may lead to ineffective proinflammatory host defenses against infectious pathogens during spaceflight. Results from these experiments indicate that ?g was the causative factor for impaired T cell activation during spaceflight by inhibiting transactivation of key immediate early genes. PMID:22750545

  10. IL-10 inhibits while calcitriol reestablishes placental antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Barrera, David; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Avila, Euclides; Halhali, Ali; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-04-01

    IL-10 and calcitriol help to achieve a successful pregnancy by suppressing active maternal immunity; however, these factors exert opposite effects upon microbial infections. In the skin and immune cells, IL-10 downregulates ?-defensins while calcitriol induces cathelicidin gene expression in various tissues including placenta. Though, the regulation of human placental ?-defensins by IL-10 and calcitriol has not been studied. Therefore, we explored the regulation of these antimicrobial peptides expression in cultured placental cells by calcitriol and IL-10 alone and combined. Real time PCR showed that calcitriol stimulated, while IL-10 inhibited, ?-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression (P<0.05). In coincubations studies, calcitriol was able to maintain antimicrobial peptides gene expression above control values, overriding IL-10 inhibitory effects. Calcitriol downregulated endogenous IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, calcitriol and TNF-? cooperatively enhanced ?-defensins, while TNF-? reduced basal and calcitriol-stimulated cathelicidin gene expression. In summary, calcitriol and IL-10 exerted opposite effects on antimicrobial peptides expression in the human placenta, suggesting that unbalanced production of IL-10 and calcitriol could be deleterious to innate immune responses during gestation. Our results suggest that calcitriol enhancement of placental defenses involves two mechanisms: (1) downregulation of IL-10 secretion and (2) direct upregulation of ?-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression. Considering that IL-10 and calcitriol differentially regulate the innate immune response in the placenta, in the case of an infection, calcitriol might restrict IL-10 permissive actions towards microbial invasion while restrains inflammation, allowing for pregnancy to continue in quiescence. These results strongly advice maternal vitamin D sufficiency during pregnancy. PMID:25088189

  11. Mechanistic Rationale for Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in ETS Gene Fusion-Positive Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, J. Chad; Ateeq, Bushra; Li, Yong; Yocum, Anastasia K.; Cao, Qi; Asangani, Irfan A.; Patel, Sonam; Wang, Xiaoju; Liang, Hallie; Yu, Jindan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Siddiqui, Javed; Yan, Wei; Cao, Xuhong; Mehra, Rohit; Sabolch, Aaron; Basrur, Venkatesha; Lonigro, Robert J.; Yang, Jun; Tomlins, Scott A; Maher, Christopher A.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S.J.; Hussain, Maha; Navone, Nora M.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Feng, Felix Y.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recurrent fusions of ETS genes are considered driving mutations in a diverse array of cancers, including Ewing’s sarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and prostate cancer. We investigate the mechanisms by which ETS fusions mediate their effects, and find that the product of the predominant ETS gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ERG, interacts in a DNA-independent manner with the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ETS gene-mediated transcription and cell invasion require PARP1 and DNA-PKcs expression and activity. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 inhibits ETS positive, but not ETS negative, prostate cancer xenograft growth. Finally, overexpression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion induces DNA damage, which is potentiated by PARP1 inhibition in a manner similar to that of BRCA1/2-deficiency. PMID:21575865

  12. Inhibition of Interleukin-2 Gene Expression by Human Herpesvirus 6B U54 Tegument Protein

    PubMed Central

    Iampietro, Mathieu; Morissette, Guillaume; Gravel, Annie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a ubiquitous pathogen causing lifelong infections in approximately 95% of humans worldwide. To persist within its host, HHV-6B has developed several immune evasion mechanisms, such as latency, during which minimal proteins are expressed, and the ability to disturb innate and adaptive immune responses. The primary cellular targets of HHV-6B are CD4+ T cells. Previous studies by Flamand et al. (L. Flamand, J. Gosselin, I. Stefanescu, D. Ablashi, and J. Menezes, Blood 85:1263–1271, 1995) reported on the capacity of HHV-6A as well as UV-irradiated HHV-6A to inhibit interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis in CD4+ lymphocytes, suggesting that viral structural components could be responsible for this effect. In the present study, we identified the HHV-6B U54 tegument protein (U54) as being capable of inhibiting IL-2 expression. U54 binds the calcineurin (CaN) phosphatase enzyme, causing improper dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) proteins, resulting in suboptimal IL-2 gene transcription. The U54 GISIT motif (amino acids 293 to 297), analogous to the NFAT PXIXIT motif, contributed to the inhibition of NFAT activation. IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B are associated with an increasing number of pathologies. These viruses have developed strategies to avoid the immune response allowing them to persist in the host. Several studies have illustrated mechanisms by which HHV-6A and HHV-6B are able to disrupt host defenses (reviewed in L. Dagna, J. C. Pritchett, and P. Lusso, Future Virol. 8:273–287, 2013, doi:10.2217/fvl.13.7). Previous work informed us that HHV-6A is able to suppress synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a key immune growth factor essential for adequate T lymphocyte proliferation and expansion. We obtained evidence that HHV-6B also inhibits IL-2 gene expression and identified the mechanisms by which it does so. Our work led us to the identification of U54, a virion-associated tegument protein, as being responsible for suppression of IL-2. Consequently, we have identified HHV-6B U54 protein as playing a role in immune evasion. These results further contribute to our understanding of HHV-6 interactions with its human host and the efforts deployed to ensure its long-term persistence. PMID:25122797

  13. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen-signaling proteins in pollen tubes from the lilly Agapanthus umbellatus. For the uptake of DNA pollen tubes represent a unique system since the growing tip is surrounded by a loose matrix of hemicellulose and pectins, exposing the plasma membrane7 and the first uptake of ODNs by pollen tubes was reported as early as 1994. A breakthrough in the employment of antisense ODN inhibition as a powerful approach in plant biology was recently presented through our work on intact barley leaves. As was illustrated by confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled ODNs, naked ODNs were taken up through the leaf petiole and efficiently imported into the plant cell and the nucleus. The work portrayed in that study demonstrate the applicability of antisense ODN inhibition in plant biology, e.g. as a rapid antecedent to time-consuming transgenic studies, and that it operates through RNase H degradation. We employed the antisense ODN strategy to demonstrate the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor in regulation of starch synthesis, and to depict a possible mechanism for sugar signaling in plants and how it might confer endosperm-specific gene expression during seed development. We also described the employment of the antisense ODN strategy for studies on in vitro spike cultures of barley. Here we present further evidence as to the value of the antisense ODN approach in plant biology by following the effects on starch branching enzyme (SBE) accumulation in barley leaves after suppression of individual SBE genes. In agreement with transcript analyses of SBE expression in barley leaves, a zymogram assay (Fig. 1) revealed that sucrose treatment of barley leaves increased the number of SBE activity bands as compared to sorbitol treatment. In the presence of antisense SBEI or SBEIIA ODNs, zymograms of sucrose-treated leaves displayed only a subset of these activities with bands in the top portion of the zymogram gel missing or diminished. With antisense SBEIIB ODN, all activity bands in the top portion of the gel as well as the lowest band were absent. Based on these data we provide a t

  14. Inhibition of contact dermatitis in animal models and suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by topically applied Flavonoid, Wogonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Lim; Hyun Pyo Kim

    2004-01-01

    Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) is a down-regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression,\\u000a contributing to anti-inflammatory activityin vivo. For further characterization of modulatory activity on proinflammatory gene expressionin vivo, the effect of wogonin was examined in this experiment using animal models of skin inflammation. By topical application,\\u000a wogonin inhibited an edematic response as well as proinflammatory gene expression against contact

  15. Inhibition of the gene expression for granule-bound starch synthase I by RNA interference in sweet potato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyasu Otani; Tatsuro Hamada; Kenji Katayama; Kakefumi Kitahara; Sun-Hyung Kim; Yasuhiro Takahata; Toshihiko Suganuma; Takiko Shimada

    2007-01-01

    Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) is one of the key enzymes catalyzing the formation of amylose, a linear ?(1,4)D-glucan\\u000a polymer, from ADP-glucose. Amylose-free transgenic sweet potato plants were produced by inhibiting sweet potato GBSSI gene expression through RNA interference. The gene construct consisting of an inverted repeat of the first exon separated\\u000a by intron 1 of GBSSI driven by the

  16. Quantification of allele-specific expression of a gene encoding strawberry polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Pyrosequencing((TM))

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Schaart; L. Mehli; H. J. Schouten

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that allele-specific differences in gene expression are a common phenomenon. The extent to which differential allelic expression exists might be underestimated, due to the limited accuracy of the methods used so far. To demonstrate allele-specific expression, we investigated the transcript abundance of six individual, highly homologous alleles of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (FaPGIP) from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria

  17. Cloning, characterization and expression of the gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) of peach [ prunus persica (L.) Batch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengshan Liang; Kaichun Zhang; Chunjiang Zhou; Fanna Kong; Jun Li; Bin Wang

    2005-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Proteins (PGIPs) are plant proteins that counteract fungal Polygalacturonases (PGs), which are important virulence factors. As defense proteins, PGIP can efficiently limit fungal invasion. In this study, a full-length cDNA of PPGIP1 gene (peach PGIP gene copy no.1) has been cloned from peach [prunus persica (L.) Batch] variety ‘Okubo’, which is resistant to fungal diseases such as peach scab.

  18. Induction of a homeodomain–leucine zipper gene by auxin is inhibited by cytokinin in Arabidopsis roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ora Son; Hee-Yeon Cho; Mi-Ran Kim; Hyosoo Lee; Myeong-Sok Lee; Eunsook Song; Jong Hoon Park; Kyung Hee Nam; Jong-Yoon Chun; Ho-Jung Kim; Soon-Kwan Hong; Yong-Yoon Chung; Cheol-Goo Hur; Hyung-Taeg Cho; Choong-Ill Cheon

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes are essential regulators of the development of plants as well as other organisms. We chose eight putative Arabidopsis homeobox genes not previously characterized and examined their expression in response to treatment with auxin\\/cytokinin. One of them, ATHB53, was further studied because it was auxin-inducible and its induction was inhibited by cytokinin. Its full-length cDNA was cloned and found

  19. Exposure to synthetic gray water inhibits amoeba encystation and alters expression of Legionella pneumophila virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (?0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems. PMID:25381242

  20. Exposure to Synthetic Gray Water Inhibits Amoeba Encystation and Alters Expression of Legionella pneumophila Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (?0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems. PMID:25381242

  1. Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Inhibits Chemokine Production by Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Stohl, Lori L.; Zhou, Xi; Ding, Wanhong; Granstein, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibits release of chemokines by dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Dermal blood vessels are associated with nerves containing CGRP, suggesting that CGRP-containing nerves may regulate cutaneous inflammation through effects on vessels. We examined CGRP effects on stimulated chemokine production by a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (pHDMECs). HMEC-1 cells and pHDMECs expressed mRNA for components of the CGRP and adrenomedullin receptors and CGRP inhibited LPS-induced production of the chemokines CXCL8, CCL2, and CXCL1 by both HMEC-1 cells and pHDMECs. The receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP)1/calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL)-specific antagonists CGRP8-37 and BIBN4096BS, blocked this effect of CGRP in a dose-dependent manner. CGRP prevented LPS-induced I?B? degradation and NF-?B binding to the promoters of CXCL1, CXCL8 and CCL2 in HMEC-1 cells and Bay 11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-?B activation, suppressed LPS-induced production of CXCL1, CXCL8 and CCL2. Thus, the NF-?B pathway appears to be involved in CGRP-mediated suppression of chemokine production. Accordingly, CGRP treatment of LPS-stimulated HMEC-1 cells inhibited their ability to chemoattract human neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Elucidation of this pathway may suggest new avenues for therapeutic manipulation of cutaneous inflammation. PMID:21334428

  2. Adrenomedullin gene transfer induces neointimal apoptosis and inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in injured rat artery.

    PubMed

    Rauma-Pinola, Tanja; Pääkkö, Paavo; Ilves, Mika; Serpi, Raisa; Romppanen, Hannu; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Hautala, Timo

    2006-04-01

    Arterial wall injury leads to inflammatory reaction and release of growth factors that may mediate intimal regrowth. It is hypothesized that the neointimal cells may originate from adventitial myofibroblasts, medial smooth muscle cells, or differentiated bone marrow derived cells. Adrenomedullin (AM), an auto/paracrine cardiovascular peptide that is secreted from fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, may have a regulatory role in the intimal regeneration. In order to investigate the role of AM in neointimal growth, stimulation of stem cell migration, and apoptosis, we overexpressed AM with recombinant adenovirus in a rat arterial injury model. The intimae were significantly thinner in the arteries treated with AM adenovirus compared to the control group. Intima/media ratios were 0.48 +/- 0.18 and 1.01 +/- 0.20 (P < 0.05) in the AM group and the control group, respectively. In addition, a significantly higher apoptotic index of neointimal cells was seen in the AM gene transfer group compared to the control (2.78 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.20, P < 0.01). The neointimal cells stained positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and negative for desmin suggesting possible myofibroblast origin. Very few c-Kit+ or MDR1+ cells were detected 2 weeks after the injury. We conclude that AM overexpression inhibits neointimal growth. The inhibition is associated with enhanced apoptosis of the neointimal cells which may be of myofibroblast origin. PMID:16389603

  3. Berberine inhibits Wilms' tumor cell progression through upregulation of Wilms' tumor gene on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Wilms' tumor is a type of kidney cancer that affects young children. Although a number of Wilms' tumor samples have been collected through international trials, the mechanisms underlying its progression remain challenging to determine. Extensive studies have identified somatic mutations at several loci in Wilms' tumorigenesis, including WT1, catenin, Wilms' tumor gene on the X chromosome (WTX) and TP53. Berberine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from numerous types of medicinal plants and has been extensively used as a Chinese traditional medicine. Recently, berberine has been demonstrated to possess antitumoral activities. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is suggested to be one of the various cellular targets of berberine, which regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the specific involvement of berberine?induced AMPK activation and its effects on the proliferation potential of Wilms' tumor cells remains unknown. The present study investigated the berberine?induced activation of AMPK and its effects on G401 Wilms' tumor cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that berberine inhibited growth and decreased the expression of cell?cycle regulators in these cells. At the molecular level, berberine treatment led to a significant increase of WTX expression and G401 cells were protected against berberine?induced growth inhibition by small interfering RNA against WTX. In conclusion, these results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of berberine which was also demonstrated by recent population studies; however, further studies are required to investigate the potential therapeutic use of berberine in patients with Wilms' tumor. PMID:24002362

  4. Inhibition of Growth and Gene Expression by PNA-peptide Conjugates in Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Patenge, Nadja; Pappesch, Roberto; Krawack, Franziska; Walda, Claudia; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Jacob, Anette; Hain, Torsten; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    While Streptococcus pyogenes is consistently susceptible toward penicillin, therapeutic failure of penicillin treatment has been reported repeatedly and a considerable number of patients exhibit allergic reactions to this substance. At the same time, streptococcal resistance to alternative antibiotics, e.g., macrolides, has increased. Taken together, these facts demand the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, S. pyogenes growth was inhibited by application of peptide-conjugated antisense-peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) specific for the essential gyrase A gene (gyrA). Thereby, HIV-1 Tat peptide-coupled PNAs were more efficient inhibitors of streptococcal growth as compared with (KFF)3K-coupled PNAs. Peptide-anti-gyrA PNAs decreased the abundance of gyrA transcripts in S. pyogenes. Growth inhibition by antisense interference was enhanced by combination of peptide-coupled PNAs with protein-level inhibitors. Antimicrobial synergy could be detected with levofloxacin and novobiocin, targeting the gyrase enzyme, and with spectinomycin, impeding ribosomal function. The prospective application of carrier peptide-coupled antisense PNAs in S. pyogenes covers the use as an antimicrobial agent and the employment as a knock-down strategy for the investigation of virulence factor function. PMID:24193033

  5. Palmitate Inhibits SIRT1-Dependent BMAL1/CLOCK Interaction and Disrupts Circadian Gene Oscillations in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Arthurs, Blake; Li, Pei; Durudogan, Leigh; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum saturated fatty acid palmitate have been shown to promote insulin resistance, increase cellular ROS production, and trigger cell apoptosis in hepatocytes during the development of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether palmitate directly impacts the circadian clock in hepatocytes, which coordinates nutritional inputs and hormonal signaling with downstream metabolic outputs. Here we presented evidence that the molecular clock is a novel target of palmitate in hepatocytes. Palmitate exposure at low dose inhibits the molecular clock activity and suppresses the cyclic expression of circadian targets including Dbp, Nr1d1 and Per2 in hepatocytes. Palmitate treatment does not seem to alter localization or reduce protein expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK, the two core components of the molecular clock in hepatocytes. Instead, palmitate destabilizes the protein-protein interaction between BMAL1-CLOCK in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed that SIRT1 activators could reverse the inhibitory action of palmitate on BMAL1-CLOCK interaction and the clock gene expression, whereas inhibitors of NAD synthesis mimic the palmitate effects on the clock function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that palmitate inhibits the clock function by suppressing SIRT1 function in hepatocytes. PMID:26075729

  6. Engineered RNase P Ribozymes Effectively Inhibit Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Vu, Gia-Phong; Qian, Hua; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Wang, Yu; Reeves, Michael; Zen, Ke; Liu, Fenyong

    2014-01-01

    RNase P ribozyme can be engineered to be a sequence-specific gene-targeting agent with promising application in both basic research and clinical settings. By using an in vitro selection system, we have previously generated RNase P ribozyme variants that have better catalytic activity in cleaving an mRNA sequence than the wild type ribozyme. In this study, one of the variants was used to target the mRNA encoding human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) essential transcription factor immediate-early protein 2 (IE2). The variant was able to cleave IE2 mRNA in vitro 50-fold better than the wild type ribozyme. A reduction of about 98% in IE2 expression and a reduction of 3500-fold in viral production was observed in HCMV-infected cells expressing the variant compared to a 75% reduction in IE2 expression and a 100-fold reduction in viral production in cells expressing the ribozyme derived from the wild type sequence. These results suggest that ribozyme variants that are selected to be highly active in vitro are also more effective in inhibiting the expression of their targets in cultured cells. Our study demonstrates that RNase P ribozyme variants are efficient in reducing HCMV gene expression and growth and are potentially useful for anti-viral therapeutic application. PMID:24932966

  7. Inhibition of gene expression in human cells through small molecule-RNA interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seongwoo; Tamilarasu, Natarajan; Ryan, Kevin; Huq, Ikramul; Richter, Sara; Still, W. Clark; Rana, Tariq M.

    1999-01-01

    Small molecules that bind their biological receptors with high affinity and selectivity can be isolated from randomized pools of combinatorial libraries. RNA-protein interactions are important in many cellular functions, including transcription, RNA splicing, and translation. One example of such interactions is the mechanism of trans-activation of HIV-1 gene expression that requires the interaction of Tat protein with the trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, a 59-base stem-loop structure located at the 5? end of all nascent HIV-1 transcripts. Here we demonstrate the isolation of small TAR RNA-binding molecules from an encoded combinatorial library. We have made an encoded combinatorial tripeptide library of 24,389 possible members from d-and l-alpha amino acids on TentaGel resin. Using on-bead screening we have identified a small family of mostly heterochiral tripeptides capable of structure-specific binding to the bulge loop of TAR RNA. In vitro binding studies reveal stereospecific discrimination when the best tripeptide ligand is compared with diastereomeric peptide sequences. In addition, the most strongly binding tripeptide was shown to suppress transcriptional activation by Tat protein in human cells with an IC50 of ?50 nM. Our results indicate that tripeptide RNA ligands are cell permeable, nontoxic to cells, and capable of inhibiting expression of specific genes by interfering with RNA-protein interactions. PMID:10557261

  8. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes inhibit hepatitis B virus gene expression by a noncytolytic mechanism in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, L G; Ando, K; Hobbs, M V; Ishikawa, T; Runkel, L; Schreiber, R D; Chisari, F V

    1994-01-01

    During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, distinct host-virus interactions may establish the patterns of viral clearance and persistence and the extent of virus-associated pathology. It is generally thought that HBV-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in this process by destroying infected hepatocytes. This cytopathic mechanism, however, could be lethal if most of the hepatocytes are infected. In the current study, we demonstrate that class I-restricted HBV-specific CTLs profoundly suppress hepatocellular HBV gene expression in HBV transgenic mice by a noncytolytic process, the strength of which greatly exceeds the cytopathic effect of the CTLs in magnitude and duration. We also show that the regulatory effect of the CTLs is initially mediated by interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha, is delayed in onset, and becomes independent of these cytokines shortly after it begins. The data indicate that the anti-viral CTL response activates a complex regulatory cascade that inhibits hepatocellular HBV gene expression without killing the cell. The extent to which this mechanism contributes to viral clearance or viral persistence during HBV infection remains to be determined. Images PMID:8170985

  9. IL10 Gene Modified Dendritic Cells Inhibit T Helper Type 1-Mediated Alloimmune Responses and Promote Immunological Tolerance in Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huifen Zhu; Wenhong Qiu; Ping Lei; Wei Zhou; Xue Wen; Fengrong He; Li Li; Hong Dai; Guanxin Shen; Feili Gong

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potency to regulate the outcome of autoimmunity through the modulation of immune responses. The induction of antigen specific tolerance is critical for prevention and treatment of allograft rejection. In the present study, we transfected IL-10 gene into DCs and investigated their effect on inhibition of lymphocyte activity in vitro and induction of immune tolerance on

  10. In vivo transcription of a progesterone-responsive gene is specifically inhibited by a triplex-forming oligonucleotide.

    PubMed Central

    Ing, N H; Beekman, J M; Kessler, D J; Murphy, M; Jayaraman, K; Zendegui, J G; Hogan, M E; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1993-01-01

    Oligonucleotides provide novel reagents for inhibition of gene expression because of their high affinity binding to specific nucleotide sequences. We describe a 38 base, single-stranded DNA that forms a triple helix or 'triplex' on progesterone response elements of a target gene. This triplex-forming oligonucleotide binds with a Kd = 100 nM at 37 degrees C and physiological pH, and blocks binding of progesterone receptors to the target. Furthermore, it completely inhibited progesterone receptor-dependent transcription in vitro. To approach in vivo conditions, triplex-forming oligonucleotides were tested in cell transfection studies. The derivation of the oligonucleotides with cholesterol enhanced their cellular uptake and nuclear concentration by at least four-fold. The cholesterol-derivatized triplex-forming oligonucleotide specifically inhibited transcription of the PRE-containing reporter gene in cells when applied to the medium at micromolar concentrations. This is the first demonstration of steroid-responsive gene inhibition by triplex formation and joins the growing body of evidence indicating that oligonucleotides have therapeutic potential. Images PMID:8332487

  11. A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) shows developmental regulation and pathogen-induced expression in strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Mehli; Jan G. Schaart; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Diem Hong Tran; Elma M. J. Salentijn; Henk J. Schouten; Tor-Henning Iversen

    2004-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) have been demonstrated to play a role in host defence in several plants. The PGIP now cloned from strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) showed a high degree of homology to other fruit PGIPs. The gene expression of strawberry PGIP was monitored in healthy leaves, flowers and fruit at different maturity stages. PGIP transcript levels were also analysed following fruit

  12. Neferine inhibits angiotensin II-induced rat aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation predominantly by downregulating fractalkine gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lulu; Cao, Yongwen; Liu, Shao; Peng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Saidan

    2014-11-01

    Neferine inhibits the angiotensin II (AngII)-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism underlying the effect of neferine on the proliferation of vascular SMCs. Rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) were used and fractalkine (Fkn) gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The proliferation of RASMCs was analyzed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. It was revealed that AngII induced Fkn expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Fkn-knockdown with small interfering RNA attenuated the AngII-induced RASMC proliferation. Furthermore, neferine inhibited Fkn expression and attenuated the AngII-induced RASMC proliferation. These findings suggest that the Fkn gene may play an important role in AngII-induced RASMC proliferation and that neferine acts to attenuate AngII-induced RASMC proliferation by inhibiting Fkn expression. PMID:25289057

  13. Transactivation of gene expression by Myc is inhibited by mutation at the phosphorylation sites Thr-58 and Ser-62.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Seth, A; Davis, R J

    1993-01-01

    The product of the human c-myc protooncogene (Myc) is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Here, we demonstrate that the placement of the specific Myc DNA binding site CACGTG upstream of a luciferase reporter gene conferred Myc-stimulated expression that was inhibited by the overexpression of the basic-helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper protein Max. It was observed that Myc was phosphorylated in vivo within the NH2-terminal domain at Thr-58 and Ser-62. Replacement of these phosphorylation sites with Ala residues caused a marked decrease in Myc-stimulated reporter gene expression. In contrast, the replacement of Thr-58 or Ser-62 with an acidic residue (Glu) caused only a small inhibition of transactivation. Together, these data demonstrate that the NH2-terminal phosphorylation sites Thr-58 and Ser-62 are required for high levels of transactivation of gene expression by Myc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8386367

  14. Responses of growth inhibition and antioxidant gene expression in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane and decabromodiphenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ya-Juan; Xu, Xiang-Bo; Zheng, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Yong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), suspected ubiquitous contaminants, account for the largest volume of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) since penta-BDE and octa-BDE have been phased out globally. In this paper, the growth inhibition and gene transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and the stress-response gene involved in the prevention of oxidative stress (Hsp70) of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to TBBPA, HBCD and BDE 209 were measured to identify the toxicity effects of selected BFRs on earthworms. The growth of earthworms treated by TBBPA at 200 and 400mg/kg dw were inhibited at rate of 13.7% and 22.0% respectively, while there was no significant growth inhibition by HBCD and BDE 209. A significant (P<0.01) up-regulation of SOD expression level was observed in earthworms exposed to TBBPA at 50mg/kg dw (1.77-fold) and to HBCD at 400mg/kg dw (2.06-fold). The transcript level of Hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) when earthworms exposed to TBBPA at concentration of 50-200mg/kg (2.16-2.19-fold) and HBCD at 400mg/kg (2.61-fold). No significant variation of CAT gene expression in all the BFRs treatments was observed, neither does all the target gene expression level exposed to BDE 209. Assessed by growth inhibition and the changes at mRNA levels of encoding genes in earthworms, TBBPA showed the greatest toxicity, followed by HBCD and BDE 209, consistent with trends in molecular properties. The results help to understand the molecular mechanism of antioxidant defense. PMID:26117064

  15. Glucocorticoids increase NPY gene expression in the arcuate nucleus by inhibiting mTOR signaling in rat hypothalamic organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Minemori; Banno, Ryoichi; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in the regulation of physiological functions such as cell growth and proliferation, and glucocorticoids reportedly inhibit mTOR signaling in peripheral tissues. Recent studies suggest that the mTOR signaling in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis. In this study, we examined whether the mTOR signaling in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of neuropeptide Y (Npy) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus by glucocorticoids. In the hypothalamic organotypic cultures, the incubation with rapamycin significantly inhibited the mTOR signaling which was shown by decreases in the levels of phosphorylated p70S6K1 and S6. Similar to the action of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, also inhibited the mTOR signaling in the hypothalamic explants. Analyses of the explants with in situ hybridization demonstrated that the DEX or rapamycin alone significantly increased Npy gene expression in the arcuate nucleus, but that there were no additive effects of DEX and rapamycin on the expression. These data suggest that glucocorticoids upregulate the Npy gene expression in the arcuate nucleus by inhibiting mTOR signaling, at least in part. PMID:19818818

  16. Selective inhibition of transcription of the Ets2 gene in prostate cancer cells by a triplex-forming oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Giuseppina M; McGuffie, Eileen M; Collier, Angela; Catapano, Carlo V

    2003-02-01

    The transcription factor Ets2 has a role in cancer development and represents an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, we designed a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) directed to a homopurine:homopyrimidine sequence in the Ets2 promoter. Transcription factors of the Sp family bound to this sequence and mutation of the Sp1 site reduced Ets2 promoter activity. The Ets2-TFO had high binding affinity for the target sequence and inhibited binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the overlapping site. This effect occurred with a high degree of sequence specificity. Mismatched oligonucleotides did not inhibit Sp1/Sp3 binding and mutations in the target sequence that abolished triplex formation prevented inhibition of Sp1/Sp3 binding by the TFO. The Ets2-TFO inhibited Ets2 promoter activity and expression of the endogenous gene in prostate cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations. The TFO did not affect reporter constructs with mutations in the TFO binding site and promoters of non-targeted genes. Expression of non-targeted genes was also not affected in TFO-treated cells. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the anti-transcriptional activity of the Ets2-TFO was sequence- and target-specific, and ruled out alternative, non-triplex mediated mechanisms of action. This anti-transcriptional approach may be useful to examine the effects of selective downregulation of Ets2 expression and may have therapeutic applications. PMID:12560478

  17. Circadian gene hClock enhances proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YAPING; QIAN, RUIZHE; SUN, NING; LU, CHAO; CHEN, ZONGYOU; HUA, LUCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most prevalent types of malignancy-associated mortality worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated that amplification and overexpression of the human circadian locomotor output cycles kaput gene (hClock) was closely associated with a high risk for CRC as well as poor prognosis in CRC patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of CRC remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, hClock was exogenously overexpressed in the CRC cell line SW480 via infection of a lentivirus vector expressing hClock; in addition, a lentivirus vector-based RNA interference approach, using short hairpin RNA, was performed in order to knockdown hClock in SW620 cells. The results showed that upregulation of hClock promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in SW480 cells in vitro and in vivo, while downregulation of hClock inhibited SW620 cell proliferation and accelerated apoptosis in vitro. Upregulation of hClock enhanced the activity of the anti-apoptotic gene phosphorpylated (p-) AKT and inhibited the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and Bcl-2 homology 3 interacting domain death agonist. Furthermore, targeted inhibition of hClock activity reduced p-AKT expression. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that the circadian gene hClock promoted CRC progression and inhibit tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, while silencing hClock was able to reverse this effect. PMID:25625359

  18. Gene expression profiles in engineered cardiac tissues respond to mechanical loading and inhibition of tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Yuan, Fangping; Li, Xiaohong; Cooper, Nigel; Tinney, Joseph P; Keller, Bradley B

    2013-01-01

    Engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) are platforms to investigate cardiomyocyte maturation and functional integration, the feasibility of generating tissues for cardiac repair, and as models for pharmacology and toxicology bioassays. ECTs rapidly mature in vitro to acquire the features of functional cardiac muscle and respond to mechanical load with increased proliferation and maturation. ECTs are now being investigated as platforms for in vitro models for human diseases and for pharmacologic screening for drug toxicities. We tested the hypothesis that global ECT gene expression patterns are complex and sensitive to mechanical loading and tyrosine kinase inhibitors similar to the maturing myocardium. We generated ECTs from day 14.5 rat embryo ventricular cells, as previously published, and then conditioned constructs after 5 days in culture for 48 h with mechanical stretch (5%, 0.5 Hz) and/or the p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) inhibitor BIRB796. RNA was isolated from individual ECTs and assayed using a standard Agilent rat 4 × 44k V3 microarray and Pathway Analysis software for transcript expression fold changes and changes in regulatory molecules and networks. Changes in expression were confirmed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) for selected regulatory molecules. At the threshold of a 1.5-fold change in expression, stretch altered 1559 transcripts, versus 1411 for BIRB796, and 1846 for stretch plus BIRB796. As anticipated, top pathways altered in response to these stimuli include cellular development, cellular growth and proliferation; tissue development; cell death, cell signaling, and small molecule biochemistry as well as numerous other pathways. Thus, ECTs display a broad spectrum of altered gene expression in response to mechanical load and/or tyrosine kinase inhibition, reflecting a complex regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and architectural alignment of cardiomyocytes and noncardiomyocytes within ECT. PMID:24303162

  19. Tandemly Duplicated Arabidopsis Genes That Encode Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Proteins Are Regulated Coordinately by Different Signal Transduction Pathways in Response to Fungal Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Ferrari; Donatella Vairo; Frederick M. Ausubel; Felice Cervone; Giulia De Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant proteins that counteract fungal polygalacturonases, which are important virulence factors. Like many other plant defense proteins, PGIPs are encoded by gene families, but the roles of individual genes in these families are poorly understood. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, two tandemly dupli- cated PGIP genes are upregulated coordinately in response to Botrytis cinerea infection,

  20. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  1. Mouse cytomegalovirus inhibits beta interferon (IFN-beta) gene expression and controls activation pathways of the IFN-beta enhanceosome.

    PubMed

    Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Zimmermann, Albert; Hengel, Hartmut

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated beta interferon (IFN-beta) and IFN-alpha4 gene expression and activation of related transcription factors in mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-infected fibroblasts. mRNA analysis demonstrated an initial phase of IFN gene induction upon MCMV infection, which was followed by a sustained MCMV-mediated simultaneous downregulation of IFN-beta and IFN-alpha4 gene expression. The induction of IFN transcription resulted from the activation of the components of the IFN-beta enhanceosome, i.e. IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 3, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 and c-Jun. Activation of the transcription factors occurred rapidly and in a sequential order upon infection, but only lasted a while. As a consequence, IFN-alpha/beta gene expression became undetectable 6 h post-infection and throughout the MCMV replication cycle. This effect is based on an active interference since restimulation of IFN gene induction by further external stimuli (e.g. Sendai virus infection) was completely abolished. This inhibition required MCMV gene expression and was not observed in cells infected with UV-inactivated MCMV virions. The efficiency of inhibition is achieved by a concerted blockade of IkappaBalpha degradation and a lack of nuclear accumulation of IRF3 and ATF-2/c-Jun. Using an MCMV mutant lacking pM27, a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 2-specific inhibitor of Jak/STAT signalling, we found that the initial phase of IFN induction and the subsequent inhibition does not depend on the positive-IFN feedback loop. Our findings indicate that the MCMV-mediated downregulation of IFN transcription in fibroblasts relies on a large arsenal of inhibitory mechanisms targeting each pathway that contributes to the multiprotein enhanceosome complex. PMID:18420790

  2. Inhibition of interferon-inducible gene expression by adenovirus E1A proteins: Block in transcriptional complex formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvakolanu, D.V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Harter, M.L.; Sen, G.C. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Infection with wild-type adenovirus 5, but not with a mutant lacking the E1A gene, prevented the induction by interferon (IFN) {alpha} of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in HeLaM cell lines that had been permanently transfected with chimeric CAT reporter genes driven by the transcriptional regulatory regions of the IFN-inducible CAT activity was observed in cells that were cotransfected with the same reporter genes and plasmids expressing either the E1A 289- or 243-amino acid protein. These proteins also prevented the induction of CAT activity by IFN-{gamma} from a cotransfected HLA-DR{alpha}-CAT gene. Experiments with E1A mutants mapped the inhibitory activity to amino acid residues 38-65 of these proteins. In a HeLa cell line permanently expressing the E1A 289-amino acid protein, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus was not inhibited by IFN-{alpha}, suggesting a global blockade of IFN responses. The observed transcriptional inhibition could be attributed to the lack of formation of the crucial IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcriptional complex. As shown by mobility shift assays, this complex was not formed in the nuclear extracts of IFN-treated adenovirus-infected cells or IFN-treated E1A-producing cells. These nuclear extracts were deficient in both ISGF3{alpha} and ISGF3{gamma} subunits. However, they did not block the formation of ISGF3 complex from exogenously added components.

  3. Niacin inhibits vascular oxidative stress, redox-sensitive genes, and monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shobha H. Ganji; Shucun Qin; Linhua Zhang; Vaijinath S. Kamanna; Moti L. Kashyap

    2009-01-01

    In pharmacological doses, nicotinic acid (niacin) reduces myocardial infarction, stroke and atherosclerosis. The beneficial effects of niacin on lipoproteins are thought to mediate these effects. We hypothesized that niacin inhibits oxidative stress and redox-sensitive inflammatory genes that play a critical role in early atherogenesis. In cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), niacin increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) levels by

  4. The OsFOR1 gene encodes a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) that regulates floral organ number in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seonghoe Jang; Byongho Lee; Chanhong Kim; Soo-Jin Kim; Jieun Yim; Jong-Jin Han; Shinyoung Lee; Seong-Ryong Kim; Gynheung An

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone, OsFOR1, from the immature panicles of rice. The OsFOR1 (Oryza sativa floral organ regulator 1) gene encodes a protein that contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. This domain comprises 10 tandem repeats of a canonical 24-amino acid LRR sequence. The structure and the number of LRRs for OsFOR1 are similar to those of polygalacturonase-inhibiting

  5. Constitutive expression of a grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein affects gene expression and cell wall properties in uninfected tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) directly limit the effective ingress of fungal pathogens by inhibiting cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonases (ePGs). Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Vvpgip1 have previously been shown to be resistant to Botrytis infection. In this study we characterized two of these PGIP over-expressing lines with known resistance phenotypes by gene expression and hormone profiling in the absence of pathogen infection. Results Global gene expression was performed by a cross-species microarray approach using a potato cDNA microarray. The degree of potential cross-hybridization between probes was modeled by a novel computational workflow designed in-house. Probe annotations were updated by predicting probe-to-transcript hybridizations and combining information derived from other plant species. Comparing uninfected Vvpgip1-overexpressing lines to wild-type (WT), 318 probes showed significant change in expression. Functional groups of genes involved in metabolism and associated to the cell wall were identified and consequent cell wall analysis revealed increased lignin-levels in the transgenic lines, but no major differences in cell wall-derived polysaccharides. GO enrichment analysis also identified genes responsive to auxin, which was supported by elevated indole-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the transgenic lines. Finally, a down-regulation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), which are important in cell wall remodeling, was linked to a decrease in total XTH activity. Conclusions This evaluation of PGIP over-expressing plants performed under pathogen-free conditions to exclude the classical PGIP-ePG inhibition interaction indicates additional roles for PGIPs beyond the inhibition of ePGs. PMID:22078230

  6. Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-? gene by the same.

    PubMed

    Subramoniam, Appian; Asha, Velikkakathu V; Nair, Sadasivan Ajikumaran; Sasidharan, Sreejith P; Sureshkumar, Parameswaran K; Rajendran, Krishnan Nair; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Ramalingam, Krishnan

    2012-06-01

    In view of the folklore use of green leaves to treat inflammation, the anti-inflammatory property of chlorophylls and their degradation products were studied. Chlorophyll a and pheophytin a (magnesium-free chlorophyll a) from fresh leaves showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and formalin-induced paw edema in rats. Chlorophyll a inhibited bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression in HEK293 cells, but it did not influence the expression of inducible nitric acid synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Chlorophyll b only marginally inhibited both inflammation and TNF-? gene expression. But both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed the same level of marginal inhibition on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-?B activation. Chlorophylls and pheophytins showed in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The study shows that chlorophyll a and its degradation products are valuable and abundantly available anti-inflammatory agents and promising for the development of phytomedicine or conventional medicine to treat inflammation and related diseases. PMID:22038065

  7. Comparative inhibition of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene expression by antisense oligonucleotide analogues having alkyl phosphotriester, methylphosphonate and phosphorothioate linkages.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Sekura, C J; Woerner, A M; Shinozuka, K; Zon, G; Quinnan, G V

    1987-01-01

    Several classes of oligonucleotide antisense compounds of sequence complementary to the start of the mRNA coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), including methylphosphonate, alkyltriester, and phosphorothioate analogues of DNA, have been compared to "normal" phosphodiester oligonucleotides for their ability to inhibit expression of plasmid-directed CAT gene activity in CV-1 cells. CAT gene expression was inhibited when transfection with plasmid DNA containing the gene for CAT coupled to simian virus 40 regulatory sequences (pSV2CAT) or the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer (pHIVCAT) was carried out in the presence of 30 microM concentrations of analogue. For the oligo-methylphosphonate analogue, inhibition was dependent on both oligomer concentration and chain length. Analogues with phosphodiester linkages that alternated with either methylphosphonate, ethyl phosphotriester, or isopropyl phosphotriester linkages were less effective inhibitors, in that order. The phosphorothioate analogue was about two-times more potent than the oligo-methylphosphonate, which was in turn approximately twice as potent as the normal oligonucleotide. Images PMID:3475677

  8. Prospects for inhibiting the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Augustine; Panjaworayan T-Thienprasert, Nattanan; Brown, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    There is a continuing need for novel antivirals to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as it remains a major health problem worldwide. Ideally new classes of antivirals would target multiple steps in the viral lifecycle. In this review, we consider the steps in which HBV RNAs are processed, exported from the nucleus and translated. These are often overlooked steps in the HBV life-cycle. HBV, like retroviruses, incorporates a number of unusual steps in these processes, which use a combination of viral and host cellular machinery. Some of these unusual steps deserve a closer scrutiny. They may provide alternative targets to existing antiviral therapies, which are associated with increasing drug resistance. The RNA post-transcriptional regulatory element identified 20 years ago promotes nucleocytoplasmic export of all unspliced HBV RNAs. There is evidence that inhibition of this step is part of the antiviral action of interferon. Similarly, the structured RNA epsilon element situated at the 5’ end of the polycistronic HBV pregenomic RNA also performs key roles during HBV replication. The pregenomic RNA, which is the template for translation of both the viral core and polymerase proteins, is also encapsidated and used in replication. This complex process, regulated at the epsilon element, also presents an attractive antiviral target. These RNA elements that mediate and regulate gene expression are highly conserved and could be targeted using novel strategies employing RNAi, miRNAs or aptamers. Such approaches targeting these functionally constrained genomic regions should avoid escape mutations. Therefore understanding these regulatory elements, along with providing potential targets, may also facilitate the development of other new classes of antiviral drugs. PMID:25009369

  9. Gene- and Protein-Delivered Zinc Finger–Staphylococcal Nuclease Hybrid for Inhibition of DNA Replication of Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mino, Takashi; Mori, Tomoaki; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that artificial zinc-finger proteins (AZPs) inhibited virus DNA replication in planta and in mammalian cells by blocking binding of a viral replication protein to its replication origin. However, the replication mechanisms of viruses of interest need to be disentangled for the application. To develop more widely applicable methods for antiviral therapy, we explored the feasibility of inhibition of HPV-18 replication as a model system by cleaving its viral genome. To this end, we fused the staphylococcal nuclease cleaving DNA as a monomer to an AZP that binds to the viral genome. The resulting hybrid nuclease (designated AZP–SNase) cleaved its target DNA plasmid efficiently and sequence-specifically in vitro. Then, we confirmed that transfection with a plasmid expressing AZP–SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication in transient replication assays using mammalian cells. Linker-mediated PCR analysis revealed that the AZP–SNase cleaved an HPV-18 ori plasmid around its binding site. Finally, we demonstrated that the protein-delivered AZP–SNase inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication as well and did not show any significant cytotoxicity. Thus, both gene- and protein-delivered hybrid nucleases efficiently inhibited HPV-18 DNA replication, leading to development of a more universal antiviral therapy for human DNA viruses. PMID:23437192

  10. Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S.

    2012-01-01

    Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yellow-skinned cv. Golden Delicious than in red-skinned cv. Red Delicious. Transcript accumulation of MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes in fruits gradually decreased throughout fruit development. Ectopic expression of apple MdANR genes in tobacco positively and negatively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanin, respectively, resulting in white, pale pink-coloured, and white/red variegated flowers. The accumulation of anthocyanin is significantly reduced in all tobacco transgenic flowers, while catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers are significantly higher than those in flowers of wild-type plants. The inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis in tobacco transgenic flowers overexpressing MdANR genes is probably attributed to down-regulation of CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE (DFR) genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway. Interestingly, several transgenic lines show no detectable transcripts of the gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) in flowers, but accumulate higher levels of catechin in flowers of transgenic plants than those of wild-type plants. This finding suggests that the ANR gene may be capable of generating catechin via an alternative route, although this mechanism is yet to be further elucidated. PMID:22238451

  11. Growth Inhibition and Altered Gene Transcript Levels in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) Exposed to 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Bo; Shi, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yong-Long; Zheng, Xiao-Qi; Ritchie, R J

    2015-07-01

    The toxic effects of the ubiquitous pollutant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida were assessed by determining growth-inhibition and gene transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST), and transcriptional changes of the stress-response gene (heat-shock protein 70 [Hsp70]). Somatic growth and growth-inhibition rates in all BDE-47-treated groups were significantly different from those of the controls. The SOD gene transcripts were upregulated at all exposure doses and reached the maximum at the concentration of 400 mg/kg dry weight (dw) (3.84-fold, P < 0.01), which protected earthworms from oxidative stresses. However, downregulation of CAT and Hsp70 was present in all exposure doses and reached to the minimum at concentrations of 400 mg/kg dw (0.07-fold, P < 0.01 and 0.06-fold, P < 0.01, respectively). Upregulation of GST gene transcript level presented significant changes at concentrations of 10 (2.69-fold, P < 0.05) and 100 mg/kg dw (2.55-fold, P < 0.05). SOD maintained a dynamic balance to upregulate SOD expression to eliminate superoxide radicals in all dosage treatments, but downregulation of CAT decreased the ability to eliminate hydrogen peroxide. These changes could result in biochemical and physiological disturbances in earthworms. PMID:25600924

  12. Inhibition of protein translation by the DISC1-Boymaw fusion gene from a Scottish family with major psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baohu; Higa, Kerin K; Kim, Minjung; Zhou, Lynn; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A; Zhou, Xianjin

    2014-11-01

    The t(1; 11) translocation appears to be the causal genetic lesion with 70% penetrance for schizophrenia, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in a Scottish family. Molecular studies identified the disruption of the disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene by chromosome translocation at chromosome 1q42. Our previous studies, however, revealed that the translocation also disrupted another gene, Boymaw (also termed DISC1FP1), on chromosome 11. After translocation, two fusion genes [the DISC1-Boymaw (DB7) and the Boymaw-DISC1 (BD13)] are generated between the DISC1 and Boymaw genes. In the present study, we report that expression of the DB7 fusion gene inhibits both intracellular NADH oxidoreductase activities and protein translation. We generated humanized DISC1-Boymaw mice with gene targeting to examine the in vivo functions of the fusion genes. Consistent with the in vitro studies on the DB7 fusion gene, protein translation activity is decreased in the hippocampus and in cultured primary neurons from the brains of the humanized mice. Expression of Gad67, Nmdar1 and Psd95 proteins are also reduced. The humanized mice display prolonged and increased responses to the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine, on various mouse genetic backgrounds. Abnormal information processing of acoustic startle and depressive-like behaviors are also observed. In addition, the humanized mice display abnormal erythropoiesis, which was reported to associate with depression in humans. Expression of the DB7 fusion gene may reduce protein translation to impair brain functions and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. PMID:24908665

  13. The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

  14. Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Gene Multilayers Inhibit Osteogenic Differentiation and Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Shi, Zhong-Li; Liu, An; Lin, Tiao; Bi, Fang-Gang; Shi, Ming-Min; Yan, Shi-Gui

    2014-01-01

    There are still many challenges to acquire the optimal integration of biomedical materials with the surrounding tissues. Gene coatings on the surface of biomaterials may offer an effective approach to solve the problem. In order to investigate the gene multilayers mediated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), gene functionalized films of hyaluronic acid (HA) and lipid-DNA complex (LDc) encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were constructed in this study via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Characterizations of the HA/DNA multilayered films indicated the successful build-up process. Cells could be directly transfected by gene films and a higher expression could be obtained with the increasing bilayer number. The multilayered films were stable for a long period and DNA could be easily released in an enzymatic condition. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay presented significantly higher (p < 0.01) COMP expression of MSCs cultured with HA/COMP multilayered films. Compared with control groups, the osteogenic gene expression levels of MSCs with HA/COMP multilayered films were down-regulated while the chondrogenic gene expression levels were up-regulated. Similarly, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Alizarin red S staining of MSCs with HA/COMP films were weakened while the alcian blue staining was enhanced. These results demonstrated that HA/COMP multilayered films could inhibit osteogenic differentiation and promote chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, which might provide new insight for physiological ligament-bone healing. PMID:25380520

  15. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene multilayers inhibit osteogenic differentiation and promote chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Shi, Zhong-Li; Liu, An; Lin, Tiao; Bi, Fang-Gang; Shi, Ming-Min; Yan, Shi-Gui

    2014-01-01

    There are still many challenges to acquire the optimal integration of biomedical materials with the surrounding tissues. Gene coatings on the surface of biomaterials may offer an effective approach to solve the problem. In order to investigate the gene multilayers mediated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), gene functionalized films of hyaluronic acid (HA) and lipid-DNA complex (LDc) encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were constructed in this study via the layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Characterizations of the HA/DNA multilayered films indicated the successful build-up process. Cells could be directly transfected by gene films and a higher expression could be obtained with the increasing bilayer number. The multilayered films were stable for a long period and DNA could be easily released in an enzymatic condition. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay presented significantly higher (p<0.01) COMP expression of MSCs cultured with HA/COMP multilayered films. Compared with control groups, the osteogenic gene expression levels of MSCs with HA/COMP multilayered films were down-regulated while the chondrogenic gene expression levels were up-regulated. Similarly, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Alizarin red S staining of MSCs with HA/COMP films were weakened while the alcian blue staining was enhanced. These results demonstrated that HA/COMP multilayered films could inhibit osteogenic differentiation and promote chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, which might provide new insight for physiological ligament-bone healing. PMID:25380520

  16. LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX-2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Haipeng [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Xu Beibei; Sheveleva, Elena [Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Qin M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)], E-mail: qchen@email.arizona.edu

    2008-10-01

    Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K/AKT signaling pathway whereas LY29 and WM decreased the activity of PI3K. LY303511 (LY30), a structural analogue and a negative control for PI3K inhibitory activity of LY29, also suppressed COX-2 induction. These data suggest PI3K-independent mechanisms in regulating CT-induced COX-2 expression. LY29 and LY30 do not inhibit glucocorticoid receptor transactivity. Both compounds have been reported to inhibit Casein Kinase 2 activity and modulate potassium and calcium levels independent of PI3K, while LY29 has been reported to inhibit mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), and DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK). Inhibitor of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), mTOR or DNA-PK failed to prevent CT from inducing COX-2 expression. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker, and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, both attenuated CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. CT was found to increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, which can be inhibited by LY29, TEA or nimodipine. These data suggest a possible role of calcium instead of PI3K in CT-induced COX-2 expression in cardiomyocytes.

  17. A Gene Expression Profiling of Early Rice Stamen Development that Reveals Inhibition of Photosynthetic Genes by OsMADS58.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Shen, Li-Ping; Wang, Dong-Hui; Wang, Fu-Gui; Zeng, Hong-Yun; Chen, Zhi-Shan; Peng, Yi-Ben; Lin, Ya-Nan; Tang, Xing; Deng, Ming-Hua; Yao, Nan; Luo, Jing-Chu; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2015-07-01

    Stamen is a unique plant organ wherein germ cells or microsporocytes that commit to meiosis are initiated from somatic cells during its early developmental process. While genes determining stamen identity are known according to the ABC model of floral development, little information is available on how these genes affect germ cell initiation. By using the Affymetrix GeneChip Rice Genome Array to assess 51 279 transcripts, we established a dynamic gene expression profile (GEP) of the early developmental process of rice (Oryza sativa) stamen. Systematic analysis of the GEP data revealed novel expression patterns of some developmentally important genes including meiosis-, tapetum-, and phytohormone-related genes. Following the finding that a substantial amount of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins are expressed at the low levels in early rice stamen, through the ChIP-seq analysis we found that a C-class MADS box protein, OsMADS58, binds many nuclear-encoded genes participated in photosystem and light reactions and the expression levels of most of them are increased when expression of OsMADS58 is downregulated in the osmads58 mutant. Furthermore, more pro-chloroplasts are observed and increased signals of reactive oxygen species are detected in the osmads58 mutant anthers. These findings implicate a novel link between stamen identity determination and hypoxia status establishment. PMID:25684654

  18. The application of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay inhibition to the identification of breast cancer susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of novel, highly penetrant, breast cancer susceptibility genes will require the application of additional strategies beyond that of traditional linkage and candidate gene approaches. Approximately one-third of inherited genetic diseases, including breast cancer susceptibility, are caused by frameshift or nonsense mutations that truncate the protein product [1]. Transcripts harbouring premature termination codons are selectively and rapidly degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. Blocking the NMD pathway in any given cell will stabilise these mutant transcripts, which can then be detected using gene expression microarrays. This technique, known as gene identification by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay inhibition (GINI), has proved successful in identifying sporadic nonsense mutations involved in many different cancer types. However, the approach has not yet been applied to identify germline mutations involved in breast cancer. We therefore attempted to use GINI on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from multiple-case, non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer families in order to identify additional high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes. Methods We applied GINI to a total of 24 LCLs, established from breast-cancer affected and unaffected women from three multiple-case non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families. We then used Illumina gene expression microarrays to identify transcripts stabilised by the NMD inhibition. Results The expression profiling identified a total of eight candidate genes from these three families. One gene, PPARGC1A, was a candidate in two separate families. We performed semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR of all candidate genes but only PPARGC1A showed successful validation by being stabilised in individuals with breast cancer but not in many unaffected members of the same family. Sanger sequencing of all coding and splice site regions of PPARGC1A did not reveal any protein truncating mutations. Haplotype analysis using short tandem repeat microsatellite markers did not indicate the presence of a haplotype around PPARGC1A which segregated with disease in the family. Conclusions The application of the GINI method to LCLs to identify transcripts harbouring germline truncating mutations is challenging due to a number of factors related to cell type, microarray sensitivity and variations in NMD efficiency. PMID:22703186

  19. The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum suppresses breast-to-lung cancer metastasis through the inhibition of pro-invasive genes.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Jagadish; Jiang, Jiahua; Smith, Amanda; Jedinak, Andrej; Thyagarajan-Sahu, Anita; Sandusky, George E; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Sliva, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer metastasis is one of the major reasons for the high morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. In spite of surgical interventions, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy, some patients are considering alternative therapies with herbal/natural products. In the present study, we evaluated a well-characterized extract from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) for its affects on tumor growth and breast-to-lung cancer metastasis. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pads of nude mice. GLE (100 mg/kg/every other day) was administered to the mice by an oral gavage for 4 weeks, and tumor size was measured using microcalipers. Lung metastases were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by DNA microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative PCR. Identified genes were silenced by siRNA, and cell migration was determined in Boyden chambers and by wound-healing assay. Although an oral administration of GLE only slightly suppressed the growth of large tumors, the same treatment significantly inhibited the number of breast-to-lung cancer metastases. GLE also downregulated the expression of genes associated with invasive behavior (HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, MCAM, I2PP2A and FN1) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gene silencing of HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, I2PP2A and FN1 by siRNA suppressed migration of MDA-MB?231 cells. Our study suggests that an oral administration of GLE can inhibit breast-to-lung cancer metastases through the downregulation of genes responsible for cell invasiveness. The anti-metastatic benefits of GLE warrant further clinical studies. PMID:24718855

  20. Nanoceria inhibit expression of genes associated with inflammation and angiogenesis in the retina of Vldlr null mice

    PubMed Central

    Kyosseva, Svetlana V.; Chen, Lijuan; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathological mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor knockout mouse (Vldlr?/?) has been identified as a model for AMD and in particular for Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP). In this study we examined the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) that have been shown to have catalytic antioxidant activity, on expression of 88 major cytokines in the retinas of Vldlr?/? mice using a PCR array. A single intravitrial injection of nanoceria at P28 caused inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic growth factors including Tslp, Lif, Il-3, Il-7, Vegfa, Fgf1, Fgf2, Fgf7, Egf, Efna 3, Lep, and up-regulation of several cytokines and anti-angiogenic genes in the Vldlr?/?retina within one week. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software to search for biological functions, pathways, and interrelationships between gene networks. Many of the genes whose activities were affected are involved in cell signaling, cellular development, growth and proliferation, and tissue development. Western blot analysis revealed that nanoceria inhibit the activation of ERK 1/2, JNK, p38 MAP kinase, and Akt. These data suggest that nanoceria may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AMD, RAP, and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23978600

  1. Quantification of allele-specific expression of a gene encoding strawberry polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; Mehli, Lisbeth; Schouten, Henk J

    2005-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that allele-specific differences in gene expression are a common phenomenon. The extent to which differential allelic expression exists might be underestimated, due to the limited accuracy of the methods used so far. To demonstrate allele-specific expression, we investigated the transcript abundance of six individual, highly homologous alleles of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (FaPGIP) from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). We applied the highly quantitative Pyrosequencing method which, for the gene under study, detected allele frequency differences as small as 4.0 +/- 2.8%. Pyrosequencing of RT-PCR products showed that one FaPGIP allele was preferentially expressed in leaf tissue, while two other alleles were expressed in a fruit-specific way. For fruits that were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea a strong increase in overall FaPGIP gene expression was observed. This upregulation was accompanied by a significant change in FaPGIP allele frequencies when compared with non-treated fruits. Remarkably, in the five cultivars tested, the allele frequency in cDNA from the inoculated fruits was similar to that in genomic DNA, suggesting uniform upregulation of all FaPGIP alleles present as a result of pathogenesis-related stress. The results demonstrate that when Pyrosequencing of RT-PCR products is performed, novel allele-specific gene regulation can be detected and quantified. PMID:15659106

  2. Inhibition of hepatocelluar carcinoma MAT2A and MAT2beta gene expressions by single and dual small interfering RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun; Liu, Quan-yan; Liu, Zhi-Su; Qian, Qun; Sun, Quan; Pan, Ding-yu

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been successfully applied in suppression of hepatic cancer genes. In hepatocelluar carcinoma cell, one methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) isozyme, MATII was found to have two catalytic subunits which were encoded by MAT2A and MAT2? respectively. During tumorigeness of hepatocelluar carcinoma, expressions of the two genes were discovered to be increased combining with a switch of MAT (form MATI to MATII), To figure out the role played by MATII in hepatic cancer, In this study, for the first time we established a dual small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression system, which could simultaneously express two different siRNA molecules specifically targeting two genes. To test the effectiveness of this system, we applied this approach to express simultaneously two different siRNA duplexes that specifically target MAT2A and MAT2? genes of hepatocelluar carcinoma respectively in HepG2 cell. Results indicated that dual siRNA could simultaneously inhibit the expression of MAT2A and MAT2? gene by 89.5% and 97.8% respectively, In addition, dual siRNA molecules were able to significantly suppress growth of hepatocelluar carcinoma cell in vitro as well as induce apoptosis which was involved in arrest cell cycle at the G1/S checkpoint and the expressions of p21, p27 and Bax. PMID:19025580

  3. Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Protein Inhibits Gene Expression from Different Cellular and Viral Promoters in Hepatic and Nonhepatic Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Ludwig Dumoulin; Annette von dem Bussche; Jisu Li; Leila Khamzina; Jack R. Wands; Tilman Sauerbruch; Ulrich Spengler

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to viral persistence and hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not fully understood. Recently, evidence has been accumulated that HCV viral proteins might interfere with gene expression of host cells. Here, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal portion of HCV NS2 protein inhibits the expression of reporter genes driven by different promoters or enhancer elements and

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Inhibits Expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and Fatty Acid Synthase Genes and Impairs the Growth of Human Breast Cancer and Liposarcoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Donnelly; Arne M. Olsen; Lionel D. Lewis; Burton L. Eisenberg; Alan Eastman; William B. Kinlaw

    2008-01-01

    Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Harvatine and Bauman (1) reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA

  5. KIOM-79 inhibits LPS-induced iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-kappaB/Rel and p38 kinase activation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young Jin; Li, Mei Hong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Kim, Jin Sook; You, Ho Jin; Lee, Seog Ki; Sohn, Hong Moon; Choi, Sang Joon; Koh, Jae Woong; Chang, In Youb

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrate that KIOM-79, combined extracts obtained from Magnolia officinalis, Pueraria lobata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Euphorbia pekinensis, inhibits LPS-induced expression of iNOS gene in RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with KIOM-79 inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production in a dose-related manner. Immunohisto-chemical staining of iNOS and RT-PCR analysis showed that the decrease of NO was due to the inhibition of iNOS gene expression. Immunostaining of p65, EMSA, and reporter gene assay showed that KIOM-79 inhibited NF-kappa/Rel nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation, respectively. Western immunoblot analysis of p38 kinase showed KIOM-79 significantly inhibited the phosphoylation of p38 kinase which is important in the regulation of iNOS gene expression. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that KIOM inhibits iNOS gene expression by blocking NF-kappa/Rel and p38 kinase signaling. Due to the critical role that NO release plays in mediating inflammatory responses, the inhibitory effects of KIOM-79 on iNOS suggest that KIOM-79 may represent a useful anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:16806764

  6. Specific inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 reduces gene expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Suzhao; Fossati, Gianluca; Marchetti, Carlo; Modena, Daniela; Pozzi, Pietro; Reznikov, Leonid L; Moras, Maria Luisa; Azam, Tania; Abbate, Antonio; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A

    2015-01-23

    ITF2357 (generic givinostat) is an orally active, hydroxamic-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad anti-inflammatory properties, which has been used to treat children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ITF2357 inhibits both Class I and II HDACs and reduces caspase-1 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the secretion of IL-1? and other cytokines at 25-100 nm; at concentrations >200 nm, ITF2357 is toxic in vitro. ITF3056, an analog of ITF2357, inhibits only HDAC8 (IC50 of 285 nm). Here we compared the production of IL-1?, IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-6 by ITF2357 with that of ITF3056 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Candida albicans, or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies. ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced cytokines from 100 to 1000 nm; at 1000 nm, the secretion of IL-1? was reduced by 76%, secretion of TNF? was reduced by 88%, and secretion of IL-6 was reduced by 61%. The intracellular levels of IL-1? were 30% lower. There was no evidence of cell toxicity at ITF3056 concentrations of 100-1000 nm. Gene expression of TNF? was markedly reduced (80%), whereas IL-6 gene expression was 40% lower. Although anti-CD3/28 and Candida stimulation of IL-1? and TNF? was modestly reduced, IFN? production was 75% lower. Mechanistically, ITF3056 reduced the secretion of processed IL-1? independent of inhibition of caspase-1 activity; however, synthesis of the IL-1? precursor was reduced by 40% without significant decrease in IL-1? mRNA levels. In mice, ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced serum TNF? by 85% and reduced IL-1? by 88%. These data suggest that specific inhibition of HDAC8 results in reduced inflammation without cell toxicity. PMID:25451941

  7. Characterization of the dry bean polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene family during Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Sclerotiniaceae) infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M B; Nascimento, L B; Junior, M L; Petrofeza, S

    2010-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are leucine-rich repeat proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases. The interaction of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein with endopolygalacturonases limits the destructive potential of endopolygalacturonases and may trigger plant defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides. We examined the expression of fungal pg and plant Pvpgip genes in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stems infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to determine whether any of them are associated with the infection process. Transcriptional analysis was carried out by means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR or real-time PCR. The sspg1 gene was highly expressed during infection; sspg3 was regulated during the later phases of infection; sspg5 was more uniformly expressed during infection, whereas sspg6 was only weakly expressed. During the course of infection, Pvpgip1 transcripts were not detected at early stages, but they appeared 72 h post-inoculation. High levels of Pvpgip2 expression were observed during the initial phase of infection; the transcript peaked by 48 h post-inoculation and declined by 72 h post-inoculation. Pvpgip3 expression increased strongly at 96 h post-inoculation. Pvpgip4 was constantly present from 24 h post-inoculation until the end of the experiment. However, we detected higher levels of the Pvpgip4 transcript in the necrotic lesion area than in plants that had been mechanically wounded. Remarkably, only Pvpgip4 appeared to be moderately induced by mechanical wounding. These results provide evidence that endopolygalacturonases contribute to the infection process during host colonization by promoting the release of plant cell oligogalacturonides, which are powerful signaling molecules and may also activate plant defenses, such as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins. PMID:20533194

  8. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  9. The association between 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism and behavioral inhibition in Chinese toddlers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Zhang, Guangzhen; Liang, Zongbao; Zhang, Minghao; Way, Niobe; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Ke, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2014-11-01

    As one of the fundamental individual characteristics, behavioral inhibition in early childhood has considerable implications for the development of social, cognitive, and psychological adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and behavioral inhibition in Chinese children using a cross-sectional design. A sample of 263 2-year-old children (134 boys and 129 girls of Han ethnicity; ages ranging from 24 to 26 months) in China participated in the study. Behavioral inhibition was assessed through laboratory observations, and genomic DNA was collected with buccal swabs. The results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the homozygous short 5-HTTLPR allele was associated with lower levels of behavioral inhibition, which was different from most of the findings based on individuals in Western countries. The results suggest that social and cultural factors may be involved in shaping links between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and children's specific behaviors. PMID:25196943

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis nuoG Is a Virulence Gene That Inhibits Apoptosis of Infected Host Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamalakannan Velmurugan; Bing Chen; Jessica L Miller; Sharon Azogue; Serdar Gurses; Tsungda Hsu; Michael Glickman; William R Jacobs; Steven A Porcelli; Volker Briken

    2007-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on its capacity to manipulate multiple host defense pathways, including the ability to actively inhibit the death by apoptosis of infected host cells. The genetic basis for this anti-apoptotic activity and its implication for mycobacterial virulence have not been demonstrated or elucidated. Using a novel gain-of-function genetic screen, we demonstrated that inhibition

  11. Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Populus deltoides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Cheng; Youzhi Cao; Huixin Pan; Mingxiu Wang; Minren Huang

    2008-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular proteins that belong to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein superfamily. PGIPs inhibit fungal polygalacturonases (PGs) and promote accumulation of oligogalacturonides, which activate plant defense responses. PGIPs play important roles in resistance to infection of pathogens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were used to

  12. Short-chain fatty acids inhibit growth hormone and prolactin gene transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Fa; Fu, Shou-Peng; Li, Su-Nan; Hu, Zhong-Ming; Xue, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Bing-Xu; Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake. PMID:24177567

  13. Oncogenic Forms of p53 Inhibit p53-Regulated Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Kern; Jennifer A. Pietenpol; Sam Thiagalingam; Albert Seymour; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

    1992-01-01

    Mutant forms of the gene encoding the tumor suppressor p53 are found in numerous human malignancies, but the physiologic function of p53 and the effects of mutations on this function are unknown. The p53 protein binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner and thus may regulate gene transcription. Cotransfection experiments showed that wild-type p53 activated the expression of genes adjacent to

  14. Direct intratumoral gene transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene with DNA-liposome complexes: growth inhibition of tumors and lack of localization in normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, K; Fujita, K; Kikuchi, A; Sugaya, S; Yahata, T; Aida, H; Kurabayashi, T; Hasegawa, I; Tanaka, K

    1997-02-01

    To constitute the site-specific expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine-kinase (HSV-TK) gene in tumor cells, we have assessed the promoter function of the simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter and the 5'flanking region of c-erbB-2 gene using a luciferase-expressing reporter plasmid. After the transfection of the luciferase plasmid directed by the promoter region of c-erbB-2 gene, a large amount of luciferase activity was observed in c-erbB-2-expressing cells (Colo201, MCF-7, and HEC1-A), while none was detected in cells with no expression of c-erbB-2 protein (HRA and KF cells). On the other hand, a high level of luciferase activity was detected in all tumor cell lines tested, when the transfection was performed with SV40 promoter. The repeated transfection of the liposome-conjugated HSV-TK gene regulated by the SV40 promoter or by the promoter region of c-erbB-2 gene with cultivation in 100 micrograms/ml of aciclovir for 5 days in vitro resulted in growth inhibition for all four cell lines examined or for only c-erbB-2-expressing cells in the presence of SV40 promoter or c-erbB-2 promoter, respectively. Finally, direct injection of the DNA-liposome complex into established tumors in the presence of 50 mg/kg of aciclovir led to significant tumor volume reduction in all three tumors tested when SV40 promoter was employed. However, this anti-tumor effect was noted only in c-erbB-2-positive cells (Colo201 cells) upon intratumoral injection of HSV-TK gene regulated by c-erbB-2 promoter. In the case of intratumoral gene transfer, foreign DNA was detected in only one of seven mice by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis performed 7 days following injection. When PCR analysis was carried out at 14 or 21 days following injection, no DNA signal was found at all. However, DNA was detected in several normal tissues at all three times tested in the case of intravenous injection. No abnormalities were seen in histologic examinations of normal tissues or in serum biochemical parameters following DNA liposome delivery. These results suggest that the direct gene transfer of HSV-TK gene regulated by tumor-specific transcriptional units may be one of the most clinically promising of the selective genetic strategies against cancer. PMID:9119745

  15. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Barrey; Elodie Mucher; Nicolas Jeansoule; Thibaut Larcher; Lydie Guigand; Bérénice Herszberg; Stéphane Chaffaux; Gérard Guérin; Xavier Mata; Philippe Benech; Marielle Canale; Olivier Alibert; Péguy Maltere; Xavier Gidrol

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Therapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy and Targeted Drugs That Inhibit DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Mohan; White, Christine L; Zaidi, Shane; Pandha, Hardev S; Melcher, Alan A; Bhide, Shreerang A; Nutting, Christopher M; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Vile, Richard G; Vassaux, Georges; Harrington, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 µCi) 131I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 µCi) 131I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated 131I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers. PMID:20588260

  17. Effect of Akt inhibition on scatter factor-regulated gene expression in DU-145 human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Gao, M; Fan, S; Meng, Q; Goldberg, I D; Abounader, R; Ressom, H; Laterra, J J; Rosen, E M

    2007-05-01

    The cytokine scatter factor (SF) (hepatocyte growth factor) transduces various biologic actions, including cell motility, invasion, angiogenesis and apoptosis inhibition. The latter is relevant to understanding the role of SF in promoting tumor cell survival in different contexts, for example, detachment from basement membrane, growth in metastatic sites and responses to chemo- and radiotherapy. Previously, we showed that SF protects cells against apoptosis owing to DNA damage, by a mechanism involving phosphoinositol-3-kinase/c-Akt signaling. Here, we used DNA microarray assays to identify c-Akt-regulated genes that might contribute to cell protection. DU-145 human prostate cancer cells were transfected+/-a dominant-negative mutant Akt, treated+/-SF and analysed for gene expression using Affymetrix arrays. These studies identified SF-regulated genes for which induction was c-Akt-dependent vs -independent. Selected microarray findings were confirmed by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We tested the contribution of four SF-inducible/c-Akt-dependent genes (AMPD3, EPHB2, MX1 and WNT4) to protection against adriamycin (a DNA topoisomerase IIalpha inhibitor) using RNA interference. Knockdown of each gene except EPHB2 caused a small but significant reduction in the SF cell protection. The lack of effect of EPHB2 knockdown may be due to the fact that DU-145 cells contain a single-mutant EPHB2 allele. A combination of three small interfering RNAs blocked most of the protection by SF in both DU-145 and T47D cells. These findings identify novel c-Akt-regulated genes, some of which contribute to SF-mediated cytoprotection. PMID:17099727

  18. The effect of p53 gene expression on the inhibition of cell proliferation by paclitaxel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Sakashita; Shinji Osada; Masao Takemura; Hisashi Imai; Hiroyuki Tomita; Kenichi Nonaka; Takao Takahashi; Mitsuru Seishima

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aims  We evaluated the relationship between p53 status and paclitaxel (PTX)-induced inhibition of the growth of human stomach cancer\\u000a cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We made use of two human stomach cancer cell lines, MKN45 and MKN28. Growth inhibition in response to PTX was evaluated by\\u000a MTT method. We used flow cytometry to monitor the cell cycle and western blot analysis to evaluate

  19. RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. PMID:23844078

  20. Impact of the 3D Microenvironment on Phenotype, Gene Expression, and EGFR Inhibition of Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Deenen, René; Schmidt, Stephan; Messner, Isabelle; Schäfer, Karl-Ludwig; Baldus, Stephan E.; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang; Piekorz, Roland P.; Knoefel, Wolfram T.; Krieg, Andreas; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor cell cultures grown in laminin-rich-extracellular matrix (lrECM) are considered to reflect human tumors more realistic as compared to cells grown as monolayer on plastic. Here, we systematically investigated the impact of ECM on phenotype, gene expression, EGFR signaling pathway, and on EGFR inhibition in commonly used colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. LrECM on-top (3D) culture assays were performed with the CRC cell lines SW-480, HT-29, DLD-1, LOVO, CACO-2, COLO-205 and COLO-206F. Morphology of lrECM cultivated CRC cell lines was determined by phase contrast and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Proliferation of cells was examined by MTT assay, invasive capacity of the cell lines was assayed using Matrigel-coated Boyden chambers, and migratory activity was determined employing the Fence assay. Differential gene expression was analyzed at the transcriptional level by the Agilent array platform. EGFR was inhibited by using the specific small molecule inhibitor AG1478. A specific spheroid growth pattern was observed for all investigated CRC cell lines. DLD-1, HT-29 and SW-480 and CACO-2 exhibited a clear solid tumor cell formation, while LOVO, COLO-205 and COLO-206F were characterized by forming grape-like structures. Although the occurrence of a spheroid morphology did not correlate with an altered migratory, invasive, or proliferative capacity of CRC cell lines, gene expression was clearly altered in cells grown on lrECM as compared to 2D cultures. Interestingly, in KRAS wild-type cell lines, inhibition of EGFR was less effective in lrECM (3D) cultures as compared to 2D cell cultures. Thus, comparing both 2D and 3D cell culture models, our data support the influence of the ECM on cancer growth. Compared to conventional 2D cell culture, the lrECM (3D) cell culture model offers the opportunity to investigate permanent CRC cell lines under more physiological conditions, i.e. in the context of molecular therapeutic targets and their pharmacological inhibition. PMID:23555746

  1. The Burkholderia bcpAIOB Genes Define Unique Classes of Two-Partner Secretion and Contact Dependent Growth Inhibition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Garcia, Erin C.; Cotter, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    Microbes have evolved many strategies to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and population structures, including cooperation and competition. One apparently competitive mechanism is contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Identified in Escherichia coli, CDI is mediated by Two–Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway proteins, CdiA and CdiB. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminus of the TpsA family member CdiA, called the CdiA-CT, inhibits the growth of CDI? bacteria. CDI+ bacteria are protected from autoinhibition by an immunity protein, CdiI. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that CDI systems are widespread amongst ?, ?, and ? proteobacteria and that the CdiA-CTs and CdiI proteins are highly variable. CdiI proteins protect against CDI in an allele-specific manner. Here we identify predicted CDI system-encoding loci in species of Burkholderia, Ralstonia and Cupriavidus, named bcpAIOB, that are distinguished from previously-described CDI systems by gene order and the presence of a small ORF, bcpO, located 5? to the gene encoding the TpsB family member. A requirement for bcpO in function of BcpA (the TpsA family member) was demonstrated, indicating that bcpAIOB define a novel class of TPS system. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that these genes are expressed in a probabilistic manner during culture of Burkholderia thailandensis in liquid medium. The bcpAIOB genes and extracellular DNA were required for autoaggregation and adherence to an abiotic surface, suggesting that CDI is required for biofilm formation, an activity not previously attributed to CDI. By contrast to what has been observed in E. coli, the B. thailandensis bcpAIOB genes only mediated interbacterial competition on a solid surface. Competition occurred in a defined spatiotemporal manner and was abrogated by allele-specific immunity. Our data indicate that the bcpAIOB genes encode distinct classes of CDI and TPS systems that appear to function in sociomicrobiological community development. PMID:22912595

  2. IL-10 Gene Modified Dendritic Cells Inhibit T Helper Type 1-Mediated Alloimmune Responses and Promote Immunological Tolerance in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huifen; Qiu, Wenhong; Lei, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Wen, Xue; He, Fengrong; Li, Li; Dai, Hong; Shen, Guanxin; Gong, Feili

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potency to regulate the outcome of autoimmunity through the modulation of immune responses. The induction of antigen specific tolerance is critical for prevention and treatment of allograft rejection. In the present study, we transfected IL-10 gene into DCs and investigated their effect on inhibition of lymphocyte activity in vitro and induction of immune tolerance on islet allograft in mice. An IDDM C57BL/6 mouse model was induced by streptozotocin. The islet cells isolated from the BALB/c mice were transplanted into the kidney capules of the model mice followed by injection of IL-10 modified DCs (mDCs). The results showed that mDCs could significantly inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation mediated by allotype cells and induce its apoptosis, whereas, unmodified DCs (umDCs) could promote the murine lymphocyte proliferation markedly. The injection of mDCs could prolong the survival of allotype islet transplanted IDDM mice. The average plasma glucose (PG) level in mDCs treated mice returned to normal within 3 days and lasted for about 2 weeks. The rejection response in control mice occurred for 5 days after transplantation. The level of IFN-? was lower while IL-4 was higher in mDCs treated mice than that in umDCs treated mice, which indicated that Th1/Th2 deviation occurred. Our studies suggest that IL-10 gene modified DCs can induce the immune tolerance to islet graft and prolong survival of the recipients by the inhibiting of T cell proliferation in allotype mice. PMID:18318993

  3. DLC-1 gene inhibits human breast cancer cell growth and in vivo tumorigenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Zhu Yuan; Xiaoling Zhou; Marian E Durkin; Drazen B Zimonjic; Katrin Gumundsdottir; Jorunn E Eyfjord; Snorri S Thorgeirsson; Nicholas C Popescu

    2003-01-01

    The human DLC-1 (deleted in liver cancer 1) gene was cloned from a primary human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mapped to the chromosome 8p21–22 region frequently deleted in common human cancers and suspected to harbor tumor suppressor genes. DLC-1 was found to be deleted or downregulated in a significant number of HCCs. We expanded our investigations to other cancers with

  4. Sleeping Beauty-based gene therapy with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibits lung allograft fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanzhong Liu; Li Liu; Bradley S. Fletcher; Gary A. Visner

    2006-01-01

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a nat- ural nonviral gene transfer system that can mediate long-term transgene expression. Its potential utility in treating organ transplantation-associated long-term complications has not yet been explored. In the present study we generated an improved SB transposon encod- ing the human gene indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), an enzyme that possesses both T cell-suppres- sive and antioxidant properties

  5. Androgen Inhibits Abdominal Fat Accumulation and Negatively Regulates the PCK1 Gene in Male Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonggang; Li, Junying; Ling, Yao; Teng, Kedao; Li, Hongwei; Wu, Changxin

    2013-01-01

    Capons are male chickens whose testes have been surgically incised. Capons show a significant increase in fat accumulation compared to intact male chickens. However, while caponization leads to a significant reduction in androgen levels in roosters, little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which androgen status affects lipogenesis in avian species. Therefore, investigation of the influence of androgens on fat accumulation in the chicken will provide insights into this process. In this study, Affymetrix microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of livers from capons and intact male chickens because the liver is the major site of lipogenesis in avian species. Through gene ontology, we found that genes involved in hepatic lipogenic biosynthesis were the most highly enriched. Interestingly, among the upregulated genes, the cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) gene showed the greatest fold change. Additionally, in conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR data, our results suggested that androgen status negatively regulated the PCK1 gene in male chickens. PMID:23544081

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

    1996-04-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was shown by the observation that HIV-2 did not significantly downmodulate the expression of the unrelated murine leukemia virus; neither did the murine leukemia virus markedly affect HIV-1 or HIV-2 expression. Moreover, while HIV-2 potently inhibited HIV-1, the reverse did not happen, thus identifying yet another and remarkable difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Mutational analysis of the HIV-2 genome suggested that the inhibition follows a complex pathway, possibly involving multiple genes and redundant mechanisms. Introduction of inactivating mutations into the structural and regulatory/accessory genes did not render the HIV-2 provirus ineffective. Some of the HIV-2 gene defects, such as that of tat and rev genes, were phenotypically transcomplemented by HIV-1. The HIV-2 proviruses with deletions in the putative packaging signal and defective for virus replication were effective in inducing the suppressive phenotype. Though the exact mechanism remains to be defined, the inhibition appeared to be mainly due to an intracellular molecular event because it could not be explained solely on the basis of cell surface receptor mediated interference. The results support the notion that the inhibition likely occurred at the level of viral RNA, possibly involving competition between viral RNAs for some transcriptional factor essential for virus replication. Induction of a cytokine is another possibility. These findings might be relevant to the clinical-epidemiological data suggesting that infection with HIV-2 may offer some protection against HIV-1 infection. PMID:8633095

  7. Long-Term Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Inhibits Expression of Tumor Suppressor Genes in cultured Cells and in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunxia; Ovesen, Jerald L.; Puga, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    We have used mouse hepatoma cells in culture to study acute, short-term high-dose effects of hexavalent chromium on gene regulation directed by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). We find that the mixture engages three major signaling pathways: (i) activation of detoxification genes; (ii) induction of signal transduction effectors; and, (iii) epigenetic modification of chromatin marks. Preliminary results in mice exposed to mixtures of low doses of Cr (VI) plus BaP indicate that all three pathways are likely to be engaged also in long-term effects resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of the mixture that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes. Given the toxicity and carcinogenicity of these mixtures, we expect that a two-way analytical approach, from cells in culture to biological effects in vivo and vice versa, will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the biological effects of mixtures. By focusing both the in vivo and the in vitro work into long-term, low-dose, environmentally relevant exposures, we expect to develop much needed information pertinent to the type of diseases found in human populations exposed to mixtures of environmental toxicants. PMID:22613061

  8. A Cucumber DELLA Homolog CsGAIP May Inhibit Staminate Development through Transcriptional Repression of B Class Floral Homeotic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; An, Jingbo; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates stamen development by opposing the DELLA repression of B and C classes of floral homeotic genes. GA can promote male flower formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a typical monoecious vegetable with unisexual flowers, and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we characterized a DELLA homolog CsGAIP in cucumber, and we found that CsGAIP is highly expressed in stem and male flower buds. In situ hybridization showed that CsGAIP is greatly enriched in the stamen primordia, especially during the hermaphrodite stage of flower development. Further, CsGAIP protein is located in nucleus. CsGAIP can partially rescue the plant height, stamen development and fertility phenotypes of Arabidopsis rga-24/gai-t6 mutant, and ectopic expression of CsGAIP in wide-type Arabidopsis results in reduced number of stamens and decreased transcription of B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). Our data suggest that monoecious CsGAIP may inhibit staminate development through transcriptional repression of B class floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24632777

  9. Genome Engineering-Based Analysis of Bearded Family Genes Reveals Both Functional Redundancy and a Nonessential Function in Lateral Inhibition in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chanet, Soline; Vodovar, Nicolas; Mayau, Véronique; Schweisguth, François

    2009-01-01

    Lateral inhibition mediated by Notch receptor signaling regulates the determination of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) in Drosophila. The selection of SOPs from proneural cluster cells appears to rely on a negative feedback loop linking activation of the Notch receptor to downregulation of its ligand Delta within each cell. The molecular basis of this regulatory feedback mechanism is not known. Here, we have tested the role of the Bearded (Brd) family genes in this process. The Drosophila genome encodes eight Brd family members that interact with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) and act as inhibitors of Neur-mediated Delta signaling. Genome engineering technologies were used to create specific deletions of all eight Brd family genes. We find that the Brd family genes m?, m4, and m6 encoded by the Enhancer of split Complex (E(spl)-C) are dispensable for Drosophila development and that deletion of the five Brd family genes encoded by the Brd Complex only reduces viability. However, deletion of all Brd family genes results in embryonic lethality. Additionally, the m?, m4, and m6 genes act redundantly with the other five Brd family genes to spatially restrict Notch activation in stage 5 embryos. These data reveal that the Brd family genes have an essential but redundant activity. While the activity of all eight Brd genes appears to be dispensable for SOP determination, clone border studies indicate that both the relative activity levels of Neur and Brd family members influence competition for the SOP fate during lateral inhibition. We propose that inhibition of Neur–Delta interaction by Brd family members is part of the feedback loop that underlies lateral inhibition in Drosophila. PMID:19528324

  10. Thymidine Dinucleotides Inhibit Contact Hypersensitivity and Activate the Gene for Tumor Necrosis Factor ?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponciano D. Cruz; Martin Leverkus; Irene Dougherty; Michelle J. Gleason; Mark Eller; Mina Yaar; Barbara A. Gilchrest

    2000-01-01

    DNA is a target for ultraviolet-B-induced inhibition of contact hypersensitivity, and small DNA fragments such as thymidine dinucleotides (pTpT) can simulate several ultraviolet-induced effects. To determine whether pTpT mimics the suppressive influence of ultraviolet-B on contact hypersensitivity, we compared the effects of topical application of pTpT with those of ultraviolet-B irradiation on C57BL\\/6 mice sensitized to dinitrofluorobenzene. Mice pretreated with

  11. Lactobacillus zeae Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Caused Death by Inhibiting Enterotoxin Gene Expression of the Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mengzhou; Yu, Hai; Yin, Xianhua; Sabour, Parviz M.; Chen, Wei; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. Methodology/Principal Findings Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB). Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%). The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt) did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5? was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5? in-vitro. Conclusions/Significance The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies). Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the mechanism of protection offered by Lactobacillus. PMID:24558463

  12. Inhibition of glucose transporter gene expression by antisense nucleic acids in HL60 leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Yuet-wa Chan; Siu-kai Kong; Yuen-min Choy; Cheuk-yu Lee; Kwok-pui Fung

    1999-01-01

    Glucose is the basic source of energy for mammalian cells. The energy-independent transport of glucose down its concentration gradient is mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter family (GLUT). It has long been recognised that glucose transporter genes are overexpressed in many human cancer cells, to help provide extra energy for the rapid growth of cancer cells. In the present study,

  13. Specific inhibition of hepatitis C viral gene expression by antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Alt; Renate Renz; Peter H. Hofschneider; Gustav Paumgartner; Wolfgang H. Caselmann

    1995-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-ODN) on hepatitis C viral gene expression was analyzed in an in vitro test system and in cell culture. S-ODN were directed against different stem loop structures in the 5? noncoding region (NCR) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and against a nucleotide stretch, including the start codon of the polyprotein precursor.

  14. Engineered external guide sequences are highly effective in inhibiting gene expression and replication of hepatitis B virus in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Vu, Gia-Phong; Gong, Hao; Xia, Chuan; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Fenyong; Wu, Jianguo; Lu, Sangwei

    2013-01-01

    External guide sequences (EGSs) are RNA molecules that consist of a sequence complementary to a target mRNA and recruit intracellular ribonuclease P (RNase P), a tRNA processing enzyme, for specific degradation of the target mRNA. We have previously used an in vitro selection procedure to generate EGS variants that efficiently induce human RNase P to cleave a target mRNA in vitro. In this study, we constructed EGSs from a variant to target the overlapping region of the S mRNA, pre-S/L mRNA, and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which are essential for viral replication and infection. The EGS variant was about 50-fold more efficient in inducing human RNase P to cleave the mRNA in vitro than the EGS derived from a natural tRNA. Following Salmonella-mediated gene delivery, the EGSs were expressed in cultured HBV-carrying cells. A reduction of about 97% and 75% in the level of HBV RNAs and proteins and an inhibition of about 6,000- and 130-fold in the levels of capsid-associated HBV DNA were observed in cells treated with Salmonella vectors carrying the expression cassette for the variant and the tRNA-derived EGS, respectively. Our study provides direct evidence that the EGS variant is more effective in blocking HBV gene expression and DNA replication than the tRNA-derived EGS. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the feasibility of developing Salmonella-mediated gene delivery of highly active EGS RNA variants as a novel approach for gene-targeting applications such as anti-HBV therapy. PMID:23776459

  15. The promoter of a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is activated by wounding but not by elicitors or pathogen infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Devoto; Fiona Leckie; Elisabetta Lupotto; Felice Cervone; Giulia de Lorenzo

    1998-01-01

    .   Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins evolutionarily related to several plant\\u000a resistance genes, bind to and regulate the action of fungal endopolygalacturonases. In Phaseolus vulgaris L., PGIPs are encoded by a gene family comprising at least five members. As a start for a systematic analysis of the regulation\\u000a of the pgip family, we have analysed the ability of

  16. The lack of specificity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) antisense oligodeoxynucleotides administered intracerebroventricularly in inhibiting food intake and NPY gene expression in the rat hypothalamus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Dryden; L Pickavance; D Tidd; G Williams

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent appetite stimulant, in controlling food intake and body weight, we investigated the use of antisense oligodeoxy- nucleotides (ODNs) to inhibit NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus. We compared the hypothalamic distribution of fluorescein-labelled ODNs administered intracerebroventricularly, and eVects on food intake and NPY gene expression, of three diVerent structural modi-

  17. Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

    A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

  18. mMaspin: the mouse homolog of a human tumor suppressor gene inhibits mammary tumor invasion and motility.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, M.; Sheng, S.; Maass, N.; Sager, R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human maspin gene encodes a protein in the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family with tumor-suppressing functions in cell culture and in nude mice. In order to examine the role of maspin in an intact mammal, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA of mouse maspin. The recombinant protein was produced and its activity in cell culture was assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse maspin (mMaspin) was cloned by screening a mouse mammary gland cDNA library with the human maspin cDNA probe. Northern blot analysis was used to examine the expression patterns in mouse tissues, mammary epithelial cells, and carcinomas. Recombinant mMaspin protein was produced in E. coli. Invasion and motility assays were used to assess the biological function of mMaspin. RESULTS: mMaspin is 89% homologous with human maspin at the amino acid level. Like its human homolog, mMaspin is expressed in normal mouse mammary epithelial cells and down-regulated in mouse breast tumor cell lines. The expression is altered at different developmental stages in mammary gland. Addition of the recombinant mMaspin protein to mouse tumor cells was shown to inhibit invasion in a dose-dependent manner. As with the human protein, recombinant mMaspin protein also inhibited mouse mammary tumor motility. Deletion in the putative mMaspin reactive site loop (RSL) region resulted in the loss of its inhibitory functions. CONCLUSIONS: mMaspin is the mouse homolog of a human tumor suppressor gene. The expression of mMaspin is down-regulated in tumor cells and is altered at different developmental stages of mammary gland. mMaspin has inhibitory properties similar to those of human maspin in cell culture, suggesting that the homologous proteins play similar physiological roles in vivo. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 PMID:9132279

  19. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Gene Expression and Function Enhances Triptolide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Hai-Ying; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Liang; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide (TP) is the major active principle of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and very effective in treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, TP induced hepatotoxicity limited its clinical applications. Our previous study found that TP was a substrate of P-glycoprotein and its hepatobiliary clearance was markedly affected by P-gp modulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and specific inhibitor tariquidar were used to investigate the impact of P-gp down regulation on TP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that when the function of P-gp was inhibited by mdr1a-1 siRNA or tariquidar, the systemic and hepatic exposures of TP were significantly increased. The aggravated hepatotoxicity was evidenced with the remarkably lifted levels of serum biomarkers (ALT and AST) and pathological changes in liver. The other toxicological indicators (MDA, SOD and Bcl-2/Bax) were also significantly changed by P-gp inhibition. The data analysis showed that the increase of TP exposure in mice was quantitatively correlated to the enhanced hepatotoxicity, and the hepatic exposure was more relevant to the toxicity. P-gp mediated clearance played a significant role in TP detoxification. The risk of herb-drug interaction likely occurs when TP is concomitant with P-gp inhibitors or substrates in clinic. PMID:26134275

  20. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Gene Expression and Function Enhances Triptolide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Lei; zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Hai-Ying; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Liang; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide (TP) is the major active principle of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and very effective in treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, TP induced hepatotoxicity limited its clinical applications. Our previous study found that TP was a substrate of P-glycoprotein and its hepatobiliary clearance was markedly affected by P-gp modulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and specific inhibitor tariquidar were used to investigate the impact of P-gp down regulation on TP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that when the function of P-gp was inhibited by mdr1a-1 siRNA or tariquidar, the systemic and hepatic exposures of TP were significantly increased. The aggravated hepatotoxicity was evidenced with the remarkably lifted levels of serum biomarkers (ALT and AST) and pathological changes in liver. The other toxicological indicators (MDA, SOD and Bcl-2/Bax) were also significantly changed by P-gp inhibition. The data analysis showed that the increase of TP exposure in mice was quantitatively correlated to the enhanced hepatotoxicity, and the hepatic exposure was more relevant to the toxicity. P-gp mediated clearance played a significant role in TP detoxification. The risk of herb-drug interaction likely occurs when TP is concomitant with P-gp inhibitors or substrates in clinic. PMID:26134275

  1. Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Populus deltoides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qiang; Cao, Youzhi; Pan, Huixin; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren

    2008-10-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular proteins that belong to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein superfamily. PGIPs inhibit fungal polygalacturonases (PGs) and promote accumulation of oligogalacturonides, which activate plant defense responses. PGIPs play important roles in resistance to infection of pathogens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were used to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Populus deltoides (GenBank accession no. of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4: EF684913 and EF684912). Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4 had a typical PGIP topology. Phylogenetic analysis of known PGIPs indicated that the two PdPGIPs were clustered to the defense-related PGIP clade. Using real-time RT-PCR, the expression patterns of the two PdPGIPs following treatment with a fungal pathogen and defense-related signaling molecules were studied. The expression levels of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4 were both up-regulated when inoculated with the phytopathogenic fungus Marssonina brunnea. Therefore, it was proposed that the two PGIPs might be involved in the resistance to Marssonina brunnea in P. deltoides. PMID:18937920

  2. L-Carnosine Inhibits Metastasis of SK-Hep-1 Cells by Inhibition of Matrix Metaoproteinase-9 Expression and Induction of an Antimetastatic Gene, nm23-H1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Hung Chuang; Miao-Lin Hu

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidants have been suggested to inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, which plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. Because of its antioxidant activity and the ability to chelate divalent cations, L-carnosine (LC) was tested for inhibition of MMP-9 in a highly invasive hepatocarcinoma, SK-Hep-1 cells. We found that LC (50–1,000 ?M) did not directly inhibit the

  3. PIAS1 selectively inhibits interferon-inducible genes and is important in innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Liu; Sheldon Mink; Kelly A Wong; Natalie Stein; Crescent Getman; Paul W Dempsey; Hong Wu; Ke Shuai

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to regulate immune responses. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family has been suggested to negatively regulate STAT signaling. To understand the physiological function of PIAS1, we generated Pias1?\\/? mice. Using PIAS1-deficient cells, we show that PIAS1 selectively regulates a subset of IFN-?- or IFN-?-inducible genes by

  4. Expression of a Cloned Adenovirus Gene is Inhibited by in vitro Methylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lily Vardimon; Armin Kressmann; Howard Cedar; Marco Maechler; Walter Doerfier

    1982-01-01

    In many viral and nonviral eukaryotic systems, an inverse correlation has been observed between the extent of DNA methylation at 5'-C-C-G-G-3' sites and the extent of expression of specific genes as mRNA. The E2a region of adenovirus serotype 2 (Ad2) DNA encodes the Ad2-specific DNA-binding protein required for viral DNA replication. In three lines of Ad2-transformed hamster cells (HE1, HE2,

  5. Thymoquinone efficiently inhibits the survival of EBV-infected B cells and alters EBV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zihlif, Malek A; Mahmoud, Ismail S; Ghanim, Majd T; Zreikat, Manar S; Alrabadi, Nasr; Imraish, Amer; Odeh, Fadwa; Abbas, Manal A; Ismail, Said I

    2013-05-01

    Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) is a human virus with oncogenic potentials that is implicated in various human diseases and malignancies. In this study, the modulator activity of the potent herbal extract drug thymoquinone on EBV was assessed in vitro. Thymoquinone was tested for cytotoxicity on human cells of lymphoblastoid cells, Raji Burkitt's lymphoma, DG-75 Burkitt's lymphoma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and periodontal ligament fibroblast. Apoptosis induction was analyzed via TUNEL assay and activity studies of caspase-3. The effect of thymoquinone on EBV gene expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We report here, for the first time, a promising selective inhibitory affect of thymoquinone on EBV-infected B cell lines in vitro, compared with lower activity on EBV negative B cell line and very low toxicity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Moreover, the drug was found to efficiently suppress the RNA expression of EBNA2, LMP1, and EBNA1 genes. Specifically, EBNA2 expression levels were the most affected indicating that this gene might have a major contribution to thymoquinone potency against EBV infected cells. Overall, our results suggest that thymoquinone has the potential to suppress the growth of EBV-infected B cells efficiently. PMID:23089554

  6. Characterization of a lily anther-specific gene encoding cytoskeleton-binding glycoproteins and overexpression of the gene causes severe inhibition of pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Jyun; Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-09-01

    This work characterizes an anther/pollen-specific gene that encodes potential intermediate filament (IF)-binding glycoproteins in lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Snow Queen) anthers during the development and pollen germination. LLP13 is a single gene that encodes a polypeptide of 807 amino acids, and a calculated molecular mass of 91 kDa. The protein contains a predicted transmembrane domain at the N-terminus and a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF)593 at the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Sequence analysis revealed that LLP13 shares significant identity (37-41 %) with two intermediate filament antigen-binding proteins, representing a unique subgroup of DUF593 domain proteins from known rice and Arabidopsis species. The expression of LLP13 gene is anther-specific, and the transcript accumulates only at the stage of pollen maturation. Both premature drying and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment of developing pollen indicated that LLP13 was not induced by desiccation and ABA, but by other developmental cues. Antiserum was raised against the overexpressed LLP13C fragment of the protein in Escherichia coli and affinity-purified antibodies were prepared. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the LLP13 protein was a heterogeneous, anther-specific glycoprotein that accumulated only at the stage of pollen maturation. The protein is not heat-soluble. The level of LLP13 protein remained for 24 h during germination in vitro. Overexpression of LLP13-GFP or GFP-LLP13 in lily pollen tubes caused severe inhibition of tube elongation. The LLP13 protein codistributed with mTalin in growing tubes, suggesting that it apparently decorates actin cytoskeleton and is likely a cytoskeleton-binding protein that binds with IFs that potentially exist in pollen tubes. PMID:24944111

  7. Novel mechanism of gene regulation: the protein Rv1222 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits transcription by anchoring the RNA polymerase onto DNA.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Banerjee, Rajdeep; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2015-07-13

    We propose a novel mechanism of gene regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where the protein Rv1222 inhibits transcription by anchoring RNA polymerase (RNAP) onto DNA. In contrast to our existing knowledge that transcriptional repressors function either by binding to DNA at specific sequences or by binding to RNAP, we show that Rv1222-mediated transcription inhibition requires simultaneous binding of the protein to both RNAP and DNA. We demonstrate that the positively charged C-terminus tail of Rv1222 is responsible for anchoring RNAP on DNA, hence the protein slows down the movement of RNAP along the DNA during transcription elongation. The interaction between Rv1222 and DNA is electrostatic, thus the protein could inhibit transcription from any gene. As Rv1222 slows down the RNA synthesis, upon expression of the protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis or Escherichia coli, the growth rate of the bacteria is severely impaired. The protein does not possess any significant affinity for DNA polymerase, thus, is unable to inhibit DNA synthesis. The proposed mechanism by which Rv1222 inhibits transcription reveals a new repertoire of prokaryotic gene regulation. PMID:25999340

  8. Inhibition of metalloproteinase-9 secretion and gene expression by artemisinin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Magenta, Daniele; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Basilico, Nicoletta; Haynes, Richard K; Parapini, Silvia; Colombo, Elisa; Bosisio, Enrica; Taramelli, Donatella; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Malaria remains one of the world's most common infectious diseases, being responsible for more deaths than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. There is strong evidence that tumour necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? are important contributors to the systemic disease caused by the infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Circulating levels of TNF? are increased after infection, as a consequence of stimulation of monocyte-macrophages by infected red blood cells or parasite products, as shown in vitro for the malaria pigment haemozoin. TNF? in turn enhances the synthesis of metalloproteinase-9 in monocytes and macrophages. Metalloproteinase-9 acts on the extracellular matrix but also on non-traditional substrates, including precursors of inflammatory cytokines, which are proteolytically activated and contribute to the amplification of the inflammatory response. The aim of the present work was to establish whether artemisinin and its derivatives artemisone, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin possess immuno-modulatory properties. In particular, it is necessary to evaluate their effects on mRNA levels and secretion of MMP-9 by the human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) stimulated by hemozoin or TNF?. 5?M of each derivative, although not artemisinin itself, induced significantly inhibited TNF? production. Artesunate, artemisone and DHA antagonized haemozoin-induced MMP-9 secretion by 25%, 24% and 50%, respectively. mRNA levels were also depressed by 14%, 20% and 27%, respectively, thus reflecting in part the effect observed on protein production. The derivatives significantly inhibited both TNF?-induced MMP-9 secretion and mRNA levels to a greater extent than haemozoin itself. Both haemozoin and TNF? increased NF-?B driven transcription by 11 and 7.7 fold, respectively. Artesunate, artemisone and DHA inhibited haemozoin-induced NF-?B driven transcription by 28%, 34%, and 49%, respectively. Similarly the derivatives, but not artemisinin, prevented TNF?-induced NF-?B driven transcription by 47-51%. The study indicates that artemisinins may attenuate the inflammatory potential of monocytes in vivo. Thus, in addition to direct anti-parasitic activities, the beneficial clinical effects of artemisinins for the treatment of malaria include the apparent ability to attenuate the inflammatory response, thus limiting the risk of progression to the more severe form of the disease, including the onset of cerebral malaria. PMID:25149353

  9. Inhibition of primordial germ cell proliferation by the medaka male determining gene Dmrt1bY

    PubMed Central

    Herpin, Amaury; Schindler, Detlev; Kraiss, Anita; Hornung, Ute; Winkler, Christoph; Schartl, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Background Dmrt1 is a highly conserved gene involved in the determination and early differentiation phase of the primordial gonad in vertebrates. In the fish medaka dmrt1bY, a functional duplicate of the autosomal dmrt1a gene on the Y-chromosome, has been shown to be the master regulator of male gonadal development, comparable to Sry in mammals. In males mRNA and protein expression was observed before morphological sex differentiation in the somatic cells surrounding primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the gonadal anlage and later on exclusively in Sertoli cells. This suggested a role for dmrt1bY during male gonad and germ cell development. Results We provide functional evidence that expression of dmrt1bY leads to negative regulation of PGC proliferation. Flow cytometric measurements revealed a G2 arrest of dmrt1bY expressing cells. Interestingly, also non-transfected cells displayed a significantly lower fraction of proliferating cells, pointing to a possible non-cell autonomous action of dmrt1bY. Injection of antisense morpholinos led to an increase of PGCs in genetically male embryos due to loss of proliferation inhibition. Conclusion In medaka, dmrt1bY mediates a mitotic arrest of PGCs in males prior to testes differentiation at the sex determination stage. This occurs possibly via a cross-talk of Sertoli cells and PGCs. PMID:17760954

  10. Growth Inhibition of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by sgRNA Targeting the Cyclin D1 mRNA Based on TRUE Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Tamura, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits increased expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). Previous studies have shown a correlation between poor prognosis of HNSCC and cyclin D1 overexpression. tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is one of the RNA-mediated gene expression control technologies that have therapeutic potential. This technology is based on a unique enzymatic property of mammalian tRNase ZL, which is that it can cleave any target RNA at any desired site by recognizing a pre-tRNA-like complex formed between the target RNA and an artificial small guide RNA (sgRNA). In this study, we designed several sgRNAs targeting human cyclin D1 mRNA to examine growth inhibition of HNSCC cells. Transfection of certain sgRNAs decreased levels of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells, and also inhibited their proliferation. The combination of these sgRNAs and cisplatin showed more than additive inhibition of cancer cell growth. These findings demonstrate that TRUE gene silencing of cyclin D1 leads to inhibition of the growth of HNSCC cells and suggest that these sgRNAs alone or combined with cisplatin may be a useful new therapy for HNSCCs. PMID:25437003

  11. The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (Pgip) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, R; Roberti, S; Di Giovanni, M; Capodicasa, C; Melaragni, M; Sella, L; Tosi, P; Favaron, F

    2006-08-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and determined the properties of the encoded protein products. Sequence analysis showed that these genes form two clusters: one cluster of about 5 kbp containing Gmpgip1 and Gmpgip2, and the other containing Gmpgip3 and Gmpgip4 within a 60 kb fragment of a separate BAC clone. Sequence diversification of the four members resides mainly in the xxLxLxx region that includes residues forming the beta-sheet B1. When compared with other legume Pgip genes, Gmpgip3 groups with the bean genes Pvpgip1 and Pvpgip2, suggesting that these genes are closer to the ancestral gene. At the protein level, only GmPGIP3 shows the capability to inhibit fungal PGs. The spectrum of inhibition of GmPGIP3 against eight different fungal PGs mirrors that of the PGIP purified from soybean tissues and is similar to that of the bean PvPGIP2, one of the most efficient inhibitors so far characterized. We also report that the four Gmpgip genes are differentially regulated after wounding or during infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Following fungal infection Gmpgip3 is up regulated promptly, while Gmpgip2 is delayed. PMID:16501991

  12. Inhibition of heat shock factor activity prevents heat shock potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Li, D P; Li Calzi, S; Sánchez, E R

    1999-12-01

    Using mouse L929 cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-responsive murine mammary tumor virus-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (MMTV-CAT) reporter gene (LMCAT2 cells), we have shown that cellular stress (heat or chemical shock) can cause a dramatic increase in the levels of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced CAT gene expression. We refer to this response as the heat shock potentiation effect, or HSPE. As the cellular heat shock response also involves the activation of heat shock transcription factor (HSF), we have, in the present study, examined the role of HSF in the stress potentiation of GR by use of a flavonoid compound, quercetin, recently shown to selectively inhibit the stress response in a variety of human and murine cell lines. Analysis of the HSPE, as well as heat shock protein synthesis and activation of HSF during time-courses of recovery following heat shock, revealed a similar pattern for each response, with peak activities occurring about 16 h after stress. These data suggest a correlation between the activation of both GR and HSF in stressed cells. In L929 cells stably transfected with a CAT reporter plasmid under the control of the HSF-responsive hsp70 promoter (LHSECAT cells), pretreatment with quercetin was found to cause a dose- and time-dependent inactivation of HSF activity following heat shock, but only when added before the stress event. In LMCAT2 cells, quercetin similarly inhibited both heat and chemical shock potentiation of Dex-induced GR activity. This activity of quercetin was not the result of post-transcriptional or general cytotoxic properties, as quercetin (1) did not significantly affect GR or HSF activities when added after the stress event, (2) did not reduce CAT gene expression as controlled by the constitutive SV40 early promoter, and (3) did not alter normal (non-stress), Dex-induced MMTV-CAT expression. Thus, quercetin appears to be an effective and selective inhibitor of HSF stress-induced activation and its ability to prevent the stress potentiation of GR suggests either a direct or indirect involvement by stress-activated HSF in this process, or the existence of a regulatory step common to both the heat shock and HSPE responses. PMID:10590836

  13. Inhibition of renal fibrosis by gene transfer of inducible Smad7 using ultrasound-microbubble system in rat UUO model.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hui Y; Mu, Wei; Tomita, Naruya; Huang, Xiao R; Li, Jin H; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Morishita, Ryuichi; Johnson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    TGF-beta is a key mediator in renal fibrosis. Kidney-targeted gene therapy with anti-TGF-beta strategies is expected to have therapeutic potential, but this has been hampered by concerns over the safety and practicability of viral vectors and the inefficiency of nonviral transfection techniques. The present study explored the potential role of TGF-beta/Smad signaling in renal fibrosis in vivo and developed a safe and effective gene therapy to specifically block TGF-beta signaling and renal fibrosis in a rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model by transferring a doxycycline-regulated Smad7 gene or control empty vectors using an ultrasound-microbubble (Optison)-mediated system. The Smad7 transgene expression was tightly controlled by addition of doxycycline in the daily drinking water. Groups of six rats were sacrificed at day 7, and the transfection rate, Smad7 transgene expression, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis including alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen matrix mRNA and protein expression were determined. Compared with the non-ultrasound treatment, the combination of ultrasound with Optison largely increased the transfection rate of FITC-ODN and Smad7 transgene expression up to a 1000-fold, and this was found in all kidney tissues. Compared with normal rats, Smad7 expression within the UUO kidney was significantly reduced, and this was associated with up to a sixfold increase in Smad2 and Smad3 activation and severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In contrast, treatment with inducible Smad7 resulted in a fivefold increase in Smad7 expression with complete inhibition of Smad2 and Smad3 activation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in terms of tubulointerstitial myofibroblast accumulation (85% downward arrow ) and collagen I and III mRNA and protein expression (60 to 70% downward arrow ). In conclusion, the ultrasound-mediated inducible Smad7 gene transfer is a safe, effective, and controllable gene therapy. TGF-beta-mediated renal fibrosis is regulated positively by Smad2/3, but negatively by Smad7. Target blockade of TGF-beta/Smad signaling by expression of Smad7 may provide a new therapeutic potential for renal fibrosis. PMID:12761254

  14. Transgenic expression of a ?12-epoxygenase gene in Arabidopsis seeds inhibits accumulation of linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surinder Singh; Stefan Thomaeus; Michael Lee; Sten Stymne; Allan Green

    2001-01-01

    .   The Crepis palaestina cDNA Cpal2 encodes a ?12-epoxygenase that can catalyse the synthesis of 12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1E) from linoleic acid (18:2). When the Cpal2 gene was expressed under the control of the napin seed-specific promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the seed lipids accumulated only low levels of 18:1E and also 12,13-epoxy-cis-9,15-octadec-2-enoic acid (18:2E). Despite the fact that the

  15. Inhibition of proliferation of human Hela cells by small interference RNA against Pokemon gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-jing Deng; Bing Ni; Man Jiang; Di Yang; Fan Li; Yu-zhang Wu

    2008-01-01

    Objective  The transcriptional repressor Pokemon (encoded by the Zbtb7 gene) is a critical factor in oncogenesis. Pokemon overexpression\\u000a leads to overt oncogenic transformation both in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of retrovirus expressing the siRNA targeting\\u000a Pokemon in human cervical cancer cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We constructed and identified the recombinant retrovirus

  16. Effect of Nuclear Factor ?B Inhibition on Serotype 9 Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV9) Minidystrophin Gene Transfer to the mdx Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Reay, Daniel P; Niizawa, Gabriela A; Watchko, Jon F; Daood, Molly; Reay, Ja’Nean C; Raggi, Eugene; Clemens, Paula R

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy studies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have focused on viral vector-mediated gene transfer to provide therapeutic protein expression or treatment with drugs to limit dystrophic changes in muscle. The pathological activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway has emerged as an important cause of dystrophic muscle changes in muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, activation of NF-?B may inhibit gene transfer by promoting inflammation in response to the transgene or vector. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of pathological NF-?B activation in muscle would complement the therapeutic benefits of dystrophin gene transfer in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Systemic gene transfer using serotype 9 adeno-associated viral (AAV9) vectors is promising for treatment of preclinical models of DMD because of vector tropism to cardiac and skeletal muscle. In quadriceps of C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J (mdx) mice, the addition of octalysine (8K)–NF-?B essential modulator (NEMO)-binding domain (8K-NBD) peptide treatment to AAV9 minidystrophin gene delivery resulted in increased levels of recombinant dystrophin expression suggesting that 8K-NBD treatment promoted an environment in muscle tissue conducive to higher levels of expression. Indices of necrosis and regeneration were diminished with AAV9 gene delivery alone and to a greater degree with the addition of 8K-NBD treatment. In diaphragm muscle, high-level transgene expression was achieved with AAV9 minidystoophin gene delivery alone; therefore, improvements in histological and physiological indices were comparable in the two treatment groups. The data support benefit from 8K-NBD treatment to complement gene transfer therapy for DMD in muscle tissue that receives incomplete levels of transduction by gene transfer, which may be highly significant for clinical applications of muscle gene delivery. PMID:22231732

  17. Shengjie Tongyu Granule Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in ApoE-Gene-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Cheng, Wenli; Shi, Zaixiang; Tatsukazu, Nishihara; Zhou, Tongliang; Li, Hong; Guo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effect of Shengjie Tongyu granule on vascular remodeling in atherosclerotic mice and the relevant underlying mechanism. Sixty male ApoE-gene-knockout mice, fed a high-fat diet from 6 weeks of age, were randomized into a Shengjie Tongyu granule group (4.00?g/kg/d), a simvastatin group (9.01?mg/kg/d), and a control group (normal saline: 0.2?mL/d). At the ages of 30 and 40 weeks, we sacrificed the mice for various measurements. The results show that treatment with Shengjie Tongyu granule and simvastatin significantly decreased lumen and plaque areas in the aortic root at 30 and 40 weeks of age, decreased grade II elastic fiber lesions in the ascending aorta at 30 weeks of age, and decreased both grade II and III lesions at 40 weeks of age, compared to controls. The content of superoxide anions, and expression of MOMA-2, plasma ICAM-1, and NF?B p50 in 30- and 40-week-old mice in the Shengjie Tongyu granule and simvastatin groups were also significantly reduced compared to the control group. In conclusion, Shengjie Tongyu granule has a clear inhibitory effect on vascular remodeling and on inflammatory pathways in ApoE-gene-knockout mice. PMID:22811752

  18. BZP, a novel serum-responsive zinc finger protein that inhibits gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, A J; Jetton, T L; Shelton, K D; Magnuson, M A

    1994-01-01

    We report the fortuitous isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel zinc finger DNA-binding protein termed BZP. The protein encoded is 114 kDa and contains eight zinc finger motifs, seven of which are present in two clusters at opposite ends of the molecule. Both finger clusters bound to the 9-bp sequence AAAGGTGCA with apparent Kds of approximately 2.5 nM. Two of the finger motifs within the amino- and carboxy-terminal finger clusters share 63% amino acid identity. BZP inhibited transcription of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter when copies of the 9-bp target motif were linked in cis, suggesting that it functions as a transcriptional repressor. BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were detected in several established cell lines but were most abundant in hamster insulinoma (HIT) cells, the parental source of the cDNAs. In mouse tissues, BZP mRNA and immunoreactivity were identified in cells of the endocrine pancreas, anterior pituitary, and central nervous system. Interestingly, in HIT cells proliferating in culture, BZP immunoreactivity was predominately nuclear in location, whereas it was usually located in the cytoplasm in most neural and neuroendocrine tissues. Serum deprivation of HIT cells caused BZP immunoreactivity to become predominantly cytoplasmic in location and attenuated its inhibitory effect on transcription, thereby suggesting that the both the subcellular location and the function of this protein are modulated by factors in serum. Images PMID:7935395

  19. Inhibition of transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vitro by the alc gene product of bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Drivdahl, R.H.; Kutter, E.M. (Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The alc gene product (gpalc) of bacteriophage T4 inhibits the transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vivo. The authors examined its effect on transcription in vitro by comparing RNA polymerase isolated from Escherichia coli infected with either wild-type T4D{sup +} or alc mutants. A 50 to 60% decline in RNA polymerase activity, measured on phage T7 DNA, was observed by 1 min after infection with either T4D{sup +} or alc mutants; this did not occur when the infecting phage lacked gpalt. In the case of the T4D{sup +} strain but not alc mutants, this was followed by a further decrease. By 5 min after infection the activity of alc mutants was 1.5 to 2.5 times greater than that of the wild type on various cytosine-containing DNA templates, whereas there was little or no difference in activity on T4 HMdC-DNA, in agreement with the in vivo specificity. Effects on transcript initiation and elongation were distinguished by using a T7 phage DNA template. Rifampin challenge, end-labeling with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, and selective initiation with a dinucleotide all indicate that the decreased in vitro activity of the wild-type polymerase relative to that of the alc mutants was due to inhibition of elongation, not to any difference in initiation rates. Wild-type (but not mutated) gpalc copurified with RNA polymerase on heparin agarose but not in subsequent steps. Immunoprecipitation of modified RNA polymerase also indicated that gpalc was not tightly bound to RNA polymerase intracellularly.

  20. Alteration of splice site selection in the LMNA gene and inhibition of progerin production via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2014-11-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype and an average life span of 13years. Patients typically exhibit extensive pathophysiological vascular alterations, eventually resulting in death from stroke or myocardial infarction. A silent point mutation at position 1824 (C1824T) of the LMNA gene, generating a truncated form of lamin A (progerin), has been shown to be the cause of most cases of HGPS. Interestingly, this mutation induces the use of an internal 5' cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, leading to the generation of progerin via aberrant alternative splicing. The serine-arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1 or ASF/SF2) has been shown to function as an oncoprotein and is upregulated in many cancers and other age-related disorders. Indeed, SRSF1 inhibition results in a splicing ratio in the LMNA pre-mRNA favoring lamin A production over that of progerin. It is our hypothesis that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular metabolism, may lead to a reduction in SRSF1 and thus a decrease in the use of the LMNA 5' cryptic splice site in exon 11 through upregulation of p32, a splicing factor-associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone that has been shown to inhibit SRSF1 and enhance mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and oxidative phosphorylation. AMPK activation by currently available compounds such as metformin, resveratrol, and berberine may thus have wide-ranging implications for disorders associated with increased production and accumulation of progerin. PMID:25216752

  1. ABA-Mediated Inhibition of Germination Is Related to the Inhibition of Genes Encoding Cell-Wall Biosynthetic and Architecture: Modifying Enzymes and Structural Proteins in Medicago truncatula Embryo Axis

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gilles, Christine; Lelièvre, Eric; Viau, Laure; Malik-Ghulam, Mustafa; Ricoult, Claudie; Niebel, Andreas; Leduc, Nathalie; Limami, Anis M.

    2009-01-01

    Radicle emergence and reserves mobilization are two distinct programmes that are thought to control germination. Both programs are influenced by abscissic acid (ABA) but how this hormone controls seed germination is still poorly known. Phenotypic and microscopic observations of the embryo axis of Medicago truncatula during germination in mitotic inhibition condition triggered by 10??M oryzalin showed that cell division was not required to allow radicle emergence. A suppressive subtractive hybridization showed that more than 10% of up-regulated genes in the embryo axis encoded proteins related to cell-wall biosynthesis. The expression of ?-expansins, pectin-esterase, xylogucan-endotransglycosidase, cellulose synthase, and extensins was monitored in the embryo axis of seeds germinated on water, constant and transitory ABA. These genes were overexpressed before completion of germination in the control and strongly inhibited by ABA. The expression was re-established in the ABA transitory-treatment after the seeds were transferred back on water and proceeded to germination. This proves these genes as contributors to the completion of germination and strengthen the idea that cell-wall loosening and remodeling in relation to cell expansion in the embryo axis is a determinant feature in germination. Our results also showed that ABA controls germination through the control of radicle emergence, namely by inhibiting cell-wall loosening and expansion. PMID:19529818

  2. Salvianolate inhibits cytokine gene expression in small intestine of cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan-Hong; Ye, Zai-Yuan; Jin, Bo; He, Xu-Jun; Zhang, Qin; Zhou, Wei-Ming; Xu, Wen-Juan; Lu, Huo-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of salvianolate on expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA in small intestine of cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Cirrhosis in rats was induced using CCl4 (0.3 mL/kg). Rats were randomly divided into non-treatment group, low-dose salvianolate (12 mg/kg) treatment group, medium-dose salvianolate (24 mg/kg) treatment group, and high-dose salvianolate (48 mg/kg) treatment group, and treated for 2 wk. Another 10 healthy rats served as a normal control group. Mortality of cirrhotic rats in each group was evaluated after treatment with salvianolate. Serum samples were taken from portal vein for the detection of endotoxin. Morphological changes in tissue samples from the ileocecum were observed under a light microscope. Expression of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA in the small intestine of rats was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The mortality of cirrhotic rats in the non-treatment group was 37.5%. No cirrhotic rat died in the high-dose salvianolate treatment group. The serum endotoxin level was significantly higher in the non-treatment group than in the salvianolate treatment and normal control groups. The intestinal mucosal and villous atrophy, necrosis and shedding of the intestinal mucosal epithelium, observed in the non-treatment group, were reversed in different salvianolate treatment groups. The TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA expression levels in small intestine were significantly lower in different salvianolate treatment groups than in the non-treatment group. CONCLUSION: Salvianolate can reduce the endotoxin level, ameliorate the injury of intestinal mucosa, and inhibit the expression of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA in small intestine of cirrhotic rats. PMID:21528066

  3. Upregulation of CRMP4, a new prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene, inhibits tumor growth in a nude mouse intratibial injection model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xie, Peigen; Pang, Mao; Yang, Bu; Fang, Youqiang; Shu, Tao; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Liangming; Li, Shangfu; Rong, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed male cancer in North America, has a high incidence of bone metastasis. Our previous study showed collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) gene inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated whether overexpression of CRMP4 gene in prostate cancer cells inhibit tumor bone metastasis. The stable prostate cancer cells overexpressing the CRMP4 gene were constructed using lentivirus infection. Prostate cancer bone metastasis nude mouse model was built though orthotopic prostate implantation, intracardiac injection and intratibial injection with CRMP4 overexpress and control cancer cells. Small animal PET/CT scanning results showed no difference of bone metastatic capacity in orthotopic and intracardiac injection models between CRMP4 overexpression and control group, while CRMP4 overexpression inhibited tumor growth in the intratibial injection model. Moreover, our in vitro study showed CRMP4 overexpression downregulates the Neuropilin1 (NRP1) expression and upregulate the Noggin expression. Immunohistochemical staining of the hind limbs of intratibial injection model was confirmed with cytological experiments. Taken together, our research indicated CRMP4 inhibits prostate cancer cells growth in the nude mouse bone microenvironment and this effect may relate with regulation of NRP1 and Noggin expression. PMID:25338524

  4. HoxD10 gene delivery using adenovirus/adeno-associate hybrid virus inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Mi Ae [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Dong Rae Bong Seng Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yashar, Parham [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California - Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Suk Kyoung; Noh, Taewoong [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gillam, Mary P. [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lee, Eun Jig [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: EJLEE423@yuhs.ac; Jameson, J. Larry [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2008-07-04

    Prolactinoma is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. It has been reported that a variety of growth factors and cytokines regulating cell growth and angiogenesis play an important role in the growth of prolactinoma. HoxD10 has been shown to impair endothelial cell migration, block angiogenesis, and maintain a differentiated phenotype of cells. We investigated whether HoxD10 gene delivery could inhibit the growth of prolactinoma. Rat GH4 lactotrope tumor cells were infected with adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) hybrid vectors carrying the mouse HoxD10 gene (Hyb-HoxD10) or the {beta}-galactosidase gene (Hyb-Gal). Hyb-HoxD10 expression inhibited GH4 cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of FGF-2 and cyclin D2 was inhibited in GH4 cells infected with Hyb-HoxD10. GH4 cells transduced with Hyb-HoxD10 did not form tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that the delivery of HoxD10 could potentially inhibit the growth of PRL-secreting tumors. This approach may be a useful tool for targeted therapy of prolactinoma and other neoplasms.

  5. Precursor Amino Acids Inhibit Polymyxin E Biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa, Probably by Affecting the Expression of Polymyxin E Biosynthesis-Associated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chenglin; Qiu, Juanping

    2015-01-01

    Polymyxin E belongs to cationic polypeptide antibiotic bearing four types of direct precursor amino acids including L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (L-Dab), L-Leu, D-Leu, and L-Thr. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation on polymyxin E biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa. The results showed that, after 35?h fermentation, addition of direct precursor amino acids to certain concentration significantly inhibited polymyxin E production and affected the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. L-Dab repressed the expression of polymyxin synthetase genes pmxA and pmxE, as well as 2,4-diaminobutyrate aminotransferase gene ectB; both L-Leu and D-Leu repressed the pmxA expression. In addition, L-Thr affected the expression of not only pmxA, but also regulatory genes spo0A and abrB. As L-Dab precursor, L-Asp repressed the expression of ectB, pmxA, and pmxE. Moreover, it affected the expression of spo0A and abrB. In contrast, L-Phe, a nonprecursor amino acid, had no obvious effect on polymyxin E biosynthesis and those biosynthesis-related genes expression. Taken together, our data demonstrated that addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation will inhibit polymyxin E production probably by affecting the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes. PMID:26078961

  6. Inhibition of storage pathology in prenatal CLN5-deficient sheep neural cultures by lentiviral gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephanie M; Hope, Katie M; Xu, Janet Boyu; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N

    2014-02-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease) are inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases caused by mutations in several different genes. Mutations in CLN5 cause a variant late-infantile human disease and some cases of juvenile and adult clinical disease. NCLs also occur in animals, and a flock of New Zealand Borderdale sheep with a CLN5 splice-site mutation has been developed for model studies. Dissociated mixed neural cells from CLN5-deficient foetal sheep brains contained no obvious storage bodies at plating but these accumulated rapidly in culture, mainly in microglial cells and also in neurons and astrocytes. Accumulation was very obvious after a week, as monitored by fluorescent microscopy and immunostaining for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Photography at intervals revealed the dynamic nature of the cultures and a flow of storage bodies between cells, specifically the phagocytosis of storage-body containing cells by microglia and incorporation of the storage bodies into the host cells. No storage was observed in cultured control cells. Transduction of cell cultures with a lentiviral vector expressing a C-terminal Myc tagged CLN5 resulted in secretion of post-translationally glycosylated and processed CLN5. Transduction of CLN5-deficient cultures with this construct rapidly reversed storage body accumulation, to less than half in only six days. These results show that storage body accumulation is reversible with enzyme correction and support the use of these cultures for testing of therapeutics prior to whole animal studies. PMID:24269732

  7. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Marina T; Danai, Laura V; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P

    2015-06-12

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  8. Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Targeted to an Essential Gene Inhibit Burkholderia cepacia complex

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David E.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Zarember, Kol A.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Mellbye, Brett L.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Holland, Steven M.; Geller, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Many Bcc strains are antibiotic resistant requiring the exploration of novel antimicrobial approaches including antisense technologies, such as phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs). Methods: Peptide-conjugated PMOs (PPMOs) were developed to target the acpP gene, encoding an acyl carrier protein thought to be essential for growth. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different strains of Bcc in vitro and in infection models. Results: PPMOs targeting acpP were bactericidal against clinical isolates of Bcc (> 4 log reduction), whereas a PPMO with a scrambled base sequence (Scr) had no effect on growth. Human neutrophils (PMN) were infected with B. multivorans, and treated with AcpP PPMO. AcpP PPMO augmented killing compared to PMN alone ± Scr PPMO. CGD mice infected with B. multivorans were treated with AcpP PPMO, Scr PPMO or water at 0, 3 and 6 hours post-infection. Compared to water treated controls, the AcpP PPMO treated mice showed a ~80% reduction in the risk of dying by day 30 and relatively little pathology. Conclusions: AcpP PPMO is active against Bcc infections in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20438352

  9. Plp1 gene duplication inhibits airway responsiveness and induces lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elena; Sakowski, Lauren; Hobson, Grace M; Armani, Milena Hirata; Kreiger, Portia A; Zhu, Yan; Waldman, Scott A; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Mice with Plp1 gene duplication model the most common form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a CNS disease in which patients may suffer respiratory complications. We hypothesized that affected mice would lack airway responsiveness compared to wild-type and carrier mice during methacholine challenge. Wild-type (n = 10), carrier female (n = 6) and affected male (n = 8) mice were anesthetized-paralyzed, tracheostomized and ventilated. Respiratory mechanics were recorded at baseline and during escalating doses of nebulized methacholine followed by albuterol. Lung resistance (RL) was the primary endpoint. Lung tissues were assayed for inflammatory and histological differences. At baseline, phase angles were higher in carrier and affected mice than wild-type. Dose-response RL curves in affected and carrier mice indicated a lack of methacholine response. Albuterol reduced RL in wild-type and carrier, but not affected mice. Affected mice exhibited lower interleukin (IL)-6 tissue levels and alveolar inflammatory infiltrates. Affected and carrier mice, compared to wild-type, lacked airway reactivity during methacholine challenge, but only affected mice exhibited decreased lung tissue levels of IL-6 and inflammation. PMID:25445931

  10. Lack of modulation of MDR1 gene expression by dominant inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Parissenti, A M; Gannon, B R; Villeneuve, D J; Kirwan-rhude, A F; Chadderton, A; Glück, S

    1999-09-01

    The drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) appears to play an important role in the ability of tumor cells to evade killing by chemotherapeutic agents. Using pharmacological inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), it has been suggested that, similar to rodent model systems, the human P-gp gene (MDR1) is also under PKA-dependent control and that PKA inhibition may prove useful in reducing drug resistance in human cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we stably transformed doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-resistant human MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7(ADR)) with a vector that inhibits PKA activity by inducing over-expression of mutant type Ialpha PKA regulatory (RIalpha) subunits. Two transformants (MCF-7(ADR-A) and MCF-7(ADR-B)) were found to express mutant RIalpha subunits and to possess markedly reduced PKA activity; another transformant (MCF-7(ADR-9)) lacked mutant RIalpha subunit expression and exhibited no inhibition of PKA activity. In contrast with findings in Chinese hamster ovary and Y1 adrenal cells, P-gp levels and cellular sensitivity to drugs which are P-gp substrates were unchanged in the PKA-inhibited transformants, suggesting that P-gp expression and function are not under PKA-dependent control in MCF-7(ADR) cells. Growth and saturation densities of the cell lines were highly correlated with level of PKA catalytic activity, suggesting that PKA inhibition may prove useful in inhibiting growth of breast tumor cells, even upon establishment of resistance to doxorubicin. However, our results challenge current proposals that drug sensitivity in P-gp-expressing human tumor cells may be restored by blocking MDR1 gene expression through inhibition of PKA activity. PMID:10446459

  11. Orally delivered thioketal nanoparticles loaded with TNF-?-siRNA target inflammation and inhibit gene expression in the intestines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Scott; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Wang, Lixin; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier; Murthy, Niren

    2010-11-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to treat numerous diseases associated with intestinal inflammation; however, the side-effects caused by the systemic depletion of cytokines demands that the delivery of cytokine-targeted siRNAs be localized to diseased intestinal tissues. Although various delivery vehicles have been developed to orally deliver therapeutics to intestinal tissue, none of these strategies has demonstrated the ability to protect siRNA from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract and target its delivery to inflamed intestinal tissue. Here, we present a delivery vehicle for siRNA, termed thioketal nanoparticles (TKNs), that can localize orally delivered siRNA to sites of intestinal inflammation, and thus inhibit gene expression in inflamed intestinal tissue. TKNs are formulated from a polymer, poly-(1,4-phenyleneacetone dimethylene thioketal), that degrades selectively in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, when delivered orally, TKNs release siRNA in response to the abnormally high levels of ROS specific to sites of intestinal inflammation. Using a murine model of ulcerative colitis, we demonstrate that orally administered TKNs loaded with siRNA against the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) diminish TNF-? messenger RNA levels in the colon and protect mice from ulcerative colitis.

  12. Highly potent dUTPase inhibition by a bacterial repressor protein reveals a novel mechanism for gene expression control

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Judit E.; Németh, Veronika; Papp-Kádár, Veronika; Nyíri, Kinga; Leveles, Ibolya; Bendes, Ábris Á.; Zagyva, Imre; Róna, Gergely; Pálinkás, Hajnalka L.; Besztercei, Balázs; Ozohanics, Olivér; Vékey, Károly; Liliom, Károly; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of phage-related pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus aureus (SaPI-s) was recently reported to be activated by helper phage dUTPases. This is a novel function for dUTPases otherwise involved in preservation of genomic integrity by sanitizing the dNTP pool. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of the dUTPase-induced gene expression control using direct techniques. The expression of SaPI transfer initiating proteins is repressed by proteins called Stl. We found that ?11 helper phage dUTPase eliminates SaPIbov1 Stl binding to its cognate DNA by binding tightly to Stl protein. We also show that dUTPase enzymatic activity is strongly inhibited in the dUTPase:Stl complex and that the dUTPase:dUTP complex is inaccessible to the Stl repressor. Our results disprove the previously proposed G-protein-like mechanism of SaPI transfer activation. We propose that the transfer only occurs if dUTP is cleared from the nucleotide pool, a condition promoting genomic stability of the virulence elements. PMID:25274731

  13. Gene therapy using genetically modified lymphocytes targeting VEGFR-2 inhibits the growth of vascularized syngenic tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Yu, Zhiya; Theoret, Marc R.; Zhao, Yangbing; Shrimali, Rajeev K.; Morgan, Richard A.; Feldman, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Immunotherapies based on adoptive cell transfer are highly effective in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, but the use of this approach in other cancer histologies has been hampered by the identification of appropriate target molecules. Immunologic approaches targeting tumor vasculature provide a means for the therapy of multiple solid tumor types. We developed a method to target tumor vasculature, using genetically redirected syngeneic or autologous T cells. Mouse and human T cells were engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeted against VEGFR-2, which is overexpressed in tumor vasculature and is responsible for VEGF-mediated tumor progression and metastasis. Mouse and human T cells expressing the relevant VEGFR-2 CARs mediated specific immune responses against VEGFR-2 protein as well as VEGFR-2–expressing cells in vitro. A single dose of VEGFR-2 CAR-engineered mouse T cells plus exogenous IL-2 significantly inhibited the growth of 5 different types of established, vascularized syngeneic tumors in 2 different strains of mice and prolonged the survival of mice. T cells transduced with VEGFR-2 CAR showed durable and increased tumor infiltration, correlating with their antitumor effect. This approach provides a potential method for the gene therapy of a variety of human cancers. PMID:20978347

  14. Molecular cloning, functional analysis and localization of a novel gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in Chorispora bungeana.

    PubMed

    Di, Cuixia; Li, Ming; Long, Feng; Bai, Muqun; Liu, Yajie; Zheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Shijian; Xiang, Yun; Sun, Zhenglong; An, Lizhe

    2009-12-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defense proteins. To date, no spatial distribution of PGIPs and interaction between PGIPs and nitric oxide (NO) in plant were described. Here, we first reported the full-length cDNA sequence of PGIP of Chorispora bungeana (CbPGIP1). Notably, immunofluorescence localization showed that the CbPGIP was evenly distributed in leaves but it was mainly localized in epidermis and vascular bundle in stems and roots. Further studies indicated that CbPGIP had higher abundance in roots than in stems and leaves. Conversely, the bulk PGIP of C. bungeana showed a higher activity in leaves than in stems and roots. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that CbPGIP1 expression was induced by Stemphylium solani, salicylic acid (SA), 4, -4 degrees C and NO. This is a first report attempting to predict if NO can induce the PGIP expression. Taken together, these findings showed that the gene was spatially regulated and NO and SA might take part in CbPGIP1 expression induced by biotic and abiotic stresses. This study highlighted the potential importance of CbPGIP1 and NO in plant resistance. PMID:19885675

  15. Short communication: high insulin concentrations inhibit fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in calf hepatocytes cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Wu, C C; Long, M; Zhang, Y; Li, X B; He, J B; Wang, Z; Liu, G W

    2013-06-01

    In dairy cows, ketosis is an important disease associated with negative energy balance, which leads to low blood glucose levels and high blood nonesterified fatty acid levels. The liver is the most active organ in cows for the metabolism of nonesterified fatty acids. Insulin is an anabolic hormone that plays numerous roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, as well as being a potent regulator of fatty acid oxidation. In this study, using fluorescent quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, ELISA, and primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we examined the effect of insulin (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 nmol/L) on fatty acid oxidation by monitoring mRNA and protein expression levels of key enzymes: long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase was markedly decreased when the concentration of insulin in the media was increased. These findings indicate that high levels of insulin significantly inhibit the expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and consequently results in a decreased level of fatty acid oxidation in calf hepatocytes. PMID:23567053

  16. Polycomb group gene BMI1 controls invasion of medulloblastoma cells and inhibits BMP-regulated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common intracranial childhood malignancy and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Despite recent advances, current therapeutic approaches are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent molecular profiling has suggested the stratification of medulloblastoma from one single disease into four distinct subgroups namely: WNT Group (best prognosis), SHH Group (intermediate prognosis), Group 3 (worst prognosis) and Group 4 (intermediate prognosis). BMI1 is a Polycomb group repressor complex gene overexpressed across medulloblastoma subgroups but most significantly in Group 4 tumours. Bone morphogenetic proteins are morphogens belonging to TGF-? superfamily of growth factors, known to inhibit medulloblastoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Results Here we demonstrate that human medulloblastoma of Group 4 characterised by the greatest overexpression of BMI1, also display deregulation of cell adhesion molecules. We show that BMI1 controls intraparenchymal invasion in a novel xenograft model of human MB of Group 4, while in vitro assays highlight that cell adhesion and motility are controlled by BMI1 in a BMP dependent manner. Conclusions BMI1 controls MB cell migration and invasion through repression of the BMP pathway, raising the possibility that BMI1 could be used as a biomarker to identify groups of patients who may benefit from a treatment with BMP agonists. PMID:24460684

  17. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

  18. Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

    2015-01-01

    The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

  19. Inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia by either an insulin-dependent or -independent drug reduces the expression of genes related to inflammation in peripheral leukocytes of OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chihiro; Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, or with the ?-glucosidase inhibitor, miglitol, reduced the oral sucrose load-inducible expression of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-?, S100a8, S100a9, S100a11, IL-1R2, IL-1Rn and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 genes in peripheral leukocytes of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats at the stage of impaired glucose tolerance. Inhibiting postprandial hyperglycemia reduced the expression of genes related to inflammation in peripheral leukocytes of OLETF rats. PMID:24200798

  20. BAY 87-2243, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of hypoxia-induced gene activation has antitumor activities by inhibition of mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Ellinghaus, Peter; Heisler, Iring; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Haerter, Michael; Beck, Hartmut; Greschat, Susanne; Ehrmann, Alexander; Summer, Holger; Flamme, Ingo; Oehme, Felix; Thierauch, Karlheinz; Michels, Martin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2013-10-01

    The activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in tumor development, tumor progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In order to identify compounds targeting the HIF pathway, a small molecule library was screened using a luciferase-driven HIF-1 reporter cell line under hypoxia. The high-throughput screening led to the identification of a class of aminoalkyl-substituted compounds that inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 target gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Lead structure BAY 87-2243 was found to inhibit HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein accumulation under hypoxic conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H460 but had no effect on HIF-1? protein levels induced by the hypoxia mimetics desferrioxamine or cobalt chloride. BAY 87-2243 had no effect on HIF target gene expression levels in RCC4 cells lacking Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) activity nor did the compound affect the activity of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2. Antitumor activity of BAY 87-2243, suppression of HIF-1? protein levels, and reduction of HIF-1 target gene expression in vivo were demonstrated in a H460 xenograft model. BAY 87-2243 did not inhibit cell proliferation under standard conditions. However under glucose depletion, a condition favoring mitochondrial ATP generation as energy source, BAY 87-2243 inhibited cell proliferation in the nanomolar range. Further experiments revealed that BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity but has no effect on complex III activity. Interference with mitochondrial function to reduce hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity in tumors might be an interesting therapeutic approach to overcome chemo- and radiotherapy-resistance of hypoxic tumors. PMID:24403227

  1. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibition Down-Regulates Expression of Metastasis-Related Genes in CT26 Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Li; Michael D. Threadgill; Yalan Wang; Li Cai; Xiao Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in colorectal cancer mediates down-regulation of metastasis-related gene expression through the regulation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity. Methods: Mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26) were treated with and without the PARP inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolin-1(2H)-one hydrochloride (5-AIQ). We investigated adhesion, migration and invasion of differently treated CT26 cells.

  2. Interactions of the mGluR5 gene with breeding and maternal factors on startle and prepulse inhibition in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne A. Brody; Mark A. Geyer

    2004-01-01

    Sensorimotor gating, measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI), is a fundamental form of information processing that is deficient\\u000a in schizophrenia patients and mice lacking the gene for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Both breeding strategies\\u000a and mothering behaviors are capable of influencing the behavioral phenotype of knockout (KO) mice. Previous studies found\\u000a a PPI deficit and increased startle magnitudes in mGluR5

  3. The Flavonoid 7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone Inhibits MUC5AC Gene Expression, Production, and Secretion via Regulation of NF-?B, STAT6, and HDAC2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changda; Weir, David; Busse, Paula; Yang, Nan; Zhou, Zhenwen; Emala, Charles; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-06-01

    Mucus overproduction is a significant component of the pathophysiology of obstructive lung diseases. Currently, there are only a few medications available that inhibit mucus production. Previous studies showed that glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis inhibits mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) mRNA and protein expression. Other potential mucus production inhibitory compounds contained within in G.?uralensis have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine if the G.?uralensis flavonoid 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone (7,4'-DHF) inhibits MUC5AC gene expression, mucus production, and secretion, and if so, to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. 7,4'-Dihydroxyflavone significantly decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cell MUC5AC gene expression and mucus production, at a 28-fold lower concentration than glycyrrhizin (The half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value of 1.4??M vs 38??M, respectively); 7,4'-DHF also inhibited MUC5AC mucus secretion. Inhibition was associated with the suppression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation, and enhanced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression. In a murine model of asthma, 7,4'-DHF-treated mice exhibited a marked reduction in MUC5AC secretion in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with control mice. These findings, together with previous findings linking NF-?B, STAT6, and HDAC2 modulation to the control of MUC5AC expression, demonstrate that 7,4'-DHF is a newly identified component of G.?uralensis that regulates MUC5AC expression and secretion via regulation of NF-?B, STAT6, and HDAC2. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25809288

  4. BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses transcriptional responses to cytokine-Jak-STAT signaling in a gene-specific manner in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chun Hin; Fang, Celestia; Qiao, Yu; Yarilina, Anna; Prinjha, Rab K; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the interaction of bromo and extraterminal (BET) proteins with acetylated histones using small molecule inhibitors suppresses Myc-driven cancers and TLR-induced inflammation in mouse models. The predominant mechanism of BET inhibitor action is to suppress BET-mediated recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b and, thus, transcription elongation. We investigated the effects of BET inhibitor I-BET151 on transcriptional responses to TLR4 and TNF in primary human monocytes and also on responses to cytokines IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10, which activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and are important for monocyte polarization and inflammatory diseases. I-BET151 suppressed TLR4- and TNF-induced IFN responses by diminishing both autocrine IFN-? expression and transcriptional responses to IFN-?. I-BET151 inhibited cytokine-induced transcription of STAT targets in a gene-specific manner without affecting STAT activation or recruitment. This inhibition was independent of Myc or other upstream activators. IFN-stimulated gene transcription is regulated primarily at the level of transcription initiation. Accordingly, we found that I-BET151 suppressed the recruitment of transcriptional machinery to the CXCL10 promoter and an upstream enhancer. Our findings suggest that BET inhibition reduces inflammation partially through suppressing cytokine activity and expands the understanding of the inhibitory and potentially selective immunosuppressive effects of inhibiting BET proteins. PMID:25345375

  5. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotion and improved latent inhibition in mice mutant for the M5 muscarinic receptor gene found in the human 15q schizophrenia region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Ng, Karen; Hayes, David; Gao, Xiangrong; Forster, Gina; Blaha, Charles; Yeomans, John

    2004-12-01

    M5 muscarinic receptors are coexpressed with D2 dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmentum and striatum, and are important for reward in rodents. Previously, we reported that disruption of the M5 receptor gene in mice reduced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we established a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping method for M5 mutant mice, and, using RT-PCR, found that M5 mRNA expression was highest in the ventral tegmentum, striatum, and thalamus in wild-type mice. In the M5 mutant mice, D2 mRNA expression was increased in several brain structures, including the striatum. Genome mapping studies showed the M5 gene is localized to chromosome 2E4 in mice, and to 15q13 in humans in the region that has been linked to schizophrenia. Amphetamine-induced locomotion, but not baseline locomotion or motor functions, decreased in M5 mutant mice, consistent with lower accumbal dopamine release. Previous reports found latent inhibition improvement in rats following nucleus accumbens lesions, or blockade of dopamine D2 receptors with neuroleptic drugs. Here, latent inhibition was significantly increased in M5 mutant mice as compared with controls, consistent with reduced dopamine function in the nucleus accumbens. In summary, our results showed that M5 gene disruption in mice decreased amphetamine-induced locomotion and increased latent inhibition, suggesting that increased M5 mesolimbic function may be relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:15213703

  6. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Kyung Shin [Department of Nursing, Semyung University, Jechon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nursing, Semyung University, Jechon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chang Woo [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han Geuk, E-mail: hgseo@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  7. Tumor suppressor gene RBM5 delivered by attenuated Salmonella inhibits lung adenocarcinoma through diverse apoptotic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. Method We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. Results We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of tumor xenografts was significantly retarded on the mice treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 carried by attenuated Salmonella compared to that on mice treated with pcDNA3.1. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the apoptosis in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly, while the expression of BAX, TNF-?, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP proteins was significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-RBM5-treated mice as compared to that in the control mice. Conclusions In this study, we established a novel animal model to determine RBM5 function in vivo, and concluded that RBM5 inhibited tumor growth in mice by inducing apoptosis. The study suggests that although RBM5’s involvement in the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway is still to be investigated, RBM5-mediated growth suppression, at least in part, employs regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. PMID:23721095

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) activates human neutrophils--inhibition by chemotactic peptide antagonist BOC-MLP.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, J; Andersson, R; Edvinsson, L; Gullberg, U

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the neuropeptides substance P, neurokinin A and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on human neutrophil granulocytes was investigated. Substance P induced secondary granule secretion at a concentration of 100 microM. CGRP induced a significant secretory response at 10 microM and thus appeared to be about 10 times more potent than substance P. Calcitonin and a fragment of CGRP, CGRP(8-37), had no effect on neutrophil degranulation. The chemotactic peptide antagonist BOC-MLP (100 microM) inhibited lactoferrin secretion mediated both by CGRP and chemotactic peptide FMLP almost completely, while secretion in response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was unaffected. Results from receptor binding studies showed that CGRP and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) do not compete for binding. This indicates that CGRP does not exert its effects by binding to the chemotactic peptide receptor. CGRP induced a rapid increase in the cytosolic-free calcium concentration and this increase was not, unlike that induced by FMLP, abolished by preincubation of the cells with pertussis toxin (1000 ng/ml). Therefore CGRP signal transduction in neutrophils appears to involve rapid changes in the cytosolic-free calcium concentration but not a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. In summary, this is the first report to show that CGRP can directly activate neutrophil granulocytes, and this probably occurs via a cell surface receptor which is distinct from that of FMLP although both the CGRP and FMLP-mediated effects can be blocked by BOC-MLP. Images Figure 3 PMID:1282494

  9. Efficient Inhibition of Ovarian Cancer by Gelonin Toxin Gene Delivered by Biodegradable Cationic Heparin-polyethyleneimine Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu; Gou, Maling; Yi, Tao; Yang, Li; Liu, Lili; Lin, Xiaojuan; Su, Dan; Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The use of toxins for cancer therapy has great promise. Gelonin, a potent plant toxin, causes cell death by inactivating the 60S ribosomal subunit. Recently, we developed a novel gene delivery system using biodegradable cationic heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanogels. In the current study, the antitumor activity of a recombinant plasmid expressing gelonin (pGelonin) on human ovarian cancer was assessed. The application of HPEI nanogels, was also evaluated. Gelonin-cDNA was cloned into the pVAX1 plasmid vector and transfected into SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells using biodegradable cationic HPEI nanogels. The expression of gelonin in vitro and in vivo was confirmed using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined using an MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. For the in vivo study, an SKOV3 intraperitoneal ovarian carcinomatosis model was established, and nude mice were randomly assigned into four groups receiving i.p. administration of pGelonin/HPEI complexes, pVAX/HPEI complexes, HPEI alone and 5% glucose solution. The tumor weight was monitored, and a TUNEL assay and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate apoptosis and cell proliferation in the tumor tissue sections, respectively. Gelonin was efficiently expressed in SKOV3 cancer cells in vitro and in vivo using pGelonin incorporated with HPEI nanogels. The pGelonin/HPEI complexes inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in the cell culture. Treatment for intraperitoneal carcinomatosis with pGelonin/HPEI complexes reduced the tumor weight by ~58.55% compared to the control groups (P<0.05). The antitumor effect was accompanied by increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation (P<0.05). No significant side effects were observed with i.p. administration of the pGelonin/HPEI complexes. Our data indicate that HPEI nanogel-delivered pGelonin may have promising applications against human ovarian cancer. PMID:26005374

  10. Characterization of group A Streptococcus strains recovered from Mexican children with pharyngitis by automated DNA sequencing of virulence-related genes: unexpectedly large variation in the gene (sic) encoding a complement-inhibiting protein.

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, L M; Stockbauer, K E; Pan, X; Cravioto, A; Musser, J M

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variation was studied in several target genes in 54 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS) cultured from children with pharyngitis in Mexico City. Although 16 distinct emm alleles were identified, only 4 had not been previously described. Virtually all bacteria (31 of 33 [94%] with the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene (speA) had emm1-related, emm3, or emm6 alleles. The gene (sic) encoding an extracellular GAS protein that inhibits complement function was unusually variable among isolates with the emm1 family of alleles, with a total of seven variants identified. The data suggest that many GAS strains infecting Mexican children are genetically similar to organisms commonly encountered in the United States and western Europe. Sequence variation in the sic gene is useful for rapid differentiation among GAS isolates with the emm1 family of alleles. PMID:9399523

  11. Ursolic acid inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing the expression of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 in human nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunmei; Guo, Le; Miao, Lin; Bao, Weiwei; Yang, Jue; Li, Xiaokang; Xi, Tao; Zhao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most death-related cancers worldwide. Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid, has a wide range of anticancer functions such as proapoptosis, antiangiogenesis, and antimetastasis. This study was carried out to explore the inhibition mechanism of UA on metastasis of lung cancer A549 cells. First, we found that UA inhibited the metastasis of lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through an adhesion assay, a cell wound healing assay, and a transwell migration assay in vitro. In addition, after treatment with UA, the A549 cells showed decreased expression of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) accompanied by upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, which have been reported to characterize the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further results also confirmed that the expression of vimentin was decreased by the siRNA technique to directly knock down AEG-1 expression, indicating that AEG-1 was involved in UA-mediated EMT inhibition. Furthermore, our results showed that UA suppressed the expression level of AEG-1 by repressing nuclear factor-?B signaling. Altogether, UA inhibited the EMT by suppressing the expression of AEG-1, correlating with inhibition of nuclear factor-?B in A549 cells. These findings suggested that UA was a potent anti-lung cancer agent, and it may be able to prevent invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells. PMID:23511428

  12. Antisense expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtPGIP1 gene reduces polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulation and enhances susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Simone; Galletti, Roberta; Vairo, Donatella; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

    2006-08-01

    Polygalacturonases (PGs) hydrolyze the homogalacturonan of plant cell-wall pectin and are important virulence factors of several phytopathogenic fungi. In response to abiotic and biotic stress, plants accumulate PG-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) that reduce the activity of fungal PGs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PGIPs with comparable activity against BcPG1, an important pathogenicity factor of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, are encoded by two genes, AtPGIP1 and AtPGIP2. Both genes are induced by fungal infection through different signaling pathways. We show here that transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an antisense AtPGIP1 gene have reduced AtPGIP1 inhibitory activity and are more susceptible to B. cinerea infection. These results indicate that PGIP contributes to basal resistance to this pathogen and strongly support the vision that this protein plays a role in Arabidopsis innate immunity. PMID:16903359

  13. Inhibition of expression of hepatitis C virus 1b genotype core and NS4B genes in HepG2 cells using artificial microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Yu-Tao; Jiang, Bo; Tang, Meng-Ying; Ma, Tao; Peng, Hua

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the silencing effect of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) 1b (HCV1b) genotype core (C) and non?structural protein 4B (NS4B) genes. pDsRed?monomer?Core and pDsRed?monomer?NS4B plasmids, containing the target genes were constructed. A total of eight artificial micro RNA (amiRNA)?expressing plasmids, namely, pmiRE?C?mi1 to ?mi4 and pmiRE?NS4B?mi1 to ?mi4, were designed and constructed to interfere with various sites of the core and NS4B genes, and the amiRNA interfering plasmid and the corresponding target gene?expressing plasmid were co?transfected into HepG2 cells. At 48 h after transfection, HCV core and NS4B gene expression levels were detected using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the target gene?transfected cells expressed red fluorescent protein, whereas the interfering plasmid?transfected cells exhibited expression of green fluorescent protein. The percentage of red fluorescent proteins and mean fluorescence intensity, as well as protein expression levels of the core and NS4B genes within the cells, which were co?transfected by the amiRNA interfering plasmid and the target gene, were significantly decreased. The results of the present study confirmed that amiRNAs may effectively and specifically inhibit the expression of HCV1b core and NS4B genes in HepG2 cells, potentially providing a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCV. PMID:25847260

  14. Honokiol reverses alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting the maturation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and the expression of its downstream lipogenesis genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Huquan [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Chul [College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Suk; Kim, Young-Chul; Shin, Young-Kee [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lee@snu.ac.kr

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol induces hepatic steatosis via a complex mechanism that is not well understood. Among the variety of molecules that have been proposed to participate in this mechanism, the sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (SREBPs) have been identified as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of honokiol on alcoholic steatosis and investigated its possible effect on the inhibition of SREBP-1c maturation. In in vitro studies, H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells developed increased lipid droplets when exposed to ethanol, but co-treatment with honokiol reversed this effect. Honokiol inhibited the maturation of SREBP-1c and its translocation to the nucleus, the binding of nSREBP-1c to SRE or SRE-related sequences of its lipogenic target genes, and the expression of genes for fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, magnolol, a structural isomer of honokiol, had no effect on nSREBP-1c levels. Male Wistar rats fed with a standard Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet for 4 weeks exhibited increased hepatic triglyceride and decreased hepatic glutathione levels, with concomitantly increased serum alanine aminotransferase and TNF-{alpha} levels. Daily administration of honokiol (10 mg/kg body weight) by gavage during the final 2 weeks of ethanol treatment completely reversed these effects on hepatotoxicity markers, including hepatic triglyceride, hepatic glutathione, and serum TNF-{alpha}, with efficacious abrogation of fat accumulation in the liver. Inhibition of SREBP-1c protein maturation and of the expression of Srebf1c and its target genes for hepatic lipogenesis were also observed in vivo. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated inhibition of specific binding of SREBP-1c to the Fas promoter by honokiol in vivo. These results demonstrate that honokiol has the potential to ameliorate alcoholic steatosis by blocking fatty acid synthesis regulated by SREBP-1c.

  15. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide stimulates stromal cell osteogenic differentiation and inhibits RANKL induced NF-kappaB activation, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Shi, Xiaoyou; Zhao, Rong; Halloran, Bernard P; Clark, David J; Jacobs, Christopher R; Kingery, Wade S

    2010-05-01

    Previously we observed that capsaicin treatment in rats inhibited sensory neuropeptide signaling, with a concurrent reduction in trabecular bone formation and bone volume, and an increase in osteoclast numbers and bone resorption. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide richly distributed in sensory neurons innervating the skeleton and we postulated that CGRP signaling regulates bone integrity. In this study we examined CGRP effects on stromal and bone cell differentiation and activity in vitro. CGRP receptors were detected by immunocytochemical staining and real time PCR assays in mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). CGRP effects on BMSC proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation were studied using BrdU incorporation, PCR products, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization assays. CGRP effects on BMM osteoclastic differentiation and activity were determined by quantifying tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive (TRAP(+)) multinucleated cells, pit erosion area, mRNA levels of TRAP and cathepsin K, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear localization. BMSCs, osteoblasts, BMMs, and osteoclasts all expressed CGRP receptors. CGRP (10(-10)-10(-8) M) stimulated BMSC proliferation, up-regulated the expression of osteoblastic genes, and increased ALP activity and mineralization in the BMSCs. In BMM cultures CGRP (10(-8) M) inhibited receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) activation of NF-kappaB. CGRP also down-regulated osteoclastic genes like TRAP and cathepsin K, decreased the numbers of TRAP(+) cells, and inhibited bone resorption activity in RANKL stimulated BMMs. These results suggest that CGRP signaling maintains bone mass both by directly stimulating stromal cell osteoblastic differentiation and by inhibiting RANKL induced NF-kappaB activation, osteoclastogenesis, and bone resorption. PMID:19962460

  16. Cucurbitacin B Alters the Expression of Tumor-Related Genes by Epigenetic Modifications in NSCLC and Inhibits NNK-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Samriddhi; Khan, Sajid; Kumar, Sudhir; Sinha, Sonam; Farhan, Mohd; Bora, Himangsu K; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2015-06-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents almost 85% of total diagnosed lung cancer. Studies have shown that combination of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is effective against various cancers, including lung cancer. However, optimizing the synergistic dose regime is very difficult and involves adverse side effects. Therefore, in this study, we have shown that cucurbitacin B (CuB), a single bioactive triterpenoid compound, inhibits both DNMTs and HDACs starting at a very low dose of 60 nmol/L in NSCLC H1299 cells. The CuB-mediated inhibition of DNMTs and HDACs in H1299 cells leads to the reactivation of key tumor suppressor genes (TSG) such as CDKN1A and CDKN2A, as well as downregulation of oncogenes c-MYC and K-RAS and key tumor promoter gene (TPG), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The upregulation of TSGs and downregulation of TPG were consistently correlated with the alterations in their promoter methylation and histone modifications. This altered expression of TPG and TSGs is, at least in part, responsible for the inhibition of cellular proliferation and induction of cellular apoptosis in NSCLC. Furthermore, CuB treatment significantly inhibited the tumor incidence and multiplicity in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice, which was associated with the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of hyperproliferation in the lung tissues. Together, our study provides new insight into the CuB-mediated epigenetic alterations and its chemotherapeutic effects on lung cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(6); 552-62. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25813524

  17. Inhibition of beta-defensin gene expression in airway epithelial cells by low doses of residual oil fly ash is mediated by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Klein-Patel, Marcia E; Diamond, Gill; Boniotto, Michele; Saad, Sherif; Ryan, Lisa K

    2006-07-01

    Poor ambient air quality is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including respiratory infections. However, its effects on various host-defense mechanisms are poorly understood. This study utilized an in vitro model to study the effect of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on one antimicrobial mechanism of host defense in the airway, beta-defensin-2 and its bovine homologue, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) induction in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1beta. Our model utilized cultured primary bovine tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells and the human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549, treated with 0-20 microg/cm(2) residual oil fly ash (ROFA) for 6 h. The cells were then washed and stimulated for 18 h with 100 ng/ml LPS or for 6 h with 100 ng/ml IL-1beta. ROFA inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TAP mRNA and protein without inducing significant cytotoxicity. As little as 2.5 microg/cm(2) of ROFA inhibited LPS-induced TAP gene expression by 30%. The inhibitory activity was associated with the soluble fraction and not the washed particle. The activity in the leachate was attributed to vanadium, but not nickel or iron. SiO(2) and TiO(2) were utilized as controls and did not inhibit LPS induction of TAP gene expression in BTE. ROFA also inhibited the increase of IL-1beta-induced human beta-defensin-2, a homologue of TAP, in A549 cells. The results show that ROFA, V(2)O(5), and VOSO(4) inhibit the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to inflammatory stimuli at low, physiologically relevant doses and suggest that exposure to these agents could result in an impairment of defense against airborne pathogens. PMID:16641320

  18. Inhibition of ?-Defensin Gene Expression in Airway Epithelial Cells by Low Doses of Residual Oil Fly Ash is Mediated by Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Patel, Marcia E.; Diamond, Gill; Boniotto, Michele; Saad, Sherif; Ryan, Lisa K.

    2007-01-01

    Poor ambient air quality is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including respiratory infections. However, its effects on various host-defense mechanisms are poorly understood. This study utilized an in vitro model to study the effect of particulate matter (PM2.5) on one antimicrobial mechanism of host defense in the airway, ?-defensin-2 and its bovine homologue, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) induction in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1?. Our model utilized cultured primary bovine tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells and the human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549, treated with 0–20 ?g/cm2 residual oil fly ash (ROFA) for 6 h. The cells were then washed and stimulated for 18 h with 100 ng/ml LPS or for 6 h with 100 ng/ml IL-1?. ROFA inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TAP mRNA and protein without inducing significant cytotoxicity. As little as 2.5 ?g/cm2 of ROFA inhibited LPS-induced TAP gene expression by 30%. The inhibitory activity was associated with the soluble fraction and not the washed particle. The activity in the leachate was attributed to vanadium, but not nickel or iron. SiO2 and TiO2 were utilized as controls and did not inhibit LPS induction of TAP gene expression in BTE. ROFA also inhibited the increase of IL-1?–induced human ?-defensin-2, a homologue of TAP, in A549 cells. The results show that ROFA, V2O5, and VOSO4 inhibit the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to inflammatory stimuli at low, physiologically relevant doses and suggest that exposure to these agents could result in an impairment of defense against airborne pathogens. PMID:16641320

  19. NCYM, a Cis-Antisense Gene of MYCN, Encodes a De Novo Evolved Protein That Inhibits GSK3? Resulting in the Stabilization of MYCN in Human Neuroblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Yusuke; Islam, S. M. Rafiqul; Alagu, Jennifer; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kato, Mamoru; Tanaka, Yukichi; Kawana, Hidetada; Hossain, Shamim; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Mami; Shoji, Wataru; Itami, Makiko; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Yohko; Ohira, Miki; Haraguchi, Seiki; Takatori, Atsushi; Nakagawara, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The rearrangement of pre-existing genes has long been thought of as the major mode of new gene generation. Recently, de novo gene birth from non-genic DNA was found to be an alternative mechanism to generate novel protein-coding genes. However, its functional role in human disease remains largely unknown. Here we show that NCYM, a cis-antisense gene of the MYCN oncogene, initially thought to be a large non-coding RNA, encodes a de novo evolved protein regulating the pathogenesis of human cancers, particularly neuroblastoma. The NCYM gene is evolutionally conserved only in the taxonomic group containing humans and chimpanzees. In primary human neuroblastomas, NCYM is 100% co-amplified and co-expressed with MYCN, and NCYM mRNA expression is associated with poor clinical outcome. MYCN directly transactivates both NCYM and MYCN mRNA, whereas NCYM stabilizes MYCN protein by inhibiting the activity of GSK3?, a kinase that promotes MYCN degradation. In contrast to MYCN transgenic mice, neuroblastomas in MYCN/NCYM double transgenic mice were frequently accompanied by distant metastases, behavior reminiscent of human neuroblastomas with MYCN amplification. The NCYM protein also interacts with GSK3?, thereby stabilizing the MYCN protein in the tumors of the MYCN/NCYM double transgenic mice. Thus, these results suggest that GSK3? inhibition by NCYM stabilizes the MYCN protein both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the survival of MYCN transgenic mice bearing neuroblastoma was improved by treatment with NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor shown to destabilize MYCN via GSK3? activation. In contrast, tumors caused in MYCN/NCYM double transgenic mice showed chemo-resistance to the drug. Collectively, our results show that NCYM is the first de novo evolved protein known to act as an oncopromoting factor in human cancer, and suggest that de novo evolved proteins may functionally characterize human disease. PMID:24391509

  20. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of CAD gene expression and inhibition by Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in human breast cancer cells 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Shaheen Munawar Ali

    2007-04-25

    The CAD gene is trifunctional and expresses carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate carbamyltransferase/dihydroorotase, which are required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. CAD gene activities are induced in MCF-7 human breast ...

  1. St. John's Wort increases brain serotonin synthesis by inhibiting hepatic tryptophan 2, 3 dioxygenase activity and its gene expression in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Samina; Ara, Iffat; Saboohi, Kausar; Moattar, Tariq; Chaoudhry, Bushra

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of herbal St. John's Wort (SJW) on transcriptional regulation of hepatic tryptophan 2, 3 - dioxygenase (TDO) enzyme activity and brain regional serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats exposed to forced swim test (FST). TDO mRNA expression was quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain (RT-PCR) reaction and brain regional indoleamines were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detector. Behavioral analysis shows significant reduction in immobility time in SJW (500mg/kg/ml) administered rats. It was found that pretreatment of SJW to rats did not prevent stress-induced elevation in plasma corticosterone levels however it increases serotonin synthesis by virtue of inhibiting hepatic TDO enzyme activity and its gene expression, ascertaining the notion that there exists an inverse relationship between hepatic TDO enzyme activity and brain 5-HT. The drug also decreases serotonin turnover in all the brain areas (hypothalamus, hippocampus amygdala) in stressed rats endorsing its monoamine oxidase inhibition property. Inhibition of TDO enzyme activity and its gene expression by the drug provides new insights for the development of therapeutic interventions for stress related mental illnesses. PMID:25176236

  2. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits opioid withdrawal-induced pain sensitization in rats by down-regulation of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in the spine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Bian, Jin-Song

    2014-09-01

    Hyperalgesia often occurs in opioid-induced withdrawal syndrome. In the present study, we found that three hourly injections of DAMGO (a ?-opioid receptor agonist) followed by naloxone administration at the fourth hour significantly decreased rat paw nociceptive threshold, indicating the induction of withdrawal hyperalgesia. Application of NaHS (a hydrogen sulfide donor) together with each injection of DAMGO attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal hyperalgesia. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NaHS significantly reversed the gene and protein expression of up-regulated spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in naloxone-treated animals. NaHS also inhibited naloxone-induced cAMP rebound and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in rat spinal cord. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, NaHS inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity. Moreover, NaHS pre-treatment suppressed naloxone-stimulated activation of protein kinase C (PKC) ?, Raf-1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in rat spinal cord. Our data suggest that H2S prevents the development of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia via suppression of synthesis of CGRP in spine through inhibition of AC/cAMP and PKC/Raf-1/ERK pathways. PMID:24824948

  3. Orostachys japonicus Inhibits Expression of the TLR4, NOD2, iNOS, and COX-2 Genes in LPS-Stimulated Human PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells by Inhibiting NF-?B and MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo-Kwang; Woo, Hong-Jung; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-01-01

    Orostachys japonicus is traditionally used as an inflammatory agent. In this report, we investigated the effects of O. japonicus extract on the expression of genes encoding pathogen-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2) and proinflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines) in LPS-stimulated PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and the NF-?B and MAPK pathways. O. japonicus induced toxicity at high concentrations but had no effect at concentrations lower than 25??g/mL. O. japonicus inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA levels, suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 transcription and translocation, and downregulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) mRNA levels. In addition, O. japonicus inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation and I?B? degradation and suppressed LPS-induced JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK phosphorylation. Overall, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of O. japonicus are mediated by suppression of NF-?B and MAPK signaling, resulting in reduced TLR4, NOD2, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression. PMID:25810745

  4. Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

    2011-07-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp. PMID:21347841

  5. Homeobox gene HOPX is epigenetically silenced in human uterine endometrial cancer and suppresses estrogen-stimulated proliferation of cancer cells by inhibiting serum response factor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinichiro; Asanoma, Kazuo; Takao, Tomoka; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio

    2009-06-01

    HOPX (homeodomain only protein X) is a newly identified homeobox gene whose loss of expression has been reported for several types of neoplasm. Although we found most human uterine endometrial cancers (HEC) defective in HOPX expression, genetic mutations in the HOPX gene were undetectable. As is the case with several tumor suppressor genes, the promoter region of HOPX is densely methylated in HEC tissue samples obtained by laser capture microdissection. HOPX mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the majority of samples, and this correlated with hypermethylation of the HOPX promoter. Forced expression of HOPX resulted in a partial block in cell proliferation, in vivo tumorigenicity and c-fos gene expression in HEC and MCF7 cells in response to 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) stimulation. Analysis of the serum response element (SRE) of c-fos gene promoter showed that the effect of HOPX expression is associated with inhibition of E(2)-induced c-fos activation through the serum response factor (SRF) motif. Knockdown of HOPX in immortalized human endometrial cells resulted in accelerated proliferation. Our study indicates that transcriptional silencing of HOPX results from hypermethylation of the HOPpromoter, which leads to HEC development. PMID:19173292

  6. Arvelexin from Brassica rapa suppresses NF-?B-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression by inhibiting activation of I?B kinase

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Noh, Young-Su; Lee, Yong Sup; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Choi, Myung-Sook; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Eunkyung; Chung, Hae-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brassica rapa species constitute one of the major sources of food. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of arvelexin, isolated from B. rapa, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and on a model of septic shock induced by LPS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expression of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? were determined by Western blot and/or RT-PCR respectively. To elucidate the underlying mechanism(s), activation of NF-?B activation and its pathways were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reporter gene and Western blot assays. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of arvelexin were evaluated in endotoxaemia induced with LPS. KEY RESULTS Promoter assays for iNOS and COX-2 revealed that arvelexin inhibited LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E2 production through the suppression of iNOS and COX-2 at the level of gene transcription. In addition, arvelexin inhibited NF-?B-dependent inflammatory responses by modulating a series of intracellular events of I?B kinase (IKK)-inhibitor ?B? (I?B?)-NF-?B signalling. Moreover, arvelexin inhibited IKK?-elicited NF-?B activation as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. Serum levels of NO and inflammatory cytokines and mortality in mice challenged injected with LPS were significantly reduced by arvelexin. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Arvelexin down-regulated inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? gene expression in macrophages interfering with the activation of IKK? and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and thus, preventing NF-?B activation. PMID:21434881

  7. RNA Polymerase I Transcription Factors in Active Yeast rRNA Gene Promoters Enhance UV Damage Formation and Inhibit Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Meier; Fritz Thoma

    2005-01-01

    UV photofootprinting and repair of pyrimidine dimers by photolyase was used to investigate chromatin structure, protein-DNA interactions, and DNA repair in the spacer and promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA genes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains about 150 copies of rRNA genes separated by nontranscribed spacers. Under exponential growth conditions about half of the genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase I (RNAP-I). Initiation

  8. Estrogen receptor-a gene transfer into bovine aortic endothelial cells induces eNOS gene expression and inhibits cell migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enqing Tan; Milind V. Gurjar; Ram V. Sharma; Ramesh C. Bhalla

    Objectives: It has been suggested that estrogen may improve endothelial cell function to delay the onset of atherosclerosis in pre-menopausal females, though its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We examined the hypothesis that human estrogen receptor-a (ERa) gene transfection improves the endothelial cell function. Methods: A replication deficient adenoviral vector was used to transfect the ERa gene into

  9. Inhibition of interferon gene activation by death-effector domain-containing proteins from the molluscum contagiosum virus.

    PubMed

    Randall, Crystal M H; Biswas, Sunetra; Selen, Catherine V; Shisler, Joanna L

    2014-01-14

    Apoptosis, NF-?B activation, and IRF3 activation are a triad of intrinsic immune responses that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmunity. FLIPs are a family of viral and cellular proteins initially found to inhibit apoptosis and more recently to either up- or down-regulate NF-?B. As such, a broad role for FLIPs in disease regulation is postulated, but exactly how a FLIP performs such multifunctional roles remains to be established. Here we examine FLIPs (MC159 and MC160) encoded by the molluscum contagiosum virus, a dermatotropic poxvirus causing skin infections common in children and immunocompromised individuals, to better understand their roles in viral pathogenesis. While studying their molecular mechanisms responsible for NF-?B inhibition, we discovered that each protein inhibited IRF3-controlled luciferase activity, identifying a unique function for FLIPs. MC159 and MC160 each inhibited TBK1 phosphorylation, confirming this unique function. Surprisingly, MC159 coimmunoprecipitated with TBK1 and IKK? but MC160 did not, suggesting that these homologs use distinct molecular mechanisms to inhibit IRF3 activation. Equally surprising was the finding that the FLIP regions necessary for TBK1 inhibition were distinct from those MC159 or MC160 regions previously defined to inhibit NF-?B or apoptosis. These data reveal previously unappreciated complexities of FLIPs, and that subtle differences within the conserved regions of FLIPs possess distinct molecular and structural fingerprints that define crucial differences in biological activities. A future comparison of mechanistic differences between viral FLIP proteins can provide new means of precisely manipulating distinct aspects of intrinsic immune responses. PMID:24379396

  10. Inhibition of interferon gene activation by death-effector domain-containing proteins from the molluscum contagiosum virus

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Crystal M. H.; Biswas, Sunetra; Selen, Catherine V.; Shisler, Joanna L.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis, NF-?B activation, and IRF3 activation are a triad of intrinsic immune responses that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmunity. FLIPs are a family of viral and cellular proteins initially found to inhibit apoptosis and more recently to either up- or down-regulate NF-?B. As such, a broad role for FLIPs in disease regulation is postulated, but exactly how a FLIP performs such multifunctional roles remains to be established. Here we examine FLIPs (MC159 and MC160) encoded by the molluscum contagiosum virus, a dermatotropic poxvirus causing skin infections common in children and immunocompromised individuals, to better understand their roles in viral pathogenesis. While studying their molecular mechanisms responsible for NF-?B inhibition, we discovered that each protein inhibited IRF3-controlled luciferase activity, identifying a unique function for FLIPs. MC159 and MC160 each inhibited TBK1 phosphorylation, confirming this unique function. Surprisingly, MC159 coimmunoprecipitated with TBK1 and IKK? but MC160 did not, suggesting that these homologs use distinct molecular mechanisms to inhibit IRF3 activation. Equally surprising was the finding that the FLIP regions necessary for TBK1 inhibition were distinct from those MC159 or MC160 regions previously defined to inhibit NF-?B or apoptosis. These data reveal previously unappreciated complexities of FLIPs, and that subtle differences within the conserved regions of FLIPs possess distinct molecular and structural fingerprints that define crucial differences in biological activities. A future comparison of mechanistic differences between viral FLIP proteins can provide new means of precisely manipulating distinct aspects of intrinsic immune responses. PMID:24379396

  11. Gene expression profiling revealed survivin as a target of 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Km Wahidur; Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Sarkar, Sarah H; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-05-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegetables, and its major acid-catalyzed reaction product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) showed anticancer activity mediated by its pleiotropic effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, carcinogen bioactivation, and DNA repair. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which 3,3'-diindolylmethane exerts its effects on breast cancer cells, we have used microarray gene expression profiling analysis. We found a total of 1,238 genes altered in 3,3'-diindolylmethane-treated cells, among which 550 genes were down-regulated and 688 genes were up-regulated. Clustering analysis showed significant alterations in some genes that are critically involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, and signal transduction, including down-regulation of survivin. Previous studies have shown that antiapoptotic protein survivin is overexpressed in many human cancers, including breast cancer. However, very little or no information is available regarding the consequence of down-regulation of survivin for cancer therapy. We, therefore, hypothesized that down-regulation of survivin as observed by 3,3'-diindolylmethane could be an important approach for the treatment of breast cancer. We have tested our hypothesis using multiple molecular approaches and found that 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by down-regulating survivin, Bcl-2, and cdc25A expression and also caused up-regulation of p21(WAF1) expression, which could be responsible for cell cycle arrest. Down-regulation of survivin by small interfering RNA before 3,3'-diindolylmethane treatment resulted in enhanced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, whereas overexpression of survivin by cDNA transfection abrogated 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. These results suggest that targeting survivin by 3,3'-diindolylmethane could be a new and novel approach for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. PMID:16651453

  12. 1-Dehydro-[10]-gingerdione from ginger inhibits IKK? activity for NF-?B activation and suppresses NF-?B-regulated expression of inflammatory genes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Park, Sun Hong; Lee, Misoon; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Nam Doo; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hong, Jin Tae; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale) have beneficial effects on inflammatory pain and arthritic swelling. However, the molecular basis for these pharmacological properties is only partially understood. Here, we investigated the molecular target of 1-dehydro-[10]-gingerdione (D10G), one of the pungent constituents of ginger, that mediates its suppression of NF-?B-regulated expression of inflammatory genes linked to toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RAW 264.7 macrophages or primary macrophages-derived from bone marrows of C57BL/6 or C3H/HeJ mice were stimulated with the TLR4 agonist LPS in the presence of D10G. Catalytic activity of inhibitory ?B (I?B) kinase ? (IKK?) was determined by a kinase assay and immunoblot analysis, and the expression of inflammatory genes by RT-PCR analysis and a promoter-dependent reporter assay. KEY RESULTS D10G directly inhibited the catalytic activity of cell-free IKK?. Moreover, D10G irreversibly inhibited cytoplasmic IKK?-catalysed I?B? phosphorylation in macrophages activated by TLR agonists or TNF-?, and also IKK? vector-elicited NF-?B transcriptional activity in these cells. These effects of D10G were abolished by substitution of the Cys179 with Ala in the activation loop of IKK?, indicating a direct interacting site of D10G. This mechanism was shown to mediate D10G-induced disruption of NF-?B activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages and the suppression of NF-?B-regulated gene expression of inducible NOS, COX-2 and IL-6. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS This study demonstrates that IKK? is a molecular target of D10G involved in the suppression of NF-?B-regulated gene expression in LPS-activated macrophages; this suggests D10G has therapeutic potential in NF-?B-associated inflammation and autoimmune disorders. PMID:22489648

  13. The Orf18 gene product from conjugative transposon Tn916 is an ArdA antirestriction protein that inhibits type I DNA restriction-modification systems.

    PubMed

    Serfiotis-Mitsa, Dimitra; Roberts, Gareth A; Cooper, Laurie P; White, John H; Nutley, Margaret; Cooper, Alan; Blakely, Garry W; Dryden, David T F

    2008-11-28

    Gene orf18, which is situated within the intercellular transposition region of the conjugative transposon Tn916 from the bacterial pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, encodes a putative ArdA (alleviation of restriction of DNA A) protein. Conjugative transposons are generally resistant to DNA restriction upon transfer to a new host. ArdA from Tn916 may be responsible for the apparent immunity of the transposon to DNA restriction and modification (R/M) systems and for ensuring that the transposon has a broad host range. The orf18 gene was engineered for overexpression in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant ArdA protein was purified to homogeneity. The protein appears to exist as a dimer at nanomolar concentrations but can form larger assemblies at micromolar concentrations. R/M assays revealed that ArdA can efficiently inhibit R/M by all four major classes of Type I R/M enzymes both in vivo and in vitro. These R/M systems are present in over 50% of sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our results suggest that ArdA can overcome the restriction barrier following conjugation and so helps increase the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:18838147

  14. Delivery of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) gene significantly inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Zhu, Ye; Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Lihua; He, Peng; Xia, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), a novel member of ING family proteins, plays a critical role in the development and progression of different tumors via multiple pathways. However, the function of ING4 in human osteosarcoma remains unclear. To understand its potential roles and mechanisms in inhibiting osteosarcoma, we constructed an expression vector pEGFP-ING4 and transfected the human osteosarcoma cells using this vector. We then studied the effects of over-expressed ING4 in the transfected cells on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of the osteosarcoma cells. The up-regulation of ING4 in the osteosarcoma cells, arising from the stable pEGFP-ING4 gene transfection, was found to significantly inhibit the cell proliferation by the cell cycle alteration with S phase reduction and G0/G1 phase arrest, induce cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway, and suppress cell invasion through the down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. In addition, increased ING4 level evoked the blockade of NF-?B signaling pathway and down-regulation of its target proteins. Our work suggests that ING4 can suppress osteosarcoma progression through signaling pathways such as mitochondria pathway and NF-?B signaling pathway and ING4 gene therapy is a promising approach to treating osteosarcoma. PMID:25490312

  15. Inhibition of angiogenesis and HGF-cMET-elicited malignant processes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells using adenoviral vector-mediated NK4 gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Overmeer, Renée M; van Beusechem, Victor W; Lamers, Wouter H; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Snijders, Peter J F; Craanen, Mikael E; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Gerritsen, Winald R

    2005-12-01

    NK4 is an hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-antagonist and a broad angiogenesis inhibitor. NK4 gene therapy has confirmed antitumor efficacy on cancers with intact HGF-cMET signaling pathway. However, the feasibility to treat tumors in which the effect of the HGF-cMET signaling pathway is less unambiguous or may even be inhibitory on carcinogenesis, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with NK4 needs further assessment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of adenoviral vector-mediated expression of NK4 on the biological behavior of a series of HCC cell lines in vitro and on HepG2 xenografts in vivo. In vitro, transduction of HCC cell lines with the replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector AdCMV.NK4 resulted in significant inhibition of proliferation over and above the antimitogenic effects of HGF. In addition, HGF-induced scattering and invasion through matrigel were inhibited effectively. Moreover, transduced HCC cells produced sufficient amounts of NK4 protein to achieve bystander effects involving reduced migration of nontransduced tumor cells and reduced proliferation of endothelial cells. Finally, treatment of established HepG2 xenografts with AdCMV.NK4 resulted in significant tumor growth delay and significant reduction of intratumoral microvessel density. In conclusion, NK4 gene therapy is a promising strategy to treat HCC based on the pleiotropic functions of NK4 interfering with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. PMID:15905856

  16. Delivery of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) gene significantly inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhu, Ye; Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Lihua; He, Peng; Xia, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), a novel member of ING family proteins, plays a critical role in the development and progression of different tumors via multiple pathways. However, the function of ING4 in human osteosarcoma remains unclear. To understand its potential roles and mechanisms in inhibiting osteosarcoma, we constructed an expression vector pEGFP-ING4 and transfected the human osteosarcoma cells using this vector. We then studied the effects of over-expressed ING4 in the transfected cells on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of the osteosarcoma cells. The up-regulation of ING4 in the osteosarcoma cells, arising from the stable pEGFP-ING4 gene transfection, was found to significantly inhibit the cell proliferation by the cell cycle alteration with S phase reduction and G0/G1 phase arrest, induce cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway, and suppress cell invasion through the down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. In addition, increased ING4 level evoked the blockade of NF-?B signaling pathway and down-regulation of its target proteins. Our work suggests that ING4 can suppress osteosarcoma progression through signaling pathways such as mitochondria pathway and NF-?B signaling pathway and ING4 gene therapy is a promising approach to treating osteosarcoma. PMID:25490312

  17. Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) silencing inhibits proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor sNF96.2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Rosalba; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Parenti, Carmela; Venuti, Assunta; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Furno, Debora Lo; Magro, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) plays complex roles in tumorigenesis, acting as tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene depending on the cellular context. WT1 expression has been variably reported in both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) by means of immunohistochemistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize its potential pathogenetic role in these relatively uncommon malignant tumors. Firstly, immunohistochemical analyses in MPNST sNF96.2 cell line showed strong WT1 staining in nuclear and perinuclear areas of neoplastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of silencing WT1 by RNA interference. Through Western Blot analysis and proliferation assay we found that WT1 knockdown leads to the reduction of cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. siWT1 inhibited proliferation of sNF96.2 cell lines likely by influencing cell cycle progression through a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that WT1 knockdown attenuates the biological behavior of MPNST cells by decreasing Akt activity, demonstrating that WT1 is involved in the development and progression of MPNSTs. Thus, WT1 is suggested to serve as a potential therapeutic target for MPNSTs. PMID:25474318

  18. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated Heat shock protein 90 gene silencing inhibits human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Keqiang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Pulli, Benjamin [Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] [Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Yu, Fei; Cai, Haidong; Yuan, Xueyu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: zxpsibs@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lv, Zhongwei, E-mail: heyixue163@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hsp90 is over-expressed in human breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shRNA-mediated gene silencing of Hsp90 resulted in inhibition of cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and NF-kB were down-regulation after transfection due to Hsp90 silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor growth ratio was decline due to Hsp90 silencing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PCNA expression was down-regulation due to Hsp90 silencing. -- Abstract: Hsp90 interacts with proteins that mediate signaling pathways involved in the regulation of essential processes such as proliferation, cell cycle control, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Hsp90 inhibition is therefore an attractive strategy for blocking abnormal pathways that are crucial for cancer cell growth. In the present study, the role of Hsp90 in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was examined by stably silencing Hsp90 gene expression with an Hsp90-silencing vector (Hsp90-shRNA). RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Hsp90-shRNA specifically and markedly down-regulated Hsp90 mRNA and protein expression. NF-kB and Akt protein levels were down-regulated in Hsp90-shRNA transfected cells, indicating that Hsp90 knockout caused a reduction of survival factors and induced apoptosis. Treatment with Hsp90-shRNA significantly increased apoptotic cell death and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 cells, as shown by flow cytometry. Silencing of Hsp90 also reduced cell viability, as determined by MTT assay. In vivo experiments showed that MCF-7 cells stably transfected with Hsp90-shRNA grew slowly in nude mice as compared with control groups. In summary, the Hsp90-shRNA specifically silenced the Hsp90 gene, and inhibited MCF-7 cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Hsp90-shRNA include the degradation of Hsp90 breast cancer-related client proteins, the inhibition of survival signals and the upregulation of apoptotic pathways. shRNA-mediated interference may have potential therapeutic utility in human breast cancer.

  19. 2-Hydroxy-3,4-naphthochalcone (2H-NC) inhibits TNF?-induced tumor invasion through the downregulation of NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi So; Koh, Dongsoo; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Noh, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Young Han; Lim, Yoongho; Shin, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    The control of tumor metastasis is important for the successful prevention and treatment of cancer. Emerging evidence indicates that various natural and synthetic chalcones exhibit antimetastatic activity through the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), although the precise mechanism by which this occurs is currently unclear. In this study, 2-hydroxy-3,4-naphthochalcone (2H-NC) was found to reduce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression and gelatinolytic enzyme activity. These actions were associated with inhibition of RelA/p65 NF-?B activity. In addition, 2H-NC inhibited TNF?-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as assessed using a three-dimensional spheroid invasion assay. Taken together, these data demonstrate that 2H-NC prevents TNF?-induced tumor cell invasion through downregulation of NF-?B-mediated MMP-9 gene expression, and thereby identify naphthochalcones as a potentially effective class of molecules to use as a platform for the development of antimetastatic agents. PMID:25466202

  20. Flavocoxid Inhibits Phospholipase A2, Peroxidase Moieties of the Cyclooxygenases (COX), and 5-Lipoxygenase, Modifies COX-2 Gene Expression, and Acts as an Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Bruce P.; Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Levy, Robert M.; Pillai, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple mechanisms of action for flavocoxid relating to arachidonic acid (AA) formation and metabolism were studied in vitro. Flavocoxid titrated into rat peritoneal macrophage cultures inhibited cellular phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (IC50 = 60??g/mL). In in vitro enzyme assays, flavocoxid showed little anti-cyclooxygenase (CO) activity on COX-1/-2 enzymes, but inhibited the COX-1 (IC50 = 12.3) and COX-2 (IC50 = 11.3??g/mL) peroxidase (PO) moieties as well as 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (IC50 = 110??g/mL). No detectable 5-LOX inhibition was found for multiple traditional and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Flavocoxid also exhibited strong and varied antioxidant capacities in vitro and decreased nitrite levels (IC50 = 38??g/mL) in rat peritoneal macrophages. Finally, in contrast to celecoxib and ibuprofen, which upregulated the cox-2 gene, flavocoxid strongly decreased expression. This work suggests that clinically favourable effects of flavocoxid for management of osteoarthritis (OA) are achieved by simultaneous modification of multiple molecular pathways relating to AA metabolism, oxidative induction of inflammation, and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:21765617

  1. Inhibition of apoptosis by overexpressing Bcl-2 enhances gene amplification by a mechanism independent of aphidicolin pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, D X; Schimke, R T

    1996-01-01

    To study the effect of apoptosis on gene amplification, we have constructed HeLa S3 cell lines in which the expression of bcl-2 (BCL2) can be controlled by tetracycline in the growth medium. Induction of Bcl-2 expression caused a temporary delay of apoptosis and resulted in roughly a 3-fold increase in the frequency of resistant colonies when cells were selected with trimetrexate. This resistance was due to amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Cells grown out of the pooled resistant colonies retained the same level of resistance to trimetrexate whether Bcl-2 was induced or repressed, consistent with the theory that Bcl-2 functions by facilitating gene amplification, rather than being the resistance mechanism per se. Pretreating cells with aphidicolin is another method to increase gene amplification frequency. When Bcl-2-expressing cells were pretreated with aphidicolin, the resulting increase in gene amplification frequency was approximately the product of the increases caused by aphidicolin pretreatment or Bcl-2 expression alone, indicating that Bcl-2 increases gene amplification through a mechanism independent of that of aphidicolin pretreatment. These results are consistent with the concept that gene amplification occurs at a higher frequency during drug-induced cell cycle perturbation. Bcl-2 evidently increases the number of selected amplified colonies by prolonging cell survival during the perturbation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8622946

  2. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in HIV-1 Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells That Mediate Virus Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Tamika L.; Blackinton, Jeff; Frisbee, Alyse; Pickeral, Joy; Sawant, Sheetal; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Freel, Stephanie A.; Ferrari, Guido; Keene, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of CD8+ T cells to effectively limit HIV-1 replication and block HIV-1 acquisition is determined by the capacity to rapidly respond to HIV-1 antigens. Understanding both the functional properties and regulation of an effective CD8+ response would enable better evaluation of T cell-directed vaccine strategies and may inform the design of new therapies. We assessed the antigen specificity, cytokine signature, and mechanisms that regulate antiviral gene expression in CD8+ T cells from a cohort of HIV-1-infected virus controllers (VCs) (<5,000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml and CD4+ lymphocyte counts of >400 cells/?l) capable of soluble inhibition of HIV-1. Gag p24 and Nef CD8+ T cell-specific soluble virus inhibition was common among the VCs and correlated with substantial increases in the abundance of mRNAs encoding the antiviral cytokines macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP-1?, MIP-1?P (CCL3L1), and MIP-1?; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); lymphotactin (XCL1); tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9); and gamma interferon (IFN-?). The induction of several of these mRNAs was driven through a coordinated response of both increased transcription and stabilization of mRNA, which together accounted for the observed increase in mRNA abundance. This coordinated response allows rapid and robust induction of mRNA messages that can enhance the CD8+ T cells' ability to inhibit virus upon antigen encounter. IMPORTANCE We show that mRNA stability, in addition to transcription, is key in regulating the direct anti-HIV-1 function of antigen-specific memory CD8+ T cells. Regulation at the level of RNA helps enable rapid recall of memory CD8+ T cell effector functions for HIV-1 inhibition. By uncovering and understanding the mechanisms employed by CD8+ T cell subsets with antigen-specific anti-HIV-1 activity, we can identify new strategies for comprehensive identification of other important antiviral genes. This will, in turn, enhance our ability to inhibit virus replication by informing both cure strategies and HIV-1 vaccine designs that aim to reduce transmission and can aid in blocking HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:24899193

  3. Inhibition of the binding of MSG-intermolt-specific complex, MIC, to the sericin-1 gene promoter and sericin-1 gene expression by POU-M1/SGF-3.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Mai; Kitagawa, Tsuyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Nakata, Tomohiro; Kuroiwa, Asato; Takiya, Shigeharu

    2012-11-01

    The sericin-1 gene encoding a glue protein is expressed in the middle silk gland (MSG) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. A member of the class III POU domain transcription factors, POU-M1, was cloned as the factor bound to the SC site of the sericin-1 promoter and has been proposed to be a positive transcription factor. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of the POU-M1 gene in fourth and fifth instars in comparison with the pattern of the sericin-1 gene. The POU-M1 gene was expressed strongly in the region anterior to the sericin-1-expressing portion of the silk gland at both feeding stages. As the sericin-1-expressing region expands from the posterior to middle portions of the MSG in the fifth instar, the POU-M1-expressing region retreated from the middle to anterior portion. Introduction of the expression vector of POU-M1 into the silk glands by gene gun technology repressed promoter activity of the sericin-1 gene, suggesting that POU-M1 regulates the sericin-1 gene negatively. An in vitro binding assay showed that POU-M1 bound not only to the SC site but also to other promoter elements newly detected in vivo. Another spatiotemporal specific factor MIC binds to these elements, and POU-M1 competed with MIC to bind at the -70 site essential for promoter activity. These results suggest that POU-M1 is involved in restricting the anterior boundary of the sericin-1-expressing region in the silk gland by inhibiting the binding of the transcriptional activator to the promoter elements. PMID:23070540

  4. Effect of Akt inhibition on scatter factor-regulated gene expression in DU145 human prostate cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Xu; M Gao; S Fan; Q Meng; I D Goldberg; R Abounader; H Ressom; J J Laterra; E M Rosen; EM Rosen

    2007-01-01

    The cytokine scatter factor (SF) (hepatocyte growth factor) transduces various biologic actions, including cell motility, invasion, angiogenesis and apoptosis inhibition. The latter is relevant to understanding the role of SF in promoting tumor cell survival in different contexts, for example, detachment from basement membrane, growth in metastatic sites and responses to chemo- and radiotherapy. Previously, we showed that SF protects

  5. Arachidonic acid inhibits lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through a prostanoid pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle K. Mater; David Pan; W. G. Bergen; Donald B. Jump

    This report examines the effect of polyunsatu- rated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipogenic gene expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3) suppressed mRNAs encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS) and S14, but had no ef- fect on b -actin. Using a clonal adipocyte cell line containing a stably integrated S14CAT fusion gene, oleic acid

  6. Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W H van der Laan; P H A Quax; C A Seemayer; L G M Huisman; E J Pieterman; J M Grimbergen; J H Verheijen; F C Breedveld; R E Gay; S Gay; T W J Huizinga; T Pap

    2003-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be pivotal enzymes in the invasion of articular cartilage by synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigated the effects of gene transfer of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) on the invasiveness of RA synovial fibroblasts (RASF) in vitro and in vivo.Adenoviral vectors (Ad) were used for gene transfer. The effects of AdTIMP-1

  7. Restoration of DLC-1 gene expression induces apoptosis and inhibits both cell growth and tumorigenicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoling Zhou; Snorri S Thorgeirsson; Nicholas C Popescu

    2004-01-01

    The gene deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC-1) is located on human chromosome 8p21–22, a region thought to harbor tumor suppressor genes on the basis of its frequent deletion or loss of heterozygosity in a variety of human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Deletion or altered expression of DLC-1 is common in HCC. In the current study, the subcellular localization of

  8. Activation of Go-coupled dopamine D2 receptors inhibits ERK1/ERK2 in pituitary cells. A key step in the transcriptional suppression of the prolactin gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jeffrey C; Baker, Ross E; Sun, Clement; Sundmark, Valdine C; Elsholtz, Harry P

    2002-09-27

    In pituitary lactotrophs the prolactin gene is stimulated by neuropeptides and estrogen and is suppressed by dopamine via D2-type receptors. Stimulatory signals converge on activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2, but dopamine regulation of this pathway is not well defined. Paradoxically, D2 agonists activate ERK1/2 in many cell types. Here we show that in prolactin-secreting GH4ZR7 cells and primary pituitary cells, dopamine treatment leads to a rapid, pronounced, and specific decrease in activated ERK1/2. The response is blocked by D2-specific antagonists and pertussis toxin. Interestingly, in stable lines expressing specific pertussis toxin-resistant Galpha subunits, toxin treatment blocks dopamine suppression of MAPK in Galpha(i2)- but not Galphao-expressing cells, demonstrating that G(o)-dependent pathways can effect the inhibitory MAPK response. At the nuclear level, the MEK1 inhibitor U0126 mimics the D2-agonist bromocryptine in suppressing levels of endogenous prolactin transcripts. Moreover, a good correlation is seen between the IC(50) values for inhibition of MEK1 and suppression of prolactin promoter function (PD184352 > U0126 > U0125). Both dopamine and U0126 enhance the nuclear localization of ERF, a MAPK-sensitive ETS repressor that inhibits prolactin promoter activity. In addition, U0126 suppression is transferred by tandem copies of the Pit-1-binding site, consistent with mapping experiments for dopamine responsiveness. Our data suggest that ERK1/2 suppression is an obligatory step in the dopaminergic control of prolactin gene transcription and that bidirectional control of ERK1/2 function in the pituitary may provide a key mechanism for endocrine gene control. PMID:12121979

  9. Inhibition by recombinant human interleukin-6 of the glucagon-dependent induction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and of the insulin-dependent induction of glucokinase gene expression in cultured rat hepatocytes: regulation of gene transcription and messenger RNA degradation.

    PubMed

    Christ, B; Nath, A; Heinrich, P C; Jungermann, K

    1994-12-01

    The influence of recombinant human interleukin-6, the major mediator of the inflammatory response in liver, on the glucagon- and insulin-dependent induction of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucokinase gene, respectively, was monitored on the level of gene transcription, mRNA abundance and enzyme activity in cultured rat hepatocytes. As control markers of the interleukin-6-induced acute-phase response the mRNA levels of the acute phase proteins alpha 2-macroglobulin and beta-fibrinogen were determined. In cultured rat hepatocytes, recombinant human interleukin-6, added simultaneously with glucagon and insulin, lowered the maximal increase in glucagon-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels after 2 hr and the maximal increase in glucokinase mRNA levels after 3 hr to about 30%, respectively. It inhibited the glucagon-induced increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzyme activity, as well as the insulin-induced increases in glucokinase gene transcription and glucokinase enzyme activity. Recombinant human interleukin-6 increased the mRNA levels of the acute-phase proteins alpha 2-macroglobulin and beta-fibrinogen gradually over 4 to 6 hr. Recombinant human interleukin-6, added 2 hr after glucagon or 3 hr after insulin at the maximum of the hormone-induced enzyme mRNA levels, almost doubled the decay rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA and glucokinase mRNA. The results show that interleukin-6 induced the expression of inflammatory proteins and simultaneously inhibited the hormone-induced expression of enzymes of intermediary metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7527006

  10. Inhibition of erythromycin synthesis by disruption of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase gene eryM in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Y J; Kolattukudy, P E

    1994-01-01

    Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) decarboxylase is widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, the biological function of this enzyme has not been established in any organism. To elucidate the structure and function of this enzyme, the malonyl-CoA decarboxylase gene from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythreaus) was cloned and sequenced. This gene would encode a polypeptide of 417 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence matched the experimentally determined amino acid sequences of 25 N-terminal residues each of the enzyme and of an internal peptide obtained by proteolysis of the purified enzyme. This decarboxylase showed homology with aminoglycoside N6'-acetyltransferases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Northern (RNA) blot analysis revealed a single transcript. The transcription initiation site was 220 bp upstream of the start codon. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the S. erythraea malonyl-CoA decarboxylase gene yielded a protein that cross-reacted with antiserum prepared against S. erythraea malonyl-CoA decarboxylase and catalyzed decarboxylation of [3-14C]malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and 14CO2. The S. erythraea malonyl-CoA decarboxylase gene was disrupted by homologous recombination using an integrating vector pWHM3. The gene-disrupted transformant did not produce immunologically cross-reacting 45-kDa decarboxylase, lacked malonyl-CoA decarboxylase activity, and could not produce erythromycin. Exogenous propionate restored the ability to produce erythromycin. These results strongly suggest that the decarboxylase provides propionyl-CoA for erythromycin synthesis probably via decarboxylation of methylmalonyl-CoA derived from succinyl-CoA, and therefore the malonyl-CoA decarboxylase gene is designated eryM. The gene disrupted mutants also did not produce pigments. Images PMID:8300527

  11. Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4 ± 1 °C) and warm (23 ± 1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.

  12. Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4?±?1 °C) and warm (23?±?1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles. PMID:25145442

  13. Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole ( Lasiopodomys brandtii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4 ± 1 °C) and warm (23 ± 1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.

  14. Inhibition by parthenolide of phorbol ester-induced transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in a human monocyte cell line THP-1.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Hibiya, Y; Mutoh, M; Ohno, Y; Yamashita, K; Akao, S; Fujiwara, H

    2000-08-15

    Excessive nitric oxide production by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated inflammatory cells is thought to be a causative factor of cellular injury in inflammatory disease states. Compounds inhibiting iNOS transcriptional activity in inflammatory cells are potentially anti-inflammatory. An assay method for estimating iNOS transcriptional activity in the human monocyte cell line THP-1 was established using a luciferase reporter gene system. In this study, we demonstrate that parthenolide, the predominant sesquiterpene lactone in European feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), exerts potent inhibitory effects on the promoter activity of the iNOS gene in THP-1 cells. Parthenolide effectively suppressed iNOS promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations higher than 2. 5 microM, with an IC(50) of about 10 microM. A tumor-promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), significantly increased the iNOS promoter-dependent reporter gene activity, and the TPA-induced increase in iNOS promoter activity was effectively suppressed by parthenolide, with an IC(50) of approximately 2 microM. The present findings may further explain the anti-inflammatory property of parthenolide. PMID:10874135

  15. Exploring signatures of positive selection in pigmentation candidate genes in populations of East Asian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, there is very limited knowledge about the genes involved in normal pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. We carried out a genome-wide scan of signatures of positive selection using the 1000 Genomes Phase I dataset, in order to identify pigmentation genes showing putative signatures of selective sweeps in East Asia. We applied a broad range of methods to detect signatures of selection including: 1) Tests designed to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima’s D, Fay and Wu’s H and Fu and Li’s D* and F*), 2) Tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb) and 3) Tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL). Based on the results obtained from a genome wide analysis of 25 kb windows, we constructed an empirical distribution for each statistic across all windows, and identified pigmentation genes that are outliers in the distribution. Results Our tests identified twenty genes that are relevant for pigmentation biology. Of these, eight genes (ATRN, EDAR, KLHL7, MITF, OCA2, TH, TMEM33 and TRPM1,) were extreme outliers (top 0.1% of the empirical distribution) for at least one statistic, and twelve genes (ADAM17, BNC2, CTSD, DCT, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, MLPH, OPRM1, PDIA6, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) were in the top 1% of the empirical distribution for at least one statistic. Additionally, eight of these genes (BNC2, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, OCA2, OPRM1, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) have been associated with pigmentary traits in association studies. Conclusions We identified a number of putative pigmentation genes showing extremely unusual patterns of genetic variation in East Asia. Most of these genes are outliers for different tests and/or different populations, and have already been described in previous scans for positive selection, providing strong support to the hypothesis that recent selective sweeps left a signature in these regions. However, it will be necessary to carry out association and functional studies to demonstrate the implication of these genes in normal pigmentation variation. PMID:23848512

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibition induces long-lasting changes in maternal behavior and gene expression in female mice.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Stevens, Jacqueline S; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-09-01

    In many species, including mice, maternal responsiveness is experience-dependent and permanent, lasting for long periods (months to years). We have shown that after brief exposures to pups, virgin female mice continue to respond maternally toward pups for at least one month. Administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) reduces the amount of maternal experience required to affect maternal behavior and gene expression. In this set of studies, we examined the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie these motivated behaviors. We assessed whether the effects of HDACi persisted 1 month after the initial experience (in the absence of continued pup experience or HDACi treatment) and whether the maintenance of maternal memory was associated with stable changes in gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we examined whether Esr2 and Oxt gene expression might be mediated by recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CBP) to their promoter regions after maternal memory consolidation. We report that HDACi treatment induced long-lasting changes in maternal responsiveness. Maternal learning was associated with increased recruitment of CBP to the Esr2 and Oxt gene promoters during the consolidation of maternal memory as well as a persistent increase in estrogen receptor-? (Esr2) mRNA and decreased expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a within the medial preoptic area. The consolidation of the maternal experience may involve the CBP recruitment and stable changes in gene expression, which maintain increased maternal responsiveness for long periods of time. PMID:24932804

  17. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Kim, Sahn-Ho [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Pindolia, Kirit R. [Department of Medical Genetics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Medical Genetics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Arbab, Ali S. [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Gautam, Subhash C., E-mail: sgautam1@hfhs.org [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT telomerase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT regulatory proteins. -- Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a multifunctional oleanane synthetic triterpenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene or telomerase activity. Here we report for the first time that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cell lines is associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT expression and activity. Furthermore, abrogation or overexpression of hTERT protein altered the susceptibility of tumor cells to CDDO-Me. These findings suggest that telomerase (hTERT) is a relevant target of CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cells.

  18. Angiostatin Gene Transfer: Inhibition of Tumor Growth in vivo by Blockage of Endothelial Cell Proliferation Associated with a Mitosis Arrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Griscelli; Hong Li; Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli; Jeannette Soria; Paule Opolon; Claudine Soria; Michel Perricaudet; Patrice Yeh; He Lu

    1998-01-01

    The antitumoral effects that follow the local delivery of the N-terminal fragment of human plasminogen (angiostatin K3) have been studied in two xenograft murine models. Angiostatin delivery was achieved by a defective adenovirus expressing a secretable angiostatin K3 molecule from the cytomegalovirus promoter (AdK3). In in vitro studies, AdK3 selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and disrupted the G2\\/M transition induced

  19. Molecular cloning, functional analysis and localization of a novel gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in Chorispora bungeana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cuixia Di; Ming Li; Feng Long; Muqun Bai; Yajie liu; Xiaolin Zheng; Shijian Xu; Yun Xiang; Zhenglong Sun; Lizhe An

    2009-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defense proteins. To date, no spatial distribution of PGIPs and interaction\\u000a between PGIPs and nitric oxide (NO) in plant were described. Here, we first reported the full-length cDNA sequence of PGIP of Chorispora bungeana (CbPGIP1). Notably, immunofluorescence localization showed that the CbPGIP was evenly distributed in leaves but it was mainly localized\\u000a in epidermis and

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits aromatase gene transcription in human trophoblast cells via the Smad2 signaling pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhou; Guodong Fu; Hui Yu; Chun Peng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is known to exert multiple regulatory functions in the human placenta, including inhibition of estrodial production. We have previously reported that TGF-beta1 decreased aromatase mRNA levels in human trophoblast cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on aromatase expression. METHODS: To determine if TGF-beta

  1. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress

    PubMed Central

    Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone’s anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  2. Histone post-translational modifications induced by histone deacetylase inhibition in transcriptional control units of NIS gene.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Federica; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe; Puppin, Cinzia

    2014-08-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (HPTMs) play a major role in control of gene transcription. Among them, histone acetylation and methylation have been extensively investigated. Histone acetylation at different residues is generally associated to active gene transcription. In contrast, histone methylation can be associated either to transcriptional activation or repression, depending primarily on the histone residue that is subjected to the modification. Herein, effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA on the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene expression were investigated in breast cancer cells (MDA157 and MDA468). SAHA treatment induces high increase of NIS mRNA levels in MDA468 cells (300-fold), but moderate increase in MDA157 cells (fivefold). Histone H3 HPTMs (acetylation and methylations) on transcriptional units of NIS gene were investigated in these cell lines upon SAHA treatment. Our data indicate that HPTMs, particularly the H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, may operate in contrast to current models that relate epigenetic modifications with transcriptional activity. PMID:24844212

  3. TET2 Inhibits Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells but Does Not Overcome Methylation-Induced Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    TET2 is a methylcytosine dioxygenase that is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies, notably myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. TET2 catalyses the conversion of 5?-methylcytosine to 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine within DNA and has been implicated in the process of genomic demethylation. However, the mechanism by which TET2 loss of function results in hematopoietic dysplasia and leukemogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that TET2 is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and that its knockdown results in reduction of 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine in genomic DNA. We also present DNA methylation data from bone marrow samples obtained from patients with TET2-mutated myelodysplasia. Based on these findings, we sought to identify the role of TET2 in regulating pluripotency and differentiation. We show that overexpression of TET2 in a stably integrated transgene leads to increased alkaline phosphatase expression in differentiating ES cells and impaired differentiation in methylcellulose culture. We speculate that this effect is due to TET2-mediated expression of stem cell genes in ES cells via hydroxylation of 5?-methylcytosines at key promoter sequences within genomic DNA. This leads to relative hypomethylation of gene promoters as 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine is not a substrate for DNMT1-mediated maintenance methylation. We sought to test this hypothesis by cotransfecting the TET2 gene with methylated reporter genes. The results of these experiments are presented. PMID:25276435

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken' ichiro Hayashi; Seiji Nakamura; Wataru Nishida; Kenji Sobue

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down- regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the

  5. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of CAD gene expression and inhibition by Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in human breast cancer cells

    E-print Network

    Khan, Shaheen Munawar Ali

    2007-04-25

    of MCF-7 or ZR-75 cells with 17b-estradiol (E2) resulted in a 3-5 fold increase in CAD mRNA levels in both cell lines. E2 induced reporter gene activity in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells transfected with a construct containing the growth-responsive -90/+115 (pCAD1...

  6. ? 2Adrenergic receptor activation inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott C Supowit; Diane M Hallman; Huawei Zhao; Donald J DiPette

    1998-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator, is produced in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons which extend nerves peripherally to blood vessels and centrally to the spinal cord. We previously reported that neuronal CGRP expression is significantly reduced in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) which could contribute to the elevated BP. Other studies suggest that the enhanced activity of the

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Activators Inhibit Gene Expression and Migration in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Marx; Uwe Schonbeck; Mitchell A. Lazar; Peter Libby; Jorge Plutzky

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherogenesis and restenosis after arterial interventions. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, contributes to VSMC migration. This process requires degradation of basal laminae and other components of the arterial extracellular matrix. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear receptor family, regulate gene expression after activation

  8. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzi?ska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wi?niewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

    2012-11-01

    Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

  9. In vitro allergen challenge of peripheral blood induces differential gene expression in mononuclear cells of asthmatic patients: inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2? overcomes the asthma-associated response

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, K A; Legault, H; Hang, C; Hill, A; Kasaian, M; Donaldson, D; Bensch, G W; Bensch, G; Baker, J; Reddy, P S; Wood, N; Ramarao, M K; Ellis, D K; Csimma, C; McKee, C; Clark, J D; Ryan, J; Dorner, A J; O'Toole, M

    2008-01-01

    Background Existing treatments for asthma are not effective in all patients and disease exacerbations are common, highlighting the need for increased understanding of disease mechanisms and novel treatment strategies. The leukotriene pathway including the enzyme responsible for arachidonic acid release from cellular phospholipids, cPLA2?, is a major contributor to asthmatic responses and an attractive target in asthma therapies. Objective The study reported here investigates (a) the differential effects of in vitro exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to allergen between asthma and healthy subjects, and (b) the contribution of cPLA2? to these differences in gene expression. Methods In vitro responses of asthma (N=26) and healthy (N=11) subject PBMC samples to allergen stimulation in the presence and absence of cPLA2? inhibition or 5-lipoxygenase inhibition were compared at the gene expression level using oligonucleotide arrays and at the protein level using ELISA. Results Subject samples within both asthma and healthy groups showed allergen-dependent cytokine production and allergen-dependent gene expression changes, although transcriptional profiling identified 153 genes that were modulated significantly differently by allergen between asthma and healthy subjects. Among these were genes previously associated with asthma, but the majority (about 80%) have not previously been associated with asthma. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling elucidated novel gene expression differences between the asthmatic and healthy subject samples. Although 5-lipoxygenase inhibition did not significantly affect allergen-modulated gene expression, the inhibition of cPLA2? activity affected many of the allergen-dependent, asthma-associated gene expression changes. Cite this as: K. A. Whalen, H. Legault, C. Hang, A. Hill, M. Kasaian, D. Donaldson, G. W. Bensch, G. Bensch, J. Baker, P. S. Reddy, N. Wood, M. K. Ramarao, D. K. Ellis, C. Csimma, C. McKee, J. D. Clark, J. Ryan, A. J. Dorner and M. O'Toole, Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 2008 (38) 1590–1605. PMID:18665843

  10. Transfer of the murine interleukin-12 gene in vivo by a Semliki Forest virus vector induces B16 tumor regression through inhibition of tumor blood vessel formation monitored by Doppler ultrasonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Asselin-Paturel; N Lassau; J-M Guinebretière; J Zhang; F Gay; F Bex; S Hallez; J Leclere; P Peronneau; F Mami-Chouaib; S Chouaib

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate further the potential of a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector in vivo for gene therapy, we constructed a vector, SFV-IL12, to transfer murine IL-12 genes into tumors. A single intratumoral injection of established B16 murine melanoma with SFV-IL12 resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth, while injection with SFV-LacZ had no effect. This antitumoral activity correlated with

  11. Gene disruption of the calcium channel Orai1 results in inhibition of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation and impairs skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lisa J; Mancarella, Salvatore; Songsawad, Duangrat; Tourkova, Irina L; Barnett, John B; Gill, Donald L; Soboloff, Jonathan; Blair, Harry C

    2012-07-01

    Calcium signaling plays a central role in the regulation of bone cells, although uncertainty remains with regard to the channels involved. In previous studies, we determined that the calcium channel Orai1 was required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. To define the skeletal functions of calcium release-activated calcium currents, we compared the mice with targeted deletion of the calcium channel Orai1 to wild-type littermate controls, and examined differentiation and function of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors in vitro with and without Orai1 inhibition. Consistent with in vitro findings, Orai1(-/-) mice lacked multinucleated osteoclasts. Yet, they did not develop osteopetrosis. Mononuclear cells expressing osteoclast products were found in Orai1(-/-) mice, and in vitro studies showed significantly reduced, but not absent, mineral resorption by the mononuclear osteoclast-like cells that form in culture from peripheral blood monocytic cells when Orai1 is inhibited. More prominent in Orai1(-/-) mice was a decrease in bone with retention of fetal cartilage. Micro-computed tomography showed reduced cortical ossification and thinned trabeculae in Orai1(-/-) animals compared with controls; bone deposition was markedly decreased in the knockout mice. This suggested a previously unrecognized role for Orai1 within osteoblasts. Analysis of osteoblasts and precursors in Orai1(-/-) and control mice showed a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblasts. In vitro studies confirmed that inhibiting Orai1 activity impaired differentiation and function of human osteoblasts, supporting a critical function for Orai1 in osteoblasts, in addition to its role as a regulator of osteoclast formation. PMID:22546867

  12. Overexpression of D-Xylose Reductase (xyl1) Gene and Antisense Inhibition of D-Xylulokinase (xyiH) Gene Increase Xylitol Production in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yuanyuan; Dashtban, Mehdi; Kepka, Greg; Chen, Sanfeng; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    T. reesei is an efficient cellulase producer and biomass degrader. To improve xylitol production in Trichoderma reesei strains by genetic engineering, two approaches were used in this study. First, the presumptive D-xylulokinase gene in T. reesei (xyiH), which has high homology to known fungi D-xylulokinase genes, was silenced by transformation of T. reesei QM9414 strain with an antisense construct to create strain S6-2-2. The expression of the xyiH gene in the transformed strain S6-2-2 decreased at the mRNA level, and D-xylulokinase activity decreased after 48?h of incubation. This led to an increase in xylitol production from undetectable levels in wild-type T. reesei QM9414 to 8.6?mM in S6-2-2. The T. reesei ?xdh is a xylose dehydrogenase knockout strain with increased xylitol production compared to the wild-type T. reesei QM9414 (22.8?mM versus undetectable). The copy number of the xylose reductase gene (xyl1) in T. reesei ?xdh strain was increased by genetic engineering to create a new strain ?9-5-1. The ?9-5-1 strain showed a higher xyl1 expression and a higher yield of xylose reductase, and xylitol production was increased from 22.8?mM to 24.8?mM. Two novel strains S6-2-2 and ?9-5-1 are capable of producing higher yields of xylitol. T. reesei has great potential in the industrial production of xylitol. PMID:25013760

  13. RNA Interference-Mediated Knockdown of Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Inhibits Growth, Induces Apoptosis, and Increases the Chemosensitivity to 5-Fluorouracil in Renal Cancer Caki-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Bo; Shan, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Cui, Jun; Zhang, Mo; Song, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a recently discovered oncogene that has been reported to be highly expressed in various types of malignant tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. However, the precise role of AEG-1 in renal cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis has not been clarified. In this study, we transfected the renal cancer cell line Caki-1 with a plasmid expressing AEG-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and obtained cell colonies with stable knockdown of AEG-1. We found that AEG-1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and arrested cell cycle progression at the sub-G1 and G0/G1 phase. Western blot analysis indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 and cyclin E were significantly reduced following AEG-1 down-regulation. In addition, AEG-1 knockdown led to the appearance of apoptotic bodies in renal cancer cells, and the ratio of apoptotic cells significantly increased. Expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was dramatically reduced, whereas the pro-apoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly activated. Finally, AEG-1 knockdown in Caki-1 cells remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis in response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, suggesting that AEG-1 inhibition sensitizes Caki-1 cells to 5-FU. Taken together, our data suggest that AEG-1 plays an important role in renal cancer formation and development and may be a potential target for future gene therapy for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25431427

  14. Inhibition of lipolysis in the novel transgenic quail model overexpressing G0/G1 switch gene 2 in the adipose tissue during feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangsu; Choi, Young Min; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the issue of obesity in humans, the production of low-fat meat from domestic animals is important in the agricultural industry to satisfy consumer demand. Understanding the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue could advance our knowledge to potentially solve both issues. Although the G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) was recently identified as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in vitro, its role in vivo has not been fully clarified. This study was conducted to investigate the role of G0S2 gene in vivo by using two independent transgenic quail lines during different energy conditions. Unexpectedly, G0S2 overexpression had a negligible effect on plasma NEFA concentration, fat cell size and fat pad weight under ad libitum feeding condition when adipose lipolytic activity is minimal. A two-week feed restriction in non-transgenic quail expectedly caused increased plasma NEFA concentration and dramatically reduced fat cell size and fat pad weight. Contrary, G0S2 overexpression under a feed restriction resulted in a significantly less elevation of plasma NEFA concentration and smaller reductions in fat pad weights and fat cell size compared to non-transgenic quail, demonstrating inhibition of lipolysis and resistance to loss of fat by G0S2. Excessive G0S2 inhibits lipolysis in vivo during active lipolytic conditions, such as food restriction and fasting, suggesting G0S2 as a potential target for treatment of obesity. In addition, transgenic quail are novel models for studying lipid metabolism and mechanisms of obesity. PMID:24964090

  15. Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

  16. Nitric oxide inhibits endothelial IL-1[beta]-induced ICAM-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level decreasing Sp1 and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Berendji-Grün, D.; Kolb-Bachofen, V.; Kröncke, K. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has frequently been shown to inhibit leukocyte adherence to activated endothelium thus displaying anti-adhesive and immunosuppressive activities. A molecular mechanism contributing to this effect is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary murine aortic endothelial cells were activated with interleukin (IL)-1beta to express intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA in the presence or absence of the physiological spontaneous NO-donor S-nitrosocysteine. Subsequently, semiquantitative RT-PCR and gel shift assays with nuclear extracts were performed to analyse the effects of NO on ICAM-1 mRNA expression and on the activity of transcription factors involved in ICAM-1 transcription. In addition, luciferase reporter gene activity of cytokine-activated cells transiently transfected with an ICAM-1 promoter-luciferase construct and cultured in the presence of the slow-releasing NO-donor DETA/NO was determined. RESULTS: NO at subtoxic concentrations decreases IL-1beta-induced endothelial ICAM-1 mRNA expression. This inhibition occurs at the transcriptional level, as NO affects IL-1b-induced ICAM-1 promoter activity in transiently transfected cells. Using gel-shift assays and double-stranded oligonucleotide consensus sequences of the known transcription factor binding sites of the ICAM-1 promoter, Sp1 and AP-1 were identified as transcriptional activators of IL-1beta-driven ICAM-1 expression. The DNA binding of both of these transcription factors to specific binding sites of the ICAM-1 promoter was decreased in MAEC exposed to NO. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies indicate that the anti-adhesive effect of NO concentrations equivalent to high-output NO synthesis is mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of ICAM-1 expression via a concerted action of NO on the redox-sensitive transcriptional activators Sp1 and AP-1. This molecular mechanism may contribute to the anti-inflammatory actions of NO synthesized by the inducible NO synthase. PMID:11788788

  17. Overexpression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 inhibits human glioma proliferation and invasion via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathways

    PubMed Central

    MA, WEI; NA, MENG; TANG, CHONGYANG; WANG, HAIYANG; LIN, ZHIGUO

    2015-01-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was previously shown to exhibit low expression in glioma tissue as compared with that in normal brain tissue; however, the role of NDRG1 in human glioma cells has remained to be elucidated. The present study used the U87 MG and SHG-44 human glioma cell lines as well as the normal human astrocyte cell line 1800, which are known to have differential NDRG1 expression. Small interfering (si)RNA targeting NDRG1, and NDRG1 overexpression vectors were transfected into the SHG-44 and U87 MG glioma cells, respectively. Cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were subsequently examined by MTT assay, transwell chamber assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, a subcutaneous tumor mouse model was used to investigate the effects of NDRG1 on the growth of glioma cells in vivo. Overexpression of NDRG1 was shown to inhibit cell proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis in the U87 MG glioma cells, whereas NDRG1 downregulation increased proliferation, suppressed apoptosis and promoted invasion of the SHG-44 glioma cells. In addition, in the subcutaneous tumor mouse model, overexpression of NDRG1 in U-87 MG cells suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. The findings of the present study indicated that NDRG1 is required for the inhibition of gliomagenesis; therefore, targeting NDRG1 and its downstream targets may represent novel therapies for the treatment of glioma. PMID:25777142

  18. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum, and their relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). Inhibiting by PGIPs directly reduces potential PG activity in specific plant pathogenic fungi, reducing their aggressiveness. Here, we isolated and functionally chara...

  19. TcpH Influences Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae by Inhibiting Degradation of the Transcription Activator TcpP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy A. Beck; Eric S. Krukonis; Victor J. DiRita

    2004-01-01

    Expression of toxT, the transcription activator of cholera toxin and pilus production in Vibrio cholerae ,i s the consequence of a complex cascade of regulatory events that culminates in activation of the toxT promoter by TcpP and ToxR, two membrane-localized transcription factors. Both are encoded in operons with genes whose products, TcpH and ToxS, which are also membrane localized, are

  20. Inhibition of cartilage destruction by double gene transfer of IL1Ra and IL10 involves the activin pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Neumann; M Judex; F Kullmann; J Grifka; P D Robbins; T Pap; R E Gay; C H Evans; S Gay; J Schölmerich; U Müller-Ladner

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects and the molecular background of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and vIL-10 double gene transfer into human synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the SCID mouse model for cartilage erosion in RA. RA synovial fibroblasts were transduced with retro- or adenoviruses encoding IL-1Ra and\\/or viral IL-10 (vIL-10). SCID

  1. In vivo growth inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by the Interferon-inducible gene IFI16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasenka Mazibrada; Marco De Andrea; Massimo Rittà; Cinzia Borgogna; Raffaella dell’Eva; Ulrich Pfeffer; Luigi Chiusa; Marisa Gariglio; Santo Landolfo

    2010-01-01

    The Interferon-inducible gene, IFI16 has been implicated in the control of cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and immunomodulation. In a previous study we demonstrated that restoring levels of IFI16 in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)-derived cell line, HNO136, reduced its growth in vitro accompanied by a marked increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. To evaluate the ability of IFI16 to

  2. H 2O 2 inhibits BCR-dependent immediate early induction of EBV genes in Burkitt's lymphoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen I. Osipova-Goldberg; Lyudmila V. Turchanowa; Barbara Adler; Josef M. Pfeilschifter

    2009-01-01

    The critical step in the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) transition from latency to lytic replication is activation of the viral immediate early (IE) genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1. Their induction in Burkitt's lymphoma Akata cells is directly targeted by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. On the other hand, BCR stimulation causes an outwardly directed superoxide (O2•?) burst leading to massive generation of

  3. Inhibition of Accelerated Graft Arteriosclerosis by Gene Transfer of Soluble Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor1 in Rat Aortic Transplants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wensheng Luo; Ailian Liu; Yong Chen; Hyung M. Lim; Jennifer Marshall-Neff; James H. Black; William Baldwin; Ralph H. Hruban; Susan C. Stevenson; Peter Mouton; Alan Dardik; Barbara J. Ballermann

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Because increased fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and FGF receptor (FGFR) expression correlate with the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in transplanted human hearts, this study sought to determine whether local gene transfer of soluble FGFR-1, capable of binding both FGF-1 and FGF-2, could blunt the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in the rat aortic transplant model. Methods and Results—A construct

  4. Inhibition of Gene Expression and Growth by Antisense Peptide Nucleic Acids in a Multiresistant  -Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prathiba Kurupati; K. S. W. Tan; G. Kumarasinghe; C. L. Poh

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae causes common and severe hospital- and community-acquired infections with a high incidence of multidrug resistance. The emergence and spread of -lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we developed antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) conjugated to the (KFF)3K peptide and investigated whether they could mediate gene-specific antisense effects in K.

  5. Ribonuclease P-mediated inhibition of human cytomegalovirus gene expression and replication induced by engineered external guide sequences.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Gong, Hao; Trang, Phong; Lu, Sangwei; Liu, Fenyong

    2012-09-01

    External guide sequences (EGSs) are RNA molecules that can bind to a target mRNA and direct ribonuclease P (RNase P), a tRNA processing enzyme, for specific cleavage of the target mRNA. Using an in vitro selection procedure, we have previously generated EGS variants that efficiently direct human RNase P to cleave a target mRNA in vitro. In this study, we constructed EGSs from a variant to target the overlapping region of the mRNAs coding for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsid scaffolding protein (CSP) and assemblin, which are essential for viral capsid formation. The EGS variant was about 40-fold more active in directing human RNase P to cleave the mRNA in vitro than the EGS derived from a natural tRNA. Moreover, a reduction of about 98% and 75% in CSP/assemblin gene expression and a reduction of 7000- and 250-fold in viral growth were observed in HCMV-infected cells that expressed the variant and the tRNA-derived EGS, respectively. Our study shows that the EGS variant is more effective in blocking HCMV gene expression and growth than the tRNA-derived EGS. Moreover, these results demonstrate the utility of highly active EGS RNA variants in gene targeting applications including anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:23018778

  6. Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

  7. Inhibition of TMV multiplication by siRNA constructs against TOM1 and TOM3 genes of Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Dubey, Ashvini Kumar; Karmakar, Ruma; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra; Mathew, Mathew Kuriyan; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2012-12-01

    The host proteins TOM1 and TOM3 associated with tonoplast membrane are shown to be required for efficient multiplication of Tobamoviruses. In this study, homologous of TOM1 and TOM3 genes were identified in pepper (Capsicum annuum) using specific primers. Their gene sequences have similarity to Nicotiana tabacum NtTOM1 and NtTOM3. Sequence alignment showed that CaTOM1 and CaTOM3 are closely related to TOM1 and TOM3 of N. tabacum and Solanum lycopersicum with 90% and 70% nucleotide sequence identities, respectively. RNA interference approach was used to suppress the TOM1 and TOM3 gene expression which in turn prevented Tobacco mosaic virus replication in tobacco. Nicotiana plants agro-infiltrated with siRNA constructs of TOM1 or TOM3 showed no mosaic or necrotic infection symptoms upon inoculation with TMV. The results indicated that silencing of TOM1 and TOM3 of pepper using the siRNA constructs is an efficient method for generating TMV-resistant plants. PMID:22814091

  8. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

    2000-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

  9. Inhibition of gastric cancer invasion and metastasis by PLA2G2A, a novel beta-catenin/TCF target gene.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Kumaresan; Ivanova, Tatiana; Wu, Yonghui; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Wu, Jeanie; Lee, Ming Hui; Yu, Kun; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit; Lian, Kon Oi; Grabsch, Heike; Tan, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    Elevated expression of the PLA2G2A phospholipase in gastric cancer (GC) is associated with improved patient survival. To elucidate function and regulation of PLA2G2A in GC, we analyzed a panel of GC cell lines. PLA2G2A was specifically expressed in lines with constitutive Wnt activity, implicating beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling as a major upstream regulator of PLA2G2A expression. The invasive ability of PLA2G2A-expressing AGS cells was enhanced by PLA2G2A silencing, whereas cellular migration in non-PLA2G2A-expressing N87 cells was inhibited by enforced PLA2G2A expression, indicating that PLA2G2A is both necessary and sufficient to function as an inhibitor of GC invasion in vitro. We provide evidence that antiinvasive effect of PLA2G2A occurs, at least in part, through its ability to inhibit the S100A4 metastasis mediator gene. Consistent with its invasion inhibitor role, PLA2G2A expression was elevated in primary gastric, colon, and prostrate early-stage tumors, but was decreased in metastatic and late-stage tumors. There was a strong association between PLA2G2A promoter methylation status and PLA2G2A expression, suggesting that the loss of PLA2G2A expression in late-stage cancers may be due to epigenetic silencing. Supporting this, among the non-PLA2G2A-expressing lines, pharmacologic inhibition of epigenetic silencing reactivated PLA2G2A in Wnt-active lines, but in non-Wnt-active lines, a combination of Wnt hyperactivation and inhibition of epigenetic silencing were both required for PLA2G2A reactivation. Our results highlight the complexity of PLA2G2A regulation and provide functional evidence for PLA2G2A as an important regulator of invasion and metastasis in GC. PMID:18519687

  10. Overexpression of cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis via NF-{kappa}B in mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Cheng-Fei [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an (China) [Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an (China); Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Han, Ya-Ling, E-mail: hanyaling53@gmail.com [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China)] [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China); Jie-Deng,; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Jian-Kang,; Bo-Luan,; Jie-Li [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China)] [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Cardiology, Shenyang Northern Hospital, Shenyang (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} CREG protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis. {yields} CREG inhibits the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevents the activation of NF-{kappa}B. {yields} CREG inhibits NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and pro-apoptosis protein transcription. {yields} CREG anti-apoptotic effect involves inhibition of the death receptor pathway. {yields} p53 is downregulated by CREG via NF-{kappa}B pathway under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. -- Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great potential for therapeutic repair after myocardial infarction. However, poor viability of transplanted MSCs in the ischemic heart has limited their use. Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been identified as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. This study therefore aimed to determine if rat bone marrow MSCs transfected with CREG-were able to effectively resist apoptosis induced by inflammatory mediators, and to demonstrate the mechanism of CREG action. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assays. The pathways mediating these apoptotic effects were investigated by Western blotting. Overexpression of CREG markedly protected MSCs from tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced apoptosis by 50% after 10 h, through inhibition of the death-receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, leading to attenuation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Moreover, CREG resisted the serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and prevented the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) under TNF-{alpha} stimulation. Treatment of cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) significantly increased the transcription of pro-apoptosis proteins (p53 and Fas) by NF-{kappa}B, and attenuated the anti-apoptotic effects of CREG on MSCs. The results of this study indicate that CREG acts as a novel and potent survival factor in MSCs, and may therefore be a useful therapeutic adjunct for transplanting MSCs into the damaged heart after myocardial infarction.

  11. Mechanism of the impairment of the glucagon-stimulated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression by interleukin-6 in rat hepatocytes: inhibition of the increase in cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate and the downstream cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate action.

    PubMed

    Christ, B; Nath, A; Jungermann, K

    1997-07-01

    In cultured rat hepatocytes, the gluconeogenic key enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), is induced by glucagon via elevation of cyclic 3',5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), which in the liver together with IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha triggers the acute-phase response, had been shown to attenuate the glucagon-induced increase in PCK gene transcription, messenger (mRNA) levels, and enzyme activity. The molecular mechanism of this inhibition was investigated in the present study. Glucagon increased cyclic cAMP and PCK mRNA levels to a transient maximum twofold and fivefold, respectively. The increases were attenuated by IL-6. Forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, increased cAMP and PCK mRNA levels 1.6-fold and fivefold, respectively. However, IL-6 attenuated the forskolin-stimulated increase in PCK mRNA but not the increase in cAMP. This showed that IL-6 inhibited PCK mRNA increase in part by the attenuation of cAMP increase, but also beyond cAMP formation. This was confirmed in experiments in which PCK mRNA levels were increased by the nonhydrolyzable cAMP-analogue, chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP. The increase in PCK mRNA was again attenuated by IL-6. In pertussis toxin- and in isobutylmethylxanthine-treated hepatocytes, IL-6 still inhibited the glucagon-stimulated increase in cAMP, indicating that IL-6 did not activate an inhibitory G-protein or phosphodiesterase, which could cause the impairment of cAMP increase. To demonstrate whether the inhibition of PCK gene expression by IL-6 beyond cAMP might be caused by the inhibition of the activation of the PCK gene promoter by cAMP, cultured rat hepatocytes were transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct under the control of a PCK gene promoter fragment (base -979 to base +32). Luciferase activity was determined after stimulation of the cells with CPT-cAMP in the absence or presence of IL-6. CPT-cAMP increased luciferase activity by 1.7-fold, which was inhibited in the presence of IL-6. It is concluded that IL-6 had a dual inhibitory effect on the stimulation of PCK gene expression by glucagon. It inhibited the increase in cAMP at a site before cAMP formation by adenylate cyclase and at a site after cAMP formation, the activation of the PCK gene promoter by cAMP. PMID:9214454

  12. Wilms Tumor Gene on X Chromosome (WTX) Inhibits Degradation of NRF2 Protein through Competitive Binding to KEAP1 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Nathan D.; James, Richard G.; Dawson, David W.; Yan, Feng; Davison, James M.; Houck, Scott A.; Tang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Ning; Major, Michael B.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    WTX is a tumor suppressor protein that is lost or mutated in up to 30% of cases of Wilms tumor. Among its known functions, WTX interacts with the ?-transducin repeat containing family of ubiquitin ligase adaptors and promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of the transcription factor ?-catenin, a key control point in the WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway. Here, we report that WTX interacts with a second ubiquitin ligase adaptor, KEAP1, which functions to regulate the ubiquitination of the transcription factor NRF2, a key control point in the antioxidant response. Surprisingly, we find that unlike its ability to promote the ubiquitination of ?-catenin, WTX inhibits the ubiquitination of NRF2. WTX and NRF2 compete for binding to KEAP1, and thus loss of WTX leads to rapid ubiquitination and degradation of NRF2 and a reduced response to cytotoxic insult. These results expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WTX and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism governing the antioxidant response. PMID:22215675

  13. A melanoma subtype with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibition identified by receptor tyrosine kinases gene-driven classification

    PubMed Central

    Dugo, Matteo; Nicolini, Gabriella; Tragni, Gabrina; Bersani, Ilaria; Tomassetti, Antonella; Colonna, Valentina; Del Vecchio, Michele; De Braud, Filippo; Canevari, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) contributes to several aspects of oncogenesis including drug resistance. In melanoma, distinct RTKs have been involved in BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) resistance, yet the utility of RTKs expression pattern to identify intrinsically resistant tumors has not been assessed. Transcriptional profiling of RTKs and integration with a previous classification, reveals three robust subtypes in two independent datasets of melanoma cell lines and one cohort of melanoma samples. This classification was validated by Western blot in a panel of patient-derived melanoma cell lines. One of the subtypes identified here for the first time displayed the highest and lowest expression of EGFR and ERBB3, respectively, and included BRAF-mutant tumors all intrinsically resistant to BRAFi PLX4720, as assessed by analysis of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia pharmacogenomic study and by in vitro growth inhibition assays. High levels of EGFR were detected, even before therapy, in tumor cells of one of three melanoma patients unresponsive to BRAFi. Use of different pharmacological inhibitors highlighted the relevance of PI3K/mTOR signaling for growth of this PLX4720-resistant subtype. Our results identify a specific molecular profile of melanomas intrinsically resistant to BRAFi and suggest the PI3K/mTOR pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:25742786

  14. A melanoma subtype with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibition identified by receptor tyrosine kinases gene-driven classification.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Matteo; Nicolini, Gabriella; Tragni, Gabrina; Bersani, Ilaria; Tomassetti, Antonella; Colonna, Valentina; Del Vecchio, Michele; De Braud, Filippo; Canevari, Silvana; Anichini, Andrea; Sensi, Marialuisa

    2015-03-10

    Dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) contributes to several aspects of oncogenesis including drug resistance. In melanoma, distinct RTKs have been involved in BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) resistance, yet the utility of RTKs expression pattern to identify intrinsically resistant tumors has not been assessed. Transcriptional profiling of RTKs and integration with a previous classification, reveals three robust subtypes in two independent datasets of melanoma cell lines and one cohort of melanoma samples. This classification was validated by Western blot in a panel of patient-derived melanoma cell lines. One of the subtypes identified here for the first time displayed the highest and lowest expression of EGFR and ERBB3, respectively, and included BRAF-mutant tumors all intrinsically resistant to BRAFi PLX4720, as assessed by analysis of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia pharmacogenomic study and by in vitro growth inhibition assays. High levels of EGFR were detected, even before therapy, in tumor cells of one of three melanoma patients unresponsive to BRAFi. Use of different pharmacological inhibitors highlighted the relevance of PI3K/mTOR signaling for growth of this PLX4720-resistant subtype. Our results identify a specific molecular profile of melanomas intrinsically resistant to BRAFi and suggest the PI3K/mTOR pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:25742786

  15. Long-Term Gene Therapy with Thrombospondin 2 Inhibits TGF-? Activation, Inflammation and Angiogenesis in Chronic Allograft Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christoph; Vogelbacher, Regina; Stief, Andrea; Grigo, Christina; Hugo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We recently identified Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) as a regulator of matrix remodelling and inflammation in experimental kidney disease by using TSP-2 null mice and successfully proved TSP-2 overexpression as a therapeutic concept in a short term glomerulonephritis model in the rat. In this current study, we investigated if long-term TSP-2 overexpression is also capable to ameliorate the progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of the chronic allograft nephropathy F344-Lewis model in the rat. Two weeks after renal transplantation, two rat thigh muscles were transfected once only with either a TSP-2 overexpressing plasmid (n?=?8) or a luciferase-expressing plasmid as control (n?=?8). Rats were monitored for renal function, histological changes and gene expression in the graft for up to 30 weeks after transplantation. Unexpectedly, only in the TSP-2 treated group 2 rats died before the end of the experiment and renal function tended to be worsened in the TSP-2 group compared to the luciferase-treated controls. In addition, glomerular sclerosis and tubular interstitial injury as well as cortical fibronectin deposition was significantly increased in the TSP-2 treated kidneys despite reduced TGF-? activation and marked anti-inflammatory (macrophages, T-cells and B-cells) effects in this group. Long-term TSP-2 therapy impaired repair of renal endothelium, as demonstrated by significant higher glomerular and peritubular endothelial rarefaction and reduced endothelial cell proliferation in the transplanted kidneys from TSP-2 treated rats compared to controls. This TSP-2 effect was associated with decreased levels of renal VEGF but not VEGF1 receptor. In conclusion, despite its anti-inflammatory and TGF-? activation blocking effects, TSP-2 gene therapy did not ameliorate but rather worsened experimental chronic allograft nephropathy most likely via its anti-angiogenic properties on the renal microvasculature. PMID:24376766

  16. Nbn gene inactivation in the CNS of mouse inhibits the myelinating ability of the mature cortical oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Tong, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by immunodeficiency, elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation, chromosomal instability, microcephaly, and high predisposition to malignancies. Since the underlying molecular mechanisms of the NBS microcephaly are still obscure, thus our group previously inactivated the Nbn gene in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice by nestin-Cre targeting gene system, and generated Nbn(CNS-del) mice. Interestingly, the newborn Nbn(CNS-del) mice exhibit obvious microcephaly, which is accompanied by severe ataxia and balance deficiency. In this study presented here, we report that Nbn-deficiency induces the enhanced apoptosis of the mature oligodendrocytes at postnatal day 7, which further affects the myelination of the nerve fibers of cerebrum and corpus callosum.The distinct regulatory roles of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling and protein kinase B(Akt)/the mammalian target of Rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) signaling are responsible for the enhanced apoptosis of the Nbn-deficient oligodendrocytes. In addition, a series of transcriptional factors including histonedeacetylase (HDAC), zinc finger protein 191 (ZFP-191) and myelin sheath regulatory factor (MRF) play distinct roles in regulating the myelination of the Nbn-deficient oligodendrocytes. Based on these results, it concludes that ATM-Chk2-P53-P21 signaling pathway and the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway are both responsible for the enhanced apoptosis of the Nbn-deficient oligodendrocytes. HDAC, ZFP-191, and MRF are also involved in the pathogenesis of the hypomyelination of the Nbn-deficient oligodendrocytes. PMID:24272708

  17. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R-IM enantiomer than of the S-IM enantiomer. This study unraveled several IM toxicity targets and mechanisms at the molecular and structural level linked to the toxicity of IM trace concentrations on A. thaliana reproduction. PMID:25348600

  18. Phage inhibition, colicin resistance, and tellurite resistance are encoded by a single cluster of genes on the IncHI2 plasmid R478.

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, K F; Colleran, E; Taylor, D E

    1995-01-01

    A region of the IncHI2 plasmid R478, encoding the phenotypes of tellurite resistance (Ter), phage inhibition (Phi), and colicin resistance (PacB), was cloned and sequenced. Analysis indicated seven open reading frames (ORFs), whose genes were designated terZ, -A, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -F. Five of these predicted ORFs (A to E) had extensive amino acid homology with the previously reported ORFs of the IncHI2 Ter operon from plasmid pMER610. There were domains of highly conserved amino acid residues within the group TerA, -D, -E, and -F and within TerD, -E, and -Z, but no consensus could be found among all five putative polypeptides. There were also regions of good identity and similarity between individual pairs of ORFs which was not reflected in the multiple alignments. The three phenotypes were expressed in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by an 8.4-kb EcoRI insert subcloned from a cosmid of R478. The latter insert was clonable only as a double insertion with a 4.5-kb fragment, and forced deletion of the smaller fragment was lethal to cells. This lethality was not dependent on the cloned orientation of either fragment, suggesting that there is a trans-acting element in the 4.5-kb fragment. Tn1000 mutagenesis of one of the double-insert clones, pDT2575, showed that the phenotypes, including multiple colicin resistance, were genetically linked. Transpositions into terD, terC, and terZ reduced or abolished all phenotypes, while inserts into terE and terF had no effect on the phenotypes. Insertions in terA reduced phage inhibition levels only. The presence of the terZ and terF ORFs in pMER610 was confirmed, and derivatives of this plasmid mediated Phi, PacB, and Ter. PMID:7665479

  19. Cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum and transgenic CaPGIP1 in tobacco in relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuju; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tooley, Paul; Zhang, Xiuguo

    2013-03-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). The PGIPs directly reduce the aggressive potential of PGs. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized three members of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) PGIP gene family. Each was up-regulated at a different time following stimulation of the pepper leaves by Phytophthora capcisi and abiotic stresses including salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, wounding and cold treatment. Purified recombinant proteins individually inhibited activity of PGs produced by Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum nicotianae, respectively, and virus-induced gene silencing in pepper conferred enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Because three PGIP genes acted similarily in conferring resistance to infection by P. capsici, and because individually purified proteins showed consistent inhibition against PG activity of both pathogens, CaPGIP1 was selected for manipulating transgenic tobacco. The crude proteins from transgenic tobacco exhibited distinct enhanced resistance to PG activity of both fungi. Moreover, the transgenic tobacco showed effective resistance to infection and a significant reduction in the number of infection sites, number of lesions and average size of lesions in the leaves. All results suggest that CaPGIPs may be involved in plant defense response and play an important role in a plant's resistance to disease. PMID:23334855

  20. The use of quaternised chitosan-loaded PMMA to inhibit biofilm formation and downregulate the virulence-associated gene expression of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Peng, Zhaoxiang; Li, Qingtian; Xu, Xiaofen; Guo, Shengrong; Tang, Tingting

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterial-associated infections remain a serious complication in orthopaedic surgery. Treatments, including the local use of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, are not always successful because of multiantibiotic-resistant organisms. In this study, we synthesised a new quaternised chitosan derivative (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC) that contains a series of substitutions of quaternary ammonium and demonstrated that HACC with a 26% degree of substitution (DS; referred to as 26%HACC) had a strong antibacterial activity and simultaneously good biocompatibility with osteogenic cells. We loaded 26%HACC at 20% by weight into PMMA bone cement to investigate whether HACC in PMMA prevents bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of bone cements. Chitosan-loaded PMMA (at the same weight ratio), gentamicin-loaded PMMA and PMMA with no antibiotic were also investigated and compared. Two clinical isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis 389 and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE287), and two standard strains, S. epidermidis (ATCC35984) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC43300), were selected to evaluate the bacterial biofilm formation at 6, 12 and 24 h using the spread plate method, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA inhibited biofilm formation on its surface, while the PMMA control and chitosan-loaded PMMA were unable to inhibit biofilm formation. The gentamicin-loaded PMMA decreased the number of viable methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains, but its ability to inhibit biofilm formation was lower than 26%HACC-loaded PMMA. Real-time PCR demonstrated that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA markedly downregulated the expression of icaAD, which encodes essential enzymes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) biosynthesis, upregulated the expression level of icaR, which negatively mediates icaAD expression, and also downregulated the expression of MecA, which encodes membrane-bound enzymes known to be penicillin-binding proteins. Our study indicates that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA prevents biofilm formation of Staphylococcus, including antibiotic-resistant strains, on the surface of bone cement, and downregulates the virulence-associated gene expression of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus, thus providing a promising new strategy for combating implant infections and osteomyelitis. PMID:22014946

  1. The anti-obesity effects of a tuna peptide on 3T3-L1 adipocytes are mediated by the inhibition of the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes and by the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-08-01

    The differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves the activation of an organized system of obesity-related genes, of which those encoding CCAAT/enhancer?binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the Wnt-10b protein may play integral roles. In a previous study of ours, we found that a specific peptide found in tuna (sequence D?I?V?D?K?I?E?I; termed TP?D) inhibited 3T3?L1 cell differentiation. In the present study, we observed that the expression of expression of C/EBPs and Wnt?10b was associated with obesity. The initial step of 3T3?L1 cell differentiation involved the upregulation of C/EBP?? expression, which in turn activated various subfactors. An upstream effector of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK?3?) inhibited Wnt?10b expression in 3T3?L1 adipocytes. In a previous study of ours, we sequenced the tuna peptide via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS?PAGE) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) and confirmed the anti?obesity effects thereof in 3T3?L1 adipocytes. In the present study, we demonstrate that TP?D inhibits C/EBP and promotes Wnt?10b mRNA expression, thus activating the Wnt pathway. The inhibition of lipid accumulation was measured using a glucose and triglyceride (TG) assay. Our results confirmed that TP?D altered the expression levels of C/EBP?related genes in a dose?dependent manner and activated the Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, we confirmed that total adiponectin and high?molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels were reduced by treatment with TP?D. These data indicate that TP?D inhibits adipocyte differentiation through the inhibition of C/EBP genes and the subsequent activation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26046125

  2. Small hairpin RNA-mediated Krüppel-like factor 8 gene knockdown inhibits invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JING; HU, JIAN LI; CAO, RU BO; DING, QIAN; PENG, GANG; FEI, SHI JIANG; JIANG, YAO; LI, PENG CHENG; YANG, KUN YU; ZHANG, WEN JIE; WU, GANG; WANG, RUO ZHENG; LI, PIN DONG

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the expression of Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) in nasopahryngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and determine its effect on tumor development and invasion following KLF8 gene knockdown by small hairpin RNA (shRNA). KLF8 expression in four NPC cell lines was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. KLF8 was knocked down in the SUNE1-5-8F/Sh-KLF8 cell line using shRNA, and the resulting stable cell line SUNE1-5-8F-sh-KLF8 was transplanted into nude mice in order to observe tumor formation and invasion. The results obtained from qPCR and western blotting revealed that, of the four NPC cell lines, KLF8 expression was lowest in the CNE-1 cells and highest in the SUNE1-5-8F cells. The tumor xenograft mouse models revealed that SUNE1-5-8F/Sh-KLF8 cells had a reduced ability for tumor formation and invasion compared with the control group. These results demonstrated for the first time that KLF8 modulates the formation and invasive ability of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  3. Egg yolks inhibit activation of NF-?B and expression of its target genes in adipocytes after partial delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiwen; Riedl, Ken M.; Cole, Rachel M.; Lehman, Christopher; Xu, Lu; Alder, Hansjuerg; Belury, Martha A.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2015-01-01

    How composition of egg yolk (EY) influences NF-?B, a key transcription pathway in inflammation, remains unclear. We performed partial delipidation of EY that removed 20–30% of cholesterol and triglycerides. The resulting polar and non-polar fractions were termed EY-P and EY-NP. NF-?B activation in response to EY from different suppliers and their fractions was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using a NF-?B response element reporter assay and by analyzing expression of 248 inflammatory genes. Although EY-P and EY contained similar level of vitamins, carotenoids, and fatty acids, only delipidated EY-P fraction suppressed NF-?B via down-regulation of toll like receptor-2 and up-regulation of inhibitory toll interacting protein (Tollip) and lymphocyte antigen 96 (Ly96). Our data suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of lutein and retinol were blunted by non-polar lipids in EY likely via crosstalk between SREBP and NF-?B pathways in adipocytes. Thus, moderate delipidation may improve their beneficial properties of regular eggs. PMID:25620076

  4. Pheromone exposure influences preoptic arginine vasotocin gene expression and inhibits social approach behavior in response to rivals, but not potential mates

    PubMed Central

    Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Keeney, Alex D.T.; D’Agostino, Erin N.; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2013-01-01

    The nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and vasopressin (AVP) mediate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. However, the effects of these peptides on behavior can vary considerably both between and within species. AVT, in particular, stimulates aggressive and courtship responses typical of dominant males in several species, although it can also inhibit social interactions in some cases. Such differential effects may depend upon AVT influences within brain circuits that differ among species or between males that adopt alternative reproductive phenotypes and/or upon the differential activation of those circuits in different social contexts. However, to date, very little is known about how social stimuli that promote alternative behavioral responses influence AVT circuits within the brain. To address this issue, we exposed adult male goldfish to androstenedione (AD), a pheromonal signal that is released by both males and females during the breeding season, and measured social approach responses of males towards same- and other-sex individuals before and after AD exposure. In a second experiment, we measured AD-induced AVT gene expression using in situ hybridization. We found that brief exposure to AD induces social avoidance in response to rival males, but does not affect the level of sociality exhibited in response to sexually receptive females. Exposure to AD also increases AVT gene expression in the preoptic area of male goldfish, particularly in the parvocellular population of the preoptic nucleus. Together, these data suggest that AD is part of a social signaling system that induces social withdrawal specifically during male-male interactions by activating AVT neurons. PMID:23712040

  5. Vitamin E conditionally inhibits atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice by anti-oxidation and regulation of vasculature gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Futian; Lu, Meili; Zhang, Suping; Mei, Meng; Wang, Tieqiao; Liu, Peiqing; Wang, Hongxin

    2014-12-01

    Lipid deposition in artery walls is implied in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and imbalance between uptake and efflux of cholesterol favors the deposition. We investigated the effect of vitamin E with the same dose and duration on the different stages of atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice and explored the potential mechanisms. The results showed that the ApoE KO mouse spontaneously develops atherosclerosis in an age-dependent manner from 14 to 46 weeks on the regular chow. Vitamin E (100 mg/kg) supplementation to ApoE KO mice at 6, 14, and 22 weeks for 8 weeks significantly reduced the atherosclerotic lesion area by 41, 29 and 19% respectively compared to the age-matched control mice; however had no significant effect on the lesion when given at 30 and 38 weeks. In addition, vitamin E supplemented at the ages from 6 to 30 weeks decreased the contents of serum oxLDL and TBARS without affecting the TC and TAG contents in serum and liver. Furthermore, vitamin E supplemented at 6, 14 and 22 weeks down-regulated vasculature mRNA expressions of scavenger receptor CD36 and up-regulated mRNA expressions of PPAR?, LXR? and ABCA1 which are involved in reverse cholesterol transportation; however had no significant effects on these genes when given at 30 and 38 weeks. In conclusion, vitamin E with same dose and duration inhibits the early but not advanced atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE KO mice by anti-oxidation and regulation of mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux, which favors the improvement of atherosclerosis. PMID:25385496

  6. Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) signaling of hepatic stellate cells inhibits hepatitis C virus replication in hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Wang, Xu; Li, Jieliang; Song, Li; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is critical in the activation of the type I IFN-dependent antiviral innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We examined whether hepatic stellate cells (HSC; LX-2) possess a functional RIG-I signaling pathway and produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HCV. We showed that LX-2 cells treated with the RIG-I ligand (5?ppp-dsRNA) expressed significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IFN-? than the control cells. The RIG-I activation in LX-2 cells also induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), the key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. When HCV Japanese fulminant hepatitis (JFH)-1-infected hepatocytes were co-cultured with LX-2 cells stimulated with 5?ppp-dsRNA or incubated in media conditioned with supernatant (SN) from 5?ppp-dsRNA-stimulated LX-2 cells, HCV replication in hepatocytes was suppressed significantly. This LX-2 cell action on HCV replication was mediated through both IFN-? and IFN-?, as Abs to IFN-?/? or IFN-? receptors could neutralize the LX-2 SN-mediated anti-HCV effect. The role of IFNs in LX-2 cell-mediated anti-HCV activity is further supported by the observation that LX-2 SN treatment induced the expression of IFN stimulated genes, 2?-5?-oligoadenylate synthase-1 (OAS-1) and myxovirus resistance A (MxA), in HCV-infected Huh7 cells. These observations highlight the importance of HSC in liver innate immunity against HCV infection via a RIG-I-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:23060457

  7. JNK pathway is involved in the inhibition of inflammatory target gene expression and NF-kappaB activation by melittin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Ji; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Choi, Myung Sook; Son, Dong Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Song, Min Jong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2008-01-01

    Background Bee venom therapy has been used to treat inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis in humans and in experimental animals. We previously found that bee venom and melittin (a major component of bee venom) have anti-inflammatory effect by reacting with the sulfhydryl group of p50 of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B kinases (IKKs). Since mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase family is implicated in the NF-?B activation and inflammatory reaction, we further investigated whether activation of MAP kinase may be also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of melittin and bee venom. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects of melittin and bee venom were investigated in cultured Raw 264.7 cells, THP-1 human monocytic cells and Synoviocytes. The activation of NF-?B was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined either by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay or by biochemical assay. Expression of I?B, p50, p65, inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as phosphorylation of MAP kinase family was determined by Western blot. Results Melittin (0.5–5 ?g/ml) and bee venom (5 and 10 ?g/ml) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 ?g/ml) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 ?M)-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose dependent manner. However, JNK inhibitor, anthra [1,9-cd]pyrazole-6 (2H)-one (SP600215, 10–50 ?M) dose dependently suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on NF-?B dependent luciferase and DNA binding activity via suppression of the inhibitory effect of melittin and bee venom on the LPS and SNP-induced translocation of p65 and p50 into nucleus as well as cytosolic release of I?B. Moreover, JNK inhibitor suppressed the inhibitory effects of melittin and bee venom on iNOS and COX-2 expression, and on NO and PGE2 generation. Conclusion These data show that melittin and bee venom prevent LPS and SNP-induced NO and PGE2 production via JNK pathway dependent inactivation of NF-?B, and suggest that inactivation of JNK pathways may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis effects of melittin and bee venom. PMID:18507870

  8. A study on the inhibition of VEGF expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via iNOS gene RNAi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ou Yang, Ke-Xiong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Zi-Nan; Zhao, Jian-Jiang

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Using RNAi, we transfected chemically synthesised iNOS siRNA into ACC-M cells (a highly metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line) and detected the change in the gene and protein expression levels of iNOS and VEGF by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. A transwell invasiveness assay was used to examine the changes in invasive ability of ACC-M cells. Cell growth was determined using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle phases were detected by flow cytometry. We found that silencing iNOS down-regulated the expression of VEGF and then inhibited cell growth and invasiveness of SACC cells, while it increased apoptosis. Therefore, we concluded that iNOS can regulate VEGF expression and iNOS may be a therapeutic target. PMID:25065562

  9. Inhibition of MDR1 gene expression and enhancing cellular uptake for effective colon cancer treatment using dual-surface-functionalized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Zhang, Yuchen; Wei, Na; Baker, Mark T; Jung, Yunjin; Merlin, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Nanomedicine options for colon cancer therapy have been limited by the lack of suitable carriers capable of delivering sufficient drug into tumors to cause lethal toxicity. To circumvent this limitation, we fabricated a camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (NP) with dual-surface functionalization-Pluronic F127 and chitosan-for inhibiting multi-drug resistant gene 1 (MDR1) expression and enhancing tumor uptake. The resultant spherical NPs-P/C had a desirable particle size (?268 nm), slightly positive zeta-potential, and the ability to efficiently down-regulate the expression of MDR1. In vitro cytotoxicity tests revealed that the 24 and 48 h IC50 values of NPs-P/C1 were 2.03 and 0.67 ?m, respectively, which were much lower than those for free CPT and other NPs. Interestingly, NPs-P/C1 showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency (approximately 85.5%) among the different drug formulations. Most importantly, treatment of colon tumor-bearing mice with various drug formulations confirmed that the introduction of Pluronic F127 and chitosan to the NP surface significantly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CPT, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and reduced systemic toxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that our one-step-fabricated, dual-surface-functionalized NPs may hold promise as a readily scalable and effective drug carrier with clinical potential in colon cancer therapy. PMID:25701040

  10. The catenin p120{sup ctn} inhibits Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression of the {beta}-catenin/TCF target gene matrilysin

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, Christopher M. [Department of Biology, LSB-331, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Kelly, Kevin F. [Department of Biology, LSB-331, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); O'Kelly, Ita [Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester University (United Kingdom); Graham, Monica [Department of Biology, LSB-331, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Crawford, Howard C. [Department of Pharmacological Sciences, SUNY Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Daniel, Juliet M. [Department of Biology, LSB-331, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)]. E-mail: danielj@mcmaster.ca

    2005-05-01

    The POZ-zinc finger transcription factor Kaiso was first identified as a specific binding partner for the Armadillo catenin and cell adhesion cofactor, p120{sup ctn}. Kaiso is a unique POZ protein with bi-modal DNA-binding properties; it associates with a sequence-specific DNA consensus Kaiso binding site (KBS) or methylated CpG dinucleotides, and regulates transcription of artificial promoters containing either site. Interestingly, the promoter of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin/TCF target gene matrilysin possesses two conserved copies of the KBS, which suggested that Kaiso might regulate matrilysin expression. In this study, we demonstrate using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that Kaiso associates with the matrilysin promoter in vivo. Minimal promoter assays further confirmed that Kaiso specifically repressed transcription of the matrilysin promoter; mutation of the KBS element or RNAi-mediated depletion of Kaiso abrogated this effect. More importantly, Kaiso blocked {beta}-catenin-mediated activation of the matrilysin promoter. Consistent with our previous findings, both Kaiso-DNA binding and Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression of the matrilysin promoter were inhibited by overexpression of wild-type p120{sup ctn}, but not by a p120{sup ctn} mutant exhibiting impaired nuclear import. Collectively, our data establish Kaiso as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor of the matrilysin promoter, and suggest that p120{sup ctn} and {beta}-catenin act in a synergistic manner, via distinct mechanisms, to activate matrilysin expression.

  11. Piper sarmentosum inhibits ICAM-1 and Nox4 gene expression in oxidative stress-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) is known to possess antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities but the mechanism responsible for it remains unclear. In early part of atherosclerosis, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) induces the expression of cellular adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is the predominant source of superoxide in the endothelial cells whereas superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the antioxidant enzymes responsible for inactivating reactive oxygen species. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AEPS on the gene expression of NF-?B, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, Nox4, SOD1, CAT and GPx in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods HUVECs were divided into four groups:- control; treatment with 180 ?M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); treatment with 150 ?g/mL AEPS and concomitant treatment with AEPS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted from all the groups of HUVEC using TRI reagent. Subsequently, qPCR was carried out to determine the mRNA expression of NF-?B, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, Nox4, SOD1, CAT and GPx. The specificity of the reactions was verified using melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results When stimulated with H2O2, HUVECs expressed higher level of ICAM-1 (1.3-fold) and Nox4 (1.2-fold) mRNA expression. However, AEPS treatment led to a reduction in the mRNA expression of ICAM-1 (p < 0.01) and Nox4 (p < 0.05) in the H2O2-induced HUVECs. AEPS also upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1 (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.01) and GPx (p < 0.05) in oxidative stress-induced HUVECs. There was no significant change in the mRNA expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Conclusion The expressional suppression of ICAM-1 and Nox4 and induction of antioxidant enzymes might be an important component of the vascular protective effect of AEPS. PMID:21496279

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Replication Is Strictly Inhibited by siRNAs Targeting UL54, UL97 or UL122/123 Gene Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Stuart T.; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Rawlinson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes severe sequelae in immunocompromised hosts. Current antiviral therapies have serious adverse effects, with treatment in many clinical settings problematic, making new therapeutic approaches necessary. We examined the in vitro efficacy of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the HCMV gene transcripts UL54 (DNA polymerase), UL97 (protein kinase) and UL122/123 (immediate-early proteins) as inhibitors of viral protein expression and virus replication in cell cultures. Two siRNAs for each HCMV target (designated A and B) were assessed for inhibition efficacy using western blot and standard plaque assays. Continuous human embryonic kidney 293T cells were treated with HCMV or non-specific scrambled (siSc) siRNA followed by transfection with plasmids expressing the target transcripts. Human MRC-5 fibroblasts were HCMV-siRNA or siSc treated, infected with HCMV strain AD169 (1 pfu/cell) and HCMV immediate-early (IE1p72 and IE2p86), early (pp65), early-late (pUL97) and true late (MCP) protein and virus progeny production measured during a single round of replication. Concordant results showed siUL54B, siUL97A and siUL122B displayed the most potent inhibitory effects with a reduction of 92.7%, 99.6% and 93.7% in plasmid protein expression, 65.9%, 58.1% and 64.8% in total HCMV protein expression and 97.2%, 96.2% and 94.3% (p<0.0001) in viral progeny production respectively. Analysing the siRNA inhibitory effects during multiple rounds of HCMV replication at a multiplicity of infection of 0.001 pfu/cell, siUL54B, siUL97A and siUL122B treatment resulted in a reduction of 80.0%, 59.6% and 84.5% in total HCMV protein expression, 52.9%, 49.2% and 58.3% in number of cells infected and 98.5%, 91.4% and 99.1% (p<0.0001) in viral progeny production at 7 dpi respectively. These results suggest potential in vivo siRNA therapies targeting the HCMV gene transcripts UL54, UL97 and UL122/123 would be highly effective, however, the antiviral efficacy of siRNAs targeting UL97 may be more highly dependent on viral load and methods of administration. PMID:24887060

  13. The stem cell E3-ligase Lin-41 promotes liver cancer progression through inhibition of microRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Yang, Wan-Ching; Hsu, Hey-Chi; Jeng, Yung-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Lin-41 is a stem cell-specific E3 ligase and a known target of the tumour suppressor microRNA (miRNA) let-7. Lin-41 was recently reported to mediate ubiquitylation and degradation of the miRNA pathway protein Ago2. We demonstrate that Lin-41 is over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lin-41 over-expression correlates with high ?-fetoprotein level, high tumour grade and high tumour stage and predicts early tumour recurrence. Lin-41 is a strong predictor of poor long-term survival for patients with HCC. Lin-41 knock-down by RNA interference in HCC cell lines Huh7 and Hep3B suppressed proliferation in vitro and reduced in vivo tumour growth in NOD/SCID mice. On the other hand, over-expression of Lin-41 in the HCC cell line SK-Hep1 enhanced tumourigenicity. Over-expression and knock-down of Lin-41 led to inverse changes in the levels of Ago1 and Ago2 proteins. Over-expression of Ago1 and Ago2 reduced in vivo tumour growth. Lin-41 over-expression suppressed let-7 activity in HCC cell lines and expression of Lin-41 enhanced the expression of let-7-regulated oncogenes c-Myc, Lin-28B, HMGA2 and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R). Expression of Lin-28B and c-Myc enhanced the expression of Lin-41. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays revealed direct association of c-Myc with the Lin-41 promoter, resulting in transcriptional transactivation. Our results indicate that Lin-41 plays an important role in the growth of HCC by regulating RISC complex proteins Ago1 and Ago2 to inhibit miRNA-mediated gene silencing and promote the expression of oncogenic proteins. Lin-41 is also a strong prognostic factor for patients with HCC. PMID:23097274

  14. EVI1, a target gene for amplification at 3q26, antagonizes transforming growth factor-?-mediated growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kohichiroh; Konishi, Chika; Gen, Yasuyuki; Endo, Mio; Dohi, Osamu; Tomie, Akira; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Yamada, Nobuhisa; Iwai, Naoto; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sumida, Yoshio; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Tanaka, Shinji; Arii, Shigeki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site 1) is one of the most aggressive oncogenes associated with myeloid leukemia. We investigated DNA copy number aberrations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. We found that a novel amplification at the chromosomal region 3q26 occurs in the HCC cell line JHH-1, and that MECOM (MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus), which lies within the 3q26 region, was amplified. Quantitative PCR analysis of the three transcripts transcribed from MECOM indicated that only EVI1, but not the fusion transcript MDS1-EVI1 or MDS1, was overexpressed in JHH-1 cells and was significantly upregulated in 22 (61%) of 36 primary HCC tumors when compared with their non-tumorous counterparts. A copy number gain of EVI1 was observed in 24 (36%) of 66 primary HCC tumors. High EVI1 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size and higher level of des-?-carboxy prothrombin, a tumor marker for HCC. Knockdown of EVI1 resulted in increased induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15(INK) (4B) by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? and decreased expression of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Rb in TGF-?-treated cells. Consequently, knockdown of EVI1 led to reduced DNA synthesis and cell viability. Collectively, our results suggest that EVI1 is a probable target gene that acts as a driving force for the amplification at 3q26 in HCC and that the oncoprotein EVI1 antagonizes TGF-?-mediated growth inhibition of HCC cells. PMID:25959919

  15. Mitogen-Inducible Gene-6 Mediates Feedback Inhibition from Mutated BRAF towards the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Thereby Limits Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Milewska, Malgorzata; Romano, David; Herrero, Ana; Guerriero, Maria Luisa; Birtwistle, Marc; Quehenberger, Franz; Hatzl, Stefan; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Segatto, Oreste; Kolch, Walter; Zebisch, Armin

    2015-01-01

    BRAF functions in the RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Activation of this pathway is necessary to mediate the transforming potential of oncogenic BRAF, however, it may also cause a negative feedback that inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mitogen-inducible gene-6 (MIG-6) is a potent inhibitor of the EGFR and has been demonstrated to function as a tumor suppressor. As MIG-6 can be induced via RAS-ERK signaling, we investigated its potential involvement in this negative regulatory loop. Focus formation assays were performed and demonstrated that MIG-6 significantly reduces malignant transformation induced by oncogenic BRAF. Although this genetic interaction was mirrored by a physical interaction between MIG-6 and BRAF, we did not observe a direct regulation of BRAF kinase activity by MIG-6. Interestingly, a selective chemical EGFR inhibitor suppressed transformation to a similar degree as MIG-6, whereas combining these approaches had no synergistic effect. By analyzing a range of BRAF mutated and wildtype cell line models, we could show that BRAF V600E causes a strong upregulation of MIG-6, which was mediated at the transcriptional level via the RAS-ERK pathway and resulted in downregulation of EGFR activation. This feedback loop is operational in tumors, as shown by the analysis of almost 400 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Presence of BRAF V600E correlated with increased MIG-6 expression on the one hand, and with inactivation of the EGFR and of PI3K/AKT signaling on the other hand. Importantly, we also observed a more aggressive disease phenotype when BRAF V600E coexisted with low MIG-6 expression. Finally, analysis of methylation data was performed and revealed that higher methylation of MIG-6 correlated to its decreased expression. Taken together, we demonstrate that MIG-6 efficiently reduces cellular transformation driven by oncogenic BRAF by orchestrating a negative feedback circuit directed towards the EGFR. PMID:26065894

  16. Long-term transgene expression and inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Cre/loxP-EBNA-1/oriP HIV-1-dependent ribozyme vector: Applications for HIV-1 gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nagawa, Takashi; Habu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Norihiko; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The cleavage of target mRNA by ribozymes is being exploited as a means of gene silencing in nucleic-acid-based therapies. We previously established an HIV-1-dependent ribozyme-expression vector system, based on Cre-loxP technology with an LTR-gag-p17 promoter as a molecular switch for use in acute HIV-1 infection. The simultaneous expression of the Cre protein and loxP homologous recombination induced a high level of HIV-1-replication inhibition, but ribozyme expression was transient. In the current study, we overcame this limitation by inserting EBNA-1 and oriP genes from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into the vector. When this plasmid was introduced into HeLa CD4+ cells, we observed long-term expression of both the EGFP reporter gene and the ribozyme. Moreover, HIV-1 replication was inhibited in the long-term in transfected cells. These data suggest that the HIV-1-dependent ribozyme-expression vector containing EBNA-1/oriP sequences would be a useful tool in HIV-1 gene therapy applications. PMID:19771216

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of alpha-linolenic acid and its mode of action through the inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression via NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Chung, Sung H

    2007-06-27

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) isolated from Actinidia polygama fruits exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity with an unknown mechanism. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ALA on pharmacological and biochemical actions in inflammation, we examined the effect of ALA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in the murine macrophages cell line, RAW 264.7. We found that ALA has a strong inhibitory effect on the production of NO. ALA also inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expressions induced by LPS. To explore the mechanisms associated with the inhibition of iNOS gene expression by ALA, we investigated its effect on LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Treatment with ALA reduced a translocation of NF-kappaB subunit and NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity. The activation of NF-kappaB was inhibited by prevention of the degradation of inhibitory factor-kappaBalpha. We also found that ALA inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, the antinociceptive effect of ALA was also assessed by means of the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and Randall-Selitto assay. ALA (5 and 10 mg/kg) showed the potent antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, these results suggest that ALA downregulates inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-alpha gene expressions through the blocking of NF-kappaB and MAPKs activations in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, which may be the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effect of ALA. PMID:17542608

  18. Ectopic Expression of BraYAB1-702, a Member of YABBY Gene Family in Chinese Cabbage, Causes Leaf Curling, Inhibition of Development of Shoot Apical Meristem and Flowering Stage Delaying in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Ling; Yang, Ze-Ping; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2013-01-01

    YABBY gene family plays an important role in the polarity development of lateral organs. We isolated the BraYAB1-702 gene, a member of the YABBY gene family, from young leaves of Chinese cabbage line 06J45. The full-length gene has a 937 bp CDNA sequence and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp. The subcellular localization analysis showed that the expression product of the gene was localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BraYAB1-702 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused leaf curling from the adaxial epidermises to abaxial epidermises; the partial abaxialization of the adaxial epidermises of leaves; leaf trichomes and stomata numbers being significantly increased; the plants being severely stunted; the flowering stage being remarkably delayed and inhibiting the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM) with the down-regulation of the expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), Brevipedicellus (BP) and KNAT2 which were related to the development of shoot apical meristem. These results from the present research help to reveal the molecular mechanism of BraYAB1-702 gene in the establishment of adaxial–abaxial polarity of the lateral organs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:23863694

  19. Early gene expression during androgen-induced inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells: a new suppressor candidate on chromosome 13, in the BRCA2Rb1 locus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Geck; Jozsef Szelei; Jesus Jimenez; Carlos Sonnenschein; Ana M. Soto

    1999-01-01

    In the prostate gland cell numbers are regulated by androgens through three separate pathways: (a) inhibition of cell death (apoptosis), (b) induction of cell proliferation (step 1), and (c) inhibition of cell proliferation (step 2, proliferative shutoff). The precise regulation of these control pathways is still elusive. The human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cell line variants express a subset of proliferative

  20. The C. elegans class A synthetic multivulva genes inhibit ectopic RAS-mediated vulval development by tightly restricting expression of lin-3 EGF

    E-print Network

    Saffer, Adam M

    2011-01-01

    The class A and B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes of C. elegans redundantly antagonize an EGF/Ras pathway to prevent ectopic vulval induction. The class B synMuv genes encode many proteins known to remodel chromatin ...

  1. Long-Term Channel Block Is Required to Inhibit Cellular Transformation by Human Ether-à-Go-Go–Related Gene (hERG1) Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Pier, David M.; Shehatou, George S. G.; Giblett, Susan; Pullar, Christine E.; Trezise, Derek J.; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Challiss, R. A. John

    2014-01-01

    Both human ether-à-go-go–related gene (hERG1) and the closely related human ether-à-go-go (hEAG1) channel are aberrantly expressed in a large proportion of human cancers. In the present study, we demonstrate that transfection of hERG1 into mouse fibroblasts is sufficient to induce many features characteristic of malignant transformation. An important finding of this work is that this transformation could be reversed by chronic incubation (for 2–3 weeks) with the hERG channel blocker dofetilide (100 nM), whereas more acute applications (for 1–2 days) were ineffective. The hERG1 expression resulted in a profound loss of cell contact inhibition, multiple layers of overgrowing cells, and high saturation densities. Cells also changed from fibroblast-like to a more spindle-shaped morphology, which was associated with a smaller cell size, a dramatic increase in cell polarization, a reduction in the number of actin stress fibers, and less punctate labeling of focal adhesions. Analysis of single-cell migration and scratch-wound closure clearly demonstrated that hERG1-expressing cells migrated more rapidly than vector-transfected control cells. In contrast to previous studies on hEAG1, there were no increases in rates of proliferation, or loss of growth factor dependency; however, hERG1-expressing cells were capable of substrate-independent growth. Allogeneic transplantation of hERG1-expressing cells into nude mice resulted in an increased incidence of tumors. In contrast to hEAG1, the mechanism of cellular transformation is dependent on ion conduction. Trafficking-deficient and conduction-deficient hERG1 mutants also prevented cellular transformation. These results provide evidence that hERG1 expression is sufficient to induce cellular transformation by a mechanism distinct from hEAG1. The most important conclusion of this study is that selective hERG1 channel blockers have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hERG1-expressing cancers. PMID:24830940

  2. Digitoflavone Inhibits I?B? Kinase and Enhances Apoptosis Induced by TNF? through Downregulation of Expression of Nuclear Factor ?B-Regulated Gene Products in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xueting; Lu, Wuguang; Yang, Yang; Yang, Jie; Ye, Juan; Gu, Zhenhua; Hu, Chunping; Wang, Xiaoning; Cao, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) activates both cell death and cell survival pathways. The activation of survival pathway renders most cancer cells resistant to TNF-induced cytotoxicity. We found that pretreatment with digitoflavone, a plant flavonoid, greatly sensitized TNF?-induced apoptotic cell death in several human pancreatic cancer cells. In search of the molecular basis of the sensitization effect of digitoflavone, digitoflavone was found to inhibit TNF?-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-?B) which is the main survival factor in TNF? signaling. NF-?B suppression occurred through inhibition of I?B? kinase activation, I?B? phosphorylation, I?B? degradation, and NF-?B nuclear translocation. This inhibition correlated with suppression of NF-?B-dependent genes involved in antiapoptosis (mcl-1, bcl-2, bcl-xl, c-iap1, c-iap2, flip, and survivin), proliferation (c-myc, cyclin d1), and angiogenesis (vegf, cox-2, and mmp-9). In addition, digitoflavone can activate JNK through inhibition of NF-?B signaling, provide a continuous blockade of the feed-back inhibitory mechanism by JNK-induced NF-?B activation. This study found a novel function of digitoflavone and enhanced the value of digitoflavone as an anticancer agent. PMID:24146961

  3. Angelman syndrome associated with oculocutaneous albinism due to an intragenic deletion of the P gene.

    PubMed

    Fridman, C; Hosomi, N; Varela, M C; Souza, A H; Fukai, K; Koiffmann, C P

    2003-06-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, speech impairment, ataxia, and happy disposition with frequent smiling. AS results from the loss of expression of a maternal imprinted gene, UBE3A, mapped within 15q11-q13 region, due to different mechanisms: maternal deletion, paternal UPD, imprinting center mutation, and UBE3A mutation. Deletion AS patients may exhibit hypopigmentation of skin, eye, and hair correlating with deletion of P gene localized in the distal part of Prader-Willi (PWS)/AS region. Our patient presented developmental delay, severe mental retardation, absence of speech, outbursts of laughter, microcephaly, ataxia, hyperactivity, seizures, white skin, no retinal pigmentation, and gold yellow hair. His parents were of African ancestry. The SNURF-SNRPN methylation analysis confirmed AS diagnosis and microsatellite studies disclosed deletion with breakpoints in BP2 and BP3. All of the 25 exons and flanking introns of the P gene of the patient, his father, and mother were investigated. The patient is hemizygous for the deleted exon 7 of the P gene derived from his father who is a carrier of the deleted allele. Our patient manifests OCA2 associated with AS due to the loss of the maternal chromosome 15 with the normal P allele, and the paternal deletion in the P gene. As various degrees of hypopigmentation are associated with PWS and AS patients, the study of the P gene in a hemizygous state could contribute to the understanding of its effect on human pigmentation during development and to disclose the presence of modifier pigmentation gene(s) in the PWS/AS region. PMID:12749060

  4. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 Stimulates Gene Expression in MDA-MB-435 Human Breast Cancer Cells by Means of its Ability to Inhibit Metalloproteinases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph F. Porter; Shashi Sharma; Donna L. Wilson; Maya A. Kappil; Ronald P. Hart; David T. Denhardt

    2005-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a widely expressed, secreted protein that functions primarily to inhibit members of a large family of metalloproteinases (MPs). Because of the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit MPs, it functions in many of the same pathophysiological processes as these enzymes, e.g. wound healing, ovulation, angiogenesis, and cancer cell metastasis. TIMP-1 can also stimulate proliferation ([3H]thymidine

  5. Orostachys japonicus inhibits the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA and modulates the expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes in human PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells via inhibition of NF-?B and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Il; Park, Seung-Won; Yoon, Yeo-Kwang; Lee, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-07-01

    Orostachys japonicus has been used in traditional medicine as an anticancer agent. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which O. japonicus extract affects the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2 and MMP?9, its association with the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) genes in phorbol myristate acetate?differentiated THP?1 human monocytic leukemia cells and how it mediates the nuclear factor (NF)??B and mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay, mRNA expression was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein expression was measured by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that O. japonicus suppressed the mRNA expression of MMP?2 and MMP?9. In addition, O. japonicus was found to downregulate iNOS and COX?2 transcription and translocation. Furthermore, O. japonicus inhibited NF??B p65 activity as well as the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, MAPK kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). The present results suggested that O. japonicus inhibited not only MMP?2 and MMP?9 mRNA expression, but also iNOS and COX?2 gene expression, suppressed NF??B activation and reduced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, MEK and ERK. The present results therefore indicated that O. japonicus was able to inhibit the expression of MMP?2 and MMP?9 and suppress the transcription and translocation of iNOS and COX?2 by directly inhibiting the activation of NF??B and the phosphorylation of the MAPK pathway in THP?1 cells. PMID:25760396

  6. A Novel Pentamethoxyflavone Down-Regulates Tumor Cell Survival and Proliferative and Angiogenic Gene Products through Inhibition of I?B Kinase Activation and Sensitizes Tumor Cells to Apoptosis by Cytokines and Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Phromnoi, Kanokkarn; Reuter, Simone; Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Sahdeo; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Yadav, Vivek R.; Chanmahasathien, Wisinee; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2011-01-01

    Most anticancer drugs have their origin in traditional medicinal plants. We describe here a flavone, 5,3?-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4?-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), from the leaves of the Thai plant Gardenia obtusifolia, that has anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential. Because the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway is linked to inflammation and tumorigenesis, we investigated the effect of PMF on this pathway. We found that PMF suppressed NF-?B activation induced by inflammatory agents, tumor promoters, and carcinogens. This suppression was not specific to the cell type. Although PMF did not directly modify the ability of NF-?B proteins to bind to DNA, it inhibited I?B? (inhibitory subunit of NF-?B) kinase, leading to suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, and suppressed consequent p65 nuclear translocation, thus abrogating NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression. Suppression of the NF-?B cell signaling pathway by the flavone led to the inhibition of expression of NF-?B-regulated gene products that mediate inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2), survival (XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL, and cFLIP), proliferation (cyclin D1), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-9), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor). Suppression of antiapoptotic gene products by PMF correlated with the enhancement of apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-? and the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin, paclitaxel, and 5-flurouracil. Overall, our results indicate that PMF suppresses the activation of NF-?B and NF-?B-regulated gene expression, leading to the enhancement of apoptosis. This is the first report to demonstrate that this novel flavone has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects by targeting the IKK complex. PMID:20930110

  7. Silencing heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjie [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Xiaomei, E-mail: zhangxm667@163.com [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Lu, Hong [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Ophthalmology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 Youzheng Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Matsukura, Makoto [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Zhao, Jien; Shinohara, Makoto [Ashikita Institution for Developmental Disabilities, 2813 Oaza Ashikita, Ashikita-machi, Ashikita, Kumamoto 869-5461 (Japan)] [Ashikita Institution for Developmental Disabilities, 2813 Oaza Ashikita, Ashikita-machi, Ashikita, Kumamoto 869-5461 (Japan)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HO-1 is highly induced in RPE cells by hypoxia. •Inhibition of HO-1 activity and knockdown of HO-1 expression inhibit VEGF expression in RPE cells under hypoxia. •Knockdown of HO-1 in RPE cells inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the vasculature and in the angiogenesis of tumors, wounds and other environments. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) are the main cells involved in choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a process in which hypoxia plays an important role. Our aim was to evaluate the role of human RPE-cell HO-1 in the angiogenic activities of cocultured endothelial cells under hypoxia. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for HO-1 was transfected into human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) was used to inhibit HO-1 activity. Knockdown of HO-1 expression and inhibition of HO-1 activity resulted in potent reduction of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of HO-1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells. These findings indicated that HO-1 might have an angiogenic effect in CNV through modulation of VEGF expression and might be a potential target for treating CNV.

  8. The Cancer Growth Suppressor Gene mda-7 Selectively Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zao-Zhong Su; Malavi T. Madireddi; Jiao Jiao Lin; Charles S. H. Young; Shinichi Kitada; John C. Reed; Neil I. Goldstein; Paul B. Fisher

    1998-01-01

    A differentiation induction subtraction hybridization strategy is being used to identify and clone genes involved in growth control and terminal differentiation in human cancer cells. This scheme identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7), whose expression is upregulated as a consequence of terminal differentiation in human melanoma cells. Forced expression of mda-7 is growth inhibitory toward diverse human tumor cells. The

  9. Ginsenoside Re rescues methamphetamine-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic degeneration by inhibiting the protein kinase C? gene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Park, Dae Hun; Wie, Myung-Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Yang, Byung Wook; Ko, Sung Kwon; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Ginsenoside Re, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, possesses novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ginsenoside Re in dopaminergic degeneration remains elusive. We suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) ? mediates methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Treatment with ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration in vivo by inhibiting impaired enzymatic antioxidant systems, mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase C?, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory microglial activation, and apoptosis. These protective effects were comparable to those observed with genetic inhibition of PKC? in PKC? knockout (-/-) mice and with PKC? antisense oligonucleotides, and ginsenoside Re did not provide any additional protective effects in the presence of PKC? inhibition. Our results suggest that PKC? is a critical target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity in response to dopaminergic degeneration induced by MA. PMID:24430743

  10. Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 41, No.6, Jun 2012, pp.65-71 Original Article Inhibition of Leishmania major PTR1 Gene Expression by Anti-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 41, No.6, Jun 2012, pp.65-71 Original Article Inhibition of Leishmania 2012) Introduction Leishmania major protozoa are the causative agent of human zoonotic cutaneous-pteridine) (1). Protozoa related to Trypanosome family including Leishmania synthesizes enzymes to escape from

  11. Curcumin inhibits human colon cancer cell growth by suppressing gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor through reducing the activity of the transcription factor Egr1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Chen; J Xu; A C Johnson

    2006-01-01

    High expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found in a variety of solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. EGFR has been identified as a rational target for anticancer therapy. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of turmeric in curry, has received attention as a promising dietary supplement for cancer prevention and treatment. We recently reported that curcumin inhibited the growth of

  12. Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce male sterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855343

  13. Inhibition by costunolide of phorbol ester-induced transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in a human monocyte cell line THP-1.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Akao, S; Ohno, Y; Yamashita, K; Fujiwara, H

    2001-03-10

    Costunolide, the predominant sesquiterpene lactone in Saussureae radix, has been reported to exhibit potent chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis. Effects of costunolide on cellular activation induced by a tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were investigated using a reporter gene assay which was designed to reflect the promoter activity of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene in a human monocyte cell line THP-1. iNOS promoter-dependent reporter gene activity was significantly increased by TPA, and the TPA-induced increase of the reporter gene activity was efficiently reduced by costunolide, with an IC50 of approximately 2 microM. The addition of sulfhydryl (SH) compounds effectively abrogated the inhibitory effects of costunolide, suggesting the involvement of its reactivity with SH groups of target proteins and/or thiol-depleting property. The present findings may further explain the cancer-preventive property of costunolide. PMID:11166910

  14. KdgR, an IClR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Inhibits Virulence Mainly by Repression of hrp Genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Rashidul, Islam M.; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    KdgR has been reported to negatively regulate the genes involved in degradation and metabolization of pectic acid and other extracellular enzymes in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. through direct binding to their promoters. The possible involvement of a KdgR orthologue in virulence by affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice blight disease, was examined by comparing virulence and regulation of extracellular enzymes between the wild type (WT) and a strain carrying a mutation in putative kdgR (?Xoo0310 mutant). This putative kdgR mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae showed increased pathogenicity on rice without affecting the regulation of extracellular enzymes, such as amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and protease. However, the mutant carrying a mutation in an ortholog of xpsL, which encodes the functional secretion machinery for the extracellular enzymes, showed a dramatic decrease in pathogenicity on rice. Both mutants of kdgR and of xpsL orthologs showed higher expression of two major hrp regulatory genes, hrpG and hrpX, and the genes in the hrp operons when grown in hrp-inducing medium. Thus, both genes were shown to be involved in repression of hrp genes. The kdgR ortholog was thought to suppress virulence mainly by repressing the expression of hrp genes without affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes, unlike findings for the kdgR gene in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. On the other hand, xpsL was confirmed to be involved in virulence by promoting the secretion of extracellular enzymes in spite of repressing the expression of the hrp genes. PMID:21984784

  15. c-Jun Inhibits Insulin Control Element-Mediated Transcription by Affecting the Transactivation Potential of the E2A Gene Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY L. W. G. ROBINSON; EVA HENDERSON; MARK E. MASSARI; CORNELIS MURRE; ANDROLAND STEIN

    1995-01-01

    Pancreatic b-cell-type-specific transcription of the insulin gene is principally controlled by trans-acting factors which influence insulin control element (ICE)-mediated expression. The ICE activator is composed, in part, of the basic helix-loop-helix proteins E12, E47, and E2-5 encoded by the E2A gene. Previous experiments showed that ICE activation in bcells was repressed in vivo by the c-junproto-oncogene (E. Henderson and R.

  16. Inhibition by costunolide of phorbol ester-induced transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in a human monocyte cell line THP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Fukuda; Seigou Akao; Yasushi Ohno; Kazuya Yamashita; Hisayoshi Fujiwara

    2001-01-01

    Costunolide, the predominant sesquiterpene lactone in Saussureae radix, has been reported to exhibit potent chemopreventive effects on carcinogenesis. Effects of costunolide on cellular activation induced by a tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were investigated using a reporter gene assay which was designed to reflect the promoter activity of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene in a human monocyte cell

  17. Inhibition of generation of authentic genomic termini of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in temperature-sensitive mutant BHK-21 cells with a mutated CCG1/TAF(II)250 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Umene, K; Nishimoto, T

    1996-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant from the BHK-21 hamster cell line, tsBN462, has a defect in progression of the G1 phase at the nonpermissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C. The ts mutation in tsBN462 is located in the CCG1 gene, encoding the general transcription factor TAF(II)250. In tsBN462 at 39.5 degrees C, infectious progeny of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was not produced and generation of authentic genomic termini of HSV-1 was inhibited. HSV-1 concatemers containing L components in two possible orientations were produced in tsBN462 at 39.5 degrees C; hence, the generation of authentic genomic termini seemed to be dispensable for inversion of the L component. As production of mRNAs of HSV-1 genes of three kinetic classes in the tsBN462 at 39.5 degrees C was comparable to findings under permissive conditions, the sequential and regulated manner in which HSV-1 gene expression is processed is likely to be maintained in the nonpermissive condition. PMID:8971033

  18. Berberine Inhibits the Metastatic Ability of Prostate Cancer Cells by Suppressing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-Associated Genes with Predictive and Prognostic Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Hung; Tang, Wan-Chun; Sia, Peik; Huang, Chi-Chen; Yang, Pei-Ming; Wu, Ming-Heng; Lai, I-Lu; Lee, Kuen-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over 70% of cancer metastasis from prostate cancer develops bone metastases that are not sensitive to hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is implicated as a significant contributor to prostate cancer progression. As such, targeting the EMT represents an important therapeutic strategy for preventing or treating prostate cancer metastasis. Berberine is a natural alkaloid with significant antitumor activities against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which berberine represses the metastatic potential of prostate cancer. Methods: The effects of berberine on cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell migration assay and Matrigel invasion assay. Expressions of EMT-related genes were determined by an EMT PCR Array and a quantitative RT-PCR. The prognostic relevance of berberine's modulation of EMT-related genes in prostate cancer was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: Berberine exerted inhibitory effects on the migratory and invasive abilities of highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. These inhibitory effects of berberine resulted in significant repression of a panel of mesenchymal genes that regulate the developmental EMT. Among EMT-related genes downregulated by berberine, high BMP7, NODAL and Snail gene expressions of metastatic prostate cancer tissues were associated with shorter survival of prostate cancer patients and provide potential therapeutic interventions. Conclusions: We concluded that berberine should be developed as a pharmacological agent for use in combination with other anticancer drug for treating metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:25552920

  19. Intellectual disability-associated dBRWD3 regulates gene expression through inhibition of HIRA/YEM-mediated chromatin deposition of histone H3.3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shih, Hsueh-Tzu; Liu, Kuei-Yan; Shih, Zong-Siou; Chen, Li-Kai; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chen, Mei-Ju; Liu, Hsuan; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lee, Hsiu-Hsiang; Loppin, Benjamin; Aït-Ahmed, Ounissa; Wu, June-Tai

    2015-04-01

    Many causal mutations of intellectual disability have been found in genes involved in epigenetic regulations. Replication-independent deposition of the histone H3.3 variant by the HIRA complex is a prominent nucleosome replacement mechanism affecting gene transcription, especially in postmitotic neurons. However, how HIRA-mediated H3.3 deposition is regulated in these cells remains unclear. Here, we report that dBRWD3, the Drosophila ortholog of the intellectual disability gene BRWD3, regulates gene expression through H3.3, HIRA, and its associated chaperone Yemanuclein (YEM), the fly ortholog of mammalian Ubinuclein1. In dBRWD3 mutants, increased H3.3 levels disrupt gene expression, dendritic morphogenesis, and sensory organ differentiation. Inactivation of yem or H3.3 remarkably suppresses the global transcriptome changes and various developmental defects caused by dBRWD3 mutations. Our work thus establishes a previously unknown negative regulation of H3.3 and advances our understanding of BRWD3-dependent intellectual disability. PMID:25666827

  20. Targeted Deletion of HIF-1alpha Gene in T Cells Prevents their Inhibition in Hypoxic Inflamed Tissues and Improves Septic Mice Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Thiel; Charles C. Caldwell; Simone Kreth; Satoshi Kuboki; P. Chen; Patrick Smith; Akio Ohta; Alex B. Lentsch; Dmitry Lukashev; Michail V. Sitkovsky; Jacques Zimmer

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundSepsis patients may die either from an overwhelming systemic immune response and\\/or from an immunoparalysis-associated lack of anti-bacterial immune defence. We hypothesized that bacterial superantigen-activated T cells may be prevented from contribution into anti-bacterial response due to the inhibition of their effector functions by the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1?) in inflamed and hypoxic areas.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing the Cre-lox-P-system we generated

  1. Rapid detection and identification of biological and chemical agents by immunoassay, gene probe assay and enzyme inhibition using a silicon-based biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E Lee; H. Gail Thompson; John G Hall; Douglas E Bader

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biosensor assay procedure that utilizes biotin–streptavidin mediated filtration capture onto nitrocellulose membrane, in conjunction with a silicon-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was developed for detection and identification of biological and chemical threat agents. Sandwich immunoassays, nucleic acid hybridization assays and enzyme inhibition assays are described. For immunoassays, the lower limits of detection (LOD) per 100-?l sample were approximately

  2. In Vivo Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression by Curcumin, a Cancer Preventive Natural Product with Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Man-Ying Chan; Hsing-I Huang; Marilyn Ruth Fenton; Dunne Fong

    1998-01-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring, dietary polyphenolic phytochemical that is under preclinical trial evaluation for cancer preventive drug development and whose working pharmacological actions include anti-inflammation. With respect to inflammation, in vitro, it inhibits the activation of free radical-activated transcription factors, such as nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and AP-1, and reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis

  3. Oligogalacturonides enhance cytokinin-induced vegetative shoot formation in tobacco explants, inhibit polyamine biosynthetic gene expression, and promote long-term remobilisation of cell calcium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppina Falasca; Francesca Capitani; Federica Della Rovere; Daniela Zaghi; Cinzia Franchin; Stefania Biondi; Maria Maddalena Altamura

    2008-01-01

    Long-sized oligogalacturonides (OGs) are cell wall fragments that induce defence and developmental responses. The Ca2+-dependent “egg-box” conformation is required for their activity, and polyamines may prevent them from adopting this conformation.\\u000a Although OGs are known to inhibit auxin-induced growth processes, their effect on cytokinin-induced ones requires investigation.\\u000a In the present work OGs were shown to promote cytokinin (benzyladenine, BA)-induced vegetative

  4. Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chunxia [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yi, Bin, E-mail: yibin1974@163.com [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China) [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Bai, Li [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)] [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Xia, Yongzhi [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)] [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Feng, Hua [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-07-02

    Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

  5. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro, E-mail: hif.panc@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Uto, Yoshihiro [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nagasawa, Hideko [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Hori, Hitoshi [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Shimada, Mitsuo [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)] [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited mRNA expression of VEGF, GLUT1 and Aldolase A, not HIF-1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 improved the survival in orthotopic SUIT-2 xenograft model.

  6. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:20652750

  7. Blocking Sp1 Transcription Factor Broadly Inhibits Extracellular Matrix Gene Expression In Vitro and In Vivo: Implications for the Treatment of Tissue Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Verrecchia; Jérôme Rossert; Alain Mauviel

    2001-01-01

    Fibrosis is a consequence of injury characterized by accumulation of excess collagen and other extracellular matrix components, resulting in the destruction of normal tissue architecture and loss of function. Sp1 was originally described as a ubiquitous transcription factor. It is involved in the basal expression of extracellular matrix genes and may, therefore, be important in fibrotic processes. To evaluate the

  8. Ternary Complex Factor-Serum Response Factor Complex-Regulated Gene Activity Is Required for Cellular Proliferation and Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine R. Vickers; Aneta Kasza; Isil Aksan Kurnaz; Anne Seifert; Leo A. H. Zeef; Amanda O'Donnell; Andy Hayes; Andrew D. Sharrocks

    2004-01-01

    Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of the ETS-domain transcription factors are activated through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to a variety of mitogenic and stress stimuli. The TCFs bind and activate serum response elements (SREs) in the promoters of target genes in a ternary complex with a second transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF).

  9. The activity of a novel mithramycin analog is related to its binding to DNA, cellular accumulation, and inhibition of Sp1-driven gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; Mansilla, Sylvia; Barceló, Francisca; Vizcaíno, Carolina; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Morís, Francisco; González, Segundo; Portugal, José

    2014-08-01

    DIG-MSK (demycarosyl-3D-?-D-digitoxosyl-mithramycin SK) is a recently isolated compound of the mithramycin family of antitumor antibiotics, which includes mithramycin A (MTA) and mithramycin SK (MSK). Here, we present evidence that the binding of DIG-MSK to DNA shares the general features of other mithramycins such as the preference for C/G-rich tracts, but there are some differences in the strength of binding and the DNA sequence preferentially recognized by DIG-MSK. We aimed at gaining further insights into the DIG-MSK mechanism of action by direct comparison with the effects of the parental MTA. Similar to MTA, MSK and DIG-MSK accumulated rapidly in A2780, IGROV1 and OVCAR3 human ovarian cancer cell lines, and DIG-MSK was a potent inhibitor of both basal and induced expression of an Sp1-driven luciferase vector. This inhibitory activity was confirmed for the endogenous Sp1 gene and a set of Sp-responsive genes, and compared to that of MTA and MSK. Furthermore, DIG-MSK was stronger than MTA as inhibitor of Sp3-driven transcription and endogenous Sp3 gene expression. Differences in the effects of MTA, MSK and DIG-MSK on gene expression may have a large influence on their biological activities. PMID:24907531

  10. Francisella tularensis Genes Required for Inhibition of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst and Intramacrophage Growth Identified by Random Transposon Mutagenesis of Strain LVS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant S. Schulert; Ramona L. McCaffrey; Blake W. Buchan; Stephen R. Lindemann; Clayton Hollenback; Bradley D. Jones; Lee-Ann H. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. We have shown that F. tularensis subspecies holarctica strain LVS prevents NADPH oxidase assembly and activation in human neutrophils, but how this is achieved is unclear. Herein, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify LVS genes that affect neutrophil activation. Our initial screen identified carA, carB, and

  11. Inhibition of cellular proliferation by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 is associated with suppression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Shen-Orr, Z; Rauscher, F J; Morris, J F; Roberts, C T; LeRoith, D

    1995-07-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-I-R) gene promoter by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 in intact cells. The levels of endogenous IGF-I-R mRNA and the activity of IGF-I-R gene promoter fragments in luciferase reporter constructs were found to be significantly higher in G401 cells (a Wilms' tumor-derived cell line lacking detectable WT1 mRNA) than in 293 cells (a human embryonic kidney cell line which expresses significant levels of WT1 mRNA). To study whether WT1 could suppress the expression of the endogenous IGF-I-R gene, WT1-negative G401 cells were stably transfected with a WT1 expression vector. Expression of WT1 mRNA in G401 cells resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of cellular proliferation, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of IGF-I-R mRNA, promoter activity, and ligand binding and with a reduction in IGF-I-stimulated cellular proliferation, thymidine incorporation, and anchorage-independent growth. These data suggest that a major aspect of the action of the WT1 tumor suppressor is the repression of IGF-I-R gene expression. PMID:7791758

  12. SERIAL ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION IN BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS 2-INFECTED CELLS PROVIDES EVIDENCE FOR INHIBITION OF CAP-DEPENDENT TRANSLATION INITIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2) strain 1373 , a highly virulent noncytopathic strain, causes high fever, thrombocytopenia, lymphoid depletion and immune suppression. The mechanisms by which these lesions are produced are unknown. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to deve...

  13. The chimeric genes AML1/DS1 and AML1/EAP inhibit AML1B activation at the CSF1R promoter, but only AML1/MDS1 has tumor-promoter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zent, C.S.; Matheiu, C.; Rowley, J.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); and others

    1996-02-06

    The (3;21)(q26;q22) translocation associated with treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome, treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, and blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia results in the expression of the chimeric genes AML1/EAP, AML1MDS1, and AML1/EVI1. AML1 (CBFA2), which codes for the {alpha} subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor CBF, is also involved in the t(8;21), and the gene coding for the {beta} subunit (CBFB) is involved in the inv(16). These are two of the most common recurring chromosomal rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia. CBF corresponds to the murine Pebp2 factor, and CBF binding sites are found in a number of eukaryotic and viral enhancers and promoters. We studied the effects of AML1/EAP and AML1/MDS1 at the AML1 binding site of the CSF1R (macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor gene) promoter by using reporter gene assays, and we analyzed the consequences of the expression of both chimeric proteins in an embryonic rat fibroblast cell line (Rat1A) in culture and after injection into athymic nude mice. Unlike AML1, which is an activator of the CSF1R promoter, the chimeric proteins did not transactivate the CSF1R promoter site but acted as inhibitors of AMLI (CBFA2). AML1/EAP and AML1/MDS1 expressed in adherent Rat1A cells decreased contact inhibition of growth, and expression of AML1/MDS1 was associated with acquisition of the ability to grow in suspension culture. Expression of AML1/MDS1 increased the tumorigenicity of Rat1A cells injected into athymic nude mice, whereas AML1/EAP expression provented tumor growth. These results suggest that expression of AML1/MDS1 can interfere with normal AML1 function, and that AML1/MDS1 has tumor-promoting properties in an embryonic rat fibroblast cell line. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Simultaneous Inhibition of Cell-Cycle, Proliferation, Survival, Metastatic Pathways and Induction of Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells by a Phytochemical Super-Cocktail: Genes That Underpin Its Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Ouhtit, Allal; Gaur, Rajiv Lochan; Abdraboh, Mohamed; Ireland, Shubha K.; Rao, Prakash N; Raj, Shailaja G; Al-Riyami, Hamad; Shanmuganathan, Somya; Gupta, Ishita; Murthy, Subramanyam N; Hollenbach, Andrew; Raj, Madhwa HG

    2013-01-01

    Traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer treatment face serious challenges such as drug resistance and toxic side effects. Complementary / Alternative medicine is increasingly being practiced worldwide due to its safety beneficial therapeutic effects. We hypothesized that a super combination (SC) of known phytochemicals used at bioavailable levels could induce 100% killing of breast cancer (BC) cells without toxic effects on normal cells and that microarray analysis would identify potential genes for targeted therapy of BC. Mesenchymal Stems cells (MSC, control) and two BC cell lines were treated with six well established pro-apoptotic phytochemicals individually and in combination (super cocktail), at bioavailable levels. The compounds were ineffective individually. In combination, they significantly suppressed BC cell proliferation (>80%), inhibited migration and invasion, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis resulting in 100% cell death. However, there were no deleterious effects on MSC cells used as control. Furthermore, the SC down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Rb, CDK4, BcL-2, SVV, and CD44 (metastasis inducing stem cell factor) in the BC cell lines. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed key genes (PCNA, Rb, CDK4, Bcl-2, SVV, P53 and CD44) underpinning SC-promoted BC cell death and motility. Four unique genes were highly up-regulated (ARC, GADD45B, MYLIP and CDKN1C). This investigation indicates the potential for development of a highly effective phytochemical combination for breast cancer chemoprevention / chemotherapy. The novel over-expressed genes hold the potential for development as markers to follow efficacy of therapy. PMID:24312140

  15. Evaluation of inhibition and cross-reaction effects on real-time PCR applied to the total DNA of wastewater samples for the quantification of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and taxon-specific targets.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Holger; Schwartz, Thomas; Kirchen, Silke; Stofer, Carmen; Obst, Ursula

    2007-04-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of six primer and probe sets for TaqMan real-time RCR on DNA of wastewater samples, effects of the sample matrix and DNA background on target quantification were studied with respect to differences between functional genes and taxonomically used rDNA targets. Primer/probe assays for real-time PCR (TaqMan) designed to quantitatively detect the antibiotic resistance genes bla(VIM), vanA, ampC, mecA, and taxon-specific 23S rDNA sequences for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium/faecalis were tested for their sensitivity and amplification robustness. The amplification of their gene targets in DNA extracts of wastewater ("wastewater DNA") and reference strains ("reference DNA") was compared with their amplification in "model DNA" which was composed of wastewater DNA and reference DNA. Target detection was quantifiable along up to seven decimal orders of magnitude. For the detection of the resistance genes bla(VIM), vanA, ampC, and mecA as well as the enterococci directed PCR only weak or no inhibition due to the impurities or wastewater DNA matrix were demonstrated for the applied target concentrations. The taxonomically applied detection system for the quantification of P. aeruginosa showed a limited performance. For the analysis of the amplification dynamics of possibly similar nucleotide sequences of organisms related to P. aeruginosa a SYBR Green assay was employed. Competitive amplification of similar sequences was identified to be a major mechanism of reduced sensitivity. Hence, the primers were modified for an optimised detection. With the resulting reduction of cross reactions an increased sensitivity was achieved for the detection and quantification of P. aeruginosa in wastewater DNA. PMID:17056226

  16. The upstream stimulatory factor-2a inhibits plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression by binding to a promoter element adjacent to the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, A; Roth, U; Jungermann, K; Kietzmann, T

    2001-05-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression is induced by hypoxia (8% O(2)) via the PAI-1 promoter region -175/-159 containing a hypoxia response element (HRE-2) binding the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and an adjacent response element (HRE-1) binding a so far unknown factor. The aim of the present study was to identify this factor and to investigate its role in the regulation of PAI-1 expression. It was found by supershift assays that the upstream stimulatory factor-2a (USF-2a) bound mainly to the HRE-1 of the PAI-1 promoter and to a lesser extent to HRE-2. Overexpression of USF-2a inhibited PAI-1 messenger RNA and protein expression and activated L-type pyruvate kinase expression in primary rat hepatocytes under normoxia and hypoxia. Luciferase (Luc) gene constructs driven by 766 and 276 base pairs of the 5'-flanking region of the PAI-1 gene were transfected into primary hepatocytes together with expression vectors encoding wild-type USF-2a and a USF-2a mutant lacking DNA binding and dimerization activity (DeltaHU2a). Cotransfection of the wild-type USF-2a vector reduced Luc activity by about 8-fold, whereas cotransfection of DeltaHU2a did not influence Luc activity. Mutation of the HRE-1 (-175/-168) in the PAI-1 promoter Luc constructs decreased USF-dependent inhibition of Luc activity. Mutation of the HRE-2 (-165/-158) was less effective. Cotransfection of a HIF-1alpha vector could compete for the binding of USF at HRE-2. These results indicated that the balance between 2 transcriptional factors, HIF-1 and USF-2a, which can bind adjacent HRE sites, appears to be involved in the regulation of PAI-1 expression in many clinical conditions. PMID:11313255

  17. Caspase Inhibition with XIAP as an Adjunct to AAV Vector Gene-Replacement Therapy: Improving Efficacy and Prolonging the Treatment Window

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jingyu; Jia, Lin; Khan, Naheed; Zheng, Qiong-Duan; Moncrief, Ashley; Hauswirth, William W.; Thompson, Debra A.; Zacks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose AAV-mediated gene therapy in the rd10 mouse, with retinal degeneration caused by mutation in the rod cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase ?-subunit (PDE?) gene, produces significant, but transient, rescue of photoreceptor structure and function. This study evaluates the ability of AAV-mediated delivery of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) to enhance and prolong the efficacy of PDE? gene-replacement therapy. Methods Rd10 mice were bred and housed in darkness. Two groups of animals were generated: Group 1 received sub-retinal AAV5-XIAP or AAV5-GFP at postnatal age (P) 4 or 21 days; Group 2 received sub-retinal AAV5-XIAP plus AAV5- PDE?, AAV5-GFP plus AAV5- PDE?, or AAV- PDE? alone at age P4 or P21. Animals were maintained for an additional 4 weeks in darkness before being moved to a cyclic-light environment. A subset of animals from Group 1 received a second sub-retinal injection of AAV8-733-PDE? two weeks after being moved to the light. Histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and electroretinograms were performed at different times after moving to the light. Results Injection of AAV5-XIAP alone at P4 and 21 resulted in significant slowing of light-induced retinal degeneration, as measured by outer nuclear thickness and cell counts, but did not result in improved outer segment structure and rhodopsin localization. In contrast, co-injection of AAV5-XIAP and AAV5-PDE? resulted in increased levels of rescue and decreased rates of retinal degeneration compared to treatment with AAV5-PDE? alone. Mice treated with AAV5-XIAP at P4, but not P21, remained responsive to subsequent rescue by AAV8-733-PDE? when injected two weeks after moving to a light-cycling environment. Conclusions Adjunctive treatment with the anti-apoptotic gene XIAP confers additive protective effect to gene-replacement therapy with AAV5-PDE? in the rd10 mouse. In addition, AAV5-XIAP, when given early, can increase the age at which gene-replacement therapy remains effective, thus effectively prolonging the window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22615940

  18. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Jung, Deok-Beom; Sohn, Eun Jung; Kim, Hanna Hyun; Park, Moon Nyeo; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seok Geun; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1? in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1? accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1? siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1? during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1? to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10?mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1?, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23243443

  19. The oral iron chelator deferasirox inhibits NF-?B mediated gene expression without impacting on proximal activation: implications for myelodysplasia and aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ashish; Mifsud, Nicole A; Bird, Robert; Forsyth, Cecily; Szer, Jeff; Tam, Constantine; Kellner, Sybil; Grigg, Andrew; Motum, Penelope; Bentley, Mark; Opat, Stephen; Grigoriadis, George

    2015-02-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoiesis, bone marrow dysplasia and cytopenias. Failure of red cell production often results in transfusion dependency with subsequent iron loading requiring iron chelation in lower risk patients. Consistent with previous reports, we have observed haematopoietic improvement in a cohort of patients treated with the oral iron chelator deferasirox (DFX). It has been postulated that MDS patients have a pro-inflammatory bone marrow environment with increased numbers of activated T cells producing elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), which is detrimental to normal haematopoiesis. We demonstrate that DFX inhibits nuclear factor (NF)-?B dependent transcription without affecting its proximal activation, resulting in reduced TNF production from T cells stimulated in vitro. These results suggest that the haematopoietic improvement observed in DFX-treated patients may reflect an anti-inflammatory effect, mediated through inhibition of the transcription factor NF-?B and support the therapeutic targeting of this pathway, which is aberrantly activated in a large proportion of haematological malignancies. PMID:25271366

  20. Mutant INS-Gene Induced Diabetes of Youth: Proinsulin Cysteine Residues Impose Dominant-Negative Inhibition on Wild-Type Proinsulin Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Liu; Leena Haataja; Jordan Wright; Nalinda P. Wickramasinghe; Qing-Xin Hua; Nelson F. Phillips; Fabrizio Barbetti; Michael A. Weiss; Peter Arvan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a syndrome of Mutant INS-gene-induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY, derived from one of 26 distinct mutations) has been identified as a cause of insulin-deficient diabetes, resulting from expression of a misfolded mutant proinsulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Genetic deletion of one, two, or even three alleles encoding insulin in mice does not

  1. Histones H2A\\/H2B Inhibit the Interaction of Transcription Factor IIIA with the Xenopus borealis Somatic 5S RNA Gene in a Nucleosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Hayes; Alan P. Wolffe

    1992-01-01

    A Xenopus borealis somatic 5S RNA gene was assembled with either the complete octamer of histones, (H2A\\/H2B\\/H3\\/H4)_2, or the (H3\\/H4)_2 tetramer of histones that comprises the central protein kernel of the nucleosome. Gel-mobility shifts, DNase I protection, and immunoblotting assays demonstrate that the class III transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) readily interacts with 5S DNA associated with the tetramer but that

  2. Local Delivery of Gene Vectors From Bare-Metal Stents by Use of a Biodegradable Synthetic Complex Inhibits In-Stent Restenosis in Rat Carotid Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilia Fishbein; Ivan Alferiev; Marina Bakay; Stanley J. Stachelek; Peter Sobolewski; Meizan Lai; Hoon Choi; I.-W. Chen; Robert J. Levy

    2010-01-01

    Background—Local drug delivery from polymer-coated stents has demonstrated efficacy for preventing in-stent restenosis; however, both the inflammatory effects of polymer coatings and concerns about late outcomes of drug-eluting stent use indicate the need to investigate innovative approaches, such as combining localized gene therapy with stent angioplasty. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that adenoviral vectors (Ad) could be delivered from the

  3. Local Delivery of Gene Vectors From Bare-Metal Stents by Use of a Biodegradable Synthetic Complex Inhibits In-Stent Restenosis in Rat Carotid Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilia Fishbein; Ivan S. Alferiev; Marina Bakay; Stanley J. Stachelek; Peter Sobolewski; Meizan Lai; Hoon Choi; I-W Chen; Robert J. Levy

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local drug delivery from polymer-coated stents has demonstrated efficacy for preventing in-stent restenosis; however, both the inflammatory effects of polymer coatings and concerns about late outcomes of drug-eluting stent use indicate the need to investigate innovative approaches, such as combining localized gene therapy with stent angioplasty. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that adenoviral vectors (Ad) could be delivered from

  4. Gene transfer of virally encoded chemokine antagonists vMIP-II and MC148 prolongs cardiac allograft survival and inhibits donor-specific immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L A DeBruyne; K Li; D K Bishop; J S Bromberg

    2000-01-01

    Introducing immunomodulatory molecules into allografts by gene transfer may avoid the side-effects of systemic immunosuppression. vMIP-II and MC148 are two recently identified chemokine homologues encoded by human herpes virus 8 and Molluscum contagiosum, respectively, that have antagonistic activities against multiple different CC and CXC chemokine receptors. We hypothesized that introduction of these molecules into cardiac allografts may block leukocyte infiltration

  5. Stimulation of Neutrophil Granulocytes with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induces Changes in Phenotype and Gene Expression and Inhibits Spontaneous Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Suttmann; Nadine Lehan; Andreas Bohle; Sven Brandau

    2003-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) have been implicated in the early inflammatory re- sponse against mycobacteria besides monocytes\\/macrophages. Yet, little is known about the interaction of mycobacteria with PMN. We investigated the potential of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to stimulate and influence PMN phenotype, gene expression profile and spontaneous apoptosis. Flow cyto- metric analyses revealed an upregulation of the function-associated

  6. Gene Expression Profiling Revealed Survivin as a Target of 3,3V-Diindolylmethane-Induced Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KM Wahidur Rahman; Yiwei Li; Zhiwei Wang; Sarah H. Sarkar; Fazlul H. Sarkar

    2006-01-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruci- ferous vegetables, and its major acid-catalyzed reaction pro- duct 3,3V-diindolylmethane (DIM) showed anticancer activity mediated by its pleiotropic effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, carcinogen bioactivation, and DNA repair. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which 3,3V-diindolylmethane exerts its effects on breast cancer cells, we have used microarray gene expression profiling analysis.

  7. Magnolol suppresses NF-?B activation and NF-?B regulated gene expression through inhibition of IkappaB kinase activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anfernee Kai-Wing Tse; Chi-Keung Wan; Guo-Yuan Zhu; Xiao-Ling Shen; Hon-Yeung Cheung; Mengsu Yang; Wang-Fun Fong

    2007-01-01

    The mis-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) signal pathway is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases that leds to the production of inflammatory mediators. Our studies using human U937 promonocytes cells suggested that magnolol, a low molecular weight lignan isolated from the medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, differentially down-regulated the pharmacologically induced expression of NF-?B-regulated inflammatory gene products MMP-9, IL-8,

  8. Hypoxia-induced gene expression of aquaporin-4, cyclooxygenase-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? in rat cortical astroglia is inhibited by 17?-estradiol and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Habib, Pardes; Dang, Jon; Slowik, Alexander; Victor, Marion; Beyer, Cordian

    2014-01-01

    17?-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) are neuroprotective in acute brain injury by attenuating neuropathophysiological processes and regulating local glial function. Besides controlling brain-intrinsic immune responses, astrocytes are cellular targets for sex steroids in health and disease and typically resist to hypoxic damage. In this in vitro study, we aimed at uncovering astroglia-specific reactions to sublethal hypoxic conditions and astroglia-specific effects of both sex steroid hormones on these parameters. Short-term hypoxia for 3 h increased reactive oxygen species production, but had no influence on cell viability of cerebral cortical rat astroglia. Astrocytes expressed classical estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and a set of nonclassical steroid hormone receptors. Hypoxia specifically induced ER? and PR isoform A gene expression. Oxygen deprivation increased gene expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif1?), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). The application of E2 and P selectively prevented this induction. Effects on protein levels of these genes appeared to be delayed. These data show that astrocytes change their receptivity for sex steroid hormones by switching steroid hormone receptor expression and that E2 and P modify or antagonize proinflammatory COX2 synthesis, edema-promoting AQP4 expression, and the Hif1? increase. In vivo studies have to address whether these cell responses contribute to steroid-mediated neuroprotection in stroke. PMID:24685982

  9. 9-O-butyl-13-(4-isopropylbenzyl)berberine, KR-72, Is a Potent Antifungal Agent That Inhibits the Growth of Cryptococcus neoformans by Regulating Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun Sook; Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Sung Uk; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explored the mode of action of KR-72, a 9-O-butyl-13-(4-isopropylbenzyl)berberine derivative previously shown to exhibit potent antifungal activity against a variety of human fungal pathogens. The DNA microarray data revealed that KR-72 treatment significantly changed the transcription profiles of C. neoformans, affecting the expression of more than 2,000 genes. Genes involved in translation and transcription were mostly upregulated, whereas those involved in the cytoskeleton, intracellular trafficking, and lipid metabolism were downregulated. KR-72 also exhibited a strong synergistic effect with the antifungal agent FK506. KR-72 treatment regulated the expression of several essential genes, including ECM16, NOP14, HSP10 and MGE1, which are required for C. neoformans growth. The KR-72-mediated induction of MGE1 also likely reduced the viability of C. neoformans by impairing cell cycle or the DNA repair system. In conclusion, KR-72 showed antifungal activity by modulating diverse biological processes through a mode of action distinct from those of clinically available antifungal drugs such as polyene and azole drugs. PMID:25302492

  10. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-C. [Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yc3270@tmu.edu.tw; Chow, J.-M. [Section of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal, Medicine, Taipei Municipal Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-W. [Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, C.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-C. [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dermatology, Taipei Municipal Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-15

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE in C6 cells. However, BE treatment was unable to protect C6 cells from C2-ceramide-induced cell death. These data indicate that BE possesses abilities to inhibit ROS-mediated cytotoxic effects through modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 protein expression. The role of HO-1 in ROS-scavenging activity of BE is proposed.

  11. Caveolin-1 inhibits epidermal growth factor-stimulated lamellipod extension and cell migration in metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma cells (MTLn3). Transformation suppressor effects of adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Razani, B; Altschuler, Y; Bouzahzah, B; Mostov, K E; Pestell, R G; Lisanti, M P

    2000-07-01

    Caveolin-1 is a principal component of caveolae membranes that may function as a transformation suppressor. For example, the human caveolin-1 gene is localized to a suspected tumor suppressor locus (D7S522; 7q31.1) that is deleted in human cancers, including mammary carcinomas. However, little is known about the role of caveolins in regulating cell movement, a critical parameter in determining metastatic potential. Here, we examine the role of caveolin-1 in cell movement. For this purpose, we employed an established cellular model, MTLn3, a metastatic rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In this system, epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation induces rapid lamellipod extension and cell migration. Interestingly, we find that MTLn3 cells fail to express detectable levels of endogenous caveolin-1. To restore caveolin-1 expression in MTLn3 cells efficiently, we employed an inducible adenoviral gene delivery system to achieve tightly controlled expression of caveolin-1. We show here that caveolin-1 expression in MTLn3 cells inhibits EGF-stimulated lamellipod extension and cell migration and blocks their anchorage-independent growth. Under these conditions, EGF-induced activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade is also blunted. Our results suggest that caveolin-1 expression in motile MTLn3 cells induces a non-motile phenotype. PMID:10748172

  12. The Product of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Immediate Early Gene K4.2 Regulates Immunoglobulin Secretion and Calcium Homeostasis by Interacting with and Inhibiting pERP1

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lai-Yee; Brulois, Kevin; Toth, Zsolt; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Sun-Hwa; O'Brien, Kathryn; Lee, Hyera; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Cesarman, Ethel; Ensser, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Chaperones are proteins that assist the noncovalent folding and assembly of macromolecular polypeptide chains, ultimately preventing the formation of nonfunctional or potentially toxic protein aggregates. Plasma cell-induced-endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein 1 (pERP1) is a cellular chaperone that is preferentially expressed in marginal-zone B cells and is highly upregulated during plasma cell differentiation. While initially identified as a dedicated factor for the assembly of secreted IgM, pERP1 has since been implicated in suppressing calcium mobilization, and its expression is misregulated in multiple tumors. A number of herpesvirus immediate early gene products play important roles in the regulation of viral gene expression and/or evasion of host immune responses. Here, we report that the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) immediate early viral gene K4.2 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum-localized protein that interacts with and inhibits pERP1. Consequently, K4.2 expression interfered with immunoglobulin secretion by delaying the kinetics of immunoglobulin assembly and also led to increased responsiveness of B-cell receptor signal transduction by enhancing phosphotyrosine signals and intracellular calcium fluxes. Furthermore, K4.2 expression also appeared to contribute to maximal lytic replication by enhancing viral glycoprotein expression levels and ultimately promoting infectious-virus production. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that pERP1 expression was readily detected in KSHV-positive cells from multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions, suggesting that pERP1 may have potential roles in the KSHV life cycle and malignancy. In conclusion, our data suggest that K4.2 participates in lytic replication by enhancing calcium flux and viral glycoprotein expression, but also by interfering with immunoglobulin assembly to potentially dampen the adaptive immune response. PMID:23986581

  13. JNK inhibition by SP600125 attenuates trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated regulation of inflammatory and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Kristina; Kennedy, Arion; McIntosh, Michael K

    2011-10-01

    Supplementation with a mixture of trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) and cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), or t10,c12 CLA alone, reduces body weight and fat deposition in animals and some humans. However, these anti-obesity actions of t10,c12 CLA are routinely accompanied by increased markers of inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, we examined the extent to which blocking c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling using the JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated markers of inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes treated with t10,c12 CLA. SP600125 attenuated t10,c12 CLA-mediated phosphorylation of cJun and increased protein levels of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3, two downstream targets of JNK. SP600125 attenuated t10,c12 CLA-mediated induction of inflammatory genes, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1?, ATF3, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and cyclooxygenase-2. Consistent with these data, SP600125 prevented t10,c12 CLA-mediated secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and MCP-1. SP600125 prevented t10,c12 CLA suppression of lipogenic genes including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element binding protein, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Additionally, SP600125 blocked t10,c12 CLA-mediated induction of suppressor of cytokine synthesis-3 and suppression of adiponectin and insulin-dependent glucose transporter 4 mRNA levels. Collectively, these data suggest that JNK signaling plays an important role in t10,c12 CLA-mediated regulation of inflammatory and lipogenic gene expression in primary cultures of human adipocytes. PMID:21744278

  14. PARP Inhibition Sensitizes to Low Dose-Rate Radiation TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Gene-Expressing and PTEN-Deficient Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Payel; Choudhary, Gaurav S.; Sharma, Arishya; Singh, Kamini; Heston, Warren D.; Ciezki, Jay; Klein, Eric A.; Almasan, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to genotoxic agents, such as irradiation produces DNA damage, the toxicity of which is augmented when the DNA repair is impaired. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors were found to be “synthetic lethal” in cells deficient in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that impair homologous recombination. However, since many tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa) rarely have on such mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARP inhibitor sensitivity. We evaluated the effectiveness of radiation in combination with the PARP inhibitor, rucaparib in PCa cells. The combination index for clonogenic survival following radiation and rucaparib treatments revealed synergistic interactions in a panel of PCa cell lines, being strongest for LNCaP and VCaP cells that express ETS gene fusion proteins. These findings correlated with synergistic interactions for senescence activation, as indicated by ?--galactosidase staining. Absence of PTEN and presence of ETS gene fusion thus facilitated activation of senescence, which contributed to decreased clonogenic survival. Increased radiosensitivity in the presence of rucaparib was associated with persistent DNA breaks, as determined by ?-H2AX, p53BP1, and Rad51 foci. VCaP cells, which harbor the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion and PC3 cells that stably express a similar construct (fusion III) showed enhanced sensitivity towards rucaparib, which, in turn, increased the radiation response to a similar extent as the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU7441. Rucaparib radiosensitized PCa cells, with a clear benefit of low dose-rate radiation (LDR) administered over a longer period of time that caused enhanced DNA damage. LDR mimicking brachytherapy, which is used successfully in the clinic, was most effective when combined with rucaparib by inducing persistent DNA damage and senescence, leading to decreased clonogenic survival. This combination was most effective in the presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG and in the absence of PTEN, indicating clinical potential for brachytherapy in patients with intermediate and high risk PCa. PMID:23565244

  15. Influence of ischaemia/reperfusion and LFA-1 inhibition on telomere lengths and CDKI genes in ex vivo haemoperfusion of primate kidneys.

    PubMed

    Chkhotua, Archil B; Schelzig, Hubert; Wiegand, Peter; Grosse, Stephan; Reis, Simone; Art, Martina; Abendroth, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The telomere (T) length, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(Kip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes are the markers of cell senescence and DNA damage. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of renal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on the value of the above-mentioned markers. Significantly higher levels of p21 and p27 were expressed by the glomeruli (P=0.001 and P=0.0001), tubules (P=0.0065 and P=0.0006), and interstitial cells (P=0.0017 and P=0.0022, respectively) of the xenoperfused kidneys. The mean T length of non-perfused renal specimens (5.56+/-0.60 kbp) was longer than that of the xenoperfused kidneys (5.46+/-0.36 kbp) [P= non-significant (NS)]. Addition of anti-LFA-1 mAb did not significantly influence the gene expression profile in the xenoperfused kidneys. The mean T length was longer in the kidneys with anti-LFA-1 mAb than in those without the medication (5.7+/-0.11 vs 5.13+/-0.31 kbp) (P=0.0661). Kidney I/R is associated with telomere shortening and an over-expression of p21 and p27 CDKIs, which indicates substantial DNA damage and/or accelerated tissue senescence. Although anti-LFA-1 mAb had some protective effect on the telomeres, it did not influence the gene expression profile in this study. PMID:15565356

  16. Prostate derived factor in human prostate cancer cells: gene induction by vitamin D via a p53-dependent mechanism and inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lambert, James R; Kelly, Julie A; Shim, Minsub; Huffer, William E; Nordeen, Steven K; Baek, Seung Joon; Eling, Thomas E; Lucia, M Scott

    2006-09-01

    The secosteroid hormone 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) has been shown to regulate the growth and differentiation of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, although the precise molecular mechanisms mediating these effects have not been defined. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the antiproliferative effects of 1,25D on PCa cells are mediated through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). In the present study, we performed gene profiling of LNCaP human PCa cells following 1,25D treatment and identified the antitumorigenic gene, prostate derived factor (PDF), as being highly induced by 1,25D. PDF is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and has been implicated in a variety of functions directly related totumorigenicity including antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Gene expression studies using 1,25D analogs and a VDR antagonist demonstrate that 1,25D-mediated induction of PDF message and protein in PCa cells is dependent on VDR action. PDF is a transcriptional target of the tumor suppressor, p53. Here we show that the expression of PDF in nine PCa cell lines is dependent on functional p53. Additionally, transfection of p53-null ALVA-31 PCa cells with a p53 expression plasmid, and expression of dominant negative p53 in LNCaP PCa cells, show that the ability of VDR to induce PDF requires functional p53. Importantly, forced PDF expression in PC-3 cells results in decreased cell proliferation, soft agar cloning, and xenograft tumor size. These data demonstrate that PDF exerts antitumorigenic properties on PCa cells and its regulation by 1,25D may provide insights into the action of 1,25D in PCa. PMID:16741990

  17. Interferon regulatory factor 3 inhibits astrocyte inflammatory gene expression through suppression of the proinflammatory miR-155 and miR-155*.

    PubMed

    Tarassishin, Leonid; Loudig, Olivier; Bauman, Avital; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Lee, Sunhee C

    2011-12-01

    Astrocytes, together with microglia and macrophages, participate in innate inflammatory responses in the CNS. Although inflammatory mediators such as interferons generated by astrocytes may be critical in the defense of the CNS, sustained unopposed cytokine signaling could result in harmful consequences. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor required for IFN? production and antiviral immunity. Most cells express low levels of IRF3 protein, and the transcriptional mechanism that upregulates IRF3 expression is not known. In this study, we explored the consequence of adenovirus-mediated IRF3 gene transfer (Ad-IRF3) in primary human astrocytes. We show that IRF3 transgene expression suppresses proinflammatory cytokine gene expression upon challenge with IL-1/IFN? and alters astrocyte activation phenotype from a proinflammatory to an anti-inflammatory one, akin to an M1-M2 switch in macrophages. This was accompanied by the rescue of neurons from cytokine-induced death in glial-neuronal co-cultures. Furthermore, Ad-IRF3 suppressed the expression of microRNA-155 and its star-form partner miR-155*, immunoregulatory miRNAs highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions. Astrocyte miR-155/miR155* were induced by cytokines and TLR ligands with a distinct hierarchy and involved in proinflammatory cytokine gene induction by targeting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and potentially other factors. Our results demonstrate a novel proinflammatory role for miR-155/miR-155* in human astrocytes and suggest that IRF3 can suppress neuroinflammation through regulating immunomodulatory miRNA expression. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:22170100

  18. A Retinoblastoma Allele That Is Mutated at Its Common E2F Interaction Site Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Gene-Targeted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Matthew J.; Thwaites, Michael J.; Talluri, Srikanth; MacDonald, James I.; Passos, Daniel T.; Chong, Jean-Leon; Cantalupo, Paul; Stafford, Paul M.; Sáenz-Robles, M. Teresa; Francis, Sarah M.; Pipas, James M.; Leone, Gustavo; Welch, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is best known for regulating cell proliferation through E2F transcription factors. In this report, we investigate the properties of a targeted mutation that disrupts pRB interactions with the transactivation domain of E2Fs. Mice that carry this mutation endogenously (Rb1?G) are defective for pRB-dependent repression of E2F target genes. Except for an accelerated entry into S phase in response to serum stimulation, cell cycle regulation in Rb1?G/?G mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly resembles that of the wild type. In a serum deprivation-induced cell cycle exit, Rb1?G/?G MEFs display a magnitude of E2F target gene derepression similar to that of Rb1?/? cells, even though Rb1?G/?G cells exit the cell cycle normally. Interestingly, cell cycle arrest in Rb1?G/?G MEFs is responsive to p16 expression and gamma irradiation, indicating that alternate mechanisms can be activated in G1 to arrest proliferation. Some Rb1?G/?G mice die neonatally with a muscle degeneration phenotype, while the others live a normal life span with no evidence of spontaneous tumor formation. Most tissues appear histologically normal while being accompanied by derepression of pRB-regulated E2F targets. This suggests that non-E2F-, pRB-dependent pathways may have a more relevant role in proliferative control than previously identified. PMID:24662053

  19. Black raspberry-derived anthocyanins demethylate tumor suppressor genes through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Cho, Seung-Ju; Seguin, Claire; Siddiqui, Jibran; Stoner, Kristen; Weng, Yu-I; Huang, Tim H-M; Tichelaar, Jay; Yearsley, Martha; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that oral administration of black raspberry powder decreased promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in tumors from patients with colorectal cancer. The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects. In the present study, we asked if ACs are responsible for the demethylation effects observed in colorectal cancers. Three days of treatment of ACs at 0.5, 5, and 25 ?g/ml suppressed activity and protein expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in HCT116, Caco2 and SW480 cells. Promoters of CDKN2A, and SFRP2, SFRP5, and WIF1, upstream of Wnt pathway, were demethylated by ACs. mRNA expression of some of these genes was increased. mRNA expression of ?-catenin and c-Myc, downstream of Wnt pathway, and cell proliferation were decreased; apoptosis was increased. ACs were taken up into HCT116 cells and were differentially localized with DNMT1 and DNMT3B in the same cells visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although it was reported that DNMT3B is regulated by c-Myc in mouse lymphoma, DNMT3B did not bind with c-Myc in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that ACs are responsible, at least in part, for the demethylation effects of whole black raspberries in colorectal cancers. PMID:23368921

  20. C7L Family of Poxvirus Host Range Genes Inhibits Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Schoggins, John; Rose, Lloyd; Cao, Jingxin; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs). While K1L is limited to orthopoxviruses, genes that are homologous to C7L are found in diverse mammalian poxviruses. In this study, we showed that the C7L homologues from sheeppox virus and swinepox virus could rescue the replication defect of a VACV mutant deleted of both K1L and C7L (vK1L?C7L?). Interestingly, the sheeppox virus C7L homologue could rescue the replication of vK1L?C7L? in human HeLa cells but not in murine 3T3 and LA-4 cells, in contrast to all other C7L homologues. Replacing amino acids 134 and 135 of the sheeppox virus C7L homologue, however, made it functional in the two murine cell lines, suggesting that these two residues are critical for antagonizing a putative host restriction factor which has some subtle sequence variation in human and murine cells. Furthermore, the C7L family of host range genes from diverse mammalian poxviruses were all capable of antagonizing type I IFN-induced antiviral activities against VACV. Screening of a library of more than 350 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) identified interferon-regulated factor 1 (IRF1) as an inhibitor of vK1L?C7L? but not wild-type VACV. Expression of either K1L or C7L, however, rendered vK1L?C7L? resistant to IRF1-induced antiviral activities. Altogether, our data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells. PMID:22345458

  1. Construction of a CXCL12-KDEL Fusion Gene to Inhibit Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastasis by Intracellular Sequestration of CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenchao; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Kai; Liu, Su; Liu, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    The CXCL12-CXCR4 biological axis consisting of the chemotactic factor CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in oral cancer metastasis. High expression of CXCR4 may help oral squamous cancer cells invade local tissues and metastasize to lymph nodes. No obvious association was observed between CXCL12 expression and lymph node metastasis, suggesting that CXCL12 chemotaxis may only be related to CXCR4 expression on the tumor cell membrane. KDEL can be retained by receptors on the surface of the intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and also be called an ER retention signal sequence. So we adopted the KDEL sequence in this study to generate a CXCL12-KDEL fusion protein in combination with a traceable E-tag label. As such, CXCL12 was retained in the ER. Specific receptor CXCR4 binds to the CXCL12-KDEL, was also retained in the ER, and was thus prevented from reaching the oral squamous cancer cell surface. We reduced the cell surface level of CXCR4 and called the technique “intracellular sequestration.” By this way, we have finished blocking of CXCL12-CXCR4 biological axis and inhibiting lymph node metastasis of oral carcinoma. PMID:25866764

  2. Preparation and diagnostic utility of a hemagglutination inhibition test antigen derived from the baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene of Newcastle disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Soo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Kim, Saeromi; Seul, Hee-Jung; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (rHN) protein from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with hemagglutination (HA) activity was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using a baculovirus expression system. The rHN protein extracted from infected cells was used as an antigen in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection and titration of NDV-specific antibodies present in chicken sera. The rHN antigen produced high HA titers of 213 per 25 µL, which were similar to those of the NDV antigen produced using chicken eggs, and it remained stable without significant loss of the HA activity for at least 12 weeks at 4?. The rHN-based HI assay specifically detected NDV antibodies, but not the sera of other avian pathogens, with a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 98.0%, respectively, in known positive and negative chicken sera (n = 430). Compared with an NDV-based HI assay, the rHN-based HI assay had a relative sensitivity and specificity of 96.1% and 95.5%, respectively, when applied to field chicken sera. The HI titers of the rHN-based HI assay were highly correlated with those in an NDV-based HI assay (r = 0.927). Overall, these results indicate that rHN protein provides a useful alternative to NDV antigen in HI assays. PMID:23820164

  3. Preparation and diagnostic utility of a hemagglutination inhibition test antigen derived from the baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene of Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Kim, Saeromi; Seul, Hee-Jung; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (rHN) protein from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with hemagglutination (HA) activity was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using a baculovirus expression system. The rHN protein extracted from infected cells was used as an antigen in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection and titration of NDV-specific antibodies present in chicken sera. The rHN antigen produced high HA titers of 2(13) per 25 ?L, which were similar to those of the NDV antigen produced using chicken eggs, and it remained stable without significant loss of the HA activity for at least 12 weeks at 4°C. The rHN-based HI assay specifically detected NDV antibodies, but not the sera of other avian pathogens, with a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 98.0%, respectively, in known positive and negative chicken sera (n = 430). Compared with an NDV-based HI assay, the rHN-based HI assay had a relative sensitivity and specificity of 96.1% and 95.5%, respectively, when applied to field chicken sera. The HI titers of the rHN-based HI assay were highly correlated with those in an NDV-based HI assay (r = 0.927). Overall, these results indicate that rHN protein provides a useful alternative to NDV antigen in HI assays. PMID:23820164

  4. Introduction of the rice CYP714D1 gene into Populus inhibits expression of its homologous genes and promotes growth, biomass production and xylem fibre length in transgenic trees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiuqing; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) OsCYP714D1 gene (also known as EUI) encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which functions as a gibberellin (GA)-deactivating enzyme, catalysing 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs. To understand whether it would also reduce the production of active GAs and depress the growth rate in transgenic trees, we constitutively expressed OsCYP714D1 in the aspen hybrid clone Populus alba×P. berolinensis. Unexpectedly, ectopic expression of OsCYP714D1 in aspen positively regulated the biosynthesis of GAs, including the active GA1 and GA4, leading to promotion of the growth rate and biomass production in transgenic plants. Transgenic lines which showed significant expression of the introduced OsCYP714D1 gene accumulated a higher GA level and produced more numerous and longer xylem fibres than did the wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that transcription of most homologous PtCYP714 genes was suppressed in these transgenic lines. Therefore, the promoted GA and biomass production in transgenic trees constitutively expressing OsCYP714D1 is probably attributed to the down-regulated expression of the native PtCYP714 homologues involved in the GA biosynthesis pathway, although their precise functions are yet to be further elucidated. PMID:23667043

  5. PdCYP51B, a new putative sterol 14?-demethylase gene of Penicillium digitatum involved in resistance to imazalil and other fungicides inhibiting ergosterol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuepeng; Wang, Jiye; Feng, Dan; Ma, Zhonghua; Li, Hongye

    2011-08-01

    Penicillium digitatum, causing green mold decay, is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits worldwide. The phenotypes and genotypes of 403 isolates of P. digitatum, collected from packing houses and supermarkets in Zhejiang, China, during 2000 to 2010, were characterized in terms of their imazalil sensitivity. The frequency of detected imazalil-resistant (IMZ-R) isolates increased from 2.1% in 2000 to 60-84% during 2005-2010. Only 6.5% and 4.5% of the collected IMZ-R isolates belong to the previously described IMZ-R1 and IMZ-R2 genotypes, respectively. To determine the resistance mechanism of the predominant and novel IMZ-R isolates of P. digitatum (termed IMZ-R3), genes PdCYP51B and PdCYP51C, homologous to the sterol 14?-demethylase encoded gene PdCYP51, were cloned from six IMZ-R3 and eight imazalil-sensitive (IMZ-S) isolates of P. digitatum. A unique 199-bp insertion was observed in the promoter region of PdCYP51B in all IMZ-R3 isolates examined but in none of the tested IMZ-S isolates. Further analysis by PCR confirmed that this insertion was present in all IMZ-R3 isolates but absent in IMZ-S, IMZ-R1, and IMZ-R2 isolates. Transcription levels of PdCYP51B in three IMZ-R3 isolates were found to be 7.5- to 13.6-fold higher than that in two IMZ-S isolates of P. digitatum. Introduction of another copy of PdCYP51B ( s ) (from IMZ-S) into an IMZ-S isolate decreased the sensitivity of P. digitatum to 14?-demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) only to a small extent, but introduction of a copy of PdCYP51B ( R ) (from IMZ-R3) dramatically increased the resistance level of P. digitatum to DMIs. Regarding PdCYP51C, no consistent changes in either nucleotide sequence or expression level were correlated with imazalil resistance among IMZ-R and IMZ-S isolates. Based on these results, we concluded that (1) the CYP51 family of P. digitatum contains the PdCYP51B and PdCYP51C genes, in addition to the known gene PdCYP51A (previously PdCYP51); (2) PdCYP51B is involved in DMI fungicide resistance; and (3) overexpression of PdCYP51B resulting from a 199-bp insertion mutation in the promoter region of PdCYP51B is responsible for the IMZ-R3 type of DMI resistance in P. digitatum. PMID:21637936

  6. Deletion of the NSm Virulence Gene of Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Virus Replication in and Dissemination from the Midgut of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Bird, Brian H.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we investigated the role of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) virulence genes NSs and NSm in mosquitoes and demonstrated that deletion of NSm significantly reduced the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of RVFV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The specific aim of this study was to further characterize midgut infection and escape barriers of RVFV in Ae. aegypti infected with reverse genetics-generated wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) or RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-?NSm) by examining sagittal sections of infected mosquitoes for viral antigen at various time points post-infection. Methodology and Principal Findings Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed an infectious blood meal containing either rRVF-wt or rRVF-?NSm. On days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 post-infection, mosquitoes from each experimental group were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and examined for RVFV antigen by immunofluorescence assay. Remaining mosquitoes at day 14 were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. Disseminated infections were observed in mosquitoes as early as three days post infection for both virus strains. However, infection rates for rRVF-?NSm were statistically significantly less than for rRVF-wt. Posterior midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections of mosquitoes infected with rRVF-?NSm were confined to one or a few small foci. Conclusions/Significance Deletion of NSm resulted in the reduced ability of RVFV to enter, replicate, and disseminate from the midgut epithelial cells. NSm appears to have a functional role in the vector competence of mosquitoes for RVFV at the level of the midgut barrier. PMID:24551252

  7. A Partial Gene Deletion of SLC45A2 Causes Oculocutaneous Albinism in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Paige A.; Gornik, Kara R.; Ramsey, David T.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Venta, Patrick J.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.; Bartoe, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4?77,062,968–77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  8. Decoy oligodeoxyribonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids-DNA chimeras targeting nuclear factor kappa-B: inhibition of IL-8 gene expression in cystic fibrosis cells infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gambari, Roberto; Borgatti, Monica; Bezzerri, Valentino; Nicolis, Elena; Lampronti, Ilaria; Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Mancini, Irene; Tamanini, Anna; Cabrini, Giulio

    2010-12-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a deep inflammatory process, with production and release of cytokines and chemokines, among which interleukin 8 (IL-8) represents one of the most important. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in developing therapies against IL-8, with the aim of reducing the excessive inflammatory response in the airways of CF patients. Since transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a critical role in IL-8 expression, the transcription factor decoy (TFD) strategy might be of interest. TFD is based on biomolecules mimicking the target sites of transcription factors (TFs) and able to interfere with TF activity when delivered to target cells. Here, we review the inhibitory effects of decoy oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) on expression of IL-8 gene and secretion of IL-8 by cystic fibrosis cells infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the effects of decoy molecules based on peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are discussed. In this respect PNA-DNA-PNA (PDP) chimeras are interesting: (a) unlike PNAs, they can be complexed with liposomes and microspheres; (b) unlike oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), they are resistant to DNAses, serum and cytoplasmic extracts; (c) unlike PNA/PNA and PNA/DNA hybrids, they are potent decoy molecules. Interestingly, PDP/PDP NF-kappaB decoy chimeras inhibit accumulation of pro-inflammatory mRNAs (including IL-8 mRNA) in P. aeruginosa infected IB3-1, cells reproducing the effects of decoy oligonucleotides. The effects of PDP/PDP chimeras, unlike ODN-based decoys, are observed even in absence of protection with lipofectamine. Since IL-8 is pivotal in pro-inflammatory processes affecting cystic fibrosis, inhibition of its functions might have a clinical relevance. PMID:20615393

  9. Overexpression of Rad51 inhibits double-strand break-induced homologous recombination but does not affect gene conversion tract lengths.

    PubMed

    Paffett, Kimberly S; Clikeman, Jennifer A; Palmer, Sean; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2005-06-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeast are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Rad51 forms nucleoprotein filaments at processed broken ends that effect strand exchange, forming heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) that gives rise to a gene conversion tract. We hypothesized that excess Rad51 would increase gene conversion tract lengths. We found that excess Rad51 reduced DSB-induced HR but did not alter tract lengths or other outcomes including rates of crossovers, break-induced replication, or chromosome loss. Thus, excess Rad51 appears to influence DSB-induced HR at an early stage. MAT heterozygosity largely mitigated the inhibitory effect of excess Rad51 on allelic HR, but not direct repeat HR. Excess Rad52 had no effect on DSB-induced HR efficiency or outcome, nor did it mitigate the dominant negative effects of excess Rad51. Excess Rad51 had little effect on DSB-induced lethality in wild-type cells, but it did enhance lethality in yku70Delta mutants. Interestingly, dnl4Delta showed marked DSB-induced lethality but this was not further enhanced by excess Rad51. The differential effects of yku70Delta and dnl4Delta indicate that the enhanced killing with excess Rad51 in yku70Delta is not due to its NHEJ defect, but may reflect its defect in end-protection and/or its inability to escape from checkpoint arrest. Srs2 displaces Rad51 from nucleoprotein filaments in vitro, suggesting that excess Rad51 might antagonize Srs2. We show that excess Rad51 does not reduce survival of wild-type cells treated with methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), or cells suffering a single DSB. In contrast, excess Rad51 sensitized srs2Delta cells to both MMS and a single DSB. These results support the idea that excess Rad51 antagonizes Srs2, and underscores the importance of displacing Rad51 from nucleoprotein filaments to achieve optimum repair efficiency. PMID:15878310

  10. Knockdown of response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth, migration, and invasion in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Shang, Chao; Zhao, Jungang; Han, Yun; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kuanbing; Shi, Wenjun

    2014-09-01

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a novel protein originally identified as a cell cycle activator and has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a variety of human malignancies, including lung cancer. However, the potential role of RGC32 in lung cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. In the present study, RNA interference mediated by plasmid expressing RGC32 short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) was utilized to knockdown RGC32 expression in human lung cancer LTE cells. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of RGC32 were significantly decreased in RGC32-specific shRNA-transfected cells in comparison with the untransfected and control shRNA-transfected cells. Furthermore, knockdown of RGC32 dramatically reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion and migration capacities of LTE cells in vitro. Specific down-regulation of RGC32 caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and eventual apoptosis. Meanwhile, Western blot analysis indicated that cells with stably knockdown of RGC32 showed decreased expression levels of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9, but increased expression levels of activate caspase-3, Bax, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in comparison with control shRNA-transfected cells. Taken together, our data suggest that RGC32 is involved in tumorigenesis of human lung cancer and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:24833469

  11. Inhibition of intracellular bacterial replication in fibroblasts is dependent on the perforin-like protein (Perforin-2) encoded by macrophage expressed gene 1

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Ryan; de Armas, Lesley R.; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Ramos, Jay; Podack, Eckhard R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are known to eliminate intracellular bacteria, but the lethal hit of the bactericidal mechanism has not been defined. We show that primary embryonic and established fibroblasts can be induced by interferons or by intracellular bacterial infection to express a perforin-like mRNA previously described as macrophage expressed gene 1 (mpeg1). The presence and level of the perforin-like mRNA correlate with the ability of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to eliminate intracellular bacteria. In addition, siRNA knock-down of the perforin-like molecule abolishes bactericidal activity and allows intracellular bacterial replication. Complementation of MEF in which the endogenous perforin-like molecule has been knocked down with an RFP-tagged version restores bactericidal activity. The perforin-like molecule has broad bactericidal specificity for pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria including Gram positive, Gram negative and acid fast bacteria. The perforin-like molecule renders previously lysozyme-resistant bacteria sensitive to lysis by lysozyme suggesting physical damage of the outer cell wall by the perforin-like protein. MEFs damage cell walls of intracellular bacteria by insertion, polymerization and pore-formation of the perforin-like protein, analogous to pore-formers of complement and Perforin-1 of cytolytic lymphocytes. We propose the name Perforin-2. PMID:23257510

  12. Inhibition of intracellular bacterial replication in fibroblasts is dependent on the perforin-like protein (perforin-2) encoded by macrophage-expressed gene 1.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Ryan; de Armas, Lesley R; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Ramos, Jahir E; Podack, Eckhard R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are known to eliminate intracellular bacteria, but the lethal hit of the bactericidal mechanism has not been defined. We show that primary embryonic and established fibroblasts can be induced by interferons or by intracellular bacterial infection to express a perforin-like mRNA previously described as macrophage-expressed gene 1 (Mpeg1). The presence and level of the perforin-like mRNA correlate with the ability of primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to eliminate intracellular bacteria. In addition, siRNA knockdown of the perforin-like molecule abolishes bactericidal activity and allows intracellular bacterial replication. Complementation of MEF in which the endogenous perforin-like molecule has been knocked down with a red fluorescent protein-tagged version restores bactericidal activity. The perforin-like molecule has broad bactericidal specificity for pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-positive and -negative, and acid fast bacteria. The perforin-like molecule renders previously lysozyme-resistant bacteria sensitive to lysis by lysozyme suggesting physical damage of the outer cell wall by the perforin-like protein. MEF damage cell walls of intracellular bacteria by insertion, polymerization, and pore formation of the perforin-like protein, analogous to pore formers of complement and perforin-1 of cytolytic lymphocytes. We propose the name perforin-2. PMID:23257510

  13. Inhibition of PRL-3 gene expression in gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 via microRNA suppressed reduces peritoneal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengrong [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zhan Wenhua [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)]. E-mail: wcywk@hotmail.com; Wang Zhao [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zhu Baohe [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); He Yulong [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Junsheng [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Cai Shirong [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Ma Jinping [Department of Gastrointestinopancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Gastric Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2006-09-15

    High expression of PRL-3, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, is proved to be associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric carcinoma from previous studies. In this paper, we examined the relationship between PRL-3 expression and peritoneal metastasis in gastric carcinoma. We applied the artificial miRNA (pCMV-PRL3miRNA), which is based on the murine miR-155 sequence, to efficiently silence the target gene expression of PRL-3 in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells at both mRNA and protein levels. Then we observed that, in vitro, pCMV-PRL3miRNA significantly depressed the SGC7901 cell invasion and migration independent of cellular proliferation. In vivo, PRL-3 knockdown effectively suppressed the growth of peritoneal metastases and improved the prognosis in nude mice. Therefore, we concluded that artificial miRNA can depress the expression of PRL-3, and that PRL-3 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis.

  14. Lipoxin A4 and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 inhibit peroxynitrite formation, NF-?B and AP-1 activation, and IL-8 gene expression in human leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    József, Levente; Zouki, Christine; Petasis, Nicos A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Filep, János G.

    2002-01-01

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA4 (ATL) are emerging as endogenous braking signals for neutrophil-mediated tissue injury. Recent studies indicate that peroxynitrite (ONOO?) may function as an intracellular signal for the production of IL-8, a potent proinflammatory cytokine in human leukocytes. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the metabolically stable analogues of LXA4/ATL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ONOO? formation and ONOO?-mediated IL-8 gene expression in human leukocytes. At nanomolar concentrations, LXA4 analogues markedly reduced LPS-stimulated superoxide formation, evoked increases in intracellular diamino-fluorescein fluorescence (an indicator of NO formation), and consequently reduced ONOO? formation in isolated neutrophils, as well as in neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes, in whole blood. LXA4/ATL analogues attenuated nuclear accumulation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-?B in both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes and inhibited IL-8 mRNA expression and IL-8 release by 50–65% in response to LPS. The LXA4 inhibitory responses were concentration dependent and were not shared by 15-deoxy-LXA4. None of the LXA4 analogues studied affected neutrophil survival, nor reversed the apoptosis delaying action of LPS in neutrophils. In addition, LXA4 analogues had no significant effect on exogenous ONOO?-induced IL-8 gene and protein expression. These findings suggest that by attenuating ONOO? formation, LXA4 and ATL can oppose ONOO? signaling in leukocytes and provide a rationale for using stable synthetic analogues as antiinflammatory compounds in vivo. PMID:12235371

  15. HBD-2 is downregulated in oral carcinoma cells by DNA hypermethylation, and increased expression of hBD-2 by DNA demethylation and gene transfection inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Yoshitaka; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Uehara, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Koki; Arakawa, Toshiya; Nagayasu, Hiroki; Saitoh, Masato; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2014-08-01

    Human ?-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is a type of epithelial antimicrobial peptide. The expression level of hBD-2 mRNA is lower in oral carcinoma cells (OCCs) than in healthy oral epithelium. Yet, it is still unknown how hBD-2 expression is downregulated in OCCs. The present study investigated DNA hypermethylation of hBD-2 in OCCs and the effect of the demethylation and increased expression of hBD-2 on cell proliferation and invasion. Six different types of oral carcinoma cell lines (OSC-19, BSC-OF, SAS, HSC-2, HSC-4 and HSY) and normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs) were used. The expression levels of hBD-2 in all OCCs were significantly lower than that in the NOKs. Treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-dC, at the concentration of 50 µM significantly induced upregulation of expression of hBD-2 in the OCCs. Using methylation-specific PCR, DNA hypermethylation was observed in all OCCs. These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation is, at least in part, involved in the decreased expression of hBD-2 in OCCs. We examined the effect of 5-aza-dC on the cell proliferation and invasive ability of OCCs. The cell invasion assays showed that the number of OCCs treated with 5-aza-dC on the filters was significantly lower than that of the controls. We examined whether increased expression of hBD-2 generated by gene transfection inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SAS cells. The number of SAS cells exhibiting increased expression of hBD-2 on the filters in the invasion assay were significantly lower on day 7 when compared with the control. hBD-2 may function as a tumor suppressor. Increased expression of hBD-2 induced by demethylation or increased expression generated by gene transfection may be useful therapeutic methods for oral carcinoma. PMID:24927104

  16. Exploring insights for virulent gene inhibition of multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus areus by potential phytoligands via in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Jayaprakash, Nisha; Bharadwaj, Navya; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    In our recent studies on prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogens in Byramangala reservoir, Karnataka, India, we identified Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae which had acquired multiple drug resistance (MDR) and emerged as superbugs. Hence, there is a pressing demand to identify alternative therapeutic remedies. Our study focused on the screening of herbal leads by structure-based virtual screening. The virulent gene products of these pathogens towards Kanamycin(aph), Trimethoprim(dfrA1), Methicillin (mecI), and Vancomycin (vanH) were identified as the probable drug targets and their 3D structures were predicted by homology modeling. The predicted models showed good stereochemical validity. By extensive literature survey, we selected 58 phytoligands and their drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties were computationally predicted. The inhibitory properties of these ligands against drug targets were studied by molecular docking. Our studies revealed that Baicalein from S. baicalensis (baikal skullcap) and Luteolin from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) were identified as potential inhibitors against aph of S. typhi. Resveratrol from Vitis vinifera (grape vine) and Wogonin from S. baicalensis were identified as potential inhibitors against dfrA1 of S. typhi. Herniarin from Herniaria glabra (rupture worts) and Pyrocide from Daucus carota (Carrot) were identified as the best leads against dfrA1 of V. cholerae. Taraxacin of T. officinale (weber) and Luteolin were identified as potential inhibitors against Mec1. Apigenin from Coffee arabica (coffee) and Luteolin were identified as the best leads against vanH of S. aureus. Our findings pave crucial insights for exploring alternative therapeutics against MDR pathogens. PMID:23876154

  17. Oncogenic inhibition by a deleted in liver cancer gene requires cooperation between tensin binding and Rho-specific GTPase-activating protein activities

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaolan; Li, Guorong; Asmussen, Holly K.; Asnaghi, Laura; Vass, William C.; Braverman, Richard; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Papageorge, Alex G.; Lowy, Douglas R.

    2007-01-01

    The three deleted in liver cancer genes (DLC1–3) encode Rho-GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) whose expression is frequently down-regulated or silenced in a variety of human malignancies. The RhoGAP activity is required for full DLC-dependent tumor suppressor activity. Here we report that DLC1 and DLC3 bind to human tensin1 and its chicken homolog. The binding has been mapped to the tensin Src homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains at the C terminus of tensin proteins. Distinct DLC1 sequences are required for SH2 and PTB binding. DCL binding to both domains is constitutive under basal conditions. The SH2 binding depends on a tyrosine in DCL1 (Y442) but is phosphotyrosine-independent, a highly unusual feature for SH2 binding. DLC1 competed with the binding of other proteins to the tensin C terminus, including ?3-integrin binding to the PTB domain. Point mutation of a critical tyrosine residue (Y442F) in DLC1 rendered the protein deficient for binding the tensin SH2 domain and binding full-length tensin. The Y442F protein was diffusely cytoplasmic, in contrast to the localization of wild-type DLC1 to focal adhesions, but it retained the ability to reduce the intracellular levels of Rho-GTP. The Y442F mutant displayed markedly reduced biological activity, as did a mutant that was RhoGAP-deficient. The results suggest that DLC1 is a multifunctional protein whose biological activity depends on cooperation between its tensin binding and RhoGAP activities, although neither activity depends on the other. PMID:17517630

  18. Calcitonin gene-related peptide cooperates with substance P to inhibit melanogenesis and induces apoptosis of B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia; Feng, Jun-Yi; Wang, Qian; Shang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Skin is the largest organ in human body and works as biologically active barrier to provide critical preservation of body homeostasis. The skin is highly innervated by a plenitude of nerve fiber subpopulations, each carrying one or more neuronal mediators. Melanocyte itself also intimately contact with nerve fibers to form 'synaptic-like structure' and its functions may be directly regulated by the mediators contained in terminals of intra-epidermal nerve fibers. Clinical and biochemical studies have suggested that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is involved in vitiligo skin. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of CGRP on epidermal melanocytes. After treatment with CGRP ranging from 0 to 500ng/mL for 48h, tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis were with little changes compared to treatment with medium only in B16F10 cells. Treatment with 500ng/mL of CGRP cooperates with substance P (SP) (0.1-10nM) to decrease tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CGRP (8-37) antagonizes the synergistic effect of CGRP. The effect of CGRP on the cell apoptosis was examined. Treatments with 0-500ng/mL of CGRP for 24h, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, total caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and total caspase-9 were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. And 500ng/mL of CGRP induced B16F10 cell apoptosis showed by TUNEL assay. In addition, Bax expression was up-regulated and Bcl-2 down-regulated in response to CGRP treatment. Hence, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased. These in vitro observations indicate the pro-apoptotic impact of CGRP on B16F10 cell. PMID:25982845

  19. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent gene vFLIP inhibits viral lytic replication through NF-kappaB-mediated suppression of the AP-1 pathway: a novel mechanism of virus control of latency.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng-Chun; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Xie, Jian-Ping; Kang, Tao; Greene, Whitney; Kuhne, Kurt; Lei, Xiu-Fen; Li, Qui-Hua; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2008-05-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency is central to the evasion of host immune surveillances and induction of KSHV-related malignancies. The mechanism of KSHV latency remains unclear. Here, we show that the KSHV latent gene vFLIP promotes viral latency by inhibiting viral lytic replication. vFLIP suppresses the AP-1 pathway, which is essential for KSHV lytic replication, by activating the NF-kappaB pathway. Thus, by manipulating two convergent cellular pathways, vFLIP regulates both cell survival and KSHV lytic replication to promote viral latency. These results also indicate that the effect of the NF-kappaB pathway on KSHV replication is determined by the status of the AP-1 pathway and hence provide a mechanistic explanation for the contradictory role of the NF-kappaB pathway in KSHV replication. Since the NF-kappaB pathway is commonly activated during infection of gammaherpesviruses, these findings might have general implications for the control of gammaherpesviral latency. PMID:18305042

  20. The Inhibition of Stat5 by a Peptide Aptamer Ligand Specific for the DNA Binding Domain Prevents Target Gene Transactivation and the Growth of Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Axel; Borghouts, Corina; Brendel, Christian; Moriggl, Richard; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Groner, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA) ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX) scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment. PMID:24276378

  1. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Jiang, Fang-Xu [Centre for Diabetes Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and The University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)] [Centre for Diabetes Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and The University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Zhou, Shufeng [School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)] [School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Li, He [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Liu, Jun-Ping, E-mail: jun-ping.liu@med.monash.edu.au [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)] [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  2. Coordinated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and inhibition of plasminogen activator gene expression by hypoxia promotes pulmonary vascular fibrin deposition.

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, D J; Liao, H; Lawson, C A; Yan, S F; Chen, J; Carmeliet, P; Loskutoff, D J; Stern, D M

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation, as occurs during tissue ischemia, tips the natural anticoagulant/procoagulant balance of the endovascular wall to favor activation of coagulation. To investigate the effects of low ambient oxygen tension on the fibrinolytic system, mice were placed in a hypoxic environment with pO2 < 40 Torr. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen, detected by ELISA, increased in a time-dependent fashion after hypoxic exposure (increased as early as 4 h, P < 0.05 vs. normoxic controls), and were accompanied by an increase in plasma PAI-1 activity by 4 h (P < 0.05 vs. normoxic controls). Northern analysis of hypoxic murine lung demonstrated an increase in PAI-1 mRNA compared with normoxic controls; in contrast, transcripts for both tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) decreased under hypoxic conditions. Immunocolocalization studies identified macrophages as the predominant source of increased PAI-1 within hypoxic lung. Using a transformed murine macrophage line, striking induction of PAI-1 transcripts occurred under hypoxic conditions, due to both increased de novo transcription as well as increased mRNA stability. Consistent with an important role of the fibrinolytic system in hypoxia-induced fibrin accumulation, PAI-1 +/+ mice exposed to hypoxia exhibited increased pulmonary fibrin deposition based upon a fibrin immunoblot, intravascular fibrin identified by immunostaining, and increased accumulation of 125I-fibrinogen/fibrin in hypoxic tissue. In contrast, mice deficient for the PAI-1 gene (PAI-1 -/-) similarly exposed to hypoxic conditions did not display increased fibrin accumulation compared with normoxic PAI-1 +/+ controls. Furthermore, homozygous null uPA (uPA -/-) and tPA (tPA -/-) mice subjected to oxygen deprivation showed increased fibrin deposition compared with wild-type controls. These studies identify enhanced expression of PAI-1 as an important mechanism suppressing fibrinolysis under conditions of low oxygen tension, a response which may be further amplified by decreased expression of plasminogen activators. Taken together, these data provide insight into an important potential role of macrophages and the fibrinolytic system in ischemia-induced thrombosis. PMID:9727060

  3. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Macrophage Inflammatory Gene Expression by Dexamethasone and the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor N-cyano-N?-(2-{[8-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-7-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}ethyl)guanidine (SB706504)S?

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Lauren M.; Smyth, Lucy J. C.; Plumb, Jonathan; Clayton, Chris L.; Fox, Steve M.; Ray, David W.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Singh, Dave

    2009-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is known to be increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) macrophages. We have studied the effects of the p38 MAPK inhibitor N-cyano-N?-(2-{[8-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-fluoro-2-methylphenyl)-7-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-2-yl]amino}ethyl)guanidine (SB706504) and dexamethasone on COPD macrophage inflammatory gene expression and protein secretion. We also studied the effects of combined SB706504 and dexamethasone treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were cultured with dexamethasone and/or SB706504. MDMs were used for gene array and protein studies, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? protein production was measured from AMs. SB706504 caused transcriptional inhibition of a range of cytokines and chemokines in COPD MDMs. The use of SB706504 combined with dexamethasone caused greater suppression of gene expression (-8.90) compared with SB706504 alone (-2.04) or dexamethasone (-3.39). Twenty-three genes were insensitive to the effects of both drugs, including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, and chemokine (CC motif) ligand (CCL) 5. In addition, the chromosome 4 chemokine cluster members, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8, were all glucocorticoid-resistant. SB706504 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF? production from COPD and smoker AMs, with near-maximal suppression caused by combination treatment with dexamethasone. We conclude that SB706504 targets a subset of inflammatory macrophage genes and when used with dexamethasone causes effective suppression of these genes. SB706504 and dexamethasone had no effect on the transcription of a subset of LPS-regulated genes, including IL-1?, IL-18, and CCL5, which are all known to be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:19004925

  4. Inhibition of In Vivo HIV Infection in Humanized Mice by Gene Therapy of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells with a Lentiviral Vector Encoding a Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV Antibody ?

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Aviva; Zheng, Jian Hua; Chen, Ken; Dutta, Monica; Chen, Cindy; Stiegler, Gabriela; Kunert, Renate; Follenzi, Antonia; Goldstein, Harris

    2010-01-01

    Due to the inherent immune evasion properties of the HIV envelope, broadly neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies capable of suppressing HIV infection are rarely produced by infected individuals. We examined the feasibility of utilizing genetic engineering to circumvent the restricted capacity of individuals to endogenously produce broadly neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies. We constructed a single lentiviral vector that encoded the heavy and light chains of 2G12, a broadly neutralizing anti-HIV human antibody, and that efficiently transduced and directed primary human B cells to secrete 2G12. To evaluate the capacity of this approach to provide protection from in vivo HIV infection, we used the humanized NOD/SCID/?cnull mouse model, which becomes populated with human B cells, T cells, and macrophages after transplantation with human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-HSC) and develops in vivo infection after inoculation with HIV. The plasma of the irradiated NOD/SCID/?cnull mice transplanted with hu-HSC transduced with the 2G12-encoding lentivirus contained 2G12 antibody, likely secreted by progeny human lymphoid and/or myeloid cells. After intraperitoneal inoculation with high-titer HIV-1JR-CSF, mice engrafted with 2G12-transduced hu-HSC displayed marked inhibition of in vivo HIV infection as manifested by a profound 70-fold reduction in plasma HIV RNA levels and an almost 200-fold reduction in HIV-infected human cell numbers in mouse spleens, compared to control hu-HSC-transplanted NOD/SCID/?cnull mice inoculated with equivalent high-titer HIV-1JR-CSF. These results support the potential efficacy of this new gene therapy approach of using lentiviral vectors encoding a mixture of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies for the treatment of HIV infection, particularly infection with multiple-drug-resistant isolates. PMID:20410262

  5. Selective Inhibition of Tumor Oncogenes by Disruption of Super-Enhancers

    E-print Network

    Lin, Charles Y.

    Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy, but it is unclear why inhibition of these ubiquitous regulators should have gene-specific effects in tumor cells. Here, we investigate how inhibition ...

  6. Genetic variants in pigmentation genes, pigmentary phenotypes, and risk of skin cancer in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Hongmei; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Han, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    Human pigmentation is a polygenic quantitative trait with high heritability. Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in pigmentation genes, very few SNPs have been examined in relation to human pigmentary phenotypes and skin cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between fifteen SNPs in eight candidate pigmentation genes (TYR, TYRP1, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, POMC, ASIP, and ATRN) and both pigmentary phenotypes (hair color, skin color, and tanning ability) and skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 common controls. We found that the TYR Arg402Gln variant was significantly associated with skin color (p-value =7.7×10?4) and tanning ability (p-value =7.3×10?4); the SLC45A2 Phe374Leu variant was significantly associated with hair color (black to blonde) (p-value =2.4×10?7), skin color (p-value =1.1×10?7), and tanning ability (p-value =2.5×10?4). These associations remained significant after controlling for MC1R variants. No significant associations were found between these polymorphisms and the risk of skin cancer. We observed that the TYRP1 rs1408799 and SLC45A2 -1721 C>G were associated with melanoma risk (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60–0.98 and OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60–0.95, respectively). The TYR Ser192Tyr was associated with SCC risk (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00–1.50). The TYR haplotype carrying only the Arg402Gln variant allele was significantly associated with SCC risk (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04–1.74). The OCA2 Arg419Gln and ASIP g.8818 A>G were associated with BCC risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.06–2.13 and OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53–1.00, respectively). The haplotype near ASIP (rs4911414[T] and rs1015362[G]) was significantly associated with fair skin color (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.46–3.57) as well as the risks of melanoma (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18–2.39) and SCC (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.08–2.19). These associations remained similar after adjusting for pigmentary phenotypes and MC1R variants. The statistical power of this study was modest and additional studies are warranted to confirm the associations observed in the present study. This study provides evidence for the contribution of pigmentation genetic variants, in addition to the MC1R variants, to variation in human pigmentary phenotypes and possibly the development of skin cancer. PMID:19384953

  7. Homologous expression of the nrdF gene of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes strain ATCC 6872 generates a manganese-metallocofactor (R2F) and a stable tyrosyl radical (Y?) involved in ribonucleotide reduction.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Patrick; Barckhausen, Olaf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Knobbe, Nadine; Vogt, Carla; Pierik, Antonio J; Cox, Nicholas; Schmidt, Peter P; Reijerse, Edward J; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Auling, Georg

    2010-12-01

    Ribonucleotide reduction, the unique step in the pathway to DNA synthesis, is catalyzed by enzymes via radical-dependent redox chemistry involving an array of diverse metallocofactors. The nucleotide reduction gene (nrdF) encoding the metallocofactor containing small subunit (R2F) of the Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ribonucleotide reductase was reintroduced into strain C. ammoniagenes ATCC 6872. Efficient homologous expression from plasmid pOCA2 using the tac-promotor enabled purification of R2F to homogeneity. The chromatographic protocol provided native R2F with a high ratio of manganese to iron (30:1), high activity (69 ?mol 2'-deoxyribonucleotide·mg?¹ ·min?¹) and distinct absorption at 408 nm, characteristic of a tyrosyl radical (Y?), which is sensitive to the radical scavenger hydroxyurea. A novel enzyme assay revealed the direct involvement of Y? in ribonucleotide reduction because 0.2 nmol 2'-deoxyribonucleotide was formed, driven by 0.4 nmol Y? located on R2F. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated a tyrosyl radical at an effective g-value of 2.004. Temperature dependent X/Q-band EPR studies revealed that this radical is coupled to a metallocofactor. Similarities of the native C. ammoniagenes ribonucleotide reductase to the in vitro activated Escherichia coli class Ib enzyme containing a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl metallocofactor are discussed. PMID:20977673

  8. Aging: gene silencing or gene activation?

    PubMed

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R

    2005-01-01

    According to the author's theory of gene silencing, the key process in aging involves reduced expression of a number of genes. Silencing of genes has a complex mechanism, which involves methylation of DNA, histone modification and chromatin remodeling. In addition to deacetylation of the histones and methylation of DNA, recently described RNAi mechanism could initiate formation of silenced chromatin. Hypermethylation of the promoter will silence the gene. Genome-wide hypomethylation will induce genomic instability, amplification of oncogenes and also silencing of the genes through RNAi mechanism. Studies by different groups, conducted in yeast, worms, flies and mice, confirmed substantial changes in gene expression in aging. Among them, the most important was silencing of tumor suppressors and other genes involved in the control of cell cycle, apoptosis, detoxification, and cholesterol metabolism. There was also increased expression of the smaller group of oncogenes and other genes which are associated with typical diseases of old age. Caloric restriction normalizes expression of a substantial percentage of these genes. Animal studies confirmed importance of caloric restriction, which decreases signaling through the IGF-1/AKT pathway and expression of gene p53. These studies, however, cannot be directly applied to human aging. It is proposed that age management therapy should attempt to normalize gene expression in the older population to the level typical for young adults. This would require activation of silenced genes and normalization of overexpressed genes. Caloric restriction and exercise are helpful in decreasing the activity of important oncogenes and activation of silenced tumor suppressors, and may have a positive impact, not only on aging, but also on prevention of cancer. Dietary supplements containing phytochemicals should normalize increased expression of oncogenes. Examples are: genistein and EGCG, which effect signaling through the IGF-1/AKT pathway and resveratrol and limonen, which do so through the RAS pathway. A group of amino acid derivatives and organic acids of animal and human origin should activate silenced tumor suppressor genes (Aminocare A10, Aminocare Extra). Among them 3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione intercalates specifically with DNA and protects sequences of tumor suppressor genes, which are vulnerable to the effects of carcinogens. Phenylacetate activates p53 and p21 through inhibition of methyltransferase and farnesylation of the RAS protein. Phenylbutyrate activates tumor suppressor genes through inhibition of histone deacetylation. Phenylacetylglutamine decreases genomic instability and expression of oncogenes and promotes apoptosis. The application of DNA microarray techniques to human studies should provide more information about differences in gene expression in different age groups and help design more effective age management regimens. PMID:15533642

  9. Anacardic acid (6-nonadecyl salicylic acid), an inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase, suppresses expression of nuclear factor-?B–regulated gene products involved in cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and inflammation through inhibition of the inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor-?B? kinase, leading to potentiation of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Pandey, Manoj K.; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Yi, Tingfang; Chaturvedi, Madan M.; Liu, Mingyao

    2008-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid) is derived from traditional medicinal plants, such as cashew nuts, and has been linked to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and radiosensitization activities through a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. Because of the role of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in these cellular responses, we postulated that anacardic acid might interfere with this pathway. We found that this salicylic acid potentiated the apoptosis induced by cytokine and chemotherapeutic agents, which correlated with the down-regulation of various gene products that mediate proliferation (cyclin D1 and cyclooxygenase-2), survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, cIAP-1, and survivin), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1), and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), all known to be regulated by the NF-?B. We found that anacardic acid inhibited both inducible and constitutive NF-?B activation; suppressed the activation of I?B? kinase that led to abrogation of phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?; inhibited acetylation and nuclear translocation of p65; and suppressed NF-?B–dependent reporter gene expression. Down-regulation of the p300 histone acetyltransferase gene by RNA interference abrogated the effect of anacardic acid on NF-?B suppression, suggesting the critical role of this enzyme. Overall, our results demonstrate a novel role for anacardic acid in potentially preventing or treating cancer through modulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:18349320

  10. Gene therapy for atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Rader

    1997-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, new\\u000a therapeutic strategies are still needed. Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease and represents an attractive target for the\\u000a development of somatic gene transfer intended to modulate systemic factors with the goal of inhibiting disease progression.\\u000a This approach should be differentiated from localized vascular gene delivery

  11. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  12. Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibition of macrophage nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Coffey, R G; Yamamoto, Y; Snella, E; Pross, S

    1996-09-13

    delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages activated by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma). Inhibition of NO production was noted at THC concentrations as low as 0.5 microgram/mL, and was nearly total at 7 micrograms/mL. Inhibition was greatest if THC was added 1-4 hr before induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by LPS and IFN-gamma, and declined with time after addition of the inducing agents. This suggested that an early step such as NOS gene transcription or NOS synthesis, rather than NOS activity, was affected by THC. Steady-state levels of mRNA for NOS were not affected by THC. In contrast, protein synthesis was inhibited as indicated by immunoblotting. NOS activity was also decreased in the cytosol of cells pretreated with THC. Addition of excess cofactors did not restore activity. Inhibition of NO production was greater at low levels of IFN-gamma, indicating the ability of the cytokine to overcome inhibition. The effectiveness of various THC analogues, in decreasing order of potency, was delta 8-THC > delta 9-THC > cannabidiol > or = 11-OH-THC > cannabinol. The presumably inactive stereoisomer, (+)delta 9-THC, and the endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors, anandamide, were weakly inhibitory. Inhibition may be mediated by a process that depends partly on stereoselective receptors and partly on a nonselective process. LPS, IFN-gamma, hormone receptor agonists, and forskolin increased macrophage cyclic AMP levels. THC inhibited this increase, indicating functional cannabinoid receptors. Addition of 8-bromocyclic AMP increased NO 2-fold, and partially restored NO production that had been inhibited by THC. This occurred only under conditions of limited NOS induction, suggesting that the effect of THC on cyclic AMP was responsible for only a small portion of the inhibition of NO. PMID:8765472

  13. The grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (VvPGIP1) reduces Botrytis cinerea susceptibility in transgenic tobacco and differentially inhibits fungal polygalacturonases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk A. Joubert; Ana R. Slaughter; Gabré Kemp; John V. W. Becker; Geja H. Krooshof; Carl Bergmann; Jacques Benen; Isak S. Pretorius; Melané A. Vivier

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) selectively inhibit polygalacturonases (PGs) secreted by invading plant pathogenic fungi. PGIPs display differential inhibition towards PGs from different fungi, also towards different isoforms of PGs originating from a specific pathogen. Recently, a PGIP-encoding gene from Vitis vinifera (Vvpgip1) was isolated and characterised. PGIP purified from grapevine was shown to inhibit crude polygalacturonase extracts from Botrytis cinerea, but

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Adam D.; Perou, Charles M.; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  15. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Michael A; Ebelt, Nancy D; Pfefferle, Adam D; Perou, Charles M; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-05-20

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  16. Genetic Changes in the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) Type II Receptor Gene in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Correlation with Sensitivity to Growth Inhibition by TGF-beta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Jin Kim; Yung-Jue Bang; Jae-Gahb Park; Noe Kyeong Kim; Anita B. Roberts; Michael B. Sporn

    1994-01-01

    We have found several genetic changes in the TGF-beta type II receptor gene in human gastric cancer cell lines resistant to the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta. Southern blot analysis showed deletion of the type II receptor gene in two of eight cell lines and amplification in another two lines. The single cell line we studied that is sensitive to

  17. Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC inhibits tumor cell invasion and metastasis through a mechanism involving regulation of MMPs, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, ERK-1, ERK-2, STAT-1, and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in metastatic lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekharan; Kuttan, Girija

    2008-03-01

    Biophytum sensitivum is a traditional oriental herbal medicine that is known for its immunostimulatory and antitumor effects. Tumor metastasis is the most important cause of cancer death. Although B sensitivum was shown to inhibit metastasis, the mechanism underlying this action is not well understood. In the present report, the authors had studied the effect of B sensitivum on the invasion and motility of B16F-10 melanoma cells and investigate the regulatory effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), prolyl hydoxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1, ERK-2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, and proinflammatory cytokines in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. B sensitivum inhibited the invasion and motility of B16F-10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. B sensitivum inhibited the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas it activated STAT-1 expression in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. Similarly, inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, ERK-1, ERK-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression but activation of nm23 by B sensitivum was observed in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. B sensitivum treatment also downregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor in metastatic tumor-bearing lungs. In B16F-10 cells, B sensitivum also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, the results indicate that B sensitivum exhibits antimetastatic effects through the inhibition of invasion and motility. The results also suggest that MMPs, prolyl hydroxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, ERKs, VEGF, STAT, and proinflammatory cytokines are critical regulators of the B sensitivum-mediated antimetastatic effect. PMID:18292594

  18. The synthetic multivulva genes and their suppressors regulate opposing cell fates through chromatin remodeling

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Erik C

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes act redundantly to inhibit vulval fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. These genes are grouped into three classes called A, B and C. The class A genes encode putative transcription ...

  19. Doxycycline-dependent photoactivated gene expression in eukaryotic systems

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Doxycycline-dependent photoactivated gene expression in eukaryotic systems Sidney B Cambridge1 two reversibly inhibited, photoactivatable (`caged') doxycycline derivatives with different membrane-on' system. After incubation with caged doxycycline or caged cyanodoxycycline, we induced gene expression

  20. Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC Inhibits Tumor Cell Invasion and Metastasis Through a Mechanism Involving Regulation of MMPs, Prolyl Hydroxylase, Lysyl Oxidase, nm23, ERK1, ERK2, STAT1, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Metastatic Lung Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrasekharan Guruvayoorappan; Girija Kuttan

    2008-01-01

    Biophytum sensitivum is a traditional oriental herbal medicine that is known for its immunostimulatory and antitumor effects. Tumor metastasis is the most important cause of cancer death. Although B sensitivum was shown to inhibit metastasis, the mechanism underlying this action is not well understood. In the present report, the authors had studied the effect of B sensitivum on the invasion

  1. Guggulsterone Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation, Induces S-Phase Arrest, and Promotes Apoptosis Through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase, Suppression of Akt pathway, and Downregulation of Antiapoptotic Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Shishodia, Shishir; Sethi, Gautam; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2009-01-01

    Guggulsterone is a plant polyphenol traditionally used to treat obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and osteoarthritis, possibly through an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Whether this steroid has any role in cancer is not known. In this study, we found that guggulsterone inhibits the proliferation of wide variety of human tumor cell types including leukemia, head and neck carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lung carcinoma, melanoma, breast carcinoma, and ovarian carcinoma. Guggulsterone also inhibited the proliferation of drug-resistant cancer cells (e.g., gleevac-resistant leukemia, dexamethasone-resistant multiple myeloma, and doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells). Guggulsterone suppressed the proliferation of cells through inhibition of DNA synthesis, producing cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and this arrest correlated with a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1 and cdc2 and a concomitant increase in the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and, p27. Guggulsterone induced apoptosis as indicated by increase in the number of Annexin V- and TUNEL-positive cells, through the down-regulation of anti-apoptototic products. The apoptosis induced by guggulsterone was also indicated by the activation of caspase 8, bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, caspase 9 activation, caspase 3 activation, and PARP cleavage. The apoptotic effects of guggulsterone were preceded by activation of JNK and down-regulation of Akt activity. JNK was needed for guggulsterone-induced apoptosis, inasmuch as inhibition of JNK by pharmacological inhibitors or by genetic deletion of MKK4 (activator of JNK) abolished the activity. Overall, our results indicate that guggulsterone can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through the activation of JNK, suppression of Akt, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein expression. PMID:17475222

  2. 5HT1B receptor agonists inhibit light-induced phase shifts of behavioral circadian rhythms and expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Pickard, G E; Weber, E T; Scott, P A; Riberdy, A F; Rea, M A

    1996-12-15

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a circadian oscillator and a critical component of the mammalian circadian system. It receives afferents from the retina and the mesencephalic raphe. Retinal afferents mediate photic entrainment of the SCN, whereas the serotonergic afferents originating from the midbrain modulate photic responses in the SCN; however, the serotonin (5HT) receptor subtypes in the SCN responsible for these modulatory effects are not well characterized. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that 5HT1B receptors are located presynaptically on retinal axon terminals in the SCN and that activation of these receptors inhibits retinal input. The 5HT1B receptor agonists TFMPP and CGS 12066A, administered systemically, inhibited light-induced phase shifts of the circadian activity rhythm in a dose-dependent manner at phase delay and phase advance time points. This inhibition was not affected by previous systemic application of either the selective 5HT1A receptor antagonist (+)WAY 100135 or by the 5HT2 receptor antagonist mesulergine, whereas pretreatment with the nonselective 5HT1 antagonist methiothepin significantly attenuated the effect of TFMPP. TFMPP also produced a dose-dependent reduction in light-stimulated Fos expression in the SCN, although a small subset of cells in the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal SCN were TFMPP-insensitive. TFMPP (1 mM) infused into the SCN produced complete inhibition of light-induced phase advances. Finally, bilateral orbital enucleation reduced the density of SCN 5HT1B receptors as determined using [125I]-iodocyanopindolol to define 5HT1B binding sites. These results are consistent with the interpretation that 5HT1B receptors are localized presynaptically on retinal terminals in the SCN and that activation of these receptors by 5HT1B agonists inhibits retinohypothalamic input. PMID:8987845

  3. Inhibition of Dual Ir Gene-Controlled T-Lymphocyte Proliferative Response to poly(Glu56Lys35Phe9)n with Anti-Ia Antisera Directed against Products of Either IA or IC Subregion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald H. Schwartz; Chella S. David; Martin E. Dorf; Baruj Benacerraf; William E. Paul

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both the antibody and T-lymphocyte proliferative immune responses to poly(Glu53Lys36Phe11)n (GLPhi ) are under the control of two major histocompatibility-linked immune response (Ir) genes. One gene, termed Ir-GLPhi -alpha , has been mapped to the I-C or I-E subregion of the major histocompatibility complex, while the other, termed Ir-GLPhi -beta , has been mapped to

  4. Selective inhibition of factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Michael A; McNeill, Luke A; Tilliet, Melanie; Papamicaël, Cyril A; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Banerji, Biswadip; Hewitson, Kirsty S; Schofield, Christopher J

    2005-06-01

    A set of four non-heme iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes catalyze the post-translational modification of a transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), that mediates the hypoxic response in animals. Hydroxylation of HIF both causes its degradation and limits its activity. We describe how the use of structural data coupled to solid-phase synthesis led to the discovery of a selective inhibitor of one of the HIF hydroxylases. The inhibitor N-oxalyl-d-phenylalanine was shown to inhibit the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH) but not a HIF prolyl hydroxylase. A crystal structure of the inhibitor complexed to FIH reveals that it binds in the 2OG and, likely, in the dioxygen binding site. The results will help to enable the modulation of the hypoxic response for the up-regulation of specific genes of biomedical importance, such as erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:15913349

  5. Identification of genes involved in programmed cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory P. Owens; J. John Cohen

    1992-01-01

    Three modes of activation of apoptosis are described: induction, in which new gene expression occurs after the stimulus is applied; transduction, in which gene expression is unnecessary at the time of stimulation; and release, in which apoptosis is activated by the inhibition of gene expression. Genes activated in the induction mechanism were identified by a process of subtractive hybridization, whereby

  6. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    PubMed

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. PMID:25986248

  7. Mutations of pma-1, the Gene Encoding the Plasma Membrane H+ATPase of Neurospora crassa, Suppress Inhibition of Growth by Concanamycin A, a Specific Inhibitor of Vacuolar ATPases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Jean Bowman; Forest J. O'Neill; Barry J. Bowman

    1997-01-01

    Concanamycin A (CCA), a specific inhibitor of vacuo- lar ATPases, inhibited growth of Neurospora crassa in medium adjusted to pH 7 or above. Mutant strains were selected for growth on medium containing 1.0 mM CCA. Sixty-four (of 66) mutations mapped in the region of the pma1 locus, which encodes the plasma membrane H1- ATPase. Analysis of V-ATPase activity in isolated

  8. Evidence that DNA Damage Is a Mediate in Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Inhibition of Human Gene Expression: Ultraviolet B Radiation Effects on Intercellular Adhesion Molecule1 (ICAM-1) Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Krutmann; Elisabeth Bohnert; Ernst G. Jung

    1994-01-01

    Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a prerequisite for the capacity of cells to physically interact with leukocytes. Ultraviolet B radiation previously was found to inhibit interferon ?-induced ICAM-1 expression in human keratinocytes by suppressing interferon ?-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 mRNA levels. Because ultraviolet B radiation induces photoproducts in cellular DNA, the potential role of ultraviolet B radiation-induced DNA

  9. Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene transcription induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its selective inhibition through Ca(2+) signals evoked via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Mamoru; Fujii, Hiroaki; Takachi, Haruna; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Kuwana, Yuki; Tabuchi, Akiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2010-12-17

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamine but its transcriptional regulation is not fully understood. Using a reporter assay with cultured rat cortical neurons, we demonstrated that the TH gene promoter was activated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), through its specific receptor TrkB and the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. Using a series of mutant TH gene promoters, we found that the cAMP-response element (CRE) plays a crucial role in the TH promoter activity and the Egr-1-responsive element (ERE), at least in part, is responsible for the BDNF-induced activation. Notably, the influx of Ca(2+) evoked via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) but not via the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) selectively antagonized the activation of the gene promoter, suggesting a new link between the catecholaminergic and glutamatergic systems. The Ca(2+) signals evoked via NMDA-R did not affect the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by BDNF. These results suggest that the TH gene's transcription is positively regulated by BDNF, through the CRE and ERE of the promoter, but selectively antagonized by the Ca(2+) signals evoked via NMDA-R without disturbing the ERK/MAP kinase pathway, the regulation by which may underlie the development of the catecholaminergic system in the brain. PMID:20965158

  10. Gene targets for fungal and mycotoxin control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kim; B. C. Campbell; R. Molyneux; N. Mahoney; K. L. Chan; J. Yu; J. Wilkinson; J. Cary; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland

    2006-01-01

    It was initially shown that gallic acid, from hydrolysable tannins in the pelliele of walnut kernels, dramatically inhibits\\u000a biosynthesis of aflatoxin byAspergillus flavus. The mechanism of this inhibition was found to take place upstream from the gene cluster, including the regulatory gene,aflR, involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Additional research using other antioxidant phenolics showed similar antiaflatoxigenic\\u000a activity to gallic acid. Treatment

  11. Functional Characterization of Citrus Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarunya NALUMPANG; Yukie GOTOH; Hiroyuki TSUBOI; Kenji GOMI; Hiroyuki YAMAMOTO; Kazuya AKIMITSU

    2002-01-01

      A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (SaiPGIPA) was identified from the citrus cultivar Sainumphung (Citrus sp.), one of the most popular cultivars in northern Thailand. SaiPGIPA was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the functional properties of citrus PGIP were analyzed. The PGIP fusion protein inhibited by a maximum of about\\u000a 60% of the endopolygalacturonase activity, and a mixture

  12. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne R. (Albany, CA); Dasgupta, Falguni (New Delhi, IN); Bertozzi, Caroline (Albany, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  13. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Spevak, Wayne R. (Albany, CA); Dasgupta, Falguni (New Delhi, IN); Bertozzi, Caroline (Albany, CA)

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  14. PBP3 inhibition elicits adaptive responses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, José-María; Oliver, Antonio; Juan, Carlos; Kapur, Vivek; Martín, Soledad

    2006-10-01

    Adaptive evolution depends on both the genetic variability in a population of organisms and the selection of the better adapted genotypes. However, for the fittest variants to be selected they must survive over a sufficient period under the new conditions. Bacteria are often exposed to different types of stress in nature, including antibiotics. We analysed the global expression profiles of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to ceftazidime, a PBP3 inhibitor, at different concentrations and times. PBP3 inhibition exerts a global impact on the transcription of a large number of genes. From an adaptive perspective, it is noteworthy the induction of several SOS genes, as well as adaptation, protection and antibiotic resistance genes. Intriguingly, transcription of pyocin genes, previously described as SOS-regulated, was repressed upon PBP3 inhibition. Ciprofloxacin, an SOS inducer, produced transcriptional induction of pyocins. Our results indicate that: (i) the SOS responses resulting from treatments with these two antibiotics cause only partially overlapping transcription profiles; (ii) PBP3 and DNA-gyrase inhibition produce opposite effects on transcription of pyocin genes. Consequently, ceftazidime decreases ciprofloxacin toxicity; (iii) error-prone DNA-polymerase DinB is induced by PBP3 inhibition but not by DNA-gyrase inhibition; (iv) PBP3 inhibition causes induced mutagenesis; (v) ceftazidime upregulates several antibiotic-resistance and adaptation genes; and (vi) ceftazidime concentrations thought previously to be lethal are not, as most cells treated with ceftazidime remain alive and recover their capacity to form colonies. Thus, transcriptional changes demonstrated in this work are likely to be adaptively relevant to cells that survive. PMID:16956383

  15. Inhibition of estrogen receptor {beta}-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription via the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling plays an important role in 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Kei; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine (Japan)], E-mail: watanabn@sapmed.ac.jp

    2007-10-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} plays a role in cancer development in addition to its role in glucose metabolism. The natural ligand of PPAR-{gamma}, namely, 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{sub 2}), has been shown to possess antineoplastic activity in cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity remains to be elucidated. Inhibition of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major determinant of telomerase activity, reportedly induces rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} on hTERT expression. We found that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} induced apoptosis in the MIAPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dose-dependently decreased hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Down-regulation of hTERT expression by hTERT-specific small inhibitory RNA also induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ{sub 2} attenuated the DNA binding of estrogen receptor (ER). MIAPaCa-2 expressed only ER{beta}, and although its expression did not decrease due to 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, its phosphorylation was suppressed. Additionally, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor decreased ER{beta} phosphorylation, and 15d-PGJ{sub 2} attenuated MAPK activity. We conclude that hTERT down-regulation by 15d-PGJ{sub 2} plays an important role in the proapoptotic property of the latter. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ{sub 2} inhibits ER{beta}-mediated hTERT gene transcription by suppressing ER{beta} phosphorylation via the inhibition of MAP kinase signaling.

  16. Human renin inhibiting dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Toda, N; Miyazaki, M; Etoh, Y; Kubota, T; Iizuka, K

    1986-10-01

    KRI-1177, a dipeptide containing nor-statine inhibited renin activity in human and Japanese monkey plasma to a markedly greater extent than that in dog, rabbit and rat plasma. The systemic blood pressure of anesthetized monkeys was lowered by intravenous injections of this compound which also reduced plasma renin activity and concentration of angiotensins. KRI-1177 appears to selectively inhibit primate renin activity, thereby producing hypotension. PMID:3536533

  17. Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Wolpe

    1968-01-01

    Reciprocal inhibition is a process of relearning whereby in the presence of a stimulus a non-anxiety-producing response is\\u000a continually repeated until it extinguishes the old, undesirable response. A variety of the techniques based on reciprocal\\u000a inhibition, such as systematic desensitization, avoidance conditioning, and the use of assertion, are described in detail.\\u000a Behavior therapy techniques evaluated on the basis of their

  18. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of a resistant tomato line with a silenced sucrose transporter gene LeHT1 results in inhibition of growth, enhanced virus spread, and necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assaf Eybishtz; Yuval Peretz; Dagan Sade; Rena Gorovits; Henryk Czosnek

    2010-01-01

    To identify genes involved in resistance of tomato to Tomato yellow leaf curl\\u000a virus (TYLCV), cDNA libraries from lines resistant (R) and susceptible (S) to the virus were compared. The hexose transporter LeHT1 was found to be expressed preferentially in R tomato plants. The role of LeHT1 in the establishment of TYLCV resistance was studied in R plants where LeHT1

  19. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  20. Ablation of Transplanted HTLV-I Tax-Transformed Tumors in Mice by Antisense Inhibition of NF-kappaB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Kitajima; Toshiya Shinohara; James Bilakovics; David A. Brown; Xiao Xu; Michael Nerenberg

    1992-01-01

    Mice transgenic for the human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) Tax gene develop fibroblastic tumors that express NF-kappa B-inducible early genes. In vitro inhibition of NF-kappa B expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) inhibited growth of these culture-adapted Tax-transformed fibroblasts as well as an HTLV-I-transformed human lymphocyte line. In contrast, antisense inhibition of Tax itself had no apparent effect on cell