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1

Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of â¼1\\/1,400.

R. Spritz; K. Fukai; S. A. Holmes

1995-01-01

2

Analysis of P gene mutations in patients with type II (tyrosinase-positive) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OCA2 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. Recently, we showed that OCA2 results from mutations of the P gene, in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. In addition to OCA2, mutations of P account for OCA associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome and some cases of {open_quotes}autosomal recessive ocular

S. T. Lee; R. D. Nicholls; R. Schnur

1994-01-01

3

A novel P gene missense mutation in a Japanese patient with oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder, characterized by white hair and skin, and loss of pigment in the eyes. Mutaions in P gene have been shown to result in OCA2. So far, two cases have been reported from Japan. Objective: We had an opportunity to examine a case of albinism, and screened the mutations

Atsushi Kato; Kazuyoshi Fukai; Naoki Oiso; Naoko Hosomi; Shinji Saitoh; Takahito Wada; Hiroshi Shimizu; Masamitsu Ishii

2003-01-01

4

Analysis of P gene mutations in patients with type II (tyrosinase-positive) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)  

SciTech Connect

OCA2 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. Recently, we showed that OCA2 results from mutations of the P gene, in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. In addition to OCA2, mutations of P account for OCA associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome and some cases of {open_quotes}autosomal recessive ocular albinism{close_quotes} (AROA). We have now studied 38 unrelated patients with various forms of OCA2 or AROA from a variety of different ethnic groups. None of these patients had detectable abnormalities of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. Among 8 African-American patients with OCA2 we observed apparent locus homogeneity. We detected abnormalities of the P gene in all 8 patients, including 12 different mutations and deletions, most of which are unique to this group and none of which is predominant. In contrast, OCA2 in other populations appears to be genetically heterogeneous. Among 21 Caucasian patients we detected abnormalities of the P gene in only 8, comprising 9 different point mutations and deletions, some of which also occurred among the African-American patients. Among 3 Middle-Eastern, 3 Indo-Pakistani, and 3 Asian patients we detected mutations of the P gene in only one from each group. In a large Indo-Pakistani kindred with OCA2 we have excluded both the TYR and P genes on the basis of genetic linkage. The prevalence of mutations of the P gene thus appears to be much higher among African-Americans with OCA2 than among patients from other ethnic groups. The incidence of OCA2 in some parts of equatorial Africa is extremely high, as frequent as 1 per 1100, and the disease has been linked to P in South African Bantu. The eventual characterization of P gene mutations in Africans will be informative with regard to the origins of P gene mutations in African-American patients.

Lee, S.T.; Nicholls, R.D.; Schnur, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

5

Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in Zimbabwe and Cameroon: distribution of the 2.7-kb deletion allele of the P gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we characterized a 2.7-kb interstitial deletion allele of the P gene associated with tyrosinase-positive\\u000a oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in African Americans and Africans. In this study, we investigated the frequency of this allele\\u000a among OCA2 subjects in two African countries, Zimbabwe and Cameroon. The deletion allele was most common in Zimbabwe, comprising\\u000a nearly all (92%) mutant alleles, which

Neelu Puri; Donna Durham-Pierre; Robert Aquaron; Patricia M. Lund; Richard A. King; Murray H. Brilliant

1997-01-01

6

Inheritance of a novel mutated allele of the OCA2 gene associated with high incidence of oculocutaneous albinism in a Polynesian community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) is a human autosomal-recessive hypopigmentation disorder associated with pathological mutations of the OCA2 gene. In this study, we investigated a form of OCA in a Polynesian population with an observed phenotype characterized by fair skin, some brown nevi present in the sun-exposed areas and green or blue eyes. Hair presented with a unique red coloration

Helene C Johanson; Wei Chen; Carol Wicking; Richard A Sturm

2010-01-01

7

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) with homozygous 2.7-kb deletion of the P gene and sickle cell disease in a Cameroonian family. Identification of a common TAG haplotype in the mutated P gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report on a Cameroonian family from the Ewondo ethnic group, presenting with three oculocutaneous albinism\\u000a type 2 (OCA2) patients homozygous for the 2.7-kb deletion of the P gene. In one of these patients OCA2 was associated with\\u000a sickle cell anaemia and in two with the sickle cell trait. We took this opportunity to determine single nucleotide

Robert Aquaron; Nadem Soufir; Jean-Louis Bergé-Lefranc; Catherine Badens; Frederic Austerlitz; Bernard Grandchamp

2007-01-01

8

Hexasomy of the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region, including the OCA2 gene, in a patient with pigmentary dysplasia: case report.  

PubMed

Derivatives of chromosome 15, often referred to as inv dup(15), represent the most common supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). SMC(15)s can be classified into two major groups according to their length: small SMC(15) and large ones. Depending on the amount of euchromatin, the carriers may either present with a normal phenotype or with a recognizable syndrome. Here we describe a patient with severe mental retardation, epilepsy, dysmorphic features and pigmentary dysplasia. His karyotype was 47,XY,+mar[41]/46,XY[9]. Chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SMC to be originating from chromosome 15, dicentric and containing four copies of the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome Critical Region (PWACR), including the OCA2 gene. Molecular studies indicated that it is maternally derived. This report supports the previous observations assuming that severity of phenotype in patients with SMC(15) depends on the dosage of the PWACR and that skin pigmentation is correlated to OCA2 gene copy number. PMID:21621018

Kraoua, Lilia; Chaabouni, Myriam; Ewers, Elisabeth; Chelly, Imen; Ouertani, Ines; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Maazoul, Faouzi; Liehr, Thomas; Chaabouni, Habiba

2011-05-06

9

Localization to Mature Melanosomes by Virtue of Cytoplasmic Dileucine Motifs Is Required for Human OCA2 Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 is caused by defects in the gene OCA2, encoding a pigment cell-specific, 12-transmem- brane domain protein with homology to ion permeases. The function of the OCA2 protein remains unknown, and its subcellular localization is under debate. Here, we show that endogenous OCA2 in melanocytic cells rapidly exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and thus does not behave

Anand Sitaram; Rosanna Piccirillo; Ilaria Palmisano; Dawn C. Harper; Esteban C. Dell' Angelica; M. V. Schiaffino; Michael S. Marks

2009-01-01

10

Multilocus OCA2 genotypes specify human iris colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human iris color is a quantitative, multifactorial phenotype that exhibits quasi-Mendelian inheritance. Recent studies have\\u000a shown that OCA2 polymorphism underlies most of the natural variability in human iris pigmentation but to date, only a few\\u000a associated polymorphisms in this gene have been described. Herein, we describe an iris color score (C) for quantifying iris melanin content in-silico and undertake a

Tony Frudakis; Timothy Terravainen; Matthew Thomas

2007-01-01

11

Albinism and disease causing pathogens in Tanzania: are alleles that are associated with OCA2 being maintained by balancing selection?  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2) is present at significantly higher frequencies in sub-Saharan African populations compared to populations in other regions of the world. In Tanzania and other sub-Saharan countries, most OCA2 is associated with a common 2.7kb deletion allele. Leprosy is also in high prevalence in sub-Saharan African populations. The infectious agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae, contains a gene, 38L, that is similar to OCA2. Hypopigmented patches of skin are early symptoms that present with infection of leprosy. In consideration of both the genetic similarity of OCA2 and the 38L gene of M. leprae and the involvement of pigmentation in both disorders, we hypothesized that the high rates of OCA2 may be due to heterozygote advantage. Hence, we hypothesized that carriers of the 2.7kb deletion allele of OCA2 may provide a protective advantage from infection with leprosy. We tested this hypothesis by determining the carrier frequency of the 2.7kb deletion allele from a sample of 240 individuals with leprosy from Tanzania. The results were inconclusive due to the small sample size; however, they enabled us to rule out a large protective effect, but perhaps not a small advantage. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is another infectious organism prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa that contains a gene, arsenic-transport integral membrane protein that is also similar to OCA2. Interestingly, chromosomal region 15q11-13, which also contains OCA2, was reported to be linked to tuberculosis susceptibility. Although variants within OCA2 were tested for association, the 2.7kb deletion allele of OCA2 was not tested. This led us to hypothesize that the deletion allele may confer resistance to susceptibility. Confirmation of our hypothesis would enable development of novel pharmocogenetic therapies for the treatment of tuberculosis, which in turn, may enable development of drugs that target other pathogens that utilize a similar infection mechanism as M. tuberculosis. From an evolutionary perspective, confirmation of our hypothesis may provide another example of heterozygote advantage. PMID:23063908

Tuli, Abbas M; Valenzuela, Robert K; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Brilliant, Murray H

2012-10-12

12

OCA2*481Thr , a hypofunctional allele in pigmentation, is characteristic of northeastern Asian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asians as well as Europeans have light skin, for which no genes to date are known to be responsible. A mutation, Ala481Thr\\u000a (c.G1559A), in the oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2) gene has approximately 70% function of the wild type allele in melanogenesis. In this study, the distribution of the mutation\\u000a was investigated in a total of 2,615 individuals in 20

Isao Yuasa; Kazuo Umetsu; Shinji Harihara; Aya Miyoshi; Naruya Saitou; Kyung Sook Park; Bumbein Dashnyam; Feng Jin; Gérard Lucotte; Prasanta K. Chattopadhyay; Lotte Henke; Jürgen Henke

2007-01-01

13

Interactions between HERC2, OCA2 and MC1R may influence human pigmentation phenotype.  

PubMed

Human pigmentation is a polygenic trait which may be shaped by different kinds of gene-gene interactions. Recent studies have revealed that interactive effects between HERC2 and OCA2 may be responsible for blue eye colour determination in humans. Here we performed a population association study, examining important polymorphisms within the HERC2 and OCA2 genes. Furthermore, pooling these results with genotyping data for MC1R, ASIP and SLC45A2 obtained for the same population sample we also analysed potential genetic interactions affecting variation in eye, hair and skin colour. Our results confirmed the association of HERC2 rs12913832 with eye colour and showed that this SNP is also significantly associated with skin and hair colouration. It is also concluded that OCA2 rs1800407 is independently associated with eye colour. Finally, using various approaches we were able to show that there is an interaction between MC1R and HERC2 in determination of skin and hair colour in the studied population sample. PMID:19208107

Branicki, Wojciech; Brudnik, Urszula; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

2009-02-04

14

Analysis of Cultured Human Melanocytes Based on Polymorphisms within the SLC45A2\\/MATP, SLC24A5\\/NCKX5, and OCA2\\/P Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the SLC45A2\\/MATP, SLC24A5\\/NCKX5, and OCA2\\/P genes have been associated with natural variation of pigmentation traits in human populations. Here, we describe the characterization of human primary melanocytic cells genotyped for polymorphisms within the MATP, NCKX5, or OCA2 loci. On the basis of genotype, these cultured cells reflect the phenotypes observed by others in terms of

Anthony L Cook; Wei Chen; Amy E Thurber; Darren J Smit; Aaron G Smith; Timothy G Bladen; Darren L Brown; David L Duffy; Lorenza Pastorino; Giovanna Bianchi-Scarra; J Helen Leonard; Jennifer L Stow; Richard A Sturm

2009-01-01

15

Analysis of cultured human melanocytes based on polymorphisms within the SLC45A2/MATP, SLC24A5/NCKX5, and OCA2/P loci.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the SLC45A2/MATP, SLC24A5/NCKX5, and OCA2/P genes have been associated with natural variation of pigmentation traits in human populations. Here, we describe the characterization of human primary melanocytic cells genotyped for polymorphisms within the MATP, NCKX5, or OCA2 loci. On the basis of genotype, these cultured cells reflect the phenotypes observed by others in terms of both melanin content and tyrosinase (TYR) activity when comparing skin designated as either "White" or "Black". We found a statistically significant association of MATP-374L (darker skin) with higher TYR protein abundance that was not observed for any NCKX5-111 or OCA2 rs12913832 allele. MATP-374L/L homozygous strains displayed significantly lower MATP transcript levels compared to MATP-374F/F homozygous cells, but this did not reach statistical significance based on NCKX5 or OCA2 genotype. Similarly, we observed significantly increased levels of OCA2 mRNA in rs12913832-T (brown eye) homozygotes compared to rs12913832-C (blue eye) homozygous strains, which was not observed for MATP or NCKX5 gene transcripts. In genotype-phenotype associations performed on a collection of 226 southern European individuals using these same SNPs, we were able to show strong correlations in MATP-L374F, OCA2, and melanocortin-1 receptor with skin, eye, and hair color variation, respectively. PMID:18650849

Cook, Anthony L; Chen, Wei; Thurber, Amy E; Smit, Darren J; Smith, Aaron G; Bladen, Timothy G; Brown, Darren L; Duffy, David L; Pastorino, Lorenza; Bianchi-Scarra, Giovanna; Leonard, J Helen; Stow, Jennifer L; Sturm, Richard A

2008-07-24

16

Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.  

PubMed

Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

2013-09-09

17

HERC2 rs12913832 modulates human pigmentation by attenuating chromatin-loop formation between a long-range enhancer and the OCA2 promoter  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of skin, eye, and hair reflects some of the most evident common phenotypes in humans. Several candidate genes for human pigmentation are identified. The SNP rs12913832 has strong statistical association with human pigmentation. It is located within an intron of the nonpigment gene HERC2, 21 kb upstream of the pigment gene OCA2, and the region surrounding rs12913832 is highly conserved among animal species. However, the exact functional role of HERC2 rs12913832 in human pigmentation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the HERC2 rs12913832 region functions as an enhancer regulating OCA2 transcription. In darkly pigmented human melanocytes carrying the rs12913832 T-allele, we detected binding of the transcription factors HLTF, LEF1, and MITF to the HERC2 rs12913832 enhancer, and a long-range chromatin loop between this enhancer and the OCA2 promoter that leads to elevated OCA2 expression. In contrast, in lightly pigmented melanocytes carrying the rs12913832 C-allele, chromatin-loop formation, transcription factor recruitment, and OCA2 expression are all reduced. Hence, we demonstrate that allelic variation of a common noncoding SNP located in a distal regulatory element not only disrupts the regulatory potential of this element but also affects its interaction with the relevant promoter. We provide the key mechanistic insight that allele-dependent differences in chromatin-loop formation (i.e., structural differences in the folding of gene loci) result in differences in allelic gene expression that affects common phenotypic traits. This concept is highly relevant for future studies aiming to unveil the functional basis of genetically determined phenotypes, including diseases.

Visser, Mijke; Kayser, Manfred; Palstra, Robert-Jan

2012-01-01

18

Functional interactions between OCA2 and the protein complexes BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and AP-3 inferred from epistatic analyses of mouse coat pigmentation.  

PubMed

The biogenesis of melanosomes is a multistage process that requires the function of cell-type-specific and ubiquitously expressed proteins. OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. We have tested for genetic interactions between mutant alleles causing deficiency in OCA2 (pink-eyed dilution unstable), AP-3 (pearl), BLOC-1 (pallid), and BLOC-2 (cocoa) in C57BL/6J mice. The pallid allele was epistatic to pink-eyed dilution, and the latter behaved as a semi-dominant phenotypic enhancer of cocoa and, to a lesser extent, of pearl. These observations suggest functional links between OCA2 and these three protein complexes involved in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:21392365

Hoyle, Diego J; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'angelica, Esteban C

2010-12-17

19

Association of the OCA2 Polymorphism His615Arg with Melanin Content in East Asian Populations: Further Evidence of Convergent Evolution of Skin Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The last decade has witnessed important advances in our understanding of the genetics of pigmentation in European populations, but very little is known about the genes involved in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Here, we present the results of a study evaluating the association of 10 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) located within 5 pigmentation candidate genes (OCA2, DCT, ADAM17, ADAMTS20, and TYRP1) with skin pigmentation measured quantitatively in a sample of individuals of East Asian ancestry living in Canada. We show that the non-synonymous polymorphism rs1800414 (His615Arg) located within the OCA2 gene is significantly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample. We replicated this result in an independent sample of Chinese individuals of Han ancestry. This polymorphism is characterized by a derived allele that is present at a high frequency in East Asian populations, but is absent in other population groups. In both samples, individuals with the derived G allele, which codes for the amino acid arginine, show lower melanin levels than those with the ancestral A allele, which codes for the amino acid histidine. An analysis of this non-synonymous polymorphism using several programs to predict potential functional effects provides additional support for the role of this SNP in skin pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. Our results are consistent with previous research indicating that evolution to lightly-pigmented skin occurred, at least in part, independently in Europe and East Asia.

Edwards, Melissa; Bigham, Abigail; Tan, Jinze; Li, Shilin; Gozdzik, Agnes; Ross, Kendra; Jin, Li; Parra, Esteban J.

2010-01-01

20

Association Between a Germline OCA2 Polymorphism at Chromosome 15q13.1 and Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. Methods We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10?621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26?978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5? nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14?096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70?019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case–control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C>G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 × 10?5). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 × 10?4). Conclusion The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer.

Tyrer, Jonathan; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rudiger; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Arias, Jose Ignacio; Menendez, Primitiva; Benitez, Javier; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Bolton, Kelly L.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Elliott, Graeme C.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Greenberg, David; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Humphreys, Manjeet; Easton, Douglas F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

2010-01-01

21

Six Novel P Gene Mutations and Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 Frequency in Japanese Albino Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the P gene that codes one of the melanosomal proteins, the function of which remains unknown. In this paper, we report the frequency of OCA2, 8%, among the Japanese albino population, six novel mutations containing four missense substitutions (P198L, P211L, R10W, M398I), and two splice

Tamio Suzuki; Yoshinori Miyamura; Jun Matsunaga; Hiroshi Shimizu; Yasuhiro Kawachi; Naoko Ohyama; Osamu Ishikawa; Tomoyuki Ishikawa; Hiroshi Terao; Yasushi Tomita

2003-01-01

22

Mutations of the tyrosinase gene produce autosomal recessive ocular albinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albinism has historically been divided into ocular (OA) and oculocutaneous (OCA) types based on the presence or absence of clinically apparent skin and hair involvement in an individual with the ocular features of albinism. The major genes for OCA include the tyrosinase gene in OCA1 and the P gene in OCA2. X-linked and autosomal recessive OA have been described and

R. A. King; C. G. Summers; W. S. Oetting

1994-01-01

23

Inhibition of polyadenylation reduces inflammatory gene induction  

PubMed Central

Cordycepin (3? deoxyadenosine) has long been used in the study of in vitro assembled polyadenylation complexes, because it terminates the poly(A) tail and arrests the cleavage complex. It is derived from caterpillar fungi, which are highly prized in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we show that cordycepin specifically inhibits the induction of inflammatory mRNAs by cytokines in human airway smooth muscle cells without affecting the expression of control mRNAs. Cordycepin treatment results in shorter poly(A) tails, and a reduction in the efficiency of mRNA cleavage and transcription termination is observed, indicating that the effects of cordycepin on 3? processing in cells are similar to those described in in vitro reactions. For the CCL2 and CXCL1 mRNAs, the effects of cordycepin are post-transcriptional, with the mRNA disappearing during or immediately after nuclear export. In contrast, although the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the IL8 promoter is also unaffected, the levels of nascent transcript are reduced, indicating a defect in transcription elongation. We show that a reporter construct with 3? sequences from a histone gene is unaffected by cordycepin, while CXCL1 sequences confer cordycepin sensitivity to the reporter, demonstrating that polyadenylation is indeed required for the effect of cordycepin on gene expression. In addition, treatment with another polyadenyation inhibitor and knockdown of poly(A) polymerase ? also specifically reduced the induction of inflammatory mRNAs. These data demonstrate that there are differences in the 3? processing of inflammatory and housekeeping genes and identify polyadenylation as a novel target for anti-inflammatory drugs.

Kondrashov, Alexander; Meijer, Hedda A.; Barthet-Barateig, Adeline; Parker, Hannah N.; Khurshid, Asma; Tessier, Sarah; Sicard, Marie; Knox, Alan J.; Pang, Linhua; de Moor, Cornelia H.

2012-01-01

24

Expression of a truncated tomato polygalacturonase gene inhibits expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato plants were transformed with a chimaeric polygalacturonase (PG) gene, designed to produce a truncated PG transcript constitutively. In these plants expression of the endogenous PG gene was inhibited during ripening, resulting in a substantial reduction in PG mRNA and enzyme accumulation. This inhibition was comparable to that achieved previously using antisense genes. The expression of the truncated gene in

C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; C. R. Bird; J. Ray; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

1990-01-01

25

Antisense RNA inhibition of polygalacturonase gene expression in transgenic tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of expression of specific genes by antisense RNA is a naturally occurring mechanism in bacteria1,2, although gene regulation by this mechanism has not yet been observed in higher eukaryotes. However, antisense RNA has been shown to reduce expression of specific genes when injected into frog oocytes3 and Drosophila embryos4. Inhibition of expression of artificially introduced genes has been demonstrated

C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; J. Ray; C. R. Bird; P. C. Morris; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

1988-01-01

26

Local osteoprotegerin gene transfer inhibits relapse of orthodontic tooth movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIn orthodontic treatment, teeth can relapse after orthodontic tooth movement without retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibition effects of local osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene transfer on orthodontic relapse.

Ningning Zhao; Jiuxiang Lin; Hiroyuki Kanzaki; Juhua Ni; Zhibin Chen; Wei Liang; Yan Liu

27

Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I? gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

REG (Regenerating gene) I? protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR?-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I? protein\\/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I? gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element

Akiyo Yamauchi; Iwao Takahashi; Shin Takasawa; Koji Nata; Naoya Noguchi; Takayuki Ikeda; Takeo Yoshikawa; Nausheen J. Shervani; Iwao Suzuki; Akira Uruno; Michiaki Unno; Hiroshi Okamoto; Akira Sugawara

2009-01-01

28

Glucocorticoid Stimulates Primate but Inhibits Rodent ?-Fetoprotein Gene Promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids inhibit rodent ?-fetoprotein (AFP) gene activity but stimulate expression of the human homologue. Like human, activity of the AFP promoter from other primates was stimulated by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) in various cell lines. A glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) is located within 180 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site of all AFP genes examined. Comparative analysis of

Hidekazu Nakabayashi; Yoshikazu Koyama; Masaharu Sakai; Hong Mei Li; Norman C. W. Wong; Shinzo Nishi

2001-01-01

29

Six novel P gene mutations and oculocutaneous albinism type 2 frequency in Japanese albino patients.  

PubMed

Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the P gene that codes one of the melanosomal proteins, the function of which remains unknown. In this paper, we report the frequency of OCA2, 8%, among the Japanese albino population, six novel mutations containing four missense substitutions (P198L, P211L, R10W, M398I), and two splice site mutations (IVS15+1 G>A, IVS24-1 G>C). One of them, R10W, was within the putative signal peptide at the N-terminal of the P protein. This is the first report on the frequency of OCA2 in the Japanese albino population. PMID:12713581

Suzuki, Tamio; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Matsunaga, Jun; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Naoko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Terao, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yasushi

2003-05-01

30

Genes inhibiting senescence in the ascomycete Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescence occurs in all wild strains of Podospora anserina after continued growth. This syndrome can be inhibited by a synergistic interaction of two linked genes, incoloris and vivax. Whereas the wild strain starts to become senescent after 26 d and the mutants incoloris and vivax after 42 and 66 d respectively, the double mutant shows no signs of aging after

Karl Esser; Wilhelm Keller

1976-01-01

31

Inhibition of estrogenic stimulation of gene expression by genistein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two principle soy-derived isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are believed to play a key role in inhibiting tumor growth. The molecular basis of the anti-tumor activity of these two isoflavones has not been fully established. To determine the mechanism of action of the above phytochemicals on estrogen-responsive genes, we tested the effect of the same on the expression of Estrogen-Regulated mRNA

Warren N Ratna

2002-01-01

32

In vitro DNA methylation inhibits gene expression in transgenic tobacco.  

PubMed Central

A hemimethylated chimeric gene, containing the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the beta-glucuronidase coding region and the polyadenylation signal of nopaline synthase, was introduced into tobacco protoplasts by polyethylene glycol mediated transfection. Hemimethylation led to complete inhibition of transient gene expression. In regenerated transgenic plants the integrated gene was constitutively hypermethylated at the sequences CpG and CpNpG and this was correlated with an inactivation of beta-glucuronidase in 12 out of 18 analyzed plant lines whereas two showed slight and four strong activity. From 10 control lines transformed with nonmethylated DNA, only two were inactive; three showed slight and five strong activity. 5-aza-cytidine treatment of plant tissue from 'hypermethylated' lines led to induction of beta-glucuronidase in most cases. Shoots regenerated from azaC treated calli revealed stable enzyme restoration and demethylation of the integrated transgene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.

Weber, H; Ziechmann, C; Graessmann, A

1990-01-01

33

Heterologous expression of tyrosinase recapitulates the misprocessing and mistrafficking in oculocutaneous albinism type 2: Effects of altering intracellular pH and pink-eyed dilution gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing and trafficking of tyrosinase, a melanosomal protein essential for pigmentation, was investigated in a human epithelial 293 cell line that stably expresses the protein. The effects of the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene product, in which mutations result in oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), on the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase in this cell line were studied. The majority

Li Ni-Komatsu; Seth J. Orlow

2006-01-01

34

Inhibition of host cell encapsulation through inhibiting immune gene expression by the parasitic wasp venom calreticulin.  

PubMed

Parasitoid wasps inject venom into the host to protect their offspring against host immune responses. In our previous study, we identified a calreticulin (CRT) in Pteromalus puparum venom. In this study, we expressed the wild-type and the coiled-coil domain deletion mutant P. puparum calreticulins (PpCRTs) in Escherichia coli and prepared polyclonal antibody in rabbit against PpCRT. Western blot analysis showed that PpCRT protein was not only present in the venom but also in all the tissues tested. Real time PCR results indicated that PpCRT mRNA was highly expressed in the venom gland. The transcript level of PpCRT in the venom gland was peaked at 2 days post-eclosion, while the PpCRT protein in the venom was maintained at a constant level. Both recombinant wild-type and mutant PpCRT proteins could bind to the surface of P. puparum eggs. Recombinant PpCRT inhibited hemocyte spreading and cellular encapsulation of the host Pieris rapae in vitro, and the coiled-coil domain is important for the inhibitory function of PpCRT. Immunocytochemistry results showed that PpCRT entered P. rapae hemocytes, and the coiled-coil domain played a role in this process. After injection of recombinant PpCRT into P. rapae pupae, real time PCR results showed that PpCRT inhibited transcript levels of host encapsulation-related genes, including calreticulin and scavenger receptor genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that P. puparum venom protects its offspring against host cellular immune responses via its functional component PpCRT to inhibit the expression of host cellular response-related genes. PMID:23933213

Wang, Lei; Fang, Qi; Qian, Cen; Wang, Fei; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Gongyin

2013-08-08

35

Gene Therapy Inhibiting Neointimal Vascular Lesion: In vivo Transfer of Endothelial Cell Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is postulated that vascular disease involves a disturbance in the homeostatic balance of factors regulating vascular tone and structure. Recent developments in gene transfer techniques have emerged as an exciting therapeutic option to treat vascular disease. Several studies have established the feasibility of direct in vivo gene transfer into the vasculature by using reporter genes such as ?-galactosidase or luciferase. To date no study has documented therapeutic effects with in vivo gene transfer of a cDNA encoding a functional enzyme. This study tests the hypothesis that endothelium-derived nitric oxide is an endogenous inhibitor of vascular lesion formation. After denudation by balloon injury of the endothelium of rat carotid arteries, we restored endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ec-NOS) expression in the vessel wall by using the highly efficient Sendai virus/liposome in vivo gene transfer technique. ec-NOS gene transfection not only restored NO production to levels seen in normal untreated vessels but also increased vascular reactivity of the injured vessel. Neointima formation at day 14 after balloon injury was inhibited by 70%. These findings provide direct evidence that NO is an endogenous inhibitor of vascular lesion formation in vivo (by inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration) and suggest the possibility of ec-NOS transfection as a potential therapeutic approach to treat neointimal hyperplasia.

von der Leyen, Heiko E.; Gibbons, Gary H.; Morishita, Ryuichi; Lewis, Neil P.; Zhang, Lunan; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Cooke, John P.; Dzau, Victor J.

1995-02-01

36

Identification of a mutation in the tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) gene associated with brown oculocutaneous albinism (OCA3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes responsible for the two most common types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have been identified. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene (chromosome 11q14-21) produce OCA1, and mutations of the P gene (chromosome 15q11.2-13) produce OCA2. Another type of OCA known as brown OCA or OCA3 is found commonly in the African and African-American population. OCA3 is characterized by light

S. C. Wildenberg; W. S. Oetting; J. P. Fryer

1994-01-01

37

Organization and sequence of the human P gene and identification of a new family of transport proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the structure, nucleotide sequence, and polymorphisms of the human P gene. Mutations of the P gene result in type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in humans and pink-eyed dilution (p) in mice. We find that the human P gene is quite large, consisting of 25 exons spanning 250 to 600 kb in chromosome segment 15q11–q13. The P polypeptide

Seung-Taek Lee; Robert D. Nicholls; Michelle T. C. Jong; Kazuyoshi Fukai; Richard A. Spritz

1995-01-01

38

Calcitonin gene related peptide inhibits basal, pentagastrin, histamine, and bethanecol stimulated gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the effect of calcitonin gene related peptide on gastric acid secretion in the rat. Calcitonin gene related peptide (1 pmol-1 nmol\\/rat) injected intravenously inhibited basal gastric acid secretion in awake, freely moving rats. Calcitonin gene related peptide decreased gastric secretion stimulated by histamine, pentagastrin, or bethanecol in anaesthetised rats. The inhibitory effect was immediate

H J Lenz; M T Mortrud; J E Rivier; M R Brown

1985-01-01

39

Multiple Pigmentation Gene Polymorphisms Account for a Substantial Proportion of Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described the role of red hair (melanocortin-1 receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (oculocutaneous albinism type II, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye, and skin color. In

David L. Duffy; Zhen Z. Zhao; Richard A. Sturm; Nicholas K. Hayward; Nicholas G. Martin; Grant W. Montgomery

2010-01-01

40

Gene therapy for dyslipidemia: a review of gene replacement and gene inhibition strategies  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous technological and pharmacological advances and more detailed knowledge of molecular etiologies, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide claiming over 17 million lives a year. Abnormalities in the synthesis, processing and catabolism of lipoprotein particles can result in severe hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or low HDL-C. Although a plethora of antidyslipidemic pharmacological agents are available, these drugs are relatively ineffective in many patients with Mendelian lipid disorders, indicating the need for new and more effective interventions. In vivo somatic gene therapy is one such intervention. This article summarizes current strategies being pursued for the development of clinical gene therapy for dyslipidemias that cannot effectively be treated with existing drugs.

Kassim, Sadik H; Wilson, James M; Rader, Daniel J

2012-01-01

41

Adenoviral Gene Transfer Is Inhibited by Soluble Factors in Malignant Pleural Effusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct in vivo gene delivery is a prerequisite for many gene therapy strategies; however, efficacy has been limited by a lack of therapeutic gene transfer. In studying intrapleural ma- lignancy as a model for the gene therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, we previously identified soluble chondroitin sul- fate-proteoglycans\\/glycosaminoglycans (CS-PG\\/GAGs) in ma- lignant pleural effusions (MPE) as factors that inhibit

Raj K. Batra; Steven M. Dubinett; Bradley W. Henkle; Sherven Sharma; Brian K. Gardner

2000-01-01

42

Identification of Prostate Cancer-Related Genes Using Inhibition of NMD in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy to identify mutant genes using inhibition of nonsense mediated decay (NMD) in cell lines has been proposed by others. Blocking translation with antibiotic emetine has been shown to inhibit the NMD. Stabilization of mutant mRNA following the inh...

Y. Ionov

2007-01-01

43

Identification of Prostate Cancer Related Genes Using Inhibition of NMD in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines. Addendum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy to identify mutant genes using inhibition of nonsense mediated decay (NMD) in cell lines has been proposed by others. Blocking translation with antibiotic emetine has been shown to inhibit the NMD. Stabilization of mutant mRNA following the inh...

Y. Ionov

2008-01-01

44

Identification of Prostate Cancer-Related Genes Using Inhibition of NMD in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy to identify mutant genes using inhibition of nonsense mediated decay (NMD) in cell lines has been proposed by others. Blocking translation with antibiotic emetine has been shown to inhibit the NMD. Stabilization of mutant mRNA following the inh...

Y. Ionov

2005-01-01

45

Inhibiting gene expression at transcription start sites in chromosomal DNA with antigene RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription start sites are critical switches for converting recognition of chromosomal DNA into active synthesis of RNA. Their functional importance suggests that they may be ideal targets for regulating gene expression. Here, we report potent inhibition of gene expression by antigene RNAs (agRNAs) complementary to transcription start sites within human chromosomal DNA. Silencing does not require methylation of DNA and

Bethany A Janowski; Kenneth E Huffman; Jacob C Schwartz; Rosalyn Ram; Daniel Hardy; David S Shames; John D Minna; David R Corey

2005-01-01

46

Daxx interacts with HIV1 integrase and inhibits lentiviral gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death-associated protein Daxx is a ubiquitously expressed gene in mammals and is widely involved in transcriptional regulation and cellular intrinsic immune response against incoming virus. We found here that knocking down endogenous Daxx with specific siRNA increased HIV-1-derived lentiviral reporter gene expression in 293T cells. This repressive effect of Daxx is not due to its inhibition on viral gene

Lu Huang; Guan-lan Xu; Jian-qi Zhang; Ling Tian; Jing-lun Xue; Jin-zhong Chen; William Jia

2008-01-01

47

Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer Length and Target Position Effects on Gene-Specific Inhibition in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) are synthetic DNA analogs that inhibit gene expression in a sequence-dependent manner. PMOs of various lengths (7 to 20 bases) were tested for inhibition of luciferase expression in Escherichia coli. Shorter PMOs generally inhibited luciferase greater than longer PMOs. Conversely, in bacterial cell-free protein synthesis reactions, longer PMOs inhibited equally or more than shorter PMOs. Overlapping,

Jesse Deere; Pat Iversen; Bruce L. Geller

2005-01-01

48

Black Raspberry Components Inhibit Proliferation, Induce Apoptosis, and Modulate Gene Expression in Rat Esophageal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that a diet containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) inhibits the development of chemically induced cancer in the rat esophagus. To provide insights into possible mechanisms by which BRB inhibit esophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated an ethanol (EtOH) extract of BRB, and two component anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O?rutinoside) in BRB, for their effects on growth, apoptosis, and gene expression

Nancy N. Zikri; Kenneth M. Riedl; Li-Shu Wang; John Lechner; Steven J. Schwartz; Gary D. Stoner

2009-01-01

49

Serotonin transporter gene and inhibition of conflicting emotional information.  

PubMed

Genetic variation of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to mood disorders. However, little is known about the behavioral characteristics that mediate this genetic variation and susceptibility to depression. We examined whether the serotonin-transporter genotype modulates inhibition of facial expressions and emotional words in the emotional 'face-word' Stroop task. Although negative word distractors interfered with the valence identification of positive faces among carriers of two short alleles, positive word distractors interfered with that of negative faces among carriers of one or two long alleles. We discuss a possible role of the reduced inhibitory control over semantic negative information in carriers of two short alleles in the risk of developing depressive mental state. PMID:20216333

Koizumi, Ai; Kitagawa, Norimichi; Kitamura, Miho S; Kondo, Hirohito M; Sato, Takao; Kashino, Makio

2010-04-21

50

Pancreatic reg gene expression is inhibited during cellular differentiation.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Factors that control pancreatic regenerating (reg I) gene expression are unknown, but it is believed that its expression may correspond with cellular differentiation. The authors recently demonstrated that reg I is expressed in AR42J, a rat acinar cell line whose state of differentiation can be modulated by dexamethasone. They used this line to study reg I expression during cellular proliferation and differentiation. METHODS: After treatment of cells with 10 nmol/L dexamethasone, proliferation was assayed by thymidine incorporation; differentiation by expression of elastase I mRNA. Reg I mRNA levels were measured using a rat reg I cDNA probe, and reg I protein levels assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cellular lysates with a polyclonal antibody. The effect of gastrin, cholecystokinin and glucagon on reg I expression was also studied. RESULTS: When compared with controls, treatment with dexamethasone caused thymidine incorporation to decrease and elastase mRNA levels to increase. Reg I mRNA decreased from controls of 100 +/- 16% to 40 +/- 18% (p < 0.05), and reg I protein levels decreased as well. Gastrointestinal hormones had no significant effect on either elastase or reg I gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of reg I inversely correlates with the level of cellular differentiation, can be modulated via the glucocorticoid receptor, and is a potential marker of gastrointestinal epithelial differentiation. Despite its presence within a pancreatic acinar cell line, reg I gene expression is not modulated by gastrointestinal hormones. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Zenilman, M E; Magnuson, T H; Perfetti, R; Chen, J; Shuldiner, A R

1997-01-01

51

Inhibition of established subcutaneous and metastatic murine tumors by intramuscular electroporation of the interleukin-12 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo electroporation (EP) of the murine interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene in an expression plasmid (pIL-12) was evaluated for antitumor activity. EP transfer of pIL-12 into mouse quadriceps muscles elicited significant levels of serum IL-12 and interferon-?. Intramuscular EP of pIL-12 resulted in complete regression or substantial inhibition of 38C13 B-cell lymphoma, whereas pIL-12 delivered by gene gun or intramuscular injection

Shan-Chih Lee; Chang-Jer Wu; Pin-Yi Wu; Yi-Ling Huang; Cheng-Wen Wu; Mi-Hua Tao

2003-01-01

52

Antitumor Molecular Mechanism of Chlorogenic Acid on Inducting Genes GSK-3 ? and APC and Inhibiting Gene ? -Catenin.  

PubMed

Objective. Inhibiting gene ? -catenin and inducting genes GSK-3 ? and APC, promoting the tumor cell apoptosis in Wnt pathway, by chlorogenic acid were discussed (CGA). Method. The different genes were scanned by the 4?44K mouse microarray chips. The effect of the three genes was confirmed by RT-PCR technique with CGA dosage of 5, 10, and 20?mg/kg. Result. The expression of GSK-3 ? and APC was upregulated in group of 20?mg/kg dosage (P < 0.05) and the expression of ? -catenin was downregulated in the same dosage (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The results infer that the multimeric protein complex of ? -catenin could be increased by CGA upregulated genes GSK-3 ? and APC, which could inhibit the free ? -catenin into the nucleus to connect with TCF. So the transcriptional expression of the target genes will be cut to abnormal cell proliferation. It is probably one of the ways that can stop the tumor increase by CGA. PMID:23844319

Xu, Ruoshi; Kang, Qiumei; Ren, Jie; Li, Zukun; Xu, Xiaoping

2013-06-16

53

Genomic targets, and histone acetylation and gene expression profiling of neural HDAC inhibition.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to potentiate hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity and to ameliorate cognitive deficits and degeneration in animal models for different neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the impact of these drugs on hippocampal histone acetylation and gene expression profiles at the genomic level, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their specificity and beneficial effects in neural tissue, remains obscure. Here, we mapped four relevant histone marks (H3K4me3, AcH3K9,14, AcH4K12 and pan-AcH2B) in hippocampal chromatin and investigated at the whole-genome level the impact of HDAC inhibition on acetylation profiles and basal and activity-driven gene expression. HDAC inhibition caused a dramatic histone hyperacetylation that was largely restricted to active loci pre-marked with H3K4me3 and AcH3K9,14. In addition, the comparison of Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiles indicated that Trichostatin A-induced histone hyperacetylation, like histone hypoacetylation induced by histone acetyltransferase deficiency, had a modest impact on hippocampal gene expression and did not affect the transient transcriptional response to novelty exposure. However, HDAC inhibition caused the rapid induction of a homeostatic gene program related to chromatin deacetylation. These results illuminate both the relationship between hippocampal gene expression and histone acetylation and the mechanism of action of these important neuropsychiatric drugs. PMID:23821663

Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Ito, Satomi; Valor, Luis M; Benito, Eva; Barco, Angel

2013-07-01

54

Genomic targets, and histone acetylation and gene expression profiling of neural HDAC inhibition  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to potentiate hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity and to ameliorate cognitive deficits and degeneration in animal models for different neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the impact of these drugs on hippocampal histone acetylation and gene expression profiles at the genomic level, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their specificity and beneficial effects in neural tissue, remains obscure. Here, we mapped four relevant histone marks (H3K4me3, AcH3K9,14, AcH4K12 and pan-AcH2B) in hippocampal chromatin and investigated at the whole-genome level the impact of HDAC inhibition on acetylation profiles and basal and activity-driven gene expression. HDAC inhibition caused a dramatic histone hyperacetylation that was largely restricted to active loci pre-marked with H3K4me3 and AcH3K9,14. In addition, the comparison of Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiles indicated that Trichostatin A-induced histone hyperacetylation, like histone hypoacetylation induced by histone acetyltransferase deficiency, had a modest impact on hippocampal gene expression and did not affect the transient transcriptional response to novelty exposure. However, HDAC inhibition caused the rapid induction of a homeostatic gene program related to chromatin deacetylation. These results illuminate both the relationship between hippocampal gene expression and histone acetylation and the mechanism of action of these important neuropsychiatric drugs.

Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P.; Ito, Satomi; Valor, Luis M.; Benito, Eva; Barco, Angel

2013-01-01

55

A strategy for disease gene identification through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay inhibition.  

PubMed

Premature termination codons (PTCs) have been shown to initiate degradation of mutant transcripts through the nonsense-mediated messenger RNA (mRNA) decay (NMD) pathway. We report a strategy, termed gene identification by NMD inhibition (GINI), to identify genes harboring nonsense codons that underlie human diseases. In this strategy, the NMD pathway is pharmacologically inhibited in cultured patient cells, resulting in stabilization of nonsense transcripts. To distinguish stabilized nonsense transcripts from background transcripts upregulated by drug treatment, drug-induced expression changes are measured in control and disease cell lines with complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. Transcripts are ranked by a nonsense enrichment index (NEI), which relates expression changes for a given transcript in NMD-inhibited control and patient cell lines. The most promising candidates can be selected using information such as map location or biological function; however, an important advantage of the GINI strategy is that a priori information is not essential for disease gene identification. GINI was tested on colon cancer and Sandhoff disease cell lines, which contained previously characterized nonsense mutations in the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and hexosaminidase B (HEXB) genes, respectively. A list of genes was produced in which the MLH1 and HEXB genes were among the top 1% of candidates, thus validating the strategy. PMID:11329012

Noensie, E N; Dietz, H C

2001-05-01

56

Sequence of psi , a gene on the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium phaseoli which inhibits exopolysaccharide synthesis and nodulation and demonstration that its transcription is inhibited by psr , another gene on the symbiotic plasmid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene termed psi (polysaccharide inhibition), located close to the nodulation genes of the Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic plasmid pRP2JI inhibited exopolysaccharide synthesis (EPS) and nodulation ability (Nod) in Rhizobium when it was cloned in a multicopy plasmid. The sequence of psi showed that it specified a polypeptide of mol. wt. 10000 that may be associated with the membrane of Rhizobium.

D. Borthakur; A. W. B. Johnston

1987-01-01

57

Dexamethasone Inhibits Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Gene Expression in the Rat Paraventricular Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glucocorticoids on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression was studied by combination of in situ hybridization histochemistry and steroid implantation. Dexamethasone micropellets, implanted around the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), caused total inhibition of the hybridizable CRF mRNA signal above the parvocellular neurons of the PVN. Unilateral implantation of dexamethasone around the PVN resulted in a decrease of hybridizable

Krisztina J. Kovács; Eva Mezey

1987-01-01

58

Inhibition of Gene Expression by Peptide Nucleic Acids in Cultured Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have tested in cultured cells the capacity of antisense and antigene PNAs to inhibit, in a sequence specific manner, the expression of oncogenes in leukaemia and pancreatic carcinoma cells. The results observed appeared promising and suggest that PNA may play in the future an important role in targeting disease-related genes.

Susanna Cogoi; Valentina Rapozzi; Luigi E. Xodo

2003-01-01

59

Dual-function CXCR4 Antagonist Polyplexes to Deliver Gene Therapy and Inhibit Cancer Cell Invasion**  

PubMed Central

A bicyclam-based biodegradable polycation with CXCR4 antagonistic activity was developed with potential for combined drug/gene cancer therapies. The dual-function polycation prevents cancer cell invasion by inhibiting CXCL12 stimulated CXCR4 activation, while at the same time efficiently and safely delivers plasmid DNA into cancer cells.

Li, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Hazeldine, Stuart T.; Li, Chunying

2012-01-01

60

Spliceostatin A blocks angiogenesis by inhibiting global gene expression including VEGF.  

PubMed

Spliceostatin A (SSA) is a methylated derivative of an antitumor natural product FR901464, which specifically binds and inhibits the SF3b spliceosome sub-complex. To investigate the selective antitumor activity of SSA, we focused on the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, since VEGF is a key regulatory component in tumor angiogenesis and known for the intricate regulation of mRNA processing, such as alternative splicing. We found that in HeLa cells SSA reduced the amount of both mRNA and protein of VEGF. Spliceostatin A not only inhibited the splicing reaction of VEGF pre-mRNA but also reduced the total amount of VEGF's transcripts, while SSA affected GAPDH mRNA to a lesser extent. Given a significant reduction in VEGF gene expression, SSA was expected to possess anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. Indeed, SSA inhibited cancer cell-derived angiogenesis in vivo in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The inhibition of angiogenesis with SSA was abolished by addition of exogenous VEGF. We also performed global gene expression analyses of HeLa cells and found that the expression levels of 38% of total genes including VEGF decreased to <50% of the basal levels following 16?h of SSA treatment. These results suggest that the global interference of gene expression including VEGF in tumor cells is at least one of the mechanisms by which SSA (or FR901464) exhibits its strong antitumor activity. PMID:20726856

Furumai, Ryohei; Uchida, Kazuyo; Komi, Yusuke; Yoneyama, Misao; Ishigami, Ken; Watanabe, Hidenori; Kojima, Soichi; Yoshida, Minoru

2010-11-01

61

Leptin Inhibits Insulin Gene Transcription and Reverses Hyperinsulinemia in Leptin-Deficient ob\\/ob Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin controls feeding behavior and insulin secretion from pancreatic beta -cells. Insulin stimulates the production of leptin, thereby establishing an adipoinsular axis. Earlier we identified leptin receptors on pancreatic beta -cells and showed leptin-mediated inhibition of insulin secretion by activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we examine transcriptional effects of leptin on the promoter of the rat insulin I gene

Jochen Seufert; Timothy J. Kieffer; Joel F. Habener

1999-01-01

62

Inhibition of methylation and changes in gene expression in relation to neural tube defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An impaired DNA methylation has been suggested to underlie the complex etiology of neural tube defects (NTDs). Previously, we have demonstrated that inhibition of methylation by periodate oxidized adenosine (Adox) results in a widening of the anterior neuropore (ANP) in our in vitro chick embryo model. Since DNA methylation is the chief regulator of gene expression, we hypothesize that

Ivon J. M. van der Linden; Sandra G. Heil; Egmont-Petersen van M; Henny W. van Straaten; Martin den Heijer; Henk J. Blom

2008-01-01

63

Moutan Cortex Radicis inhibits inflammatory changes of gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated gingival fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Moutan Cortex Radicis (MCR), the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae), is found in the traditional Chinese medicinal formulae which were used to treat periodontal diseases. This study investigated the changes in gene expression by MCR treatment when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). A genome-wide expression GeneChip was used for the gene array analysis, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was also performed to confirm the gene expression. It was shown that 42 of the 643 genes up-regulated by LPS, when compared to the control, were down-regulated by the MCR treatment. Of these 42 genes, the inflammation and immune response-related genes were especially noted, which indicates that MCR inhibits the induction of inflammation by LPS stimulation. In addition, 33 of the 519 genes down-regulated by LPS, when compared to the control, were up-regulated by the MCR treatment. The expression patterns of some representative genes by real-time RT-PCR correlated with those of the genes shown in the microarray. In addition, the MCR extract contained paeonol and paeoniflorin, which are known to have the anti-inflammatory effect as the major phenolic components of MCR. This study showed that the MCR extract could comprehensively inhibit a wide variety of activations of inflammation-related genes, which may be due to paeonol and paeoniflorin. It is, thus, suggested that MCR may be applied to alleviate the inflammation of periodontal diseases. PMID:23086154

Yun, Cheol-Sang; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Je-Hyun; Lim, Sabina

2012-10-20

64

Antifungal azoxybacilin exhibits activity by inhibiting gene expression of sulfite reductase.  

PubMed Central

Azoxybacilin, produced by Bacillus cereus, has a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in methionine-free medium and has been suggested to inhibit sulfite fixation. We have further investigated the mode of action by which azoxybacilin kills fungi. The compound inhibited the incorporation of [35S] sulfate into acid-insoluble fractions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions in which virtually no inhibition was observed for DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis. It did not interfere with the activity of the enzymes for sulfate assimilation but clearly inhibited the induction of those enzymes when S. cerevisiae cells were transferred from rich medium to a synthetic methionine-free medium. Particularly strong inhibition was observed in the induction of sulfite reductase. Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that azoxybacilin decreased the level of mRNA of genes for sulfate assimilation, including MET10 for sulfite reductase and MET4, the transactivator of MET10 and other sulfate assimilation genes. When activities of azoxybacilin were compared for mRNA and enzyme syntheses from MET10, the concentration required for inhibition of transcription of the gene was about 10 times higher (50% inhibitory concentration = 30 micrograms/ml) than that required for inhibition of induction of enzyme synthesis (50% inhibitory concentration = 3 micrograms/ml). The data suggest that azoxybacilin acts on at least two steps in the expression of sulfite reductase; the transcriptional activation of MET4 and a posttranscriptional regulation in MET10 expression. We conclude that azoxybacilin exhibits antifungal activity by interfering with the regulation of expression of sulfite reductase activity.

Aoki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Hosseini-Mazinani, S M; Koshikawa, N; Sugimoto, K; Arisawa, M

1996-01-01

65

The conditional inhibition of gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells by antisense RNA.  

PubMed Central

Genes producing antisense RNA are becoming important tools for the selective inhibition of gene expression. Experiments in different biological systems, targeting different mRNAs have yielded diverse results with respect to the success of the technique and its mechanism of action. We have examined the potential of three antisense genes, whose transcription is driven by a Drosophila metallothionein promoter, to inhibit the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or a microtubule associated protein (205K MAP) in cultured Drosophila cells. Expression of ADH was significantly reduced upon induction of the anti-ADH genes. The ADH mRNA does not appear to be destabilized by the presence of antisense RNA but rather exists at similar levels in hybrid form. Hybrids are detected with both spliced and unspliced ADH RNA. In contrast to these results, antisense genes producing antisense RNA in great excess to 205K MAP mRNA, which is itself far less abundant than the ADH mRNA, failed to show any inhibition of 205K MAP expression. Images

Bunch, T A; Goldstein, L S

1989-01-01

66

Conditional inhibition of autophagy genes in adult Drosophila impairs immunity without compromising longevity  

PubMed Central

Immune function declines with age in Drosophila and humans, and autophagy is implicated in immune function. In addition, autophagy genes are required for life span extension caused by reduced insulin/IGF1-like signaling and dietary restriction in C. elegans. To test if the autophagy pathway might be limiting for immunity and/or life span in adult Drosophila, the Geneswitch system was used to cause conditional inactivation of the autophagy genes Atg5, Atg7 and Atg12 by RNAi. Conditional inhibition of Atg genes in adult flies reduced lysotracker staining of adult tissues, and reduced resistance to injected E. coli, as evidenced by increased bacterial titers and reduced fly survival. However, survival of uninjected flies was unaffected by Atg gene inactivation. The data indicate that Atg gene activity is required for normal immune function in adult flies, and suggest that neither autophagy nor immune function are limiting for adult life span under typical laboratory conditions.

Ren, Chunli; Finkel, Steven E.; Tower, John

2009-01-01

67

ALLOANTISERUM-INDUCED INHIBITION OF MIGRATION INHIBITION FACTOR PRODUCTION IN IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE-CONTROLLED IMMUNE SYSTEMS  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that alloantisera prepared by reciprocal immunization of strain 2 and strain 13 guinea pigs specifically block stimulation of in vitro DNA synthesis in genetically controlled systems. In order to determine whether this blockade extends to other T-lymphocyte functions, we examined the effect of alloantisera on the production of migration inhibition factor (MIF). (2 x 13)F1 guinea pigs were immunized with a DNP derivative of the copolymer of L-glutamic acid and L-lysine (DNP-GL) and with DNP guinea pig albumin (GPA). The response to the former is controlled by a 2-linked Ir gene while that to the latter is mainly controlled by a 13-linked Ir gene. MIF production was assayed by an indirect procedure in which the migrating cell population lacked the histocompatibility antigen against which the alloantiserum was directed. Our results showed that anti-2 serum blocked MIF production by F1 cells in response to DNP-GL but not DNP-GPA while anti-13 serum had the opposite effect. These experiments show that expression of a second major T-cell function is specifically blocked by alloantisera and suggest that Ir-gene products may act as antigen recognition substances on more than one type of T cell.

Ben-Sasson, Shlomo Z.; Shevach, Ethan; Green, Ira; Paul, William E.

1974-01-01

68

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropryl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl{sup {minus}} transport in sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br{sup {minus}} uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatments, but not after treatments for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl{sup {minus}} transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability.

Sorscher, E.J.; Kirk, K.L.; Weaver, M.L.; Jilling, T.; Blalock, J.E.; LeBoeuf, R.D. (Univ of Alabama, Birmingham (United States))

1991-09-01

69

Retinoic acid inhibits in vivo interleukin-2 gene expression and T-cell activation in mice  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an essential cytokine for T-lymphocyte homeostasis. We have previously reported that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) enhances the secretion of IL-2 from human peripheral blood T cells in vitro, followed by increased proliferation and inhibition of spontaneous cell death. In this study we used a transgenic IL-2 gene luciferase reporter model to examine the effects of atRA in vivo. In contrast to the observations in human T cells, we found an overall reduction in luciferase-reported IL-2 gene expression in mice treated with atRA. Whole-body luminescence of anti-CD3-treated and non-treated mice was reduced in mice receiving atRA. Accordingly, after 7 hr, IL-2 gene expression was on average 55% lower in the atRA-treated mice compared with the control mice. Furthermore, mice fed a vitamin A-deficient diet had a significantly higher basal level of luciferase activity compared with control mice, demonstrating that vitamin A modulates IL-2 gene expression in vivo. Importantly, the atRA-mediated inhibition of IL-2 gene expression was accompanied by decreased DNA synthesis in murine T cells, suggesting a physiological relevance of the reduced IL-2 gene expression observed in transgenic reporter mice.

Ertesvag, Aase; Austenaa, Liv M I; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune; Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil

2009-01-01

70

Strain-Specific Inhibition of nod Gene Induction in Bradyrhizobium japonicum by Flavonoid Compounds  

PubMed Central

A broad-host-range plasmid, pEA2-21, containing a Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodABC'-'lacZ translational fusion was used to identify strain-specific inhibitors of the genes required for soybean nodulation, the common nod genes. The responses of type strains of B. japonicum serogroups USDA 110, USDA 123, USDA 127, USDA 129, USDA 122, and USDA 138 to nod gene inhibitors were compared. Few compounds inhibited nod gene expression in B. japonicum USDA 110. In contrast, nod gene expression in strains belonging to several other serogroups was inhibited by most of the flavonoids tested. However, the application of two of these strain-specific compounds, chrysin and naringenin, had little effect on the pattern of competition between indigenous and inoculum strains of B. japonicum in greenhouse and field trials. Preliminary studies with radiolabeled chrysin and naringenin suggest that the different responses to nod gene inhibitors may be partly due to the degree to which plant flavonoids can be metabolized by each strain.

Kosslak, Renee M.; Joshi, Rita S.; Bowen, Benjamin A.; Paaren, Herbert E.; Appelbaum, Edward R.

1990-01-01

71

Structural features of GmIRCHS, candidate of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation in soybean: implications for inducing endogenous RNA silencing of chalcone synthase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial soybean varieties have yellow seeds due to loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. The I gene inhibits pigmentation over the entire seed coat, resulting in a uniform yellow color of mature harvested seeds. We previously\\u000a demonstrated that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation by the I gene results from post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS)

Atsushi Kasai; Kosuke Kasai; Setsuzo Yumoto; Mineo Senda

2007-01-01

72

Inhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth by Nanoparticle-Mediated p53 Gene Therapy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, the most common genetic alteration in human cancers, results in more aggressive disease and increased resistance to conventional therapies. Aggressiveness may be related to the increased angiogenic activity of cancer cells containing mutant p53. To restore wild-type p53 function in cancer cells, we developed polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for p53 gene delivery. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of these NPs to provide sustained intracellular release of DNA, thus sustained gene transfection and decreased tumor cell proliferation. We investigated in vivo mechanisms involved in NP-mediated p53 tumor inhibition, with focus on angiogenesis. We hypothesize that sustained p53 gene delivery will help decrease tumor angiogenic activity and thus reduce tumor growth and improve animal survival. Xenografts of p53 mutant tumors were treated with a single intratumoral injection of p53NPs. We observed intratumoral p53 gene expression corresponding to tumor growth inhibition, over 5 weeks. Treated tumors showed upregulation of thrombospondin-1, a potent antiangiogenic factor, and a decrease in microvessel density vs. controls (saline, p53 DNA alone, and control NPs). Greater levels of apoptosis were also observed in p53NP-treated tumors. Overall, this led to significantly improved survival in p53NP-treated animals. NP-mediated p53 gene delivery slowed cancer progression and improved survival in an in vivo cancer model. One mechanism by which this is accomplished is disruption of tumor angiogenesis. We conclude that the NP-mediated sustained tumor p53 gene therapy can effectively be used for tumor growth inhibition.

Prabha, Swayam; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

2012-01-01

73

Sucrose Modulation of Soybean Vsp Gene Expression Is Inhibited by Auxin.  

PubMed Central

We have shown that auxin represses soybean (Glycine max L.) vegetative storage protein gene (Vsp) expression in suspension-cultured cells and in leaves and petioles of excised trifoliates. The auxin analog naphthyleneacetic acid (NAA) at 10 [mu]M strongly inhibited methyl jasmonate-induced Vsp expression in soybean suspension-cultured cells. Both indole-3-acetic acid and NAA inhibited methyl jasmonate- and wound-induced expression of the Vsp and LoxA excised soybean trifoliate leaves and petioles. The less active auxin analog phenylacetic acid had less effect on methyl jasmonate- and wound-induced expression of these genes. Addition of cytokinin to alter the auxin:cytokinin ratio did not reverse auxin inhibition of Vsp expression. Transcription of [beta]-glucuronidase (Gus) modulated by a methyl jasmonate-responsive domain derived from the VspB promoter was minimally influenced by auxin. In contract, sucrose-induced expression of Gus mediated by a sucrose-responsive domain of the VspB promoter was strongly inhibited by NAA. We conclude that auxin inhibits Vsp mRNA accumulation, in part, by repressing sugar-mediated activation of Vsp expression.

DeWald, D. B.; Sadka, A.; Mullet, J. E.

1994-01-01

74

Molecular basis of albinism: mutations and polymorphisms of pigmentation genes associated with albinism.  

PubMed

Albinism, caused by a deficiency of melanin pigment in the skin, hair, and eye (oculocutaneous albinism [OCA]), or primarily in the eye (ocular albinism [OA]), results from mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment. The lack of melanin pigment in the developing eye leads to fovea hypoplasia and abnormal routing of the optic nerves. These changes are responsible for the nystagmus, strabismus, and reduced visual acuity common to all types of albinism. Mutations in six genes have been reported to be responsible for different types of oculocutaneous and ocular albinism, including the tyrosinase gene (TYR) and OCA1 (MIM# 203100), the OCA2 gene and OCA2 (MIM# 203200), the tyrosinase-related protein-1 gene (TYRP1) and OCA3 (MIM# 203290), the HPS gene and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (MIM# 203300), the CHS gene (CHS1), and Chediak-Higashi syndrome (MIM# 214500), and the X-linked ocular albinism gene and OA1 (MIM#300500). The function of only two of the gene products is known tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 both of which are enzymes in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Continued mutational analysis coupled with function/structure studies should aid our understanding of the function of the remaining genes and their role in albinism. Mutation and polymorphism data on these genes are available from the International Albinism Center Albinism Database web site (http://www.cbc.umn.edu/tad). PMID:10094567

Oetting, W S; King, R A

1999-01-01

75

Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C is a major health problem affecting 270 million individuals in world including Pakistan. Current treatment regimen, interferon alpha and ribavirin only cure half of patients due to side effects and high cost. Results In the present study Silybum marianum (Milk thistle) seeds were collected, extracted and analyzed against HCV 3a core gene by transiently transfecting the liver cells with HCV core plasmid. Our results demonstrated that Silymarin (SM) dose dependently inhibit the expression or function of HCV core gene at a non toxic concentration while the GAPDH remained constant. To identify the active ingredient, SM was fractioned by thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and HPLC. Purified fractions were tested for HCV core gene and western blotting results showed that two factions of SM (S1 and S2) inhibit HCV 3a core expression or function in liver cells Conclusion Our results suggest SM and its fractions (S1 and S2) inhibit HCV core gene of 3a genotype and combination of SM and its fractions with interferon will be a better option to treat HCV infection

2011-01-01

76

Human-Phosphate-Binding-Protein inhibits HIV-1 gene transcription and replication  

PubMed Central

The Human Phosphate-Binding protein (HPBP) is a serendipitously discovered lipoprotein that binds phosphate with high affinity. HPBP belongs to the DING protein family, involved in various biological processes like cell cycle regulation. We report that HPBP inhibits HIV-1 gene transcription and replication in T cell line, primary peripherical blood lymphocytes and primary macrophages. We show that HPBP is efficient in naïve and HIV-1 AZT-resistant strains. Our results revealed HPBP as a new and potent anti HIV molecule that inhibits transcription of the virus, which has not yet been targeted by HAART and therefore opens new strategies in the treatment of HIV infection.

2011-01-01

77

Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase inhibits p53-dependent reporter gene expression.  

PubMed

The prevalence of p53 gene mutations in many human tumors implies that p53 protein plays an important role in preventing cancers. Central among the activities ascribed to p53 is its ability to stimulate transcription of other genes that inhibit cells from entering S phase with damaged DNA. Human p53 can be studied in yeast where genetic tools can be used to identify proteins that affect its ability to stimulate transcription. Although p53 strongly stimulated reporter gene expression in wild type yeast, it only weakly stimulated reporter gene expression in Deltatrr1 yeast that lacked the gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. Furthermore, ectoptic expression of TRR1 in Deltatrr1 yeast restored p53-dependent reporter gene activity to high levels. Immunoblot assays established that the Deltatrr1 mutation affected the activity and not the level of p53 protein. The results suggest that p53 can form disulfides and that these disulfides must be reduced in order for the protein to function as a transcription factor. PMID:9488661

Pearson, G D; Merrill, G F

1998-03-01

78

The FUS1 gene inhibits EC109 cell growth mediated by a lentivirus vector.  

PubMed

The effects of the FUS1 gene on the oesophageal carcinoma cell line EC109 are investigated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of the FUS1 gene was detected by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in the cell lines SHEE, SHEEC and EC109. The full length of the FUS1 gene was amplified using a PCR technique from the total RNA of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells. The FUS1 gene was cloned into a pSL6-IRES-EGFP vector and identified by PCR, digestion and sequencing. The recombinant pSL6-FUS1-IRES-EGFP plasmid was transfected into 293FT cells and the resulting lentivirus was collected. The growth of EC109 cells after transfection with lentivirus containing the FUS1 gene was determined by MTT assay and plate colony formation. Expression of the FUS1 gene in EC109 cells was weaker than that in SHEE, SHEEC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEE; used as a control). Transfection efficiency was more than 80% after 48 h. Cell growth assessed by MTT assay was inhibited by about 40% compared with the control group; a finding that was in accordance with the plate colony formation results. The results suggest that the FUS1 gene might be a candidate tumour suppressor gene for the treatment of oesophageal carcinoma; however, these results require confirmation in in vivo studies. PMID:23617094

Zhang, B; Xu, X; Qi, Z; Peng, L; Qiu, B; Huo, X

2013-01-01

79

Microarray gene expression profiling reveals antioxidant-like effects of angiotensin II inhibition in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant feature of atherosclerosis but the impact of ROS on atherogenesis is not clear since antioxidants such as vitamin E have little effect on atherosclerosis development in vivo. To investigate the role of ROS in atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-deficient mice, and compared the treatment effect of the antioxidant vitamin E with that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, because angiotensin II is a major source of ROS in the vasculature. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining demonstrated that vitamin E and captopril both prevented the atherosclerosis-induced increase in aortic superoxide content. In contrast, seven months of vitamin E treatment retarded the development of atherosclerotic lesions by only 45.8 ± 11.5% whereas captopril reduced the aortic plaque area by 88.1 ± 7.5%. To discriminate between vitamin E-sensitive and -insensitive effects of ACE inhibition, we performed whole genome microarray gene expression profiling. Gene ontology (GO) and immunohistology analyses showed that vitamin E and captopril prevented atherosclerosis-related changes of aortic intima and media genes. However, vitamin E did not reduce the expression of probe sets detecting the aortic recruitment of pro-inflammatory immune cells while immune cell-specific genes were normalized by captopril treatment. Moreover, vitamin E did not prevent the atherosclerosis-dependent down-regulation of perivascular nerve-specific genes, which were preserved in captopril-treated aortas. Taken together, our study detected antioxidant vitamin E-like effects of angiotensin II inhibition in atherosclerosis treatment regarding preservation of aortic intima and media genes. Additional vitamin E-insensitive effects targeting atherosclerosis-enhancing aortic immune cell recruitment and perivascular nerve degeneration could account for the stronger anti-atherogenic activity of ACE inhibition compared to vitamin E. PMID:23801967

Abd Alla, Joshua; El Faramawy, Yasser; Quitterer, Ursula

2013-06-19

80

Transcription of the human beta interferon gene is inhibited by hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed Central

The manner by which the trans-acting factor encoded by the 1,828-base-pair (bp) BamHI DNA fragment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppresses the production of human beta interferon was determined. Steady-state levels of RNA specific for human beta interferon were decreased in cells that contained the 1,828-bp BamHI DNA fragment of HBV. The reduced accumulation of interferon-specific RNA was due to an inhibition of transcription of the interferon gene by the HBV trans-acting moiety. The expression of the interferon gene that is under the control of a heterologous promoter such as the simian virus 40 early promoter was not altered by the presence of the 1,828-bp BamHI HBV DNA fragment. In contrast, the HBV moiety inhibited the expression of the cat gene, whose expression is controlled by the regulatory DNA region of the human beta interferon gene. These results indicate that the HBV trans-acting moiety suppresses the expression of the human beta interferon gene at the transcriptional level by interacting with the regulatory DNA sequences 5' to the coding sequences for beta interferon. Images

Twu, J S; Schloemer, R H

1989-01-01

81

Transcriptional inhibition of the murine erythropoietin receptor gene by an upstream repetitive element.  

PubMed

Transcription of the murine erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) gene is inhibited by a novel repetitive element that is located upstream of the EpoR promoter. Reporter gene studies reveal that the inhibitory effect is both distance and orientation dependent. This element is a member of a family of repetitive elements specific to rodents and is present at approximately 10(5) copies per mouse genome. It encodes approximately 500- to 900-bp-long transcripts in both erythroid and nonerythroid cells. RNase protection analysis with a probe from the 5' flanking murine EpoR gene reveals that the direction of transcription is in the sense orientation, relative to the downstream EpoR gene. We suggest that transcriptional inhibition of the EpoR promoter is mediated by read-through transcripts originating in the upstream repetitive element and that this effect may contribute to the basal level of transcription of the murine EpoR gene in erythroid cells. PMID:8417366

Youssoufian, H; Lodish, H F

1993-01-01

82

A novel gene, msa1, inhibits sexual differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed Central

Sexual differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is triggered by nutrient starvation or by the presence of mating pheromones. We identified a novel gene, msa1, which encodes a 533-aa putative RNA-binding protein that inhibits sexual differentiation. Disruption of the msa1 gene caused cells to hypersporulate. Intracellular levels of msa1 RNA and Msa1 protein diminished after several hours of nitrogen starvation. Genetic analysis suggested that the function of msa1 is independent of the cAMP pathway and stress-responsive pathway. Deletion of the ras1 gene in diploid cells inhibited sporulation and in haploid cells decreased expression of mating-pheromone-induced genes such as mei2, mam2, ste11, and rep1; simultaneous deletion of msa1 reversed both phenotypes. Overexpression of msa1 decreased activated Ras1(Val17)-induced expression of mam2. Phenotypic hypersporulation was similar between cells with deletion of only rad24 and both msa1 and rad24, but simultaneous deletion of msa1 and msa2/nrd1 additively increased hypersporulation. Therefore, we suggest that the primary function of Msa1 is to negatively regulate sexual differentiation by controlling the expression of Ste11-regulated genes, possibly through the pheromone-signaling pathway.

Jeong, Hee Tae; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Katsunori; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hideyuki; Kawamukai, Makoto

2004-01-01

83

5? end of hmg CoA reductase gene contains sequences responsible for cholesterol-mediated inhibition of transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cholesterol homeostasis is maintained by feedback inhibition of transcription of the gene encoding HMG CoA reductase. To study this mechanism, we joined the 5' end of the hamster reductase gene to the coding region for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). The chimeric gene produced high levels of CAT activ- ity in mouse L cells; sterols suppressed expression by 70% to 90%.

Timothy F. Osborne; Joseph L. Goldstein; Michael S. Brown

1985-01-01

84

The agouti gene product inhibits lipolysis in human adipocytes via a Ca2\\/-dependent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of the murine agouti gene results in obesity. The human homologue of agouti is expressed primarily in human adipocytes, and we have shown recombinant agouti protein to increase adipocyte intracellular Ca2\\/((Ca2\\/)i) and thereby stimulate lipogenesis. However, since recent data demonstrate that increasing adipocyte (Ca2\\/)i may also inhibit lipolysis, we have investigated the role of agouti-induced (Ca2\\/)i increases in regulating

BINGZHONG XUE; NAIMA MOUSTAID-MOUSSA; WILLIAM O. WILKISON; MICHAEL B. ZEMEL

85

Subinhibitory Clindamycin Differentially Inhibits Transcription of Exoprotein Genes in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that certain antibiotics, at subinhibitory concentrations, differentially inhibit the synthesis of a-hemolysin and other staphylococcal virulence factors. In this report, we show that subinhibitory clindamycin (SBCL) eliminates production of nearly all exoproteins by Staphylococcus aureus but has virtually no effect on cytoplasmic proteins. The effect was abolished by a gene conferring resistance to macrolides-linco- samides-streptogramin

SILVIA HERBERT; PETER BARRY; RICHARD P. NOVICK

2001-01-01

86

Ibuprofen-induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoform gene expression and regression of rat mammary carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single dose of 75 mg\\/kg 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was administered to 50-day-old virgin female Sprague–Dawley rats and 100 days later, animals were randomized and provided with Teklad rodent chow mixed with a dose of 25 mg\\/rat\\/day ibuprofen for 35 days. Ibuprofen treatment reduced tumor volume (P<0.05) and significantly inhibited gene expression of both cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (P<0.02). These results indicate

Fredika M Robertson; Michelle L Parrett; Farahnaz S Joarder; Mary Ross; Hussein M Abou-Issa; Galal Alshafie; Randall E Harris

1998-01-01

87

Ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA inhibits gene expression in planarians  

PubMed Central

Freshwater planarian flatworms are capable of regenerating complete organisms from tiny fragments of their bodies; the basis for this regenerative prowess is an experimentally accessible stem cell population that is present in the adult planarian. The study of these organisms, classic experimental models for investigating metazoan regeneration, has been revitalized by the application of modern molecular biological approaches. The identification of thousands of unique planarian ESTs, coupled with large-scale whole-mount in situ hybridization screens, and the ability to inhibit planarian gene expression through double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference, provide a wealth of tools for studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue regeneration and stem cell biology in these organisms. Here we show that, as in Caenorhabditis elegans, ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA can inhibit gene expression in planarians. This inhibition persists throughout the process of regeneration, allowing phenotypes with disrupted regenerative patterning to be identified. These results pave the way for large-scale screens for genes involved in regenerative processes.

Newmark, Phillip A.; Reddien, Peter W.; Cebria, Francesc; Alvarado, Alejandro Sanchez

2003-01-01

88

Inhibition of nm23-H1 gene expression in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

For solid tumors of a malignant origin, the expression of the nm23-H1 gene is a positive prognostic factor. However, for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the prognostic role of nm23-H1 gene expression is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of nm23-H1 gene expression on the proliferation and migration of the CML K562 cell line to elucidate the association between nm23-H1 gene expression and CML cell survival. An RNAi lipo-recombinant plasmid of the nm23-H1 gene (pGCsi-nm23-H1) was constructed and transfected into the K562 cells. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect nm23-H1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively. The anchorage-independent growth ability of the transfected cells was observed in soft agar culture and the ability of the K562 cells to migrate was determined using a Transwell assay. Following the successful construction and transfection of the pGCsi-nm23-H1 plasmid into the K562 cells, nm23-H1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly lower compared with the control group. The stably-transfected pGCsi-nm23-H1 K562 cells exhibited a markedly increased ability to form colonies and the number and sizes of the colonies were significantly increased compared with those of the control. In vitro, the cells migrated through a Matrigel-coated membrane during incubation for 20 h. The Transwell assay revealed that the quantitative number of pGCsi-nm23-H1 K562 cells that migrated into the lower compartment of the invasion chamber was markedly increased compared with the control. In conclusion, nm23-H1 gene expression may inhibit K562 cell proliferation and migration. nm23-H1 may be a cancer suppressor gene and play a significant role in inhibiting the survival of CML cells.

DAI, ZHENSHENG; XIAO, WEIZHONG; JIN, YUELING

2013-01-01

89

Resveratrol inhibits LXR?-dependent hepatic lipogenesis through novel antioxidant Sestrin2 gene induction.  

PubMed

Liver X receptor-? (LXR?), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates de novo fatty acid synthesis that leads to stimulate hepatic steatosis. Although, resveratrol has beneficial effects on metabolic disease, it is not known whether resveratrol affects LXR?-dependent lipogenic gene expression. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-mediated lipogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Resveratrol inhibited the ability of LXR? to activate sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and thereby inhibited target gene expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, resveratrol decreased LXR?-RXR? DNA binding activity and LXRE-luciferase transactivation. Resveratrol is known to activate Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although its precise mechanism of action remains controversial. We found that the ability of resveratrol to repress T0901317-induced SREBP-1c expression was not dependent on AMPK and Sirt1. It is well established that hepatic steatosis is associated with antioxidant and redox signaling. Our data showing that expression of Sestrin2 (Sesn2), which is a novel antioxidant gene, was significantly down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, resveratrol up-regulated Sesn2 expression, but not Sesn1 and Sesn3. Sesn2 overexpression repressed LXR?-activated SREBP-1c expression and LXRE-luciferase activity. Finally, Sesn2 knockdown using siRNA abolished the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-induced FAS luciferase gene transactivation. We conclude that resveratrol affects Sesn2 gene induction and contributes to the inhibition of LXR?-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:23651738

Jin, So Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Shin, Bo Yeon; Seo, Kyuhwa; Shin, Sang Mi; Cho, Il Je; Ki, Sung Hwan

2013-05-05

90

Systemic Myostatin Inhibition via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer in Normal and Dystrophic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Myostatin inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy to maintain muscle mass in a variety of disorders, including the muscular dystrophies, cachexia, and sarcopenia. Previously described approaches to blocking myostatin signaling include injection delivery of inhibitory propeptide domain or neutralizing antibodies. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a unique method of myostatin inhibition utilizing recombinant adeno-associated virus to overexpress a secretable dominant negative myostatin exclusively in the liver of mice. Systemic myostatin inhibition led to increased skeletal muscle mass and strength in control C57 Bl/6 mice and in the dystrophin-deficient mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The mdx soleus, a mouse muscle more representative of human fiber type composition, demonstrated the most profound improvement in force production and a shift toward faster myosin-heavy chain isoforms. Unexpectedly, the 11-month-old mdx diaphragm was not rescued by long-term myostatin inhibition. Further, mdx mice treated for 11 months exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and impaired function in an inhibitor dose–dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance Liver-targeted gene transfer of a myostatin inhibitor is a valuable tool for preclinical investigation of myostatin blockade and provides novel insights into the long-term effects and shortcomings of myostatin inhibition on striated muscle.

Morine, Kevin J.; Bish, Lawrence T.; Pendrak, Klara; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2010-01-01

91

[p21(WAF1) Gene Transfection Inhibits Proliferation of Leukemia Cell Line K562  

PubMed

To explore the functional role of p21(WAF1) gene on the proliferation of leukemia cell line K562, a p21(WAF1) retroviral expression vector was constructed. Mediated by FuGENE trade mark 6, p21(WAF1) was transfected into leukemia cell line K562, which was without p21(WAF1) expression. After selected in G418, K562 cell clones that expressed p21(WAF1) stabaly were isolated and named K562-p21(WAF1). The ectopic expression of p21(WAF1) mRNA and protein in K562 cells was identified by RT-PCR and Western Blot. The cell proliferaton was tested in liquid and soft agar culture after transfection. The cell cycle was tested by FCM. The expression of p21(WAF1) protein and mRNA could be detected in K562-p21(WAF1) cells. A strong inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in K562-p21(WAF1) cell clones cultured in liquid media as well as soft agar (P < 0.01). The cell number in G(0)/G(1) phase was remarkably increased. The findings showed that p21(WAF1) can inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells, and it could be a potential target gene for leukemia gene therapy. PMID:12578615

Yang, Hui; Wang, Shen-Wu; Yin, Hui-Jun

2001-06-01

92

TLR2-Dependent Inhibition of Macrophage Responses to IFN-? Is Mediated by Distinct, Gene-Specific Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses multiple mechanisms to avoid elimination by the immune system. We have previously shown that M. tuberculosis can inhibit selected macrophage responses to IFN-? through TLR2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To specifically address the role of TLR2 signaling in mediating this inhibition, we stimulated macrophages with the specific TLR2/1 ligand Pam3CSK4 and assayed responses to IFN-?. Pam3CSK4 stimulation prior to IFN-? inhibited transcription of the unrelated IFN-?-inducible genes, CIITA and CXCL11. Surface expression of MHC class II and secretion of CXCL11 were greatly reduced as well, indicating that the reduction in transcripts had downstream effects. Inhibition of both genes required new protein synthesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that TLR2 stimulation inhibited IFN-?-induced RNA polymerase II binding to the CIITA and CXCL11 promoters. Furthermore, TATA binding protein was unable to bind the TATA box of the CXCL11 promoter, suggesting that assembly of transcriptional machinery was disrupted. However, TLR2 stimulation affected chromatin modifications differently at each of the inhibited promoters. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation was reduced at the CIITA promoter but unaffected at the CXCL11 promoter. In addition, NF-?B signaling was required for inhibition of CXCL11 transcription, but not for inhibition of CIITA. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR2-dependent inhibition of IFN-?-induced gene expression is mediated by distinct, gene-specific mechanisms that disrupt binding of the transcriptional machinery to the promoters.

Benson, Sarah A.; Ernst, Joel D.

2009-01-01

93

In vitro infection with classical swine fever virus inhibits the transcription of immune response genes  

PubMed Central

Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can evade the immune response and establish chronic infection under natural and experimental conditions. Some genes related to antigen processing and presentation and to cytokine regulation are known to be involved in this response, but the precise mechanism through which each gene responds to CSFV infection remains unclear. Results In this study, the amplification standard curve and corresponding linear regression equations for the genes SLA-2, TAP1, SLA-DR, Ii, CD40, CD80, CD86, IFN-?, and IFN-? were established successfully. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the immune response gene transcription in PK-15 cells post CSFV infection. Results showed that: (1) immune response genes were generally down-regulated as a result of CSFV infection, and (2) the expression of SLA-2, SLA-DR, Ii and CD80 was significantly decreased (p<0.001). Conclusion We conclude that in vitro infection with CSFV inhibits the transcription of host immune response genes. These findings may facilitate the development of effective strategies for controlling CSF.

2012-01-01

94

The transcriptional co-repressor myeloid translocation gene 16 inhibits glycolysis and stimulates mitochondrial respiration.  

PubMed

The myeloid translocation gene 16 product MTG16 is found in multiple transcription factor-containing complexes as a regulator of gene expression implicated in development and tumorigenesis. A stable Tet-On system for doxycycline-dependent expression of MTG16 was established in B-lymphoblastoid Raji cells to unravel its molecular functions in transformed cells. A noticeable finding was that expression of certain genes involved in tumor cell metabolism including 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 and 4 (PFKFB3 and PFKFB4), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 1 (PDK1) was rapidly diminished when MTG16 was expressed. Furthermore, hypoxia-stimulated production of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 was inhibited by MTG16 expression. The genes in question encode key regulators of glycolysis and its coupling to mitochondrial metabolism and are commonly found to be overexpressed in transformed cells. The MTG16 Nervy Homology Region 2 (NHR2) oligomerization domain and the NHR3 protein-protein interaction domain were required intact for inhibition of PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 expression to occur. Expression of MTG16 reduced glycolytic metabolism while mitochondrial respiration and formation of reactive oxygen species increased. The metabolic changes were paralleled by increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, reduced levels of amino acids and inhibition of proliferation with a decreased fraction of cells in S-phase. Overall, our findings show that MTG16 can serve as a brake on glycolysis, a stimulator of mitochondrial respiration and an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Hence, elevation of MTG16 might have anti-tumor effect. PMID:23840896

Kumar, Parveen; Sharoyko, Vladimir V; Spégel, Peter; Gullberg, Urban; Mulder, Hindrik; Olsson, Inge; Ajore, Ram

2013-07-01

95

?-MSH inhibits induction of C\\/EBP?-DNA binding activity and NOS2 gene transcription in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-MSH inhibits induction of C\\/EBP?-DNA binding activity and NOS2 gene transcription in macrophages.Background?-Melanocyte–stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is an endogenous tridecapeptide that exerts anti-inflammatory actions and abrogates postischemic renal injury in rodents. ?-MSH inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2), but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been clearly defined. To test the

Ashish K. Gupta; Rebecca A. Diaz; Sandra Higham; Bruce C. Kone

2000-01-01

96

Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Inhibition as an Alternative and Convenient Method for Gene Function Analysis in Pollen Tubes  

PubMed Central

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (A-ODN) inhibition works well in animal cells. However, there have been few successful examples to date of its application in plants, and more specifically whether the technique can be used in pollen tubes as a model of plant cell growth. NtGNL1 plays an important role in pollen tube development and was thus selected as an indicator to assess the biological effects of A-ODN. An A-ODN inhibition technique was used to down-regulate NtGNL1 expression in tobacco pollen tubes and showed that A-ODNs could quickly enter pollen tubes through the thick wall and cell membrane and effectively block NtGNL1 expression. Phenotype analysis revealed that the down-regulation of NtGNL1 by A-ODNs resulted in abnormalities in endocytosis and subsequent vesicle trafficking, similar to the phenotypes of pollen tubes treated with NtGNL1 RNAi. This investigation confirmed that A-ODNs could specifically inhibit target gene expression, and furthermore demonstrated that A-ODN functioned in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner, because A-ODNs could be degraded when incubated with pollen tubes. Thus, the A-ODN technique was successfully used for gene function analysis in pollen tubes and appears to be an alternative and convenient technique when the in vitro pollen tube is used as the study model. This technique will greatly facilitate investigations on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying pollen tube growth.

Liao, Fanglei; Wang, Lu; Yang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Liyao; Peng, Xiongbo; Sun, Meng-xiang

2013-01-01

97

FOXO3a regulates reactive oxygen metabolism by inhibiting mitochondrial gene expression  

PubMed Central

Forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FOXOs) are important targets of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, and are key regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis and response to oxidative stress. FOXOs have been shown to have tumour suppressor function and are important for stem cell maintenance. We have performed a detailed analysis of the transcriptional programme induced in response to Forkhead-box protein O3a (FOXO3a) activation. We observed that FOXO3a activation results in the repression of a large number of nuclear-encoded genes with mitochondrial function. Repression of these genes was mediated by FOXO3a-dependent inhibition of c-Myc. FOXO3a activation also caused a reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number, expression of mitochondrial proteins, respiratory complexes and mitochondrial respiratory activity. FOXO3a has been previously implicated in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through induction of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD2). We observed that reduction in ROS levels following FOXO3a activation was independent of SOD2, but required c-Myc inhibition. Hypoxia increases ROS production from the mitochondria, which is required for stabilisation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). FOXO3a activation blocked the hypoxia-dependent increase in ROS and prevented HIF-1? stabilisation. Our data suggest that FOXO factors regulate mitochondrial activity through inhibition of c-Myc function and alter the hypoxia response.

Ferber, E C; Peck, B; Delpuech, O; Bell, G P; East, P; Schulze, A

2012-01-01

98

BMP7 Gene Transfer via Gold Nanoparticles into Stroma Inhibits Corneal Fibrosis In Vivo  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of BMP7 gene transfer on corneal wound healing and fibrosis inhibition in vivo using a rabbit model. Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with the excimer laser performing -9 diopters photorefractive keratectomy. BMP7 gene was introduced into rabbit keratocytes by polyethylimine-conjugated gold nanoparticles (PEI2-GNPs) transfection solution single 5-minute topical application on the eye. Corneal haze and ocular health in live animals was gauged with stereo- and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The levels of fibrosis [?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), F-actin and fibronectin], immune reaction (CD11b and F4/80), keratocyte apoptosis (TUNEL), calcification (alizarin red, vonKossa and osteocalcin), and delivered-BMP7 gene expression in corneal tissues were quantified with immunofluorescence, western blotting and/or real-time PCR. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and in vitro experiments were used to characterize the molecular mechanism mediating BMP7’s anti-fibrosis effects. PEI2-GNPs showed substantial BMP7 gene delivery into rabbit keratocytes in vivo (2×104 gene copies/ug DNA). Localized BMP7 gene therapy showed a significant corneal haze decrease (1.68±0.31 compared to 3.2±0.43 in control corneas; p<0.05) in Fantes grading scale. Immunostaining and immunoblot analyses detected significantly reduced levels of ?SMA (46±5% p<0.001) and fibronectin proteins (48±5% p<0.01). TUNEL, CD11b, and F4/80 assays revealed that BMP7 gene therapy is nonimmunogenic and nontoxic for the cornea. Furthermore, alizarin red, vonKossa and osteocalcin analyses revealed that localized PEI2-GNP-mediated BMP7 gene transfer in rabbit cornea does not cause calcification or osteoblast recruitment. Immunofluorescence of BMP7-transefected HCFs showed significantly increased pSmad-1/5/8 nuclear localization (>88%; p<0.0001), and immunoblotting of BMP7-transefected HCFs grown in the presence of TGF? demonstrated significantly enhanced pSmad-1/5/8 (95%; p<0.001) and Smad6 (53%, p<0.001), and decreased ?SMA (78%; p<0.001) protein levels. These results suggest that localized BMP7 gene delivery in rabbit cornea modulates wound healing and inhibits fibrosis in vivo by counter balancing TGF?1-mediated profibrotic Smad signaling.

Tandon, Ashish; Sharma, Ajay; Rodier, Jason T.; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Rieger, Frank G.; Mohan, Rajiv R.

2013-01-01

99

Haplotype Polymorphism in the Alpha2B-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Influences Response Inhibition in a Large Chinese Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response inhibition refers to the suppression of inappropriate or irrelevant responses. It has a central role in executive functions, and has been linked to a wide spectrum of prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence from neuropharmacological studies has suggested that gene variants in the norepinephrine neurotransmission system make specific contributions to response inhibition. This study genotyped five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering

Xuemei Lei; Chuansheng Chen; Qinghua He; Robert Moyzis; Gui Xue; Chunhui Chen; Zhongyu Cao; Jin Li; He Li; Bi Zhu; Mingxia Zhang; Jun Li; Qi Dong; C Chen

2012-01-01

100

Comparative ability of ibuprofen and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide to inhibit development of rat mammary adenocarcinomas associated with differential inhibition of gene expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms.  

PubMed

A rodent model of carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was used to determine the comparative growth inhibitory effects of dietary administration of either 1000 mg/kg of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen or 1.5 mmol/kg of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR). In addition, the effects of these compounds on gene expression and protein production of the two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase (COX) gene which are responsible for prostaglandin production were examined. Experimental diets were provided to rats beginning at 7 days prior to administration of a single intragastric dose of 15 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and diets were provided ad libitum until the study was terminated at 16 weeks later. Ibuprofen significantly decreased levels of gene expression of both COX-1 and COX-2 (p < 0.01). Although dietary 4-HPR did significantly diminish levels of COX-1 gene expression (p < 0.01) in rat mammary adenocarcinomas, this synthetic retinoid did not significantly inhibit COX-2 gene expression. COX-1 protein was localized to endothelial cells, infiltrating inflammatory cells, and tumor cells, while COX-2 protein was detected primarily within tumor cells. Although ibuprofen was more effective in inhibiting COX-2 gene expression than 4-HPR, ibuprofen and 4-HPR were equally effective in inhibiting development of carcinogen-induced mammary adenocarcinomas. PMID:10697514

Parrett, M L; Abou-Issa, H M; Alshafie, G; Ross, M S; Harris, R E; Robertson, F M

101

Genetic Inactivation of COPI Coatomer Separately Inhibits Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Entry and Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Viruses coopt cellular membrane transport to invade cells, establish intracellular sites of replication, and release progeny virions. Recent genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens revealed that genetically divergent viruses require biosynthetic membrane transport by the COPI coatomer complex for efficient replication. Here we found that disrupting COPI function by RNAi inhibited an early stage of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. To dissect which replication stage(s) was affected by coatomer inactivation, we used visual and biochemical assays to independently measure the efficiency of viral entry and gene expression in hamster (ldlF) cells depleted of the temperature-sensitive ?-COP subunit. We show that ?-COP depletion for 12 h caused a primary block to virus internalization and a secondary defect in viral gene expression. Using brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inhibitor of COPI function, we demonstrate that short-term (1-h) BFA treatments inhibit VSV gene expression, while only long-term (12-h) treatments block virus entry. We conclude that prolonged coatomer inactivation perturbs cellular endocytic transport and thereby indirectly impairs VSV entry. Our results offer an explanation of why COPI coatomer is frequently identified in screens for cellular factors that support cell invasion by microbial pathogens.

Burdeinick-Kerr, Rebeca

2012-01-01

102

The Imprinted Gene PEG3 Inhibits Wnt Signaling and Regulates Glioma Growth*  

PubMed Central

The imprinted gene PEG3 confers parenting and sexual behaviors, alters growth and development, and regulates apoptosis. However, a molecular mechanism that can account for the diverse functions of Peg3/Pw1 is not known. To elucidate Peg3-regulated pathways, we performed a functional screen in zebrafish. Enforced overexpression of PEG3 mRNA during zebrafish embryogenesis decreased ?-catenin protein expression and inhibited Wnt-dependent tail development. Peg3/Pw1 also inhibited Wnt signaling in human cells by binding to ?-catenin and promoting its degradation via a p53/Siah1-dependent, GSK3?-independent proteasomal pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt pathway by Peg3/Pw1 suggested a role in tumor suppression. Hypermethylation of the PEG3 promoter in primary human gliomas led to a loss of imprinting and decreased PEG3 mRNA expression that correlated with tumor grade. The decrease in Peg3/Pw1 protein expression increased ?-catenin, promoted proliferation, and inhibited p53-dependent apoptosis in human CD133+ glioma stem cells. Thus, mammalian imprinting utilizes Peg3/Pw1 to co-opt the Wnt pathway, thereby regulating development and glioma growth.

Jiang, Xiuli; Yu, Yi; Yang, Hong Wei; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Frado, Laura; Johnson, Mark D.

2010-01-01

103

Gene array identification of osteoclast genes: differential inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by cyclosporin A and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor.  

PubMed

Treatment of adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) stimulates the formation of multinucleate osteoclast-like cells. Treatment with M-CSF alone results in the formation of macrophage-like cells. Through the use of Atlas human cDNA expression arrays, genes regulated by RANKL were identified. Genes include numerous cytokines and cytokine receptors (RANTES and CSF2R proportional, variant ), transcription factors (nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and GA binding protein transcription factor alpha (GABPalpha)), and ribosomal proteins (60S L17 and 40S S20). Real-time PCR analysis showed significant correlation (R2 of 0.98 P < 0.01) with array data for all genes tested. Time courses showed differential activation patterns of transcription factors with early induction of FUSE binding protein 1 (FBP) and c-Jun, and later steady upregulation of NFATc1 and GABP by RANKL. Treatment with cyclosporin A, a known NFATc1 inhibitor, resulted in a blockade of osteoclast formation. The mononuclear cells resulting from high cyclosporin treatment (1,000 ng/ml) were cathepsin K (CTSK) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive but expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) was downregulated by more than 30-fold. Constant exposure of M-CSF- and RANKL-treated cells to GM-CSF resulted in inhibition of osteoclast formation and the downregulation of CTSK and TRAP implicating the upregulation of CSF2R in a possible feedback inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:14743390

Day, Christopher J; Kim, Michael S; Stephens, Sébastien R J; Simcock, Wendy E; Aitken, Cathy J; Nicholson, Geoff C; Morrison, Nigel A

2004-02-01

104

Relief of amplification inhibition in PCR with bovine serum albumin or T4 gene 32 protein  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) or T4 gene 32 proteins (gp32) to PCR were evaluated with reaction mixtures containing substances that inhibit amplification. Whereas 10- to 1,000-fold more FeCl{sub 3}, hemin, fulvic acids, humic acids, tannic acids, or extracts from feces, freshwater, or marine water were accommodated in PCR when either 400 ng of BSA per {mu}l was included in the reactions, neither BSA nor gp32 relieved interference significantly when minimum inhibitory levels of bile salts, bilirubin, EDTA, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or Triton X-100 were present. Use of BSA and gp32 together offered no more relief of inhibition than either alone at its optimal level, and neither protein had any noticeable effect on amplification in the absence of inhibitors. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Kreader, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-03-01

105

Inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II gene transcription by nitric oxide and antioxidants.  

PubMed

Interferon (IFN)-gamma facilitates cellular immune response, in part, by inducing the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma induces the expression of HLA-DRA in vascular endothelial cells via mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA expression was inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and N-acetylcysteine. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that NO and antioxidants inhibited IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA gene transcription. Transient transfection studies using a fully functional HLA-DRA promoter construct ([-300]DR alpha.CAT) showed that inhibition of endogenous NO synthase activity by N(omega)-monomethyl-l-arginine or addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) augmented basal and IFN-gamma-stimulated [-300]DR alpha.CAT activity. However, H(2)O(2) and N(omega)-monomethyl-l-arginine could induce HLA-DRA expression suggesting that H(2)O(2) is a necessary but not a sufficient mediator of IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western blotting demonstrated that NO and antioxidants had little or no effect on IFN-gamma-induced IRF-1 activation or MHC-II transactivator (CIITA) expression but did inhibit IFN-gamma-induced activation of STAT1 alpha (p91) and Y box transcription factors, NF-Y(A) and NF-Y(B). These results indicate that NO and antioxidants may attenuate vascular inflammation by antagonizing the effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation by IFN-gamma, which is necessary for MHC-II gene transcription. PMID:12006557

Grimm, Michael; Spiecker, Martin; De Caterina, Raffaele; Shin, Wee Soo; Liao, James K

2002-05-10

106

Amino acids inhibit Agrp gene expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism  

PubMed Central

Metabolic fuels act on hypothalamic neurons to regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms mediating these effects are not fully clear. Rats placed on a low-protein diet (10% of calories) exhibited increased food intake (P < 0.05) and hypothalamic Agouti-related protein (Agrp) gene expression (P = 0.002). Direct intracerebroventricular injection of either an amino acid mixture (RPMI 1640) or leucine alone (1 ?g) suppressed 24-h food intake (P < 0.05), indicating that increasing amino acid concentrations within the brain is sufficient to suppress food intake. To define a cellular mechanism for these direct effects, GT1–7 hypothalamic cells were exposed to low amino acids for 16 h. Decreasing amino acid availability increased Agrp mRNA levels in GT1–7 cells (P < 0.01), and this effect was attenuated by replacement of the amino acid leucine (P < 0.05). Acute exposure to elevated amino acid concentrations increased ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation via a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism, suggesting that amino acids directly stimulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. To test whether mTOR signaling contributes to amino acid inhibition of Agrp gene expression, GT1–7 cells cultured in either low or high amino acids for 16 h and were also treated with rapamcyin (50 nM). Rapamycin treatment increased Agrp mRNA levels in cells exposed to high amino acids (P = 0.01). Taken together, these observations indicate that amino acids can act within the brain to inhibit food intake and that a direct, mTOR-dependent inhibition of Agrp gene expression may contribute to this effect.

Morrison, Christopher D.; Xi, Xiaochun; White, Christy L.; Ye, Jianping; Martin, Roy J.

2008-01-01

107

Wolbachia Stimulates Immune Gene Expression and Inhibits Plasmodium Development in Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

The over-replicating wMelPop strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has recently been shown to be capable of inducing immune upregulation and inhibition of pathogen transmission in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In order to examine whether comparable effects would be seen in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, transient somatic infections of wMelPop were created by intrathoracic inoculation. Upregulation of six selected immune genes was observed compared to controls, at least two of which (LRIM1 and TEP1) influence the development of malaria parasites. A stably infected An. gambiae cell line also showed increased expression of malaria-related immune genes. Highly significant reductions in Plasmodium infection intensity were observed in the wMelPop-infected cohort, and using gene knockdown, evidence for the role of TEP1 in this phenotype was obtained. Comparing the levels of upregulation in somatic and stably inherited wMelPop infections in Ae. aegypti revealed that levels of upregulation were lower in the somatic infections than in the stably transinfected line; inhibition of development of Brugia filarial nematodes was nevertheless observed in the somatic wMelPop infected females. Thus we consider that the effects observed in An. gambiae are also likely to be more pronounced if stably inherited wMelPop transinfections can be created, and that somatic infections of Wolbachia provide a useful model for examining effects on pathogen development or dissemination. The data are discussed with respect to the comparative effects on malaria vectorial capacity of life shortening and direct inhibition of Plasmodium development that can be produced by Wolbachia.

Kambris, Zakaria; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Pinto, Sofia B.; Blagrove, Marcus S. C.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Sinden, Robert E.; Sinkins, Steven P.

2010-01-01

108

Wolbachia stimulates immune gene expression and inhibits plasmodium development in Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed

The over-replicating wMelPop strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has recently been shown to be capable of inducing immune upregulation and inhibition of pathogen transmission in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In order to examine whether comparable effects would be seen in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, transient somatic infections of wMelPop were created by intrathoracic inoculation. Upregulation of six selected immune genes was observed compared to controls, at least two of which (LRIM1 and TEP1) influence the development of malaria parasites. A stably infected An. gambiae cell line also showed increased expression of malaria-related immune genes. Highly significant reductions in Plasmodium infection intensity were observed in the wMelPop-infected cohort, and using gene knockdown, evidence for the role of TEP1 in this phenotype was obtained. Comparing the levels of upregulation in somatic and stably inherited wMelPop infections in Ae. aegypti revealed that levels of upregulation were lower in the somatic infections than in the stably transinfected line; inhibition of development of Brugia filarial nematodes was nevertheless observed in the somatic wMelPop infected females. Thus we consider that the effects observed in An. gambiae are also likely to be more pronounced if stably inherited wMelPop transinfections can be created, and that somatic infections of Wolbachia provide a useful model for examining effects on pathogen development or dissemination. The data are discussed with respect to the comparative effects on malaria vectorial capacity of life shortening and direct inhibition of Plasmodium development that can be produced by Wolbachia. PMID:20949079

Kambris, Zakaria; Blagborough, Andrew M; Pinto, Sofia B; Blagrove, Marcus S C; Godfray, H Charles J; Sinden, Robert E; Sinkins, Steven P

2010-10-07

109

ALLOANTISERUM-IN DUCED INHIBITION OF MIGRATION INHIBITION FACTOR PRODUCTION IN IMMUNE RESPONSE GENE-CONTROLLED IMMUNE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of immune response (Ir) 1 genes which control the capacity of indi- vidual animals to respond to specific antigens have been described in guinea pigs, mice, rats, and man (1-3). These Ir genes are linked to the major histo- compatibility gene complex in each species. It is likely that products of Ir genes are involved in the process

SHLOMO Z. BEN-SASSON; ETHAN SHEVACH; IRA GREEN; WILLIAM E. PAUL

110

Luminal fructose inhibits rat intestinal sodium-phosphate cotransporter gene expression and phosphate uptake24  

PubMed Central

Background While searching by microarray for sugar-responsive genes, we inadvertently discovered that sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2B (NaPi-2b) mRNA concentrations were much lower in fructose-perfused than in glucose-perfused intestines of neonatal rats. Changes in NaPi-2b mRNA abundance by sugars were accompanied by similar changes in NaPi-2b protein abundance and in rates of inorganic phosphate (Pi) uptake. Objective We tested the hypothesis that luminal fructose regulates NaPi-2b. Design We perfused into the intestine fructose, glucose, and non-metabolizable or poorly transported glucose analogs as well as phlorizin. Results NaPi-2b mRNA concentrations and Pi uptake rates in fructose-perfused intestines were ?30% of those in glucose and its analogs. NaPi-2b inhibition by fructose is specific because the mRNA abundance and activity of the fructose transporter GLUT5 (glucose transporter 5) increased with fructose perfusion, whereas those of other transporters were independent of the perfusate. Plasma Pi after 4 h of perfusion was independent of the perfusate, probably because normal kidneys can maintain normophosphatemia. Inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase, another fructose-responsive gene, with tungstate or vanadate nonspecifically inhibited NaPi-2b mRNA expression and Pi uptake in both glucose- or fructose-perfused intestines. The AMP kinase (AMPK)–activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribofuranoside) enhanced and the fatty acid synthase–AMPK inhibitor C75 (3-carboxy-4-octyl-2-methylene-butyrolactone trans-4-carboxy-5-octyl-3-methylenebutyrolactone) prevented fructose inhibition of NaPi-2b but had no effect on expression of other transporters. NaPi-2b expression decreased markedly with age and was inhibited by fructose in all age groups. Conclusions Energy levels in enterocytes may play a role in NaPi-2b inhibition by luminal fructose. Consumption of fructose that supplies ?10% of caloric intake by Americans clearly affects absorption of Pi and may promote Pi homeostasis in patients with impaired renal function.

Kirchner, Severine; Muduli, Anjali; Casirola, Donatella; Prum, Kannitha; Douard, Veronique; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

2008-01-01

111

Multiple pigmentation gene polymorphisms account for a substantial proportion of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

We have previously described the role of red hair (melanocortin-1 receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (oculocutaneous albinism type II, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye, and skin color. In this paper, we test a selected set of polymorphisms in pigmentation loci (ASIP (Agouti signalling protein, nonagouti homolog (mouse) gene), TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1), MC1R, OCA2, IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4), SLC24A4 (solute carrier family 24, member 4), and SLC45A2 (solute carrier family 45, member 2)) for association with CMM risk in a large Australian population-based case-control study. Variants in IRF4 and SLC24A4, despite being strongly associated with pigmentation in our sample, did not modify CMM risk, but the other six did. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs28777, rs35391, and rs16891982) in the MATP gene (SLC45A2) exhibited the strongest crude association with risk, but this was attenuated to approximately the same effect size as that of a MC1R red hair color allele by controlling for ancestry of cases and controls. We also detected significant epistatic interactions between SLC45A2 and OCA2 alleles, and MC1R and ASIP alleles. Overall, these measured variants account for 12% of the familial risk of CMM in our population. PMID:19710684

Duffy, David L; Zhao, Zhen Z; Sturm, Richard A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W

2009-08-27

112

Non-structural proteins of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus inhibit cellular gene expression and induce necrosis in Sf9 cell cultures.  

PubMed

The non-structural protein NS1 of Periplaneta fuliginosa densovirus (PfDNV) is a multifunctional protein that has previously been shown to possess ATP-binding, ATPase, site-specific DNA-binding, helicase, and transcription activation activities. We report here an investigation of the cytopathogenicity of this viral non-structural (NS) protein, as well as other two NSs, NS2, and NS3, in cultured insect cells. The expression of NS1 alone potently inhibited cellular gene expression, whereas NS2 and NS3 did not produce a similar effect. The inhibition of gene expression by NS1 was confirmed to be specific and not a simple manifestation of toxicity. For example, NS1 inhibited expression of several reporter genes under the control of different RNA polymerase II promoters, whereas it did not inhibit expression from a T7 RNA polymerase promoter construct. Mapping analysis identified the carboxy-terminal peptide of this protein as the region important for the inhibition of cellular gene expression, suggesting that this inhibition is independent of its DNA-binding activity. Next, the mutagenesis assay showed that ATP-binding was essential for the unique function of this protein. Furthermore, we found that NS2 and NS3 cooperatively enhanced the NS1-induced transcription inhibition. Co-expression of all the three NS proteins in Sf9 cells also led to necrotic cell death by ATP depletion. PMID:19294499

Yang, Bo; Cai, Dawei; Yu, Peiran; Dong, Xiaomin; Liu, Zhigang; Hu, Zheng; Cao, Xu; Zhang, Jiamin; Hu, Yuanyang

2009-03-18

113

Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies genes inhibiting the migration of glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cells are highly invasive, infiltrating into the surrounding normal brain tissue, making it impossible to completely eradicate GBM tumors by surgery or radiation. Increasing evidence also shows that these migratory cells are highly resistant to cytotoxic reagents, but decreasing their migratory capability can re-sensitize them to chemotherapy. These evidences suggest that the migratory cell population may serve as a better therapeutic target for more effective treatment of GBM. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism underlying the motile phenotype, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes inhibiting the migration of GBM cells. The screening identified a total of twenty-five primary hits; seven of them were confirmed by secondary screening. Further study showed that three of the genes, FLNA, KHSRP and HCFC1, also functioned in vivo, and knocking them down caused multifocal tumor in a mouse model. Interestingly, two genes, KHSRP and HCFC1, were also found to be correlated with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. These two genes have not been previously associated with cell migration. PMID:23593504

Yang, Jian; Fan, Jing; Li, Ying; Li, Fuhai; Chen, Peikai; Fan, Yubo; Xia, Xiaofeng; Wong, Stephen T

2013-04-12

114

Genome-Wide RNAi Screening Identifies Genes Inhibiting the Migration of Glioblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) cells are highly invasive, infiltrating into the surrounding normal brain tissue, making it impossible to completely eradicate GBM tumors by surgery or radiation. Increasing evidence also shows that these migratory cells are highly resistant to cytotoxic reagents, but decreasing their migratory capability can re-sensitize them to chemotherapy. These evidences suggest that the migratory cell population may serve as a better therapeutic target for more effective treatment of GBM. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism underlying the motile phenotype, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes inhibiting the migration of GBM cells. The screening identified a total of twenty-five primary hits; seven of them were confirmed by secondary screening. Further study showed that three of the genes, FLNA, KHSRP and HCFC1, also functioned in vivo, and knocking them down caused multifocal tumor in a mouse model. Interestingly, two genes, KHSRP and HCFC1, were also found to be correlated with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. These two genes have not been previously associated with cell migration.

Yang, Jian; Fan, Jing; Li, Ying; Li, Fuhai; Chen, Peikai; Fan, Yubo; Xia, Xiaofeng; Wong, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

115

A novel Capsicum gene inhibits host-specific disease resistance to Phytophthora capsici.  

PubMed

A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety 'New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399' (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses. PMID:23577838

Reeves, Gregory; Monroy-Barbosa, Ariadna; Bosland, Paul W

2013-05-01

116

Selective inhibition of growth-related gene expression in murine keratinocytes by transforming growth factor beta.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation. A nontumorigenic epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent epithelial cell line, BALB/MK, is reversibly growth arrested by TGF beta. TGF beta will also abrogate EGF-stimulated mitogenesis of quiescent BALB/MK cells. Increased levels of calcium (greater than 1.0 mM) will induce differentiation in BALB/MK cells; in contrast, TGF beta-mediated growth inhibition does not result in induction of terminal differentiation. In the present study, the effects of TGF beta and calcium on growth factor-inducible gene expression were examined. TGF beta markedly decreased c-myc and KC gene expression in rapidly growing BALB/MK cells and reduced the EGF induction of c-myc and KC in a quiescent population of cells. TGF beta exerted its control over c-myc expression at a posttranscriptional level, and this inhibitory effect was dependent on protein synthesis. TGF beta had no effect on c-fos gene expression, whereas 1.5 mM calcium attenuated EGF-induced c-fos expression in quiescent cells. Expression of beta-actin, however, was slightly increased in both rapidly growing and EGF-restimulated quiescent BALB/MK cells treated with TGF beta. Thus, in this system, TGF beta selectively reduced expression of certain genes associated with cell proliferation (c-myc and KC), and at least part of the TGF beta effect was at a posttranscriptional level. Images

Coffey, R J; Bascom, C C; Sipes, N J; Graves-Deal, R; Weissman, B E; Moses, H L

1988-01-01

117

Butylated Hydroxyanisole Stimulates Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression and Inhibits Neointima Formation in Rat Arteries  

PubMed Central

Objective Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound that is a potent inducer of phase II genes. Since heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vasoprotective protein that is upregulated by phase II inducers, the present study examined the effects of BHA on HO-1 gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Methods The regulation of HO-1 gene expression and vascular cell growth by BHA was studied in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells and in balloon injured rat carotid arteries. Results Treatment of cultured smooth muscle cells with BHA stimulated the expression of HO-1 protein, mRNA and promoter activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. BHA-mediated HO-1 expression was dependent on the activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. BHA also inhibited cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis in a HO-1-dependent manner. In addition, the local perivascular delivery of BHA immediately after arterial injury of rat carotid arteries induced HO-1 protein expression and markedly attenuated neointima formation. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that BHA stimulates HO-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, and that the induction of HO-1 contributes to the antiproliferative actions of this phenolic antioxidant. BHA represents a potentially novel therapeutic agent in treating or preventing vasculoproliferative disease.

Liu, Xiao-ming; Azam, Mohammed A.; Peyton, Kelly J.; Ensenat, Diana; Keswani, Amit N.; Wang, Hong; Durante, William

2007-01-01

118

Inhibition of choriodecidual cytokine production and inflammatory gene expression by selective I-?B kinase (IKK) inhibitors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inflammation of the extraplacental membranes plays a key role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. The aim of this study was to screen a number of commercially available small molecule nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors to identify candidates suitable for clinical evaluation as anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention of preterm birth. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Nine inhibitors were evaluated across a range of concentrations for their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production in primary term choriodecidual cells in culture without affecting cell viability. Expression of 112 inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes was evaluated using boutique oligonucleotide arrays. KEY RESULTS Two IKK? inhibitors were found to be highly effective and non-toxic inhibitors of choriodecidual cytokine production: parthenolide and [5-(p-fluorophenyl)-2-ureido] thiophene-3-carboxamide (TPCA-1). Both compounds also inhibited LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of p65/RelA. Expression of 38 genes on the arrays (34%) was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by TPCA-1 or parthenolide. Of the 14 genes significantly stimulated by LPS, all were inhibited by TPCA-1 and 12 were inhibited by parthenolide. Overall, gene expression was more robustly inhibited by TPCA-1 than parthenolide; however, expression of two genes was only inhibited by parthenolide. Neither compound significantly altered the expression profile of anti-apoptosis genes on the arrays. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These studies provide evidence that pharmacological inhibition of IKK? activity holds promise as a potential strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammation-driven preterm birth. TPCA-1 appeared the most promising compound among those tested in this study. Different inhibitors may have subtly different effect profiles despite having similar modes of action.

De Silva, D; Mitchell, MD; Keelan, JA

2010-01-01

119

Azidothymidine inhibits NF-?B and induces Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The antiviral compound azidothymidine (AZT), alone or in combination with other agents, induces apoptosis in early-passage, Epstein-Barr virus–positive Burkitt lymphoma (EBV+ BL) lines and has clinical activity in EBV+ BL. We report here a mechanism of AZT's antitumor activity. The nuclei of these cells contain activated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) subunits p50, c-Rel, RelB, and p52, but not p65. Treatment of primary EBV+ BL lines with AZT inhibited NF-?B within 1 to 2 hours. This was followed by up-regulation of EBV gene expression including viral thymidine kinase (vTK) and apoptosis. Subclones of EBV+ BL cells that demonstrated activated p65 were resistant to AZT. In EBV+ BLs, AZT but not ganciclovir (GCV) was highly phosphorylated to its monophosphate form (AZT-MP). Phosphorylation, as well as apoptosis, was markedly enhanced in the presence of hydroxyurea. AZT inhibits NF-?B and up-regulates EBV gene expression in primary EBV+ BLs. AZT with hydroxyurea may represent an inexpensive, targeted regimen for endemic BL.

Kurokawa, Motoki; Ghosh, Subrata K.; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Mian, Abdul M.; Toomey, Ngoc L.; Cabral, Lisa; Whitby, Denise; Barber, Glen N.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Harrington, William J.

2005-01-01

120

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-conjugated hyaluronic acid/protamine nanocomplexes for intracellular gene inhibition.  

PubMed

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) was covalently conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) via a reducible disulfide linkage, and the HA-ODN conjugate was complexed with protamine to increase the extent of cellular uptake and enhance the gene inhibition efficiency of GFP expression. The HA-ODN conjugate formed more stable polyelectrolyte complexes with protamine as compared to naked ODN, probably because of its increased charge density. The higher cellular uptake of protamine/HA-ODN complexes than that of protamine/naked ODN complexes was attributed to the formation of more compact nanosized complexes (approximately 200 nm in diameter) in aqueous solution. Protamine/HA-ODN complexes also showed a comparable level of GFP gene inhibition to that of cytotoxic polyethylenimine (PEI)/ODN complexes. Since both HA and protamine are naturally occurring biocompatible materials, the current formulation based on a cleavable conjugation strategy of ODN to HA could be potentially applied as safe and effective nonviral carriers for ODN and siRNA nucleic acid therapeutics. PMID:17602578

Mok, Hyejung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Tae Gwan

2007-06-28

121

Oligodendroglial differentiation induces mitochondrial genes and inhibition of mitochondrial function represses oligodendroglial differentiation.  

PubMed

Demyelination occurs in multiple inherited mitochondrial diseases. We studied which genes were induced as a consequence of differentiation in rodent and human oligodendroglia. Cholesterol, myelin and mitochondrial genes were significantly increased with oligodendroglial differentiation. Mitochondrial DNA content per cell and acetyl CoA-related transcripts increased significantly; thus, the large buildup of cholesterol necessary for myelination appears to require mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA. Oligodendroglia were treated with low doses of the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone to test the dependence of differentiation on mitochondrial function. Undifferentiated cells were resistant to rotenone, whereas differentiating cells were much more sensitive. Very low doses of rotenone that did not affect viability or ATP synthesis still inhibited differentiation, as measured by reduced levels of the myelin transcripts 2',3'-Cyclic Nucleotide-3'-Phosphodiesterase and Myelin Basic Protein. Thus, mitochondrial transcripts and mtDNA are amplified during oligodendroglial differentiation, and differentiating oligodendroglia are especially sensitive to mitochondrial inhibition, suggesting mechanisms for demyelination observed in mitochondrial disease. PMID:20005986

Schoenfeld, Robert; Wong, Alice; Silva, Jillian; Li, Ming; Itoh, Aki; Horiuchi, Makoto; Itoh, Takayuki; Pleasure, David; Cortopassi, Gino

2009-12-22

122

Oligodendroglial differentiation induces mitochondrial genes and inhibition of mitochondrial function represses oligodendroglial differentiation  

PubMed Central

Demyelination occurs in multiple inherited mitochondrial diseases. We studied which genes were induced as a consequence of differentiation in rodent and human oligodendroglia. Cholesterol, myelin and mitochondrial genes were significantly increased with oligodendroglial differentiation. Mitochondrial DNA content per cell and acetyl CoA-related transcripts increased significantly; thus, the large buildup of cholesterol necessary for myelination appears to require mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA. Oligodendroglia were treated with low doses of the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone to test the dependence of differentiation on mitochondrial function. Undifferentiated cells were resistant to rotenone, whereas differentiating cells were much more sensitive. Very low doses of rotenone that did not affect viability or ATP synthesis still inhibited differentiation, as measured by reduced levels of the myelin transcripts 2?,3?-Cyclic Nucleotide-3?-Phosphodiesterase and Myelin Basic Protein. Thus, mitochondrial transcripts and mtDNA are amplified during oligodendroglial differentiation, and differentiating oligodendroglia are especially sensitive to mitochondrial inhibition, suggesting mechanisms for demyelination observed in mitochondrial disease.

Schoenfeld, Robert; Wong, Alice; Silva, Jillian; Li, Ming; Itoh, Aki; Horiuchi, Makoto; Itoh, Takayuki; Pleasure, David; Cortopassi, Gino

2011-01-01

123

RA-inducible gene-I induction augments STAT1 activation to inhibit leukemia cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

RA-inducible gene I (RIG-I/DDX58) has been shown to activate IFN-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) on recognizing cytoplasmic viral RNAs. It is unclear how RIG-I functions within the IFN and/or RA signaling process in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, however, where obvious RIG-I induction is observed. Here, we show that the RIG-I induction functionally contributes to IFN-? plus RA-triggered growth inhibition of AML cells. Interestingly, although RIG-I induction itself is under the regulation of STAT1, a major IFN intracellular signal mediator, under circumstances in which it does not stimulate IPS-1, it conversely augments STAT1 activation to induce IFN-stimulatory gene expression and inhibit leukemia cell proliferation. Thus, our results unveil a previously undescribed RIG-I activity in regulating the cellular proliferation of leukemia cells via STAT1, which is independent of its classic role of sensing viral invasion to trigger type I IFN transcription.

Jiang, Lin-Jia; Zhang, Nan-Nan; Ding, Fei; Li, Xian-Yang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Wu; Chen, Sai-Juan; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Li, Jun-Min; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Jiang

2011-01-01

124

Inhibition of gene expression in Entamoeba by the transcription of antisense RNA: effect of 5' and 3' regulatory elements.  

PubMed

Down regulation of gene expression by antisense RNA is one of the ways to investigate the specific contribution of certain components to the physiology and activities of a cell. A successful inhibition of gene expression in Entamoeba trophozoites was achieved in stable transfectants by using hybrid plasmid constructs containing promotors that produce transcripts which do not bind to polysomes. Different promotors were found to be required for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar. In E. histolytica one of the two copies (g34) of the gene coding for ribosomal protein L21 was previously found to be transcribed but not translated. Inhibition of gene expression was obtained by placing in a transfection vector, the amoebapore A gene, in its antisense orientation, under the control of the g34 promotor. Transfectants of E. histolytica were shown to accumulate antisense transcripts and inhibit amoebapore synthesis. In contrast, transfectants with plasmid constructs in which the amoebapore gene was placed under the control of the gLE3 promotor of RP-L21, which is known to be translated, did not accumulate antisense transcript or inhibit gene expression. Maximal inhibition of amoebapore expression was obtained when the antisense construct also included the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the amoebapore gene. In E. dispar the opposite situation was found, plasmid constructs containing the promotor regions of the gLE3 copy, which were shown to be poorly translated, were more efficient in inhibiting the synthesis of a 30 kDa surface-specific antigen than a construct with the g34 promotor element. PMID:10717304

Bracha, R; Nuchamowitz, Y; Mirelman, D

2000-03-15

125

AAV-Mediated Gene Targeting Is Significantly Enhanced by Transient Inhibition of Nonhomologous End Joining or the Proteasome In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have clear potential for use in gene targeting but low correction efficiencies remain the primary drawback. One approach to enhancing efficiency is a block of undesired repair pathways like nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) to promote the use of homologous recombination. The natural product vanillin acts as a potent inhibitor of NHEJ by inhibiting DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Using a homology containing rAAV vector, we previously demonstrated in vivo gene repair frequencies of up to 0.1% in a model of liver disease hereditary tyrosinemia type I. To increase targeting frequencies, we administered vanillin in combination with rAAV. Gene targeting frequencies increased up to 10-fold over AAV alone, approaching 1%. Fah?/?Ku70?/? double knockout mice also had increased gene repair frequencies, genetically confirming the beneficial effects of blocking NHEJ. A second strategy, transient proteasomal inhibition, also increased gene-targeting frequencies but was not additive to NHEJ inhibition. This study establishes the benefit of transient NHEJ inhibition with vanillin, or proteasome blockage with bortezomib, for increasing hepatic gene targeting with rAAV. Functional metabolic correction of a clinically relevant disease model was demonstrated and provided evidence for the feasibility of gene targeting as a therapeutic strategy.

Paulk, Nicole K.; Loza, Laura Marquez; Finegold, Milton J.

2012-01-01

126

Black Raspberry Components Inhibit Proliferation, Induce Apoptosis and Modulate Gene Expression in Rat Esophageal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

We have shown that a diet containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) inhibits the development of chemically-induced cancer in the rat esophagus. To provide insights into possible mechanisms by which BRB inhibit esophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated an ethanol (EtOH) extract of BRB, and two component anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside) in BRB, for their effects on growth, apoptosis and gene expression in rat esophageal epithelial cell lines. The EtOH extract and both anthocyanins selectively caused significant growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a highly tumorigenic cell line (RE-149 DHD) but not in a weakly tumorigenic line (RE-149). The uptake of anthocyanins from the EtOH extract into RE-149 DHD cells far exceeded their uptake into RE-149 cells, which may have accounted for the selective effects of the extract on growth and apoptosis of RE-149 DHD cells. The growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced by the daily addition of the EtOH extract and the anthocyanins to the medium. Interestingly, the EtOH extract did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression in RE-149 DHD cells whereas, both anthocyanins down-regulated the expressions of these genes. This differential effect may have been related to the relative amounts of anthocyanins in the extract versus when they were added individually to the medium. We conclude that the selective effects of the EtOH extract on growth and apoptosis of highly tumorigenic rat esophageal epithelial cells in vitro may be due to preferential uptake and retention of its component anthocyanins, and this may also be responsible for the greater inhibitory effects of freeze-dried whole berries on tumor cells in vivo.

Zikri, Nancy N.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Wang, Li-Shu; Lechner, John F.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stoner, Gary D.

2010-01-01

127

Gene 5. 5 protein of bacteriophaze T7 inhibits the nucleoid protein H-NS of Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Gene 5.5 of coliphage T7 is one of the most highly expressed genes during T7 infection. Gene 5.5 protein, purified from cells overexpressing the cloned gene, purifies with the nucleoid protein H-NS of Escherichia coli during three chromatographic steps. A fusion protein of gene 5.5 protein and maltose binding protein also purifies with H-NS. The fusion protein binds to the DNA-H-NS complex and abolishes H-NS-mediated inhibition of transcription by Escherichia coli and T7 RNA polymerases in vitro. Expression of gene 5.5 also relieves the repression of the Escherichia coli proU promoter by H-NS in vivo. The change of leucine to proline at residue 30 of gene 5.5 protein abolishes the interaction between gene 5.5 protein and H-NS. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, Q.; Richardson, C.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

128

Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.  

PubMed

Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers. PMID:20372784

Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

2010-05-01

129

Von Willebrand Factor permeates small vessels in CADASIL and inhibits smooth muscle gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is a genetic disorder hallmarked by ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Characteristic pathological changes in the vasculature include thickening of small arteries and accumulation of heterogeneous material within the vessel wall. We tested whether endothelial von Willebrand factor (vWF) accumulates in CADASIL vessels and whether exposure of smooth muscle cells to vWF alters the expression of smooth muscle gene expression. Methods Brain sections obtained at autopsy from six North American CADASIL patients were examined using immunohistochemistry for vWF and IgG. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7R5 cells) were tested for binding to infrared-tag labeled vWF. Finally, A7R5 cells were exposed to vWF, and expression of mature smooth muscle marker genes was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Results vWF is expressed in the penetrating arterial walls in all CADASIL samples. IgG, a marker of serum extravasation, was present only in a minority of arterial walls. vWF binds to smooth muscle cells in vitro, and low concentrations of vWF rapidly activate c-fos, EGR, TSP1, and c-myc while specifically inhibiting RNA encoding smooth muscle actin, calponin, and SM22. Conclusions These data demonstrate that vWF, likely produced by the endothelium, permeates the vessel wall of CADASIL brains. Exposure of smooth muscle cells to vWF results in reduction of specific RNAs required for normal vascular homeostasis. This is the first report of accumulation of a protein within CADASIL vessels that inhibits vascular gene expression and implicates a role for vWF beyond hemostasis.

Zhang, Xiaojie; Meng, He; Blaivas, Mila; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Moore, Brian E.; Schwartz, Jessica; Lopes, M. Beatriz S.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Wang, Michael M.

2011-01-01

130

A rabbitpox virus serpin gene controls host range by inhibiting apoptosis in restrictive cells.  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses are unique among viruses in encoding members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Orthopoxviruses contain three serpins, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI-3. SPI-1 encodes a 40-kDa protein that is required for the replication of rabbitpox virus (RPV) in PK-15 or A549 cells in culture (A. N. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:305-314, 1994). Examination of nonpermissive human A549 cells infected with an RPV mutant disrupted in the SPI-1 gene (RPV delta SPI-1) suggests there are no gross defects in protein or DNA synthesis. The proteolytic processing of late viral structural proteins, a feature of orthopoxvirus infections associated with the maturation of virus particles, also appears relatively normal. However, very few mature virus particles of any kind are produced compared with the level found in infections with wild-type RPV. Morphological examination of RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells, together with an observed fragmentation of cellular DNA, suggests that the host range defect is associated with the onset of apoptosis. Apoptosis is seen only in RPV delta SPI-1 infection of nonpermissive (A549 or PK-15) cells and is absent in all wild-type RPV infections and RPV delta SPI-2 mutant infections examined to date. Although the SPI-1 gene is expressed early, before DNA replication, the triggering apoptotic event occurs late in the infection, as RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells do not undergo apoptosis when infections are carried out in the presence of cytosine arabinoside. While the SPI-2 (crmA) gene, when transfected into cells, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, our experiments provide the first indication that a poxvirus serpin protein can inhibit apoptosis during a poxvirus infection.

Brooks, M A; Ali, A N; Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

1995-01-01

131

Gene expression analysis of the mechanism of inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) in the presence of nitrate. This inhibition has been attributed either to an increase in redox potential or to production of nitrite by the NR-SOB. Nitrite specifically inhibits the final step in the sulfate reduction pathway. When the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was added to mid-log phase cultures of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough in the presence of nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited. Strain CVO reduced nitrate and oxidized sulfide, with transient production of nitrite. Sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris resumed once nitrite was depleted. A DNA macroarray with open reading frames encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism of D. vulgaris was used to study the effects of NR-SOB on gene expression. Shortly following addition of strain CVO, D. vulgaris genes for cytochrome c nitrite reductase and hybrid cluster proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2 were upregulated. Genes for sulfate reduction enzymes, except those for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, were downregulated. Genes for the membrane-bound electron transferring complexes QmoABC and DsrMKJOP were downregulated and unaffected, respectively, whereas direct addition of nitrite downregulated both operons. Overall the gene expression response of D. vulgaris upon exposure to strain CVO and nitrate resembled that observed upon direct addition of nitrite, indicating that inhibition of SRB is primarily due to nitrite production by NR-SOB. PMID:16104868

Haveman, Shelley A; Greene, E Anne; Voordouw, Gerrit

2005-09-01

132

Inhibition of measles virus minireplicon-encoded reporter gene expression by V protein.  

PubMed

Measles virus V protein is a Cys-rich polypeptide that is dispensable for virus propagation in continuous cell lines, but necessary for efficient viral replication in animals. Those functions modulating virus propagation in vivo are not understood completely, although V protein is known to interfere with the host interferon response and control of viral gene expression. The ability to modulate gene expression was investigated further with a minireplicon transient expression system in which V protein was found to repress reporter activity. Two regions of the polypeptide contributed to this repressive effect including the carboxy-terminus and a region conserved in morbillivirus V proteins located between amino acids 110-131, whereas domains known to mediate the interaction between V and the nucleocapsid (N) protein were not essential. Accumulation of encapsidated minigenome in transfected cells was inhibited by V protein suggesting that it acted as a repressor of genome replication thereby limiting availability of template for reporter gene mRNA transcription. PMID:16445957

Witko, Susan E; Kotash, Cheryl; Sidhu, Mohinderjit S; Udem, Stephen A; Parks, Christopher L

2006-01-30

133

The Rel/NF-?B pathway and transcription of immediate early genes in T cell activation are inhibited by microgravity.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that transcription of immediate early genes is inhibited in T cells activated in ?g. Immunosuppression during spaceflight is a major barrier to safe, long-term human space habitation and travel. The goals of these experiments were to prove that ?g was the cause of impaired T cell activation during spaceflight, as well as understand the mechanisms controlling early T cell activation. T cells from four human donors were stimulated with Con A and anti-CD28 on board the ISS. An on-board centrifuge was used to generate a 1g simultaneous control to isolate the effects of ?g from other variables of spaceflight. Microarray expression analysis after 1.5 h of activation demonstrated that ?g- and 1g-activated T cells had distinct patterns of global gene expression and identified 47 genes that were significantly, differentially down-regulated in ?g. Importantly, several key immediate early genes were inhibited in ?g. In particular, transactivation of Rel/NF-?B, CREB, and SRF gene targets were down-regulated. Expression of cREL gene targets were significantly inhibited, and transcription of cREL itself was reduced significantly in ?g and upon anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation in simulated ?g. Analysis of gene connectivity indicated that the TNF pathway is a major early downstream effector pathway inhibited in ?g and may lead to ineffective proinflammatory host defenses against infectious pathogens during spaceflight. Results from these experiments indicate that ?g was the causative factor for impaired T cell activation during spaceflight by inhibiting transactivation of key immediate early genes. PMID:22750545

Chang, Tammy T; Walther, Isabelle; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Galleri, Grazia; Meloni, Maria Antonia; Pippia, Proto; Cogoli, Augusto; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

2012-07-02

134

Tazarotene-induced gene 1 inhibits prostaglandin E2-stimulated HCT116 colon cancer cell growth  

PubMed Central

Background The tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a putative tumor suppressor gene. We have recently demonstrated both TIG1A and TIG1B isoforms inhibited cell growth and induced the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) in colon cancer cells. Because elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling plays a significant role in colorectal carcinogenesis, the objective of this study was to explore the effect of TIG1 on PGE2-induced cellular proliferation and signaling in colon cancer cells. Methods HCT116 cells as well as TIG1A and TIG1B stable cells established from HCT116 colon cancer cells using the GeneSwitch system were used. TIG1 isoform expression was induced by mifepristone treatment in stable cells. Cell growth was determined using the WST-1 cell proliferation assay. Activation of ?-catenin/TCF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/CREB signaling pathways were determined using luciferase reporter assays. Expression and subcellular distribution of ?-catenin were analyzed using Western blot and confocal microscope. Levels of cAMP were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. RNA interference was used to examine the effects of TIG1- and GRK5-mediated changes. Results PGE2-stimulated cell growth was reduced in inducible TIG1A- and TIG1B-stable HCT116 cells. GRK5 expression was upregulated by both TIG1A and TIG1B isoforms, and its expression suppressed PGE2-stimulated HCT116 cell growth. GRK5, TIG1A, and TIG1B expression significantly inhibited PGE2-stimulated ?-catenin/TCF and cAMP signaling pathway reporters and cAMP. Also, PGE2-stimulated nuclear localization of ?-catenin was inhibited by expression of TIG1A and TIG1B, which was ameliorated by both TIG1 and GRK5 siRNAs. Conclusions TIG1 suppressed PGE2-stimulated Wnt and cAMP signaling pathways in colon cancer cells through GRK5.

2011-01-01

135

Mechanistic Rationale for Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in ETS Gene Fusion-Positive Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Recurrent fusions of ETS genes are considered driving mutations in a diverse array of cancers, including Ewing’s sarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and prostate cancer. We investigate the mechanisms by which ETS fusions mediate their effects, and find that the product of the predominant ETS gene fusion, TMPRSS2:ERG, interacts in a DNA-independent manner with the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ETS gene-mediated transcription and cell invasion require PARP1 and DNA-PKcs expression and activity. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 inhibits ETS positive, but not ETS negative, prostate cancer xenograft growth. Finally, overexpression of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion induces DNA damage, which is potentiated by PARP1 inhibition in a manner similar to that of BRCA1/2-deficiency.

Brenner, J. Chad; Ateeq, Bushra; Li, Yong; Yocum, Anastasia K.; Cao, Qi; Asangani, Irfan A.; Patel, Sonam; Wang, Xiaoju; Liang, Hallie; Yu, Jindan; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Siddiqui, Javed; Yan, Wei; Cao, Xuhong; Mehra, Rohit; Sabolch, Aaron; Basrur, Venkatesha; Lonigro, Robert J.; Yang, Jun; Tomlins, Scott A; Maher, Christopher A.; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S.J.; Hussain, Maha; Navone, Nora M.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Feng, Felix Y.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

2011-01-01

136

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology  

SciTech Connect

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen-signaling proteins in pollen tubes from the lilly Agapanthus umbellatus. For the uptake of DNA pollen tubes represent a unique system since the growing tip is surrounded by a loose matrix of hemicellulose and pectins, exposing the plasma membrane7 and the first uptake of ODNs by pollen tubes was reported as early as 1994. A breakthrough in the employment of antisense ODN inhibition as a powerful approach in plant biology was recently presented through our work on intact barley leaves. As was illustrated by confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled ODNs, naked ODNs were taken up through the leaf petiole and efficiently imported into the plant cell and the nucleus. The work portrayed in that study demonstrate the applicability of antisense ODN inhibition in plant biology, e.g. as a rapid antecedent to time-consuming transgenic studies, and that it operates through RNase H degradation. We employed the antisense ODN strategy to demonstrate the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor in regulation of starch synthesis, and to depict a possible mechanism for sugar signaling in plants and how it might confer endosperm-specific gene expression during seed development. We also described the employment of the antisense ODN strategy for studies on in vitro spike cultures of barley. Here we present further evidence as to the value of the antisense ODN approach in plant biology by following the effects on starch branching enzyme (SBE) accumulation in barley leaves after suppression of individual SBE genes. In agreement with transcript analyses of SBE expression in barley leaves, a zymogram assay (Fig. 1) revealed that sucrose treatment of barley leaves increased the number of SBE activity bands as compared to sorbitol treatment. In the presence of antisense SBEI or SBEIIA ODNs, zymograms of sucrose-treated leaves displayed only a subset of these activities with bands in the top portion of the zymogram gel missing or diminished. With antisense SBEIIB ODN, all activity bands in the top portion of the gel as well as the lowest band were absent. Based on these data we provide a t

Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

2008-01-15

137

psi , a plasmid-linked Rhizobium phaseoli gene that inhibits exopolysaccharide production and which is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of R. phaseoli cured of its symbiotic plasmid, pRP2JI, retained the ability to make exopolysaccharide (EPS). However, a region of pRP2JI, when cloned at an increased copy number in wide host-range vectors and transferred to this and other strains of Rhizobium, inhibited EPS synthesis. The gene responsible was termed psi (polysaccharide inhibition) and was located in a region

D. Borthakur; J. A. Downie; A. W. B. Johnston; J. W. Lamb

1985-01-01

138

FOXO1 Transcription Factor Inhibits Luteinizing Hormone ? Gene Expression in Pituitary Gonadotrope Cells*  

PubMed Central

Synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) is tightly controlled by a complex network of hormonal signaling pathways that can be modulated by metabolic cues, such as insulin. One group of candidate genes that may be regulated by insulin signaling in pituitary gonadotrope cells is the FOXO subfamily of forkhead transcription factors. In this study we investigated whether FOXO1 is expressed in gonadotropes and if it can modulate LH ?-subunit (Lhb) gene expression. We demonstrated that FOXO1 is expressed in murine gonadotrope cells and that insulin signaling increased FOXO1 phosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization in a PI3K-dependent manner. We also showed that FOXO1 repressed basal transcription and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) induction of both the murine and human LHB genes in L?T2 cells, suggesting that FOXO1 regulation of LHB transcription may be conserved between rodents and humans. Although we did not detect FOXO1 binding to the proximal Lhb promoter, the FOXO1 DNA binding domain was necessary for the suppression, suggesting that FOXO1 exerts its effect through protein-protein interactions with transcription factors/cofactors required for Lhb gene expression. FOXO1 repression mapped to the proximal Lhb promoter containing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), pituitary homeobox 1 (PTX1), and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) binding elements. Additionally, FOXO1 blocked induction of the Lhb promoter with overexpressed SF1, PTX1, and EGR1, indicating that FOXO1 repression occurs via these transcription factors but not through regulation of their promoters. In summary, we demonstrate that FOXO1 phosphorylation and cellular localization is regulated by insulin signaling in gonadotropes and that FOXO1 inhibits Lhb transcription. Our study also suggests that FOXO1 may play an important role in controlling LH levels in response to metabolic cues.

Arriola, David J.; Mayo, Susan L.; Skarra, Danalea V.; Benson, Courtney A.; Thackray, Varykina G.

2012-01-01

139

HSV-mediated Gene Transfer of C3 transferase Inhibits Rho to Promote Axonal Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Although surgical re-implantation of spinal roots may improve recovery of proximal motor function after cervical root avulsion, recovery of sensory function necessary for fine motor coordination of the hand has been difficult to achieve, in large part because of failure of regeneration of axons into the spinal cord. In order to enhance regeneration, we constructed a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-vector carrying the gene coding for bacterial C3 transferase (C3t). Subcutaneous inoculation of the vector into the skin of the forepaw one week after a dorsal C5-T1 rhizotomy resulted in expression of C3t in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and inhibition of Rho GTPase activity, resulting in extensive axonal regeneration into the spinal cord that correlated with improved sensory-motor coordination of the forepaw.

Zhou, Zhigang; Peng, Xiangmin; Chiang, Peipei; Kim, Jeeyong; Sun, Xiankui; Fink, David J; Mata, Marina

2012-01-01

140

The agouti gene product inhibits lipolysis in human adipocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the murine agouti gene results in obesity. The human homologue of agouti is expressed primarily in human adipocytes, and we have shown recombinant agouti protein to increase adipocyte intracellular Ca2+([Ca2+]i) and thereby stimulate lipogenesis. However, since recent data demonstrate that increasing adipocyte [Ca2+]i may also inhibit lipolysis, we have investigated the role of agouti-induced [Ca2+]i increases in regulating lipolysis in human adipocytes. Short-term (1 h) exposure to recombinant agouti (100 nM) protein had no effect on basal lipolysis, although longer term treatment (24 h) caused a 60% decrease in basal lipolysis (P<0.0001). Short-term agouti treatment totally inhibited ACTH-induced lipolysis (P<0.05). Since melanocortin receptors (MCR) are involved in some actions of agouti, we next determined whether agouti's antilipolytic effect is exerted through competitive antagonism of the ACTH receptor (MCR-2). Forskolin (1 microM), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced a 48% increase in lipolysis in human adipocytes (P<0.05); this effect was reversed by 100 nM agouti (P<005), demonstrating that the antilipolytic effect of agouti is distal to the ACTH receptor. To determine the role of [Ca2+]i in the antilipolytic effect of agouti, human adipocytes were treated with KCl or arginine vasopressin to stimulate voltage- and receptor-stimulated Ca2+ influx, respectively. Both agents caused inhibition of forskolin-induced lipolysis (P<0.005). Furthermore, agouti's antilipolytic effect was also blocked by the Ca2+ channel blocker nitrendipine. These data demonstrate that agouti exerts a potent antilipolytic effect in human adipocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. This effect, combined with agouti-induced lipogenesis, represents a coordinate control of adipocyte lipid metabolism that may contribute to an agouti-induced obesity syndrome. PMID:9761782

Xue, B; Moustaid-N; Wilkison, W O; Zemel, M B

1998-10-01

141

Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Inhibits Chemokine Production by Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether the sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibits release of chemokines by dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Dermal blood vessels are associated with nerves containing CGRP, suggesting that CGRP-containing nerves may regulate cutaneous inflammation through effects on vessels. We examined CGRP effects on stimulated chemokine production by a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (pHDMECs). HMEC-1 cells and pHDMECs expressed mRNA for components of the CGRP and adrenomedullin receptors and CGRP inhibited LPS-induced production of the chemokines CXCL8, CCL2, and CXCL1 by both HMEC-1 cells and pHDMECs. The receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP)1/calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL)-specific antagonists CGRP8-37 and BIBN4096BS, blocked this effect of CGRP in a dose-dependent manner. CGRP prevented LPS-induced I?B? degradation and NF-?B binding to the promoters of CXCL1, CXCL8 and CCL2 in HMEC-1 cells and Bay 11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-?B activation, suppressed LPS-induced production of CXCL1, CXCL8 and CCL2. Thus, the NF-?B pathway appears to be involved in CGRP-mediated suppression of chemokine production. Accordingly, CGRP treatment of LPS-stimulated HMEC-1 cells inhibited their ability to chemoattract human neutrophils and mononuclear cells. Elucidation of this pathway may suggest new avenues for therapeutic manipulation of cutaneous inflammation.

Huang, Jing; Stohl, Lori L.; Zhou, Xi; Ding, Wanhong; Granstein, Richard D.

2011-01-01

142

Berberine inhibits Wilms' tumor cell progression through upregulation of Wilms' tumor gene on the X chromosome.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumor is a type of kidney cancer that affects young children. Although a number of Wilms' tumor samples have been collected through international trials, the mechanisms underlying its progression remain challenging to determine. Extensive studies have identified somatic mutations at several loci in Wilms' tumorigenesis, including WT1, catenin, Wilms' tumor gene on the X chromosome (WTX) and TP53. Berberine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from numerous types of medicinal plants and has been extensively used as a Chinese traditional medicine. Recently, berberine has been demonstrated to possess antitumoral activities. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is suggested to be one of the various cellular targets of berberine, which regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the specific involvement of berberine?induced AMPK activation and its effects on the proliferation potential of Wilms' tumor cells remains unknown. The present study investigated the berberine?induced activation of AMPK and its effects on G401 Wilms' tumor cell proliferation. The results demonstrated that berberine inhibited growth and decreased the expression of cell?cycle regulators in these cells. At the molecular level, berberine treatment led to a significant increase of WTX expression and G401 cells were protected against berberine?induced growth inhibition by small interfering RNA against WTX. In conclusion, these results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of berberine which was also demonstrated by recent population studies; however, further studies are required to investigate the potential therapeutic use of berberine in patients with Wilms' tumor. PMID:24002362

Liu, Yan; Liu, Sheng

2013-09-03

143

Haplotype Polymorphism in the Alpha-2B-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Influences Response Inhibition in a Large Chinese Sample  

PubMed Central

Response inhibition refers to the suppression of inappropriate or irrelevant responses. It has a central role in executive functions, and has been linked to a wide spectrum of prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence from neuropharmacological studies has suggested that gene variants in the norepinephrine neurotransmission system make specific contributions to response inhibition. This study genotyped five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering the whole alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2B) gene and investigated their associations with response inhibition in a relatively large healthy Chinese sample (N=421). The results revealed significant genetic effects of the ADRA2B conserved haplotype polymorphisms on response inhibition as measured by stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) (F(2,?418)=5.938, p=0.003). Individuals with the AAGG/AAGG genotype (n=89; mean SSRT=170.2?ms) had significantly shorter SSRTs than did those with either the CCAC/AAGG genotype (n=216; mean SSRT=182.4?ms; uncorrected p=0.03; corrected p=0.09) or the CCAC/CCAC genotype (n=116; mean SSRT=195.8?ms; corrected p<0.002, Cohen's d=0.51). This finding provides the first evidence from association research in support of a critical role of the norepinephrine neurotransmission system in response inhibition. A better understanding of the genetic basis of response inhibition would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped response inhibition as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders.

Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Moyzis, Robert; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Cao, Zhongyu; Li, Jin; Li, He; Zhu, Bi; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi

2012-01-01

144

d-alpha-tocopherol inhibits collagen alpha 1(I) gene expression in cultured human fibroblasts. Modulation of constitutive collagen gene expression by lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed Central

Ascorbic acid stimulates collagen gene transcription in cultured fibroblasts, and this effect is mediated through the induction of lipid peroxidation by ascorbic acid. Quiescent cultured fibroblasts in the absence of ascorbic acid have a high constitutive level of collagen production, but the mechanisms of collagen gene regulation in this unstimulated state are not known. Because lipid peroxidation also occurs in normal cells, we wondered if lipid peroxidation plays a role in the regulation of basal collagen gene expression. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in cultured human fibroblasts with d-alpha-tocopherol or methylene blue decreased the synthesis of collagen, the steady-state levels of procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA and the transcription of the procollagen alpha 1(I) gene. This effect on collagen gene expression was selective and not associated with cellular toxicity. Thus, these experiments suggest a role for lipid peroxidation in the modulation of constitutive collagen gene expression. Images

Houglum, K; Brenner, D A; Chojkier, M

1991-01-01

145

1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose inhibits angiogenesis via inhibition of capillary morphogenesis gene 2.  

PubMed

Capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2) is a transmembrane extracellular matrix binding protein that is also an anthrax toxin receptor. We have shown that high-affinity CMG2 binders can inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. We recently described a high-throughput FRET assay to identify CMG2 inhibitors. We now report the serendipitous discovery that PGG (1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose) is a CMG2 inhibitor with antiangiogenic activity. PGG is a gallotannin produced by a variety of medicinal plants that exhibits a wide variety of antitumor and other activities. We find that PGG inhibits CMG2 with a submicromolar IC50 and it also inhibits the migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells at similar concentrations in vitro. Finally, oral or intraperitoneal administration of PGG inhibits angiogenesis in the mouse corneal micropocket assay in vivo. Together, these results suggest that a portion of the in vivo antitumor activity of PGG may be the result of antiangiogenic activity mediated by inhibition of CMG2. PMID:23394144

Cryan, Lorna M; Bazinet, Lauren; Habeshian, Kaiane A; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Christensen, Kenneth A; Rogers, Michael S

2013-02-22

146

The Effect of Hepatitis B Virus X Gene Expression on Response to Growth Inhibition by Transforming Growth Factor-?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx protein), which seems to be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, was studied for its effect on cell growth regulation. We examined the response to growth inhibition of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) in HBx gene-introduced cells. HBx gene in pRc\\/CMV was transfected to mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu cells) and a stable transformant was obtained. The

Osamu Oshikawa; Shinji Tamura; Sumio Kawata; Nobuyuki Ito; Hirofumi Tsushima; Shinichi Kiso; Yukihiko Matsuda; Akira Yamada; Shingo Tamai; Yuji Matsuzawa

1996-01-01

147

Inhibition of Ocular Angiogenesis by an Adenovirus Carrying the Human von Hippel-Lindau Tumor-Suppressor Gene In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein on VEGF gene expres- sion in vitro and to determine whether adenovirus-mediated VHL intraocular gene transfer inhibits the development of angiogenesis in a monkey model of multiple branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS. A recombinant adenovirus vector adVHL was con- structed to deliver

Hideo Akiyama; Toru Tanaka; Hirotaka Itakura; Hiroyoshi Kanai; Tositaka Maeno; Hiroshi Doi; Miki Yamazaki; Kyoichi Takahashi; Yasutaka Kimura; Shoji Kishi; Masahiko Kurabayashi

2004-01-01

148

Inhibition of the gene expression for granule-bound starch synthase I by RNA interference in sweet potato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) is one of the key enzymes catalyzing the formation of amylose, a linear ?(1,4)D-glucan\\u000a polymer, from ADP-glucose. Amylose-free transgenic sweet potato plants were produced by inhibiting sweet potato GBSSI gene expression through RNA interference. The gene construct consisting of an inverted repeat of the first exon separated\\u000a by intron 1 of GBSSI driven by the

Motoyasu Otani; Tatsuro Hamada; Kenji Katayama; Kakefumi Kitahara; Sun-Hyung Kim; Yasuhiro Takahata; Toshihiko Suganuma; Takiko Shimada

2007-01-01

149

Targeted IL24 gene therapy inhibits cancer recurrence after liver tumor resection by inducing tumor cell apoptosis in nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: IL-24 gene therapy prevented tumor recurrence and metastasis, as evidenced by marked decreases in the number of metastatic tumor nodules and tumor volume in the liver and lung. At the same time, serum AFP concentration decreased markedly in the IL-24 group compared with the control or rAAV groups (P<0.05). IL-24 gene therapy inhibited tumor recurrence and metastasis as evidenced

Yong-Jiu Yang; Da-Zhi Chen; Li-Xin Li; Qin-Song Sheng; Zhong-Kui Jin; De-Fang Zhao

2009-01-01

150

Von Willebrand Factor Inhibits Mature Smooth Muscle Gene Expression through Impairment of Notch Signaling  

PubMed Central

Von Willebrand factor (vWF), a hemostatic protein normally synthesized and stored by endothelial cells and platelets, has been localized beyond the endothelium in vascular disease states. Previous studies have implicated potential non-hemostatic functions of vWF, but signaling mechanisms underlying its effects are currently undefined. We present evidence that vWF breaches the endothelium and is expressed in a transmural distribution pattern in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). To determine the potential molecular consequences of vWF permeation into the vessel wall, we also tested whether vWF impairs Notch regulation of key smooth muscle marker genes. In a co-culture system using Notch ligand expressing cells to stimulate Notch in A7R5 cells, vWF strongly inhibited both the Notch pathway and the activation of mature smooth muscle gene promoters. Similar repressive effects were observed in primary human cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Expression of the intracellular domain of NOTCH3 allowed cells to bypass the inhibitory effects of vWF. Moreover, vWF forms molecular complexes with all four mammalian Notch ectodomains, suggesting a novel function of vWF as an extracellular inhibitor of Notch signaling. In sum, these studies demonstrate vWF in the vessel wall as a common feature of cerebral SVD; furthermore, we provide a plausible mechanism by which non-hemostatic vWF may play a novel role in the promotion of vascular disease.

Lee, Soo Jung; Wang, Michael M.

2013-01-01

151

Signaling by vitamin A and retinol-binding protein regulates gene expression to inhibit insulin responses.  

PubMed

It currently is believed that vitamin A, retinol, functions through active metabolites: the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, and retinoic acids, which regulate gene transcription. Retinol circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP) and is transported into cells by a membrane protein termed "stimulated by retinoic acid 6" (STRA6). We show here that STRA6 not only is a vitamin A transporter but also is a cell-surface signaling receptor activated by the RBP-retinol complex. Association of RBP-retinol with STRA6 triggers tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in recruitment and activation of JAK2 and the transcription factor STAT5. The RBP-retinol/STRA6/JAK2/STAT5 signaling cascade induces the expression of STAT target genes, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), which inhibits insulin signaling, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), which enhances lipid accumulation. These observations establish that the parental vitamin A molecule is a transcriptional regulator in its own right, reveal that the scope of biological functions of the vitamin is broader than previously suspected, and provide a rationale for understanding how RBP and retinol regulate energy homeostasis and insulin responses. PMID:21368206

Berry, Daniel C; Jin, Hui; Majumdar, Avijit; Noy, Noa

2011-02-23

152

Signaling by vitamin A and retinol-binding protein regulates gene expression to inhibit insulin responses  

PubMed Central

It currently is believed that vitamin A, retinol, functions through active metabolites: the visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, and retinoic acids, which regulate gene transcription. Retinol circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP) and is transported into cells by a membrane protein termed “stimulated by retinoic acid 6” (STRA6). We show here that STRA6 not only is a vitamin A transporter but also is a cell-surface signaling receptor activated by the RBP–retinol complex. Association of RBP-retinol with STRA6 triggers tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting in recruitment and activation of JAK2 and the transcription factor STAT5. The RBP–retinol/STRA6/JAK2/STAT5 signaling cascade induces the expression of STAT target genes, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), which inhibits insulin signaling, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), which enhances lipid accumulation. These observations establish that the parental vitamin A molecule is a transcriptional regulator in its own right, reveal that the scope of biological functions of the vitamin is broader than previously suspected, and provide a rationale for understanding how RBP and retinol regulate energy homeostasis and insulin responses.

Berry, Daniel C.; Jin, Hui; Majumdar, Avijit; Noy, Noa

2011-01-01

153

Inhibition of Virulence Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus by Novel Depsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium  

PubMed Central

During a global research expedition, more than five hundred marine bacterial strains capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria were collected. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these marine bacteria are also a source of compounds that interfere with the agr quorum sensing system that controls virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Using a gene reporter fusion bioassay, we recorded agr interference as enhanced expression of spa, encoding Protein A, concomitantly with reduced expression of hla, encoding ?-hemolysin, and rnaIII encoding RNAIII, the effector molecule of agr. A marine Photobacterium produced compounds interfering with agr in S. aureus strain 8325-4, and bioassay-guided fractionation of crude extracts led to the isolation of two novel cyclodepsipeptides, designated solonamide A and B. Northern blot analysis confirmed the agr interfering activity of pure solonamides in both S. aureus strain 8325-4 and the highly virulent, community-acquired strain USA300 (CA-MRSA). To our knowledge, this is the first report of inhibitors of the agr system by a marine bacterium.

Mansson, Maria; Nielsen, Anita; Kjaerulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Wietz, Matthias; Ingmer, Hanne; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.

2011-01-01

154

The human p53 negative regulatory domain mediates inhibition of reporter gene transactivation in yeast lacking thioredoxin reductase.  

PubMed

Stimulation of target gene transcription by human p53 is inhibited in budding yeast lacking the TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. LexA/p53 fusion proteins were used to study the basis for thioredoxin reductase dependence. A fusion protein containing all 393 of the residues of p53 efficiently and specifically stimulated transcription of a LexOP-LacZ reporter gene in wild-type yeast but was several-fold less effective in delta trr1 yeast lacking the thioredoxin reductase gene. Thus, even when p53 was tethered to a reporter gene by a heterologous DNA-binding domain, reporter gene transactivation remained dependent on thioredoxin reductase. A fusion protein containing only the activation domain of p53 stimulated reporter gene transcription equally in wild-type and delta trr1 cells, suggesting that p53 residues downstream from the activation domain created the requirement for thioredoxin reductase. Experiments using additional LexA/p53 truncation mutations indicated that the p53 negative regulatory domain, rather than the DNA-binding or oligomerization domains, created the requirement for thioredoxin reductase. The fusion protein results suggested that, under oxidative conditions, the negative regulatory domain inhibited the ability of DNA-bound p53 to stimulate transcription. However, deletion of the negative regulatory domain did not alleviate the requirement of non-LexA-containing p53 for thioredoxin reductase. The results, thus, suggest that oxidative conditions inhibit both DNA binding and transactivation by p53, and that inhibition of the latter requires the negative regulatory domain. PMID:10397262

Merrill, G F; Dowell, P; Pearson, G D

1999-07-01

155

IL10 Gene Modified Dendritic Cells Inhibit T Helper Type 1-Mediated Alloimmune Responses and Promote Immunological Tolerance in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) have the potency to regulate the outcome of autoimmunity through the modulation of immune responses. The induction of antigen specific tolerance is critical for prevention and treatment of allograft rejection. In the present study, we transfected IL-10 gene into DCs and investigated their effect on inhibition of lymphocyte activity in vitro and induction of immune tolerance on

Huifen Zhu; Wenhong Qiu; Ping Lei; Wei Zhou; Xue Wen; Fengrong He; Li Li; Hong Dai; Guanxin Shen; Feili Gong

2008-01-01

156

The Him gene inhibits the development of Drosophila flight muscles during metamorphosis.  

PubMed

During Drosophila metamorphosis some larval tissues escape the general histolysis and are remodelled to form adult tissues. One example is the dorso-longitudinal muscles (DLMs) of the indirect flight musculature. They are formed by an intriguing process in which residual larval oblique muscles (LOMs) split and fuse with imaginal myoblasts associated with the wing disc. These myoblasts arise in the embryo, but remain undifferentiated throughout embryogenesis and larval life, and thus share characteristics with mammalian satellite cells. However, the mechanisms that maintain the Drosophila myoblasts in an undifferentiated state until needed for LOM remodelling are not understood. Here we show that the Him gene is expressed in these myoblasts, but is undetectable in developing DLM fibres. Consistent with this, we found that Him could inhibit DLM development: it inhibited LOM splitting and resulted in fibre degeneration. We then uncovered a balance between mef2, a positive factor required for proper DLM development, and the inhibitory action of Him. Mef2 suppressed the inhibitory effect of Him on DLM development, while Him could suppress the premature myosin expression induced by mef2 in myoblasts. Furthermore, either decreased Him function or increased mef2 function disrupted DLM development. These findings, together with the co-expression of Him and Mef2 in myoblasts, indicate that Him may antagonise mef2 function during normal DLM development and that Him participates in a balance of signals that controls adult myoblast differentiation and remodelling of these muscle fibres. Lastly, we provide evidence for a link between Notch function and Him and mef2 in this balance. PMID:19324085

Soler, Cédric; Taylor, Michael V

2009-03-24

157

fMRI activation during response inhibition and error processing: The role of the DAT1 gene in typically developing adolescents and those diagnosed with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DAT1 gene codes for the dopamine transporter, which clears dopamine from the synaptic cleft, and a variant of this gene has previously been associated with compromised response inhibition in both healthy and clinical populations. This variant has also been associated with ADHD, a disorder that is characterised by disturbed dopamine function as well as problems with response inhibition. In

Wouter Braet; Katherine A. Johnson; Claire T. Tobin; Ruth Acheson; Caroline McDonnell; Ziarah Hawi; Edwina Barry; Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Mark A. Bellgrove; Ian H. Robertson; Hugh Garavan

2011-01-01

158

Optically Pure Abscisic Acid Analogs--Tools for Relating Germination Inhibition and Gene Expression in Wheat Embryos 1  

PubMed Central

We report an examination of the structural requirements of the abscisic acid (ABA) recognition response in wheat dormant seed embryos using optically pure isomers of ABA analogs. These compounds include permutations to the ABA structure with either an acetylene or a trans bond at C-4 C-5, and either a single or double bond at the C-2? C-3? double bond. (R)-ABA and the three isomers with the same configuration at C-1? as natural ABA were found to be effective germination inhibitors. The biologically active ABA analogs exhibited differential effects on ABA-responsive gene expression. All the ABA analogs that inhibited germination induced two ABA-responsive genes, wheat group 3 lea and dhn (rab). However, (R)-ABA and (S)-dihydroABA were less effective in inducing the ABA-responsive gene Em within the time that embryonic germination was inhibited. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4

Walker-Simmons, M. K.; Anderberg, Robert J.; Rose, Patricia A.; Abrams, Suzanne R.

1992-01-01

159

Transforming growth factor beta 1 suppression of c-myc gene transcription: role in inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a potent growth inhibitor for many cell types, including most epithelial cells. However, the mechanism of growth inhibition is unknown. In skin keratinocytes, TGF-beta 1 has been shown to inhibit growth and to rapidly reduce c-myc expression. It has been demonstrated that protein synthesis is required for TGF-beta 1 regulation of c-myc in keratinocytes. Here we present evidence that treatment of mouse BALB/MK keratinocyte cells with either antisense c-myc oligonucleotides or TGF-beta 1 inhibited cell entry into S phase. These results suggest that TGF-beta inhibition of c-myc expression may be essential for growth inhibition by TGF-beta 1. The block in c-myc expression by TGF-beta 1 occurred at the level of transcriptional initiation. Studies with a series of 5' deletion c-myc/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs indicated that a cis regulatory element(s), which resides between positions -100 and +71 relative to P1 transcription start site, is responsible for the TGF-beta 1 responsiveness. Based on these data, it is proposed that the mechanism of TGF-beta 1 growth inhibition involves synthesis or modification of a protein that may interact with a specific element(s) in the 5' regulatory region of the c-myc gene, resulting in inhibition of transcriptional initiation. Images

Pietenpol, J A; Holt, J T; Stein, R W; Moses, H L

1990-01-01

160

Cyclin-mediated inhibition of muscle gene expression via a mechanism that is independent of pRB hyperphosphorylation.  

PubMed Central

It was recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of cyclin D1 inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation and, conversely, that expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors facilitates activation of this differentiation program (S. S. Rao, C. Chu, and D. S. Kohtz, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:5259-5267, 1994; S. S. Rao and D. S. Kohtz, J. Biol. Chem. 270:4093-4100, 1995; S. X. Skapek, J. Rhee, D. B. Spicer, and A. B. Lassar, Science 267:1022-1024, 1995). Here we demonstrate that cyclin D1 inhibits muscle gene expression without affecting MyoD DNA binding activity. Ectopic expression of cyclin D1 inhibits muscle gene activation by both MyoD and myogenin, including a mutated form of myogenin in which two potential inhibitory cdk phosphorylation sites are absent. Because the retinoblastoma gene product, pRB, is a known target for cyclin D1-cdk phosphorylation, we determined whether cyclin D1-mediated inhibition of myogenesis was due to hyperphosphorylation of pRB. In pRB-deficient fibroblasts, the ability of MyoD to activate the expression of muscle-specific genes requires coexpression of ectopic pRB (B. G. Novitch, G. J. Mulligan, T. Jacks, and A. B. Lassar, J. Cell Biol., 135:441-456, 1996). In these cells, the expression of cyclins A and E can lead to pRB hyperphosphorylation and can inhibit muscle gene expression. The negative effects of cyclins A or E on muscle gene expression are, however, reversed by the presence of a mutated form of pRB which cannot be hyperphosphorylated. In contrast, cyclin D1 can inhibit muscle gene expression in the presence of the nonhyperphosphorylatable form of pRB. On the basis of these results we propose that G1 cyclin-cdk activity blocks the initiation of skeletal muscle differentiation by two distinct mechanisms: one that is dependent on pRB hyperphosphorylation and one that is independent of pRB hyperphosphorylation.

Skapek, S X; Rhee, J; Kim, P S; Novitch, B G; Lassar, A B

1996-01-01

161

Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.  

PubMed

In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

2012-02-06

162

IL-27 Inhibits OSM-mediated TNF-? and iNOS Gene Expression in Microglia  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of Oncostatin M (OSM), an interleukin-6 family cytokine, have been observed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) and glioblastoma (GBM); however, its effects within the CNS are not well understood. OSM regulates gene expression primarily by activating the JAK/STAT, NF-?B and/or MAPK pathways, in a cell-type specific manner. In our studies, OSM induces the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from microglia in an NF-?B-dependent manner. This expression also partially requires the intermediate production of TNF-? and subsequent NF-?B activation via TNF-R1. We also demonstrate that OSM-induced TNF-? production from microglia is neurotoxic. The IL-12 family member, IL-27, suppresses OSM-mediated TNF-? and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level by inhibiting activation of the NF-?B pathway, and rescues the neurotoxicity induced by OSM-stimulated microglia. These studies are the first to demonstrate the pro-inflammatory effects of OSM in microglia, and also identify IL-27 as a novel inhibitor of inflammatory processes in these cells.

Baker, Brandi J.; Park, Keun W.; Qin, Hongwei; Ma, Xiangyu; Benveniste, Etty N.

2012-01-01

163

Hypermethylation of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase gene promoter inhibits its transcription.  

PubMed

Exuberant generation of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) can cause unintended injury to host cells during glomerulonephritis and other inflammatory diseases. Although much is known about the mechanisms of iNOS induction, few transcriptional repression mechanisms have been found. We explored the role of cytosine methylation in the regulation of iNOS transcription. Treatment of mesangial cells with DNA methylation inhibitors augmented cytokine induction of endogenous NO production and iNOS protein levels, as well as iNOS promoter activity. In a corresponding manner, in vitro methylation of the murine iNOS promoter was sufficient to silence its activity in mesangial cells. In contrast, antisense knockdown of DNA methyltransferase-3b expression and activity increased iNOS promoter activity and nitrite production. Bisulfite treatment and sequencing analysis of the iNOS promoter identified methylation of cytosines framing an enhancer element at -879/-871. In vitro methylation inhibited binding of NFkappaB p50 to this element, and deletion of the element resulted in relief of transcriptional repression. These results provide evidence for a unique molecular mechanism involved in transcriptional regulation of iNOS gene expression. PMID:15308624

Yu, Zhiyuan; Kone, Bruce C

2004-08-11

164

NF-?B regulates MICA gene transcription in endothelial cell through a genetically inhibitable control site.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells form a barrier between blood and the underlying vessel wall, which characteristically demonstrates inflammatory damage in atherosclerotic disease. MICA is a highly polymorphic ligand for the activating immune receptor NKG2D and can be expressed on endothelial cells. We hypothesized that damaged vessel walls, such as those involved in atherosclerosis, might express MICA, which could contribute to the vascular immunopathology. Immune activation resulting from MICA expression could play a significant role in the development of vascular damage. We have demonstrated that TNF? up-regulates MICA on human endothelial cells. The up-regulation is mediated by NF-?B, and we have defined the regulatory control site responsible for this at -130 bp upstream of the MICA transcription start site. This site overlaps with a heat shock response element and integrates input from the two pathways. We have shown that in atherosclerotic lesions there is expression of MICA on endothelial cells. Using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery in primary human endothelial cells, we were able to inhibit the MICA response to TNF? with a truncated HSF1 that lacked a transactivation domain. This highlights the potential for transcription-based therapeutic approaches in atherosclerotic vascular disease to reduce immune-mediated endothelial and vessel wall damage. PMID:22170063

Lin, Da; Lavender, Hayley; Soilleux, Elizabeth J; O'Callaghan, Christopher A

2011-12-14

165

Gene selective mRNA cleavage inhibits the development of Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Unique peptide-morpholino oligomer (PMO) conjugates have been designed to bind and promote the cleavage of specific mRNA as a tool to inhibit gene function and parasite growth. The new conjugates were validated using the P. falciparum gyrase mRNA as a target (PfGyrA). Assays in vitro demonstrated a selective degradation of the PfGyrA mRNA directed by the external guide sequences, which are morpholino oligomers in the conjugates. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that labeled conjugates are delivered into Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes during all intraerythrocytic stages of parasite development. Consistent with the expression of PfGyrA in all stages of parasite development, proliferation assays showed that these conjugates have potent antimalarial activity, blocking early development, maturation, and replication of the parasite. The conjugates were equally effective against drug sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains. The potency, selectivity, and predicted safety of PMO conjugates make this approach attractive for the development of a unique class of target-specific antimalarials and for large-scale functional analysis of the malarial genome.

Augagneur, Yoann; Wesolowski, Donna; Tae, Hyun Seop; Altman, Sidney; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

2012-01-01

166

Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits Langerhans cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission.  

PubMed

Upon its mucosal entry, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is internalized by Langerhans cells (LCs) in stratified epithelia and transferred locally to T cells. In such epithelia, LCs are in direct contact with peripheral neurons secreting calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Although CGRP has immunomodulatory effects on LC functions, its potential influence on the interactions between LCs and HIV-1 is unknown. We show that CGRP acts via its receptor expressed by LCs and interferes with multiple steps of LC-mediated HIV-1 transmission. CGRP increases langerin expression, decreases selected integrins, and activates NF-?B, resulting in decreased HIV-1 intracellular content, limited formation of LC-T cell conjugates, and elevated secretion of the CCR5-binding chemokine CCL3/MIP-1?. These mechanisms cooperate to efficiently inhibit HIV-1 transfer from LCs to T cells and T cell infection. In vivo, HIV-1 infection decreases CGRP plasma levels in both vaginally SHIV-challenged macaques and HIV-1-infected individuals. CGRP plasma levels return to baseline after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Our results reveal a novel path by which a peripheral neuropeptide acts at the molecular and cellular levels to limit mucosal HIV-1 transmission and suggest that CGRP receptor agonists might be used therapeutically against HIV-1. PMID:24081951

Ganor, Yonatan; Drillet-Dangeard, Anne-Sophie; Lopalco, Lucia; Tudor, Daniela; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Delongchamps, Nicolas Barry; Zerbib, Marc; Bomsel, Morgane

2013-09-30

167

Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter ?strup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; H?iby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

2012-01-01

168

NF-?B Regulates MICA Gene Transcription in Endothelial Cell through a Genetically Inhibitable Control Site*  

PubMed Central

Endothelial cells form a barrier between blood and the underlying vessel wall, which characteristically demonstrates inflammatory damage in atherosclerotic disease. MICA is a highly polymorphic ligand for the activating immune receptor NKG2D and can be expressed on endothelial cells. We hypothesized that damaged vessel walls, such as those involved in atherosclerosis, might express MICA, which could contribute to the vascular immunopathology. Immune activation resulting from MICA expression could play a significant role in the development of vascular damage. We have demonstrated that TNF? up-regulates MICA on human endothelial cells. The up-regulation is mediated by NF-?B, and we have defined the regulatory control site responsible for this at ?130 bp upstream of the MICA transcription start site. This site overlaps with a heat shock response element and integrates input from the two pathways. We have shown that in atherosclerotic lesions there is expression of MICA on endothelial cells. Using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery in primary human endothelial cells, we were able to inhibit the MICA response to TNF? with a truncated HSF1 that lacked a transactivation domain. This highlights the potential for transcription-based therapeutic approaches in atherosclerotic vascular disease to reduce immune-mediated endothelial and vessel wall damage.

Lin, Da; Lavender, Hayley; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.

2012-01-01

169

CD200R signaling inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression by macrophages and suppresses choroidal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are rapidly conditioned by cognate and soluble signals to acquire phenotypes that deliver specific functions during inflammation, wound healing and angiogenesis. Whether inhibitory CD200R signaling regulates pro-angiogenic macrophage phenotypes with the potential to suppress ocular neovascularization is unknown. CD200R-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM?) were used to demonstrate that macrophages lacking this inhibitory receptor exhibit enhanced levels of Vegfa, Arg-1 and Il-1? when stimulated with PGE2 or RPE-conditioned (PGE2-enriched) media. Endothelial tube formation in HUVECs was increased when co-cultured with PGE2-conditioned CD200R?/? BMM?, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization was enhanced in CD200R-deficient mice. In corroboration, signaling through CD200R results in the down-regulation of BMM? angiogenic and pro-inflammatory phenotypes. Translational potential of this pathway was investigated in the laser-induced model of choroidal neovascularization. Local delivery of a CD200R agonist mAb to target myeloid infiltrate alters macrophage phenotype and inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression, which suppresses pathological angiogenesis and CNV development.

Horie, Shintaro; Robbie, Scott J.; Liu, Jian; Wu, Wei-Kang; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W.; Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Mochizuki, Manabu; Dick, Andrew D.; Copland, David A.

2013-01-01

170

Altered renal kallikrein and renin gene expression in nephrotic rats and modulation by converting enzyme inhibition.  

PubMed Central

Urinary kallikrein excretion (UKE) is decreased in rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), but increases after converting enzyme inhibition (CEI). Although CEI potentiates bradykinin activity, neither the effect of CEI on kallikrein secretion nor the abnormal renal kallikrein metabolism in PHN has been examined previously. To determine the mechanism by which CEI increases UKE, normal rats and PHN received enalapril, 40 mg/kg per d orally for 4 d. UKE was 85% lower in PHN than in normals and increased in both groups after CEI, although UKE in PHN remained significantly less than in normals. Kallikrein mRNA was significantly lower in PHN compared to normals but not in PHN treated with CEI and did not change in normal rats. Renin mRNA was significantly lower in PHN, and was stimulated by CEI only in normals. Renal kallikrein and renin content were not different and were not altered by CEI. Both kallikrein and renin genes appear to be transcriptionally suppressed in rats with PHN and the depressed kallikrein mRNA levels can be reversed by CEI. The modest increase in UKE despite normalization of kallikrein mRNA after CEI suggests that there is also a posttranscriptional defect in synthesis and/or secretion of kallikrein. Images

Hutchison, F N; Webster, S K; Jaffa, A A

1993-01-01

171

Effect of shRNA-mediated inhibition of Nanog gene expression on the behavior of human gastric cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to employ RNA interference (RNAi) technology to construct and select shRNA-Nanog recombinant plasmids for the inhibition of Nanog gene expression and transfer these plasmids into the human gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901, as well as to detect the expression of Nanog and the effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells. The pshRNA-Nanog interference plasmids were constructed and used to transfect SGC-7901 cells using lipofectamine. The expression of the Nanog gene was detected by fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and western blotting, and the most markedly inhibited group was identified. The SGC-7901 cells were transfected with recombinant shRNA-Nanog plasmids from the most markedly inhibited group using lipofectamine and the effect on proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay. The migration and invasion of the SGC-7901 cells was determined by Transwell assays, while the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The group with the highest inhibition rate was successfully constructed and identified. It was observed that the proliferation, invasion and migration capacity of the cells was reduced, that the cell cycle was arrested at the S phase and that apoptosis was significantly increased. The Nanog gene in gastric cancer cells is closely associated with cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis and migration and invasion abilities. The present study establishes the foundations for a novel approach for the genetic treatment of gastric cancer.

JI, WEN; JIANG, ZHENG

2013-01-01

172

Intraperitoneal administration of AAV9-shRNA inhibits target gene expression in the dorsal root ganglia of neonatal mice  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable interest in inducing RNA interference (RNAi) in neurons to study gene function and identify new targets for disease intervention. Although short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been used to silence genes in neurons, in vivo delivery of RNAi remains a major challenge, especially by systemic administration. We have developed a highly efficient method for in vivo gene silencing in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by using short hairpin RNA–expressing single-stranded adeno-associated virus 9 (ssAAV9-shRNA). Results Intraperitoneal administration of ssAAV9-shRNA to neonatal mice resulted in highly effective and specific silencing of a target gene in DRG. We observed an approximately 80% reduction in target mRNA in the DRG, and 74.7% suppression of the protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis. There were no major side effects, and the suppression effect lasted for more than three months after the injection of ssAAV9-shRNA. Conclusions Although we previously showed substantial inhibition of target gene expression in DRG via intrathecal ssAAV9-shRNA administration, here we succeeded in inhibiting target gene expression in DRG neurons via intraperitoneal injection of ssAAV9-shRNA. AAV9-mediated delivery of shRNA will pave the way for creating animal models for investigating the molecular biology of the mechanisms of pain and sensory ganglionopathies.

2013-01-01

173

Leptin stimulation of cell cycle and inhibition of apoptosis gene and protein expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

The OVCAR-3 cell line expressing the long (ObRb) and short (ObRt) isoforms of leptin receptor mRNA was used to analyze the effect of leptin on the expression of selected genes and proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. OVCAR-3 cells were exposed to 2, 20, 40, and 100 ng/ml of leptin. Cell proliferation was determined using the alamarBlue cell viability test and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was measured using a cellular DNA fragmentation ELISA kit. The expression of selected cell cycle and apoptosis genes was evaluated by real-time PCR and confirmed by western blot. The stimulatory action of leptin on cell proliferation was observed as an increase in cells in the S and G2/M phases. Up-regulation of genes responsible for inducing cell proliferation and suppression of genes responsible for inhibition of proliferation were noted. Western blots revealed increased expression of cyclins D and A and inhibition of p21WAF1/CIP1 protein expression by leptin. Inhibition of DNA fragmentation was observed under all leptin doses. Suppression of genes involved in the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway was observed. Western blots illustrated decreased Bad, TNFR1, and caspase 6 protein expression in response to leptin treatment. Leptin promotes ovarian cancer cell line growth by up-regulating genes and proteins responsible for inducing cell proliferation as well as down-regulating pro-apoptotic genes and proteins in apoptotic pathways. Results of this study warrant examining the relationship between the risk of ovarian cancer and elevated leptin levels in obese women. PMID:22968658

Ptak, Anna; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L

2012-09-12

174

Reversal of Cancer Phenotype by Inhibiting Expression of Prostate Tumor Inducing Gene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention provides a method for reversing cancer phenotype of a cancer cell which comprises introducing an exogenous material which is capable of specifically recognizing either a Prostate Tumor Inducing Gene, RNA of said gene or gene product of said...

P. B. Fisher

2004-01-01

175

Haplotype polymorphism in the alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor gene influences response inhibition in a large Chinese sample.  

PubMed

Response inhibition refers to the suppression of inappropriate or irrelevant responses. It has a central role in executive functions, and has been linked to a wide spectrum of prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence from neuropharmacological studies has suggested that gene variants in the norepinephrine neurotransmission system make specific contributions to response inhibition. This study genotyped five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering the whole alpha-2B-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2B) gene and investigated their associations with response inhibition in a relatively large healthy Chinese sample (N=421). The results revealed significant genetic effects of the ADRA2B conserved haplotype polymorphisms on response inhibition as measured by stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) (F(2, 418)=5.938, p=0.003). Individuals with the AAGG/AAGG genotype (n=89; mean SSRT=170.2 ms) had significantly shorter SSRTs than did those with either the CCAC/AAGG genotype (n=216; mean SSRT=182.4 ms; uncorrected p=0.03; corrected p=0.09) or the CCAC/CCAC genotype (n=116; mean SSRT=195.8 ms; corrected p<0.002, Cohen's d=0.51). This finding provides the first evidence from association research in support of a critical role of the norepinephrine neurotransmission system in response inhibition. A better understanding of the genetic basis of response inhibition would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped response inhibition as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22218095

Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Moyzis, Robert; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chunhui; Cao, Zhongyu; Li, Jin; Li, He; Zhu, Bi; Zhang, Mingxia; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi

2012-01-04

176

Natriuretic peptides inhibit angiotensin II-induced proliferation of rat cardiac fibroblasts by blocking endothelin-1 gene expression.  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to test the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a possible autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts, and to examine its interaction with cardiac natriuretic hormones. Expression of preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA by cultured cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using cDNA for rat ppET-1 as a probe. Angiotensin II (ANG II) and ET-1 transiently (30 min) increased steady-state ppET-1 mRNA levels in cardiac fibroblasts. Both ET-1 and ANG II significantly stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation into cardiac fibroblasts, whose effects were dose-dependently inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123), BQ123 also inhibited both ET-1- and ANG II-induced ppET-1 mRNA expression. Both atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP), which activate particulate guanylate cyclase, inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]thymidine incorporation stimulated by ANG II and ET-1. Sodium nitroprusside, a soluble guanylate cyclase activator, and 8-bromocyclic GMP, a membrane-permeable cGMP derivative, similarly inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]-thymidine incorporation. BNP was more potent than ANP to inhibit ANG II- and ET-1-stimulated DNA synthesis, whereas BNP and ANP were almost equipotent in stimulating cGMP generation in cardiac fibroblasts. Our data demonstrated that ANG II and ET-1 upregulate ET-1 gene expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts partly via cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism, and that natriuretic peptides inhibit ANG II-stimulated proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting ET-1 gene expression. Our data suggest the possible role of endogenous ET-1 as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts and its close interaction with natriuretic peptides in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis. Images

Fujisaki, H; Ito, H; Hirata, Y; Tanaka, M; Hata, M; Lin, M; Adachi, S; Akimoto, H; Marumo, F; Hiroe, M

1995-01-01

177

Tyrosinase gene mutations in oculocutaneous albinism 1 (OCA1): definition of the phenotype.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a common human genetic condition resulting from mutations in at least twelve different genes. OCA1 results from mutations of the tyrosinase gene and presents with the life-long absence of melanin pigment after birth (OCA1A) or with the development of minimal-to-moderate amounts of cutaneous and ocular pigment (OCA1B). Other types of OCA have variable amounts of cutaneous and ocular pigment. We hypothesized that white hair at birth indicates OCA1 and tested this in a sample of 120 probands with OCA and white hair at birth. We found that 102 (85%) of the probands had OCA1 with one or two identifiable tyrosinase gene mutations, with 169 (83%) of the 204 OCA1 tyrosinase gene alleles having identifiable mutations and 35 (17%) having no identifiable change in the coding, splice junction, or proximal promoter regions of the gene. The inability to identify the mutation was more common with OCA1B (24/35, 69%) than with OCA1A (11/35, 31%) alleles. Seven probands with no tyrosinase gene mutations were found to have OCA2 with one or two P gene mutations, and in eleven, no mutations were detected in either gene. We conclude that (1) the presence of white hair at birth is a useful clinical tool suggesting OCA1 in a child or adult with OCA, although OCA2 may also have this presentation; (2) the molecular analysis of the tyrosinase and P genes are necessary for precise diagnosis; and (3) the presence of alleles without identifiable mutations of the tyrosinase gene, particularly in OCA1B, suggests that more complex mutation mechanisms of this gene are common in OCA. PMID:13680365

King, Richard A; Pietsch, Jacy; Fryer, James P; Savage, Sarah; Brott, Marcia J; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Summers, C Gail; Oetting, William S

2003-09-10

178

Inhibition of interferon-inducible gene expression by adenovirus E1A proteins: Block in transcriptional complex formation  

SciTech Connect

Infection with wild-type adenovirus 5, but not with a mutant lacking the E1A gene, prevented the induction by interferon (IFN) {alpha} of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in HeLaM cell lines that had been permanently transfected with chimeric CAT reporter genes driven by the transcriptional regulatory regions of the IFN-inducible CAT activity was observed in cells that were cotransfected with the same reporter genes and plasmids expressing either the E1A 289- or 243-amino acid protein. These proteins also prevented the induction of CAT activity by IFN-{gamma} from a cotransfected HLA-DR{alpha}-CAT gene. Experiments with E1A mutants mapped the inhibitory activity to amino acid residues 38-65 of these proteins. In a HeLa cell line permanently expressing the E1A 289-amino acid protein, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus was not inhibited by IFN-{alpha}, suggesting a global blockade of IFN responses. The observed transcriptional inhibition could be attributed to the lack of formation of the crucial IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcriptional complex. As shown by mobility shift assays, this complex was not formed in the nuclear extracts of IFN-treated adenovirus-infected cells or IFN-treated E1A-producing cells. These nuclear extracts were deficient in both ISGF3{alpha} and ISGF3{gamma} subunits. However, they did not block the formation of ISGF3 complex from exogenously added components.

Kalvakolanu, D.V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Harter, M.L.; Sen, G.C. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (United States))

1991-09-01

179

Knockdown of clusterin inhibits the growth and migration of renal carcinoma cells and leads to differential gene expression.  

PubMed

Clusterin (CLU) is a glycoprotein involved in tumor progression, whose expression level correlates with the metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the mechanism by which CLU plays an oncogenic role in RCC remains unclear. In this study, we used the human renal cancer cell 786-O as an experimental model. We knocked down CLU expression in the 786-O cells using lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of RNAi, and then compared the gene expression profiles between the knocked down CLU 786-O cells and control cells. We observed that CLU knockdown induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation and migration of 786-O cells. Microassay analysis revealed changes in the expression of 588 genes between the 786-O cells infected by a si-CLU lentivirus and the control cells, where 356 genes were upregulated and 232 were downregulated. Pathway analysis classified the differentially expressed genes into 17 upregulated and 12 downregulated pathways, including the PI3K/Akt, MAPK and VEGF pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that CLU acts as an oncogene in RCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration and inhibiting apoptosis. Microassay analysis may provide a platform for further characterization of the individual genes implicated in the development of RCC, providing new insights into the oncogenic role of CLU. PMID:23670677

Shi, Hua; Deng, Jun-Hong; Wang, Zhu; Cao, Kai-Yuan; Zhou, Liang; Wan, Hua

2013-05-10

180

Discovery of Inhibitors of Aberrant Gene Transcription from Libraries of DNA Binding Molecules: Inhibition of LEF-1 Mediated Gene Transcription and Oncogenic Transformation  

PubMed Central

The screening of a >9000 compound library of synthetic DNA binding molecules for selective binding to the consensus sequence of the transcription factor LEF-1 followed by assessment of the candidate compounds in a series of assays that characterized functional activity (disruption of DNA–LEF-1 binding) at the intended target and site (inhibition of intracellular LEF-1 mediated gene transcription) resulting in a desired phenotypic cellular change (inhibit LEF-1 driven cell transformation) provided two lead compounds: lefmycin-1 and lefmycin-2. The sequence of screens defining the approach assures that activity in the final functional assay may be directly related to the inhibition of gene transcription and DNA binding properties of the identified molecules. Central to the implementation of this generalized approach to the discovery of DNA binding small molecule inhibitors of gene transcription was: (1) the use of a technically non-demanding fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay for initial assessment of the DNA binding affinity and selectivity of a library of compounds for any sequence of interest, and (2) the technology used to prepare a sufficiently large library of DNA binding compounds.

Stover, James S.; Shi, Jin; Jin, Wei; Vogt, Peter K.; Boger, Dale L.

2009-01-01

181

Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation by calcitonin gene related peptide and adrenomedullin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin are potent biologically active peptides that have been proposed to play an important role in vascular and inflammatory diseases. Their function in the central nervous system is still unclear since they have been proposed as either pro-inflammatory or neuroprotective factors. We investigated the effects of the two peptides on astrocytes and microglia, cells of the central nervous system that exert a strong modulatory activity in the neuroinflammatory processes. In particular, we studied the ability of CGRP and adrenomedullin to modulate microglia activation, i.e. its competence of producing and releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines that are known to play a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In this work we show that the two neuropeptides exert a potent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation in vitro, with strong inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (such as NO, cytokines and chemokines). Both CGRP and adrenomedullin are known to promote cAMP elevation, this second messenger cannot fully account for the observed inhibitory effects, thereby suggesting that other signaling pathways are involved. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of CGRP and adrenomedullin appears to be stimulus specific, since direct activation with pro-inflammatory cytokines was not affected. Our findings clarify aspects of microglia activation, and contribute to the comprehension of the switch from reparative to detrimental function that occurs when glia is exposed to different conditions. Moreover, they draw the attention to potential targets for novel pharmacological intervention in pathologies characterized by glia activation and neuroinflammation.

Consonni, Alessandra; Morara, Stefano; Codazzi, Franca; Grohovaz, Fabio; Zacchetti, Daniele

2011-01-01

182

Regulation of Th1/Th17 cytokines and IDO gene expression by inhibition of calpain in PBMCs from MS patients  

PubMed Central

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) pathology is marked by the massive infiltration of myelin-specific T cells into the central nervous system (CNS). During active disease, pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 cells predominate over immunoregulatory Th2/Treg cells. Here, we show that calpain inhibition downregulates Th1/Th17 inflammatory cytokines and mRNA in MS patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated with CD3/28 or MBP. Interestingly, calpain inhibition elevated IDO gene expression in MS PBMCs, which was markedly decreased in calpain expressing cells. Functional assay showed that incubation of MS patient PBMCs with calpain inhibitor or recombinant IDO attenuates T cell proliferation. These results suggest that calpain inhibition may attenuate MS pathology and augment the efficacy of standard immunomodulatory agents used to treat this disease.

Smith, Amena W.; Doonan, Bently P.; Tyor, William R.; Abou-Fayssal, Nada; Haque, Azizul; Banik, Naren L.

2011-01-01

183

Leukoregulin and 7Interferon Inhibit Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Gene Transcription in Human Papillomavirus immortalized Human Cervical Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human papillomavirus (HPV) transforming genes E6 and E7 are retained and expressed in the majority of cervical cancers implying an important role for these proteins in maintenance of the malignant phe- notype. Leukoregulin (LR) and recombinant 7-interferon (r-IFN-y), lym- phokines secreted by immune cells present in regressing HPV infections, inhibited transcription of E6\\/E7 RNAs in several human cervical epithe

Craig D. Woodworth; Ulrike Lichti; Scott Simpson; Charles H. Evans; Joseph A. DiPaolo

1992-01-01

184

Constitutive expression of a grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein affects gene expression and cell wall properties in uninfected tobacco  

PubMed Central

Background Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) directly limit the effective ingress of fungal pathogens by inhibiting cell wall-degrading endopolygalacturonases (ePGs). Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Vvpgip1 have previously been shown to be resistant to Botrytis infection. In this study we characterized two of these PGIP over-expressing lines with known resistance phenotypes by gene expression and hormone profiling in the absence of pathogen infection. Results Global gene expression was performed by a cross-species microarray approach using a potato cDNA microarray. The degree of potential cross-hybridization between probes was modeled by a novel computational workflow designed in-house. Probe annotations were updated by predicting probe-to-transcript hybridizations and combining information derived from other plant species. Comparing uninfected Vvpgip1-overexpressing lines to wild-type (WT), 318 probes showed significant change in expression. Functional groups of genes involved in metabolism and associated to the cell wall were identified and consequent cell wall analysis revealed increased lignin-levels in the transgenic lines, but no major differences in cell wall-derived polysaccharides. GO enrichment analysis also identified genes responsive to auxin, which was supported by elevated indole-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the transgenic lines. Finally, a down-regulation of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs), which are important in cell wall remodeling, was linked to a decrease in total XTH activity. Conclusions This evaluation of PGIP over-expressing plants performed under pathogen-free conditions to exclude the classical PGIP-ePG inhibition interaction indicates additional roles for PGIPs beyond the inhibition of ePGs.

2011-01-01

185

Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits human colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN encodes a multifunctional phosphatase that is mutated in a variety of human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and downstream functions, including activation of Akt\\/protein kinase B (PKB), cell survival, and cell proliferation in tumor cells carrying mutant- or deletion-type PTEN. In such tumor cells, enforced expression of PTEN decreases cell proliferation through cell-cycle arrest

Y Saito; X Swanson; A M Mhashilkar; Y Oida; R Schrock; C D Branch; S Chada; L Zumstein; R Ramesh

2003-01-01

186

LY294002 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced COX2 gene expression in cardiomyocytes through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-independent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoids induce COX-2 expression in rat cardiomyocytes. While investigating whether phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) plays a role in corticosterone (CT)-induced COX-2, we found that LY294002 (LY29) but not wortmannin (WM) attenuates CT from inducing COX-2 gene expression. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p85 subunit of PI3K failed to inhibit CT from inducing COX-2 expression. CT did not activate PI3K\\/AKT

Haipeng Sun; Beibei Xu; Elena Sheveleva; Qin M. Chen

2008-01-01

187

The OsFOR1 gene encodes a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) that regulates floral organ number in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a cDNA clone, OsFOR1, from the immature panicles of rice. The OsFOR1 (Oryza sativa floral organ regulator 1) gene encodes a protein that contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. This domain comprises 10 tandem repeats of a canonical 24-amino acid LRR sequence. The structure and the number of LRRs for OsFOR1 are similar to those of polygalacturonase-inhibiting

Seonghoe Jang; Byongho Lee; Chanhong Kim; Soo-Jin Kim; Jieun Yim; Jong-Jin Han; Shinyoung Lee; Seong-Ryong Kim; Gynheung An

2003-01-01

188

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase induces lipogenic gene expression in prostate cancer cells and inhibits ceramide-induced cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perturbation of metabolism with increased expression of lipogenic enzymes is a common characteristic of human cancers, including prostate cancer. In the present work the overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in LNCaP cells led to increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase-?, whereas micro RNA-mediated silencing of SCD inhibited the expression of these lipogenic genes in LNCaP cells.

Seung-Jin Kim; Eungseok Kim

2011-01-01

189

Epigenetics of gene expression in human hepatoma cells: expression profiling the response to inhibition of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation  

PubMed Central

Background DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are epigenetic mechanisms that play major roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. We hypothesize that many genes in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 are regulated by DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) to inhibit DNA methylation with and/or Trichostatin A (TSA) to inhibit histone deacetylation should allow us to identify genes that are regulated epigenetically in hepatoma cells. Results 5-aza-dC had a much larger effect on gene expression in HepG2 cells than did TSA, as measured using Affymetrix® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. The expression of 1504 probe sets was affected by 5-aza-dC (at p < 0.01), 535 probe sets by TSA, and 1929 probe sets by the combination of 5-aza-dC and TSA. 5-aza-dC treatment turned on the expression of 211 probe sets that were not detectably expressed in its absence. Expression of imprinted genes regulated by DNA methylation, such as H19 and NNAT, was turned on or greatly increased in response to 5-aza-dC. Genes involved in liver processes such as xenobiotic metabolism (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7) and steroid biosynthesis (CYP17A1 and CYP19A1), and genes encoding CCAAT element-binding proteins (C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and C/EBP?) were affected by 5-aza-dC or the combination. Many of the genes that fall within these groups are also expressed in the developing fetal liver and adult liver. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays confirmed selected gene expression changes seen in microarray analyses. Conclusion Epigenetics play a role in regulating the expression of several genes involved in essential liver processes such as xenobiotic metabolism and steroid biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. Many genes whose expression is normally silenced in these hepatoma cells were re-expressed by 5-aza-dC treatment. DNA methylation may be a factor in restricting the expression of fetal genes during liver development and in shutting down expression in hepatoma cells.

Dannenberg, Luke O; Edenberg, Howard J

2006-01-01

190

Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-? gene by the same.  

PubMed

In view of the folklore use of green leaves to treat inflammation, the anti-inflammatory property of chlorophylls and their degradation products were studied. Chlorophyll a and pheophytin a (magnesium-free chlorophyll a) from fresh leaves showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and formalin-induced paw edema in rats. Chlorophyll a inhibited bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression in HEK293 cells, but it did not influence the expression of inducible nitric acid synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Chlorophyll b only marginally inhibited both inflammation and TNF-? gene expression. But both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed the same level of marginal inhibition on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-?B activation. Chlorophylls and pheophytins showed in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The study shows that chlorophyll a and its degradation products are valuable and abundantly available anti-inflammatory agents and promising for the development of phytomedicine or conventional medicine to treat inflammation and related diseases. PMID:22038065

Subramoniam, Appian; Asha, Velikkakathu V; Nair, Sadasivan Ajikumaran; Sasidharan, Sreejith P; Sureshkumar, Parameswaran K; Rajendran, Krishnan Nair; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Ramalingam, Krishnan

2012-06-01

191

Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin  

PubMed Central

Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yellow-skinned cv. Golden Delicious than in red-skinned cv. Red Delicious. Transcript accumulation of MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes in fruits gradually decreased throughout fruit development. Ectopic expression of apple MdANR genes in tobacco positively and negatively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanin, respectively, resulting in white, pale pink-coloured, and white/red variegated flowers. The accumulation of anthocyanin is significantly reduced in all tobacco transgenic flowers, while catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers are significantly higher than those in flowers of wild-type plants. The inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis in tobacco transgenic flowers overexpressing MdANR genes is probably attributed to down-regulation of CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE (DFR) genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway. Interestingly, several transgenic lines show no detectable transcripts of the gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) in flowers, but accumulate higher levels of catechin in flowers of transgenic plants than those of wild-type plants. This finding suggests that the ANR gene may be capable of generating catechin via an alternative route, although this mechanism is yet to be further elucidated.

Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S.

2012-01-01

192

KLF4 gene expression is inhibited by the notch signaling pathway that controls goblet cell differentiation in mouse gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

In Kruppel-like factor (KLF)-4-deficient mice, colonic goblet cell numbers are significantly reduced. Goblet cell development is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to examine whether Notch represses KLF4 expression to regulate goblet cell differentiation. We first detected that KLF4 gene expression was upregulated in a human progastrin-overexpressing mouse model where goblet cell hyperplasia has been observed. We then found that mice treated with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (compound E, 10 micromol/kg) for 24 h, which inhibits the Notch signaling pathway, had significantly increased KLF4 mRNA levels in small intestine and colon, accompanied by an increased number of KLF4-expressing cells at the bottom of crypts in small intestine and colon. In a colon cancer cell line (HCT116 cells), KLF4 promoter activity was inhibited by a constitutively active form of Notch1 (ICN1) by transient cotransfection assays. This inhibition was significantly compromised by a dominant-negative RBPjk, a repressive mediator of the Notch signaling pathway. An ICN1-responsive element was then mapped in the human KLF4 promoter between -151 and -122 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site. It was also found that an intact ICN1-responsive element is required for ICN1 to inhibit KLF4 promoter activity by transient cotransfection assays. Our findings thus reveal a possible mechanism by which KLF4 is inhibited by Notch, which controls goblet cell differentiation in mouse gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19109406

Zheng, Hai; Pritchard, D Mark; Yang, Xiangdong; Bennett, Elaine; Liu, Gang; Liu, Chunming; Ai, Walden

2008-12-24

193

Metformin inhibits growth hormone-mediated hepatic PDK4 gene expression through induction of orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner.  

PubMed

Growth hormone (GH) is a counter-regulatory hormone that plays an important role in preventing hypoglycemia during fasting. Because inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) conserves substrates for gluconeogenesis, we tested whether GH increases PDK4 expression in liver by a signaling pathway sensitive to inhibition by metformin. The effects of GH and metformin were determined in the liver of wild-type, small heterodimer partner (SHP)-, PDK4-, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)-null mice. Administration of GH in vivo increased PDK4 expression via a pathway dependent on STAT5 phosphorylation. Metformin inhibited the induction of PDK4 expression by GH via a pathway dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SHP induction. The increase in PDK4 expression and PDC phosphorylation by GH was reduced in STAT5-null mice. Metformin decreased GH-mediated induction of PDK4 expression and metabolites in wild-type but not in SHP-null mice. In primary hepatocytes, dominant-negative mutant-AMPK and SHP knockdown prevented the inhibitory effect of metformin on GH-stimulated PDK4 expression. SHP directly inhibited STAT5 association on the PDK4 gene promoter. Metformin inhibits GH-induced PDK4 expression and metabolites via an AMPK-SHP-dependent pathway. The metformin-AMPK-SHP network may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of hepatic metabolic disorders induced by the GH-mediated pathway. PMID:22698918

Kim, Yong Deuk; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Tadi, Surendar; Yu, Ji Hoon; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Shong, Minho; Hennighausen, Lothar; Harris, Robert A; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

2012-06-14

194

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Inhibit Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased nitric oxide production is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the therapeutic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be attributed at least in part to inhibition of excess nitric oxide production. We report here that sodium salicylate, aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin markedly inhibited the appearance of the inducible inflammatory nitric oxide synthase

E. E. Aeberhard; S. A. Henderson; N. S. Arabolos; J. M. Griscavage; F. E. Castro; C. T. Barrett; L. J. Ignarro

1995-01-01

195

Inhibition of PrPSc formation by lentiviral gene transfer of PrP containing dominant negative mutations  

PubMed Central

Summary Currently there is no treatment to cure Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. By taking advantage of the prion “resistant” polymorphisms Q171R and E219K that naturally exist in sheep and humans, respectively, we have evaluated a lentiviral gene transfer therapeutic approach. Here we show that VSV-G (Vesicular Stomatitis Virus) pseudotyped FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) derived vectors carrying the mouse Prnp gene in which these mutations have been inserted, are able to inhibit prion replication in chronically prion infected cells. Since lentiviral tools are able to transduce post-mitotic cells such as neurons or cells of the lymphoreticular system, this result presents an insight into the development of gene or cell therapy approaches to prion disease.

Crozet, Carole; Lin, Yea-Lih; Mettling, Clement; Mourton-Gilles, Chantal; Corbeau, Pierre; Lehmann, Sylvain; Perrier, Veronique

2004-01-01

196

Butylated hydroxyanisole stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression and inhibits neointima formation in rat arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound that is a potent inducer of phase II genes. Since heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vasoprotective protein that is upregulated by phase II inducers, the present study examined the effects of BHA on HO-1 gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Methods: The regulation of HO-1 gene expression and vascular

Xiao-ming Liu; Mohammed A. Azam; Kelly J. Peyton; Diana Ensenat; Amit N. Keswani; Hong Wang; William Durante

197

Diversifying selection in a parasitoid's symbiotic virus among genes involved in inhibiting host immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During parasitization of their hosts some insect parasitoids deliver resident viruses which encode genes that must be expressed in the host for successful parasitization. Among these viruses the Campoletis sonorensis Ichnovirus has been well studied and encodes a cys-motif gene family implicated in disruption of host immunity and other physiological systems. Members of this gene family encode one or more

Stéphane Dupas; Matthew W. Turnbull; Bruce A. Webb

2003-01-01

198

cDNA Microarray Gene Expression Profiling of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Inhibition in Human Colon Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Hedgehog (HH) signaling plays a critical role in normal cellular processes, in normal mammalian gastrointestinal development and differentiation, and in oncogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in a variety of human cancers. Increasing evidence further implicates the involvement of HH signaling in oncogenesis and metastatic behavior of colon cancers. However, genomic approaches to elucidate the role of HH signaling in cancers in general are lacking, and data derived on HH signaling in colon cancer is extremely limited. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify unique downstream targets of the GLI genes, the transcriptional regulators of HH signaling, in the context of colon carcinoma, we employed a small molecule inhibitor of both GLI1 and GLI2, GANT61, in two human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and GC3/c1. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated accumulation of GANT61-treated cells at the G1/S boundary. cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of 18,401 genes identified Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) both common and unique to HT29 and GC3/c1. Analyses using GenomeStudio (statistics), Matlab (heat map), Ingenuity (canonical pathway analysis), or by qRT-PCR, identified p21Cip1 (CDKN1A) and p15Ink4b (CDKN2B), which play a role in the G1/S checkpoint, as up-regulated genes at the G1/S boundary. Genes that determine further cell cycle progression at G1/S including E2F2, CYCLIN E2 (CCNE2), CDC25A and CDK2, and genes that regulate passage of cells through G2/M (CYCLIN A2 [CCNA2], CDC25C, CYCLIN B2 [CCNB2], CDC20 and CDC2 [CDK1], were down-regulated. In addition, novel genes involved in stress response, DNA damage response, DNA replication and DNA repair were identified following inhibition of HH signaling. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies genes that are involved in HH-dependent cellular proliferation in colon cancer cells, and following its inhibition, genes that regulate cell cycle progression and events downstream of the G1/S boundary.

Shi, Ting; Mazumdar, Tapati; DeVecchio, Jennifer; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Agyeman, Akwasi; Aziz, Mohammad; Houghton, Janet A.

2010-01-01

199

Long-Term Systemic Myostatin Inhibition via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer in Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 3,500 newborn boys for which there is no effective treatment or cure. One novel strategy that has therapeutic potential for DMD is inhibition of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that may also promote fibrosis. Therefore, our goal in this study was to evaluate systemic myostatin inhibition in the golden retriever model of DMD (GRMD). GRMD canines underwent liver-directed gene transfer of a self-complementary adeno-associated virus type 8 vector designed to express a secreted dominant-negative myostatin peptide (n=4) and were compared with age-matched, untreated GRMD controls (n=3). Dogs were followed with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 13 months to assess cross-sectional area and volume of skeletal muscle, then euthanized so that tissue could be harvested for morphological and histological analysis. We found that systemic myostatin inhibition resulted in increased muscle mass in GRMD dogs as assessed by MRI and confirmed at tissue harvest. We also found that hypertrophy of type IIA fibers was largely responsible for the increased muscle mass and that reductions in serum creatine kinase and muscle fibrosis were associated with long-term myostatin inhibition in GRMD. This is the first report describing the effects of long-term, systemic myostatin inhibition in a large-animal model of DMD, and we believe that the simple and effective nature of our liver-directed gene-transfer strategy makes it an ideal candidate for evaluation as a novel therapeutic approach for DMD patients.

Sleeper, Meg M.; Forbes, Sean C.; Morine, Kevin J.; Reynolds, Caryn; Singletary, Gretchen E.; Trafny, Dennis; Pham, Jennifer; Bogan, Janet; Kornegay, Joe N.; Vandenborne, Krista; Walter, Glenn A.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2011-01-01

200

Species-Specific Dibutyl Phthalate Fetal Testis Endocrine Disruption Correlates with Inhibition of SREBP2-Dependent Gene Expression Pathways  

PubMed Central

Fetal rat phthalate exposure produces a spectrum of male reproductive tract malformations downstream of reduced Leydig cell testosterone production, but the molecular mechanism of phthalate perturbation of Leydig cell function is not well understood. By bioinformatically examining fetal testis expression microarray data sets from susceptible (rat) and resistant (mouse) species after dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, we identified decreased expression of several metabolic pathways in both species. However, lipid metabolism pathways transcriptionally regulated by sterol regulatory element–binding protein (SREBP) were inhibited in the rat but induced in the mouse, and this differential species response corresponded with repression of the steroidogenic pathway. In rats exposed to 100 or 500 mg/kg DBP from gestational days (GD) 16 to 20, a correlation was observed between GD20 testis steroidogenic inhibition and reductions of testis cholesterol synthesis endpoints including testis total cholesterol levels, Srebf2 gene expression, and cholesterol synthesis pathway gene expression. SREBP2 expression was detected in all fetal rat testis cells but was highest in Leydig cells. Quantification of SREBP2 immunostaining showed that 500 mg/kg DBP exposure significantly reduced SREBP2 expression in rat fetal Leydig cells but not in seminiferous cords. By Western analysis, total rat testis SREBP2 levels were not altered by DBP exposure. Together, these data suggest that phthalate-induced inhibition of fetal testis steroidogenesis is closely associated with reduced activity of several lipid metabolism pathways and SREBP2-dependent cholesterologenesis in Leydig cells.

Johnson, Kamin J.; McDowell, Erin N.; Viereck, Megan P.; Xia, Jessie Q.

2011-01-01

201

Identification of residues of SARS-CoV nsp1 that differentially affect inhibition of gene expression and antiviral signaling.  

PubMed

An epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) led to the identification of an associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV. This virus evades the host innate immune response in part through the expression of its non-structural protein (nsp) 1, which inhibits both host gene expression and virus- and interferon (IFN)-dependent signaling. Thus, nsp1 is a promising target for drugs, as inhibition of nsp1 would make SARS-CoV more susceptible to the host antiviral defenses. To gain a better understanding of nsp1 mode of action, we generated and analyzed 38 mutants of the SARS-CoV nsp1, targeting 62 solvent exposed residues out of the 180 amino acid protein. From this work, we identified six classes of mutants that abolished, attenuated or increased nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression and/or antiviral signaling. Each class of mutants clustered on SARS-CoV nsp1 surface and suggested nsp1 interacts with distinct host factors to exert its inhibitory activities. Identification of the nsp1 residues critical for its activities and the pathways involved in these activities should help in the design of drugs targeting nsp1. Significantly, several point mutants increased the inhibitory activity of nsp1, suggesting that coronaviruses could evolve a greater ability to evade the host response through mutations of such residues. PMID:23658627

Jauregui, Andrew R; Savalia, Dhruti; Lowry, Virginia K; Farrell, Cara M; Wathelet, Marc G

2013-04-29

202

Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset  

PubMed Central

We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II–VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1.

Nakagami, Yuki; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

203

Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset.  

PubMed

We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II-VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1. PMID:23576954

Nakagami, Yuki; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

2013-04-09

204

Retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS453 inhibits the growth of normal and malignant breast cells without activating RAR–dependent gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the role of RAR–dependent gene transcription in inhibiting breast cell growth, we have investigated the ability of retinoids to suppress growth of normal, immortal, and malignant breast cells. We compared the ability of alltrans retinoic acid (atRA) to activate retinoid receptors in normal, immortal, and malignant breast cells, with its ability to inhibit the growth of these cells.

L. Yang; H. T. Kim; J. Ostrowski; P. Reczek; P. H. Brown

1999-01-01

205

Systemic Myostatin Inhibition via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer in Normal and Dystrophic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMyostatin inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy to maintain muscle mass in a variety of disorders, including the muscular dystrophies, cachexia, and sarcopenia. Previously described approaches to blocking myostatin signaling include injection delivery of inhibitory propeptide domain or neutralizing antibodies.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we describe a unique method of myostatin inhibition utilizing recombinant adeno-associated virus to overexpress a secretable dominant negative myostatin

Kevin J. Morine; Lawrence T. Bish; Klara Pendrak; Meg M. Sleeper; Elisabeth R. Barton; H. Lee Sweeney; Alfred Lewin

2010-01-01

206

Inhibiting Cell Division in Escherichia coli Has Little If Any Effect on Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays were used to compare gene expression in dividing and nondividing (filamentous) cultures of Escherichia coli. Although cells from these cultures differed profoundly in morphology, their gene expression profiles were nearly identical. These results extend previous evidence that there is no division checkpoint in E. coli, and progression through the cell cycle is not regulated by the transcription of different genes during different parts of the cell cycle.

Arends, S. J. Ryan; Weiss, David S.

2004-01-01

207

Disruption of a fur -like gene inhibits magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a genomic library of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 strain was constructed and a fur-like gene (encoding Fur protein, ferric uptake regulator) was isolated and sequenced. This gene consisted of 420 bp and encoded\\u000a 139 amino acid residues. To investigate the function of this gene in MSR-1, a fur mutant was generated by double crossover with a kanamycin cassette

Yijun Huang; Weijia Zhang; Wei Jiang; Chengbo Rong; Ying Li

2007-01-01

208

Mutation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta inhibits Pkhd1 gene expression and produces renal cysts in mice.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) is a Pit-1, Oct-1/2, UNC-86 (POU)/homeodomain-containing transcription factor that regulates tissue-specific gene expression in the liver, kidney, and other organs. Humans with autosomal dominant mutations of HNF-1beta develop maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5) and congenital cystic abnormalities of the kidney. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is an inherited cystic disorder that produces renal failure in infants and children and is caused by mutations of PKHD1. The proximal promoter of the mouse Pkhd1 gene contains an evolutionarily conserved HNF-1-binding site that is located near a region of deoxyribonuclease hypersensitivity. HNF-1beta and the structurally related HNF-1alpha bind specifically to the Pkhd1 promoter and stimulate gene transcription. Mutations of the HNF-1 site or expression of a dominant-negative HNF-1beta mutant inhibit Pkhd1 promoter activity in transfected cells. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative HNF-1beta mutant under the control of a kidney-specific promoter develop renal cysts, similarly to humans with MODY5. Pkhd1 transcripts are absent in the cells lining the cysts but are present in morphologically normal surrounding tubules. These studies identify a link between two cystic disease genes, HNF1beta (MODY5) and PKHD1 (ARPKD). HNF-1beta directly regulates the transcription of Pkhd1, and inhibition of PKHD1 gene expression may contribute to the formation of renal cysts in humans with MODY5. PMID:15067314

Hiesberger, Thomas; Bai, Yun; Shao, Xinli; McNally, Brian T; Sinclair, Angus M; Tian, Xin; Somlo, Stefan; Igarashi, Peter

2004-03-01

209

Overexpression of the nerve growth factor-inducible PC3 immediate early gene is associated with growth inhibition.  

PubMed

PC3 (pheochromocytoma cell-3) is an immediate early gene isolated as sequence induced in the rat PC12 cell line during neuronal differentiation by nerve growth factor (NGF). PC3, which is expressed in vivo in the neuroblast when it ceases proliferating and differentiates into a neuron, has partial homology with two antiproliferative genes, BTG1 and Tob. Here we report that overexpression of PC3 in NIH3T3 and PC12 cells leads to marked inhibition of cell proliferation. In stable NIH3T3 clones expressing PC3, the transition from G1 to S phase was impaired, whereas the retinoblastoma (RB) protein was detected as multiple isoforms of M(r) 105,000-115,000 (indicative of a hyperphosphorylated state) only in low-density cultures. Such findings are consistent with a condition of growth inhibition. Thus, PC3 might be a negative regulator of cell proliferation, possibly acting as a transducer of factors influencing cell growth and/or differentiation, such as NGF, by a RB-dependent pathway. This is the first evidence of a NGF-inducible immediate early gene displaying antiproliferative activity. PMID:8891336

Montagnoli, A; Guardavaccaro, D; Starace, G; Tirone, F

1996-10-01

210

Green tea polyphenols function as prooxidants to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa and induce the expression of oxidative stress-related genes.  

PubMed

Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are widely believed to function as antioxidants and antimicrobial agents. Here we observed that GTP and epigallocatechin gallate, the most abundant catechin in GTP, could also function as prooxidants and produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. pH value of the medium was the key factor that affected prooxidant versus antioxidant property of GTP. Under weakly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5), GTP showed antioxidant activity by eliminating H2O2; whereas, under neutral and weakly alkaline conditions (pH 7.0-8.0), GTP showed prooxidant activity and inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we studied the effects of GTP on gene expression profiles of a few oxidative stress-related genes by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. After 10 min to 1 h of exposure under weakly alkaline condition, GTP significantly up-regulated expression levels of katB, sodM, ohr, lexA, and recN gene. These findings highlight that the pH-dependent H2O2 production by GTP contributes to the antibacterial activity and can induce oxidative stress-related responses in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23054687

Liu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Jianrong; Wang, Yanbo; Li, Tingting; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Chaohua

2012-10-10

211

Gliosis-specific transcription factor OASIS coincides with proteoglycan core protein genes in the glial scar and inhibits neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

OASIS gene, a member of the CREB/ATF transcription factor family, is upregulated in gliosis after CNS injury. However it remains to be determined how OASIS is implicated in gliotic reaction. In a glial scar, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are also upregulated, which engenders the inhibition of axonal regeneration. We investigated the functional role of OASIS in gliosis in relation to CSPG core proteins that render lesions non-permissive for regenerating axons. We first examined the gene expression localization of OASIS using several markers in a cryo-injured mouse brain and compared the expression pattern of CSPG core protein genes with that of OASIS in a glial scar by double-labeling in situ hybridization. Our findings suggest that OASIS is induced in proximal reactive astrocytes that exhibit upregulated expression for CSPGs, including NG2 proteoglycan, versican, brevican, neurocan, and phosphacan core. Furthermore, the membrane fraction derived from OASIS-transfected C6 cells inhibits neurite outgrowth of NG108-15 cells, whereas its neurite outgrowth inhibitory effect is abrogated after chondroitinase ABC treatment. OASIS is likely to be involved in the regulatory mechanism of non-permissive environments for axonal outgrowth. PMID:23268958

Iseki, Ken; Hagino, Seita; Nikaido, Takuya; Zhang, Yuxiang; Mori, Tetsuji; Yokoya, Sachihiko; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Wanaka, Akio; Tase, Choichiro

2012-12-01

212

TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast  

PubMed Central

Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond.

Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bahler, Jurg

2013-01-01

213

Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit S14 gene transcription in rat liver and cultured hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to have significant effects on hepatic lipogenic gene expression. The S14 gene has been used as a model to examine the effects of PUFAs on hepatic lipogenic gene expression. In vivo studies showed that feeding rats a high carbohydrate diet containing menhaden oil rapidly (within hours) and significantly (> or = 50%) attenuates hepatic S14 gene transcription and S14 mRNA abundance. The suppressive effect of menhaden oil was both gene and tissue specific. The effect of PUFAs on expression of the S14 mRNA and a transfected S14 fusion gene (i.e., S14CAT4.3) was examined in cultured hepatocytes in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), insulin, dexamethasone, and albumin under serum-free conditions. Whereas T3 stimulated both S14 mRNA (> 40-fold) and S14CAT4.3 (> 100-fold), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3) significantly attenuated (> or = 80%) both S14 mRNA and S14CAT activity in a dose-dependent fashion. The effects of C20:5 on hepatocyte gene expression were both gene and fatty acid specific. Deletion analysis of transfected S14CAT fusion genes indicated that the S14 thyroid hormone response element (at -2.5 to -2.9 kb) was not sensitive to C20:5 control. The cis-linked PUFA response elements were localized to a region within the S14 proximal promoter (at -80 to -220 bp). This region also contains cis-acting elements that potentiate T3 activation of S14 gene transcription. These studies suggest that C20:5 (or its metabolites) regulates factors within the S14 proximal promoter region that are important for T3 activation of S14 gene transcription. Images Fig. 1

Jump, D B; Clarke, S D; MacDougald, O; Thelen, A

1993-01-01

214

Oculocutaneous albinism type 3 (OCA3): analysis of two novel mutations in TYRP1 gene in two Chinese patients.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetic disease characterized by the reduction or deficiency of melanin in eyes, skin, and hair. OCA exhibits genetic heterogeneity. Presently, there are four types of OCA named as OCA1, OCA2, OCA3, and OCA4. OCA3 is more common in African born blacks but rarely found in other ethnic populations. Our recent genotyping of patients with OCA of Chinese descent has identified two patients who were not OCA1, OCA2, or OCA4. Examination and analysis of the TYRP1 gene identified them to be having OCA3. PCR and DNA sequencing analysis found that the mutant TYPR1 alleles were present in each of the two patients, c.780-791del/c.1067G>A (p.R356Q) and c.625G>TT (p.G209LfsX1)/c.643C>T (p.H215Y). The c.780-791del and c.1067G>A mutations have been already reported. However, the c.625G>TT and c.643C>T mutations have not been previously reported and were found to be maternal and paternal mutations, respectively. Moreover, population screening and bioinformatic analysis were carried out to determine the effects of these two mutations which revealed that both the mutation were pathogenic. Based on the similar mild phenotype of these two patients, we suggest that OCA3 might be prevalent within the Chinese population. PMID:21739261

Zhang, Kai-hui; Li, Zhuo; Lei, Jie; Pang, Ting; Xu, Bei; Jiang, Wei-ying; Li, Hong-yi

2011-12-01

215

Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene

Eric Barrey; Elodie Mucher; Nicolas Jeansoule; Thibaut Larcher; Lydie Guigand; Bérénice Herszberg; Stéphane Chaffaux; Gérard Guérin; Xavier Mata; Philippe Benech; Marielle Canale; Olivier Alibert; Péguy Maltere; Xavier Gidrol

2009-01-01

216

Targeted knockdown of an opsin gene inhibits the swimming behaviour photoresponse of ascidian larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis genome was completed at the end of 2002. Effective targeted gene knockdown in this model chordate would greatly enhance understanding of how the genes affect the function of the neurons that underlie behaviour. We show here that antisense morpholinos (MOs) are effective and specific translational inhibitors in C. intestinalis larvae. The larvae developed

Kyoko Inada; Takeo Horie; Takehiro Kusakabe; Motoyuki Tsuda

2003-01-01

217

The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene product, menin, inhibits the human prolactin promoter activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menin is a protein encoded by the gene mutated in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) characterized by multiple endocrine tumors of the parathyroid glands, pancreatic islets and the anterior pituitary, especially prolactinoma. In this study, we examined the effects of menin on human prolactin (hPRL) expression. In rat pituitary GH3 cells stably expressing menin, both PRL gene expression\\/ secretion

H Namihira; M Sato; K Murao; W M Cao; S Matsubara; H Imachi; M Niimi; H Dobashi; T Ishida

2002-01-01

218

fMRI Activation during Response Inhibition and Error Processing: The Role of the DAT1 Gene in Typically Developing Adolescents and Those Diagnosed with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The DAT1 gene codes for the dopamine transporter, which clears dopamine from the synaptic cleft, and a variant of this gene has previously been associated with compromised response inhibition in both healthy and clinical populations. This variant has also been associated with ADHD, a disorder that is characterised by disturbed dopamine function…

Braet, Wouter; Johnson, Katherine A.; Tobin, Claire T.; Acheson, Ruth; McDonnell, Caroline; Hawi, Ziarah; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Garavan, Hugh

2011-01-01

219

RECK Inhibits Stemness Gene Expression and Tumorigenicity of Gastric Cancer Cells by Suppressing ADAM-Mediated Notch1 Activation.  

PubMed

The Reversion-inducing Cysteine-rich Protein with Kazal Motifs (RECK) gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that exhibits strong inhibitory activity against various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). RECK functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. However, whether RECK can modulate the stem-like phenotypes of cancer cells is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that RECK is down-regulated in gastric cancer cells and is further reduced in CD133-positive cancer stem-like cells. Ectopic expression of RECK induces down-regulation of the expression of stemness genes including Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog and the cancer stem cell marker CD133. Treatment of DAPT (a ?-secretase inhibitor) or TAPI-2 (a hydroxamate-based inhibitor of MMPs, tumor necrosis factor ? converting enzyme and ADAM17) reduces Notch1 shedding and activation which results in attenuation of stemness genes and CD133. Our data show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are co-pulled down by RECK suggesting a physical interaction between RECK and ADAMs on cell surface. In addition, RECK suppresses sphere formation and sphere size of CD133-positive gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) or ADAM17 effectively reverse the inhibitory effect of RECK in CD133-positive cells. More importantly, RECK reduces tumorigenic activity of CD133-positive cells in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of RECK in non-tumorigenic GI2 cells increases stemness and CD133 expression and sphere forming ability. Collectively, these results indicate that RECK represses stemness gene expression and stem-like properties by inhibiting ADAM-mediated Notch1 shedding and activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 191-201, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23881612

Hong, Kun-Jing; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Li-Tzong; Hung, Wen-Chun

2014-02-01

220

Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells.  

PubMed

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake. PMID:24177567

Wang, Jian-Fa; Fu, Shou-Peng; Li, Su-Nan; Hu, Zhong-Ming; Xue, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Bing-Xu; Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Wei

2013-10-30

221

Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Therapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy and Targeted Drugs That Inhibit DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 µCi) 131I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 µCi) 131I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated 131I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers.

Hingorani, Mohan; White, Christine L; Zaidi, Shane; Pandha, Hardev S; Melcher, Alan A; Bhide, Shreerang A; Nutting, Christopher M; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Vile, Richard G; Vassaux, Georges; Harrington, Kevin J

2010-01-01

222

Human rhomboid family-1 gene silencing causes apoptosis or autophagy to epithelial cancer cells and inhibits xenograft tumor growth.  

PubMed

The rhomboid family of genes carry out a wide range of important functions in a variety of organisms. Little is known, however, about the function of the human rhomboid family-1 gene (RHBDF1). We show here that RHBDF1 function is essential to epithelial cancer cell growth. RHBDF1 mRNA level is significantly elevated in clinical specimens of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and the protein is readily detectable in human breast cancer or head and neck cancer cell lines. Silencing the RHBDF1 gene with short interfering RNA (siRNA) results in apoptosis in breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells and autophagy in head and neck squamous cell cancer 1483 cells. The treatment also leads to significant down-modulation of activated AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the cells, suggesting that critically diminished strength of these growth signals may be the key attributes of the induction of cell death. Furthermore, silencing the RHBDF1 gene in MDA-MB-435 or 1483 xenograft tumors on athymic nude mice by using i.v. administered histidine-lysine polymer nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA results in marked inhibition of tumor growth. Our findings indicate that RHBDF1 has a pivotal role in sustaining growth signals in epithelial cancer cells and thus may serve as a therapeutic target for treating epithelial cancers. PMID:18524845

Yan, Zhenwen; Zou, Huafei; Tian, Fang; Grandis, Jennifer R; Mixson, A James; Lu, Patrick Y; Li, Lu-Yuan

2008-06-04

223

Significant Inhibition of Corneal Scarring In Vivo with Tissue-Selective, Targeted AAV5 Decorin Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This study tested a hypothesis that tissue-selective targeted decorin gene therapy delivered to the stroma with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) inhibits corneal fibrosis in vivo without significant side effects. Methods. An in vivo rabbit model of corneal fibrosis was used. Targeted decorin gene therapy was delivered to the rabbit cornea by a single topical application of AAV5 (100 ?L; 6.5 × 1012 ?g/mL) onto the bare stroma for 2 minutes. The levels of corneal fibrosis were determined with stereomicroscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA), fibronectin, and F-actin immunocytochemistry, and/or immunoblotting. CD11b, F4/80 immunocytochemistry, and TUNEL assay were used to examine immunogenicity and cytotoxicity of AAV5 to the cornea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate ultrastructural features. Slot-blot–quantified the copy number of AAV5-delivered decorin genes. Results. Selective decorin delivery into the stroma showed a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in corneal haze (1.3 ± 0.3) compared with the no-decorin-delivered control rabbit corneas (3 ± 0.4) quantified using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Immunostaining and immunoblot analyses detected significantly reduced levels of ?SMA, F-actin, and fibronectin proteins (59%–73%; P < 0.001 or <0.01) in decorin-delivered rabbit corneas compared with the no-decorin-delivered controls. The visual clinical eye examination, slit lamp clinical studies, TUNEL, CD11b, and F4/80 assays revealed that AAV5-mediated decorin gene therapy is nonimmunogenic and nontoxic for the cornea. TEM studies suggested that decorin gene delivery does not jeopardize collagen fibrillogenesis as no significant differences in collagen fibril diameter and arrangement were observed in decorin-delivered and no-decorin-delivered control corneas. Conclusions. Tissue-targeted AAV5-mediated decorin gene therapy is effective and safe for treating corneal fibrosis in vivo.

Tandon, Ashish; Sharma, Ajay; Cowden, John W.; Tovey, Jonathan C. K.

2011-01-01

224

An apoptosis-inhibiting gene from a nuclear polyhedrosis virus encoding a polypeptide with Cys/His sequence motifs.  

PubMed Central

Two different baculovirus genes are known to be able to block apoptosis triggered upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells with p35 mutants of the insect baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV):p35 (P35-encoding gene) of AcMNPV (R. J. Clem, M. Fechheimer, and L. K. Miller, Science 254:1388-1390, 1991) and iap (inhibitor of apoptosis gene) of Cydia pomonella granulosis virus (CpGV) (N. E. Crook, R. J. Clem, and L. K. Miller, J. Virol. 67:2168-2174, 1993). Using a genetic complementation assay to identify additional genes which inhibit apoptosis during infection with a p35 mutant, we have isolated a gene from Orgyia pseudotsugata NPV (OpMNPV) that was able to functionally substitute for AcMNPV p35. The nucleotide sequence of this gene, Op-iap, predicted a 30-kDa polypeptide product with approximately 58% amino acid sequence identity to the product of CpGV iap, Cp-IAP. Like Cp-IAP, the predicted product of Op-iap has a carboxy-terminal C3HC4 zinc finger-like motif. In addition, a pair of additional cysteine/histidine motifs were found in the N-terminal regions of both polypeptide sequences. Recombinant p35 mutant viruses carrying either Op-iap or Cp-iap appeared to have a normal phenotype in S. frugiperda cells. Thus, Cp-IAP and Op-IAP appear to be functionally analogous to P35 but are likely to block apoptosis by a different mechanism which may involve direct interaction with DNA. Images

Birnbaum, M J; Clem, R J; Miller, L K

1994-01-01

225

Effective inhibition of HCMV UL49 gene expression and viral replication by oligonucleotide external guide sequences and RNase P  

PubMed Central

Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that typically causes asymptomatic infections in healthy individuals but may lead to serious complications in newborns and immunodeficient individuals. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of HCMV has posed a need for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies. Antisense molecules are promising gene-targeting agents for specific regulation of gene expression. External guide sequences (EGSs) are oligonucleotides that consist of a sequence complementary to a target mRNA and recruit intracellular RNase P for specific degradation of the target RNA. The UL49-deletion BAC of HCMV was significantly defective in growth in human foreskin fibroblasts. Therefore, UL49 gene may serve as a potential target for novel drug development to combat HCMV infection. In this study, DNA-based EGS molecules were synthesized to target the UL49 mRNA of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Results By cleavage activity assessing in vitro, the EGS aimed to the cleavage site 324 nt downstream from the translational initiation codon of UL49 mRNA (i.e. EGS324) was confirmed be efficient to direct human RNase P to cleave the target mRNA sequence. When EGS324 was exogenously administered into HCMV-infected human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), a significant reduction of ~76% in the mRNA and ~80% in the protein expression of UL49 gene, comparing with the cells transfected with control EGSs. Furthermore, a reduction of about 330-fold in HCMV growth were observed in HCMV-infected HFFs treated with the EGS. Conclusions These results indicated that UL49 gene was essential for replication of HCMV. Moreover, our study provides evidence that exogenous administration of a DNA-based EGS can be used as a potential therapeutic approach for inhibiting gene expression and replication of a human virus.

2010-01-01

226

TEAD1 inhibits prolactin gene expression in cultured human uterine decidual cells1  

PubMed Central

Forced overexpression of TEAD1 in human uterine fibroblast (HUF) and human endometrial stromal cells markedly inhibited prolactin promoter activity in both cell types in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal inhibition of greater than 90%. Conversely, the knockdown of TEAD1 expression in HUF cells with a TEAD1 siRNA resulted in a 75–80% increase in prolactin mRNA levels (P<0.01) compared to control cells exposed to a scrambled nonsense RNA. Mutagenesis of the putative TEAD site inhibited basal promoter activity by about 80%. However, mutagenesis of the TEAD site did not prevent TEAD1-induced inhibition of promoter activity; and the transcription activity of a minimal promoter fragment lacking a putative TEAD binding site was repressed by overexpression of TEAD1. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TEAD binding site on the prolactin promoter is important for the maintenance of basal prolactin promoter activity and that overexpression of TEAD1 has a dominant-negative effect on prolactin promoter activity, probably by interacting directly with other transcription factors.

Kessler, Cherie A.; Bachurski, Cindy J.; Schroeder, Jennifer; Stanek, Jerzy; Handwerger, Stuart

2008-01-01

227

Chloroplast photooxidation inhibits the expression of a set of nuclear genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations or herbicides which inhibit the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in higher plants also result in the arrest of chloroplast development at a very early stage. The cause is extensive photooxidative damage within the chloroplast in the absence of protective carotenoids. Because the extent of photooxidation is dependent upon light intensity, normal chloroplast development can occur when carotenoid-deficient seedlings are

Stephen P. Mayfield; William C. Taylor

1987-01-01

228

Can biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) genes from perennial Leymus racemosus ( Triticeae ) combat nitrification in wheat farming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recombinant luminescent Nitrosomonas europaea assay to quantify biological nitrification inhibition (BNI), we found that a wild relative of wheat (Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvelev) had a high BNI capacity and releases about 20 times more BNI compounds (about 30 ATU g?1 root dry weight 24 h?1) than Triticum aestivum L. (cultivated wheat). The root exudate from cultivated wheat has no inhibitory

G. V. Subbarao; Ban Tomohiro; Kishii Masahiro; Ito Osamu; H. Samejima; H. Y. Wang; S. J. Pearse; S. Gopalakrishnan; K. Nakahara; A. K. M. Zakir Hossain; H. Tsujimoto; W. L. Berry

2007-01-01

229

High transdominant RevM10 protein levels are required to inhibit HIV1 replication in cell lines and primary T cells: implication for gene therapy of AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of antiviral genes in CD4+ T cells has been proposed as a strategy for gene therapy of AIDS. Over the past years, we and others have developed retroviral vectors encoding the RevM10 protein, a dominant-negative mutant of the HIV-1 Rev trans-activator protein. We could demonstrate gene transfer and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in cultured T cell lines and primary

I Plavec; M Agarwal; KE Ho; M Pineda; J Auten; J Baker; H Matsuzaki; S Escaich; M Bonyhadi; E Böhnlein

1997-01-01

230

368. Differential Sensitivity of Normal and CML-Derived CD34+Cells to Inhibition of SHP2, Gab2 and Stat5 Gene Expression by RNA Interference (RNAi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference has rapidly become an efficient tool for functional genomics in a variety of organisms. Stable expression of shRNA driven by pol III promoters upon lentiviral gene transfer can induce long-term gene silencing in mammalian cells. We recently demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated anti bcr-abl RNAi can specifically silence bcr-abl gene expression, inhibit oncogene driven cell proliferation, and eradicate leukemic cells

Michaela Scherr; Karin Battmer; Anuhar Chaturvedi; Beate Schultheis; Arnold Ganser; Matthias Eder

2005-01-01

231

Inhibiting AIDS in the Central Nervous System: Gene Delivery to Protect Neurons from HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy to treat primary and secondary CNS diseases, including neuro-AIDS, has not yet been effective. New approaches to delivering therapeutic genes to the central nervous system are therefore required. Recombinant SV40 vectors (rSV40) transduce both dividing and quiescent cells efficiently, and so we tested them for their ability to deliver anti-HIV-1 transgenes to terminally differentiated human NT2-derived neurons (NT2-N).

Pierre Cordelier; Elisabeth Van Bockstaele; Sandra A. Calarota; David S. Strayer

2003-01-01

232

A Common Set of Gene Regulatory Networks Links Metabolism and Growth Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using genome-wide analysis of transcription factor occupancy, we investigated the mechanisms underlying three mammalian growth arrest pathways that require the pRB tumor suppressor family. We found that p130 and E2F4 cooperatively repress a common set of genes under each growth arrest condition and showed that growth arrest is achieved through repression of a core set of genes involved not only

Hugh Cam; Egle Balciunaite; Alexandre Blais; Alexander Spektor; Richard C. Scarpulla; Richard Young; Yuval Kluger; Brian David Dynlacht

2004-01-01

233

Inhibition of Apolipoprotein AI Gene Expression by Obesity-Associated Endocannabinoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is associated with increased serum endocannabinoid (EC) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc). Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the primary protein component of HDL is expressed primarily in the liver and small intestine. To determine whether ECs regulate apo A-I gene expression directly, the effect of the obesity-associated ECs anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol on apo A-I gene expression was examined

Michael J. Haas; Angela D. Mazza; Norman C. W. Wong; Arshag D. Mooradian

2012-01-01

234

Antisense-mediated inhibition of the bcl-2 gene induces apoptosis in human malignant glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDThe bcl-2 protooncogene represses a number of cellular apoptotic pathways and is known to be expressed in increasing amounts in glial tumors of higher malignancy. We tested whether antisense oligonucleotides to the bcl-2 gene would affect glioma cell viability.METHODSAntisense oligonucleotides directed to the first six codons of the human bcl-2 gene, and nonsense oligonucleotides as a control, were transfected into

Terrence Julien; Bruce Frankel; Sharon Longo; Michele Kyle; Sandra Gibson; Edward Shillitoe; Timothy Ryken

2000-01-01

235

Peptide Deformylase in Staphylococcus aureus: Resistance to Inhibition Is Mediated by Mutations in the Formyltransferase Gene  

PubMed Central

Peptide deformylase, a bacterial enzyme, represents a novel target for antibiotic discovery. Two deformylase homologs, defA and defB, were identified in Staphylococcus aureus. The defA homolog, located upstream of the transformylase gene, was identified by genomic analysis and was cloned from chromosomal DNA by PCR. A distinct homolog, defB, was cloned from an S. aureus genomic library by complementation of the arabinose-dependent phenotype of a PBAD-def Escherichia coli strain grown under arabinose-limiting conditions. Overexpression in E. coli of defB, but not defA, correlated to increased deformylase activity and decreased susceptibility to actinonin, a deformylase-specific inhibitor. The defB gene could not be disrupted in wild-type S. aureus, suggesting that this gene, which encodes a functional deformylase, is essential. In contrast, the defA gene could be inactivated; the function of this gene is unknown. Actinonin-resistant mutants grew slowly in vitro and did not show cross-resistance to other classes of antibiotics. When compared to the parent, an actinonin-resistant strain produced an attenuated infection in a murine abscess model, indicating that this strain also has a growth disadvantage in vivo. Sequence analysis of the actinonin-resistant mutants revealed that each harbors a loss-of-function mutation in the fmt gene. Susceptibility to actinonin was restored when the wild-type fmt gene was introduced into these mutant strains. An S. aureus ?fmt strain was also resistant to actinonin, suggesting that a functional deformylase activity is not required in a strain that lacks formyltransferase activity. Accordingly, the defB gene could be disrupted in an fmt mutant.

Margolis, Peter S.; Hackbarth, Corinne J.; Young, Dennis C.; Wang, Wen; Chen, Dawn; Yuan, Zhengyu; White, Richard; Trias, Joaquim

2000-01-01

236

Androgen Inhibits Abdominal Fat Accumulation and Negatively Regulates the PCK1 Gene in Male Chickens  

PubMed Central

Capons are male chickens whose testes have been surgically incised. Capons show a significant increase in fat accumulation compared to intact male chickens. However, while caponization leads to a significant reduction in androgen levels in roosters, little is known about the molecular mechanisms through which androgen status affects lipogenesis in avian species. Therefore, investigation of the influence of androgens on fat accumulation in the chicken will provide insights into this process. In this study, Affymetrix microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profiles of livers from capons and intact male chickens because the liver is the major site of lipogenesis in avian species. Through gene ontology, we found that genes involved in hepatic lipogenic biosynthesis were the most highly enriched. Interestingly, among the upregulated genes, the cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) gene showed the greatest fold change. Additionally, in conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR data, our results suggested that androgen status negatively regulated the PCK1 gene in male chickens.

Shao, Yonggang; Li, Junying; Ling, Yao; Teng, Kedao; Li, Hongwei; Wu, Changxin

2013-01-01

237

Glutamine depletion and glucose depletion trigger growth inhibition via distinctive gene expression reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Glutamine (Gln) and glucose (Glc) represent two important nutrients for proliferating cells, consistent with the observations that oncogenic processes are associated with enhanced glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Gln depletion and Glc depletion have been shown to trigger growth arrest and eventually cell death. Solid tumors often outgrow the blood supply, resulting in ischemia, which is associated with hypoxia and nutrient insufficiency. Whereas oxygen-sensing and adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia have been well-studied, how cells directly sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency remains unclear. Using mRNA profiling techniques, we compared the gene expression profiles of acute Gln-depleted cells, Glc-depleted cells and cells adapted to Gln depletion. Here we report the global changes of the gene expression in those cells cultured under the defined nutrient conditions. Analysis of mRNA profiling data revealed that Gln and Glc depletion triggered dramatic gene expression reprogramming. Either Gln or Glc deletion leads to changes of the expression of cell cycle genes, but these conditions have distinctive effects on transcription regulators and gene expression profiles. Moreover, Gln and Glc depletion triggered distinguishable ER-stress responses. The gene expression patterns support that Gln and Glc have distinctive metabolic roles in supporting cell survival and proliferation, and cells use different mechanisms to sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency. Our mRNA profiling database provides a resource for further investigating the nutrient-sensing mechanisms and potential effects of Glc and Gln abundance on the biological behaviors of cells.

Qie, Shuo; Liang, Dongming; Yin, Chengqian; Gu, Weiting; Meng, Meng; Wang, Chenguang; Sang, Nianli

2012-01-01

238

Proadrenomedullin NH(2)-terminal 20 peptide, a new product of the adrenomedullin gene, inhibits norepinephrine overflow from nerve endings.  

PubMed Central

Proadrenomedullin NH(2)-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) and adrenomedullin, which are derived from proadrenomedullin, exhibit remarkable hypotensive action. We investigated the effect of PAMP and adrenomedullin on peripheral sympathetic neutral transmission. Using perfused rat mesenteric arteries, PAMP (0, 1, 5, and 10 pmol/ml) decreased norepinephrine overflow by periarterial electrical nerve stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion (0.244 +/- 0.043, 0.231 +/- 0.048, 0.195 +/- 0.061 and 0.168 +/- 0.051 ng/gram tissue weigh: NS, P < 0.05, and P < 0.02, respectively). In contrast to PAMP, adrenomedullin (1, 5, and 10 pmol/ml) did not change it. In contrast, vasoconstrictive response of mesenteric arteries to exogenous norepinephrine was significantly attenuated by 10 pmol/ml of adrenomedullin but not by the same dose of PAMP. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (8-37) [CGRP(8-37)], a CGRP receptor antagonist, inhibited the vasodilatory effect of adrenomedullin but could not suppress the sympathoinhibitory effect of PAMP. Neither a nicotinic antagonist, hexamethonium, nor a presynaptic alfa2 antagonist, yohimbine, blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of PAMP. Thus, it suggests that PAMP and adrenomedullin, which are derived from the same gene, exhibit different hypotensive mechanisms: PAMP inhibits neural transmission at peripheral sympathetic nerve ending, although adrenomedullin directly dilates vascular smooth muscle, possibly through CGRP-like receptor.

Shimosawa, T; Ito, Y; Ando, K; Kitamura, K; Kangawa, K; Fujita, T

1995-01-01

239

Inhibition of HIV replication: a powerful antiviral strategy by IFN-beta gene delivery in CD4+ cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the efficiency and feasibility of a gene therapy protocol against HIV infection using the antiviral effects of IFN-beta expression. Lentiviral vectors containing the human or the simian IFN-beta sequences under the influence of the murine moderate H2-kb promoter were constructed. To examine the capacity of IFN-beta to inhibit the replication of HIV in human CD4(+) cells, a transduction protocol permitting to efficiently transduce CD4(+) cells or PBMC (85+/-12% of CD4(+)-transduced cells) with a moderate expression of IFN-beta was developed. Results indicate that enforced expression of IFN-beta has no negative effects in terms of apoptosis and proliferation. In human CD4(+) cells, it drastically inhibits (up to 99.9%) replication after challenging with different strains of HIV-1. The expression of exogenous IFN-beta leads to an amplification of the CD4(+) cells (11-fold) and to a drastic decrease of the p24 protein. Micro-array analyses indicated that antiviral effect of IFN-beta could be due to a major regulation of the inflammatory response. These results are encouraging for the development of a clinical study of gene therapy against AIDS using IFN-beta. PMID:17662695

Brule, Fabienne; Khatissian, Emmanuel; Benani, Alexandre; Bodeux, Audrey; Montagnier, Luc; Piette, Jacques; Lauret, Evelyne; Ravet, Emmanuel

2007-06-27

240

RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests.

Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

2013-01-01

241

AAV-mediated gene transfer of human pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits Lewis lung carcinoma growth in mice  

PubMed Central

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye, and mechanisms through which PEDF exerts its antitumour activity have recently been defined. The aim of our research was to evaluate the ability of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated transfer of human PEDF to inhibit Lewis lung carcinoma (LCC) cell growth. Intratumoural injection of AAV-PEDF caused significant reduction of the tumour volume and prolonged the survival time of mice bearing LLC cells, which were associated with decreased microvessel density and increased apoptosis in the tumours. AAV vectors represent a very promising tool for cancer gene therapy. No noticeable toxicity concerning AAV was detected as inferred from monitoring changes in animal body weight as well as basic organ structure and histological morphology, and by analyzing mouse liver and kidney function. Our findings indicate that AAV-mediated PEDF gene expression may offer an active approach to inhibit LLC growth and that treatment with AAV-PEDF may provide a promising therapeutic strategy in lung cancer treatment.

HE, SHA-SHA; SHI, HUA-SHAN; YIN, TAO; LI, YONG-XIA; LUO, SHUN-TAO; WU, QIN-JIE; LU, LIAN; WEI, YU-QUAN; YANG, LI

2012-01-01

242

Impact of the 3D Microenvironment on Phenotype, Gene Expression, and EGFR Inhibition of Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional (3D) tumor cell cultures grown in laminin-rich-extracellular matrix (lrECM) are considered to reflect human tumors more realistic as compared to cells grown as monolayer on plastic. Here, we systematically investigated the impact of ECM on phenotype, gene expression, EGFR signaling pathway, and on EGFR inhibition in commonly used colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. LrECM on-top (3D) culture assays were performed with the CRC cell lines SW-480, HT-29, DLD-1, LOVO, CACO-2, COLO-205 and COLO-206F. Morphology of lrECM cultivated CRC cell lines was determined by phase contrast and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Proliferation of cells was examined by MTT assay, invasive capacity of the cell lines was assayed using Matrigel-coated Boyden chambers, and migratory activity was determined employing the Fence assay. Differential gene expression was analyzed at the transcriptional level by the Agilent array platform. EGFR was inhibited by using the specific small molecule inhibitor AG1478. A specific spheroid growth pattern was observed for all investigated CRC cell lines. DLD-1, HT-29 and SW-480 and CACO-2 exhibited a clear solid tumor cell formation, while LOVO, COLO-205 and COLO-206F were characterized by forming grape-like structures. Although the occurrence of a spheroid morphology did not correlate with an altered migratory, invasive, or proliferative capacity of CRC cell lines, gene expression was clearly altered in cells grown on lrECM as compared to 2D cultures. Interestingly, in KRAS wild-type cell lines, inhibition of EGFR was less effective in lrECM (3D) cultures as compared to 2D cell cultures. Thus, comparing both 2D and 3D cell culture models, our data support the influence of the ECM on cancer growth. Compared to conventional 2D cell culture, the lrECM (3D) cell culture model offers the opportunity to investigate permanent CRC cell lines under more physiological conditions, i.e. in the context of molecular therapeutic targets and their pharmacological inhibition.

Deenen, Rene; Schmidt, Stephan; Messner, Isabelle; Schafer, Karl-Ludwig; Baldus, Stephan E.; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang; Piekorz, Roland P.; Knoefel, Wolfram T.; Krieg, Andreas; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.

2013-01-01

243

Knockdown of HBV surface antigen gene expression by a lentiviral microRNA-based system inhibits HBV replication and HCC growth.  

PubMed

Current options for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, a common liver cancer risk factor, are limited. While RNA interference (RNAi) technologies have been shown to inhibit HBV replication, the consequent effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of RNAi-mediated decrease in the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) gene on HBV replication and HCC growth. A lentiviral microRNA-based system expressing siRNAs targeting the HBsAg gene (LVshHBS) was developed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells (HBV stably expressing line). We found that LVshHBS significantly inhibited the HBsAg mRNA and protein levels in the HepG2.2.15 cells, while HBsAg secretion into the culture supernatant decreased by 70%. BALB/c (nu/nu) mice were injected with HepG2.2.15 cells transduced with LVshHBS or control vectors to investigate the effect of inhibiting the HBsAg on the development of tumour growth in a human HCC nude mice model. Compared with the control, the tumour growth in nude mice was significantly decreased after injection with LVshHBS. Microarray analysis of tumour-related genes in LVshHBS-transduced HepG2.2.15 cells showed that the expressions of genes involved in cell cycle, differentiation and oncogenesis such as ACP2, BHLHB2, CLK3, CTSC, FOS, NR1D1, PIM1 and SEPT6 genes were downregulated, while that of the E2F3 gene was upregulated. In conclusion, lentiviral microRNA-based RNAi against the HBsAg gene not only inhibits HBV replication but also inhibits the growth of HCC. Downregulation of growth-related genes is implicated in this mechanism of inhibition. PMID:20642484

Xiangji, L; Feng, X; Qingbao, C; Weifeng, T; Xiaoqing, J; Baihe, Z; Feng, S; Hongyang, W; Mengchao, W

2010-07-19

244

siRNA associated with immunonanoparticles directed against cd99 antigen improves gene expression inhibition in vivo in Ewing's sarcoma.  

PubMed

Ewing's sarcoma is a rare, mostly pediatric bone cancer that presents a chromosome abnormality called EWS/Fli-1, responsible for the development of the tumor. In vivo, tumor growth can be inhibited specifically by delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) associated with nanoparticles. The aim of the work was to design targeted nanoparticles against the cell membrane glycoprotein cd99, which is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma cells to improve siRNA delivery to tumor cells. Biotinylated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were conceived as a platform to design targeted nanoparticles with biotinylated ligands and using the biotin-streptavidin coupling method. The targeted nanoparticles were validated in vivo for the targeted delivery of siRNA after systemic administration to mice bearing a tumor model of the Ewing's sarcoma. The expression of the gene responsible of Ewing's sarcoma was inhibited at 78% ± 6% by associating the siRNA with the cd99-targeted nanoparticles compared with an inhibition of only 41% ± 9% achieved with the nontargeted nanoparticles. PMID:23657987

Ramon, A L; Bertrand, J R; de Martimprey, H; Bernard, G; Ponchel, G; Malvy, C; Vauthier, C

2013-07-01

245

The Burkholderia bcpAIOB Genes Define Unique Classes of Two-Partner Secretion and Contact Dependent Growth Inhibition Systems  

PubMed Central

Microbes have evolved many strategies to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and population structures, including cooperation and competition. One apparently competitive mechanism is contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Identified in Escherichia coli, CDI is mediated by Two–Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway proteins, CdiA and CdiB. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminus of the TpsA family member CdiA, called the CdiA-CT, inhibits the growth of CDI? bacteria. CDI+ bacteria are protected from autoinhibition by an immunity protein, CdiI. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that CDI systems are widespread amongst ?, ?, and ? proteobacteria and that the CdiA-CTs and CdiI proteins are highly variable. CdiI proteins protect against CDI in an allele-specific manner. Here we identify predicted CDI system-encoding loci in species of Burkholderia, Ralstonia and Cupriavidus, named bcpAIOB, that are distinguished from previously-described CDI systems by gene order and the presence of a small ORF, bcpO, located 5? to the gene encoding the TpsB family member. A requirement for bcpO in function of BcpA (the TpsA family member) was demonstrated, indicating that bcpAIOB define a novel class of TPS system. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that these genes are expressed in a probabilistic manner during culture of Burkholderia thailandensis in liquid medium. The bcpAIOB genes and extracellular DNA were required for autoaggregation and adherence to an abiotic surface, suggesting that CDI is required for biofilm formation, an activity not previously attributed to CDI. By contrast to what has been observed in E. coli, the B. thailandensis bcpAIOB genes only mediated interbacterial competition on a solid surface. Competition occurred in a defined spatiotemporal manner and was abrogated by allele-specific immunity. Our data indicate that the bcpAIOB genes encode distinct classes of CDI and TPS systems that appear to function in sociomicrobiological community development.

Anderson, Melissa S.; Garcia, Erin C.; Cotter, Peggy A.

2012-01-01

246

The Drosophila over compensating males gene genetically inhibits dosage compensation in males.  

PubMed

Male Drosophila are monosomic for the X chromosome, but survive due to dosage compensation. They use the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex composed of noncoding roX RNA and histone modifying enzymes to hypertranscribe most genes along the X ?1.6-1.8 fold relative to each female allele. It is not known how the MSL complex achieves this precise adjustment to a large and diverse set of target genes. We carried out a genetic screen searching for novel factors that regulate dosage compensation in flies. This strategy generated thirty alleles in a previously uncharacterized gene, over compensating males (ocm) that antagonizes some aspect of MSL activity. The mutations were initially recovered because they derepressed an MSL-dependent eye color reporter. Null ocm mutations are lethal to both sexes early in development revealing an essential function. Combinations of hypomorphic ocm alleles display a male specific lethality similar to mutations in the classic msl genes, but ocm males die due to excessive, rather than lack of dosage compensation. Males that die due to very low MSL activity can be partially rescued by ocm mutations. Likewise, males that would die from ocm mutations can be rescued by reducing the dose of various msl and roX genes. ocm encodes a large nuclear protein that shares a novel cysteine rich motif with known transcription factors. PMID:23565249

Lim, Chiat Koo; Kelley, Richard L

2013-04-02

247

Dynamic Telomerase Gene Suppression via Network Effects of GSK3 Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti- telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: In

Alan E. Bilsland; Stacey Hoare; Katrina Stevenson; Jane Plumb; Natividad Gomez-Roman; Claire Cairney; Sharon Burns; Kyle Lafferty-Whyte; Jon Roffey; Tim Hammonds; W. Nicol Keith

2009-01-01

248

Lovastatin inhibits gene expression of type-I scavenger receptor in THP1 human macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lovastatin, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, inhibits the synthesis of mevalonic acid and is widely used as an anti-atherosclerotic drug. The macrophage scavenger receptor (SCR), a trimeric membrane glycoprotein, is postulated to play a key role in atheroma macrophage foam cell formation. HMG-CoA reductase is involved in the control of the synthesis of glycoproteins and farnesylated proteins,

Naohiro Umetani; Yoshiharu Kanayama; Mikio Okamura; Nobuo Negoro; Tadanao Takeda

1996-01-01

249

Conditional deletion of MSX homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity  

PubMed Central

An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/?-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs.

Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K.

2011-01-01

250

Glutamine depletion and glucose depletion trigger growth inhibition via distinctive gene expression reprogramming.  

PubMed

Glutamine (Gln) and glucose (Glc) represent two important nutrients for proliferating cells, consistent with the observations that oncogenic processes are associated with enhanced glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Gln depletion and Glc depletion have been shown to trigger growth arrest and eventually cell death. Solid tumors often outgrow the blood supply, resulting in ischemia, which is associated with hypoxia and nutrient insufficiency. Whereas oxygen-sensing and adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia have been well-studied, how cells directly sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency remains unclear. Using mRNA profiling techniques, we compared the gene expression profiles of acute Gln-depleted cells, Glc-depleted cells and cells adapted to Gln depletion. Here we report the global changes of the gene expression in those cells cultured under the defined nutrient conditions. Analysis of mRNA profiling data revealed that Gln and Glc depletion triggered dramatic gene expression reprogramming. Either Gln or Glc deletion leads to changes of the expression of cell cycle genes, but these conditions have distinctive effects on transcription regulators and gene expression profiles. Moreover, Gln and Glc depletion triggered distinguishable ER-stress responses. The gene expression patterns support that Gln and Glc have distinctive metabolic roles in supporting cell survival and proliferation, and cells use different mechanisms to sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency. Our mRNA profiling database provides a resource for further investigating the nutrient-sensing mechanisms and potential effects of Glc and Gln abundance on the biological behaviors of cells. PMID:22935705

Qie, Shuo; Liang, Dongming; Yin, Chengqian; Gu, Weiting; Meng, Meng; Wang, Chenguang; Sang, Nianli

2012-08-30

251

Inhibition of debrisoquine hydroxylation with quinidine in subjects with three or more functional CYP2D6 genes  

PubMed Central

Aims To study whether the CYP2D6 capacity in ultrarapid metabolizers of debrisoquine due to duplication/multiduplication of a functional CYP2D6 gene, can be ‘normalised’ by low doses of the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine and whether this is dose-dependent. Methods Five ultrarapid metabolizers of debrisoquine with 3, 4 or 13 functional CYP2D6 genes were given single oral doses of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg quinidine. Four hours after quinidine intake, 10 mg debrisoquine was given. Urine was collected for 6 h after debrisoquine administration. Debrisoquine and its 4-hydroxymetabolite were analysed by h.p.l.c. and the debrisoquine metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated. Results Without quinidine the MR in the ultrarapid metabolizers ranged between 0.01 and 0.07. A dose-effect relationship could be established for quinidine with regard to the inhibitory effect on CYP2D6 activity. To reach an MR of 1–2, subjects with 3 or 4 functional genes required a quinidine dose of about 40 mg, while the sister and brother with 13 functional genes required about 80 mg quinidine. After 160 mg quinidine, the MRs, in the subjects with 3, 3, 4, 13 and 13 functional genes, were 12.6, 10.1, 9.2, 2.4 and 2.2, respectively. Conclusions A dose-effect relationship could be established for quinidine inhibition of CYP2D6 in ultrarapid metabolizers. The clinical use of low doses of quinidine as an inhibitor of CYP2D6 might be considered in ultrarapid metabolizers taking CYP2D6 metabolized drugs rather than giving increased doses of the drug. Normalizing the metabolic capacity of CYP2D6, by giving a low dose of quinidine, may solve the problem of ‘treatment resistance’ caused by ultrarapid metabolism.

Dalen, P; Dahl, M-L; Andersson, K; Bertilsson, L

2000-01-01

252

Ectopic expression of the beta-cell specific transcription factor Pdx1 inhibits glucagon gene transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The transcription factor Pdx1 is required for the development and differentiation of all pancreatic cells. Beta-cell specific\\u000a inactivation of Pdx1 in developing or adult mice leads to an increase in glucagon-expressing cells, suggesting that absence of Pdx1could favour\\u000a glucagon gene expression by a default mechanism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  We investigated the inhibitory role of Pdx1 on glucagon gene expression in vitro. The glucagonoma

B. Ritz-Laser; B. R. Gauthier; A. Estreicher; A. Mamin; T. Brun; F. Ris; P. Salmon; P. A. Halban; D. Trono; J. Philippe

2003-01-01

253

A 122.5-kilobase deletion of the P gene underlies the high prevalence of oculocutaneous albinism type 2 in the Navajo population.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. There are four known types of OCA: OCA1-OCA4. The clinical manifestations of all types of OCA include skin and hair hypopigmentation and visual impairment. Although there are a few documented observations of high frequency of albinism among Native Americans, including the Hopi, Zuni, Kuna, Jemez, Laguna, San Juan, and Navajo, no causative molecular defect has been previously reported. In the present study, we show that albinism in one Native American population, the Navajo, is caused by a LINE-mediated 122.5-kilobase deletion of the P gene, thus demonstrating that albinism in this population is OCA2. This deletion appears to be Navajo specific, because this allele was not detected in 34 other individuals with albinism who listed other Native American origins, nor has it been reported in any other ethnic group. The molecular characterization of this deletion allele allowed us to design a three-primer polymerase chain reaction system to estimate the carrier frequency in the Navajo population by screening 134 unrelated normally pigmented Navajos. The carrier frequency was found to be approximately 4.5%. The estimated prevalence of OCA2 in Navajos is between approximately 1 per 1,500 and 1 per 2,000. We further estimate that this mutation originated 400-1,000 years ago from a single founder. PMID:12469324

Yi, Zanhua; Garrison, Nanibaa'; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Karafet, Tatiana M; King, Richard A; Erickson, Robert P; Hammer, Michael F; Brilliant, Murray H

2002-12-05

254

A 122.5-Kilobase Deletion of the P Gene Underlies the High Prevalence of Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 in the Navajo Population  

PubMed Central

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. There are four known types of OCA: OCA1–OCA4. The clinical manifestations of all types of OCA include skin and hair hypopigmentation and visual impairment. Although there are a few documented observations of high frequency of albinism among Native Americans, including the Hopi, Zuni, Kuna, Jemez, Laguna, San Juan, and Navajo, no causative molecular defect has been previously reported. In the present study, we show that albinism in one Native American population, the Navajo, is caused by a LINE-mediated 122.5-kilobase deletion of the P gene, thus demonstrating that albinism in this population is OCA2. This deletion appears to be Navajo specific, because this allele was not detected in 34 other individuals with albinism who listed other Native American origins, nor has it been reported in any other ethnic group. The molecular characterization of this deletion allele allowed us to design a three-primer polymerase chain reaction system to estimate the carrier frequency in the Navajo population by screening 134 unrelated normally pigmented Navajos. The carrier frequency was found to be ?4.5%. The estimated prevalence of OCA2 in Navajos is between ?1 per 1,500 and 1 per 2,000. We further estimate that this mutation originated 400–1,000 years ago from a single founder.

Yi, Zanhua; Garrison, Nanibaa'; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Karafet, Tatiana M.; King, Richard A.; Erickson, Robert P.; Hammer, Michael F.; Brilliant, Murray H.

2003-01-01

255

Expression of the potato leafroll luteovirus coat protein gene in transgenic potato plants inhibits viral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic potato plants, cultivar Désirée, were produced that contained the coat protein gene of potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV). The transformed potato plants expressed the PLRV coat protein (CP) RNA sequences but accumulation of coat protein in transgenic tissues could not be detected. Upon inoculation with PLRV, the PLRV CP RNA expressing potato plants showed a reduced rate of virus multiplication.

Frank van der Wilk; Dinie Posthumus-Lutke Willink; Marianne J. Huisman; Harm Huttinga; Rob Goldbach

1991-01-01

256

Fibronectin signaling stimulates BNP gene transcription by inhibiting neuron-restrictive silencer element-dependent repression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone mainly synthesized in ventricles and its expression is markedly increased in ventricular hypertrophy that involves the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin (Fn). We recently reported that Fn signaling stimulated BNP secretion accompanied by hypertrophic responses in vitro. Methods: To elucidate the regulatory mechanism for BNP gene transcription, we

Emiko Ogawa; Yoshihiko Saito; Koichiro Kuwahara; Masaki Harada; Yoshihiro Miyamoto; Ichiro Hamanaka; Noboru Kajiyama; Nobuki Takahashi; Takehiko Izumi; Rika Kawakami; Ichiro Kishimoto; Yoshihisa Naruse; Nozomu Mori; Kazuwa Nakao

257

Antisense inhibition of pectate lyase gene expression in strawberry fruit: Characteristics of fruits processed into jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed several quality parameters of strawberry jam prepared from transgenic fruits with reduced expression of a pectate lyase gene. Two independent lines showing a reduction in pectate lyase mRNA transcript level of 90% (Apel 14) and 99% (Apel 23) have been studied. At harvest, ripen fruits from these two lines were significantly firmer than control. Soluble solid content

R. Sesmero; M. A. Quesada; J. A. Mercado

2007-01-01

258

A NATURALLY OCCURRING EPIGENETIC MUTATION IN AN SBP-BOX GENE INHIBITS TOMATO FRUIT RIPENING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A major player in the regulatory network controlling fruit ripening is likely to be the gene at the tomato Colorless non-ripening (Cnr) locus 1,2. The Cnr mutation results in colorless fruits with a significant loss of cell to cell adhesion. The nature of the mutation and the identity of the Cnr g...

259

Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 inhibits gallbladder carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in several types of cancers, but its role in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is yet to be determined. In the present study, TFPI-2 expression in GBC tissues was examined, and its inhibitory activities against GBC growth were evaluated in vitro and in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of TFPI-2 (Ad5-TFPI-2) was constructed to restore the expression of TFPI-2 in GBC cell lines (GBC-SD, SGC-996, NOZ) and xenograft tumors. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TFPI-2 was significantly downregulated in GBC tissue specimens. Ad5-TFPI-2 could significantly inhibit GBC growth both in vitro and in vivo. Apoptosis analysis and western blotting assay demonstrated that Ad5-TFPI-2 could induce the apoptosis of both GBC cell lines and tissues by promoting the activities of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3 and -9 and suppressing Bcl-2 activity. These data indicated that TFPI-2 acts as a tumor suppressor in GBC, and may have a potential role in gene therapy for GBC. PMID:22320835

Qin, Yiyu; Zhang, Shenglai; Gong, Wei; Li, Jiyu; Jia, Jianguang; Quan, Zhiwei

2012-03-04

260

Cancer Targeted Gene Therapy of BikDD Inhibits Orthotopic Lung Cancer Growth and Improves Long-term Survival  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death due to the high incidence of metastasis; therefore novel and effective treatments are urgently needed. A current strategy is cancer specific targeted gene therapy. While many identified cancer specific promoters are highly specific, they tend to have low activity compared to the ubiquitous CMV promoter, limiting their application. We developed a targeted gene therapy expression system for lung cancer that is highly specific with strong activity. Our expression vector uses the survivin promoter, highly expressed in many cancers but not normal adult tissues. We enhanced the survivin promoter activity comparable to the CMV promoter in lung cancer cell lines using an established platform technology, while the survivin promoter remained weak in normal cells. In mouse models, the transgene was specifically expressed in the lung tumor tissue, compared with the CMV promoter that was expressed in both normal and tumor tissues. Additionally, the therapeutic gene BikDD, a mutant form of pro-apoptotic Bik, induced cell killing in vitro, and inhibited cell growth and prolonged mouse survival in vivo. Importantly, there was virtually no toxicity when BikDD was expressed with our expression system. Thus, the current report provides a therapeutic efficacy and safe strategy worthy of development in clinical trials treating lung cancer.

Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Tzeng, Tz-Fei; Kan, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Jennifer; Xie, Xiaoming; Han, Zhenbo; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Li, Long-Yuan; Hung, Mien-Chie

2009-01-01

261

Adenoviral gene transfer of angiostatic ATF-BPTI inhibits tumour growth  

PubMed Central

Background The outgrowth of new vessels – angiogenesis – in the tumour mass is considered to be a limiting factor of tumour growth. To inhibit the matrix lysis that is part of the tumour angiogenesis, we employed the chimeric protein mhATF-BPTI, composed of the receptor binding part of the urokinase (ATF) linked to an inhibitor of plasmin (BPTI). Methods For delivery, recombinant adenovirus encoding the transgene of interest was injected intravenously or locally into the tumour. The anti tumour effect of this compound was compared to that of human endostatin and of mhATF alone in two different rat bronchial carcinomas growing either as subcutaneous implants or as metastases. Results Significant inhibition of the tumour growth and decrease of the number of lung metastasis was achieved when the concentration of mhATF-BPTI at the tumour site was above 400 of ng / g tissue. This concentration could be achieved via production by the liver, only if permissive to the recombinant adenovirus. When the tumour cells could be transduced, local delivery of the vector was enough to obtain a response. In the case of metastasis, the capacity of the lung tissue to concentrate the encoded protein was essential to reach the required therapeutic levels. Further, endostatin or mhATF could not reproduce the effects of mhATF-BPTI, at similar concentrations (mhATF) and even at 10-fold higher concentration (endostatin). Conclusion The ATF-BPTI was shown to inhibit tumour growth of different rat lung tumours when critical concentration was reached. In these tumour models, endostatin or ATF induce almost no tumour response.

Lefesvre, Pierre; Attema, Joline; van Bekkum, Dirk

2002-01-01

262

I?B? acts to both inhibit and activate gene expression at different stages of the inflammatory response  

PubMed Central

The activation of pro-inflammatory gene programs by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is primarily regulated through cytoplasmic sequestration of NF-?B by the inhibitor of ?B (I?B) family of proteins1. I?B?, a major I?B isoform, can sequester NF-?B in the cytoplasm2, although its biological role remains unclear. While cells lacking I?B? have been reported3,4, in vivo studies have been limited and suggested redundancy between I?B? and I?B?5. Like I?B?, I?B? is also inducibly degraded, however upon stimulation by LPS, I?B? is degraded slowly and resynthesized as a hypophosphorylated form that can be detected in the nucleus6–11. The crystal structure of I?B? bound to p65 suggested this complex might bind DNA12. In vitro, hypophosphorylated I?B? can bind DNA with p65 and cRel, and the DNA-bound NF-?B:I?B? complexes are resistant to I?B?, suggesting hypophosphorylated, nuclear I?B? may prolong the expression of certain genes9–11. We now report that in vivo I?B? serves to both inhibit and facilitate the inflammatory response. I?B? degradation releases NF-?B dimers which upregulate pro-inflammatory target genes such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?). Surprisingly absence of I?B? results in a dramatic reduction of TNF? in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) even though activation of NF-?B is normal. The inhibition of TNF? mRNA expression correlates with the absence of nuclear, hypophosphorylated-I?B? bound to p65:c-Rel heterodimers at a specific ?B site on the TNF? promoter. Therefore I?B? acts through p65:c-Rel dimers to maintain prolonged expression of TNF?. As a result, I?B??/? mice are resistant to LPS-induced septic shock and collagen-induced arthritis. Blocking I?B? might be a promising new strategy for selectively inhibiting the chronic phase of TNF? production during the inflammatory response.

Rao, Ping; Hayden, Mathew S.; Long, Meixiao; Scott, Martin L.; West, A. Philip; Zhang, Dekai; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Lynch, Candace; Hoffmann, Alexander; Baltimore, David; Ghosh, Sankar

2010-01-01

263

Cobalt stimulates HIF-1-dependent but inhibits HIF-2-dependent gene expression in liver cancer cells.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional regulators that mediate the cellular response to low oxygen. Although HIF-1 is usually considered as the principal mediator of hypoxic adaptation, several tissues and different cell types express both HIF-1 and HIF-2 isoforms under hypoxia or when treated with hypoxia mimetic chemicals such as cobalt. However, the similarities or differences between HIF-1 and HIF-2, in terms of their tissue- and inducer-specific activation and function, are not adequately characterized. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of true hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics on HIF-1 and HIF-2 induction and specific gene transcriptional activity in two hepatic cancer cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Both hypoxia and cobalt caused rapid induction of both HIF-1? and HIF-2? proteins. Hypoxia induced erythropoietin (EPO) expression and secretion in a HIF-2-dependent way. Surprisingly, however, EPO expression was not induced when cells were treated with cobalt. In agreement, both HIF-1- and HIF-2-dependent promoters (of PGK and SOD2 genes, respectively) were activated by hypoxia while cobalt only activated the HIF-1-dependent PGK promoter. Unlike cobalt, other hypoxia mimetics such as DFO and DMOG activated both types of promoters. Furthermore, cobalt impaired the hypoxic stimulation of HIF-2, but not HIF-1, activity and cobalt-induced HIF-2? interacted poorly with USF-2, a HIF-2-specific co-activator. These data show that, despite similar induction of HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein expression, HIF-1 and HIF-2 specific gene activating functions respond differently to different stimuli and suggest the operation of oxygen-independent and gene- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms involving additional transcription factors or co-activators. PMID:23958427

Befani, Christina; Mylonis, Ilias; Gkotinakou, Ioanna-Maria; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Hu, Cheng-Jun; Simos, George; Liakos, Panagiotis

2013-08-16

264

PIAS1 selectively inhibits interferon-inducible genes and is important in innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon (IFN) activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to regulate immune responses. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family has been suggested to negatively regulate STAT signaling. To understand the physiological function of PIAS1, we generated Pias1?\\/? mice. Using PIAS1-deficient cells, we show that PIAS1 selectively regulates a subset of IFN-?- or IFN-?-inducible genes by

Bin Liu; Sheldon Mink; Kelly A Wong; Natalie Stein; Crescent Getman; Paul W Dempsey; Hong Wu; Ke Shuai

2004-01-01

265

Gratuitous overexpression of genes in Escherichia coli leads to growth inhibition and ribosome destruction.  

PubMed Central

We attempted to test the idea that the relative abundance of each individual tRNA isoacceptor in Escherichia coli can be altered by varying its cognate codon concentration. In order to change the overall codon composition of the messenger pool, we have expressed in E. coli lacZ with the aid of T7 RNA polymerase so that their respective gene products individually accounted for 30% of the total bacterial protein. Unexpectedly, the maximum expression of either test gene has no specific effect on the relative rates of synthesis of the tRNA species that we studied. Instead, we find that there is a cumulative breakdown of rRNAs, which results in a loss of ribosomes and protein synthetic capacity. After either of the test genes is maximally induced, there is a growing fraction of protein synthesis invested in beta-galactosidase or delta tufB that is matched by a comparable decrease of the fraction of normal protein synthesis. We have also observed enhanced accumulation of two heat shock proteins during overexpression. Finally, after several hours of overexpression of either test protein, the bacteria are no longer viable. These results are relevant to the practical problems of obtaining high expression levels for cloned proteins.

Dong, H; Nilsson, L; Kurland, C G

1995-01-01

266

Gene-silencing antisense oligomers inhibit acinetobacter growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Background.?Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA/RNA analogues that silence expression of specific genes. We studied whether PPMOs targeted to essential genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are active in vitro and in vivo. Methods.?PPMOs were evaluated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays, and in vivo using murine pulmonary infection models with intranasal PPMO treatment. Results.?MICs of PPMOs ranged from 0.1 to 64 µM (approximately 0.6-38 µg/mL). The most effective PPMO tested was (RXR)4-AcpP, which is targeted to acpP. (RXR)4-AcpP reduced viability of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii by >10(3) colony-forming units/mL at 5-8 times MIC. Mice treated with ?0.25 mg/kg of (RXR)4-AcpP survived longer and had less inflammation and bacterial lung burden than mice treated with a scrambled-sequence PPMO or phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment could be delayed after infection and still increase survival. Conclusions.?PPMOs targeted to essential genes of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii were bactericidal and had MICs in a clinically relevant range. (RXR)4-AcpP increased survival of mice infected with A. lwoffii or A. baumannii, even when initial treatment was delayed after infection. PPMOs could be a viable therapeutic approach in dealing with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species. PMID:24130069

Geller, Bruce L; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly; Schnell, Frederick J; McKnight, Mattie M; Iversen, Patrick L; Greenberg, David E

2013-10-14

267

Targeted transcriptional activation of silent oct4 pluripotency gene by combining designer TALEs and inhibition of epigenetic modifiers  

PubMed Central

Specific control of gene activity is a valuable tool to study and engineer cellular functions. Recent studies uncovered the potential of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that can be tailored to activate user-defined target genes. It remains however unclear whether and how epigenetic modifications interfere with TALE-mediated transcriptional activation. We studied the activity of five designer TALEs (dTALEs) targeting the oct4 pluripotency gene. In vitro assays showed that the five dTALEs that target distinct sites in the oct4 promoter had the expected DNA specificity and comparable affinities to their corresponding DNA targets. In contrast to their similar in vitro properties, transcriptional activation of oct4 by these distinct dTALEs varied up to 25-fold. While dTALEs efficiently upregulated transcription of the active oct4 promoter in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) they failed to activate the silenced oct4 promoter in ESC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), indicating that as for endogenous transcription factors also dTALE activity is limited by repressive epigenetic mechanisms. We therefore targeted the activity of epigenetic modulators and found that chemical inhibition of histone deacetylases by valproic acid or DNA methyltransferases by 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine facilitated dTALE-mediated activation of the epigenetically silenced oct4 promoter in NSCs. Notably, demethylation of the oct4 promoter occurred only if chemical inhibitors and dTALEs were applied together but not upon treatment with inhibitors or dTALEs only. These results show that dTALEs in combination with chemical manipulation of epigenetic modifiers facilitate targeted transcriptional activation of epigenetically silenced target genes.

Bultmann, Sebastian; Morbitzer, Robert; Schmidt, Christine S.; Thanisch, Katharina; Spada, Fabio; Elsaesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Leonhardt, Heinrich

2012-01-01

268

INHIBITION OF PITUITARY TUMOR-TRANSFORMING GENE-1 IN THYROID CANCER CELLS BY DRUGS THAT DECREASE SPECIFICITY PROTEINS  

PubMed Central

Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18?-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (CDODA-Me) and the corresponding 2-trifluoromethyl analog (CF3DODA-Me) are derived synthetically from the triterpenoid glycyrrhetinic acid, a major component of licorice. CDODA-Me and CF3DODA-Me inhibited growth of highly invasive ARO, DRO, K-18 and HTh-74 thyroid cancer cells and this was due, in part, to decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 that are overexpressed in these cells. CDODA-Me and CF3DODA-Me also decreased expression of Sp-dependent genes, such as survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor, and induced apoptosis. In addition, pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG-1) protein and mRNA levels were also decreased in thyroid cancer cells treated with CDODA-Me or CF3DODA-Me and this was accompanied by decreased expression of PTTG-1-dependent c-Myc and fibroblast growth factor 2 genes. RNA interference studies against Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins showed that in thyroid cancer cells, PTTG-1 was an Sp-dependent gene. This study demonstrates for the first time that drugs, such as CDODA-Me and CF3DODA-Me, that decrease Sp protein expression also downregulate PTTG-1 in thyroid cancer cells and therefore have potential for clinical treatment of thyroid cancer and other endocrine neoplasias where PTTG-1 is a major pro-oncogenic factor.

Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Lee, Syng-Ook; Lei, Ping; Jin, Un Ho; Sherman, Steven I.; Santarpia, Libero; Safe, Stephen

2011-01-01

269

Genome Engineering-Based Analysis of Bearded Family Genes Reveals Both Functional Redundancy and a Nonessential Function in Lateral Inhibition in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Lateral inhibition mediated by Notch receptor signaling regulates the determination of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs) in Drosophila. The selection of SOPs from proneural cluster cells appears to rely on a negative feedback loop linking activation of the Notch receptor to downregulation of its ligand Delta within each cell. The molecular basis of this regulatory feedback mechanism is not known. Here, we have tested the role of the Bearded (Brd) family genes in this process. The Drosophila genome encodes eight Brd family members that interact with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) and act as inhibitors of Neur-mediated Delta signaling. Genome engineering technologies were used to create specific deletions of all eight Brd family genes. We find that the Brd family genes m?, m4, and m6 encoded by the Enhancer of split Complex (E(spl)-C) are dispensable for Drosophila development and that deletion of the five Brd family genes encoded by the Brd Complex only reduces viability. However, deletion of all Brd family genes results in embryonic lethality. Additionally, the m?, m4, and m6 genes act redundantly with the other five Brd family genes to spatially restrict Notch activation in stage 5 embryos. These data reveal that the Brd family genes have an essential but redundant activity. While the activity of all eight Brd genes appears to be dispensable for SOP determination, clone border studies indicate that both the relative activity levels of Neur and Brd family members influence competition for the SOP fate during lateral inhibition. We propose that inhibition of Neur–Delta interaction by Brd family members is part of the feedback loop that underlies lateral inhibition in Drosophila.

Chanet, Soline; Vodovar, Nicolas; Mayau, Veronique; Schweisguth, Francois

2009-01-01

270

Inhibition of 2?,5?-Oligoadenylate Synthetase Expression and Function by the Human Cytomegalovirus ORF94 Gene Product?‡  

PubMed Central

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) ORF94 gene product has been reported to be expressed during both productive and latent phases of infection, although its function is unknown. We report that expression of pORF94 leads to decreased 2?,5?-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) expression in transfected cells with and without interferon stimulation. Furthermore, the functional activity of OAS was inhibited by pORF94. Finally, we present evidence of OAS modulation by pORF94 during productive HCMV infection of human fibroblasts. This study provides the first identification of a function for pORF94 and identifies an additional means by which HCMV may limit a critical host cell antiviral response.

Tan, Joanne C. G.; Avdic, Selmir; Cao, John Z.; Mocarski, Edward S.; White, Kirsten L.; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry

2011-01-01

271

Inhibition of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase expression and function by the human cytomegalovirus ORF94 gene product.  

PubMed

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) ORF94 gene product has been reported to be expressed during both productive and latent phases of infection, although its function is unknown. We report that expression of pORF94 leads to decreased 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) expression in transfected cells with and without interferon stimulation. Furthermore, the functional activity of OAS was inhibited by pORF94. Finally, we present evidence of OAS modulation by pORF94 during productive HCMV infection of human fibroblasts. This study provides the first identification of a function for pORF94 and identifies an additional means by which HCMV may limit a critical host cell antiviral response. PMID:21450824

Tan, Joanne C G; Avdic, Selmir; Cao, John Z; Mocarski, Edward S; White, Kirsten L; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry

2011-03-30

272

Oregonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS gene transcription and upregulates HO-1 expression in macrophages and microglia  

PubMed Central

Oregonin isolated from Alnus formosana is a diarylheptanoid derivative, which appears to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, our data demonstrated inhibitory actions of oregonin on the LPS-induced iNOS protein in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. We also suggested that HO-1 induction by oregonin might contribute to this action. Oregonin is able to dose-dependently reduce NO production, iNOS protein and iNOS promoter activity stimulated by LPS in RAW264.7 and BV-2 cells. Oregonin also showed inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-?B promoter activity and DNA-binding ability, as well as p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation. However, oregonin had no effect on IKK activity. AP-1 promoter activity and p38 MAPK activation but not PKC, ERK and JNK activation induced by LPS were attenuated by oregonin. Accompanying with iNOS protein reduction, moreover, we found that oregonin was able to induce HO-1 protein level. Results using a CO donor, [Ru(CO)3Cl2]2 further showed the ability of CO in reduction of iNOS protein level induced by LPS through the blockade of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, these results provide new evidences into the anti-inflammatory actions of oregonin, which include the inhibition of iNOS gene transcription via suppressing transcriptional activity of NF-?B and AP-1, as well as the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecule HO-1. The HO-1-derived CO may also be involved in the suppressive effect on iNOS gene regulation.

Lee, Cheng-Jui; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Chen, Su-Chung; Ho, Feng-Ming; Lin, Wan-Wan

2005-01-01

273

ZEB1 Imposes a Temporary Stage-Dependent Inhibition of Muscle Gene Expression and Differentiation via CtBP-Mediated Transcriptional Repression  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle development is orchestrated by the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, whose activity is blocked in myoblasts by proteins preventing its nuclear translocation and/or binding to G/C-centered E-boxes in target genes. Recent evidence indicates that muscle gene expression is also regulated at the cis level by differential affinity for DNA between MyoD and other E-box binding proteins during myogenesis. MyoD binds to G/C-centered E-boxes, enriched in muscle differentiation genes, in myotubes but not in myoblasts. Here, we used cell-based and in vivo Drosophila, Xenopus laevis, and mouse models to show that ZEB1, a G/C-centered E-box binding transcriptional repressor, imposes a temporary stage-dependent inhibition of muscle gene expression and differentiation via CtBP-mediated transcriptional repression. We found that, contrary to MyoD, ZEB1 binds to G/C-centered E-boxes in muscle differentiation genes at the myoblast stage but not in myotubes. Its knockdown results in precocious expression of muscle differentiation genes and acceleration of myotube formation. Inhibition of muscle genes by ZEB1 occurs via transcriptional repression and involves recruitment of the CtBP corepressor. Lastly, we show that the pattern of gene expression associated with muscle differentiation is accelerated in ZEB1?/? mouse embryos. These results set ZEB1 as an important regulator of the temporal pattern of gene expression controlling muscle differentiation.

Siles, Laura; Sanchez-Tillo, Ester; Lim, Jong-Won; Darling, Douglas S.; Kroll, Kristen L.

2013-01-01

274

L-Carnosine Inhibits Metastasis of SK-Hep-1 Cells by Inhibition of Matrix Metaoproteinase-9 Expression and Induction of an Antimetastatic Gene, nm23-H1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants have been suggested to inhibit the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, which plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. Because of its antioxidant activity and the ability to chelate divalent cations, L-carnosine (LC) was tested for inhibition of MMP-9 in a highly invasive hepatocarcinoma, SK-Hep-1 cells. We found that LC (50–1,000 ?M) did not directly inhibit the

Cheng-Hung Chuang; Miao-Lin Hu

2008-01-01

275

Heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery by Sleeping Beauty inhibits vascular stasis in a murine model of sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and administration of heme degradation products CO and biliverdin inhibit vascular inflammation and vasoocclusion in mouse models of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, an albumin (alb) promoter-driven Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid with a wild-type rat hmox-1 (wt-HO-1) transposable element was delivered by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to SCD mice. Eight weeks after injection, SCD mice had three- to five-fold increases in HO-1 activity and protein expression in liver, similar to hemin-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased perinuclear HO-1 staining in hepatocytes. Messenger RNA transcription of the hmox-1 transgene in liver was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (qRT-PCR RFLP) with no detectible transgene expression in other organs. The livers of all HO-1 overexpressing mice had activation of nuclear phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-Akt, decreased nuclear expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65, and decreased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in serum. Hypoxia-induced stasis, a characteristic of SCD, but not normal mice, was inhibited in dorsal skin fold chambers in wt-HO-1 SCD mice despite the absence of hmox-1 transgene expression in the skin suggesting distal effects of HO activity on the vasculature. No protective effects were seen in SCD mice injected with nonsense (ns-) rat hmox-1 that encodes carboxy-truncated HO-1 with little or no enzyme activity. We speculate that HO-1 gene delivery to the liver is beneficial in SCD mice by degrading pro-oxidative heme, releasing anti-inflammatory heme degradation products CO and biliverdin/bilirubin into circulation, activating cytoprotective pathways and inhibiting vascular stasis at sites distal to transgene expression. PMID:20306336

Belcher, John D; Vineyard, Julie V; Bruzzone, Carol M; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D; Nguyen, Julia; Steer, Clifford J; Vercellotti, Gregory M

2010-03-23

276

Heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery by Sleeping Beauty inhibits vascular stasis in a murine model of sickle cell disease  

PubMed Central

Increases in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and administration of heme degradation products CO and biliverdin inhibit vascular inflammation and vasoocclusion in mouse models of sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, an albumin (alb) promoter-driven Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase plasmid with a wild-type rat hmox-1 (wt-HO-1) transposable element was delivered by hydrodynamic tail vein injections to SCD mice. Eight weeks after injection, SCD mice had three- to five-fold increases in HO-1 activity and protein expression in liver, similar to hemin-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased perinuclear HO-1 staining in hepatocytes. Messenger RNA transcription of the hmox-1 transgene in liver was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (qRT-PCR RFLP) with no detectible transgene expression in other organs. The livers of all HO-1 overexpressing mice had activation of nuclear phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-Akt, decreased nuclear expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65, and decreased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in serum. Hypoxia-induced stasis, a characteristic of SCD, but not normal mice, was inhibited in dorsal skin fold chambers in wt-HO-1 SCD mice despite the absence of hmox-1 transgene expression in the skin suggesting distal effects of HO activity on the vasculature. No protective effects were seen in SCD mice injected with nonsense (ns-) rat hmox-1 that encodes carboxy-truncated HO-1 with little or no enzyme activity. We speculate that HO-1 gene delivery to the liver is beneficial in SCD mice by degrading pro-oxidative heme, releasing anti-inflammatory heme degradation products CO and biliverdin/bilirubin into circulation, activating cytoprotective pathways and inhibiting vascular stasis at sites distal to transgene expression.

Belcher, John D.; Vineyard, Julie V.; Bruzzone, Carol M.; Chen, Chunsheng; Beckman, Joan D.; Nguyen, Julia; Steer, Clifford J.

2010-01-01

277

Vasopressin inhibits type-I collagen and albumin gene expression in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms that regulate collagen gene expression in hepatic cells are poorly understood. Accelerated Ca2+ fluxes are associated with inhibiting collagen synthesis selectively in human fibroblasts. In suspension cultures of isolated hepatocytes, the Ca2+ agonist vasopressin increases cytosolic levels of free Ca2+. However, whether vasopressin's interactions with plasma membrane V1 receptors attenuate hepatic collagen production is unknown. We investigated this problem by studying vasopressin's effects on collagen synthesis and Ca2+ efflux in long-term primary cultures of differentiated and proliferation-competent adult rat hepatocytes. Twelve-day-old quiescent cultures were exposed to test substances and labeled with (5-3H)proline. Determinations of radioactivity in collagenase-sensitive and collagenase-resistant proteins were used to calculate the relative levels of collagen production. Synthetic (8-arg)vasopressin stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux within 1 min and inhibited hepatocyte collagen production within 3 h by 50%; overall rates of protein synthesis were not affected significantly. In cultures labeled with (35S)methionine, vasopressin also decreased the levels of newly synthesized and secreted albumin, but not fibrinogen, detected in specific immunoprecipitates analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Northern blot analyses using specific (32P)cDNA probes revealed 70% decreases in hybridizable levels of collagen alpha 1(I) mRNA in hepatocyte cultures treated with either vasopressin or Ca2+ ionophore A23187; hybridizable levels of albumin mRNA also fell approximately 50% following vasopressin treatment.

Chojkier, M.; Brenner, D.A.; Leffert, H.L.

1989-06-05

278

Dominant Negative Mutants of the Murine Cytomegalovirus M53 Gene Block Nuclear Egress and Inhibit Capsid Maturation? †  

PubMed Central

The alphaherpesvirus proteins UL31 and UL34 and their homologues in other herpesvirus subfamilies cooperate at the nuclear membrane in the export of nascent herpesvirus capsids. We studied the respective betaherpesvirus proteins M53 and M50 in mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Recently, we established a random approach to identify dominant negative (DN) mutants of essential viral genes and isolated DN mutants of M50 (B. Rupp, Z. Ruzsics, C. Buser, B. Adler, P. Walther and U. H. Koszinowski, J. Virol 81:5508-5517). Here, we report the identification and phenotypic characterization of DN alleles of its partner, M53. While mutations in the middle of the M53 open reading frame (ORF) resulted in DN mutants inhibiting MCMV replication by ?100-fold, mutations at the C terminus resulted in up to 1,000,000-fold inhibition of virus production. C-terminal DN mutants affected nuclear distribution and steady-state levels of the nuclear egress complex and completely blocked export of viral capsids. In addition, they induced a marked maturation defect of viral capsids, resulting in the accumulation of nuclear capsids with aberrant morphology. This was associated with a two-thirds reduction in the total amount of unit length genomes, indicating an accessory role for M53 in DNA packaging.

Popa, Mirela; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Lotzerich, Mark; Dolken, Lars; Buser, Christopher; Walther, Paul; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

2010-01-01

279

Transfer and expression of the interferon gamma gene in human endothelial cells inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Intimal hyperplasia in blood vessels is primarily caused by the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Excessive intimal thickening characterizes atherosclerosis as well as bypass graft and angioplasty failures. Endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell interactions and local cytokine production are important regulators of smooth muscle cell growth. Interferon gamma (gamma-IFN), a product of T lymphocytes found in atherosclerotic lesions, inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. To determine if local delivery of gamma-IFN may be useful in the treatment or prevention of vascular proliferative diseases, we transferred the human gamma-IFN gene into endothelial cells isolated from human arteries and microvessels using a retroviral vector. Biologically active gamma-IFN was produced and secreted by gamma-IFN transduced endothelial cells, but not by control, nontransduced cells, or cells identically transduced with E. coli beta galactosidase (beta-gal). To more closely approximate the microenvironment of blood vessels, subconfluent smooth muscle cells were plated in coculture with control, nontransduced endothelial cells, gamma-IFN transduced endothelial cells, or beta-gal transduced endothelial cells. Smooth muscle cell growth was inhibited 30-70% by coculture with gamma-IFN transduced endothelial cells compared to coculture with beta-gal transduced or control endothelial cells (p < 0.05). Our results suggest endothelial cells modified to produce gamma-IFN may be a useful therapy in proliferative vascular diseases. PMID:9040949

Stopeck, A T; Vahedian, M; Williams, S K

280

A Threshold Neurotoxic Amphetamine Exposure Inhibits Parietal Cortex Expression of Synaptic Plasticity-Related Genes  

PubMed Central

Compulsive drug abuse has been conceptualized as a behavioral state where behavioral stimuli override normal decision making. Clinical studies of methamphetamine users have detailed decision making changes and imaging studies have found altered metabolism and activation in the parietal cortex. To examine the molecular effects of amphetamine on the parietal cortex, gene expression responses to amphetamine challenge (7.5mg/kg) were examined in the parietal cortex of rats pretreated for nine days with either saline, non-neurotoxic AMPH, or neurotoxic AMPH dosing regimens. The neurotoxic AMPH exposure [3 doses of 7.5 mg/kg/day AMPH (6 hr between doses), for nine days] produced histological signs of neurotoxicity in the parietal cortex while a non-neurotoxic dosing regimen (2.0 mg/kg/day × 3) did not. Neurotoxic AMPH pretreatment resulted in significantly diminished AMPH challenge-induced mRNA increases of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (ARC), nerve growth-factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A), and nerve growth-factor inducible protein B (NGFI-B) in the parietal cortex while neither saline pretreatment nor non-neurotoxic AMPH pretreatment did. This effect was specific to these genes as tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and c-jun expression in response to AMPH challenge was unaltered or enhanced by amphetamine pretreatements. In the striatum, there were no differences between saline, neurotoxic AMPH, and non-neurotoxic AMPH pretreatments on ARC, NGFI-A or NGFI-B expression elicited by the AMPH challenge. These data indicate that the responsiveness of synaptic plasticity related genes are sensitive to disruption specifically in the parietal cortex by threshold neurotoxic AMPH exposures.

Bowyer, John F.; Pogge, Amy R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; O'Callaghan, James P.; Patel, Kruti M.; Vrana, Kent E.; Freeman, Willard M.

2007-01-01

281

Inhibition of proprotein convertase SKI-1 blocks transcription of key extracellular matrix genes regulating osteoblastic mineralization.  

PubMed

Mineralization, a characteristic phenotypic property of osteoblastic lineage cells, was blocked by 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and decanoyl-Arg-Arg-Leu-Leu-chloromethyl ketone (dec-RRLL-cmk), inhibitors of SKI-1 (site 1; subtilisin kexin like-1) protease. Because SKI-1 is required for activation of SREBP and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein)/ATF family transcription factors, we tested the effect of these inhibitors on gene expression. AEBSF decreased expression of 140 genes by 1.5-3.0-fold including Phex, Dmp1, COL1A1, COL11A1, and fibronectin. Direct comparison of AEBSF and dec-RRLL-cmk, a more specific SKI-1 inhibitor, demonstrated that expression of Phex, Dmp1, COL11A1, and fibronectin was reduced by both, whereas COL1A2 and HMGCS1 were reduced only by AEBSF. AEBSF and dec-RRLL-cmk decreased the nuclear content of SKI-1-activated forms of transcription factors SREBP-1, SREBP-2, and OASIS. In contrast to AEBSF, the actions of dec-RRLL-cmk represent the sum of its direct actions on SKI-1 and indirect actions on caspase-3. Specifically, dec-RRLL-cmk reduced intracellular caspase-3 activity by blocking the formation of activated 19-kDa caspase-3. Conversely, overexpression of SKI-1-activated SREBP-1a and CREB-H in UMR106-01 osteoblastic cells increased the number of mineralized foci and altered their morphology to yield mineralization nodules, respectively. In summary, SKI-1 regulates the activation of transmembrane transcription factor precursors required for expression of key genes required for mineralization of osteoblastic cultures in vitro and bone formation in vivo. Our results indicate that the differentiated phenotype of osteoblastic cells and possibly osteocytes depends upon the non-apoptotic actions of SKI-1. PMID:21075843

Gorski, Jeff P; Huffman, Nichole T; Chittur, Sridar; Midura, Ronald J; Black, Claudine; Oxford, Julie; Seidah, Nabil G

2010-11-12

282

Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C is a major health problem affecting 270 million individuals in world including Pakistan. Current treatment regimen,\\u000a interferon alpha and ribavirin only cure half of patients due to side effects and high cost.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In the present study Silybum marianum (Milk thistle) seeds were collected, extracted and analyzed against HCV 3a core gene by transiently transfecting the liver\\u000a cells with

Ali Usman Ashfaq; Tariq Javed; Sidra Rehman; Zafar Nawaz; Sheikh Riazuddin

2011-01-01

283

Competitive Inhibition of Abscisic Acid-Regulated Gene Expression by Stereoisomeric Acetylenic Analogs of Abscisic Acid.  

PubMed Central

The properties of two enantiomeric synthetic acetylenic abscisic acid (ABA) analogs (PBI-51 and PBI-63) in relation to ABA-sensitive gene expression are reported. Using microspore-derived embryos of Brassica napus as the biological material and their responsiveness to ABA in the expression of genes encoding storage proteins as a quantitative bioassay, we measured the biological activity of PBI-51 and PBI-63. Assays to evaluate agonistic activity of either compound applied individually showed a dose-dependent increase in napin gene expression on application of PBI-63. Maximal activity of about 40 [mu]M indicated that PBI-63 was an agonist, although somewhat weaker than ABA. PBI-63 has a similar stereochemistry to natural ABA at the junction of the ring and side chain. In contrast, PBI-51 showed no agonistic effects until applied at 40 to 50 [mu]M. Even then, the response was fairly weak. PBI-51 has the opposite stereochemistry to natural ABA at the junction of the ring and side chain. When applied concurrently with ABA, PBI-63 and PBI-51 had distinctly different properties. PBI-63 (40 [mu]M) and ABA (5 [mu]M) combined gave results similar to the application of either compound separately with high levels of induction of napin expression. PBI-51 displayed a reversible antagonistic effect with ABA, shifting the typical ABA dose-response curve by a factor of 4 to 5. This antagonism was noted for the expression of two ABA-sensitive genes, napin and oleosin. To test whether this antagonism was at the level of ABA recognition or uptake, ABA uptake was monitored in the presence of PBI-51 or PBI-63. Neither compound decreased ABA uptake. Treatments with either PBI-51 or PBI-63 showed an effect on endogenous ABA pools by permitting increases of 5- to 7-fold. It is hypothesized that this increase occurs because of competition for ABA catabolic enzymes by both compounds. The fact that ABA pools did not decrease in the presence of PBI-51 suggests that PBI-51 must exert its antagonistic properties through direct competition with ABA at a hormone-recognition site.

Wilen, R. W.; Hays, D. B.; Mandel, R. M.; Abrams, S. R.; Moloney, M. M.

1993-01-01

284

Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) mediates cell growth inhibition by transactivation of downstream target genes.  

PubMed Central

Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is a DNA-binding factor which recognizes regulatory elements in the promoters of interferon (IFN)-beta and some IFN-inducible genes. We observed that expression of transfected murine IRF-1 in different mammalian cell lines leads to down-regulation or stop of proliferation depending on the extent of expression. Expression of fusion proteins composed of IRF-1 and the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen receptor does not exhibit IRF-1 activity in the absence of estrogen. However, after estrogen treatment of the cells IFN-beta promoters are activated and the cells stop growing. As shown by expression of IRF-1 mutants both functions of the IRF-1-protein require DNA-binding and transcriptional activation. Since secreted factors including IFNs are not responsible for the anti-proliferative effect of IRF-1 we suggest that IRF-1 may be regarded as a negative regulator of cell growth which acts by activation of down-stream effector genes. Images

Kirchhoff, S; Schaper, F; Hauser, H

1993-01-01

285

Type 1 Interferons Inhibit Myotube Formation Independently of Upregulation of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15  

PubMed Central

Introduction Type 1 interferon (IFN)-inducible genes and their inducible products are upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle. Of these, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the most upregulated, suggesting its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. To test this postulate, we developed a model of type 1 IFN mediated myotube toxicity and assessed whether or not downregulation of ISG15 expression prevents this toxicity. Methods Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cell line) were cultured in the presence of type 1 or type 2 IFNs and ISG15 expression assessed by microarray analysis. The morphology of newly formed myotubes was assessed by measuring their length, diameter, and area on micrographs using imaging software. ISG15 expression was silenced through transfection with small interference RNA. Results Type 1 IFNs, especially IFN-beta, increased ISG15 expression in C2C12 cells and impaired myotube formation. Silencing of ISG15 resulted in knockdown of ISG15 protein, but without phenotypic rescue of myotube formation. Discussion IFN-beta affects myoblast differentiation ability and myotube morphology in vitro.These studies provide evidence that ISG15, which is highly upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle, does not appear to play a key role in IFN-beta-mediated C2C12 myoblast cell fusion.

Franzi, Sara; Salajegheh, Mohammad; Nazareno, Remedios; Greenberg, Steven A.

2013-01-01

286

Immediate and Delayed Effects of E-Cadherin Inhibition on Gene Regulation and Cell Motility in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The invasion suppressor protein, E-cadherin, plays a central role in epithelial cell-cell adhesion. Loss of E-cadherin expression or function in various tumors of epithelial origin is associated with a more invasive phenotype. In this study, by expressing a dominant-negative mutant of E-cadherin (Ec1WVM) in A431 cells, we demonstrated that specific inhibition of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion led to the genetic reprogramming of tumor cells. In particular, prolonged inhibition of cell-cell adhesion activated expression of vimentin and repressed cytokeratins, suggesting that the effects of Ec1WVM can be classified as epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Both short-term and prolonged expression of Ec1WVM resulted in morphological transformation and increased cell migration though to different extents. Short-term expression of Ec1WVM up-regulated two AP-1 family members, c-jun and fra-1, but was insufficient to induce complete mesenchymal transition. AP-1 activity induced by the short-term expression of Ec1WVM was required for transcriptional up-regulation of AP-1 family members and down-regulation of two other Ec1WVM-responsive genes, S100A4 and igfbp-3. Using a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) and RNA interference-mediated silencing of c-Jun and Fra-1, we demonstrated that AP-1 was required for cell motility stimulated by the expression of Ec1WVM. In contrast, Ec1WVM-mediated changes in cell morphology were AP-1-independent. Our data suggest that mesenchymal transition induced by prolonged functional inhibition of E-cadherin is a slow and gradual process. At the initial step of this process, Ec1WVM triggers a positive autoregulatory mechanism that increases AP-1 activity. Activated AP-1 in turn contributes to Ec1WVM-mediated effects on gene expression and tumor cell motility. These data provide novel insight into the tumor suppressor function of E-cadherin.

Andersen, Henriette; Mejlvang, Jakob; Mahmood, Shaukat; Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Lukanidin, Eugene; Kriajevska, Marina; Mellon, J. Kilian; Tulchinsky, Eugene

2005-01-01

287

The 104 -123 Amino Acid Sequence of the b-domain of von Hippel-Lindau Gene Product Is Sufficient to Inhibit Renal Tumor Growth and Invasion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in patients with VHL disease and in the majority of patients with sporadic renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). RCCs are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-I receptor-mediated signaling for tumor growth and invasion in vivo. Reintroduction of the VHL gene product (pVHL) can inhibit on insulin-like growth factor-I receptor-mediated signaling in RCC cells

Kaustubh Datta; Christian Sundberg; S. Ananth Karumanchi; Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

2001-01-01

288

Effects of the inhibition of p38\\/RK MAP kinase on induction of five fos and jun genes by diverse stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERK, JNK\\/SAPK and p38\\/RK MAP kinase subtypes are differentially activated by physiological, pharmacological and stress stimuli; all three subtypes are implicated in immediate-early (IE) gene induction by these agents. Here, we have asked whether inhibition of a single MAP kinase subtype under these conditions would generally alter induction of several IE genes in a similar way or whether this

Catherine A Hazzalin; Ana Cuenda; Eva Cano; Philip Cohen; Louis C Mahadevan

1997-01-01

289

Regulation of the grapevine polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein encoding gene: expression pattern, induction profile and promoter analysis.  

PubMed

Regulation of defense in plants is a complex process mediated by various signaling pathways. Promoter analysis of defense-related genes is useful to understand these signaling pathways involved in regulation. To this end, the regulation of the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein encoding gene from Vitis vinifera L. (Vvpgip1) was analyzed with regard to expression pattern and induction profile as well as the promoter in terms of putative regulatory elements present, core promoter size and the start of transcription. Expression of Vvpgip1 is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Vvpgip1 expression was induced in response to auxin, salicylic acid and sugar treatment, wounding and pathogen infection. The start of transcription was mapped to 17 bp upstream of the ATG and the core promoter was mapped to the 137 bp upstream of the ATG. Fructose- and Botrytis responsiveness were identified in the region between positions -3.1 and -1.5 kb. The analyses showed induction in water when the leaves were submersed and this response and the response to wounding mapped to the region between positions -1.1 and -0.1 kb. In silico analyses revealed putative cis-acting elements in these areas that correspond well to the induction stimuli tested. PMID:22932820

Joubert, D Albert; de Lorenzo, Giulia; Vivier, Melané A

2012-08-30

290

A gene therapy strategy using a transcription factor decoy of the E2F binding site inhibits smooth muscle proliferation in vivo.  

PubMed Central

The application of DNA technology to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes in vivo has important therapeutic potentials. The transcription factor E2F plays a pivotal role in the coordinated transactivation of cell cycle-regulatory genes such as c-myc, cdc2, and the gene encoding proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that are involved in lesion formation after vascular injury. We hypothesized that double-stranded DNA with high affinity for E2F may be introduced in vivo as a decoy to bind E2F and block the activation of genes mediating cell cycle progression and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Gel mobility-shift assays showed complete competition for E2F binding protein by the E2F decoy. Transfection with E2F decoy inhibited expression of c-myc, cdc2, and the PCNA gene as well as vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation both in vitro and in the in vivo model of rat carotid injury. Furthermore, 2 weeks after in vivo transfection, neointimal formation was significantly prevented by the E2F decoy, and this inhibition continued up to 8 weeks after a single transfection in a dose-dependent manner. Transfer of an E2F decoy can therefore modulate gene expression and inhibit smooth muscle proliferation and vascular lesion formation in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Morishita, R; Gibbons, G H; Horiuchi, M; Ellison, K E; Nakama, M; Zhang, L; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Dzau, V J

1995-01-01

291

Nitric oxide synthase gene transfer overcomes the inhibition of wound healing by sulfur mustard in a human keratinocyte in vitro model.  

PubMed

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes extensive skin injury. Previously we reported that SM exposure resulted in suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to inhibit the healing of scratch wounds in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) model. Based on this finding, the present study was to use adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of iNOS to restore the nitric oxide (NO) supply depleted by exposure to SM and to evaluate the effect of NO on wound healing inhibited by SM in NHEKs. The effect of the iNOS gene transfer on iNOS protein expression and NO generation were monitored by Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. Wound healing with or without the iNOS gene transfer after SM exposure was assessed by light and confocal microscopy. The iNOS gene transfer via adenovirus resulted in overexpression of the iNOS and an increase in NO production regardless of SM exposure in the NHEK model. The gene transfer was also effective in overcoming the inhibition of wound healing due to SM exposure leading to the promotion of wound closure. The findings in this study suggest that the iNOS gene transfer is a promising therapeutic strategy for SM-induced skin injury. PMID:23762631

Ishida, Hiroshi; Ray, Radharaman; Amnuaysirikul, Jack; Ishida, Keiko; Ray, Prabhati

2012-11-14

292

Zhi-mu saponin inhibits alpha-fetoprotein gene expression in developing rat liver.  

PubMed

1. A saponin isolated from the Chinese herb zhi-mu (Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge) modifies alpha-fetoprotein production when injected into newborn rats. 2. The serum level of AFP was determined quantitatively by immunorocket electrophoresis. 3. AFP serum levels were reduced to 60% of the control by zhi-mu saponin (ZMS). 4. The lower AFP level in drug treated rat serum is not due to a change in the pattern of serum AFP variants. 5. AFP mRNA levels in ZMS-treated rat livers, measured by RNA dot hybridization, decreased to about 50% of control levels after 4 days treatment. 6. Results from tritium labeled dexamethasone competition assays suggest that ZMS may act on AFP gene expression through glucocorticoid receptor mediated action. PMID:2473929

Li, P M; Zhong, J L; Chen, R Q; Zhang, X K; Ho, K L; Chiu, J F; Huang, D P

1989-01-01

293

Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

2000-02-01

294

The Zinc Finger Protein A20 Inhibits TNF-induced NF-?B-dependent Gene Expression by Interfering with an RIP- or TRAF2-mediated Transactivation Signal and Directly Binds to a Novel NF-?B-inhibiting Protein ABIN  

PubMed Central

The zinc finger protein A20 is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)– and interleukin 1 (IL-1)-inducible protein that negatively regulates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)–dependent gene expression. However, the molecular mechanism by which A20 exerts this effect is still unclear. We show that A20 does not inhibit TNF- induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-?B, although it completely prevents the TNF- induced activation of an NF-?B–dependent reporter gene, as well as TNF-induced IL-6 and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor gene expression. Moreover, NF-?B activation induced by overexpression of the TNF receptor–associated proteins TNF receptor–associated death domain protein (TRADD), receptor interacting protein (RIP), and TNF recep- tor–associated factor 2 (TRAF2) was also inhibited by expression of A20, whereas NF-?B activation induced by overexpression of NF-?B–inducing kinase (NIK) or the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax was unaffected. These results demonstrate that A20 inhibits NF-?B–dependent gene expression by interfering with a novel TNF-induced and RIP- or TRAF2-mediated pathway that is different from the NIK–I?B kinase pathway and that is specifically involved in the transactivation of NF-?B. Via yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that A20 binds to a novel protein, ABIN, which mimics the NF-?B inhibiting effects of A20 upon overexpression, suggesting that the effect of A20 is mediated by its interaction with this NF-?B inhibiting protein, ABIN.

Heyninck, Karen; De Valck, Dirk; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Van Criekinge, Wim; Contreras, Roland; Fiers, Walter; Haegeman, Guy; Beyaert, Rudi

1999-01-01

295

The mood stabilizer valproate activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities.  

PubMed

Valproic acid (VPA) is the primary mood-stabilizing drug to exert neuroprotective effects and to treat bipolar disorder in clinic. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell division, and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (-540 to +31)-driven green fluorescence (F1BGFP) has been shown to recapitulate endogenous FGF1 gene expression and facilitates the isolation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate the underlying mechanisms of VPA in activating FGF-1B promoter activity: (i) VPA significantly increased the FGF-1B mRNA expression and the percentage of F1BGFP(+) cells; (ii) the increase of F1BGFP expression by VPA involves changes of regulatory factor X (RFX) 1-3 transcriptional complexes and the increase of histone H3 acetylation on the 18-bp cis-element of FGF-1B promoter; (iii) treatments of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, significantly increased the expression levels of FGF-1B, RFX2, and RFX3 transcripts; (iv) treatments of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, lithium, or GSK-3 siRNAs also significantly activated FGF-1B promoter; (v) VPA specifically enhanced neuronal differentiation in F1BGFP(+) embryonic stem cells and NSPCs rather than GFP(-) cells. This study suggested, for the first time, that VPA activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities. PMID:23647222

Kao, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Chao; Liu, Jen-Wei; Lee, Don-Ching; Chung, Yu-Fen; Chiu, Ing-Ming

2013-05-21

296

Ternary Complex Factor-Serum Response Factor Complex-Regulated Gene Activity Is Required for Cellular Proliferation and Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Members of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of the ETS-domain transcription factors are activated through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in response to a variety of mitogenic and stress stimuli. The TCFs bind and activate serum response elements (SREs) in the promoters of target genes in a ternary complex with a second transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF). The association of TCFs with SREs within immediate-early gene promoters is suggestive of a role for the ternary TCF-SRF complex in promoting cell cycle entry and proliferation in response to mitogenic signaling. Here we have investigated the downstream gene regulatory and phenotypic effects of inhibiting the activity of genes regulated by TCFs by expressing a dominantly acting repressive form of the TCF, Elk-1. Inhibition of ternary complex activity leads to the downregulation of several immediate-early genes. Furthermore, blocking TCF-mediated gene expression leads to growth arrest and triggers apoptosis. By using mutant Elk-1 alleles, we demonstrated that these effects are via an SRF-dependent mechanism. The antiapoptotic gene Mcl-1 is identified as a key target for the TCF-SRF complex in this system. Thus, our data confirm a role for TCF-SRF-regulated gene activity in regulating proliferation and provide further evidence to indicate a role in protecting cells from apoptotic cell death.

Vickers, Elaine R.; Kasza, Aneta; Kurnaz, Isil Aksan; Seifert, Anne; Zeef, Leo A. H.; O'Donnell, Amanda; Hayes, Andy; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

2004-01-01

297

Acetylbritannilatone suppresses NO and PGE2 synthesis in RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilatone (ABL) isolated from Inula Britannica-F, we investigated ABL for its ability to inhibit the inflammatory factor production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The studies showed that ABL not only inhibited LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric synthase (iNOS) expression, but also decreased LPS/IFN-gamma-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a concentration-dependent manner. EMSA demonstrated that ABL inhibited effectively the association of NF-kappaB, which is necessary for the expression of iNOS and COX-2, with its binding motif in the promoter of target genes. These data suggest that ABL suppress NO and PGE2 synthesis in RAW 264.7 macrophages through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of ABL involves blocking the binding of NF-kappaB to the promoter in the target genes and inhibiting the expression of iNOS and COX-2. PMID:15172177

Han, Mei; Wen, Jin-Kun; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Di-Qun

2004-06-25

298

Two genes abrogate the inhibition of murine hepatocarcinogenesis by ovarian hormones.  

PubMed Central

Hormonal and genetic factors strongly influence the susceptibility of inbred mice to hepatocarcinogenesis. Female C57BR/cdJ (BR) mice are extremely susceptible to liver tumor induction relative to other strains because they are genetically insensitive to the inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis by ovarian hormones. To determine the genetic basis for the sensitivity of BR mice relative to resistant C57BL/6J (B6) mice, we treated 12-day-old B6BRF1 x B6 and B6BRF1 x B6BRF1 (F2) animals with N,N-diethylnitrosamine (0.1 micromol/g of body weight) and enumerated liver tumors at 32 weeks of age in males and at 50 weeks in females. Genomic DNA samples from backcross and F2 mice were analyzed for 70 informative simple sequence length polymorphism markers. Genetic markers on chromosome 17 (D17Mit21) and chromosome 1 (D1Mit33) cosegregated with high tumor multiplicity in both sexes. Together, these loci [designated Hcf1 and Hcf2 (Hepatocarcinogenesis in females), respectively] account for virtually all of the difference in sensitivity between BR and B6 mice. The Hcf1 locus accounts for a majority of the higher susceptibility of BR mice of both sexes. Backcross female mice heterozygous at both loci (33 +/- 23 tumors per mouse) and at Hcf1 only (17 +/- 18) were 15- and 8-fold more sensitive, respectively, than mice homozygous for the B6 alleles at Hcf1 and Hcf2 (2.2 +/- 3.9). In backcross male mice, the double heterozygotes (35 +/- 22) and Hcf1 heterozygotes (28 +/- 12) were 5.4- and 4.3-fold more sensitive than mice homozygous for B6 alleles at both loci (6.5 +/- 5.4).

Poole, T M; Drinkwater, N R

1996-01-01

299

Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Regulated Expression of a Polymeric Tat Activation Response RNA Decoy as a Strategy for Gene Therapy in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by intracellular expression of an RNA decoy and a ribozyme. The RNA decoy, consisting of polymeric Tat activation response elements (TARs), is designed to compete for Tat binding in an equilibrium with viral TAR RNA, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The expression of

Julianna Lisziewicz; Daisy Sun; Jason Smythe; Paolo Lusso; Franco Lori; Andrey Louie; Phillip Markham; John Rossi; Marvin Reitz; Robert C. Gallo

1993-01-01

300

Inhibition of clinical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by retroviral vectors expressing anti-HIV genes.  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy may be of benefit in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals by virtue of its ability to inhibit virus replication and prevent viral gene expression. It is not known whether anti-HIV-1 gene therapy strategies based on antisense or transdominant HIV-1 mutant proteins can inhibit the replication and expression of clinical HIV-1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We therefore transduced CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected individuals with retroviral vectors expressing either HIV-1-specific antisense-TAR or antisense-Tat/Rev RNA, transdominant HIV-1 Rev protein, and a combination of antisense-TAR and transdominant Rev. The engineered CD4+ T lymphocytes were then infected with four different clinical HIV-1 isolates. We found that replication of all HIV-1 isolates was inhibited by all the anti-HIV vectors tested. Greater inhibition of HIV-1 was observed with transdominant Rev than with antisense RNA. We hereby demonstrated effective protection by antisense RNA or transdominant mutant proteins against HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes using clinical HIV-1 isolates, and this represents an essential step toward clinical anti-HIV-1 gene therapy.

Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M K; Chiang, L; Chang, H K; Ensoli, B; Morgan, R A

1995-01-01

301

POLY I:C INHIBITS THE EXPRESSION OF CHANNEL CATFISH VIRUS IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE ORF 1 AT EARLY TIMES AFTER INFECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Channel catfish virus (CCV) is a herpes virus that infects channel catfish fry and fingerlings. Previous research has demonstrated that Type I interferons inhibit the expression of immediate-early (IE) genes of some mammalian herpesviruses. However, CCV is distantly related to the mammalian herpesvi...

302

Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Targeted to an Essential Gene Inhibit Burkholderia cepacia complex  

PubMed Central

Background: Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and cystic fibrosis (CF). Many Bcc strains are antibiotic resistant requiring the exploration of novel antimicrobial approaches including antisense technologies, such as phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs). Methods: Peptide-conjugated PMOs (PPMOs) were developed to target the acpP gene, encoding an acyl carrier protein thought to be essential for growth. Their antimicrobial activities were tested against different strains of Bcc in vitro and in infection models. Results: PPMOs targeting acpP were bactericidal against clinical isolates of Bcc (> 4 log reduction), whereas a PPMO with a scrambled base sequence (Scr) had no effect on growth. Human neutrophils (PMN) were infected with B. multivorans, and treated with AcpP PPMO. AcpP PPMO augmented killing compared to PMN alone ± Scr PPMO. CGD mice infected with B. multivorans were treated with AcpP PPMO, Scr PPMO or water at 0, 3 and 6 hours post-infection. Compared to water treated controls, the AcpP PPMO treated mice showed a ~80% reduction in the risk of dying by day 30 and relatively little pathology. Conclusions: AcpP PPMO is active against Bcc infections in vitro and in vivo.

Greenberg, David E.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly R.; Brinster, Lauren R.; Zarember, Kol A.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Mellbye, Brett L.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Holland, Steven M.; Geller, Bruce L.

2010-01-01

303

Arthrophytum scoparium inhibits melanogenesis through the down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expressions in B16 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Melanin performs a crucial role in protecting the skin against harmful ultraviolet light. However, hyperpigmentation may lead to aesthetic problems and disorders such as solar lentigines (SL), melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and even melanoma. Arthrophytum scoparium grows in the desert in the North African region, and given this type of environment, A. scoparium exhibits adaptations for storing water and produces useful bioactive factors. In this study, the effect of A. scoparium ethanol extract (ASEE) on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. Cells treated with 0.017% (w/v) ASEE showed a significant inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. To clarify the mechanism behind the ASEE-treated melanogenesis regulation, the expressions of tyrosinase enzyme and melanogenesis-related genes were determined. Results showed that the expression of tyrosinase enzyme was significantly decreased and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated. LC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis of the extract identified the presence of six phenolic compounds: coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, chrysoeriol, cyanidin, catechol and caffeoylquinic acid. The melanogenesis inhibitory effect of ASEE may therefore be attributed to its catechol and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative content. We report here that ASEE can inhibit melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner by decreasing the tyrosinase protein and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions. This is the first report on the antimelanogenesis effect of A. scoparium and on its potential as a whitening agent. PMID:23362872

Chao, Hui-Chia; Najjaa, Hanen; Villareal, Myra O; Ksouri, Riadh; Han, Junkyu; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

2013-02-01

304

Inhibition of transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vitro by the alc gene product of bacteriophage T4  

SciTech Connect

The alc gene product (gpalc) of bacteriophage T4 inhibits the transcription of cytosine-containing DNA in vivo. The authors examined its effect on transcription in vitro by comparing RNA polymerase isolated from Escherichia coli infected with either wild-type T4D{sup +} or alc mutants. A 50 to 60% decline in RNA polymerase activity, measured on phage T7 DNA, was observed by 1 min after infection with either T4D{sup +} or alc mutants; this did not occur when the infecting phage lacked gpalt. In the case of the T4D{sup +} strain but not alc mutants, this was followed by a further decrease. By 5 min after infection the activity of alc mutants was 1.5 to 2.5 times greater than that of the wild type on various cytosine-containing DNA templates, whereas there was little or no difference in activity on T4 HMdC-DNA, in agreement with the in vivo specificity. Effects on transcript initiation and elongation were distinguished by using a T7 phage DNA template. Rifampin challenge, end-labeling with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, and selective initiation with a dinucleotide all indicate that the decreased in vitro activity of the wild-type polymerase relative to that of the alc mutants was due to inhibition of elongation, not to any difference in initiation rates. Wild-type (but not mutated) gpalc copurified with RNA polymerase on heparin agarose but not in subsequent steps. Immunoprecipitation of modified RNA polymerase also indicated that gpalc was not tightly bound to RNA polymerase intracellularly.

Drivdahl, R.H.; Kutter, E.M. (Evergreen State College, Olympia, WA (USA))

1990-05-01

305

Prolactin-mediated inhibition of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression and the tyrosine kinase system.  

PubMed

The rat luteal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase plays a key role at catabolizing progesterone and at decreasing the level of this steroid secreted by the ovaries. Throughout pregnancy and before parturition neither the mRNA nor the protein for this enzyme could be detected. In this investigation we set to examine whether PRL and PRL-like hormone from placental origin silence the expression of this gene and whether PRL action involves tyrosine kinase activity and/or de novo protein synthesis. The results revealed that PRL and PRL-like hormone from rat placental origin (rPL-1 and rPL-2), but not rat growth hormone, caused a rapid and profound inhibition of 20alpha-HSD mRNA expression in highly luteinized granulosa cells. Immunoprecipition and western blot analysis indicate that PRL-R associates with JAK2 and Stat5, and this association is increased within 30 seconds with PRL treatment. Although both JAK2 and Stat5 were phosphorylated on tyrosine upon PRL treatment, the PRL mediated inhibition of 20alpha-HSD was not reversed by either tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG18 and genistein, but was largely reversed by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. In summary, results of this investigation indicate that although PRL can activate the JAK2/Stat5 system in the corpus luteum, the down regulation of 20alpha-HSD mRNA by PRL does not appear to involve tyrosine kinase activity but depends on de novo synthesis of protein(s). PMID:9207201

Zhong, L; Parmer, T G; Robertson, M C; Gibori, G

1997-06-27

306

Inhibition of stimulated meningeal blood flow by a calcitonin gene-related peptide binding mirror-image RNA oligonucleotide  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from trigeminal afferents is known to play an important role in the control of intracranial blood flow. In a rat preparation with exposed cranial dura mater, periods of electrical stimulation induce increases in meningeal blood flow. These responses are due to arterial vasodilatation mediated in part by the release of CGRP. In this preparation, the effect of a CGRP-binding mirror-image oligonucleotide (Spiegelmer NOX-C89) was examined. Spiegelmer NOX-C89 applied topically at concentrations between 10?7and 10?5?M to the exposed dura mater led to a dose-dependent inhibition of the electrically evoked blood flow increases. The highest dose reduced the mean increases in flow to 56% of the respective control levels. A nonfunctional control Spiegelmer (not binding to CGRP) was ineffective in changing blood flow increases. Intravenous injection of NOX-C89 (5?mg?kg?1) reduced the evoked blood flow increases to an average of 65.5% of the control. The basal blood flow was not changed by any of the applied substances. In addition, an ex vivo preparation of the hemisected rat skull was used to determine CGRP release from the cranial dura mater caused by antidromic activation of meningeal afferents. In this model, 10?6?M of NOX-C89 reduced the evoked CGRP release by about 50%. We conclude that increases in meningeal blood flow due to afferent activation can be reduced by sequestering the released CGRP and thus preventing it from activating vascular CGRP receptors. Moreover, the Spiegelmer NOX-C89 may inhibit CGRP release from meningeal afferents. Therefore, the approach to interfere with the CGRP/CGRP receptor system by binding the CGRP may open a new opportunity for the therapy of diseases that are linked to excessive CGRP release such as some forms of primary headaches.

Denekas, Thomas; Troltzsch, Markus; Vater, Axel; Klussmann, Sven; Messlinger, Karl

2006-01-01

307

Carbamylcholine- and 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction in rat isolated airways: inhibition by calcitonin gene-related peptide.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of rat and human alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (alpha-CGRP) were investigated in isolated smooth muscle preparations obtained from three levels of the rat respiratory tract. 2. Neither peptide (10(-10)-10(-6) M) had any effect on resting tension or on carbamylcholine (10(-6) M)-induced tone of trachea or main bronchus. In contrast, CGRP sometimes reduced spontaneous or carbamylcholine-induced tone of lung parenchymal strips. 3. CGRP produced a significant rightward shift of the log concentration-response curves to carbamylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the main bronchus. A rightward shift was also seen in trachea and parenchymal strips but this did not achieve the level of significance. The maximal response to 5-HT was reduced in the main bronchus and lung parenchyma whereas the maximal contraction to carbamylcholine was decreased in parenchymal strip only. 4. In all three airway preparations, CGRP caused concentration-dependent inhibition of responses elicited by challenges with 10(-7) M carbamylcholine or 5 x 10(-7) M 5-HT. The inhibitory effect of the peptide was inversely related to the size of the airways: the smaller the calibre, the greater the inhibition. 5. The inhibitory action of CGRP was not modified by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M), propranolol (10(-6) M) or indomethacin (10(-6) M). 6. The results strongly suggest that (a) CGRP has a nonspecific inhibitory action on airway smooth muscle cells, (b) CGRP may act as a potent inhibitor of responses elicited by bronchoconstrictor substances and (c) its inhibitory activity may be most powerfully expressed in peripheral regions of the respiratory tract.

Cadieux, A.; Lanoue, C.; Sirois, P.; Barabe, J.

1990-01-01

308

Immediate-early gene induction and MAP kinase activation during recovery from metabolic inhibition in cultured cardiac myocytes.  

PubMed Central

To investigate how cardiac myocytes recover from a brief period of ischemia, we used a metabolic inhibition (MI) model, one of the in vitro ischemic models, of chick embryo ventricular myocytes, and examined the induction of immediate-early (IE) genes mRNAs and the activity of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We performed Northern blot analysis to study the expression of c-jun, c-fos, and c-myc mRNAs during MI using 1 mM NaCN and 20 mM 2-deoxy-d-glucose, and also during the recovery from MI of 30 min. The c-fos mRNA was induced transiently at 30 and 60 min during the recovery. The expression of c-jun mRNA was significantly augmented at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min during the recovery (3.0-, 4.7-, 2.4-, and 1.9-fold induction, respectively) and so did the expression of c-myc mRNA (1.4-, 1.7-, 1.8-, and 2.0-fold induction, respectively). In contrast, the levels of these mRNAs remained unchanged during MI. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that AP-1 DNA binding activity markedly increased at 120 min during the recovery. When the cells were pretreated with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, 100 microM H-7 or 1 microM staurosporine, the induction of c-jun mRNA at 60 min during the recovery was markedly suppressed (95 or 82% reduction, respectively). The c-jun induction was partially inhibited when the cells were treated with 2 mM EGTA during MI and the recovery (42% reduction). MAP kinase activity quantified with in-gel kinase assay was unchanged during MI, but significantly increased at 5, 10, and 15 min during the recovery (3.0-, 4.1-, and 3.4-fold increase, respectively). S6 kinase activity was also augmented significantly at 15 min during the recovery. Thus, these data suggest that IE genes as well as MAP kinase may play roles in the recovery process of cardiac myocytes from MI, and that the augmentation of c-jun expression needs the activation of PKC and to some extent, [Ca2+]i. Images

Yao, A; Takahashi, T; Aoyagi, T; Kinugawa, K; Kohmoto, O; Sugiura, S; Serizawa, T

1995-01-01

309

Synthetic liver X receptor agonist T0901317 inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase gene expression and activity in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.  

PubMed

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyzes oxidative deamination of primary aromatic and aliphatic amines. Increased SSAO activity has been found in atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. We hypothesize that the anti-atherogenic effect of liver X receptors (LXRs) might be related to the inhibition of SSAO gene expression and its activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on SSAO gene expression and its activity in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Male apoE(-/-) mice (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups: basal control group; vehicle group; prevention group; and treatment group. SSAO gene expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and its activity was determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase and content of malondialdehyde in the aorta and liver were also determined. In T0901317-treated mice, SSAO gene expression was significantly decreased in the aorta, liver, small intestine, and brain. SSAO activities in serum and in these tissues were also inhibited. The amount of superoxide dismutase in the aorta and liver of the prevention group and treatment group was significantly higher compared with the vehicle group (P<0.05). Malondialdehyde in the tissues of these two groups was significantly lower compared with the vehicle group (P<0.05). Our results showed that T0901317 inhibits SSAO gene expression and its activity in atherogenic apoE(-/-) mice. The atheroprotective effect of LXR agonist T0901317 is related to the inhibition of SSAO gene expression and its activity. PMID:18330481

Dai, Xiaoyan; Ou, Xiang; Hao, Xinrui; Cao, Dongli; Tang, Yaling; Hu, Yanwei; Li, Xiaoxu; Tang, Chaoke

2008-03-01

310

Inhibition of in vivo angiogenesis by Anacardium occidentale L. involves repression of the cytokine VEGF gene expression.  

PubMed

Lethal tumor growth and progression cannot occur without angiogenesis, which facilitates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and dissemination. Among the many growth factors and cytokines engaged in angiogenesis, the cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is regarded as the most potent and specific. Angiogenesis inhibitors are recognized as potentially useful agents for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases and VEGF represents a promising and well-studied target for antiangiogenic agents. In this study, we have tested the crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Anacardium occidentale Linn, on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Anacardium occidentale extract (AOE) was able to suppress VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane, rat cornea, and tumorinduced angiogenesis in the peritoneum of EAT bearing mice. The extract inhibited cell proliferation of different tumor cells such as EAT, BeWo, and MCF-7 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced the VEGF level in the ascites of treated mice. A decrease in the microvessel density count and CD31 antigen staining of treated mice peritoneum provide further evidence of its antiangiogenic activity. Our results from Northern blot analysis and ELISA demonstrate that AOE can downregulate endogenous VEGF gene expression at the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, results of our gene analysis of VEGF-promoter luciferase reporter indicated that this effect is mediated by transcriptional repression of VEGF promoter activity in EAT cells treated with AOE. Taken together, the data suggest that the VEGF system of angiogenesis is the molecular target for the antiangiogenic action of AOE. PMID:22504635

Lingaraju, S M; Keshavaiah, K; Salimath, B P

2008-08-01

311

ABA-Mediated Inhibition of Germination Is Related to the Inhibition of Genes Encoding Cell-Wall Biosynthetic and Architecture: Modifying Enzymes and Structural Proteins in Medicago truncatula Embryo Axis  

PubMed Central

Radicle emergence and reserves mobilization are two distinct programmes that are thought to control germination. Both programs are influenced by abscissic acid (ABA) but how this hormone controls seed germination is still poorly known. Phenotypic and microscopic observations of the embryo axis of Medicago truncatula during germination in mitotic inhibition condition triggered by 10??M oryzalin showed that cell division was not required to allow radicle emergence. A suppressive subtractive hybridization showed that more than 10% of up-regulated genes in the embryo axis encoded proteins related to cell-wall biosynthesis. The expression of ?-expansins, pectin-esterase, xylogucan-endotransglycosidase, cellulose synthase, and extensins was monitored in the embryo axis of seeds germinated on water, constant and transitory ABA. These genes were overexpressed before completion of germination in the control and strongly inhibited by ABA. The expression was re-established in the ABA transitory-treatment after the seeds were transferred back on water and proceeded to germination. This proves these genes as contributors to the completion of germination and strengthen the idea that cell-wall loosening and remodeling in relation to cell expansion in the embryo axis is a determinant feature in germination. Our results also showed that ABA controls germination through the control of radicle emergence, namely by inhibiting cell-wall loosening and expansion.

Gimeno-Gilles, Christine; Lelievre, Eric; Viau, Laure; Malik-Ghulam, Mustafa; Ricoult, Claudie; Niebel, Andreas; Leduc, Nathalie; Limami, Anis M.

2009-01-01

312

Antisense inhibition of a pectate lyase gene supports a role for pectin depolymerization in strawberry fruit softening  

PubMed Central

Cell wall disassembly in softening fruits is a complex process involving the cumulative action of many families of wall-modifying proteins on interconnected polysaccharide matrices. One strategy to elucidate the in vivo substrates of specific enzymes and their relative importance and contribution to wall modification is to suppress their expression in transgenic fruit. It has been reported previously that inhibiting the expression of pectate lyase genes by antisense technology in strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit resulted in prolonged fruit firmness. This suggested that pectin depolymerization might make a more important contribution to strawberry fruit softening than is often stated. In this present study, three independent transgenic lines were identified exhibiting a greater than 90% reduction in pectate lyase transcript abundance. Analyses of sequential cell wall extracts from the transgenic and control fruit collectively showed clear quantitative and qualitative differences in the extractability and molecular masses of populations of pectin polymers. Wall extracts from transgenic fruits showed a reduction in pectin solubility and decreased depolymerization of more tightly bound polyuronides. Additional patterns of differential extraction of other wall-associated pectin subclasses were apparent, particularly in the sodium carbonate- and chelator-soluble polymers. In addition, microscopic studies revealed that the typical ripening-associated loss of cell–cell adhesion was substantially reduced in the transgenic fruits. These results indicate that pectate lyase plays an important degradative role in the primary wall and middle lamella in ripening strawberry fruit, and should be included in synergistic models of cell wall disassembly.

Santiago-Domenech, Nieves; Jimenez-Bemudez, Silvia; Matas, Antonio J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Munoz-Blanco, Juan; Mercado, Jose A.; Quesada, Miguel A.

2008-01-01

313

In Vivo Topoisomerase I Inhibition Attenuates the Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1? Target Genes and Decreases Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I–directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies.

Guerin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnes; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amelie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

2012-01-01

314

Orally delivered thioketal nanoparticles loaded with TNF-?-siRNA target inflammation and inhibit gene expression in the intestines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to treat numerous diseases associated with intestinal inflammation; however, the side-effects caused by the systemic depletion of cytokines demands that the delivery of cytokine-targeted siRNAs be localized to diseased intestinal tissues. Although various delivery vehicles have been developed to orally deliver therapeutics to intestinal tissue, none of these strategies has demonstrated the ability to protect siRNA from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract and target its delivery to inflamed intestinal tissue. Here, we present a delivery vehicle for siRNA, termed thioketal nanoparticles (TKNs), that can localize orally delivered siRNA to sites of intestinal inflammation, and thus inhibit gene expression in inflamed intestinal tissue. TKNs are formulated from a polymer, poly-(1,4-phenyleneacetone dimethylene thioketal), that degrades selectively in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, when delivered orally, TKNs release siRNA in response to the abnormally high levels of ROS specific to sites of intestinal inflammation. Using a murine model of ulcerative colitis, we demonstrate that orally administered TKNs loaded with siRNA against the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) diminish TNF-? messenger RNA levels in the colon and protect mice from ulcerative colitis.

Wilson, D. Scott; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Wang, Lixin; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier; Murthy, Niren

2010-11-01

315

Downregulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor contributes to retarded lung metastasis via inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition by systemic POMC gene delivery in melanoma.  

PubMed

The prognosis of malignant melanoma is poor due to high incidence of metastasis, underscoring the demand for development of novel therapeutic strategies. Stress hormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor for several anti-inflammatory peptides that hold promise for management of cancer-related diseases. The present study evaluated the antimetastatic potential and mechanism of POMC therapy for metastatic melanoma. Adenovirus-mediated POMC gene delivery potently inhibited the invasiveness of human and mouse melanoma cells. Moreover, after induction of lung metastasis, systemic POMC expression significantly reduced the foci formation and neovascularization in lungs. Mechanistic studies revealed that POMC therapy inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of melanoma cells by upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of vimentin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). In addition, microarray analysis unveiled POMC gene transfer reduced the mRNA level of multiple prometastatic factors, including hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). Cell culture and immunohistochemical studies further confirmed that POMC gene delivery significantly decreased the expression of HDGF in melanoma cells and tissues. Despite stimulating the invasion and EMT, exogenous HDGF supply only partially attenuated the POMC-mediated invasion inhibition and EMT change in melanoma cells. Finally, we delineated the contribution of melanocortins to POMC-induced inhibition of invasion, HDGF downregulation, and E-cadherin upregulation. Together, these results indicate that HDGF downregulation participates in POMC-induced suppression of metastasis and EMT in melanoma. PMID:23468531

Tsai, Han-En; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Kung, Mei-Lang; Liu, Li-Feng; Wu, Jian-Ching; Tang, Chia-Hua; Huang, Ching-Hui; Chen, San-Cher; Lam, Hing-Chung; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Tai, Ming-Hong

2013-03-06

316

HoxD10 gene delivery using adenovirus/adeno-associate hybrid virus inhibits the proliferation and tumorigenicity of GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Prolactinoma is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. It has been reported that a variety of growth factors and cytokines regulating cell growth and angiogenesis play an important role in the growth of prolactinoma. HoxD10 has been shown to impair endothelial cell migration, block angiogenesis, and maintain a differentiated phenotype of cells. We investigated whether HoxD10 gene delivery could inhibit the growth of prolactinoma. Rat GH4 lactotrope tumor cells were infected with adenovirus/adeno-associated virus (Ad/AAV) hybrid vectors carrying the mouse HoxD10 gene (Hyb-HoxD10) or the {beta}-galactosidase gene (Hyb-Gal). Hyb-HoxD10 expression inhibited GH4 cell proliferation in vitro. The expression of FGF-2 and cyclin D2 was inhibited in GH4 cells infected with Hyb-HoxD10. GH4 cells transduced with Hyb-HoxD10 did not form tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that the delivery of HoxD10 could potentially inhibit the growth of PRL-secreting tumors. This approach may be a useful tool for targeted therapy of prolactinoma and other neoplasms.

Cho, Mi Ae [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Dong Rae Bong Seng Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yashar, Parham [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California - Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Suk Kyoung; Noh, Taewoong [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gillam, Mary P. [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lee, Eun Jig [Division of Endocrinology, Pituitary Tumor Clinic, Research Institute of Endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)], E-mail: EJLEE423@yuhs.ac; Jameson, J. Larry [Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

2008-07-04

317

In vitro inhibition of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus replication in swine testicular cells by short hairpin RNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene  

PubMed Central

Background Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine, characterized by severe vomiting, diarrhea, and high mortality. Currently, the vaccines for it are only partially effective and no specific drug is available for treatment of TGE virus (TGEV) infection. RNA interference has been confirmed as a new approach for controlling viral infections. In this study, the inhibitory effect of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the ORF 7 gene of TGEV on virus replication was examined. Results Four theoretically effective sequences of TGEV ORF 7 gene were designed and selected for construction of shRNA expression plasmids. In the reporter assays, three of four shRNA expression plasmids were able to inhibit significantly the expression of ORF 7 gene and replication of TGEV, as shown by real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of viral ORF 7 and N genes and detection of virus titers (TCID50/ml). Stable swine testicular (ST) cells expressing the shRNAs were established. Observation of the cytopathic effect and apoptosis, as well as a cell proliferation assay demonstrated that the three shRNAs were capable of protecting ST cells against TGEV destruction, with high specificity and efficiency. Conclusions Our results indicated that plasmid-transcribed shRNAs targeting the ORF 7 gene in the TGEV genome effectively inhibited expression of the viral target gene and viral replication in vitro. These findings provide evidence that the shRNAs have potential therapeutic application for treatment of TGE.

2012-01-01

318

A role for the umuDC gene products of Escherichia coli in increasing resistance to DNA damage in stationary phase by inhibiting the transition to exponential growth.  

PubMed

The umuDC gene products, whose expression is induced by DNA-damaging treatments, have been extensively characterized for their role in SOS mutagenesis. We have recently presented evidence that supports a role for the umuDC gene products in the regulation of growth after DNA damage in exponentially growing cells, analogous to a prokaryotic DNA damage checkpoint. Our further characterization of the growth inhibition at 30 degrees C associated with constitutive expression of the umuDC gene products from a multicopy plasmid has shown that the umuDC gene products specifically inhibit the transition from stationary phase to exponential growth at the restrictive temperature of 30 degrees C and that this is correlated with a rapid inhibition of DNA synthesis. These observations led to the finding that physiologically relevant levels of the umuDC gene products, expressed from a single, SOS-regulated chromosomal copy of the operon, modulate the transition to rapid growth in E. coli cells that have experienced DNA damage while in stationary phase. This activity of the umuDC gene products is correlated with an increase in survival after UV irradiation. In a distinction from SOS mutagenesis, uncleaved UmuD together with UmuC is responsible for this activity. The umuDC-dependent increase in resistance in UV-irradiated stationary-phase cells appears to involve, at least in part, counteracting a Fis-dependent activity and thereby regulating the transition to rapid growth in cells that have experienced DNA damage. Thus, the umuDC gene products appear to increase DNA damage tolerance at least partially by regulating growth after DNA damage in both exponentially growing and stationary-phase cells. PMID:10648540

Murli, S; Opperman, T; Smith, B T; Walker, G C

2000-02-01

319

Inhibition of Aberrant Androgen Receptor Induction of Prostate Specific Antigen Gene Expression, Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth by 17?-Estradiol in Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Androgen independent prostate cancer growth and metastasis are a major cause of prostate cancer death. Aberrant androgen receptor activation due to androgen receptor mutation is an important mechanism of androgen independence. We determined the effectiveness and mechanism of 17?-estradiol (Sigma®) in blocking aberrant androgen receptor activation due to androgen receptor mutation. Materials and Methods We used LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b prostatic tumor cells (ATCC®) containing a mutated androgen receptor and WT estrogen receptor ? to test 17?-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression and cell growth. Cotransfection analysis was used to further elucidate the mechanism of 17?-estradiol action. Xenograft animals with an LNCaP prostate tumor were prepared to study the in vivo effect of 17?-estradiol on tumor growth inhibition. Results In LNCaP cells 17?-estradiol produced a dose dependent inhibition of cyproterone acetate (Sigma) or dihydrotestosterone induced prostate specific antigen gene expression. In MDA Pca-2b cells 17?-estradiol inhibited cortisol (Sigma) induced prostate specific antigen expression and blocked dihydrotestosterone and cortisol induced cell proliferation in LNCaP and MDA Pca-2b cells, respectively. Cotransfection analysis showed that 17?-estradiol inhibition of aberrant androgen receptor activation of prostate specific antigen gene expression was medicated via estrogen receptors. In xenograft mice with LNCaP prostate cancer 17?-estradiol but not 17?-estradiol (Sigma) significantly inhibited tumor growth, although each estrogen tended to decrease tumor growth. Conclusions Results suggest that 17?-estradiol with less classic estrogenic activity is a potential therapeutic agent for androgen independent prostate cancer due to androgen receptor mutation.

Qiao, Yaming; Wang, Lu; Cai, Li-Qun; Tan, Chen; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

2011-01-01

320

Adenoviral 15-lipoxygenase-1 gene transfer inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate whether 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) plays an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis, inhibiting hypoxia-induced proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVECs) and the underlying mechanism. METHODS Primary RMVECs were isolated from the retinas of C57/BL6J mice and identified by an evaluation for FITC-marked CD31. The hypoxia models were established with the Bio-bag and evaluated with a blood-gas analyzer. Experiments were performed using RMVECs treated with and without transfer Ad-15-LOX-1 or Ad-vector both under hypoxia and normoxia condition at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours. The efficacy of the gene transfer was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Cells proliferation was evaluated by the CCK-8 method. RNA and protein expressions of 15-LOX-1, VEGF-A, VEGFR-2, eNOs and PPAR-r were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. RESULTS Routine evaluation for FITC-marked CD31 showed that cells were pure. The results of blood-gas analysis showed that when the cultures were exposed to hypoxia for more than 2 hours, the Po2 was 4.5 to 5.4 Kpa. We verified RMVECs could be infected with Ad-15-LOX-1 or Ad-vector via Fluorescence microscopy. CCK-8 analysis revealed that the proliferative capacities of RMVECs in hypoxic group were significantly higher at each time point than they were in normoxic group (P<0.05). In a hypoxic condition, the proliferative capacities of RMVECs in 15-LOX-1 group were significantly inhibited (P<0.05). Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of VEGF-A, VEGF-R2 and eNOs mRNA increased in hypoxia group compared with normoxia group (P<0.01). However, the expressions of 15-LOX-1, PPAR-r mRNA decreased in hypoxia group compared with normoxia group (P<0.01). It also showed that in a hypoxic condition, the expressions of VEGF-A, VEGF-R2 and eNOs mRNA decreased significantly in 15-LOX-1 group compared with hypoxia group (P<0.01). However, 15-LOX-1 and PPAR-r mRNA increased significantly in 15-LOX-1 group compared with hypoxia group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference of the mRNA expressions between vector group and hypoxia group (P>0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that the expressions of relative proteins were also ranked in that order. CONCLUSION Our results suggested that 15-LOX-1 and PPAR-r might act as a negative regulator of retinal angiogenesis. And the effect of 15-LOX-1 overexpression is an anti-angiogenic factor in hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization (RNV). Overexpression 15-LOX-1 on RMVECs of hypoxia-induced RNV blocked signaling cascades by inhibiting hypoxia-induced increases in VEGF family. PPAR-r effect on VEGFR2 could be an additional mechanism whereby 15-LOX-1 inhibited the hypoxia-induced RNV.

Yan, Ying; He, Tao; Shen, Ying; Chen, Xiao; Diao, Bo; Li, Zhi; Liu, Qing; Xing, Yi-Qiao

2012-01-01

321

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP22 Inhibits the Transcription of Viral Gene Promoters by Binding to and Blocking the Recruitment of P-TEFb  

PubMed Central

ICP22 is a multifunctional herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein that functions as a general repressor of a subset of cellular and viral promoters in transient expression systems. Although the exact mechanism of repression remains unclear, this protein induces a decrease in RNA polymerase II Serine 2 (RNAPII Ser-2) phosphorylation, which is critical for transcription elongation. To characterize the mechanism of transcriptional repression by ICP22, we established an in vivo transient expression reporter system. We found that ICP22 inhibits transcription of the HSV-1 ?, ? and ? gene promoters. The viral tegument protein VP16, which plays vital roles in initiation of viral gene expression and viral proliferation, can overcome the inhibitory effect of ICP22 on ?-gene transcription. Further immunoprecipitation studies indicated that both ICP22 and VP16 bind to positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and form a complex with it in vivo. We extended this to show that P-TEFb regulates transcription of the viral ?-gene promoters and affects transcriptional regulation of ICP22 and VP16 on the ?-genes. Additionally, ChIP assays demonstrated that ICP22 blocks the recruitment of P-TEFb to the viral promoters, while VP16 reverses this blocking effect by recruiting P-TEFb to the viral ?-gene promoters through recognition of the TAATGARAT motif. Taken together, our results suggest that ICP22 interacts with and blocks the recruitment of P-TEFb to viral promoter regions, which inhibits transcription of the viral gene promoters. The transactivator VP16 binds to and induces the recruitment of P-TEFb to viral ?-gene promoters, which counteracts the transcriptional repression of ICP22 on ?-genes by recruiting p-TEFb to the promoter region.

Liu, Long-ding; Wang, Li-chun; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Lian-qiu; Guan, Ying; Li, Qi-han

2012-01-01

322

Expression of the DisA amino acid decarboxylase from Proteus mirabilis inhibits motility and class 2 flagellar gene expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In Proteus mirabilis, a putative phenylalanine decarboxylase (DisA) acts in a regulatory pathway to inhibit class 2 flagellar gene expression and motility. In this study, we demonstrate that DisA expression in Escherichia coli blocked motility and resulted in a 50-fold decrease in the expression of class 2 (fliA) and class 3 (fliC) flagellar genes. However, the expression of flhDC encoding the class 1 activator of the flagellar cascade was unchanged by DisA expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Phenethylamine, a decarboxylation product derived from phenylalanine, was able to mimic DisA overexpression and decrease both motility and class 2/3 flagellar gene expression. In addition, both DisA overexpression and phenethylamine strongly inhibited biofilm formation in E. coli. DisA overexpression and exogenous phenethylamine could also reduce motility in other enteric bacteria, but had no effect on motility in non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria. It is hypothesized that phenethylamine or a closely related compound formed by the DisA decarboxylation reaction inhibits the formation or activity of the FlhD(4)C(2) complex required for activation of class 2 genes. PMID:22982608

Stevenson, Lindsay G; Szostek, Bree A; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

2012-09-11

323

15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory genes in human blood monocytes via a PPAR-gamma-independent mechanism.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been implicated in inhibition of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Using real-time RT-PCR the present study investigates the impact of two PPAR-gamma agonists, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and ciglitazone, on the expression of several proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human blood monocytes. Stimulation of cells with LPS resulted in a profound induction of the expression of COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Treatment of cells with 15d-PGJ(2) (10 microM) was associated with a nearly complete inhibition of the expression of all genes that remained unaltered in the presence of the PPAR-gamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE; 100 microM). By contrast, treatment of cells with another potent PPAR-gamma agonist, ciglitazone (50 microM), and the PPAR-alpha agonist WY-14,643 (100 microM) did not suppress LPS-induced expression of the investigated genes. Stimulation of monocytes with LPS resulted in an 88% inhibition of PPAR-gamma mRNA expression that was fully restored by 15d-PGJ(2) but only to a partial extent by ciglitazone and WY-14,643. Again, BADGE did not alter the effect of 15d-PGJ(2). Collectively, our results show that alterations of gene expression by 15d-PGJ(2) in LPS-stimulated human blood monocytes are mediated by PPAR-gamma-independent mechanisms. Moreover, it is concluded that both inhibition of proinflammatory gene expression and restoration of LPS-induced decrease of PPAR-gamma expression may contribute to the biological action of 15d-PGJ(2). PMID:12604364

Hinz, Burkhard; Brune, Kay; Pahl, Andreas

2003-03-01

324

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by regulated expression of a polymeric Tat activation response RNA decoy as a strategy for gene therapy in AIDS.  

PubMed Central

We are investigating a strategy for somatic gene therapy to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by intracellular expression of an RNA decoy and a ribozyme. The RNA decoy, consisting of polymeric Tat activation response elements (TARs), is designed to compete for Tat binding in an equilibrium with viral TAR RNA, thereby inhibiting viral replication. The expression of polymeric TAR is regulated by the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) and transcriptional activation is dependent on the presence of HIV Tat. Our initial studies indicated that plasmids expressing up to 50 tandem copies of TAR RNA (50TAR) inhibited tat-mediated gene expression by > 90% in a transient transfection assay. A HIV LTR-driven 50TAR construct was subcloned into a replication-defective retroviral vector to ensure high-efficiency gene transfer into T lymphocytes. In addition, a gag RNA-specific ribozyme gene was introduced into the 50TAR containing retroviral vector to enhance the inhibitory effect of the construct (designated TAR-Rib). A human T-cell line (Molt3) was infected (transduced) with the TAR-Rib recombinant retrovirus and challenged with either HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). HIV-1 replication was inhibited by 99% in the TAR-Rib-transduced T cells and was maintained over a 14-month period, suggesting that this antiviral strategy represses the formation of escape mutants. Interestingly, the TAR-Rib also inhibited SIV replication in transduced T cells, which suggests that polymeric TAR is a general inhibitor of primate lentiviruses; therefore, the macaque model could be used for further in vivo testing of this antiviral gene therapy strategy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Lisziewicz, J; Sun, D; Smythe, J; Lusso, P; Lori, F; Louie, A; Markham, P; Rossi, J; Reitz, M; Gallo, R C

1993-01-01

325

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) inhibits expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and fatty acid synthase genes and impairs the growth of human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Havartine and Bauman reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues, and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells, and that this will retard their growth. Exposure of T47D breast cancer cells to a mixture of CLA isomers reduced the expression of the S14 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes. The mixture caused a dose-related inhibition of T47D cell growth, as did pure c9, t11- and t10, c12-CLA, but not linoleic acid. Similar effects were observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Provision of 8 ?M palmitate fully (CLA mix, t10, c12-CLA) or partially (c9, t11-CLA) reversed the antiproliferative effect in T47D cells. CLA likewise suppressed levels of S14 and FAS mRNAs in liposarcoma cells, and caused growth inhibition that was prevented by palmitic acid. CLA did not affect the growth of nonlipogenic HeLa cells or human fibroblasts. We conclude that, as in bovine mammary and mouse adipose cells, CLA suppresses S14 and FAS gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells. Rescue from the antiproliferative effect of CLA by palmitic acid indicates that reduced tumor lipogenesis is a major mechanism for the anticancer effects of CLA.

Donnelly, Christina; Olsen, Arne M.; Lewis, Lionel D.; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Eastman, Alan; Kinlaw, William B.

2010-01-01

326

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone inhibits GnRH-induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions by inhibiting AC/cAMP/PKA-dependent ERK pathway in L?T2 cells.  

PubMed

A neuropeptide that directly inhibits gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary was discovered in quail and named gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). The presence and functional roles of GnIH orthologs, RF-amide-related peptides (RFRP), that possess a common C-terminal LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif have also been demonstrated in mammals. GnIH orthologs inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by acting on pituitary gonadotropes and GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus via its receptor (GnIH receptor). It is becoming increasingly clear that GnIH is an important hypothalamic neuropeptide controlling reproduction, but the detailed signaling pathway mediating the inhibitory effect of GnIH on target cells is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the pathway of GnIH cell signaling and its possible interaction with GnRH signaling using a mouse gonadotrope cell line, L?T2. First, we demonstrated the expression of GnIH receptor mRNA in L?T2 cells by RT-PCR. We then examined the inhibitory effects of mouse GnIH orthologs [mouse RFRP (mRFRP)] on GnRH-induced cell signaling events. We showed that mRFRP effectively inhibited GnRH-induced cAMP signaling by using a cAMP-sensitive reporter system and measuring cAMP levels, indicating that mRFRP function as an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. We further showed that mRFRP inhibited GnRH-stimulated ERK phosphorylation, and this effect was mediated by the inhibition of the protein kinase A pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that mRFRP inhibited GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions and also LH release. Taken together, the results indicate that mRFRP function as GnIH to inhibit GnRH-induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions by inhibiting adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent ERK activation in L?T2 cells. PMID:22374973

Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Millar, Robert P; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2012-02-28

327

Gene Silencing of Toll-Like Receptor 2 Inhibits Proliferation of Human Liver Cancer Cells and Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key factors in the innate immune system and initiate the inflammatory response to foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. In the microenvironment of tumorigenesis, TLRs can promote inflammation and cell survival. Toll-like receptor 2/6 (TLR2/6) signaling in tumor cells is regarded as one of the mechanisms of chronic inflammation but it can also mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression. However, the expression of TLR2 and its biological function in the development and progression of hepatocarcinoma have not been investigated. This study aimed to determine the expression of TLRs 1–10 in the established human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BLE-7402, to investigate the biological effect of TLR2 on cell growth and survival. Methods TLR expression in BLE-7402 cells was assayed by RT-PCR, real-time PCR and flow cytometry (FCM). To further investigate the function of TLR2 in hepatocarcinoma growth, BLE-7402 cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids expressing one of three forms of TLR2 siRNA (sh-TLR2 RNAi(A, B and C)). TLR2 knockdown was confirmed using RT-PCR, real-time PCR and fluorescence microscopy. Tumor cell proliferation was monitored by MTT assay and secreted cytokines in the supernatant of transfected cells were measured by bead-based FCM, the function of TLR2 siRNA was also investigated in vivo. Results The BLE-7402 cell line expressed TLRs 2 to 10 at both mRNA and protein levels. TLR2 was the most highly expressed TLR. While all the three siRNAs inhibited TLR2 mRNA and protein expression, sh-TLR2 RNAi(B) had the strongest knockdown effect. TLR2 knockdown with sh-TLR2 RNAi(B) reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 was also reduced. The result showed a drastic reduction in tumor volume in mice treated with sh-TLR2 RNAi(B). Discussion These results suggest that TLR2 knockdown inhibit proliferation of cultured hepatocarcinoma cells and decrease the secretion of cytokines. It is suggested that TLR2 silencing may worth further investigations for siRNA based gene therapy in treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

Xu, Ming; Qiu, Zhiqin; Tao, Yonghui; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jie; Xu, Yongliang; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Jing; Han, Xiaofeng; Gao, Qi

2012-01-01

328

Highly active, citrate inhibition resistant form of Aspergillus niger 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase encoded by a modified pfkA gene.  

PubMed

In Aspergillus niger cells spontaneous posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) occurs. In a two step process the native enzyme (85kDa) is first cleaved to an inactive fragment (49kDa) that regains its activity after phosphorylation of the protein. The shorter PFK1 fragment exhibits changed kinetics, such as resistance to citrate inhibition. In order to avoid spontaneous complex posttranslational modification, modified gene was prepared encoding an active shorter PFK1 fragment. Since no appropriate microbial strains with disrupted native pfkA genes were available, Aspergillus niger strain with reduced likelihood for spontaneous posttranslational modification of PFK1 has been chosen for in vivo tests. First, the appropriate length of a truncated gene was defined after a number of enzymes encoded by genes of different lengths had been tested. After adding sodium azide to the medium, phosphorylation was induced in the transformed hyphae to activate the shorter fragments which were subsequently screened for changed PFK1 kinetics. In the second step the responsible threonine residue was replaced with glutamic acid to elude the need for phosphorylation. An active shorter PFK1 fragment, resistant to citrate inhibition and activated to a higher level by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate with respect to the native enzyme was encoded directly from the modified gene. PMID:19379783

Capuder, Maja; Solar, Tina; Bencina, Mojca; Legisa, Matic

2009-04-18

329

Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells  

SciTech Connect

This report describes how 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) induces cathepsin D gene expression, but is inhibited by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by disruption of the estrogen receptor/pBC12/S1/pac plasmid complex by interaction with an overlapping xenobiotic responsive element. It was also determined that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alone does not affect cathepsin D gene expression but can together with E2 to affect the rate of transcription and levels of immunoreactive protein. 85 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Krishnan, V.; Porter, W.; Santostefano, M.; Wang, Xiahong [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

330

Tumor suppressor gene RBM5 delivered by attenuated Salmonella inhibits lung adenocarcinoma through diverse apoptotic signaling pathways  

PubMed Central

Background RBM5 (RNA-binding motif protein 5, also named H37/LUCA-15) gene from chromosome 3p21.3 has been demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor. Current researches in vitro confirm that RBM5 can suppress the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis. There is still no effective model in vivo, however, that thoroughly investigates the effect and molecular mechanism of RBM5 on lung adenocarcinoma. Method We established the transplanted tumor model on BALB/c nude mice using the A549 cell line. The mice were treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce the overexpression of RBM5 in tumor tissues. RBM5 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. H&E staining was performed to observe the histological performance on plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining with a TUNEL detection kit. Apoptosis-regulated genes were detected by Western blot. Results We successful established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model in vivo. The growth of tumor xenografts was significantly retarded on the mice treated with pcDNA3.1-RBM5 carried by attenuated Salmonella compared to that on mice treated with pcDNA3.1. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the apoptosis in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased significantly, while the expression of BAX, TNF-?, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP proteins was significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-RBM5-treated mice as compared to that in the control mice. Conclusions In this study, we established a novel animal model to determine RBM5 function in vivo, and concluded that RBM5 inhibited tumor growth in mice by inducing apoptosis. The study suggests that although RBM5’s involvement in the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway is still to be investigated, RBM5-mediated growth suppression, at least in part, employs regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

2013-01-01

331

Effects of ADORA2A gene variation and caffeine on prepulse inhibition: a multi-level risk model of anxiety.  

PubMed

The complex pathogenesis of anxiety and panic disorder in particular has been suggested to be influenced by genetic factors such as the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) 1976T>C polymorphism (rs5751876) as well as neuropsychological factors such as early information processing deficits. In 114 healthy individuals (males=57, females=57) controlled for anxiety sensitivity (AS), a multi-level risk model of the development of anxiety was applied: Genetic (ADORA2A 1976T>C variant) and biochemical (300 mg of caffeine citrate vs. placebo) factors were hypothesized to influence early information processing as measured by the prepulse inhibition/facilitation paradigm (stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 60, 120, 240, 480 and 2000ms between prepulses and startle stimuli). A fourfold interaction of genotype, intervention, gender, and SOAs was discerned. Stratification by SOAs revealed that at 120 ms and 240 ms SOAs in the caffeine condition, PPI was impaired in female ADORA2A 1976TT risk genotype carriers as compared to male ADORA2A 1976TT homozygotes, while no significant effects were observed in the ADORA2A 1976CC/CT non-risk genotype or placebo group. Only in high anxiety sensitive probands, a significant intervention effect was discerned with impaired prepulse facilitation (PPF) due to caffeine. The present results point to an impaired ability to selectively process very early information and to gate irrelevant sensory information, respectively, in female ADORA2A 1976TT homozygotes in response to caffeine, providing further evidence for the adenosinergic system to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. PMID:22940476

Gajewska, Agnieszka; Blumenthal, Terry D; Winter, Bernward; Herrmann, Martin J; Conzelmann, Annette; Mühlberger, Andreas; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Arolt, Volker; Reif, Andreas; Zwanzger, Peter; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

2012-08-23

332

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J2 gene transfection attenuates MMP-9 via inhibition of NF-?? in hyperhomocysteinemia  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with atherosclerotic events involving the modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase- 2J2 (CYP2J2) is abundant in the heart endothelium, and its AA metabolites epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) mitigates inflammation through NF-??. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for MMP-9 regulation by CYP2J2 in HHcy remain obscure. We sought to determine the molecular mechanisms by which P450 epoxygenase gene transfection or EETs supplementation attenuate homocysteine (Hcy)-induced MMP-9 activation. CYP2J2 was over-expressed in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) by transfection with the pcDNA3.1/CYP2J2 vector. The effects of P450 epoxygenase transfection or exogenous supplementation of EETs on NF-??-mediated MMP-9 regulation were evaluated using Western blot, in-gel gelatin zymography, electromobility shift assay, immunocytochemistry. The result suggested that Hcy downregulated CYP2J2 protein expression and dephosphorylated PI3K-dependent AKT signal. Hcy induced the nuclear translocation of NF-?? via downregulation of IK?? (endogenous cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-??). Hcy induced MMP-9 activation by increasing NF-?? –DNA binding. Moreover, P450 epoxygenase transfection or exogenous addition of 8,9-EET phosphorylated the AKT and attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 activation. This occurred, in part, by the inhibition of NF-?? nuclear translocation, NF-?? –DNA binding and activation of IK??. The study unequivocally suggested the pivotal role of EETs in the modulation of Hcy/MMP-9 signal.

Moshal, Karni S.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Sen, Utpal; Tyagi, Neetu; Kumar, Munish; Hughes, William M.; Metreveli, Naira; Rosenberger, Dorothea S. E.; Singh, Mahavir; Vacek, Thomas P.; Rodriguez, Walter E.; Ayotunde, Adeagbo; Tyagi, Suresh C.

2008-01-01

333

Effects of kallikrein-related peptidase 14 gene inhibition by small interfering RNA in ovarian carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Kallikrein-related peptidase 14 (KLK14) is a member of the tissue kallikrein family of proteases, which are associated with the pathogenesis of malignant tumors and are over-expressed in ovarian carcinoma. However, the mechanism through which KLK14 is implicated in ovarian cancer remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of KLK14 gene inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the growth, apoptosis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. KLK14 siRNA was transiently transfected into SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cells for 48 h. The expression of KLK14 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were examined by MTT, flow cytometry and Matrigel assay, respectively. The expression of survivin, caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3 and MMP2 protein was measured by Western blot analysis. The expression of KLK14 was significantly downregulated by siRNA in SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Following transfection with KLK14 siRNA, cell growth and invasion were significantly suppressed, and cell apoptosis was markedly induced. The expression of survivin and MMP2 was decreased, while the espression of caspase 9 and cleaved caspase 3 was increased. These results indicate that KLK14 is implicated in the malignant behavior of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro, and that KLK14 may serve as a target for therapy of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:21993700

Zhang, Ruitao; Shi, Huirong; Chen, Zhimin; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Hailing; Wu, Kaiyuan

2011-10-11

334

Tumor Suppressive Protein Gene Associated with Retinoid-Interferon-Induced Mortality (GRIM)-19 Inhibits src-Induced Oncogenic Transformation at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

Interferons (IFNs) inhibit the growth of infectious pathogens and tumor development. Although IFNs are potent tumor suppressors, they modestly inhibit the growth of some human solid tumors. Their weak activity against such tumors is augmented by co-treatment with differentiation-inducing agents such as retinoids. Previous studies from our laboratory identified a novel gene product, gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality (GRIM)-19, as an IFN/all-trans retinoic acid-induced growth suppressor. However, the mechanisms of its growth suppressive actions are unclear. The src-family of tyrosine kinases is important regulators of various cell growth responses. Mutational activation of src causes cellular transformation by altering transcription and cytoskeletal properties. In this study, we show that GRIM-19 suppresses src-induced cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating the expression of a number of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3)-dependent cellular genes. In addition, GRIM-19 inhibited the src-induced cell motility and metastasis by suppressing the tyrosyl phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, E-cadherin, and ?-catenin. Effects of GRIM-19 on src-induced cellular transformation are reversible in the presence of specific short hairpin RNA, indicating its direct effect on transformation. GRIM-19-mediated inhibition of the src-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of cellular proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, seems to occur independently of the STAT3 protein. GRIM-19 had no significant effect on the cellular transformation induced by other oncogenes such as myc and Ha-ras. Thus, GRIM-19 not only blocks src-induced gene expression through STAT3 but also the activation of cell adhesion molecules.

Kalakonda, Sudhakar; Nallar, Shreeram C.; Gong, Ping; Lindner, Daniel J.; Goldblum, Simeon E.; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V.

2007-01-01

335

Induction of Mammary Differentiation by Mammary-derived Growth Inhibitor related Gene That Interacts with an v-3 Fatty Acid on Growth Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously identified and characterized a novel tumor growth inhibitor and a fatty acid-binding protein in human mammary gland and named it the mammary-derived growth inhibitor-related gene (MRG). Here, the effects of MRG on mammary gland differentiation and its interaction with v-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (v-3 PUFAs) on growth inhibition were investigated. MRG protein expression was associated with human mammary

Mingsheng Wang; Yiliang E. Liu; Jian Ni; Banu Aygun; Itzhak D. Goldberg; Y. Eric Shi

2000-01-01

336

RRIG1 Mediates Effects of Retinoic Acid Receptor B2 on Tumor Cell Growth and Gene Expression through Binding to and Inhibition of RhoA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of retinoic acid receptor B2 (RAR-B2 )i s frequently lost in various cancers and their premalignant lesions. However,the restoration of RAR- B2 expression inhibits tumor cell growth and suppresses cancer development. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for this RAR-B2-mediated antitumor activity,we did restriction frag- ment differential display-PCR and cloned a novel retinoid receptor-induced gene 1 (RRIG1),which is

Zheng D. Liang; Scott M. Lippman; Tsung-Teh Wu; Reuben Lotan; Xiao-Chun Xu

2006-01-01

337

The mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene enhancer contains sequences that inhibit transcription in vitro in HeLa cell extracts.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the cell-specific mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IgH) enhancer on transcription from heterologous promoter elements was studied in vitro with a HeLa whole-cell extract. No stimulation of transcription could be seen under conditions in which an activation was observed with the simian virus 40 enhancer. We found, however, that a specific segment of the IgH enhancer region contains sequences which inhibit transcription in vitro. Images

Dougherty, J P; Augereau, P; Chambon, P

1986-01-01

338

183. Hemochromatosis: AAV Coding an Antisense Gene Against DMT1 Iron Transporter in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Acts as RNAi. And Inhibits Iron Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemochromatosis, the most prevalent inborn genetic disease (1:200 in Caucasians) is characterized by an increased iron absorption by enterocytes. Iron accumulates in the liver promoting oxidative stress, DNA damage and cirrhosis. Long-term reduction of intestinal iron transport by inhibition of the transporter DMT-1 could conceivably be achieved in vivo by oral administration of AAV vectors carrying a gene that can

Fernando E. Ezquer; Marco T. Nunez; Yedy Israel

2004-01-01

339

Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibition Down-Regulates Expression of Metastasis-Related Genes in CT26 Colon Carcinoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in colorectal cancer mediates down-regulation of metastasis-related gene expression through the regulation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity. Methods: Mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26) were treated with and without the PARP inhibitor 5-aminoisoquinolin-1(2H)-one hydrochloride (5-AIQ). We investigated adhesion, migration and invasion of differently treated CT26 cells.

Ming Li; Michael D. Threadgill; Yalan Wang; Li Cai; Xiao Lin

2009-01-01

340

Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase C Activity Could Induce Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells by Differential Regulation of Apoptosis-Related Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathwayplays a key role in tumor cell proliferation,differentiation, and apoptosis. Gastric cancer usuallypossesses a higher level of PKC activity than normaltissue. We evaluated inhibition of PKC activity inapoptosis induction of gastric cancer cells and theexpression profile of apoptosis-related genes. Gastriccancer cells (AGS) were incubated with two highlyspecific PKC inhibitors (RO-31-8220 and chelerythrine).Cell viability and

G. H. Zhu; B. C. Y. Wong; M. C. Eggo; S. T. Yuen; K. C. Lai; S. K. Lam

1999-01-01

341

Calreticulin inhibits glucocorticoid– but not cAMP–sensitive expression of tyrosine aminotransferase gene in cultured McA–RH7777 hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calreticulin is a ubiquitously expressed Ca2+ binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum which inhibits DNA binding and transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors. In this study the effects of calreticulin on tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression in cultured McA–RH7777 hepatocytes was investigated. McA–RH7777 cells were stably transfected with calreticulin expression vector to generate cells overexpressing the protein. The transcriptional activity

Kimberly Burns; Michal Opas; Marek Michalak

1997-01-01

342

The tuberous sclerosis-1 (TSC1) gene product hamartin suppresses cell growth and augments the expression of the TSC2 product tuberin by inhibiting its ubiquitination.  

PubMed

We report here that overexpression of the tuberous sclerosis-1 (TSC1) gene product hamartin results in the inhibition of growth, as well as changes in cell morphology. Growth inhibition was associated with an increase in the endogenous level of the product of the tuberous sclerosis-2 (TSC2) gene, tuberin. As overexpression of tuberin inhibits cell growth, and hamartin is known to bind tuberin, these results suggested that hamartin stabilizes tuberin and this contributes to the inhibition of cell growth. Indeed, transient transfection of TSC1 increased the endogenous level of tuberin, and transient co-transfection of TSC1 with TSC2 resulted in higher tuberin levels. The stabilization was explained by the finding that tuberin is highly ubiquitinated in cells, while the fraction of tuberin that is bound to hamartin is not ubiquitinated. Co-expression of tuberin stabilized hamartin, which is weakly ubiquitinated, in transiently transfected cells. The amino-terminal two-thirds of tuberin was responsible for its ubiquitination and for stabilization of hamartin. A mutant of tuberin from a patient missense mutation of TSC2 was also highly ubiquitinated, and was unable to stabilize hamartin. We conclude that hamartin is a growth inhibitory protein whose biological effect is likely dependent on its interaction with tuberin. PMID:11175345

Benvenuto, G; Li, S; Brown, S J; Braverman, R; Vass, W C; Cheadle, J P; Halley, D J; Sampson, J R; Wienecke, R; DeClue, J E

2000-12-14

343

Cytomegalovirus-mediated induction of antisense mRNA expression to UL44 inhibits virus replication in an astrocytoma cell line: identification of an essential gene.  

PubMed Central

We have used an antisense RNA approach in the analysis of gene function in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An astrocytoma cell line (U373-MG) that is permissive for virus replication was permanently transfected with a construct bearing sequence from HCMV UL44 (coding for the major late DNA-binding protein, ppUL44, also known as pp52 or ICP36) in an antisense orientation and under the control of the immediate-early enhancer-promoter element. Upon HCMV infection at a high multiplicity, we found a marked reduction in UL44 protein products (the ICP36 family of proteins) in established cell transfectants and a strong inhibition of virus yield in infected-cell supernatants at two weeks postinfection, while herpes simplex virus replication was not affected. In infected cells, viral DNA replication was strongly inhibited. While gene products such as pUS22 and pUL32 were also inhibited, pUL123 and pUL82 accumulated in the infected cells over time. Our data suggest an essential role for the UL44 family of proteins in HCMV replication and represent a model of virus inhibition by virus-induced antisense RNA synthesis in genetically modified cells.

Ripalti, A; Boccuni, M C; Campanini, F; Landini, M P

1995-01-01

344

Disease Resistance Gene-Induced Growth Inhibition Is Enhanced by rcd1 Independent of Defense Activation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Activation of plant immune responses is often associated with an inhibition of plant growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying this fitness cost are unknown. Here, we utilize the autoimmune response mutant suppressor of npr1, constitutive1 (snc1) resulting from an activated form of the Disease Resistance (R) gene to dissect the genetic component mediating growth inhibition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant defective in responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was isolated as an enhancer of the snc1 mutant in growth inhibition but not in defense response activation. Similarly, the vitamin C2 (vtc2) and vtc3 mutants defective in ROS detoxification enhanced the growth defects of snc1. Thus, perturbation of ROS status by R gene activation is responsible for the growth inhibition, and this effect is independent of defense response activation. This was further supported by the partial rescue of growth defects of rcd1 snc1 by the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (rbohD) and rbohF mutations compromising the generation of ROS burst. Collectively, these findings indicate that perturbation of ROS homeostasis contributes to the fitness cost independent of defense activation.

Zhu, Ying; Du, Baijuan; Qian, Jun; Zou, Baohong; Hua, Jian

2013-01-01

345

Novel Class of Thiourea Compounds That Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA Cleavage and Encapsidation: Resistance Maps to the UL6 Gene  

PubMed Central

In our search for novel inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a new class of thiourea inhibitors was discovered. N-{4-[3-(5-Chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-thioureido]-phenyl}-acetamide and its 2-fluoro-benzamide derivative inhibited HSV-1 replication. HSV-2, human cytomegalovirus, and varicella-zoster virus were inhibited to a lesser extent. The compounds acted late in the replication cycle by impairing both the cleavage of concatameric viral DNA into progeny genome length and the packaging of the DNA into capsids, indicative of a defect in the encapsidation process. To uncover the molecular target of the inhibition, resistant HSV-1 isolates were generated, and the mutation responsible for the resistance was mapped using marker transfer techniques. Each of three independent isolates had point mutations in the UL6 gene which resulted in independent single-amino-acid changes. One mutation was located in the N terminus of the protein (E121D), while two were located close together in the C terminus (A618V and Q621R). Each of these point mutations was sufficient to confer drug resistance when introduced into wild-type virus. The UL6 gene is one of the seven HSV-1 genes known to play a role in DNA packaging. This novel class of inhibitors has provided a new tool for dissection of HSV-1 encapsidation mechanisms and has uncovered a new viable target for the treatment of herpesviral diseases.

van Zeijl, Marja; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Jones, Thomas R.; Vernon, Steven K.; Morin, John; LaRocque, James; Feld, Boris; O'Hara, Bryan; Bloom, Jonathan D.; Johann, Stephen V.

2000-01-01

346

ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination is associated with ribosomal DNA chromatin condensation, decreased transcription, and ribosomal RNA gene hypoacetylation.  

PubMed

Seed germination is a highly organized biological process accompanied by many cellular and metabolic changes. The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, which forms the nucleolus at interphase and is transcribed for ribosome production and protein synthesis, has an important role during seed germination. In this study, we report that there is a decondensation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) chromatin during seed germination accompanied with increased rRNA gene expression and overall genomic hyperacetylation. Analysis of the rRNA gene promoter region by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) shows that there is an increase in acetylation levels at the rRNA gene promoter region. Application of seed germination inhibitor abscisic acid (ABA) suppresses rDNA chromatin decondensation, the expression of rRNA genes and global genomic acetylation. The further ChIP experiments show that ABA treatment hinders the elevation of acetylation levels in the promoter region of the rRNA gene. The data together indicate that ABA treatment inhibits seed germination, which is associated with rDNA chromatin condensation, decreased transcription and rRNA gene hypoacetylation. PMID:22527753

Zhang, Lu; Hu, Yong; Yan, Shihan; Li, Hui; He, Shibin; Huang, Min; Li, Lijia

2012-04-13

347

Gene therapy with tumor-specific promoter mediated suicide gene plus IL-12 gene enhanced tumor inhibition and prolonged host survival in a murine model of Lewis lung carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. Targeted expression of desired therapeutic proteins within the tumor is the best approach to reduce toxicity and improve survival. This study is to establish a more effective and less toxic gene therapy of cancer. Methods Combined gene therapy strategy with recombinant adenovirus expressing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter (AdhTERTHRP) and murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) under the control of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter (AdCMVmIL-12) was developed and evaluated against Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism of action and systemic toxicities were also investigated. Results The combination of AdhTERTHRP/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatment and AdCMVmIL-12 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition and survival improvement compared with AdhTERTHRP/IAA alone (tumor volume, 427.4 ± 48.7 mm3 vs 581.9 ± 46.9 mm3, p = 0.005 on day 15; median overall survival (OS), 51 d vs 33 d) or AdCMVmIL-12 alone (tumor volume, 362.2 ± 33.8 mm3 vs 494.4 ± 70.2 mm3, p = 0.046 on day 12; median OS, 51 d vs 36 d). The combination treatment stimulated more CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration in tumors, compared with either AdCMVmIL-12 alone (1.3-fold increase for CD4+ T cells and 1.2-fold increase for CD8+ T cells, P < 0.01) or AdhTERTHRP alone (2.1-fold increase for CD4+ T cells and 2.2-fold increase for CD8+ T cells, P < 0.01). The apoptotic cells in combination group were significantly increased in comparison with AdCMVmIL-12 alone group (2.8-fold increase, P < 0.01) or AdhTERTHRP alone group (1.6-fold increase, P < 0.01). No significant systematic toxicities were observed. Conclusions Combination gene therapy with AdhTERTHRP/IAA and AdCMVmIL-12 could significantly inhibit tumor growth and improve host survival in LLC model, without significant systemic adverse effects.

2011-01-01

348

Human MECP2 gene at Q28 arm of X chromosome as a suitable target for monitoring PCR inhibition in a nested, multiplexed HIV-1 DNA detection protocol.  

PubMed

Human MECP2 gene located at q28 arm of X chromosome was identified as target for thermal co-amplification with HIV-1 proviral DNA of infected individuals. The selected MECP2 gene-specific primers functioned at a wide range of annealing temperature, extension time and exhibited no significant interaction with pathogen specific primers. A 466 bp PCR amplicon originating from human MECP2 gene was found to be diagnostic for inhibition-free PCR reaction when co-amplified with the HIV-1 target gene in a multiplexed, nested PCR reaction. The 5' end of the MECP2 primers were engineered to position an EcoRI restriction endonuclease site to facilitate rapid cloning in various DNA vector molecules at the corresponding EcoRI sites. Cell mass of Escherichia coli (XL1Blue) harboring the recombinant plasmid when added to pleural fluid of HIV-1 infected individuals co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, generated the diagnostic 466 bp MECP2 PCR amplicon as well as the 194 bp PCR amplicon of target gene from M. tuberculosis. The experiment underlined potential of the region spanning nucleotide position 4118099 to 4118552 of human MECP2 gene (NCBI accession number NT_011726.13) as a reliable target for multiplex PCR to accommodate a wide range of thermal cycling and multiplex reaction conditions. In both cases of this study, electrophoresis-based separation of the 466 bp MECP2 fragment and the 232 bp and 194 bp HIV-1 and M. tuberculosis fragments respectively was distinct and unambiguous. The potential of this human MECP2 gene available from human genome or recombinant plasmid as a potent target to monitor PCR inhibition for a range of different PCR reactions is discussed. PMID:22838217

Acharya, Arpan; Chavan, Yashwant Govind; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap Narayan; Nagee, Anju; Kunjadia, Prashant; Misra, Rabindra Nath

349

ATF4-dependent Regulation of the JMJD3 Gene during Amino Acid Deprivation Can Be Rescued in Atf4-deficient Cells by Inhibition of Deacetylation*  

PubMed Central

Following amino acid deprivation, the amino acid response (AAR) induces transcription from specific genes through a collection of signaling mechanisms, including the GCN2-eIF2-ATF4 pathway. The present report documents that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent target gene. The JMJD3 gene contains two AAR-induced promoter activities and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that the AAR leads to enhanced ATF4 recruitment to the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) upstream of Promoter-1. AAR-induced histone modifications across the JMJD3 gene locus occur upon ATF4 binding. Jmjd3 transcription is not induced in Atf4-knock-out cells, but the AAR-dependent activation was rescued by inhibition of histone deacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA). The TSA rescue of AAR activation in the absence of Atf4 also occurred for the Atf3 and C/EBP homology protein (Chop) genes, but not for the asparagine synthetase gene. ChIP analysis of the Jmjd3, Atf3, and Chop genes in Atf4 knock-out cells documented that activation of the AAR in the presence of TSA led to specific changes in acetylation of histone H4. The results suggest that a primary function of ATF4 is to recruit histone acetyltransferase activity to a sub-set of AAR target genes. Thus, absolute binding of ATF4 to these particular genes is not required and no ATF4 interaction with the general transcription machinery is necessary. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATF4 functions as a pioneer factor to alter chromatin structure and thus, enhance transcription in a gene-specific manner.

Shan, Jixiu; Fu, Lingchen; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N.; Anthony, Tracy; Kilberg, Michael S.

2012-01-01

350

Identification of functional domains of the IR2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication  

SciTech Connect

The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) negative regulatory IR2 protein (IR2P), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (IEP), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for IEP activation functions but retains domains for binding DNA, TFIIB, and TBP and the nuclear localization signal. IR2P mutants of the N-terminal region which lack either DNA-binding activity or TFIIB-binding activity were unable to down-regulate EHV-1 promoters. In EHV-1-infected cells expressing full-length IR2P, transcription and protein expression of viral regulatory IE, early EICP0, IR4, and UL5, and late ETIF genes were dramatically inhibited. Viral DNA levels were reduced to 2.1% of control infected cells, but were vey weakly affected in cells that express the N-terminal 706 residues of IR2P. These results suggest that IR2P function requires the two N-terminal domains for binding DNA and TFIIB as well as the C-terminal residues 707 to 1116 containing the TBP-binding domain. - Highlights: > We examine the functional domains of IR2P that mediates negative regulation. > IR2P inhibits at the transcriptional level. > DNA-binding mutant or TFIIB-binding mutant fails to inhibit. > C-terminal aa 707 to 1116 are required for full inhibition. > Inhibition requires the DNA-binding domain, TFIIB-binding domain, and C-terminus.

Kim, Seong K., E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu; Kim, Seongman; Dai Gan; Zhang Yunfei; Ahn, Byung C.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

2011-09-01

351

The Abl-related Gene Tyrosine Kinase Acts through p190RhoGAP to Inhibit Actomyosin Contractility and Regulate Focal Adhesion Dynamics upon Adhesion to Fibronectin  

PubMed Central

In migrating cells, actin polymerization promotes protrusion of the leading edge, whereas actomyosin contractility powers net cell body translocation. Although they promote F-actin–dependent protrusions of the cell periphery upon adhesion to fibronectin (FN), Abl family kinases inhibit cell migration on FN. We provide evidence here that the Abl-related gene (Arg/Abl2) kinase inhibits fibroblast migration by attenuating actomyosin contractility and regulating focal adhesion dynamics. arg?/? fibroblasts migrate at faster average speeds than wild-type (wt) cells, whereas Arg re-expression in these cells slows migration. Surprisingly, the faster migrating arg?/? fibroblasts have more prominent F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesions and exhibit increased actomyosin contractility relative to wt cells. Interestingly, Arg requires distinct functional domains to inhibit focal adhesions and actomyosin contractility. The kinase domain–containing Arg N-terminal half can act through the RhoA inhibitor p190RhoGAP to attenuate stress fiber formation and cell contractility. However, Arg requires both its kinase activity and its cytoskeleton-binding C-terminal half to fully inhibit focal adhesions. Although focal adhesions do not turn over efficiently in the trailing edge of arg?/? cells, the increased contractility of arg?/? cells tears the adhesions from the substrate, allowing for the faster migration observed in these cells. Together, our data strongly suggest that Arg inhibits cell migration by restricting actomyosin contractility and regulating its coupling to the substrate through focal adhesions.

Peacock, Justin G.; Miller, Ann L.; Bradley, William D.; Rodriguez, Olga C.; Webb, Donna J.

2007-01-01

352

Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by retroviral vector-mediated small-guide RNAs that direct specific RNA cleavage by tRNase ZL  

PubMed Central

The tRNA 3?-processing endoribonuclease (tRNase Z or 3? tRNase; EC 3.1.26.11) is an essential enzyme that removes the 3? trailer from pre-tRNA. The long form (tRNase ZL) can cleave a target RNA in vitro at the site directed by an appropriate small-guide RNA (sgRNA). Here, we investigated whether this sgRNA/tRNase ZL strategy could be applied to gene therapy for AIDS. We tested the ability of four sgRNA-expression plasmids to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression in COS cells, using a transient-expression assay. The three sgRNAs guide inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression in cultured COS cells. Analysis of the HIV-1 mRNA levels suggested that sgRNA directed the tRNase ZL to mediate the degradation of target RNA. The observation that sgRNA was localized primarily in nuclei suggests that tRNase ZL cleaves the HIV-1 mRNA when complexed with sgRNA in this location. We also examined the ability of two retroviral vectors expressing sgRNA to suppress HIV-1 expression in HIV-1-infected Jurkat T cells. sgRNA-SL4 suppressed HIV-1 expression almost completely in infected cells for up to 18 days. These results suggest that the sgRNA/tRNase ZL approach is effective in downregulating HIV-1 gene expression.

Habu, Yuichiro; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Kitano, Michiko; Endo, Yumihiko; Yukita, Masakazu; Ohira, Shigeru; Takaku, Hiroaki; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Takaku, Hiroshi

2005-01-01

353

Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in human T cells by retroviral-mediated gene transfer of a dominant-negative Rev trans-activator.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Currently, no satisfactory treatment for this viral disease is available. Somatic gene therapy has been proposed as an alternative to conventional therapies. Several antiviral gene therapy approaches including ribozymes, antisense inhibition, and RNA-decoy strategies, as well as dominant-negative mutants of HIV-1 proteins (Gag, Tat, and Rev) have been suggested. To prove the concept of trans-dominant inhibition of HIV-1 replication, we transduced CEM cells with a retroviral vector encoding a dominant-negative rev gene. Amplification of integrase-specific proviral sequences from high molecular weight DNA indicated successful HIV-1 human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB) infection of all cells. In contrast to CEM cells and CEM cells expressing the rev wild-type (wt) gene, infection of two CEM-RevM10 clones with HIV-1 did not result in the release of significant levels of p24 Gag antigen as measured by antigen capture assay, indicating a block in HIV-1 replication due to the presence of the trans-dominant Rev protein. Furthermore, the parental CEM cells as well as CEM cells expressing the Rev wt protein were effectively killed in the course of the HIV-1 infection, whereas all CEM cells expressing the RevM10 protein were unaffected in their growth rate. Images

Bevec, D; Dobrovnik, M; Hauber, J; Bohnlein, E

1992-01-01

354

Intracellular expression of RNA transcripts complementary to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene inhibits viral replication in human CD4+ lymphocytes.  

PubMed Central

Intracellular expression of antisense transcripts was evaluated for its potential to interfere with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Retroviral vectors encoding HIV-1 psi-gag complementary sequences downstream of a selectable gene (neo, puromycin gene, or Lyt2 gene) were stable and yielded high titers. Human CEMSS T cells were transduced with amphotropic retroviral vectors to express RNA complementary to the psi-gag sequence of HIV-1. Replication of laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains was inhibited by more than 1 order of magnitude (log10) in these transduced cells even at high inoculation doses (4 x 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective doses). Antisense-mediated anti-HIV efficacy was further demonstrated by survival of CD4+ cells in these cultures relative to controls. The level of anti-HIV-1 activity of the psi-gag antisense sequence correlated with the length of the antisense transcript. Maximal anti-HIV efficacy was observed with complementary sequence more than 1,000 nucleotides long, whereas transcripts less than 400 nucleotides long failed to inhibit HIV-1 replication. Expression of psi-gag antisense RNA also reduced HIV-1 JR-CSF replication 10-fold in primary CD4+ lymphocytes. These results obtained with a T-cell line and primary peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate the potential of long antisense RNAs as an efficient anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agent for gene therapy.

Veres, G; Escaich, S; Baker, J; Barske, C; Kalfoglou, C; Ilves, H; Kaneshima, H; Bohnlein, E

1996-01-01

355

Combined inhibition of DNA methylation and histone acetylation enhances gene re-expression and drug sensitivity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone deacetylation and DNA methylation have a central role in the control of gene expression in tumours, including transcriptional repression of tumour suppressor genes and genes involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. Treatment of cisplatin-resistant cell lines with an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, 2-deoxy-5?azacytidine (decitabine), results in partial reversal of DNA methylation, re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes including hMLH1 and sensitisation

N Steele; P Finn; R Brown; J A Plumb

2009-01-01

356

Arrest of G(1)-S progression by the p53-inducible gene PC3 is Rb dependent and relies on the inhibition of cyclin D1 transcription.  

PubMed

The p53-inducible gene PC3 (TIS21, BTG2) is endowed with antiproliferative activity. Here we report that expression of PC3 in cycling cells induced accumulation of hypophosphorylated, growth-inhibitory forms of pRb and led to G(1) arrest. This latter was not observed in cells with genetic disruption of the Rb gene, indicating that the PC3-mediated G(1) arrest was Rb dependent. Furthermore, (i) the arrest of G(1)-S transition exerted by PC3 was completely rescued by coexpression of cyclin D1 but not by that of cyclin A or E; (ii) expression of PC3 caused a significant down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein levels, also in Rb-defective cells, accompanied by inhibition of CDK4 activity in vivo; and (iii) the removal from the PC3 molecule of residues 50 to 68, a conserved domain of the PC3/BTG/Tob gene family, which we term GR, led to a loss of the inhibition of proliferation as well as of the down-regulation of cyclin D1 levels. These data point to cyclin D1 down-regulation as the main factor responsible for the growth inhibition by PC3. Such an effect was associated with a decrease of cyclin D1 transcript and of cyclin D1 promoter activity, whereas no effect of PC3 was observed on cyclin D1 protein stability. Taken together, these findings indicate that PC3 impairs G(1)-S transition by inhibiting pRb function in consequence of a reduction of cyclin D1 levels and that PC3 acts, either directly or indirectly, as a transcriptional regulator of cyclin D1. PMID:10669755

Guardavaccaro, D; Corrente, G; Covone, F; Micheli, L; D'Agnano, I; Starace, G; Caruso, M; Tirone, F

2000-03-01

357

Arrest of G1-S Progression by the p53-Inducible Gene PC3 Is Rb Dependent and Relies on the Inhibition of Cyclin D1 Transcription  

PubMed Central

The p53-inducible gene PC3 (TIS21, BTG2) is endowed with antiproliferative activity. Here we report that expression of PC3 in cycling cells induced accumulation of hypophosphorylated, growth-inhibitory forms of pRb and led to G1 arrest. This latter was not observed in cells with genetic disruption of the Rb gene, indicating that the PC3-mediated G1 arrest was Rb dependent. Furthermore, (i) the arrest of G1-S transition exerted by PC3 was completely rescued by coexpression of cyclin D1 but not by that of cyclin A or E; (ii) expression of PC3 caused a significant down-regulation of cyclin D1 protein levels, also in Rb-defective cells, accompanied by inhibition of CDK4 activity in vivo; and (iii) the removal from the PC3 molecule of residues 50 to 68, a conserved domain of the PC3/BTG/Tob gene family, which we term GR, led to a loss of the inhibition of proliferation as well as of the down-regulation of cyclin D1 levels. These data point to cyclin D1 down-regulation as the main factor responsible for the growth inhibition by PC3. Such an effect was associated with a decrease of cyclin D1 transcript and of cyclin D1 promoter activity, whereas no effect of PC3 was observed on cyclin D1 protein stability. Taken together, these findings indicate that PC3 impairs G1-S transition by inhibiting pRb function in consequence of a reduction of cyclin D1 levels and that PC3 acts, either directly or indirectly, as a transcriptional regulator of cyclin D1.

Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Corrente, Giuseppina; Covone, Francesca; Micheli, Laura; D'Agnano, Igea; Starace, Giuseppe; Caruso, Maurizia; Tirone, Felice

2000-01-01

358

A preliminary in vitro study into the use of IL-1Ra gene therapy for the inhibition of intervertebral disc degeneration  

PubMed Central

Conventional therapies for low back pain (LBP) are purely symptomatic and do not target the cause of LBP, which in approximately 40% of cases is caused by degeneration of the intervertebral disc (DIVD). Targeting therapies to inhibit the process of degeneration would be a potentially valuable treatment for LBP. There is increasing evidence for a role for IL-1 in DIVD. A natural inhibitor of IL-1 exists, IL-1Ra, which would be an ideal molecular target for inhibiting IL-1-mediated effects involved in DIVD and LBP. In this study, the feasibility of ex vivo gene transfer of IL-1Ra to the IVD was investigated. Monolayer and alginate cultures of normal and degenerate human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells were infected with an adenoviral vector carrying the IL-1Ra gene (Ad-IL-1Ra) and protein production measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ability of these infected cells to inhibit the effects of IL-1 was also investigated. In addition, normal and degenerate IVD cells infected with Ad-IL-1Ra were injected into degenerate disc tissue explants and IL-1Ra production in these discs was assessed. This demonstrated that both nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells infected with Ad-IL-1Ra produced elevated levels of IL-1Ra for prolonged time periods, and these infected cells were resistant to IL-1. When the infected cells were injected into disc explants, IL-1Ra protein expression was increased which was maintained for 2 weeks of investigation. This in vitro study has shown that the use of ex vivo gene transfer to degenerate disc tissue is a feasible therapy for the inhibition of IL-1-mediated events during disc degeneration.

Le Maitre, Christine L; Freemont, Anthony J; Hoyland, Judith A

2006-01-01

359

Honokiol reverses alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting the maturation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and the expression of its downstream lipogenesis genes  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol induces hepatic steatosis via a complex mechanism that is not well understood. Among the variety of molecules that have been proposed to participate in this mechanism, the sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (SREBPs) have been identified as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of honokiol on alcoholic steatosis and investigated its possible effect on the inhibition of SREBP-1c maturation. In in vitro studies, H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells developed increased lipid droplets when exposed to ethanol, but co-treatment with honokiol reversed this effect. Honokiol inhibited the maturation of SREBP-1c and its translocation to the nucleus, the binding of nSREBP-1c to SRE or SRE-related sequences of its lipogenic target genes, and the expression of genes for fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, magnolol, a structural isomer of honokiol, had no effect on nSREBP-1c levels. Male Wistar rats fed with a standard Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet for 4 weeks exhibited increased hepatic triglyceride and decreased hepatic glutathione levels, with concomitantly increased serum alanine aminotransferase and TNF-{alpha} levels. Daily administration of honokiol (10 mg/kg body weight) by gavage during the final 2 weeks of ethanol treatment completely reversed these effects on hepatotoxicity markers, including hepatic triglyceride, hepatic glutathione, and serum TNF-{alpha}, with efficacious abrogation of fat accumulation in the liver. Inhibition of SREBP-1c protein maturation and of the expression of Srebf1c and its target genes for hepatic lipogenesis were also observed in vivo. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated inhibition of specific binding of SREBP-1c to the Fas promoter by honokiol in vivo. These results demonstrate that honokiol has the potential to ameliorate alcoholic steatosis by blocking fatty acid synthesis regulated by SREBP-1c.

Yin Huquan [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Chul [College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Suk; Kim, Young-Chul; Shin, Young-Kee [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lee@snu.ac.kr

2009-04-01

360

The oxygen sensor factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 controls expression of distinct genes through the bifunctional transcriptional character of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.  

PubMed

The function of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key transcription factor involved in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, is restricted to low oxygen tension (pO(2)). As such, this transcription factor is central in modulating the tumor microenvironment, sensing nutrient availability, and controlling anaerobic glycolysis, intracellular pH, and cell survival. Degradation and inhibition of the limiting HIF-1alpha subunit are intimately connected in normoxia. Hydroxylation of two proline residues by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) 2 protein earmarks the protein for degradation, whereas hydroxylation of an asparagine residue by factor-inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1 or FIH) reduces its transcriptional activity. Indeed, silencing of either PHD2 or FIH in normoxia partially induced hypoxic genes, whereas combined PHD2/FIH silencing generated a full hypoxic gene response. Given the fact that HIF-1alpha possesses two transcriptional activation domains [TAD; NH(2)-terminal (N-TAD) and COOH-terminal (C-TAD)], we hypothesized on a possible bifunctional activity of HIF-1alpha that could be discriminated by FIH, an inhibitor of the C-TAD. In human cell lines engineered to overexpress or silence FIH in response to tetracycline, we show by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR that a set of hypoxic genes (ca9, phd3, pgk1, and bnip3) respond differently toward FIH expression. This finding, extended to 26 hypoxia-induced genes, indicates differential gene expression by the N-TAD and C-TAD in response to the hypoxic gradient. We propose that the oxygen-sensitive attenuator FIH, together with two distinct TADs, is central in setting the gene expression repertoire dictated by the cell pO(2). PMID:16585195

Dayan, Frédéric; Roux, Danièle; Brahimi-Horn, M Christiane; Pouyssegur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M

2006-04-01

361

Induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, by curcumin and its analog, alpha-diisoeugenol.  

PubMed

Cytotoxici and alpha-diisoeugenol were investigated. The cytotoxicity of curcumin and a-diisoeugenol against human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60 cells) and human submandibular cancer cells (HSG cells) was similar (CC50 1-3 microM). However, curcumin induced much more apoptosis, particularly in HL-60 cells compared with HSG cells, as revealed by measurement of the sub-G1/G0 DNA fraction in flow cytometric histograms. Treatment with 15 microM curcumin increased the number of cells with a sub-G1/G0 DNA fraction from control levels of <5% to 55% in HL-60 cells and 30% in HSG cells. Flow cytometry, after staining with annexin V-FITC/PI (the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic cells), showed a dose-dependent induction of early apoptosis by curcumin, which reached about 65% in HL-60 cells and about 20% in HSG cells after treatment with 10 microM curcumin. In contrast, alpha-diisoeugenol failed to induce apoptosis in either cell type. For both cell types, the proportion of late apoptotic/necrotic cells increased rapidly at concentrations of curcumin and a-diisoeugenol greater than 10 microM. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in curcumin-treated HL-60 cells was greater than that in HSG cells, as judged by CDFH-DA staining. In both cell types, ROS generation by a-diisoeugenol was at control levels. ROS generation by curcumin was suppressed by antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) and by scavengers of hydroxy radicals such as mannitol, but, conversely, was promoted by prooxidants such as the transition metal ions Cu(II) and Zn(II). ROS generation may play a part in the exposure of PS. Curcumin, but not a-diisoeugenol, at 10 microM inhibited LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced COX-2 gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Semiempirical PM 3 calculations suggested that this activity of curcumin, in which it behaves as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-like compound, is dependent on its phenolic function, which is more pronounced than that of alpha-diisoeugenol. Taken together, our results suggest that the bioactivity of curcumin is a result of its ability to act as both a prooxidant and an antioxidant. PMID:16309195

Atsumi, Toshiko; Murakami, Yukio; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Tonosaki, Keiichi; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

362

Tumour necrosis factor ?-stimulated gene-6 inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells induced by osteogenic differentiation medium and BMP-2  

PubMed Central

To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of OPLL (ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament) of the spine, an ectopic bone formation disease, we performed cDNA microarray analysis on cultured ligament cells from OPLL patients. We found that TSG-6 (tumour necrosis factor ?-stimulated gene-6) is down-regulated during osteoblastic differentiation. Adenovirus vector-mediated overexpression of TSG-6 inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells induced by BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)-2 or OS (osteogenic differentiation medium). TSG-6 suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad 1/5 induced by BMP-2, probably by inhibiting binding of the ligand to the receptor, since interaction between TSG-6 and BMP-2 was observed in vitro. TSG-6 has two functional domains, a Link domain (a hyaluronan binding domain) and a CUB domain implicated in protein interaction. The inhibitory effect on osteoblastic differentiation was completely lost with exogenously added Link domain-truncated TSG-6, while partial inhibition was retained by the CUB domain-truncated protein. In addition, the inhibitory action of TSG-6 and the in vitro interaction of TSG-6 with BMP-2 were abolished by the addition of hyaluronan. Thus, TSG-6, identified as a down-regulated gene during osteoblastic differentiation, suppresses osteoblastic differentiation induced by both BMP-2 and OS and is a plausible target for therapeutic intervention in OPLL.

Tsukahara, So; Ikeda, Ryuji; Goto, Shin; Yoshida, Kenichi; Mitsumori, Rie; Sakamoto, Yoshiko; Tajima, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Toru; Toh, Satoshi; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Ituro

2006-01-01

363

Mutations in the MATP gene in five German patients affected by oculocutaneous albinism type 4.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is caused by a deficiency of melanin synthesis and characterized by generalized hypopigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Due to the hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium, OCA is usually associated with congenital visual impairment, in addition to an increased risk of skin cancer. OCA is a genetically heterogeneous disease with distinct types resulting from mutations in different genes involved in the pathway which results in pigmentation. OCA1 is associated with mutations in the TYR gene encoding tyrosinase. OCA2 results from mutations in the P gene encoding the P protein and is the most common form of OCA. OCA3, also known as rufous/red albinism, is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene, which encodes the tyrosinase-related protein 1. Recently, OCA4 was described as a new form of OCA in a single patient with a splice site mutation in the MATP gene (or AIM1), the human ortholog of the murine underwhite gene. The similarity of MATP to transporter proteins suggests its involvement in transport functions, although its actual substrate is still unclear. We screened 176 German patients with albinism for mutations within the MATP gene and identified five individuals with OCA4. In this first report on West European patients, we describe 10 so far unpublished mutations, as well as two intronic variations, in addition to two known polymorphisms. PMID:14722913

Rundshagen, Uta; Zühlke, Christine; Opitz, Sven; Schwinger, Eberhard; Käsmann-Kellner, Barbara

2004-02-01

364

Cyclosporin A Inhibits T-Cell Growth Factor Gene Expression at the Level of mRNA Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressive agent, now gaining wide application in human organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive activity of CsA is at least in part due to inhibition of lymphokine production by activated T lymphocytes. Specifically, inhibition of T-cell growth factor (TCGF; also designated interleukin 2) production appears to be an important pathway by which CsA impairs T-cell function.

Martin Kronke; Warren J. Leonard; Joel M. Depper; Suresh K. Arya; Flossie Wong-Staal; Robert C. Gallo; Thomas A. Waldmann; Warner C. Greene

1984-01-01

365

TLR2Dependent Inhibition of Macrophage Responses to IFN-gamma Is Mediated by Distinct, Gene-Specific Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses multiple mechanisms to avoid elimination by the immune system. We have previously shown that M. tuberculosis can inhibit selected macrophage responses to IFN-? through TLR2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To specifically address the role of TLR2 signaling in mediating this inhibition, we stimulated macrophages with the specific TLR2\\/1 ligand Pam3CSK4 and assayed responses to IFN-?. Pam3CSK4 stimulation prior

Sarah A. Benson; Joel D. Ernst; Terry Means

2009-01-01

366

Alivin 1, a Novel Neuronal Activity-Dependent Gene, Inhibits Apoptosis and Promotes Survival of Cerebellar Granule Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurons require Ca 2-dependent gene transcription for their activity-dependent survival, the mechanisms of which have not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we demonstrate that a novel primary response gene, alivin 1 (ali1), is an activity-dependent gene and promotes survival of neurons. Sequence analyses reveal that rat, mouse, and human Ali1 proteins contain seven leucine-rich repeats, one IgC2-like loop and a

Tomio Ono; Naoko Sekino-Suzuki; Yoshiaki Kikkawa; Hiromichi Yonekawa; Seiichi Kawashima

2003-01-01

367

Potential Role of the src Gene Product in Inhibition of Gap-Junctional Communication in NIH\\/3T3 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the src gene on the activity of protein kinase C and intercellular communication have been studied in transformed NIH\\/3T3 clones isolated from soft agar following transfection with the plasmid carrying the v-src gene (psrc-11). Six transformed clones that were studied contained newly incorporated v-src genes in the genome, had an increased amount of pp60src, and showed enhanced

Chia-Cheng Chang; James E. Trosko; Hsing-Jien Kung; David Bombick; Fumio Matsumura

1985-01-01

368

Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR? inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR? by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR?, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR? suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR?-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. PMID:21352808

Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah; Paek, Kyung Shin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Han, Chang Woo; Seo, Han Geuk

2011-02-23

369

Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference targeting the H19 gene inhibits cell proliferation and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR  

PubMed Central

Background H19 is a paternally imprinted gene that has been shown to be highly expressed in the trophoblast tissue. Results from previous studies have initiated a debate as to whether noncoding RNA H19 acts as a tumor suppressor or as a tumor promotor in trophoblast tissue. In the present study, we developed lentiviral vectors expressing H19-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically block the expression of H19 in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. Using this approach, we investigated the impact of the H19 gene on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of JAR cells. Moreover, we examined the effect of H19 knockdown on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1 (HES-1) and dual-specific phosphatase 5 (DUSP5) genes. Results H19 knockdown inhibited apoptosis and proliferation of JAR cells, but had no significant impact on cell invasion. In addition, H19 knockdown resulted in significant upregulation of HES-1 and DUSP5 expression, but not IGF2 expression in JAR cells. Conclusions The finding that H19 downregulation could simultaneously inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of JAR cells highlights a putative dual function for H19 in choriocarcinoma and may explain the debate on whether H19 acts as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promotor in trophoblast tissue. Furthermore, upregulation of HES-1 and DUSP5 may mediate H19 downregulation-induced suppression of proliferation and apoptosis of JAR cells.

2013-01-01

370

Activation of the unfolded protein response by 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and gene expression.  

PubMed

Lytic replication of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is essential for the maintenance of both the infected state and characteristic angiogenic phenotype of Kaposi's sarcoma and thus represents a desirable therapeutic target. During the peak of herpesvirus lytic replication, viral glycoproteins are mass produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Normally, this leads to ER stress which, through an unfolded protein response (UPR), triggers phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?), resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis to maintain ER and cellular homeostasis. However, in order to replicate, herpesviruses have acquired the ability to prevent eIF2? phosphorylation. Here we show that clinically achievable nontoxic doses of the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) stimulate ER stress, thereby shutting down eIF2? and inhibiting KSHV and murine herpesvirus 68 replication and KSHV reactivation from latency. Viral cascade genes that are involved in reactivation, including the master transactivator (RTA) gene, glycoprotein B, K8.1, and angiogenesis-regulating genes are markedly decreased with 2-DG treatment. Overall, our data suggest that activation of UPR by 2-DG elicits an early antiviral response via eIF2? inactivation, which impairs protein synthesis required to drive viral replication and oncogenesis. Thus, induction of ER stress by 2-DG provides a new antiherpesviral strategy that may be applicable to other viruses. PMID:22926574

Leung, Howard J; Duran, Elda M; Kurtoglu, Metin; Andreansky, Samita; Lampidis, Theodore J; Mesri, Enrique A

2012-08-27

371

Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response by 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose Inhibits Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication and Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Lytic replication of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is essential for the maintenance of both the infected state and characteristic angiogenic phenotype of Kaposi's sarcoma and thus represents a desirable therapeutic target. During the peak of herpesvirus lytic replication, viral glycoproteins are mass produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Normally, this leads to ER stress which, through an unfolded protein response (UPR), triggers phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2?), resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis to maintain ER and cellular homeostasis. However, in order to replicate, herpesviruses have acquired the ability to prevent eIF2? phosphorylation. Here we show that clinically achievable nontoxic doses of the glucose analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) stimulate ER stress, thereby shutting down eIF2? and inhibiting KSHV and murine herpesvirus 68 replication and KSHV reactivation from latency. Viral cascade genes that are involved in reactivation, including the master transactivator (RTA) gene, glycoprotein B, K8.1, and angiogenesis-regulating genes are markedly decreased with 2-DG treatment. Overall, our data suggest that activation of UPR by 2-DG elicits an early antiviral response via eIF2? inactivation, which impairs protein synthesis required to drive viral replication and oncogenesis. Thus, induction of ER stress by 2-DG provides a new antiherpesviral strategy that may be applicable to other viruses.

Leung, Howard J.; Duran, Elda M.; Kurtoglu, Metin; Andreansky, Samita

2012-01-01

372

Manassantin A inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production by down-regulating the gene expressions of MITF and tyrosinase in melanocytes.  

PubMed

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is inducible in response to cAMP through the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and plays a pivotal role in the melanocyte-specific expression of tyrosinase or tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs) for melanin biosynthesis. Manassantin A from Saururus chinensis inhibits cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Here, we focused on molecular basis of the antimelanogenic activity. Manassantin A consistently inhibited the cAMP elevator 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)- or dibutyryl cAMP-induced melanin production in B16 cells or in melan-a melanocytes by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase or TRP1 gene. Moreover, manassantin A suppressed MITF induction through IBMX-activated CREB pathway, directly inhibiting the Ser-133 phosphorylation of CREB. However, manassantin A did not affect IBMX-increased cAMP levels in these cells but also other cAMP-dependent melanogenic pathways through post-translational modifications of MITF. This putative molecular mechanism of manassantin A in the inhibition of melanin production suggests its pharmacological potential in skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:21569106

Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Won-Hee; Roh, Eunmiri; Seo, Chang-Seob; Son, Jong-Keun; Lee, Seung Ho; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Jung, Sang-Hun; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

2011-05-16

373

Nitric oxide inhibition induces early activation of type I collagen gene in renal resistance vessels and glomeruli in transgenic mice. Role of endothelin.  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is often associated with the development of nephroangio- and glomerulo-sclerosis. This pathophysiological process is due to increased extracellular matrix protein, particularly type I collagen, accumulation. This study investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is involved in the mechanism(s) regulating activation of the collagen I gene in afferent arterioles and glomeruli. Experiments were performed on transgenic mice harboring the luciferase gene under the control of the collagen I-alpha2 chain promoter [procolalpha2(I)]. Measurements of luciferase activity provide highly sensitive estimates of collagen I gene activation. NO synthesis was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (20 mg/kg per day) for a period of up to 14 wk. Systolic blood pressure was increased after 6 wk of treatment (117+/-2 versus 129+/-2 mmHg, P < 0.01) and reached a plateau after 10 wk (around 160 mmHg). Luciferase activity was increased in freshly isolated afferent arterioles and glomeruli as early as week 4 of L-NAME treatment (150 and 200% of baseline, P < 0.01, respectively). The activation of procolalpha2(I) became more pronounced with time, and at 14 wk increased four- and tenfold compared with controls in afferent arterioles and glomeruli, respectively (P < 0.001). In contrast, luciferase activity remained unchanged in aorta and heart up to 8 wk and was increased thereafter. Increased histochemical staining for extracellular matrix deposition, and particularly of collagen I, was detected in afferent arterioles and glomeruli after 10 wk of L-NAME treatment. This fibrogenic process was accompanied by an increased urinary excretion rate of endothelin. In separate experiments, the stimulatory effect of L-NAME on collagen I gene activation was abolished when animals were treated with bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist. Similarly, bosentan reduced the increased extracellular matrix deposition in afferent arterioles and glomeruli during NO inhibition. Interestingly, bosentan had no effect on the L-NAME- induced increase of systolic pressure. These data indicate that NO inhibition induces an early activation of the collagen I gene in afferent arterioles and glomeruli. This activation in the kidney precedes the increase in blood pressure and the procolalpha2(I) activation in heart and aorta, suggesting a specific renal effect of NO blockade on collagen I gene expression that is independent of increased blood pressure and, at least partly, mediated through stimulation of the endothelin receptor. Use of procolalpha2(I) transgenic mice provides a novel and efficient model to study the pathophysiological mechanism(s) regulating renal fibrosis.

Chatziantoniou, C; Boffa, J J; Ardaillou, R; Dussaule, J C

1998-01-01

374

High loading dose of clopidogrel is unable to satisfactorily inhibit platelet reactivity in patients with glycoprotein IIIA gene polymorphism: a genetic substudy of PRAGUE-8 trial.  

PubMed

The study aimed to assess the impact of nine polymorphisms of genes encoding platelet receptors, enzymes, and hemostatic factors on clopidogrel efficacy to inhibit platelet reactivity in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective coronary angiography either with or without ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention. The study was performed as a genetic substudy of the PRAGUE-8 trial. Ninety-five patients pretreated with 600 mg clopidogrel at least 6 h prior to coronary angiography were tested. Baseline platelet reactivity to ADP was assessed before the drug was administered. Clopidogrel efficacy was tested again at 12 and 28 h after administration. Polymorphisms of platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ia (807C/T), GPVI (13254C/T), GPIIIa (PlA1/PlA2), PAR-1 (IVSn-14A/T), P2Y12 (32C/T), P2Y12 (H1/H2) haplotype, gene variations of cyclooxygenase-1, Leiden, and factor II mutat