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1

Computational screening of disease-associated mutations in OCA2 gene.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), caused by mutations of OCA2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced biosynthesis of melanin pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The OCA2 gene encodes instructions for making a protein called the P protein. This protein plays a crucial role in melanosome biogenesis, and controls the eumelanin content in melanocytes in part via the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase which is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. In this study we analyzed the pathogenic effect of 95 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms reported in OCA2 gene using computational methods. We found R305W mutation as most deleterious and disease associated using SIFT, PolyPhen, PANTHER, PhD-SNP, Pmut, and MutPred tools. To understand the atomic arrangement in 3D space, the native and mutant (R305W) structures were modeled. Molecular dynamics simulation was conducted to observe the structural significance of computationally prioritized disease-associated mutation (R305W). Root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent accessibility surface area, hydrogen bond (NH bond), trace of covariance matrix, eigenvector projection analysis, and density analysis results showed prominent loss of stability and rise in mutant flexibility values in 3D space. This study presents a well designed computational methodology to examine the albinism-associated SNPs. PMID:23824587

Kamaraj, Balu; Purohit, Rituraj

2014-01-01

2

A novel P gene missense mutation in a Japanese patient with oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oculocutaneous albinism type II (OCA2) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder, characterized by white hair and skin, and loss of pigment in the eyes. Mutaions in P gene have been shown to result in OCA2. So far, two cases have been reported from Japan. Objective: We had an opportunity to examine a case of albinism, and screened the mutations

Atsushi Kato; Kazuyoshi Fukai; Naoki Oiso; Naoko Hosomi; Shinji Saitoh; Takahito Wada; Hiroshi Shimizu; Masamitsu Ishii

2003-01-01

3

Frequent intragenic deletion of the P gene in Tanzanian patients with Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)  

SciTech Connect

Type II oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. OCA2, which results from mutations of the P gene, is the most frequent type of albinism in African and African-American patients. OCA2 is especially frequent in Tanzania, where it occurs with an incidence of {approximately}1/1,400. We have identified abnormalities of the P gene in each of 13 unrelated patients with OCA2 from Tanzania. One of these, a deletion of exon 7, is strongly predominant, accounting for {approximately}77% of mutant alleles in this group of patients. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Spritz, R.; Fukai, K.; Holmes, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

4

Analysis of P gene mutations in patients with type II (tyrosinase-positive) oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2)  

SciTech Connect

OCA2 is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. Recently, we showed that OCA2 results from mutations of the P gene, in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. In addition to OCA2, mutations of P account for OCA associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome and some cases of {open_quotes}autosomal recessive ocular albinism{close_quotes} (AROA). We have now studied 38 unrelated patients with various forms of OCA2 or AROA from a variety of different ethnic groups. None of these patients had detectable abnormalities of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene. Among 8 African-American patients with OCA2 we observed apparent locus homogeneity. We detected abnormalities of the P gene in all 8 patients, including 12 different mutations and deletions, most of which are unique to this group and none of which is predominant. In contrast, OCA2 in other populations appears to be genetically heterogeneous. Among 21 Caucasian patients we detected abnormalities of the P gene in only 8, comprising 9 different point mutations and deletions, some of which also occurred among the African-American patients. Among 3 Middle-Eastern, 3 Indo-Pakistani, and 3 Asian patients we detected mutations of the P gene in only one from each group. In a large Indo-Pakistani kindred with OCA2 we have excluded both the TYR and P genes on the basis of genetic linkage. The prevalence of mutations of the P gene thus appears to be much higher among African-Americans with OCA2 than among patients from other ethnic groups. The incidence of OCA2 in some parts of equatorial Africa is extremely high, as frequent as 1 per 1100, and the disease has been linked to P in South African Bantu. The eventual characterization of P gene mutations in Africans will be informative with regard to the origins of P gene mutations in African-American patients.

Lee, S.T.; Nicholls, R.D.; Schnur, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

5

High-resolution array-CGH in patients with oculocutaneous albinism identifies new deletions of the TYR, OCA2, and SLC45A2 genes and a complex rearrangement of the OCA2 gene.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is caused by mutations in six different genes, and their molecular diagnosis encompasses the search for point mutations and intragenic rearrangements. Here, we used high-resolution array-comparative genome hybridization (CGH) to search for rearrangements across exons, introns and regulatory sequences of four OCA genes: TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and SLC45A2. We identified a total of ten new deletions in TYR, OCA2, and SLC45A2. A complex rearrangement of OCA2 was found in two unrelated patients. Whole-genome sequencing showed deletion of a 184-kb fragment (identical to a deletion previously found in Polish patients), whereby a large portion of the deleted sequence was re-inserted after severe reshuffling into intron 1 of OCA2. The high-resolution array-CGH presented here is a powerful tool to detect gene rearrangements. Finally, we review all known deletions of the OCA1-4 genes reported so far in the literature and show that deletions or duplications account for 5.6% of all mutations identified in the OCA1-4 genes. PMID:24118800

Morice-Picard, Fanny; Lasseaux, Eulalie; Cailley, Dorothée; Gros, Audrey; Toutain, Jérome; Plaisant, Claudio; Simon, Delphine; François, Stéphane; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Kaplan, Josseline; Rooryck, Caroline; Lacombe, Didier; Arveiler, Benoit

2014-01-01

6

Functional characterization of two novel splicing mutations in the OCA2 gene associated with oculocutaneous albinism type II.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. OCA type II (OCA2) is one of the four commonly-recognized forms of albinism, and is determined by mutation in the OCA2 gene. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of OCA2 in two siblings and one unrelated patient. The mutational screening of the OCA2 gene identified two hitherto-unknown putative splicing mutations. The first one (c.1503+5G>A), identified in an Italian proband and her affected sibling, lies in the consensus sequence of the donor splice site of OCA2 intron 14 (IVS14+5G>A), in compound heterozygosity with a frameshift mutation, c.1450_1451insCTGCCCTGACA, which is predicted to determine the premature termination of the polypeptide chain (p.I484Tfs*19). In-silico prediction of the effect of the IVS14+5G>A mutation on splicing showed a score reduction for the mutant splice site and indicated the possible activation of a newly-created deep-intronic acceptor splice site. The second mutation is a synonymous transition (c.2139G>A, p.K713K) involving the last nucleotide of exon 20. This mutation was found in a young African albino patient in compound heterozygosity with a previously-reported OCA2 missense mutation (p.T404M). In-silico analysis predicted that the mutant c.2139G>A allele would result in the abolition of the splice donor site. The effects on splicing of these two novel mutations were investigated using an in-vitro hybrid-minigene approach that led to the demonstration of the causal role of the two mutations and to the identification of aberrant transcript variants. PMID:24361966

Rimoldi, Valeria; Straniero, Letizia; Asselta, Rosanna; Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Penco, Silvana; Gesu, Giovanni P; Del Longo, Alessandra; Piozzi, Elena; Soldà, Giulia; Primignani, Paola

2014-03-01

7

Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in Zimbabwe and Cameroon: distribution of the 2.7-kb deletion allele of the P gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we characterized a 2.7-kb interstitial deletion allele of the P gene associated with tyrosinase-positive\\u000a oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in African Americans and Africans. In this study, we investigated the frequency of this allele\\u000a among OCA2 subjects in two African countries, Zimbabwe and Cameroon. The deletion allele was most common in Zimbabwe, comprising\\u000a nearly all (92%) mutant alleles, which

Neelu Puri; Donna Durham-Pierre; Robert Aquaron; Patricia M. Lund; Richard A. King; Murray H. Brilliant

1997-01-01

8

A Potential Benefit of Albinism in Astyanax Cavefish: Downregulation of the oca2 Gene Increases Tyrosine and Catecholamine Levels as an Alternative to Melanin Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L-tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre-feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding is that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor for the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment. PMID:24282555

Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R.

2013-01-01

9

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in sub-Saharan Africa: distribution of the common 2.7-kb P gene deletion mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in the South African Negroid population, occurring\\u000a with a prevalence of 1\\/3900 individuals. The OCA2 locus, P, has been mapped to chromosome 15q11–q13 and a 2.7-kb interstitial deletion has been found to be the common mutation in Africa.\\u000a This study reports the detection of the deletion allele in OCA2-affected individuals

Gwynneth Stevens; Michèle Ramsay; Trefor Jenkins

1997-01-01

10

Genetic variation in regulatory DNA elements: the case of OCA2 transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Mutations within the OCA2 gene or the complete absence of the OCA2 protein leads to oculocutaneous albinism type 2. The OCA2 protein plays a central role in melanosome biogenesis, and it is a strong determinant of the eumelanin content in melanocytes. Transcript levels of the OCA2 gene are strongly correlated with pigmentation intensities. Recent studies demonstrated that the transcriptional level of OCA2 is to a large extent determined by the noncoding SNP rs12913832 located 21.5 kb upstream of the OCA2 gene promoter. In this review, we discuss current hypotheses and the available data on the mechanism of OCA2 transcriptional regulation and how this is influenced by genetic variation. Finally, we will explore how future epigenetic studies can be used to advance our insight into the functional biology that connects genetic variation to human pigmentation. PMID:24387780

Visser, Mijke; Kayser, Manfred; Grosveld, Frank; Palstra, Robert-Jan

2014-03-01

11

oca2 Regulation of chromatophore differentiation and number is cell type specific in zebrafish.  

PubMed

We characterized a zebrafish mutant that displays defects in melanin synthesis and in the differentiation of melanophores and iridophores of the skin and retinal pigment epithelium. Positional cloning and candidate gene sequencing link this mutation to a 410-kb region on chromosome 6, containing the oculocutaneous albinism 2 (oca2) gene. Quantification of oca2 mutant melanophores shows a reduction in the number of differentiated melanophores compared with wildtype siblings. Consistent with the analysis of mouse Oca2-deficient melanocytes, zebrafish mutant melanophores have immature melanosomes which are partially rescued following treatment with vacuolar-type ATPase inhibitor/cytoplasmic pH modifier, bafilomycin A1. Melanophore-specific gene expression is detected at the correct time and in anticipated locations. While oca2 zebrafish display unpigmented gaps on the head region of mutants 3 days post-fertilization, melanoblast quantification indicates that oca2 mutants have the correct number of melanoblasts, suggesting a differentiation defect explains the reduced melanophore number. Unlike melanophores, which are reduced in number in oca2 mutants, differentiated iridophores are present at significantly higher numbers. These data suggest distinct mechanisms for oca2 in establishing differentiated chromatophore number in developing zebrafish. PMID:24330346

Beirl, Alisha J; Linbo, Tor H; Cobb, Marea J; Cooper, Cynthia D

2014-03-01

12

Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.  

PubMed

Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

2013-11-01

13

Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2?, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2? was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1? phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2? dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of proapoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2? dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

2013-01-01

14

Association Between a Germline OCA2 Polymorphism at Chromosome 15q13.1 and Estrogen Receptor–Negative Breast Cancer Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. Methods We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10?621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26?978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5? nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14?096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70?019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case–control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C>G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 × 10?5). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 × 10?4). Conclusion The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer. PMID:20308648

Tyrer, Jonathan; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Arias, José Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benítez, Javier; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Wang, Xianshu; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; García-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Bolton, Kelly L.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Elliott, Graeme C.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Greenberg, David; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Humphreys, Manjeet; Easton, Douglas F.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.

2010-01-01

15

Albinism in phylogenetically and geographically distinct populations of Astyanax cavefish arises through the same loss-of-function Oca2 allele.  

PubMed

The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, comprises 29 populations of cave-adapted fish distributed across a vast karst region in northeastern Mexico. These populations have a complex evolutionary history, having descended from 'old' and 'young' ancestral surface-dwelling stocks that invaded the region ?6.7 and ?2.8 MYa, respectively. This study investigates a set of captive, pigmented Astyanax cavefish collected from the Micos cave locality in 1970, in which albinism appeared over the past two decades. We combined novel coloration analyses, coding sequence comparisons and mRNA expression level studies to investigate the origin of albinism in captive-bred Micos cavefish. We discovered that albino Micos cavefish harbor two copies of a loss-of-function ocular and cutaneous albinism type II (Oca2) allele previously identified in the geographically distant Pachón cave population. This result suggests that phylogenetically young Micos cavefish and phylogenetically old Pachón cave fish inherited this Oca2 allele from the ancestral surface-dwelling taxon. This likely resulted from the presence of the loss-of-function Oca2 haplotype in the 'young' ancestral surface-dwelling stock that colonized the Micos cave and also introgressed into the ancient Pachón cave population. The appearance of albinism in captive Micos cavefish, caused by the same loss-of-function allele present in Pachón cavefish, implies that geographically and phylogenetically distinct cave populations can evolve the same troglomorphic phenotype from standing genetic variation present in the ancestral taxon. PMID:23572122

Gross, J B; Wilkens, H

2013-08-01

16

Six Novel P Gene Mutations and Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 2 Frequency in Japanese Albino Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the P gene that codes one of the melanosomal proteins, the function of which remains unknown. In this paper, we report the frequency of OCA2, 8%, among the Japanese albino population, six novel mutations containing four missense substitutions (P198L, P211L, R10W, M398I), and two splice

Tamio Suzuki; Yoshinori Miyamura; Jun Matsunaga; Hiroshi Shimizu; Yasuhiro Kawachi; Naoko Ohyama; Osamu Ishikawa; Tomoyuki Ishikawa; Hiroshi Terao; Yasushi Tomita

2003-01-01

17

Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes.  

PubMed

Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine-based sorting signal in the pigment cell-specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1- and AP-3-favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S

2012-08-01

18

Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes  

PubMed Central

Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

2012-01-01

19

Expression of a truncated tomato polygalacturonase gene inhibits expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato plants were transformed with a chimaeric polygalacturonase (PG) gene, designed to produce a truncated PG transcript constitutively. In these plants expression of the endogenous PG gene was inhibited during ripening, resulting in a substantial reduction in PG mRNA and enzyme accumulation. This inhibition was comparable to that achieved previously using antisense genes. The expression of the truncated gene in

C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; C. R. Bird; J. Ray; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

1990-01-01

20

Antisense RNA inhibition of polygalacturonase gene expression in transgenic tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of expression of specific genes by antisense RNA is a naturally occurring mechanism in bacteria1,2, although gene regulation by this mechanism has not yet been observed in higher eukaryotes. However, antisense RNA has been shown to reduce expression of specific genes when injected into frog oocytes3 and Drosophila embryos4. Inhibition of expression of artificially introduced genes has been demonstrated

C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; J. Ray; C. R. Bird; P. C. Morris; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

1988-01-01

21

Antiviral effects of inhibiting host gene expression.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) has been used to probe the virus-host interface to understand the requirements for host-gene expression needed for virus replication. The availability of arrayed siRNA libraries has enabled a genome-scale, high-throughput analysis of gene pathways usurped for virus replication. Results from these and related screens have led to the discovery of new host factors that regulate virus replication. While effective delivery continues to limit development of RNAi-based drugs, RNAi-based genome discovery has led to identification of druggable targets. These validated targets enable rational development of novel antiviral drugs, including the rescue and repurposing of existing, approved drugs. Existing drugs with known cytotoxicity and mechanisms of action can potentially be re-targeted to regulate host genes and gene products needed by influenza to replicate. Drug repositioning is more cost-effective, less time-consuming, and more effective for anti-influenza virus drug discovery than traditional methods. In this chapter, a general overview of RNAi screening methods, host-gene discovery, and drug repurposing is examined with emphasis on utilizing RNAi to identify druggable genes that can be targeted for drug development or repurposing. PMID:25007848

Tripp, Ralph A; Mark Tompkins, S

2015-01-01

22

Transfection of the mullerian inhibiting substance gene inhibits local and metastatic tumor-growth.  

PubMed

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a gonadal growth factor important in sexual differentiation, has antiproliferative activity against several human carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we examine the effect of MIS-transfection on the growth characteristics of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human ocular melanoma (OM431) cells, compared to wild-type lines and a CHO line transfected with a noncleavable, inactive MIS mutant. MIS-transfection inhibited proliferation of CHO cells in double-layer agarose, tumor spheroid, and murine subrenal capsule assays, as well as growth of CHO and OM431 cells in pulmonary metastasis studies. These results anticipate further study of targeted gene therapy of certain human tumors with MIS gene constructs. PMID:21573527

Boveri, J; Parry, R; Ruffin, W; Gustafson, M; Lee, K; He, W; Donahoe, P

1993-02-01

23

In Silico Analysis of miRNA-Mediated Gene Regulation in OCA and OA Genes.  

PubMed

Albinism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to low secretion of melanin. The oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA) genes are responsible for melanin production and also act as a potential targets for miRNAs. The role of miRNA is to inhibit the protein synthesis partially or completely by binding with the 3'UTR of the mRNA thus regulating gene expression. In this analysis, we predicted the genetic variation that occurred in 3'UTR of the transcript which can be a reason for low melanin production thus causing albinism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3'UTR cause more new binding sites for miRNA which binds with mRNA which leads to inhibit the translation process either partially or completely. The SNPs in the mRNA of OCA and OA genes can create new binding sites for miRNA which may control the gene expression and lead to hypopigmentation. We have developed a computational procedure to determine the SNPs in the 3'UTR region of mRNA of OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2) and OA (GPR143) genes which will be a potential cause for albinism. We identified 37 SNPs in five genes that are predicted to create 87 new binding sites on mRNA, which may lead to abrogation of the translation process. Expression analysis confirms that these genes are highly expressed in skin and eye regions. It is well supported by enrichment analysis that these genes are mainly involved in eye pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis process. The network analysis also shows how the genes are interacting and expressing in a complex network. This insight provides clue to wet-lab researches to understand the expression pattern of OCA and OA genes and binding phenomenon of mRNA and miRNA upon mutation, which is responsible for inhibition of translation process at genomic levels. PMID:25060099

Kamaraj, Balu; Gopalakrishnan, Chandrasekhar; Purohit, Rituraj

2014-12-01

24

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

Deng Jianbei [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hua Kunjie [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Caveney, Erica J. [Department of Medicine, CB 7005, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, CB 7525, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Harp, Joyce B. [Department of Nutrition, CB 7461, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)]. E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

2006-01-20

25

Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase  

E-print Network

Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated Ang

Hammock, Bruce D.

26

Molecular cloning and analysis of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene from apple .  

E-print Network

??Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall-associated plant proteins that inhibit endopolygalacturonases from phytopathogenic fungi. It has been proposed that pgip encoding genes could be utilised… (more)

Arendse, Melanie Samantha.

2012-01-01

27

The Homeobox Gene Gax Inhibits Angiogenesis through Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-k kB-Dependent Endothelial Cell Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and metastasis of tumors are heavily dependent on angiogenesis, but much of the transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial cell gene expression responsible for angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. The homeobox gene Gax is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and inhibits proliferation and tube formation in vitro. We hypothesized that Gax is a negative transcriptional regulator of the endothelial

Sejal Patel; Alejandro D. Leal; David H. Gorski

2005-01-01

28

Running Head: Amino acid inhibition of Agrp gene expression  

E-print Network

Metabolic fuels act on hypothalamic neurons to regulate feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but the signaling mechanisms mediating these effects are not fully clear. Rats placed on a low protein diet (10 % of calories) exhibited increased food intake (P amino acid mixture (RPMI 1640) or leucine alone (1 ug) suppressed 24h food intake (P amino acids concentrations within the brain is sufficient to suppress food intake. To define a cellular mechanism for these direct effects, GT1-7 hypothalamic cells were exposed to low amino acids for 16hrs. Decreasing amino acid availability increased Agrp mRNA levels in GT1-7 cells (P amino acid leucine (P amino acid concentrations increased S6K phosphorylation via a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism, suggesting that amino acids directly stimulated mTOR signaling. To test whether mTOR signaling contributes to amino acid inhibition of Agrp gene expression, GT1-7 cells cultured in either low or high amino acids for 16hrs and were also treated with rapamcyin (50 nM). Rapamycin treatment increased Agrp mRNA levels in cells exposed to high amino acids (P = 0.01). Taken together, these observations indicate that amino

Christopher D. Morrison; Xiaochun Xi; Christy L. White; Jianping Ye; Roy J. Martin; Neurosignaling Laboratory; Roy J Martin

29

Inhibition of apoptosis by the retinoblastoma gene product.  

PubMed Central

Tissue homeostasis and the prevention of neoplasia require regulatory co-ordination between cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Several cellular proteins, including c-myc and E2F, as well as viral proteins such as E1A, have dual functions as positive regulators of apoptosis and proliferation. The product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, pRb, binds these proteins and is known to function in growth suppression. To examine whether pRb may function as a negative regulator of both proliferation and apoptosis, we analyzed apoptosis induced in transfected derivatives of the human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2. Ionizing radiation induced apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SAOS-2 cells, which lack pRb expression. In both a transient and stable transfection assay, SAOS-2 derivatives expressing wild-type (wt) pRb exhibited increased viability and decreased apoptosis following treatment at a variety of radiation doses. Expression in SAOS-2 of a mutant pRb that fails to complex with several known binding partners of pRb, including E1A and E2F, did not protect SAOS-2 cells from apoptosis. Radiation exposure induced a G2 arrest in SAOS-2 and in derivatives expressing pRb. Inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression by aphidicolin treatment failed to protect SAOS-2 cells or pRb-expressing isolates from undergoing apoptosis. Our data document a novel function for pRb in suppressing apoptosis and suggest that several proteins shown to induce apoptosis, including E1A, E2F and c-myc, may do so by interfering with the protective function of pRb. Images PMID:7859736

Haas-Kogan, D A; Kogan, S C; Levi, D; Dazin, P; T'Ang, A; Fung, Y K; Israel, M A

1995-01-01

30

Efficient shRNA-Mediated Inhibition of Gene Expression in Zebrafish  

E-print Network

Despite the broad repertoire of loss of function (LOF) tools available for use in the zebrafish, there remains a need for a simple and rapid method that can inhibit expression of genes at later stages. RNAi would fulfill ...

Sive, Hazel L.

31

BMP7 Gene Transfer via Gold Nanoparticles into Stroma Inhibits Corneal Fibrosis In Vivo  

E-print Network

This study examined the effects of BMP7 gene transfer on corneal wound healing and fibrosis inhibition in vivo using a rabbit model. Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with the excimer laser performing -9 diopters ...

Tandon, Ashish

32

Inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis without affecting expression of p53-regulated genes  

PubMed Central

Using DNA microarray and clustering of expressed genes we have analyzed the mechanism of inhibition of wild-type p53-induced apoptosis by the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the calcium mobilizer thapsigargin (TG). Clustering analysis of 1,786 genes, the expression level of which changed after activation of wild-type p53 in the absence or presence of IL-6 or TG, showed that these compounds did not cause a general inhibition of the ability of p53 to up-regulate or down-regulate gene expression. Expression of various p53 targets implicated as mediators of p53-induced apoptosis was also not affected by IL-6 or TG. These compounds thus can bypass the effect of wild-type p53 on gene expression and inhibit apoptosis. IL-6 and TG activated different p53-independent pathways of gene expression that include up-regulation of antiapoptotic genes. IL-6 and TG also activated different differentiation-associated genes. The ability of compounds such as cytokines and calcium mobilizers to inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis without generally inhibiting gene expression regulated by p53 can facilitate tumor development and tumor resistance to radiation and chemotherapy in cells that retain wild-type p53. PMID:12743373

Lotem, Joseph; Gal, Hilah; Kama, Rachel; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Domany, Eytan; Sachs, Leo; Givol, David

2003-01-01

33

Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and ACE inhibition in diabetic nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and ACE inhibition in diabetic nephropathy. The antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients with diabetic nephropathy varies considerably. Therefore, we tested the potential role of an insertion (I)\\/deletion (D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on this early antiproteinuric responsiveness in an observational follow-up study. Sixty (II, N

Peter Jacobsen; Kasper Rossing; Peter Rossing; Lise Tarnow; Christine Mallet; Odette Poirier; Francois Cambien; Hans-Henrik Parving

1998-01-01

34

Opposite Effects of Gene Deficiency and Pharmacological Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase on Cardiac Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are important regulators of cardiac remodeling; manipulation of their levels is a potentially useful pharmacological strategy. EETs are hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form the corresponding diols, thus altering and reducing the activity of these oxylipins. To better understand the phenotypic impact of sEH disruption, we compared the effect of EPHX2 gene knockout (EPHX2?/?) and sEH inhibition in mouse models. Measurement of plasma oxylipin profiles confirmed that the ratio of EETs/DHETs was increased in EPHX2?/? and sEH-inhibited mice. However, plasma concentrations of 9, 11, 15, 19-HETE were elevated in EPHX2?/? but not sEH-inhibited mice. Next, we investigated the role of this difference in cardiac dysfunction induced by Angiotensin II (AngII). Both EPHX2 gene deletion and inhibition protected against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, cardiac dysfunction was attenuated by sEH inhibition rather than gene deletion. Histochemical staining revealed that compared with pharmacological inhibition, EPHX2 deletion aggravated AngII-induced myocardial fibrosis; the mRNA levels of fibrotic-related genes were increased. Furthermore, cardiac inflammatory response was greater in EPHX2?/? than sEH-inhibited mice with AngII treatment, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and expression of MCP-1 and IL-6. In vitro, AngII-upregulated MCP-1 and IL-6 expression was significantly attenuated by sEH inhibition but promoted by EPHX2 deletion in cardiofibroblasts. Thus, compared with pharmacological inhibition of sEH, EPHX2 deletion caused the shift in arachidonic acid metabolism, which may led to pathological cardiac remodeling, especially cardiac fibrosis. PMID:24718617

Zhang, Xu; Hammock, Bruce D.; Ai, Ding; Zhu, Yi

2014-01-01

35

Black Raspberry Components Inhibit Proliferation, Induce Apoptosis, and Modulate Gene Expression in Rat Esophageal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown that a diet containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) inhibits the development of chemically induced cancer in the rat esophagus. To provide insights into possible mechanisms by which BRB inhibit esophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated an ethanol (EtOH) extract of BRB, and two component anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O?rutinoside) in BRB, for their effects on growth, apoptosis, and gene expression

Nancy N. Zikri; Kenneth M. Riedl; Li-Shu Wang; John Lechner; Steven J. Schwartz; Gary D. Stoner

2009-01-01

36

Foxp3 Inhibits HDAC1 Activity to Modulate Gene Expression in Human T cells  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that HIV-1 preferentially infects Foxp3+ Treg cells in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp3 enhances the HIV-1 LTR expression through epigenetic mechanisms in T cells. We report here that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) failed to further enhance HIV gene expression in FoxP3+ T cells. We discovered that Foxp3 inhibited cellular HDAC activity in T cells, and mutations in the forkhead domain that ablate Foxp3 function also abolished its ability to inhibit HDAC. When co-expressed, Foxp3 specifically inhibited the deacetylase activity of HDAC1. We further showed that Foxp3 was associated with HDAC1, and mutations in the forkhead domain that ablate Foxp3 function in Treg cells also inhibited Foxp3 association with and inhibition of HDAC1. Finally, Foxp3 failed to enhance HIV-1 gene expression in human T cells expressing HDAC1-specific shRNA. We conclude that Foxp3 modulates gene expression in human T cells at least partly by inhibiting HDAC1 activity. PMID:21974802

Holmes, Derek; Gao, Jianmei; Su, Lishan

2011-01-01

37

Organization and sequence of the human P gene and identification of a new family of transport proteins  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the structure, nucleotide sequence, and polymorphisms of the human P gene. Mutations of the P gene result in type H oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) in humans and pink-eyed dilution (p) in mice. We find that the human P gene is quite large, consisting of 25 exons spanning 250 to 600 kb in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. The P polypeptide appears to define a novel family of small molecule transporters and may be involved in transport of tyrosine, the precursor to melanin synthesis, within the melanocyte. These results provide the basis for analyses of patients with OCA2 and may point toward eventual pharmacologic treatment of this and related disorders of pigmentation. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, S.T.; Fukai, K.; Spritz, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); and others

1995-03-20

38

Transformation of persimmon with a pear fruit polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Jiro) was transformed with the gene encoding the pear fruit (Pyrus communis) polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101. Two plasmid constructions were used for transformation; pDU94.0928 containing chimeric genes of PGIP, GUS and NPTII in its T-DNA region, and pYS95.091 containing only the GUS and NPTII sequences (control transformations). Among 165 callus lines obtained

M. Tamura; M. Gao; R. Tao; J. M. Labavitch; A. M. Dandekar

2004-01-01

39

Host-induced gene silencing inhibits the biotrophic pathogen causing downy mildew of lettuce.  

PubMed

Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference-based approach in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in the host plant and subsequently move into the pathogen to silence pathogen genes. As a proof-of-concept, we generated stable transgenic lettuce plants expressing siRNAs targeting potentially vital genes of Bremia lactucae, a biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew, the most important disease of lettuce worldwide. Transgenic plants, expressing inverted repeats of fragments of either the Highly Abundant Message #34 (HAM34) or Cellulose Synthase (CES1) genes of B. lactucae, specifically suppressed expression of these genes, resulting in greatly reduced growth and inhibition of sporulation of B. lactucae. This demonstrates that HIGS can provide effective control of B. lactucae in lettuce; such control does not rely on ephemeral resistance conferred by major resistance genes and therefore offers new opportunities for durable control of diverse diseases in numerous crops. PMID:25487781

Govindarajulu, Manjula; Epstein, Lynn; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

2014-12-01

40

Chlorpromazine inhibits the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription in a calcium-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic drugs can modulate transcription factors and also nuclear receptors, but their action on glucocorticoid receptors (GR)-members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family has not been studied so far. In the present study we investigated effects of various antipsychotics on the glucocorticoid-mediated gene transcription in fibroblast cells, stably transfected with a mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (LMCAT cells). Chlorpromazine (3-100 microM) inhibited the corticosterone-induced gene transcription in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Clozapine showed a similar, but less potent effect, while haloperidol acted only in high concentrations, and other antipsychotic drugs (sulpiride, raclopride, remoxipride) were without any effect. It was also found that a phorbol ester (an activator of protein kinase C (PKC)) and A-23187 (Ca(2+)-ionophore) attenuated the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine on the GR-induced gene transcription. An antagonist of the L-type Ca(2+) channel, as well as an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited the corticosterone-induced gene transcription, but had no effect on the chlorpromazine-induced changes. The involvement of a PKC/PLC pathway in the chlorpromazine action was confirmed by Western blot analysis which showed that the drug in question decreased the PLC-beta(1) protein level, and to a lesser extent that of the PKC-alpha protein in LMCAT cells. The aforementioned data suggest that inhibition of the glucocorticosteroid-induced gene transcription by chlorpromazine and clozapine may be a mechanism by which these drugs block some effects induced by glucocorticoids. The inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine on the corticosterone-induced gene transcription seems to depend on the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and/or the inhibition of some calcium-dependent enzymes, e.g. phospholipase beta(1). PMID:12423673

Basta-Kaim, A; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska-Feil, L; Tetich, M; Le?kiewicz, M; Kubera, M; Laso?, W

2002-11-01

41

Multiple Pigmentation Gene Polymorphisms Account for a Substantial Proportion of Risk of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described the role of red hair (melanocortin-1 receptor, MC1R) and blue eye (oculocutaneous albinism type II, OCA2) gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in a highly sun-exposed population of European descent. A number of recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified numerous polymorphisms controlling human hair, eye, and skin color. In

David L. Duffy; Zhen Z. Zhao; Richard A. Sturm; Nicholas K. Hayward; Nicholas G. Martin; Grant W. Montgomery

2010-01-01

42

Variants in melanogenesis-related genes associate with skin cancer risk among Japanese populations.  

PubMed

Human skin color is known to be associated with the risk of cutaneous cancer. Some reports indicated that pigmentation-related gene variants were associated with cutaneous cancer risk in Caucasian populations, but there are no similar reports in East Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between pigmentation-related genes and the risk of skin cancer in Japanese populations. We studied the associations between 12 variants of four pigmentation-related genes and melanin index variations in 198 Japanese patients with skin cancer and compared these findings to those of 500 Japanese controls by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed an independent sample of 107 Japanese patients with skin cancer. A non-synonymous variant, H615R in the oculocutaneous albinism 2 gene (OCA2), was associated with the risk of malignant melanoma in the Yamagata group (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.86; P = 0.020). Another non-synonymous variant, A481T in OCA2, was associated with the risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis in the Osaka group (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.41-7.04; P = 0.005). In malignant melanoma cases, the minor allele in OCA2 H615R might have induced the development of lesions in sun-exposed skin (OR, 26.32; 95% CI, 1.96-333; P = 0.014). Our results suggest that some OCA2 variants are definite risk factors for the onset of cutaneous cancer in Japanese populations. PMID:24617981

Yoshizawa, Junko; Abe, Yuko; Oiso, Naoki; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Hozumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narita, Tomohiko; Motokawa, Tomonori; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Kawada, Akira; Tamiya, Gen; Suzuki, Tamio

2014-04-01

43

Inhibition of Leishmania major PTR1 Gene Expression by Antisense in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background: Protozoa related to Trypanosome family including Leishmania, synthesize enzymes to escape from drug therapy. One of them is PTR1 that its enzymatic activity is similar to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Dihydrofolate reductase - thymidylate synthase has a major role in DNA synthesis, if it is inhibited, the result would be the death of parasite. Since PTR1 activity is similar to DHFR, causes the decrease of inhibition effect of drug. The aim of this study was inhibition of Iranian L. major PTR1 expression with mRNA antisense in prokaryotic system as an approach to appear of the drugs therapeutic effects more. Methods: PTR1 gene was ligated to pACYCDuet-1 and pcDNA3 plasmids as sense and antisense plasmids, respectively. Simultaneously transfer of sense and antisense plasmids was done in E. coli strain M15. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis were carried out to analyze the expression. Results: Sense and antisense plasmids were prepared and confirmed by restriction analysis and PCR then simultaneously transfer of them was done. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed PTR1 gene was inhibited by mRNA antisense in bacterial cells. Conclusion: Expression of PTR1 gene in sense plasmid was inhibited successfully by antisense plasmid. PMID:23113195

Kheirandish, F; Bandehpour, M; Haghighi, A; Mahboudi, F; Mohebali, M; Kazemi, B

2012-01-01

44

Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene expression  

E-print Network

Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene-a and IL-1b) and chemokines (MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IL-8) in monocytes. We determined whether curcumin expression of cytochemokines. We show that curcumin (12.5­25 lM) sup- presses the activation of Egr-1 DNA

Giri, Ranjit K.

45

Planar polarity genes and inhibition of supernumerary neurites.  

PubMed

Planar cell polarity (PCP) genes have recently emerged as important players in sculpting neuronal connections. The bipolar VC neurons display stereotypical differences in axon extension along the anterior-posterior (AP) body axis: VC1-3 and VC6 polarize along the AP axis while VC4 and VC5 polarize along the orthogonal left-right (LR) axis generated by the developing vulva. vang-1 and prkl-1, the worm orthologs of Van Gogh and Prickle, are required to restrict the polarity of neurite emergence to a specific tissue axis. vang-1 and prkl-1 loss results in ectopic VC4 and VC5 neurites extending inappropriately along the AP axis. Conversely, prkl-1 overexpression in VC neurons suppresses neurite formation. These findings suggest that a PCP-like pathway acts to silence or antagonize neuronal responses to polarity cues that would otherwise be permissive for neurite growth. PMID:24058835

Colavita, Antonio

2012-04-01

46

Ultrasound-mediated interferon {beta} gene transfection inhibits growth of malignant melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Successful ultrasound-mediated transfection of melanoma (C32) cells with IFN-{beta} genes both in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Ultrasound-mediated IFN-{beta} transfection inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro. {yields} Ultrasound-mediated IFN-{beta} transfection inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of ultrasound-mediated transfection (sonotransfection) of interferon {beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene on melanoma (C32) both in vitro and in vivo. C32 cells were sonotransfected with IFN-{beta} in vitro. Subcutaneous C32 tumors in mice were sonicated weekly immediately after intra-tumor injection with IFN-{beta} genes mixed with microbubbles. Successful sonotransfection with IFN-{beta} gene in vitro was confirmed by ELISA, which resulted in C32 growth inhibition. In vivo, the growth ratio of tumors transfected with IFN-{beta} gene was significantly lower than the other experimental groups. These results may lead to a new method of treatment against melanoma and other hard-to-treat cancers.

Yamaguchi, Kazuki [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan) [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Feril, Loreto B., E-mail: ferilism@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Tachibana, Katsuro [Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Takahashi, Akira; Matsuo, Miki; Endo, Hitomi [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Harada, Yoshimi [Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan); Nakayama, Juichiro [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan)] [Department of Dermatology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka City 814-0180 (Japan)

2011-07-22

47

Resveratrol inhibits LXR?-dependent hepatic lipogenesis through novel antioxidant Sestrin2 gene induction  

SciTech Connect

Liver X receptor-? (LXR?), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, regulates de novo fatty acid synthesis that leads to stimulate hepatic steatosis. Although, resveratrol has beneficial effects on metabolic disease, it is not known whether resveratrol affects LXR?-dependent lipogenic gene expression. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-mediated lipogenesis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Resveratrol inhibited the ability of LXR? to activate sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and thereby inhibited target gene expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, resveratrol decreased LXR?–RXR? DNA binding activity and LXRE-luciferase transactivation. Resveratrol is known to activate Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although its precise mechanism of action remains controversial. We found that the ability of resveratrol to repress T0901317-induced SREBP-1c expression was not dependent on AMPK and Sirt1. It is well established that hepatic steatosis is associated with antioxidant and redox signaling. Our data showing that expression of Sestrin2 (Sesn2), which is a novel antioxidant gene, was significantly down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, resveratrol up-regulated Sesn2 expression, but not Sesn1 and Sesn3. Sesn2 overexpression repressed LXR?-activated SREBP-1c expression and LXRE-luciferase activity. Finally, Sesn2 knockdown using siRNA abolished the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-induced FAS luciferase gene transactivation. We conclude that resveratrol affects Sesn2 gene induction and contributes to the inhibition of LXR?-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. - Highlights: • We investigated the effect of resveratrol in LXR?-mediated lipogenesis. • Resveratrol attenuated the ability of the LXR?-mediated lipogenic gene expression. • Resveratrol’s effects on T090-induced lipogenesis is not dependent on Sirt1 or AMPK. • Sestrin2 induction by resveratrol contributes to the inhibition of the LXR? activity.

Jin, So Hee; Yang, Ji Hye; Shin, Bo Yeon; Seo, Kyuhwa; Shin, Sang Mi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Il Je, E-mail: skek023@dhu.ac.kr [MRC-GHF, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbukdo 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Sung Hwan, E-mail: shki@chosun.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15

48

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropryl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl{sup {minus}} transport in sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br{sup {minus}} uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatments, but not after treatments for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl{sup {minus}} transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability.

Sorscher, E.J.; Kirk, K.L.; Weaver, M.L.; Jilling, T.; Blalock, J.E.; LeBoeuf, R.D. (Univ of Alabama, Birmingham (United States))

1991-09-01

49

Differential Gene Expression for Investigation of Escherichia coli Biofilm Inhibition by Plant Extract Ursolic Acid  

PubMed Central

After 13,000 samples of compounds purified from plants were screened, a new biofilm inhibitor, ursolic acid, has been discovered and identified. Using both 96-well microtiter plates and a continuous flow chamber with COMSTAT analysis, 10 ?g of ursolic acid/ml inhibited Escherichia coli biofilm formation 6- to 20-fold when added upon inoculation and when added to a 24-h biofilm; however, ursolic acid was not toxic to E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio harveyi, and hepatocytes. Similarly, 10 ?g of ursolic acid/ml inhibited biofilm formation by >87% for P. aeruginosa in both complex and minimal medium and by 57% for V. harveyi in minimal medium. To investigate the mechanism of this nontoxic inhibition on a global genetic basis, DNA microarrays were used to study the gene expression profiles of E. coli K-12 grown with or without ursolic acid. Ursolic acid at 10 and 30 ?g/ml induced significantly (P < 0.05) 32 and 61 genes, respectively, and 19 genes were consistently induced. The consistently induced genes have functions for chemotaxis and mobility (cheA, tap, tar, and motAB), heat shock response (hslSTV and mopAB), and unknown functions (such as b1566 and yrfHI). There were 31 and 17 genes repressed by 10 and 30 ?g of ursolic acid/ml, respectively, and 12 genes were consistently repressed that have functions in cysteine synthesis (cysK) and sulfur metabolism (cysD), as well as unknown functions (such as hdeAB and yhaDFG). Ursolic acid inhibited biofilms without interfering with quorum sensing, as shown with the V. harveyi AI-1 and AI-2 reporter systems. As predicted by the differential gene expression, deleting motAB counteracts ursolic acid inhibition (the paralyzed cells no longer become too motile). Based on the differential gene expression, it was also discovered that sulfur metabolism (through cysB) affects biofilm formation (in the absence of ursolic acid). PMID:16000817

Ren, Dacheng; Zuo, Rongjun; González Barrios, Andrés F.; Bedzyk, Laura A.; Eldridge, Gary R.; Pasmore, Mark E.; Wood, Thomas K.

2005-01-01

50

Gene delivery of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) inhibits inflammation and atherosclerosis development in mice.  

PubMed

Chronic activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway contributes to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. We aimed to investigate whether enforced expression of negative regulators, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS3), inhibits harmful JAK/STAT-mediated responses and affects atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Adenovirus-mediated SOCS1 transgene expression impaired the onset and progression of atherosclerosis without impact on lipid profile, whereas SOCS3 was only effective on early atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, SOCS gene delivery, primarily SOCS1, attenuated STAT1 and STAT3 activation and reduced the expression of STAT-dependent genes (chemokine/chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and scavenger receptors) in aortic tissue. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques exhibit a more stable phenotype characterized by lower lipids, T cells and M1 macrophages and higher M2 macrophages and collagen. Atheroprotection was accompanied by a systemic alteration of T helper- and T regulatory-related genes and a reduced activation state of circulating monocytes. In vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages, SOCS gene delivery inhibited cytokine-induced STAT activation, pro-inflammatory gene expression, cell migration and proliferation. In conclusion, targeting SOCS proteins, predominantly SOCS1, to suppress pathological mechanisms involved in atheroma plaque progression and destabilization could be an interesting anti-atherosclerotic strategy. PMID:25604439

Recio, Carlota; Oguiza, Ainhoa; Mallavia, Beñat; Lazaro, Iolanda; Ortiz-Muñoz, Guadalupe; Lopez-Franco, Oscar; Egido, Jesus; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen

2015-03-01

51

NMD inhibition fails to identify tumour suppressor genes in microsatellite stable gastric cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancers frequently show chromosomal alterations which can cause activation of oncogenes, and/or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. In gastric cancer several chromosomal regions are described to be frequently lost, but for most of the regions, no tumour suppressor genes have been identified yet. The present study aimed to identify tumour suppressor genes inactivated by nonsense mutation and deletion in gastric cancer by means of GINI (gene identification by nonsense mediated decay inhibition) and whole genome copy number analysis. Methods Two non-commercial gastric cancer cell lines, GP202 and IPA220, were transfected with siRNA directed against UPF1, to specifically inhibit the nonsense mediated decay (NMD) pathway, and with siRNA directed against non-specific siRNA duplexes (CVII) as a control. Microarray expression experiments were performed in triplicate on 4 × 44 K Agilent arrays by hybridizing RNA from UPF1-transfected cells against non-specific CVII-transfected cells. In addition, array CGH of the two cell lines was performed on 4 × 44K agilent arrays to obtain the DNA copy number profiles. Mutation analysis of GINI candidates was performed by sequencing. Results UPF1 expression was reduced for >70% and >80% in the GP202 and IPA220 gastric cancer cell lines, respectively. Integration of array CGH and microarray expression data provided a list of 134 and 50 candidate genes inactivated by nonsense mutation and deletion for GP202 and IPA220, respectively. We selected 12 candidate genes for mutation analysis. Of these, sequence analysis was performed on 11 genes. One gene, PLA2G4A, showed a silent mutation, and in two genes, CTSA and PTPRJ, missense mutations were detected. No nonsense mutations were detected in any of the 11 genes tested. Conclusion Although UPF1 was substantially repressed, thus resulting in the inhibition of the NMD system, we did not find genes inactivated by nonsense mutations. Our results show that the GINI strategy leads to a high number of false positives. PMID:19563644

Buffart, Tineke E; Tijssen, Marianne; El-Bchiri, Jamila; Duval, Alex; Wiel, Mark A van de; Ylstra, Bauke; Meijer, Gerrit A; Carvalho, Beatriz

2009-01-01

52

Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Diverse Array of Pathways Inhibited by Nuclear Receptor SHP during Adipogenesis  

PubMed Central

Orphan receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NROB2) has been shown to be a metabolic regulator in pathways associated with several major aspects of the metabolic syndrome. However, the significance and transcriptional regulatory role of SHP in adipocyte differentiation remain unclear. Transcriptional profiles of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and early differentiating preadipocytes in response to SHP were systemically surveyed using Affymetrix Genome Array representing well-characterized 14,000 genes. Analysis revealed about 963 genes that were up- or down-regulated by more than 2-fold during differentiation and/or by the overexpression of SHP. These genes were organized into 4 clusters that demonstrated concerted changes in expression of genes controlling various aspects of the cellular events and metabolism. Quantitative PCR was employed to further characterize gene expression and led to the identification of several key regulators and stimulators of the adipogenic program as potential new SHP targets. Overexpression of SHP inhibited the differentiation process as well as the accumulation of neutral lipids within the cells. Our data suggests that SHP may function as a molecular switch that governs adipogenesis and a potent adipogenic suppressor that maintains preadipocytes in an undifferentiated state through inhibition of the adipogenic transcription factors and stimulators. Developing SHP agonist may promise a future treatment for obesity. PMID:19079622

Song, Guisheng; Park, Kyungtae; Wang, Li

2009-01-01

53

Light-controlled inhibition of malignant glioma by opsin gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Glioblastomas are aggressive cancers with low survival rates and poor prognosis because of their highly proliferative and invasive capacity. In the current study, we describe a new optogenetic strategy that selectively inhibits glioma cells through light-controlled membrane depolarization and cell death. Transfer of the engineered opsin ChETA (engineered Channelrhodopsin-2 variant) gene into primary human glioma cells or cell lines, but not normal astrocytes, unexpectedly decreased cell proliferation and increased mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, upon light stimulation. These optogenetic effects were mediated by membrane depolarization-induced reductions in cyclin expression and mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Importantly, the ChETA gene transfer and light illumination in mice significantly inhibited subcutaneous and intracranial glioma growth and increased the survival of the animals bearing the glioma. These results uncover an unexpected effect of opsin ion channels on glioma cells and offer the opportunity for the first time to treat glioma using a light-controllable optogenetic approach. PMID:24176851

Yang, F; Tu, J; Pan, J-Q; Luo, H-L; Liu, Y-H; Wan, J; Zhang, J; Wei, P-F; Jiang, T; Chen, Y-H; Wang, L-P

2013-01-01

54

The agouti gene product inhibits lipolysis in human adipocytes via a Ca2\\/-dependent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of the murine agouti gene results in obesity. The human homologue of agouti is expressed primarily in human adipocytes, and we have shown recombinant agouti protein to increase adipocyte intracellular Ca2\\/((Ca2\\/)i) and thereby stimulate lipogenesis. However, since recent data demonstrate that increasing adipocyte (Ca2\\/)i may also inhibit lipolysis, we have investigated the role of agouti-induced (Ca2\\/)i increases in regulating

BINGZHONG XUE; NAIMA MOUSTAID-MOUSSA; WILLIAM O. WILKISON; MICHAEL B. ZEMEL

55

Ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA inhibits gene expression in planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

population that is present in the adult planarian. The study of these organisms, classic experimental models for investigating metazoan regeneration, has been revitalized by the application of modern molecular biological approaches. The identification of thousands of unique planarian ESTs, coupled with large-scale whole-mount in situ hybridization screens, and the ability to inhibit planarian gene expression through double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic inter-

Phillip A. Newmark; Peter W. Reddien; Francesc Cebria; Alejandro Sanchez Alvarado

2003-01-01

56

Ibuprofen-induced inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoform gene expression and regression of rat mammary carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single dose of 75 mg\\/kg 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was administered to 50-day-old virgin female Sprague–Dawley rats and 100 days later, animals were randomized and provided with Teklad rodent chow mixed with a dose of 25 mg\\/rat\\/day ibuprofen for 35 days. Ibuprofen treatment reduced tumor volume (P<0.05) and significantly inhibited gene expression of both cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (P<0.02). These results indicate

Fredika M Robertson; Michelle L Parrett; Farahnaz S Joarder; Mary Ross; Hussein M Abou-Issa; Galal Alshafie; Randall E Harris

1998-01-01

57

Molecular relatedness of the polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein genes in Eucalyptus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants produce polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) as part of their defense against disease. PGIPs have leucine-rich\\u000a motifs, a characteristic shared by many proteins involved in plant resistance against pathogens. The objective of this study\\u000a was to clone and analyse the partial sequences of the pgip genes from five selected commercially important Eucalyptus species. Genomic DNA from E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. nitens

P. M. Chimwamurombe; A.-M. Botha; M. J. Wingfield; B. D. Wingfield

2001-01-01

58

Nitric oxide inhibits surfactant protein B gene expression in lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential constituent of pulmonary surfactant. In a number of inflammatory diseases of the lung, elevated nitric oxide (NO) levels are associated with decreased SP-B levels, suggesting that reduced SP-B levels contribute to lung injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO on SP-B gene expression in H441 and MLE-12 cells, cell lines with characteristics of bronchiolar (Clara) and alveolar type II epithelial cells, respectively. Results show that NO donors decreased SP-B mRNA levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in H441 and MLE-12 cells. The NO donors also antagonized dexamethasone induction of SP-B mRNA in H441 cells. NO donor inhibition of SP-B mRNA was blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranozyl-benzimidazole. NO donors decreased luciferase expression from a reporter plasmid containing -911/+41 bp of human SP-B 5'-flanking DNA in H441 and MLE-12 cells, indicating inhibitory effects on SP-B promoter activity. NO inhibition of SP-B mRNA levels was not blocked by LY-83583 and KT-5823, inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase and protein kinase G, respectively. Furthermore, cell-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP had no effect on SP-B mRNA levels. These data indicate that elevated NO levels negatively regulate SP-B gene expression by inhibiting gene transcription and that NO inhibits SP-B gene expression independently of cGMP levels. These data imply that reduced SP-B expression due to elevated NO levels can contribute to lung injury. PMID:12896877

Salinas, Darrell; Sparkman, Loretta; Berhane, Kiflu; Boggaram, Vijayakumar

2003-11-01

59

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus 1 gene expression by designer zinc-finger transcription factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicative cycle begins by binding of the viral activator, VP16, to a set of sequences in the immediate-early (IE) gene promoters. With the aim of inhibiting this cycle, we have constructed a number of synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding peptides by using recently reported methods. Peptides containing either three or six fingers, targeted to a viral

Monika Papworth; Michael Moore; Mark Isalan; Michal Minczuk; Yen Choo; Aaron Klug

2003-01-01

60

Excitation/inhibition balance and learning are modified by Dyrk1a gene dosage.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits in Down syndrome (DS) have been linked to increased synaptic inhibition, leading to an imbalance of excitation/inhibition (E/I). Various mouse models and studies from human brains have implicated an HSA21 gene, the serine/threonine kinase DYRK1A, as a candidate for inducing cognitive dysfunction. Here, consequences of alterations in Dyrk1a dosage were assessed in mouse models with varying copy numbers of Dyrk1a: mBACtgDyrk1a, Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey (with 3 gene copies) and Dyrk1a(+/-) (one functional copy). Molecular (i.e. immunoblotting/immunohistochemistry) and behavioral analyses (e.g., rotarod, Morris water maze, Y-maze) were performed in mBACtgDyrk1a mice. Increased expression of DYRK1A in mBACtgDyrk1a induced molecular alterations in synaptic plasticity pathways, particularly expression changes in GABAergic and glutaminergic related proteins. Similar alterations were observed in models with partial trisomy of MMU16, Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1Yey, and were reversed in the Dyrk1a(+/-) model. Dyrk1a overexpression produced an increased number and signal intensity of GAD67 positive neurons, indicating enhanced inhibition pathways in three different models: mBACtgDyrk1a, hYACtgDyrk1a and Dp(16)1Yey. Functionally, Dyrk1a overexpression protected mice from PTZ-induced seizures related to GABAergic neuron plasticity. Our study shows that DYRK1A overexpression affects pathways involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and influences E/I balance toward inhibition. Inhibition of DYRK1A activity offers a therapeutic target for DS, but its inhibition/activation may also be relevant for other psychiatric diseases with E/I balance alterations. PMID:24801365

Souchet, Benoit; Guedj, Fayçal; Sahún, Ignasi; Duchon, Arnaud; Daubigney, Fabrice; Badel, Anne; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Barallobre, Maria Jose; Dierssen, Mara; Yu, Eugene; Herault, Yann; Arbones, Mariona; Janel, Nathalie; Créau, Nicole; Delabar, Jean Maurice

2014-09-01

61

Inhibition of virus replication and induction of human tetherin gene expression by equine IFN-?1.  

PubMed

Type I interferons (IFNs) play important roles in the defense of host cells against viral infection by inducing the expression of a diverse range of antiviral factors. IFNs from different animals likely share similar features with human IFNs, and some of them have cross-species activities. Equine IFN-? was proved effective in both equine and human cells. However, the previous studies mostly focused on the inhibition of virus induced cytopathic effects. In this study, we used virus-specific assays to demonstrate the antiviral activities of equine IFN-?1 in both equine and human cells. Equine IFN-?1 inhibited the expression of viral structural proteins and the production of virions of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) in equine cells. In addition, equine IFN-?1 inhibited the production of EIAV virus-like particles (VLP) from human 293T cells. An IFN-inducible human gene, tetherin, was induced in 293T cells by equine IFN-?1. Its induction correlated with the inhibition of VLP release from the cell membrane. This result indicates that equine IFN-?1 shares a similar mechanism of action with human IFN-? in regulating antiviral genes expression in human cells. PMID:24144682

Hu, Zhe; Wu, Xingliang; Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xiaojun

2013-11-15

62

A549 cell proliferation inhibited by RNAi mediated silencing of the Nrf2 gene.  

PubMed

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common type of lung cancers, is resistant to initial chemotherapy intrinsically. The expressions of xenobiotic metabolism genes, antioxidants, and drug efflux proteins are increased in NSCLC. In addition, a redox-sensitive transcription factor named Nrf2 regulates the drug resistance via the expression of electrophile, oxidants detoxification enzymes and efflux mechanism. As was detected by real-time PCR, inhibiting Nrf2 expression through the transfection of shRNA plasmids in A549 cells significantly inhibits the expressions of glutathione pathway genes, antioxidants and multidrug resistance proteins. Using biochemical assays and free radical medical experiments in vitro, it was identified that the RNAi-mediated reduction of Nrf2 expression in lung cancer cells induces the generation of reactive oxygen species, decreases the level of reduced glutathione and results in an increase in the A549 cell proliferation inhibition rate. Thus, targeting Nrf2 activity in NSCLC could be a practical way to inhibit tumor growth and eliminate chemoresistance. PMID:25227109

Zhang, Bo; Xie, Chen; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Hanyin; Zhang, Hongying; Wang, Xiaoqin

2014-01-01

63

?-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression  

PubMed Central

Endocrine therapies have been successfully used for breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor ? (ER?) positive tumors, but ?40% of patients relapse due to endocrine resistance. ?-glucans are components of plant cell walls that have immunomodulatory and anticancer activity. The objective of this study was to examine the activity of ?-D-glucan, purified from barley, in endocrine-sensitive MCF-7 versus endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells. ?-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO but not water inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by BrdU incorporation with an IC50 of ?164±12 ?g/ml. ?-D-glucan dissolved in DMSO inhibited tamoxifen/endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 cell proliferation with IC50 values of 4.6±0.3 and 24.2±1.4 ?g/ml, respectively. MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells showed a higher IC50 ?464 ?g/ml and the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells was not inhibited by ?-D-glucan. Concentration-dependent increases in the BAX/BCL2 ratio and cell death with ?-D-glucan were observed in MCF-7 and LCC9 cells. PCR array analysis revealed changes in gene expression in response to 24-h treatment with 10 or 50 ?g/ml ?-D-glucan that were different between MCF-7 and LCC9 cells as well as differences in basal gene expression between the two cell lines. Select results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrating that ?-D-glucan increased RASSF1 expression in MCF-7 cells and IGFBP3, CTNNB1 and ER? transcript expression in LCC9 cells. Our data indicate that ?-D-glucan regulates breast cancer-relevant gene expression and may be useful for inhibiting endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation. PMID:24534923

JAFAAR, ZAINAB M.T.; LITCHFIELD, LACEY M.; IVANOVA, MARGARITA M.; RADDE, BRANDIE N.; AL-RAYYAN, NUMAN; KLINGE, CAROLYN M.

2014-01-01

64

Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits collagen alpha 1(I) gene expression in rat hepatic stellate cells through a G protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibits collagen gene expression in cultured fibroblasts. By binding to cell surface receptors, TNF-alpha promotes signals within the cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role played by G proteins in TNF-alpha-induced inhibition of collagen gene expression.METHODS: Effect of TNF-alpha on collagen alpha 1(I) messenger RNA (mRNA) level was

I Hernandez-Munoz; P de la Torre; JA Sanchez-Alcazar; I Garcia; E Santiago; MT Munoz-Yague; JA Solis-Herruzo

1997-01-01

65

The Imprinted Gene PEG3 Inhibits Wnt Signaling and Regulates Glioma Growth*  

PubMed Central

The imprinted gene PEG3 confers parenting and sexual behaviors, alters growth and development, and regulates apoptosis. However, a molecular mechanism that can account for the diverse functions of Peg3/Pw1 is not known. To elucidate Peg3-regulated pathways, we performed a functional screen in zebrafish. Enforced overexpression of PEG3 mRNA during zebrafish embryogenesis decreased ?-catenin protein expression and inhibited Wnt-dependent tail development. Peg3/Pw1 also inhibited Wnt signaling in human cells by binding to ?-catenin and promoting its degradation via a p53/Siah1-dependent, GSK3?-independent proteasomal pathway. The inhibition of the Wnt pathway by Peg3/Pw1 suggested a role in tumor suppression. Hypermethylation of the PEG3 promoter in primary human gliomas led to a loss of imprinting and decreased PEG3 mRNA expression that correlated with tumor grade. The decrease in Peg3/Pw1 protein expression increased ?-catenin, promoted proliferation, and inhibited p53-dependent apoptosis in human CD133+ glioma stem cells. Thus, mammalian imprinting utilizes Peg3/Pw1 to co-opt the Wnt pathway, thereby regulating development and glioma growth. PMID:20064927

Jiang, Xiuli; Yu, Yi; Yang, Hong Wei; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Frado, Laura; Johnson, Mark D.

2010-01-01

66

Stably paused genes revealed through inhibition of transcription initiation by the TFIIH inhibitor triptolide.  

PubMed

Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in metazoans is regulated in several steps, including preinitiation complex (PIC) formation, initiation, Pol II escape, productive elongation, cotranscriptional RNA processing, and termination. Genome-wide studies have demonstrated that the phenomenon of promoter-bound Pol II pausing is widespread, especially for genes involved in developmental and stimulus-responsive pathways. However, a mechanistic understanding of the paused Pol II state at promoters is limited. For example, at a global level, it is unclear to what extent the engaged paused Pol II is stably tethered to the promoter or undergoes rapid cycles of initiation and termination. Here we used the small molecule triptolide (TPL), an XPB/TFIIH inhibitor, to block transcriptional initiation and then measured Pol II occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). This inhibition of initiation enabled us to investigate different states of paused Pol II. Specifically, our global analysis revealed that most genes with paused Pol II, as defined by a pausing index, show significant clearance of Pol II during the period of TPL treatment. Our study further identified a group of genes with unexpectedly stably paused Pol II, with unchanged Pol II occupancy even after 1 h of inhibition of initiation. This group of genes constitutes a small portion of all paused genes defined by the conventional criterion of pausing index. These findings could pave the way for evaluating the contribution of different elongation/pausing factors on different states of Pol II pausing in developmental and other stimulus-responsive pathways. PMID:25561494

Chen, Fei; Gao, Xin; Shilatifard, Ali

2015-01-01

67

Prediction on the Inhibition Ratio of Pyrrolidine Derivatives on Matrix Metalloproteinase Based on Gene Expression Programming  

PubMed Central

Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) were developed to predict the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase via heuristic method (HM) and gene expression programming (GEP). The descriptors of 33 pyrrolidine derivatives were calculated by the software CODESSA, which can calculate quantum chemical, topological, geometrical, constitutional, and electrostatic descriptors. HM was also used for the preselection of 5 appropriate molecular descriptors. Linear and nonlinear QSAR models were developed based on the HM and GEP separately and two prediction models lead to a good correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.93 and 0.94. The two QSAR models are useful in predicting the inhibition ratio of pyrrolidine derivatives on matrix metalloproteinase during the discovery of new anticancer drugs and providing theory information for studying the new drugs. PMID:24971318

Li, Yuqin; You, Guirong; Jia, Baoxiu; Si, Hongzong; Yao, Xiaojun

2014-01-01

68

Relief of amplification inhibition in PCR with bovine serum albumin or T4 gene 32 protein  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) or T4 gene 32 proteins (gp32) to PCR were evaluated with reaction mixtures containing substances that inhibit amplification. Whereas 10- to 1,000-fold more FeCl{sub 3}, hemin, fulvic acids, humic acids, tannic acids, or extracts from feces, freshwater, or marine water were accommodated in PCR when either 400 ng of BSA per {mu}l was included in the reactions, neither BSA nor gp32 relieved interference significantly when minimum inhibitory levels of bile salts, bilirubin, EDTA, NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or Triton X-100 were present. Use of BSA and gp32 together offered no more relief of inhibition than either alone at its optimal level, and neither protein had any noticeable effect on amplification in the absence of inhibitors. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Kreader, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-03-01

69

Vaccinia Virus Inhibits NF-?B-Dependent Gene Expression Downstream of p65 Translocation  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators and type I interferon. Consequently, viruses have evolved many mechanisms to block its activation. The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes numerous inhibitors of NF-?B activation that target multiple points in the signaling pathway. A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-?B activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. In this study, we constructed a recombinant vv811 lacking the recently described NF-?B inhibitor A49 (vv811?A49), yielding a virus that lacked all currently described inhibitors downstream of TNF-? and IL-1?. Unlike vv811, vv811?A49 no longer inhibited degradation of the phosphorylated inhibitor of ?B? and p65 translocated into the nucleus. However, despite this translocation, vv811?A49 still inhibited TNF-?- and IL-1?-induced NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. This inhibition did not require late viral gene expression. These findings indicate the presence of another inhibitor of NF-?B that is expressed early during infection and acts by a novel mechanism downstream of p65 translocation into the nucleus. PMID:24371075

Sumner, Rebecca P.; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Veyer, David L.

2014-01-01

70

Cycloheximide inhibition of delayed early gene expression in baculovirus-infected cells  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Z7Ljc ~x . t. t. c-4-'-- Linda A. G(i ino (Chair of Committee) Ellen Collisson (Member) Karen-Beth Scholthof (Member) James Wild (Head of Department) Linda A. ino... (Chair of Genetics Faculty) May 1998 Major Subject: Genetics ABSTRACT Cycloheximide Inhibition of Delayed Early Gene Expression In Baculovirus-Infected Cells. (May 199g) Larry Dale Ross Jr. , B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee...

Ross, Larry Dale

2012-06-07

71

Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Survivin knockdown sensitized these cells to selenium growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. In nude mice bearing PC-3M xenografts, survivin knockdown synergizes with selenium in inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Selenium could inhibit the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but the effects were modest. The growth inhibition was not mediated by downregulating survivin expression. Survivin silencing greatly enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of selenium. PMID:20698994

2010-01-01

72

The inhibiting effect of 1·4 recombinant P chromosome of wheat- Agropyron cristatum addition line on the Ph gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

P chromosomes may carry a genetic system that inhibits the Ph gene in wheat. Abnormal chromosome synapsis in wheat-Agropyron cristatum addition line II-21-2 (additional 1·4 recombinant P chromosome) was observed in this study. The results of cytogenetics and\\u000a Ph1 gene amplification showed that the Ph1 gene was normal and the average number of quadrivalents or hexavalents was determined to be

GuoHui Yang; XinMing Yang; RuiHui Wang; AiNong Gao; LiHui Li; WeiHua Liu

2010-01-01

73

Rev-Erbs repress macrophage gene expression by inhibiting enhancer-directed transcription  

PubMed Central

Rev-Erb? and Rev-Erb? are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm1,2, metabolism3,4, and inflammatory responses5. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting NCoR/HDAC3 co-repressor complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes6-8, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here, we present evidence that in macrophages, Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby mRNAs, implying a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a method that quantifies nascent 5? ends (5?-GRO-Seq), we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for direct roles of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription. PMID:23728303

Lam, Michael T.Y.; Cho, Han; Lesch, Hanna P.; Gosselin, David; Heinz, Sven; Tanaka-Oishi, Yumiko; Benner, Christopher; Kaikkonen, Minna U.; Kim, Aneeza S.; Kosaka, Mika; Lee, Cindy Y.; Watt, Andy; Grossman, Tamar R.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Evans, Ronald M.; Glass, Christopher K.

2013-01-01

74

AAV-Mediated Gene Targeting Is Significantly Enhanced by Transient Inhibition of Nonhomologous End Joining or the Proteasome In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have clear potential for use in gene targeting but low correction efficiencies remain the primary drawback. One approach to enhancing efficiency is a block of undesired repair pathways like nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) to promote the use of homologous recombination. The natural product vanillin acts as a potent inhibitor of NHEJ by inhibiting DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Using a homology containing rAAV vector, we previously demonstrated in vivo gene repair frequencies of up to 0.1% in a model of liver disease hereditary tyrosinemia type I. To increase targeting frequencies, we administered vanillin in combination with rAAV. Gene targeting frequencies increased up to 10-fold over AAV alone, approaching 1%. Fah?/?Ku70?/? double knockout mice also had increased gene repair frequencies, genetically confirming the beneficial effects of blocking NHEJ. A second strategy, transient proteasomal inhibition, also increased gene-targeting frequencies but was not additive to NHEJ inhibition. This study establishes the benefit of transient NHEJ inhibition with vanillin, or proteasome blockage with bortezomib, for increasing hepatic gene targeting with rAAV. Functional metabolic correction of a clinically relevant disease model was demonstrated and provided evidence for the feasibility of gene targeting as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:22486314

Paulk, Nicole K.; Loza, Laura Marquez; Finegold, Milton J.

2012-01-01

75

Identifying candidate colon cancer tumor suppressor genes using inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) mechanism in cells results in stabilization of transcripts carrying premature translation termination codons. A strategy referred to as gene identification by NMD inhibition (GINI) has been proposed to identify genes carrying nonsense mutations. Genes containing frameshift mutations in colon cancer cell line have been identified using a modified version of GINI. To increase the

I Ivanov; K C Lo; L Hawthorn; J K Cowell; Y Ionov

2007-01-01

76

Silencing cathepsin S gene expression inhibits growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S is highly expressed in HCC cells with high metastatic potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits growth and invasion of HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits HCC-associated angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy. -- Abstract: Cathepsin S (Cat S) plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis by its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Our previous study suggested there could be a potential association between Cat S and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. The present study was designed to determine the role of Cat S in HCC cell growth, invasion and angiogenesis, using RNA interference technology. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences for the Cat S gene were synthesized and transfected into human HCC cell line MHCC97-H. The Cat S gene targeted siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cat S expression, leading to potent suppression of MHCC97-H cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These data suggest that Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Fan, Qi; Wang, Xuedi; Zhang, Hanguang; Li, Chuanwei [Department of Hepatobiliary and Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary and Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China); Fan, Junhua [Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China); Xu, Jing, E-mail: jxuapr@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary and Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China)] [Department of Hepatobiliary and Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021 (China)

2012-09-07

77

Auxin inhibits stomatal development through MONOPTEROS repression of a mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll  

PubMed Central

Plants, as sessile organisms, must coordinate various physiological processes to adapt to ever-changing surrounding environments. Stomata, the epidermal pores facilitating gas and water exchange, play important roles in optimizing photosynthetic efficiency and adaptability. Stomatal development is under the control of an intrinsic program mediated by a secretory peptide gene family—namely, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR, including positively acting STOMAGEN/EPFL9. The phytohormone brassinosteroids and environment factor light also control stomatal production. However, whether auxin regulates stomatal development and whether peptide signaling is coordinated with auxin signaling in the regulation of stomatal development remain largely unknown. Here we show that auxin negatively regulates stomatal development through MONOPTEROS (also known as ARF5) repression of the mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll. Through physiological, genetic, transgenic, biochemical, and molecular analyses, we demonstrate that auxin inhibits stomatal development through the nuclear receptor TIR1/AFB-mediated signaling, and that MONOPTEROS directly binds to the STOMAGEN promoter to suppress its expression in mesophyll and inhibit stomatal development. Our results provide a paradigm of cross-talk between phytohormone auxin and peptide signaling in the regulation of stomatal production. PMID:25002510

Zhang, Jing-Yi; He, Sheng-Bo; Li, Ling; Yang, Hong-Quan

2014-01-01

78

Auxin inhibits stomatal development through MONOPTEROS repression of a mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll.  

PubMed

Plants, as sessile organisms, must coordinate various physiological processes to adapt to ever-changing surrounding environments. Stomata, the epidermal pores facilitating gas and water exchange, play important roles in optimizing photosynthetic efficiency and adaptability. Stomatal development is under the control of an intrinsic program mediated by a secretory peptide gene family--namely, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR, including positively acting STOMAGEN/EPFL9. The phytohormone brassinosteroids and environment factor light also control stomatal production. However, whether auxin regulates stomatal development and whether peptide signaling is coordinated with auxin signaling in the regulation of stomatal development remain largely unknown. Here we show that auxin negatively regulates stomatal development through MONOPTEROS (also known as ARF5) repression of the mobile peptide gene STOMAGEN in mesophyll. Through physiological, genetic, transgenic, biochemical, and molecular analyses, we demonstrate that auxin inhibits stomatal development through the nuclear receptor TIR1/AFB-mediated signaling, and that MONOPTEROS directly binds to the STOMAGEN promoter to suppress its expression in mesophyll and inhibit stomatal development. Our results provide a paradigm of cross-talk between phytohormone auxin and peptide signaling in the regulation of stomatal production. PMID:25002510

Zhang, Jing-Yi; He, Sheng-Bo; Li, Ling; Yang, Hong-Quan

2014-07-22

79

Inhibition of activated Ras suppresses multiple oncogenic Hub genes in human epithelial tumors.  

PubMed

Cancer cells may involve diverse mutations, but they often rely on continued expression of a single oncoprotein for survival, as a response to targeting this protein. Generally, Ras is overexpressed in human epithelial tumors and cancellation of activated Ras inhibits carcinoma cell proliferation and differentiation ability, and induces apoptotosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms of inhibition of activated Ras that suppress the malignancy activity of human epithelial tumors remain to be illuminated. We utilized text-mining of MEDLINE abstracts with natural language processing to establish the Ras biologic association network, and identified several interactions of this network with the Ras pathway. Our investigation not only examined the expression of Ras and Hub genes (PIK3CA, MDM2, CCND1, EGFR, JUN, MYC, VEGFA, ERK1 and ERK2) but also confirmed inhibition of activated Ras reduced expression of multiple oncogene in vitro studies. Our studies provide strong support for the conclusion that cancellation of activated Ras specifically regulates defective Ras pathways in human tumor cells. PMID:24993178

Cao, Lei; Wang, Ping; Luo, Hui; Wang, Xi-Rui; Wang, Xie-Feng; Zhang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Ying-Yi; Yao, Lei; Liu, Ning; You, Yong-Ping

2014-10-01

80

Black Raspberry Components Inhibit Proliferation, Induce Apoptosis and Modulate Gene Expression in Rat Esophageal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

We have shown that a diet containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) inhibits the development of chemically-induced cancer in the rat esophagus. To provide insights into possible mechanisms by which BRB inhibit esophageal carcinogenesis, we evaluated an ethanol (EtOH) extract of BRB, and two component anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside) in BRB, for their effects on growth, apoptosis and gene expression in rat esophageal epithelial cell lines. The EtOH extract and both anthocyanins selectively caused significant growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a highly tumorigenic cell line (RE-149 DHD) but not in a weakly tumorigenic line (RE-149). The uptake of anthocyanins from the EtOH extract into RE-149 DHD cells far exceeded their uptake into RE-149 cells, which may have accounted for the selective effects of the extract on growth and apoptosis of RE-149 DHD cells. The growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were enhanced by the daily addition of the EtOH extract and the anthocyanins to the medium. Interestingly, the EtOH extract did not alter cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression in RE-149 DHD cells whereas, both anthocyanins down-regulated the expressions of these genes. This differential effect may have been related to the relative amounts of anthocyanins in the extract versus when they were added individually to the medium. We conclude that the selective effects of the EtOH extract on growth and apoptosis of highly tumorigenic rat esophageal epithelial cells in vitro may be due to preferential uptake and retention of its component anthocyanins, and this may also be responsible for the greater inhibitory effects of freeze-dried whole berries on tumor cells in vivo. PMID:20155622

Zikri, Nancy N.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Wang, Li-Shu; Lechner, John F.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stoner, Gary D.

2010-01-01

81

Fibroblast growth factor 7 inhibits cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase gene expression in hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 strongly and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP7A1 in hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF7 suppresses the expression of CYP7A1 via FGFR2 and downstream JNK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blocking FGF7 abrogates HSC-induced inhibition of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes. -- Abstract: Cholesterol 7{alpha}-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Transcription of the CYP7A1 gene is regulated by bile acids, nuclear receptors and cytokines. Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) secreted from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) during chronic liver fibrosis regulates hepatocyte survival and liver regeneration. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrotic mouse liver, we demonstrated that the expression of CYP7A1 was largely decreased while the expression of FGF7 was significantly increased. We further demonstrated that FGF7 inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown study by short interfering RNA, kinase inhibition and phosphorylation assays revealed that the suppression of CYP7A1 expression by FGF7 was mediated by FGFR2 and its downstream JNK signaling cascade. The FGF7 neutralizing antibody restored CYP7A1 expression in Hep3B cells treated with conditioned medium from HSC. In summary, the data suggest that FGF7 is a novel regulator of CYP7A1 expression in hepatocytes and may prevent hepatocytes from accumulating toxic bile acids during liver injury and fibrosis.

Sun, Zhichao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yu, Xuemei [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wu, Weibin; Jia, Dongwei; Chen, Yinle; Ji, Lingling; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Yintao [Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Lili [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Endocrinology, Fengxian Central Hospital, Shanghai (China); Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ren, Shifang, E-mail: renshifang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Songwen, E-mail: songwenzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2012-07-13

82

Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.  

PubMed

Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein are major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.), used in Chinese herbal medicine, and found to have antitumor properties including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous studies also showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. However, the detail regarding emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein affecting migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are not clear. In the present study, we investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibited migration and invasion of SCC-4 cells. Herein, we demonstrate that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit the protein levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) but did not affect gene expression of MMP-2, however, they inhibited the gene expression of MMP-9 and all also inhibited the migration and invasion of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. MMP-9 (gelatinase-B) plays an important role and is the most associated with tumor migration, invasion and metastasis in various human cancers. Results from zymography and Western blotting showed that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein treatment decrease the levels of MMP-2, urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of inhibition of associated protein levels and gene expression of migration and invasion in SCC-4 cells are emodin >aloe-emodin >rhein. Our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit tongue cancers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that molecular targeting of MMP-9 mRNA expression by emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein might be a useful strategy for chemo-prevention and/or chemo-therapeutics of tongue cancers. PMID:20372784

Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Weng, Shu-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

2010-05-01

83

A rabbitpox virus serpin gene controls host range by inhibiting apoptosis in restrictive cells.  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses are unique among viruses in encoding members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Orthopoxviruses contain three serpins, designated SPI-1, SPI-2, and SPI-3. SPI-1 encodes a 40-kDa protein that is required for the replication of rabbitpox virus (RPV) in PK-15 or A549 cells in culture (A. N. Ali, P. C. Turner, M. A. Brooks, and R. W. Moyer, Virology 202:305-314, 1994). Examination of nonpermissive human A549 cells infected with an RPV mutant disrupted in the SPI-1 gene (RPV delta SPI-1) suggests there are no gross defects in protein or DNA synthesis. The proteolytic processing of late viral structural proteins, a feature of orthopoxvirus infections associated with the maturation of virus particles, also appears relatively normal. However, very few mature virus particles of any kind are produced compared with the level found in infections with wild-type RPV. Morphological examination of RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells, together with an observed fragmentation of cellular DNA, suggests that the host range defect is associated with the onset of apoptosis. Apoptosis is seen only in RPV delta SPI-1 infection of nonpermissive (A549 or PK-15) cells and is absent in all wild-type RPV infections and RPV delta SPI-2 mutant infections examined to date. Although the SPI-1 gene is expressed early, before DNA replication, the triggering apoptotic event occurs late in the infection, as RPV delta SPI-1-infected A549 cells do not undergo apoptosis when infections are carried out in the presence of cytosine arabinoside. While the SPI-2 (crmA) gene, when transfected into cells, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, our experiments provide the first indication that a poxvirus serpin protein can inhibit apoptosis during a poxvirus infection. PMID:7494278

Brooks, M A; Ali, A N; Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

1995-01-01

84

[Cadmium induces p53-dependent apoptosis through the inhibition of Ube2d family gene expression].  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd), a harmful metal, exerts severe toxic effects on various tissues such as those in the kidney, liver, lung, and bone. In particular, renal toxicity with damage to proximal tubule cells is caused by chronic exposure to Cd. However, the molecular mechanism underlying chronic Cd renal toxicity remains to be understood. In this review, we present our recent findings since we examined to search for the target molecules involved in the renal toxicity of Cd using toxicogenomics. In NRK-52E rat renal tubular epithelial cells, we found using DNA microarrays that Cd suppressed the expression of the gene encoding Ube2d4, a member of the Ube2d family. The Ube2d family consists of selective ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes associated with p53 degradation. Moreover, Cd suppressed the expressions of genes encoding all Ube2d family members (Ube2d1/2/3/4) prior to the appearance of cytotoxicity in NRK-52E cells. Cd markedly increased p53 protein level and induced p53 phosphorylation and apoptosis in the cells. In vivo studies showed that chronic Cd exposure also suppressed Ube2d family gene expression and induced p53 accumulation and apoptosis in the renal tubules of the mouse kidney. These findings suggest that Cd causes p53-dependent apoptosis due to the inhibition of p53 degradation through the down-regulation of Ube2d family genes in NRK-52E cells and mouse kidney. Thus, the Ube2d family genes may be one of the key targets of renal toxicity caused by Cd. PMID:23095357

Tokumoto, Maki; Satoh, Masahiko

2012-01-01

85

Cetuximab inhibits the growth of mucinous ovarian carcinoma tumor cells lacking KRAS gene mutations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody (cetuximab) for the treatment of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. We analyzed EGFR protein expression and KRAS gene mutations in 5 mucinous ovarian carcinoma cell lines RMUG-L, RMUG-S, MN-1, OMC-1 and MCAS and evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of cetuximab on each. EGFR expression was observed in all cell lines except for MN-1 cells, and a KRAS gene mutation at codon 12 was detected only in the MCAS cell line. Cetuximab inhibited RMUG-L and OMC-1 cell growth in vitro and completely blocked RMUG-L tumor growth in vivo. On the other hand, cetuximab did not affect MCAS cell growth in vitro and only partially reduced the MCAS tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with cetuximab for mucinous ovarian carcinoma cells lacking a KRAS gene mutation. PMID:22246397

Sato, Naoto; Saga, Yasushi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Wang, Dongdong; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Takei, Yuji; Machida, Shizuo; Ozawa, Keiya; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

2012-05-01

86

psi , a plasmid-linked Rhizobium phaseoli gene that inhibits exopolysaccharide production and which is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strain of R. phaseoli cured of its symbiotic plasmid, pRP2JI, retained the ability to make exopolysaccharide (EPS). However, a region of pRP2JI, when cloned at an increased copy number in wide host-range vectors and transferred to this and other strains of Rhizobium, inhibited EPS synthesis. The gene responsible was termed psi (polysaccharide inhibition) and was located in a region

D. Borthakur; J. A. Downie; A. W. B. Johnston; J. W. Lamb

1985-01-01

87

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology  

SciTech Connect

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen-signaling proteins in pollen tubes from the lilly Agapanthus umbellatus. For the uptake of DNA pollen tubes represent a unique system since the growing tip is surrounded by a loose matrix of hemicellulose and pectins, exposing the plasma membrane7 and the first uptake of ODNs by pollen tubes was reported as early as 1994. A breakthrough in the employment of antisense ODN inhibition as a powerful approach in plant biology was recently presented through our work on intact barley leaves. As was illustrated by confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled ODNs, naked ODNs were taken up through the leaf petiole and efficiently imported into the plant cell and the nucleus. The work portrayed in that study demonstrate the applicability of antisense ODN inhibition in plant biology, e.g. as a rapid antecedent to time-consuming transgenic studies, and that it operates through RNase H degradation. We employed the antisense ODN strategy to demonstrate the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor in regulation of starch synthesis, and to depict a possible mechanism for sugar signaling in plants and how it might confer endosperm-specific gene expression during seed development. We also described the employment of the antisense ODN strategy for studies on in vitro spike cultures of barley. Here we present further evidence as to the value of the antisense ODN approach in plant biology by following the effects on starch branching enzyme (SBE) accumulation in barley leaves after suppression of individual SBE genes. In agreement with transcript analyses of SBE expression in barley leaves, a zymogram assay (Fig. 1) revealed that sucrose treatment of barley leaves increased the number of SBE activity bands as compared to sorbitol treatment. In the presence of antisense SBEI or SBEIIA ODNs, zymograms of sucrose-treated leaves displayed only a subset of these activities with bands in the top portion of the zymogram gel missing or diminished. With antisense SBEIIB ODN, all activity bands in the top portion of the gel as well as the lowest band were absent. Based on these data we provide a t

Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

2008-01-15

88

Human interleukin-10 gene inhibits acute rejection by triggering apoptosis in allograft vascular transplantation  

PubMed Central

The aim this study is to explore effect of IL-10 on apoptosis of VSMCs in allograft arterial transplantation rats, and to investigate mechanism. SD rats were divied into three groups, including control group (CN, with physiological saline), blank vector group (BV, with blank adenovirus) and combined gene group (CG, with adenovirus carried IL-10 gene). The isolated donor vascular was transfected with the adenovirus carried hIL-10 gene for 30 minutes by immersing method. Forty-five days post transplantation, the grafts were harvested. The allografts pathologioc changes were observed and the size of vascular intima and middle layer of allografts were measured. The expression of hIL-10 was detected by RT-PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The repression of Fas/Fasl in artery allografts was also examined by immunohistochemistry method. The results indicated that 45 days after transplantation, the intimal and middle hyperplasia ratio in CG group was significantly lower than that in CN and BV group (P < 0.05). The transgene expression of human interleukin-10 was significantly enhanced in CG group compared to CN and BV group by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (P < 0.05). The expression of Fas/FasL was higher in CG group compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The level of apoptotic smooth muscle cells were significantly increased in CG group compared to CN and BV group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, adenovirus mediated IL-10 expression could up-regulate Fas/FasL expression, induce smooth muscle cell apoptosis and alleviate angiosclerosis process. The IL-10 gene transfer to allograft artery could inhibit acute rejection reaction of allograft vascular transplantation. PMID:25337228

Liu, Haibo; Yang, Shunzhang; Sun, Xuejun; Chen, Tianbao

2014-01-01

89

HSV-mediated Gene Transfer of C3 transferase Inhibits Rho to Promote Axonal Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Although surgical re-implantation of spinal roots may improve recovery of proximal motor function after cervical root avulsion, recovery of sensory function necessary for fine motor coordination of the hand has been difficult to achieve, in large part because of failure of regeneration of axons into the spinal cord. In order to enhance regeneration, we constructed a non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV)-vector carrying the gene coding for bacterial C3 transferase (C3t). Subcutaneous inoculation of the vector into the skin of the forepaw one week after a dorsal C5-T1 rhizotomy resulted in expression of C3t in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and inhibition of Rho GTPase activity, resulting in extensive axonal regeneration into the spinal cord that correlated with improved sensory-motor coordination of the forepaw. PMID:22749877

Zhou, Zhigang; Peng, Xiangmin; Chiang, Peipei; Kim, Jeeyong; Sun, Xiankui; Fink, David J; Mata, Marina

2012-01-01

90

Exposure to Synthetic Gray Water Inhibits Amoeba Encystation and Alters Expression of Legionella pneumophila Virulence Genes.  

PubMed

Water conservation efforts have focused on gray water (GW) usage, especially for applications that do not require potable water quality. However, there is a need to better understand environmental pathogens and their free-living amoeba (FLA) hosts within GW, given their growth potential in stored gray water. Using synthetic gray water (sGW) we examined three strains of the water-based pathogen Legionella pneumophila and its FLA hosts Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. castellanii, and Vermamoeba vermiformis. Exposure to sGW for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition (P < 0.0001) of amoebal encystation versus control-treated cells, with the following percentages of cysts in sGW versus controls: A. polyphaga (0.6 versus 6%), A. castellanii (2 versus 62%), and V. vermiformis (1 versus 92%), suggesting sGW induced maintenance of the actively feeding trophozoite form. During sGW exposure, L. pneumophila culturability decreased as early as 5 h (1.3 to 2.9 log10 CFU, P < 0.001) compared to controls (?0 to 0.1 log10 CFU) with flow cytometric analysis revealing immediate changes in membrane permeability. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from L. pneumophila cells at 0 to 48 h after sGW incubation, and genes associated with virulence (gacA, lirR, csrA, pla, and sidF), the type IV secretion system (lvrB and lvrE), and metabolism (ccmF and lolA) were all shown to be differentially expressed. These results suggest that conditions within GW may promote interactions between water-based pathogens and FLA hosts, through amoebal encystment inhibition and alteration of bacterial gene expression, thus warranting further exploration into FLA and L. pneumophila behavior in GW systems. PMID:25381242

Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

2015-01-15

91

Inhibition of Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Gene Expression by Glucocorticoids Involves C/EBP?  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a negative acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, is responsible for the transport of glucocorticoids (GCs). It also modulates the bioavailability of GCs, as only free or unbound steroids are biologically active. Fluctuations in CBG levels therefore can directly affect GC bioavailability. This study investigates the molecular mechanism whereby GCs inhibit the expression of CBG. GCs regulate gene expression via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which either directly binds to DNA or acts indirectly via tethering to other DNA-bound transcription factors. Although no GC-response elements (GRE) are present in the Cbg promoter, putative binding sites for C/EBP?, able to tether to the GR, as well as HNF3? involved in GR signaling, are present. C/EBP?, but not HNF3?, was identified as an important mediator of DEX-mediated inhibition of Cbg promoter activity by using specific deletion and mutant promoter reporter constructs of Cbg. Furthermore, knockdown of C/EBP? protein expression reduced DEX-induced repression of CBG mRNA, confirming C/EBP?’s involvement in GC-mediated CBG repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) after DEX treatment indicated increased co-recruitment of C/EBP? and GR to the Cbg promoter, while C/EBP? knockdown prevented GR recruitment. Together, the results suggest that DEX repression of CBG involves tethering of the GR to C/EBP?. PMID:25335188

Verhoog, Nicolette; Allie-Reid, Fatima; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Smith, Carine; Haegeman, Guy; Hapgood, Janet; Louw, Ann

2014-01-01

92

Inhibition of contact dermatitis in animal models and suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by topically applied Flavonoid, Wogonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) is a down-regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression,\\u000a contributing to anti-inflammatory activityin vivo. For further characterization of modulatory activity on proinflammatory gene expressionin vivo, the effect of wogonin was examined in this experiment using animal models of skin inflammation. By topical application,\\u000a wogonin inhibited an edematic response as well as proinflammatory gene expression against contact

Hyun Lim; Hyun Pyo Kim

2004-01-01

93

Cloning, characterization and expression of the gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) of peach [ prunus persica (L.) Batch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Proteins (PGIPs) are plant proteins that counteract fungal Polygalacturonases (PGs), which are important virulence factors. As defense proteins, PGIP can efficiently limit fungal invasion. In this study, a full-length cDNA of PPGIP1 gene (peach PGIP gene copy no.1) has been cloned from peach [prunus persica (L.) Batch] variety ‘Okubo’, which is resistant to fungal diseases such as peach scab.

Fengshan Liang; Kaichun Zhang; Chunjiang Zhou; Fanna Kong; Jun Li; Bin Wang

2005-01-01

94

Quantification of allele-specific expression of a gene encoding strawberry polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Pyrosequencing((TM))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that allele-specific differences in gene expression are a common phenomenon. The extent to which differential allelic expression exists might be underestimated, due to the limited accuracy of the methods used so far. To demonstrate allele-specific expression, we investigated the transcript abundance of six individual, highly homologous alleles of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (FaPGIP) from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria

J. G. Schaart; L. Mehli; H. J. Schouten

2005-01-01

95

Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis enhancement of human cervical cancer cells by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction delivered double suicide genes  

PubMed Central

Successful gene therapy requires safe and efficient gene vectors and gene delivery methods. This study is to investigate the effects of double suicide genes on the proliferation and apoptosis of HeLa cells by using the ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). A lentiviral vector with the KDR promoter was constructed, packaged, and delivered into HeLa cells by UTMD. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency was 90.6 ± 3.1% and the drug-loading efficiency was 29.2 ± 0.9% assessed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation rates of HeLa cells were significantly inhibited when treated with dual-gene lentiviral vectors or lentiviral vector-loaded microbubbles plus UTMD (P < 0.05). Moreover, the inhibiting effects were enhanced along with the increased ultrasonic intensities and declined at 24 h post-irradiation. Additionally, in comparison with the control group, the apoptotic rates of HeLa cells were significantly elevated in the lentiviral vector group and the lentiviral vector microbubble groups (P < 0.05). The apoptotic rates were also elevated as the ultrasonic irradiation intensities were increased (P < 0.05). The results suggest that dual-gene lentiviral vector-loaded microbubbles inhibit proliferation and enhance apoptosis of cervical cancer cells.

Hao, Yi; Guo, Li; Abudula, Abulizi; Saidoula, Wuliyati; Guo, Xia

2014-01-01

96

Algal sulfated carrageenan inhibits proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis regulatory genes.  

PubMed

Marine algae are prolific sources of sulfated polysaccharides, which may explain the low incidence of certain cancers in countries that traditionally consume marine food. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of non?skin cancer in females. In this study, extracted sulfated carrageenan (ESC), predominantly consisting of ??carrageenan extracted from the red alga Laurencia papillosa, was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The biological effects of the identified extract were investigated and its potential cytotoxic activity was tested against the MDA?MB?231 cancer cell line. The biological biometer of the inhibitory concentration of the polysaccharide?treated MDA?MB?231 cells was determined as 50 µM. Treatment with 50 µM ESC inhibited cell proliferation and promptly induced cell death through nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Characterization of polysaccharide?treated MDA?MB?231 cell death revealed that induction of apoptosis occurred via the activation of the extrinsic apoptotic caspase?8 gene. The apoptotic signaling pathway was regulated through caspase?3, caspase?9, p53, Bax and Bcl?2 genes. These findings suggest that ESC may serve as a potential therapeutic agent to target breast cancer via prompting apoptosis. PMID:25384757

Murad, Hossam; Ghannam, Ahmed; Al-Ktaifani, Mahmoud; Abbas, Assef; Hawat, Mohammad

2015-03-01

97

Inhibition of virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by novel depsipeptides from a marine photobacterium.  

PubMed

During a global research expedition, more than five hundred marine bacterial strains capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria were collected. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these marine bacteria are also a source of compounds that interfere with the agr quorum sensing system that controls virulence gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Using a gene reporter fusion bioassay, we recorded agr interference as enhanced expression of spa, encoding Protein A, concomitantly with reduced expression of hla, encoding ?-hemolysin, and rnaIII encoding RNAIII, the effector molecule of agr. A marine Photobacterium produced compounds interfering with agr in S. aureus strain 8325-4, and bioassay-guided fractionation of crude extracts led to the isolation of two novel cyclodepsipeptides, designated solonamide A and B. Northern blot analysis confirmed the agr interfering activity of pure solonamides in both S. aureus strain 8325-4 and the highly virulent, community-acquired strain USA300 (CA-MRSA). To our knowledge, this is the first report of inhibitors of the agr system by a marine bacterium. PMID:22363239

Mansson, Maria; Nielsen, Anita; Kjærulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Wietz, Matthias; Ingmer, Hanne; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O

2011-12-01

98

A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) shows developmental regulation and pathogen-induced expression in strawberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) have been demonstrated to play a role in host defence in several plants. The PGIP now cloned from strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) showed a high degree of homology to other fruit PGIPs. The gene expression of strawberry PGIP was monitored in healthy leaves, flowers and fruit at different maturity stages. PGIP transcript levels were also analysed following fruit

Lisbeth Mehli; Jan G. Schaart; Trygve D. Kjellsen; Diem Hong Tran; Elma M. J. Salentijn; Henk J. Schouten; Tor-Henning Iversen

2004-01-01

99

Bornyl Cinnamate Inhibits Inflammation-Associated Gene Expression in Macrophage Cells through Suppression of Nuclear Factor-?B Signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

Formosan sweetgum (Liquidamber formosana) is an endemic tree species. Various parts of this tree are used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating pain, inflammation, and rheumatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of bornyl cinnamate, a cinnamic acid derivative from the essential oil of L. formosana. Pretreatment with bornyl cinnamate significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory molecules, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin-E2, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin-1? production, in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis revealed that the inhibition of the proinflammatory molecules occurred through the downregulation of their corresponding mediator genes. Immunofluorescence and luciferase reporter assays revealed that the inhibition of proinflammatory genes by bornyl cinnamate was caused by the suppression of nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor ?B. In addition, bornyl cinnamate increased the protein stability of the inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B, an endogenous repressor of nuclear factor ?B, through inhibition of its phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, bornyl cinnamate significantly blocked the lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of I-?B kinase ?, an upstream kinase of the inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B ?. Taken together, these results suggest that bornyl cinnamate could inhibit proinflammatory molecules through the suppression of the redox-sensitive nuclear factor ?B signaling pathway. PMID:25519833

Kumar, Kanthasamy Jayabal Senthil; Li, Justine; Vani, Muthuraj Gokila; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

2015-01-01

100

Effect of myeloperoxidase inhibition on gene expression profiles in HL-60 cells exposed to 1,2,4,-benzenetriol.  

PubMed

While it is known that benzene induces myeloid leukemia in humans, the mechanism has yet to be clarified. Previously, we suggested that myeloperoxidase (MPO) was the key enzyme because it promotes generation of powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) which, reacting with DNA, causes leukemogenesis. In this study, using a whole-human-genome oligonucleotide microarray to clarify the relationships between myelotoxicity of benzene and MPO, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of HL-60 human promyelocytic cell lines exposed to 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) with or without MPO inhibition. The microarray analysis revealed that short (1 h) and longer (4 h) exposure to BT changed the expression in HL-60 cells of 1,213 or 1,214 genes associated with transcription, RNA metabolic processes, immune response, apoptosis, cell death, and biosynthetic processes (|Z-score|> 2.0), and that these changes were dramatically lessened by MPO-specific inhibition. The presence of functionally important genes and, specifically, genes related to apoptosis, carcinogenesis, regulation of transcription, immune responses, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle regulation were further validated by real-time RT-PCR. Gene expression profiles along with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway annotation analysis suggest that BT-induced DNA halogenation by MPO is a primary reaction in the leukemogenesis associated with benzene. PMID:24530881

Miyahara, Emiko; Nishikawa, Takuro; Takeuchi, Toru; Yasuda, Kaori; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Horiuchi, Masahisa

2014-03-20

101

Differential expression of calcium transport genes caused by COMT inhibition in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of pregnant mice.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by concurrent development of hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. Preeclampsia-like genetic models were also developed by modification of preeclampsia-related genes, such as catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT). In this study, we induced COMT inhibition in mice during pregnancy in order to reproduce physiological conditions associated with preeclampsia. Expression of the gene known as hypoxia biomarker, HIF-1?, was highly induced in the placenta of this model. The over-expression of HIF-1? demonstrates that our experimental conditions were similar to those of preeclampsia. We measured the expression of several calcium transport genes (CTGs; TRPV5, TRPV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k) in the placenta, duodenum and kidney after COMT inhibition on gestation day 17.5 (GD 17.5). In addition, we evaluated the calcium transporters in the kidney, duodenum of non-pregnant female mice. Placental TRPV5, TRPV6 and PMCA1 expressions were down-regulated by COMT inhibitor (ro41-0960). In addition, the reduced PMCA1 expression in the placenta was reversed by calcium supplementation. Duodenal expressions of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 were decreased in COMT-inhibited mice, and recovered slightly after calcium supplementation. Renal expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 was also decreased by COMT inhibition, while it was reversed by calcium supplementation to the level of control. Duodenal- and renal calcium transporting genes, TRPV5, TPRV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k, were down-regulated by COMT treatment in female mice. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological changes observed in COMT inhibition were similar to symptoms of preeclampsia, which may be related to disturbance of calcium metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:25486511

Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2015-02-01

102

Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.  

PubMed

In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

2012-05-01

103

Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

2012-01-01

104

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus 1 gene expression by designer zinc-finger transcription factors  

PubMed Central

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicative cycle begins by binding of the viral activator, VP16, to a set of sequences in the immediate-early (IE) gene promoters. With the aim of inhibiting this cycle, we have constructed a number of synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding peptides by using recently reported methods. Peptides containing either three or six fingers, targeted to a viral promoter, were engineered as fusions with a KOX-1 transcription repression domain. These proteins bound to the HSV-1 IE175k (ICP4) promoter, in vitro, with nanomolar or subnanomolar binding affinity. However, in a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter system, only the six-finger protein was found to repress VP16-activated transcription significantly. Thus the longer array of zinc fingers is required to compete successfully against VP16, one of the most powerful natural activators known. We found that the HSV-1 replication cycle can be partially repressed by the six-finger peptide with the viral titer reduced by 90%. PMID:12574501

Papworth, Monika; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Minczuk, Michal; Choo, Yen; Klug, Aaron

2003-01-01

105

Natriuretic peptides inhibit angiotensin II-induced proliferation of rat cardiac fibroblasts by blocking endothelin-1 gene expression.  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to test the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a possible autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts, and to examine its interaction with cardiac natriuretic hormones. Expression of preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA by cultured cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using cDNA for rat ppET-1 as a probe. Angiotensin II (ANG II) and ET-1 transiently (30 min) increased steady-state ppET-1 mRNA levels in cardiac fibroblasts. Both ET-1 and ANG II significantly stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation into cardiac fibroblasts, whose effects were dose-dependently inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123), BQ123 also inhibited both ET-1- and ANG II-induced ppET-1 mRNA expression. Both atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP), which activate particulate guanylate cyclase, inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]thymidine incorporation stimulated by ANG II and ET-1. Sodium nitroprusside, a soluble guanylate cyclase activator, and 8-bromocyclic GMP, a membrane-permeable cGMP derivative, similarly inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]-thymidine incorporation. BNP was more potent than ANP to inhibit ANG II- and ET-1-stimulated DNA synthesis, whereas BNP and ANP were almost equipotent in stimulating cGMP generation in cardiac fibroblasts. Our data demonstrated that ANG II and ET-1 upregulate ET-1 gene expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts partly via cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism, and that natriuretic peptides inhibit ANG II-stimulated proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting ET-1 gene expression. Our data suggest the possible role of endogenous ET-1 as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts and its close interaction with natriuretic peptides in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis. Images PMID:7635942

Fujisaki, H; Ito, H; Hirata, Y; Tanaka, M; Hata, M; Lin, M; Adachi, S; Akimoto, H; Marumo, F; Hiroe, M

1995-01-01

106

Tandemly Duplicated Arabidopsis Genes That Encode Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Proteins Are Regulated Coordinately by Different Signal Transduction Pathways in Response to Fungal Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant proteins that counteract fungal polygalacturonases, which are important virulence factors. Like many other plant defense proteins, PGIPs are encoded by gene families, but the roles of individual genes in these families are poorly understood. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, two tandemly dupli- cated PGIP genes are upregulated coordinately in response to Botrytis cinerea infection,

Simone Ferrari; Donatella Vairo; Frederick M. Ausubel; Felice Cervone; Giulia De Lorenzo

2003-01-01

107

Selective down-regulation of tyrosinase family gene TYRP1 by inhibition of the activity of melanocyte transcription factor, MITF  

PubMed Central

Tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TYRP1/gp75) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT/TYRP2) belong to a family of melanocyte-specific gene products involved in melanin pigmentation. During melanocyte development expression of tyrosinase family genes is thought to be orchestrated in part by the binding of a shared basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor MITF to the M box, a regulatory element conserved among these genes. In transformed melanocytes, expression of tyrosinase and TYRPs is highly variable. Whereas TYR expression in melanoma cells is regulated by both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, TYRP1/gp75 transcription is often completely extinguished during melanoma tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of selective repression of TYRP1 transcription. Interestingly, in early stage melanoma cells TYRP1 mRNA could be induced by inhibition of protein synthesis. Transient transfection experiments with a minimal TYRP1 promoter showed that the promoter activity correlates with expression of the endogenous TYRP1 gene. Nucleotide deletion analysis revealed novel regulatory sequences that attenuate the M box-dependent MITF activity, but which are not involved in the repression of TYRP1. Gel mobility shift analysis showed that binding of the transcription factor MITF to the TYRP1 M box is selectively inhibited in TYRP1– cells. These data suggest that protein factors that modulate the activity of MITF in melanoma cells repress TYRP1 and presumably other MITF target genes. PMID:12136092

Fang, Dong; Tsuji, Yoshiaki; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

2002-01-01

108

Construction of a directed hammerhead ribozyme library: towards the identification of optimal target sites for antisense-mediated gene inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antisense-mediated gene inhibition uses short complementary DNA or RNA oligonucleotides to block expression of any mRNA of interest. A key parameter in the success or failure of an antisense therapy is the identification of a suitable target site on the chosen mRNA. Ultimately, the accessibility of the target to the antisense agent determines target suitability. Since accessibility is a function

Michael L. Pierce; Duane E. Ruffner

1998-01-01

109

Inhibitors of histone demethylation and histone deacetylation cooperate in regulating gene expression and inhibiting growth in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Abnormal activities of histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) and lysine deacetylases (HDACs) are associated with aberrant gene expression in breast cancer development. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between KDMs and HDACs in chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene transcription are still elusive. In this study, we showed that treatment of human breast cancer cells with inhibitors targeting the zinc cofactor dependent class I/II HDAC, but not NAD+ dependent class III HDAC, led to significant increase of H3K4me2 which is a specific substrate of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and a key chromatin mark promoting transcriptional activation. We also demonstrated that inhibition of LSD1 activity by a pharmacological inhibitor, pargyline, or siRNA resulted in increased acetylation of H3K9 (AcH3K9). However, siRNA knockdown of LSD2, a homolog of LSD1, failed to alter the level of AcH3K9, suggesting that LSD2 activity may not be functionally connected with HDAC activity. Combined treatment with LSD1 and HDAC inhibitors resulted in enhanced levels of H3K4me2 and AcH3K9, and exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Finally, microarray screening identified a unique subset of genes whose expression was significantly changed by combination treatment with inhibitors of LSD1 and HDAC. Our study suggests that LSD1 intimately interacts with histone deacetylases in human breast cancer cells. Inhibition of histone demethylation and deacetylation exhibits cooperation and synergy in regulating gene expression and growth inhibition, and may represent a promising and novel approach for epigenetic therapy of breast cancer. PMID:21452019

Vasilatos, Shauna N.; Boric, Lamia; Shaw, Patrick G.; Davidson, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

110

Inhibitors of histone demethylation and histone deacetylation cooperate in regulating gene expression and inhibiting growth in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Abnormal activities of histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) and lysine deacetylases (HDACs) are associated with aberrant gene expression in breast cancer development. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between KDMs and HDACs in chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene transcription are still elusive. In this study, we showed that treatment of human breast cancer cells with inhibitors targeting the zinc cofactor dependent class I/II HDAC, but not NAD(+) dependent class III HDAC, led to significant increase of H3K4me2 which is a specific substrate of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and a key chromatin mark promoting transcriptional activation. We also demonstrated that inhibition of LSD1 activity by a pharmacological inhibitor, pargyline, or siRNA resulted in increased acetylation of H3K9 (AcH3K9). However, siRNA knockdown of LSD2, a homolog of LSD1, failed to alter the level of AcH3K9, suggesting that LSD2 activity may not be functionally connected with HDAC activity. Combined treatment with LSD1 and HDAC inhibitors resulted in enhanced levels of H3K4me2 and AcH3K9, and exhibited synergistic growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Finally, microarray screening identified a unique subset of genes whose expression was significantly changed by combination treatment with inhibitors of LSD1 and HDAC. Our study suggests that LSD1 intimately interacts with histone deacetylases in human breast cancer cells. Inhibition of histone demethylation and deacetylation exhibits cooperation and synergy in regulating gene expression and growth inhibition, and may represent a promising and novel approach for epigenetic therapy of breast cancer. PMID:21452019

Huang, Yi; Vasilatos, Shauna N; Boric, Lamia; Shaw, Patrick G; Davidson, Nancy E

2012-02-01

111

SKI306X inhibition of glycosaminoglycan degradation in human cartilage involves down-regulation of cytokine-induced catabolic genes  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims SKI306X, a mixed extract of three herbs, Clematis mandshurica (CM), Prunella vulgaris (PV), and Trichosanthes kirilowii (TK), is chondroprotective in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA). The objectives of this study were to investigate its effect on interleukin (IL)-1?-induced degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and the basis of its action in human OA cartilage, as well as to screen for the presence of inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 in SKI306X and its component herbs, as well as in fractions from SKI306X. Methods Human OA chondrocytes and cartilage explants were obtained during total knee replacements and incubated with IL-1? ± oncostatin M with or without SKI306X or its component herb extracts. GAG degradation was assayed in cartilage explants using a commercial kit. Expression of genes involved in cartilage destruction was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction using chondrocyte RNA. SKI306X was fractionated by preparative liquid chromatography to test for the presence of inhibitors of MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4. Results SKI306X and PV inhibited IL-1?-induced GAG release from cartilage explants, and SKI306X, CM, PV, and TK inhibited IL-1?-induced MMP gene expression. Unexpectedly, SKI306X greatly stimulated IL-1? + oncostatin M-induced ADAMTS-4 gene expression, probably due to its TK component. Some fractions of SKI306X also inhibited ADAMTS-4 activity. Conclusions SKI306X and its herbal components inhibit GAG degradation and catabolic gene expression in human OA chondrocytes and cartilage explants. SKI306X likely also contains one or more ADAMTS-4 inhibitor. PMID:25228841

Choi, Choong Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Na, Young-In; Yoo, Hunseung

2014-01-01

112

The OsFOR1 gene encodes a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) that regulates floral organ number in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a cDNA clone, OsFOR1, from the immature panicles of rice. The OsFOR1 (Oryza sativa floral organ regulator 1) gene encodes a protein that contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. This domain comprises 10 tandem repeats of a canonical 24-amino acid LRR sequence. The structure and the number of LRRs for OsFOR1 are similar to those of polygalacturonase-inhibiting

Seonghoe Jang; Byongho Lee; Chanhong Kim; Soo-Jin Kim; Jieun Yim; Jong-Jin Han; Shinyoung Lee; Seong-Ryong Kim; Gynheung An

2003-01-01

113

Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide inhibits Candida albicans hyphae formation and alters gene expression during biofilm development.  

PubMed

Elucidation of bacterial and fungal interactions in multispecies biofilms will have major impacts on understanding the pathophysiology of infections. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Candida albicans hyphal development and transcriptional regulation, (ii) investigate protein expression during biofilm formation, and (iii) propose likely molecular mechanisms for these interactions. The effect of LPS on C. albicans biofilms was assessed by XTT-reduction and growth curve assays, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Changes in candidal hypha-specific genes (HSGs) and transcription factor EFG1 expression were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, respectively. Proteome changes were examined by mass spectrometry. Both metabolic activities and growth rates of LPS-treated C. albicans biofilms were significantly lower (P < 0.05). There were higher proportions of budding yeasts in test biofilms compared with the controls. SEM and CLSM further confirmed these data. Significantly upregulated HSGs (at 48 h) and EFG1 (up to 48 h) were noted in the test biofilms (P < 0.05) but cAMP levels remained unaffected. Proteomic analysis showed suppression of candidal septicolysin-like protein, potential reductase-flavodoxin fragment, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, hypothetical proteins Cao19.10301(ATP7), CaO19.4716(GDH1), CaO19.11135(PGK1), CaO19.9877(HNT1) by P. aeruginosa LPS. Our data imply that bacterial LPS inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. The P. aeruginosa LPS likely target glycolysis-associated mechanisms during candidal filamentation. PMID:23194472

Bandara, H M H N; K Cheung, B P; Watt, R M; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P

2013-02-01

114

Novel oligoamine analogues inhibit lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and induce re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and transcriptionally repressive histone modifications are associated with the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Lysine methylation is a dynamic, enzymatically-controlled process. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has recently been identified as a histone lysine demethylase. LSD1 specifically catalyzes demethylation of mono- and dimethyl-lysine 4 of histone 3, key positive chromatin marks associated with transcriptional activation. We hypothesized that a novel class of oligoamine analogues would effectively inhibit LSD1 and thus cause the re-expression of aberrantly silenced genes. Experimental Design Human colorectal cancer cells were treated with the oligoamines and changes in mono- and dimethyl-lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) and other chromatin marks were monitored. In addition, treated cells were evaluated for the re-expression of the aberrantly silenced secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) Wnt signaling pathway antagonist genes. Finally, the effects of the LSD1 inhibitors were evaluated in an in vivo xenograft model. Results Treatment of HCT116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro resulted in increased H3K4 methylation and re-expression of silenced SFRP genes. This re-expression is also accompanied by a decrease in H3K9me2 repressive mark. Importantly, co-treatment with low doses of oligoamines and a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor highly induces the re-expression of the aberrantly silenced SFRP2 gene and results in significant inhibition of the growth of established tumors in a human colon tumor model in vivo. Conclusions The use of LSD1-inhibiting oligoamine analogues in combination with DNMT inhibitors represents a highly promising and novel approach for epigenetic therapy of cancer. PMID:19934284

Huang, Yi; Stewart, Tracy Murray; Wu, Yu; Baylin, Stephen B.; Marton, Laurence J.; Perkins, Brandy; Jones, Richard J.; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.

2009-01-01

115

Reactivation of HIC-1 gene by saRNA inhibits clonogenicity and invasiveness in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC-1) is a tumor suppressor gene, which is epigenetically silenced in breast cancer. It is known that the loss of HIC-1, caused by promoter hypermethylation, is associated with tumor aggression and poor survival in breast carcinoma. It has been shown that small activating RNA (saRNA) targeting promoter sequences may induce gene re-expression. In the current study, saRNA was used to restore HIC-1 expression, and the effects on colony formation, invasiveness and the cell cycle in breast cancer cells were explored. dsHIC1-2998, an saRNA, exhibited activating efficacy on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. A clonogenicity assay showed that evident colony inhibition was induced via saRNA-mediated re-expression of HIC-1 in the two cancer cell lines. Reactivation of HIC-1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion, resulting in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in these cell lines. These findings suggest that HIC-1 may be a potential target in gene therapy for the treatment of breast cancer. saRNA may function as a therapeutic option for upregulating tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer. PMID:25435951

Zhao, Feng; Pan, Shengli; Gu, Yan; Guo, Shanyu; Dai, Qiancheng; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Wei

2015-01-01

116

Anacardic acid inhibits estrogen receptor alpha-DNA binding and reduces target gene transcription and breast cancer cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Anacardic acid (2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid) is a dietary and medicinal phytochemical with established anticancer activity in cell and animal models. The mechanisms by which anacardic acid inhibits cancer cell proliferation remain undefined. Anacardic acid 24:1?5 (AnAc 24:1?5) was purified from geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) and shown to inhibit the proliferation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive MCF-7 and endocrine-resistant LCC9 and LY2 breast cancer cells with greater efficacy than ER?-negative primary human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A normal breast epithelial cells, and MDA-MB-231 basal-like breast cancer cells. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in a cell-specific manner. AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited estradiol (E2)-induced estrogen response element (ERE) reporter activity and transcription of the endogenous E2-target genes: pS2, cyclin D1, and cathepsin D in MCF-7 cells. AnAc 24:1?5 did not compete with E2 for ER? or ER? binding, nor did AnAc 24:1?5 reduce ER? or ER? steady state protein levels in MCF-7 cells; rather, AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited ER-ERE binding in vitro. Virtual Screening with the molecular docking software Surflex evaluated AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with ER? ligand binding and DNA binding domains (LBD and DBD) in conjunction with experimental validation. Molecular modeling revealed AnAc 24:1?5 interaction with the ER? DBD but not the LBD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibited E2-ER? interaction with the endogenous pS2 gene promoter region containing an ERE. These data indicate that AnAc 24:1?5 inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in an ER-dependent manner by reducing ER-DNA interaction and inhibiting ER-mediated transcriptional responses. PMID:20197399

Schultz, David J.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinie S.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Isaacs, Susan M.; Dougherty, Susan M.; Imbert-Fernandez, Yoannis; Cunningham, Albert R.; Chen, Chunyuan; Klinge, Carolyn M.

2010-01-01

117

Gene Silencing of 4-1BB by RNA Interference Inhibits Acute Rejection in Rats with Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The 4-1BB signal pathway plays a key role in organ transplantation tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference (RNAi) on the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. The recombination vector of lentivirus that contains shRNA targeting the 4-1BB gene (LV-sh4-1BB) was constructed. The liver transplantation was performed using the two-cuff technique. Brown-Norway (BN) recipient rats were infected by the recombinant LVs. The results showed that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNAi downregulated the 4-1BB gene expression of the splenic lymphocytes in vitro, and the splenic lymphocytes isolated from the rats with liver transplantation. LV-sh4-1BB decreased the plasma levels of liver injury markers including AST, ALT, and BIL and also decreased the level of plasma IL-2 and IFN-? in recipient rats with liver transplantation. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting 4-1BB gene prolonged the survival time of recipient and alleviated the injury of liver morphology in recipient rats with liver transplantation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that gene silencing of 4-1BB by RNA interference inhibits the acute rejection in rats with liver transplantation. PMID:23484089

Shi, Yang; Hu, Shuqun; Song, Qingwei; Yu, Shengcai; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yin, Jun; Qin, Lei; Qian, Haixin

2013-01-01

118

The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

2006-01-01

119

Butylated hydroxyanisole stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression and inhibits neointima formation in rat arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound that is a potent inducer of phase II genes. Since heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a vasoprotective protein that is upregulated by phase II inducers, the present study examined the effects of BHA on HO-1 gene expression and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Methods: The regulation of HO-1 gene expression and vascular

Xiao-ming Liu; Mohammed A. Azam; Kelly J. Peyton; Diana Ensenat; Amit N. Keswani; Hong Wang; William Durante

120

Inhibition of TNF-?-induced MUC5AC mucin gene expression and production by wogonin through the inactivation of NF-?B signaling in airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether wogonin significantly affects MUC5AC mucin gene expression and production in human airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with wogonin for 30 min and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) for 24 h or the indicated periods. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression and mucin protein production were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. We found that incubation of NCI-H292 cells with wogonin significantly inhibited mucin production and down-regulated MUC5AC gene expression induced by TNF-? in a dose-dependent fashion. To elucidate the action mechanism of wogonin, effect of wogonin on TNF-?-induced NF-?B signaling pathway was investigated by western blot analysis. Wogonin inhibited NF-?B activation induced by TNF-?. Inhibition of IKK by wogonin led to the suppression of I?B phosphorylation and degradation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-?B-regulated gene expression. This, in turn, led to the down-regulation of MUC5AC protein production in NCI-H292 cells. Wogonin also inhibited the gene products involved in cell survival (Bcl-2) and proliferation (cyclooxygenase-2). These results suggest that wogonin inhibits the NF-?B signaling pathway, which may explain its role in the inhibition of MUC5AC mucin gene expression and production. PMID:23463646

Sikder, Md Asaduzzaman; Lee, Hyun Jae; Mia, Md Zakaria; Park, Su Hyun; Ryu, Jiho; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Min, Sang Yeon; Hong, Jang-Hee; Seok, Jeong Ho; Lee, Choong Jae

2014-01-01

121

TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast  

PubMed Central

Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. PMID:23551936

Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

2013-01-01

122

The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum suppresses breast-to-lung cancer metastasis through the inhibition of pro-invasive genes.  

PubMed

Breast cancer metastasis is one of the major reasons for the high morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. In spite of surgical interventions, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy, some patients are considering alternative therapies with herbal/natural products. In the present study, we evaluated a well-characterized extract from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) for its affects on tumor growth and breast-to-lung cancer metastasis. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pads of nude mice. GLE (100 mg/kg/every other day) was administered to the mice by an oral gavage for 4 weeks, and tumor size was measured using microcalipers. Lung metastases were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by DNA microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative PCR. Identified genes were silenced by siRNA, and cell migration was determined in Boyden chambers and by wound-healing assay. Although an oral administration of GLE only slightly suppressed the growth of large tumors, the same treatment significantly inhibited the number of breast-to-lung cancer metastases. GLE also downregulated the expression of genes associated with invasive behavior (HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, MCAM, I2PP2A and FN1) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gene silencing of HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, I2PP2A and FN1 by siRNA suppressed migration of MDA-MB?231 cells. Our study suggests that an oral administration of GLE can inhibit breast-to-lung cancer metastases through the downregulation of genes responsible for cell invasiveness. The anti-metastatic benefits of GLE warrant further clinical studies. PMID:24718855

Loganathan, Jagadish; Jiang, Jiahua; Smith, Amanda; Jedinak, Andrej; Thyagarajan-Sahu, Anita; Sandusky, George E; Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Sliva, Daniel

2014-06-01

123

Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes  

PubMed Central

Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semi-quantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid. PMID:25288936

Ahn, Soon Young; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Moon, Yong Sun; Yun, Hae Keun

2013-01-01

124

Nanoceria inhibit expression of genes associated with inflammation and angiogenesis in the retina of Vldlr null mice.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathological mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse (Vldlr-/-) has been identified as a model for AMD and in particular for retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). In this study we examined the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) that have been shown to have catalytic antioxidant activity, on expression of 88 major cytokines in the retinas of Vldlr-/- mice using a PCR array. A single intravitreal injection of nanoceria at P28 caused inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic growth factors including Tslp, Lif, Il3, Il7, Vegfa, Fgf1, Fgf2, Fgf7, Egf, Efna3, Lep, and up-regulation of several cytokines and anti-angiogenic genes in the Vldlr-/- retina within one week. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software to search for biological functions, pathways, and interrelationships between gene networks. Many of the genes whose activities were affected are involved in cell signaling, cellular development, growth and proliferation, and tissue development. Western blot analysis revealed that nanoceria inhibit the activation of ERK 1/2, JNK, p38 MAP kinase, and Akt. These data suggest that nanoceria may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AMD, RAP, and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23978600

Kyosseva, Svetlana V; Chen, Lijuan; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F

2013-11-01

125

Nanoceria inhibit expression of genes associated with inflammation and angiogenesis in the retina of Vldlr null mice  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathological mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor knockout mouse (Vldlr?/?) has been identified as a model for AMD and in particular for Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation (RAP). In this study we examined the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) that have been shown to have catalytic antioxidant activity, on expression of 88 major cytokines in the retinas of Vldlr?/? mice using a PCR array. A single intravitrial injection of nanoceria at P28 caused inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic growth factors including Tslp, Lif, Il-3, Il-7, Vegfa, Fgf1, Fgf2, Fgf7, Egf, Efna 3, Lep, and up-regulation of several cytokines and anti-angiogenic genes in the Vldlr?/?retina within one week. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software to search for biological functions, pathways, and interrelationships between gene networks. Many of the genes whose activities were affected are involved in cell signaling, cellular development, growth and proliferation, and tissue development. Western blot analysis revealed that nanoceria inhibit the activation of ERK 1/2, JNK, p38 MAP kinase, and Akt. These data suggest that nanoceria may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AMD, RAP, and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23978600

Kyosseva, Svetlana V.; Chen, Lijuan; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James J.

2013-01-01

126

Human DNA methyltransferase gene-transformed yeasts display an inducible flocculation inhibited by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) play an important role in establishing and maintaining the proper regulation of epigenetic information. However, it remains unclear whether mammalian DNMTs can be functionally expressed in yeasts, which probably lack endogenous DNMTs. We cotransformed the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the human DNMT1 gene, which encodes a methylation maintenance enzyme, and the DNMT3A/3B genes, which encode de novo methylation enzymes, in an expression vector also containing the GAL1 promoter, which is induced by galactose, and examined the effects of the DNMT inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZ) on cell growth. Transformed yeast strains grown in galactose- and glucose-containing media showed growth inhibition, and their growth rate was unaffected by 5AZ. Conversely, 5AZ, but not 2'-deoxycytidine, dose-dependently interfered with the flocculation exhibited by DNMT-gene transformants grown in glucose-containing medium. Further investigation of the properties of this flocculation indicated that it may be dependent on the expression of a Flocculin-encoding gene, FLO1. Taken together, these findings suggest that DNMT-gene transformed yeast strains functionally express these enzymes and represent a useful tool for in vivo screening for DNMT inhibitors. PMID:25511699

Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Takamune, Makiko; Furusawa, Hiroko; Honma, Masamitsu

2015-01-01

127

Quantification of allele-specific expression of a gene encoding strawberry polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) using Pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that allele-specific differences in gene expression are a common phenomenon. The extent to which differential allelic expression exists might be underestimated, due to the limited accuracy of the methods used so far. To demonstrate allele-specific expression, we investigated the transcript abundance of six individual, highly homologous alleles of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene (FaPGIP) from octoploid strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). We applied the highly quantitative Pyrosequencing method which, for the gene under study, detected allele frequency differences as small as 4.0 +/- 2.8%. Pyrosequencing of RT-PCR products showed that one FaPGIP allele was preferentially expressed in leaf tissue, while two other alleles were expressed in a fruit-specific way. For fruits that were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea a strong increase in overall FaPGIP gene expression was observed. This upregulation was accompanied by a significant change in FaPGIP allele frequencies when compared with non-treated fruits. Remarkably, in the five cultivars tested, the allele frequency in cDNA from the inoculated fruits was similar to that in genomic DNA, suggesting uniform upregulation of all FaPGIP alleles present as a result of pathogenesis-related stress. The results demonstrate that when Pyrosequencing of RT-PCR products is performed, novel allele-specific gene regulation can be detected and quantified. PMID:15659106

Schaart, Jan G; Mehli, Lisbeth; Schouten, Henk J

2005-02-01

128

Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Decreases Cholesterol Levels in Neuronal Cells by Modulating Key Genes in Cholesterol Synthesis, Uptake and Efflux  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as trichostatin A (TSA) are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism. PMID:23326422

Nunes, Maria João; Moutinho, Miguel; Gama, Maria João; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.; Rodrigues, Elsa

2013-01-01

129

The NF2 tumor suppressor gene product, merlin, mediates contact inhibition of growth through interactions with CD44.  

PubMed

The neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) gene encodes merlin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin-(ERM)-related protein that functions as a tumor suppressor. We found that merlin mediates contact inhibition of growth through signals from the extracellular matrix. At high cell density, merlin becomes hypo-phosphorylated and inhibits cell growth in response to hyaluronate (HA), a mucopolysaccharide that surrounds cells. Merlin's growth-inhibitory activity depends on specific interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of CD44, a transmembrane HA receptor. At low cell density, merlin is phosphorylated, growth permissive, and exists in a complex with ezrin, moesin, and CD44. These data indicate that merlin and CD44 form a molecular switch that specifies cell growth arrest or proliferation. PMID:11316791

Morrison, H; Sherman, L S; Legg, J; Banine, F; Isacke, C; Haipek, C A; Gutmann, D H; Ponta, H; Herrlich, P

2001-04-15

130

Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Populus deltoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular proteins that belong to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein superfamily. PGIPs inhibit fungal polygalacturonases (PGs) and promote accumulation of oligogalacturonides, which activate plant defense responses. PGIPs play important roles in resistance to infection of pathogens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were used to

Qiang Cheng; Youzhi Cao; Huixin Pan; Mingxiu Wang; Minren Huang

2008-01-01

131

Identification of functional toxin/immunity genes linked to contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) and rearrangement hotspot (Rhs) systems.  

PubMed

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is mediated by the CdiA/CdiB family of two-partner secretion proteins. Each CdiA protein exhibits a distinct growth inhibition activity, which resides in the polymorphic C-terminal region (CdiA-CT). CDI(+) cells also express unique CdiI immunity proteins that specifically block the activity of cognate CdiA-CT, thereby protecting the cell from autoinhibition. Here we show that many CDI systems contain multiple cdiA gene fragments that encode CdiA-CT sequences. These "orphan" cdiA-CT genes are almost always associated with downstream cdiI genes to form cdiA-CT/cdiI modules. Comparative genome analyses suggest that cdiA-CT/cdiI modules are mobile and exchanged between the CDI systems of different bacteria. In many instances, orphan cdiA-CT/cdiI modules are fused to full-length cdiA genes in other bacterial species. Examination of cdiA-CT/cdiI modules from Escherichia coli EC93, E. coli EC869, and Dickeya dadantii 3937 confirmed that these genes encode functional toxin/immunity pairs. Moreover, the orphan module from EC93 was functional in cell-mediated CDI when fused to the N-terminal portion of the EC93 CdiA protein. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the genetic organization of CDI systems shares features with rhs (rearrangement hotspot) loci. Rhs proteins also contain polymorphic C-terminal regions (Rhs-CTs), some of which share significant sequence identity with CdiA-CTs. All rhs genes are followed by small ORFs representing possible rhsI immunity genes, and several Rhs systems encode orphan rhs-CT/rhsI modules. Analysis of rhs-CT/rhsI modules from D. dadantii 3937 demonstrated that Rhs-CTs have growth inhibitory activity, which is specifically blocked by cognate RhsI immunity proteins. Together, these results suggest that Rhs plays a role in intercellular competition and that orphan gene modules expand the diversity of toxic activities deployed by both CDI and Rhs systems. PMID:21829394

Poole, Stephen J; Diner, Elie J; Aoki, Stephanie K; Braaten, Bruce A; t'Kint de Roodenbeke, Claire; Low, David A; Hayes, Christopher S

2011-08-01

132

Specific inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 reduces gene expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

ITF2357 (generic givinostat) is an orally active, hydroxamic-containing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, with broad anti-inflammatory properties and which has been used to treat children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. ITF2357 inhibits both Class I and II HDACs, reduces caspase 1 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the secretion of IL 1? and other cytokines at 25-100 nM; at concentrations >200nM, ITF2357 is toxic in vitro. ITF3056, an analogue of ITF2357, inhibits only HDAC8 (IC50 285 nM). Here we compared the production of IL 1?, IL 1?, TNF? and IL 6 by ITF2357 to that of ITF3056 in PBMC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Candida albicans or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies. ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced cytokines from 100 to 1000 nM; at 1000 nM, the secretion of IL 1? was reduced by 76%, TNF? by 88% and IL 6 by 61%. The intracellular levels of IL 1? were 30% lower. There was no evidence of cell toxicity at concentrations of ITF3056 (100 to 1000nM). Gene expression of TNF? was markedly reduced (80%) whereas IL 6 gene expression was 40% lower. Although anti-CD3/28 and Candida stimulation of IL 1? and TNF? was modestly reduced, IFN? production was 75% lower. Mechanistically, ITF3056 reduced the secretion of processed IL 1? independent of inhibition of caspase 1 activity; however, synthesis of the IL 1? precursor was reduced by 40% without significant decrease in IL 1? mRNA levels. In mice, ITF3056 reduced LPS-induced serum TNF? by 85% and IL 1? by 88%. These data suggest that specific inhibition of HDAC8 results in reduced inflammation without cell toxicity. PMID:25451941

Li, Suzhao; Fossati, Gianluca; Marchetti, Carlo; Modena, Daniela; Pozzi, Pietro; Reznikov, Leonid L; Azam, Tania; Abbate, Antonio; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A

2014-12-01

133

Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration  

PubMed Central

Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

2014-01-01

134

Antioxidative dietary compounds modulate gene expression associated with apoptosis, DNA repair, inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.  

PubMed

Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

2014-01-01

135

Characterization of the dry bean polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene family during Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Sclerotiniaceae) infection.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are leucine-rich repeat proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases. The interaction of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein with endopolygalacturonases limits the destructive potential of endopolygalacturonases and may trigger plant defense responses induced by oligogalacturonides. We examined the expression of fungal pg and plant Pvpgip genes in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stems infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to determine whether any of them are associated with the infection process. Transcriptional analysis was carried out by means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR or real-time PCR. The sspg1 gene was highly expressed during infection; sspg3 was regulated during the later phases of infection; sspg5 was more uniformly expressed during infection, whereas sspg6 was only weakly expressed. During the course of infection, Pvpgip1 transcripts were not detected at early stages, but they appeared 72 h post-inoculation. High levels of Pvpgip2 expression were observed during the initial phase of infection; the transcript peaked by 48 h post-inoculation and declined by 72 h post-inoculation. Pvpgip3 expression increased strongly at 96 h post-inoculation. Pvpgip4 was constantly present from 24 h post-inoculation until the end of the experiment. However, we detected higher levels of the Pvpgip4 transcript in the necrotic lesion area than in plants that had been mechanically wounded. Remarkably, only Pvpgip4 appeared to be moderately induced by mechanical wounding. These results provide evidence that endopolygalacturonases contribute to the infection process during host colonization by promoting the release of plant cell oligogalacturonides, which are powerful signaling molecules and may also activate plant defenses, such as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins. PMID:20533194

Oliveira, M B; Nascimento, L B; Junior, M L; Petrofeza, S

2010-01-01

136

fMRI Activation during Response Inhibition and Error Processing: The Role of the DAT1 Gene in Typically Developing Adolescents and Those Diagnosed with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DAT1 gene codes for the dopamine transporter, which clears dopamine from the synaptic cleft, and a variant of this gene has previously been associated with compromised response inhibition in both healthy and clinical populations. This variant has also been associated with ADHD, a disorder that is characterised by disturbed dopamine function as…

Braet, Wouter; Johnson, Katherine A.; Tobin, Claire T.; Acheson, Ruth; McDonnell, Caroline; Hawi, Ziarah; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Garavan, Hugh

2011-01-01

137

Identification of inactivating mutations in the JAK1, SYNJ2, and CLPTM1 genes in prostate cancer cells using inhibition of nonsense-mediated decay and microarray analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple analytical method that increases the efficiency of identifying mutant genes in cell lines after the inhibition of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). The approach assumes that the spectra of mutant genes differ between cell lines of the same tumor origin. Thus, by analyzing more than one cell line in parallel and taking into account not only changes

Michael R. Rossi; Lesleyann Hawthorn; Julie Platt; Tania Burkhardt; John K. Cowell; Yurij Ionov

2005-01-01

138

Cryptopleurine Targets NF-?B Pathway, Leading to Inhibition of Gene Products Associated with Cell Survival, Proliferation, Invasion, and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptopleurine, a phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloid, was known to exhibit anticancer activity; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Because the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcription factors control many physiological processes including inflammation, immunity, and development and progression of cancer, we investigated the effects of cryptopleurine on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced NF-?B activation pathway and on the expression of NF-?B-regulated gene products associated with many pathophysiological processes. Methodology and Principal Finding MDA-MB231, MDA-MB435, MCF-7, HEK293, RAW264.7 and Hep3B cells were used to examine cryptopleurine's effect on the NF-?B activation pathway. Major assays were promoter-reporter gene assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), in vitro immune complex kinase assay, real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and Matrigel invasion assay. Experiments documenting cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by MTT method and flow cytometry, respectively. The results indicated that cryptopleurine suppressed the NF-?B activation through the inhibition of I?B kinase (IKK) activation, thereby blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-?B alpha (I?B?) and the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of p65. The suppression of NF-?B by cryptopleurine led to the down-regulation of gene products involved in inflammation, cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Conclusions and Significance Our results show that cryptopleurine inhibited NF-?B activation pathway, which leads to inhibition of inflammation, proliferation, and invasion, as well as potentiation of apoptosis. Our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanisms and a potential application of cryptopleurine for inflammatory diseases as well as certain cancers associated with abnormal NF-?B activation. PMID:22768286

Cai, Xing Fu; Li, Donghao; Wu, Xue; Nan, Ji Xing; Lee, Jung Joon; Jin, Xuejun

2012-01-01

139

miR-125b inhibits hepatitis B virus expression in vitro through targeting of the SCNN1A gene.  

PubMed

microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, playing an important role in many diseases. However, reports concerning the role of miRNA in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are limited. miRNA chips were used to investigate miRNA changes during HBV infection in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis was used to explore possible miRNA and target genes during HBV infection. The expression of miR-125b and its potential target gene, sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1 alpha (SCNN1A), was further analyzed. A total of 136 miRNAs were analyzed in an HBV transient transfection model (HepG2-HBV1.3), and 78 miRNAs were differentially expressed in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with HepG2 cells. miR-125b expression was decreased in both HepG2-HBV1.3 and HepG2.2.15 cells, and ectopic expression of miR-125b inhibited HBV DNA intermediates and secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg. miR-125b also inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of SCNN1A. Using a dual luciferase reporter system, we found that SCNN1A was one of the targets of miR-125b. In this study, we found that miR-125b inhibits HBV expression in vitro by regulating SCNN1A expression. PMID:25173609

Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Juan; He, Yin; Zhan, Xue; Zhao, Ruiqiu; Huang, Yanfeng; Xu, Hongmei; Zhu, Zhaomin; Liu, Quanbo

2014-12-01

140

Oncogenic Forms of p53 Inhibit p53-Regulated Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant forms of the gene encoding the tumor suppressor p53 are found in numerous human malignancies, but the physiologic function of p53 and the effects of mutations on this function are unknown. The p53 protein binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner and thus may regulate gene transcription. Cotransfection experiments showed that wild-type p53 activated the expression of genes adjacent to

Scott E. Kern; Jennifer A. Pietenpol; Sam Thiagalingam; Albert Seymour; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein

1992-01-01

141

Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer by transfection of gef gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gef gene has cell-killing functions in Escherichia coli. To evaluate the feasibility of using this gene as a new strategy for cancer therapy, we transfected it in MCF-7 cells derived from breast cancer (MCF-7TG). The gef gene was cloned in a pMAMneo vector under the control of a mouse mammary tumour virus promoter, inducible by dexamethasone (Dex), and was

H Boulaiz; J Prados; C Melguizo; Á M García; J A Marchal; J L Ramos; E Carrillo; C Vélez; A Aránega

2003-01-01

142

Identification of a Zinc Finger Protein That Inhibits IL2 Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient activation of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene after antigen recognition by T lymphocytes is crucial for subsequent T cell proliferation and differentiation. Several IL-2 gene regulatory elements and binding factors necessary for activation of the IL-2 gene have been defined. However, little is known about negative regulation of IL-2 expression, which is likely to be important in the rapid shut-off

T. M. Williams; D. Moolten; J. Burlein; J. Romano; R. Bhaerman; A. Godillot; M. Mellon; F. J. Rauscher III; J. A. Kant

1991-01-01

143

A genomic screen for genes upregulated by demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibition in human colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aberrant hypermethylation of gene promoters is a major mechanism associated with inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes in cancer. We previously showed this transcriptional silencing to be mediated by both methylation and histone deacetylase activity, with methylation being dominant. Here, we have used cDNA microarray analysis to screen for genes that are epigenetically silenced in human colorectal cancer. By screening over 10,000

Hiromu Suzuki; Edward Gabrielson; Wei Chen; Ramaswamy Anbazhagan; Manon van Engeland; Matty P. Weijenberg; James G. Herman; Stephen B. Baylin

2002-01-01

144

A Dominant-Negative Herpesvirus Protein Inhibits Intranuclear Targeting of Viral Proteins: Effects on DNA Replication and Late Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

The d105 dominant-negative mutant form of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ICP8 (d105 ICP8), inhibits wild-type viral replication, and it blocks both viral DNA replication and late gene transcription, although to different degrees (M. Gao and D. M. Knipe, J. Virol. 65:2666–2675, 1991; Y. M. Chen and D. M. Knipe, Virology 221:281–290, 1996). We demonstrate here that this protein is also capable of preventing the formation of intranuclear prereplicative sites and replication compartments during HSV infection. We defined three patterns of ICP8 localization using indirect immunofluorescence staining of HSV-1-infected cells: large replication compartments, small compartments, and no specific intranuclear localization of ICP8. Cells that form large replication compartments replicate viral DNA and express late genes. Cells that form small replication compartments replicate viral DNA but do not express late genes, while cells without viral replication compartments are incapable of both DNA replication and late gene expression. The d105 ICP8 protein blocks formation of prereplicative sites and large replication compartments in 80% of infected cells and formation of large replication compartments in the remaining 20% of infected cells. The phenotype of d105 suggests a correlation between formation of large replication compartments and late gene expression and a role for intranuclear rearrangement of viral DNA and bound proteins in activation of late gene transcription. Thus, these results provide evidence for specialized machinery for late gene expression within replication compartments. PMID:11024141

McNamee, Elizabeth E.; Taylor, Travis J; Knipe, David M.

2000-01-01

145

Adenovirus-Mediated Prothymosin ? Gene Transfer Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis in Apoe-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Prothymosin ? (ProT) is involved in regulating expression of the oxidative stress-protective genes and it also exerts immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ProT gene transfer on atherosclerosis in endothelial cells and in ApoE-deficient mice. Adenoviruses encoding mouse ProT (AdProT) were used for the management of atherosclerosis. In vitro, the effects of ProT on antioxidant gene expressions and the protection effect against oxidant-mediated injury in endothelial cells were examined. In vivo, AdProT were administered intraventricularly into the heart of ApoE-/- mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of the aortic tissues were performed. Expressions of HO-1 and antioxidant genes in the aortic tissues were also determined. Our results demonstrated that ProT gene transfer increased antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, as well as reduced the reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells. Intraventricular administration of AdProT reduced the lesion formation, increased expressions of HO-1 and SOD genes, and reduced infiltrating macrophages in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice. This study suggests that ProT gene transfer may have the therapeutic potential for the management of atherosclerosis via inducing antioxidant gene expressions, eNOS expression and NO release, reducing ROS production and macrophage infiltration in endothelium. PMID:24719553

Chang, Meng-Ya; Yang, Yu-Shan; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Lee, Che-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Jui; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

2014-01-01

146

Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells  

PubMed Central

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake. PMID:24177567

Wang, Jian-Fa; Fu, Shou-Peng; Li, Su-Nan; Hu, Zhong-Ming; Xue, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Bing-Xu; Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

147

Interleukin-32? modulates promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger gene activity by inhibiting protein kinase C?-dependent sumoylation.  

PubMed

Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a proinflammatory cytokine. However, there is growing evidence that IL-32 also plays a mediatory role intracellularly. In this study, we present evidence that IL-32? modifies and inhibits promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a sequence-specific transcriptional regulator that regulates the expression of a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). We screened IL-32?-interacting proteins in a human spleen cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid assay, and investigated the functional relevance of the interaction between IL-32? and PLZF. We demonstrated that IL-32? interacts with protein kinase C (PKC)? and PKC? in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) dependent way, and that PKC? regulates the interaction of IL-32? with PLZF. We verified the involvement of PKC? in the interaction between these proteins by using various PKC inhibitors. PLZF is known to be modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1, but it is unclear whether SUMO-2 conjugation of PLZF occurs. We showed that IL-32? inhibited SUMO-2-conjugation of PLZF. Further, we demonstrated that sumoylated PLZF decreased when IL-32? was co-expressed. PKC? affected the sumoylation of PLZF only in the presence of IL-32? because PKC inhibitor treatment did not reduce PLZF sumoylation in the absence of IL-32?. We finally investigated whether IL-32?-mediated inhibition of PLZF sumoylation affected the transcriptional activity of PLZF, and demonstrated that the inhibition of sumoylation of PLZF by IL-32? down-regulated ISGs induced by PLZF. Together, our data suggest that IL-32? associates with PLZF and PKC?, and then inhibits PLZF sumoylation, resulting in suppression of the transcriptional activity of PLZF. PMID:25178676

Park, Yun Sun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Yang, Young; Lee, Hee-Gu; Hong, Jintae; Yoon, Do-Young

2014-10-01

148

Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. PMID:25359543

Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

2014-11-01

149

Inhibition of the Proprotein Convertases Represses the Invasiveness of Human Primary Melanoma Cells with Altered p53, CDKN2A and N-Ras Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAltered tumor suppressor p53 and\\/or CDKN2A as well as Ras genes are frequently found in primary and metastatic melanomas. These alterations were found to be responsible for acquisition of invasive and metastatic potential through their defective regulatory control of metalloproteinases and urokinase genes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing primary human melanoma M10 cells with altered p53, CDKN2A and N-Ras genes, we found that inhibition

Claude Lalou; Nathalie Scamuffa; Samia Mourah; Francois Plassa; Marie-Pierre Podgorniak; Nadem Soufir; Nicolas Dumaz; Fabien Calvo; Nicole Basset-Seguin; Abdel-Majid Khatib

2010-01-01

150

Amygdalin inhibits genes related to cell cycle in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: The genes were divided into seven categories according to biological function; apoptosis-related, immune response-related, signal transduction-related, cell cycle-related, cell growth-related, stress response-related and transcription-related genes. METHODS: We compared the gene expression profiles of SNU-C4 cells between amygdalin-treated (5 mg/mL, 24 h) and non-treated groups using cDNA microarray analysis. We selected genes downregulated in cDNA microarray and investigated mRNA levels of the genes by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Microarray showed that amygdalin downregulated especially genes belonging to cell cycle category: exonuclease 1 (EXO1), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F, member 2 (ABCF2), MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE11A), topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1), and FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1). RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA levels of these genes were also decreased by amygdalin treatment in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that amygdalin have an anticancer effect via downregulation of cell cycle-related genes in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells, and might be used for therapeutic anticancer drug. PMID:16127745

Park, Hae-Jeong; Yoon, Seo-Hyun; Han, Long-Shan; Zheng, Long-Tai; Jung, Kyung-Hee; Uhm, Yoon-Kyung; Lee, Je-Hyun; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Joo, Woo-Sang; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Joo-Ho; Hong, Seon-Pyo

2005-01-01

151

Molecular Characterization of a Glucose-Inhibited Division Gene, gidA, That Regulates Cytotoxic Enterotoxin of Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

By using a mini-transposon, we obtained two mutated strains of a diarrheal isolate, SSU, of Aeromonas hydrophila that exhibited a 50 to 53% reduction in the hemolytic activity and 83 to 87% less cytotoxic activity associated with the cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act). Act is a potent virulence factor of A. hydrophila and has been shown to contribute significantly to the development of both diarrhea and septicemia in animal models. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequence analysis revealed that transposon insertion occurred at different locations in these two mutants within the same 1,890-bp open reading frame for the glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA). A similar reduction in hemolytic (46%) and cytotoxic (81%) activity of Act was noted in the gidA isogenic mutant of A. hydrophila that was generated by marker exchange mutagenesis. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcription of the cytotoxic enterotoxin gene (act) was not altered in the gidA transposon and isogenic mutants. However, by generating a chromosomal act::alkaline phosphatase gene (phoA) reporter construct, we demonstrated significantly reduced phosphatase activity in these mutants, indicating the effect of glucose-inhibited division (GidA) protein in modulating act gene expression at the translational level. The biological effects of Act in the gidA mutants were restored by complementation. The virulence of the gidA mutants in mice was dramatically reduced compared to the those of the wild-type (WT) and complemented strains of A. hydrophila. The histopathological examination of lungs, in particular, indicated severe congestion, alveolar hemorrhage, and acute inflammatory infiltrate in the interstitial compartment and the alveolar spaces when mice were infected with the WT and complemented strains. Minimal-to-mild changes were noted in the lungs with the gidA mutants. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that GidA regulates the most-potent virulence factor of A. hydrophila, Act. PMID:14742556

Sha, Jian; Kozlova, E. V.; Fadl, A. A.; Olano, J. P.; Houston, C. W.; Peterson, J. W.; Chopra, A. K.

2004-01-01

152

Dopaminergic Control of Attentional Flexibility: Inhibition of Return is Associated with the Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1)  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability related to the dopamine (DA) transporter gene (DAT1) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of human cognition. The 9-repeat allele of the DAT1 gene is presumably associated with higher striatal DA levels than the 10-repeat allele, which might support inhibitory control functions. We investigated the impact of the DAT1 gene on the inhibition of return (IOR) effect, which refers to the fact that people are slower to detect a target if it appears in a previously attended location. 140 healthy adults, genotyped for the DAT1 gene, performed an IOR task with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) between attention cue and target of 150–1200?ms. Nine-repeat carriers showed more pronounced IOR effect than 10/10 homozygous at short SOAs but both groups of subjects eventually reached the same magnitude of IOR. Our findings support the idea that striatal DA levels promote IOR, presumably by biasing the interplay between prefrontal and striatal networks towards greater cognitive flexibility. PMID:20661460

Colzato, Lorenza S.; Pratt, Jay; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

153

Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Therapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy and Targeted Drugs That Inhibit DNA Repair  

PubMed Central

Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 µCi) 131I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 µCi) 131I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated 131I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers. PMID:20588260

Hingorani, Mohan; White, Christine L; Zaidi, Shane; Pandha, Hardev S; Melcher, Alan A; Bhide, Shreerang A; Nutting, Christopher M; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Vile, Richard G; Vassaux, Georges; Harrington, Kevin J

2010-01-01

154

Adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene inhibits infiltration of immune cells and cell apoptosis in rats after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene therapy in inhibiting the infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells and cell apoptosis after liver transplantation. METHODS: The rat orthotopic liver transplantation model was applied. The rats were divided into three groups: group I: rejection control (SD-to-Wistar); group II: acute rejection treated with intramuscular injection of CsA 3.0 mg/(kg·d) for 12 d (SD-to-Wistar+CsA); groupIII: injection of 1×109 PFU adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene liquor in dorsal vein of penis 7 d before liver transplantation (SD-to-Wistar+CTLA4Ig). Immunohistochemistry and transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were used to analyze the expression of CTLA4Ig gene in liver, infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells, cell apoptosis in grafts at different time-points after liver transplantation. Histopathological examination was done. RESULTS: CTLA4Ig gene expression was positive in liver on d 7 after administering adenovirus-mediated CTLA4Ig gene via vein, and remained positive until day 60 after liver transplantation. Infiltration of macrophages and CD8+T cells in CTLA4Ig-treated group was less than in rejection control group and CsA-treated group. The apoptotic index of rejection group on d 3, 5, and 7 were significantly higher than that of CTLA4Ig-treated group. A good correlation was found between severity of rejection reaction and infiltration of immune activator cells or cell apoptotic index in grafts. CONCLUSION: CTLA4Ig gene is constantly expressed in liver and plays an important role in inducing immune tolerance. PMID:15742417

Jiang, Guo-Ping; Hu, Zhen-Hua; Zheng, Shu-Sen; Jia, Chang-Ku; Zhang, Ai-Bin; Wang, Wei-Lin

2005-01-01

155

The rolB-like part of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes orf8 gene inhibits sucrose export in tobacco.  

PubMed

Many Agrobacterium T-DNA genes belong to the highly diverse rolB family. The mode of action of most of these genes is still unknown. rolB-like sequences also are present at the 5' ends of the T-DNA-located iaaM genes and the iaaM homolog orf8, whereas iaaM genes from Pseudomonas and Erwinia spp. lack such sequences. iaaM genes encode tryptophan monooxygenases; these enzymes convert tryptophan into indole-3-acetamide, a precursor of indole-3-acetic acid. Tobacco plants expressing the rolB-like part of the A4 orf8 gene (2x35S-A4-Norf8 plants) accumulate glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch and resemble sucrose transporter (NtSUT1) antisense plants. Different lines of evidence indicate that 2x35S-A4-Norf8 plants export less sucrose from source leaves. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch accumulate in source leaves during sink-source transition, whereas sink tissues like petioles and midveins contain lower levels than normal. Petiole exudation experiments demonstrate a significant decrease in export of label after 14C-sucrose infiltration and after 14CO2 labeling. Grafting of stunted homozygous 2x35S-A4-Norf8 plants onto wild-type rootstocks restores growth, indicating that unloading is not affected. Growth of 2x35S-A4-Norf8 seedlings is inhibited on naphthalene acetic acid-containing media, suggesting a link between sucrose transport and auxin sensitivity. PMID:12236602

Umber, Marie; Voll, Lars; Weber, Andreas; Michler, Pierre; Otten, Léon

2002-09-01

156

Mithramycin selectively inhibits collagen-alpha 1(I) gene expression in human fibroblast.  

PubMed Central

The products of the collagen-alpha 1(I) and -alpha 2(I) genes form the triple helical molecule collagen type I, which constitutes the major ECM protein in tissue fibrosis. The collagen-alpha 1(I) gene is mainly transcriptionally regulated, and its promoter activity depends on the interaction of the transcription factors NF-I and Sp1 with a tandem repeat of evolutionary conserved NF-I/Sp1 switch elements. An increased affinity of Sp1 to these elements has been observed in experimental liver fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate that the DNA binding drug mithramycin displays a high affinity binding to the GC-rich elements in the collagen-alpha 1(I) promoter as measured by DNAse I protection and gel retardation assays. Mithramycin interferes with Sp1 but not with NF-I binding to these sites. At a concentration of 100 nM, mithramycin efficiently reduces basal and TGF-beta-stimulated alpha 1(I) gene expression in human primary fibroblasts. The transcriptional activity and mRNA steady state levels of other genes, including the collagenase gene, as well as the growth rate of fibroblasts remained unchanged on exposure to this drug. Taken together, our results indicate that the transcriptional activity of the type I collagen gene highly depends on its GC-rich regulatory elements, and further, that these elements can be differentially blocked, thereby changing the balance between ECM structural and degrading gene activities in human fibroblasts. Images PMID:7504695

Nehls, M C; Brenner, D A; Gruss, H J; Dierbach, H; Mertelsmann, R; Herrmann, F

1993-01-01

157

RNAi Silencing of the HaHMG-CoA Reductase Gene Inhibits Oviposition in the Helicoverpa armigera Cotton Bollworm  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has considerable promise for developing novel pest control techniques, especially because of the threat of the development of resistance against current strategies. For this purpose, the key is to select pest control genes with the greatest potential for developing effective pest control treatments. The present study demonstrated that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase; HMGR) gene is a potential target for insect control using RNAi. HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway in insects. A complete cDNA encoding full length HMGR (encoding an 837-aa protein) was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The HaHMGR (H. armigera HMGR) knockdown using systemic RNAi in vivo inhibited the fecundity of the females, effectively inhibited ovipostion, and significantly reduced vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA levels. Moreover, the oviposition rate of the female moths was reduced by 98% by silencing HaHMGR compared to the control groups. One-pair experiments showed that both the proportions of valid mating and fecundity were zero. Furthermore, the HaHMGR-silenced females failed to lay eggs (approximate 99% decrease in oviposition) in the semi-field cage performance. The present study demonstrated the potential implications for developing novel pest management strategies using HaHMGR RNAi in the control of H. armigera and other insect pests. PMID:23844078

Wang, Zhijian; Dong, Yongcheng; Desneux, Nicolas; Niu, Changying

2013-01-01

158

The Burkholderia bcpAIOB Genes Define Unique Classes of Two-Partner Secretion and Contact Dependent Growth Inhibition Systems  

PubMed Central

Microbes have evolved many strategies to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and population structures, including cooperation and competition. One apparently competitive mechanism is contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Identified in Escherichia coli, CDI is mediated by Two–Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway proteins, CdiA and CdiB. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminus of the TpsA family member CdiA, called the CdiA-CT, inhibits the growth of CDI? bacteria. CDI+ bacteria are protected from autoinhibition by an immunity protein, CdiI. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that CDI systems are widespread amongst ?, ?, and ? proteobacteria and that the CdiA-CTs and CdiI proteins are highly variable. CdiI proteins protect against CDI in an allele-specific manner. Here we identify predicted CDI system-encoding loci in species of Burkholderia, Ralstonia and Cupriavidus, named bcpAIOB, that are distinguished from previously-described CDI systems by gene order and the presence of a small ORF, bcpO, located 5? to the gene encoding the TpsB family member. A requirement for bcpO in function of BcpA (the TpsA family member) was demonstrated, indicating that bcpAIOB define a novel class of TPS system. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that these genes are expressed in a probabilistic manner during culture of Burkholderia thailandensis in liquid medium. The bcpAIOB genes and extracellular DNA were required for autoaggregation and adherence to an abiotic surface, suggesting that CDI is required for biofilm formation, an activity not previously attributed to CDI. By contrast to what has been observed in E. coli, the B. thailandensis bcpAIOB genes only mediated interbacterial competition on a solid surface. Competition occurred in a defined spatiotemporal manner and was abrogated by allele-specific immunity. Our data indicate that the bcpAIOB genes encode distinct classes of CDI and TPS systems that appear to function in sociomicrobiological community development. PMID:22912595

Anderson, Melissa S.; Garcia, Erin C.; Cotter, Peggy A.

2012-01-01

159

The Burkholderia bcpAIOB genes define unique classes of two-partner secretion and contact dependent growth inhibition systems.  

PubMed

Microbes have evolved many strategies to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and population structures, including cooperation and competition. One apparently competitive mechanism is contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Identified in Escherichia coli, CDI is mediated by Two-Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway proteins, CdiA and CdiB. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminus of the TpsA family member CdiA, called the CdiA-CT, inhibits the growth of CDI(-) bacteria. CDI(+) bacteria are protected from autoinhibition by an immunity protein, CdiI. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that CDI systems are widespread amongst ?, ?, and ? proteobacteria and that the CdiA-CTs and CdiI proteins are highly variable. CdiI proteins protect against CDI in an allele-specific manner. Here we identify predicted CDI system-encoding loci in species of Burkholderia, Ralstonia and Cupriavidus, named bcpAIOB, that are distinguished from previously-described CDI systems by gene order and the presence of a small ORF, bcpO, located 5' to the gene encoding the TpsB family member. A requirement for bcpO in function of BcpA (the TpsA family member) was demonstrated, indicating that bcpAIOB define a novel class of TPS system. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that these genes are expressed in a probabilistic manner during culture of Burkholderia thailandensis in liquid medium. The bcpAIOB genes and extracellular DNA were required for autoaggregation and adherence to an abiotic surface, suggesting that CDI is required for biofilm formation, an activity not previously attributed to CDI. By contrast to what has been observed in E. coli, the B. thailandensis bcpAIOB genes only mediated interbacterial competition on a solid surface. Competition occurred in a defined spatiotemporal manner and was abrogated by allele-specific immunity. Our data indicate that the bcpAIOB genes encode distinct classes of CDI and TPS systems that appear to function in sociomicrobiological community development. PMID:22912595

Anderson, Melissa S; Garcia, Erin C; Cotter, Peggy A

2012-01-01

160

Overexpression of ptc1 Inhibits Induction of Shh Target Genes and Prevents Normal Patterning  

E-print Network

; Carstea et al., 1997; Loftus et al., 1997; Johnson and Scott, 1998). It is related to the Niemann Pick Type C disease gene NPC1 (Carstea et al., 1997; Loftus et al., 1997) which regulates cholesterol

Quake, Stephen R.

161

TRAF2 phosphorylation promotes NF-?B–dependent gene expression and inhibits oxidative stress-induced cell death  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) receptor–associated factor 2 (TRAF2) regulates activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun and the inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling cascades in response to TNF-? stimulation. Gene knockout studies have revealed that TRAF2 inhibits TNF-?–induced cell death but promotes oxidative stress–induced apoptosis. Here we report that TNF-? and oxidative stress both induce TRAF2 phosphorylation at serines 11 and 55 and that this dual phosphorylation promotes the prolonged phase of IKK activation while inhibiting the prolonged phase of JNK activation. Prolonged IKK activation trigged by TNF-? plays an essential role in efficient expression of a subset of NF-?B target genes but has no substantial role in TNF-?–induced cell death. On the other hand, TRAF2 phosphorylation in response to oxidative stress significantly promotes cell survival by inducing prolonged IKK activation and by inhibiting the prolonged phase of JNK activation. Notably, stable expression of phospho-null mutant TRAF2 in cancer cells leads to an increase in the basal and inducible JNK activation and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) phosphorylation. In addition, exposure of cells expressing phospho-null mutant TRAF2 to sublethal oxidative stress results in a rapid degradation of Bcl-2 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 as well as significantly increased cell death. These results suggest that TRAF2 phosphorylation is essential for cell survival under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:21119000

Zhang, Laiqun; Blackwell, Ken; Altaeva, Aliya; Shi, Zhaohui; Habelhah, Hasem

2011-01-01

162

Emerin inhibits Lmo7 binding to the Pax3 and MyoD promoters and expression of myoblast proliferation genes.  

PubMed

X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD) is caused by mutations in the inner nuclear membrane protein emerin. Previous studies have shown that emerin binds to and inhibits the activity of LIM domain only 7 (Lmo7), a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes implicated in X-EDMD. Here, we analyzed Lmo7 function in C2C12 myoblast differentiation and its regulation by emerin. We found that Lmo7 was required for proper myoblast differentiation. Lmo7-downregulated myoblasts exhibited reduced expression of Pax3, Pax7, Myf5 and MyoD, whereas overexpression of GFP-Lmo7 increased the expression of MyoD and Myf5. Upon myotube formation, Lmo7 shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, concomitant with reduced expression of MyoD, Pax3 and Myf5. Importantly, we show that Lmo7 bound the Pax3, MyoD and Myf5 promoters both in C2C12 myoblasts and in vitro. Because emerin inhibited Lmo7 activity, we tested whether emerin competed with the MyoD promoter for binding to Lmo7 or whether emerin sequestered promoter-bound Lmo7 to the nuclear periphery. Supporting the competition model, emerin binding to Lmo7 inhibited Lmo7 binding to and activation of the MyoD and Pax3 promoters. These findings support the hypothesis that the functional interaction between emerin and Lmo7 is crucial for temporally regulating the expression of key myogenic differentiation genes. PMID:21525034

Dedeic, Zinaida; Cetera, Maureen; Cohen, Tatiana V; Holaska, James M

2011-05-15

163

G-patch domain containing 2, a gene highly expressed in testes, inhibits nuclear factor-?B and cell proliferation.  

PubMed

G-patch domain containing 2 (GPATC2), a human gene that is highly expressed in the testes, was implicated as a novel cancer/testis antigen. The present study investigated GPATC2 expression in a number of human cell lines and rat tissues, and its potential biological function in 293T cells. Semi?quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GPATC2 was widely expressed in 15 human cell lines (representing different lineages) and in 11 different rat tissues, and that the GPATC2 mRNA relative expression level was significantly higher in the testis than it was in other tissues. 293T cells were transiently transfected with GPATC2-p enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)?N1 or GPATC2-pEGFP-C3 and the nuclei were stained with 4',6'?diamidino?2?phenylindole. The results showed that GPATC2 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus of 293T cells. Overexpression of GPATC2 may inhibit transcription of the NF-?B reporter gene. The role of GPATC2 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8, colony-forming efficiency and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that over?expression of GPATC2 in 293T cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation by decreasing the number of cells in S phase. By contrast, GPATC2 knockdown by RNA interference exhibited the opposite effect, suggesting that GPATC2 may be involved in inhibiting G1-S phase transition in 293T cells. In conclusion, these results provide novel insight into the breadth of expression of GPATC2 and its role in cell proliferation. PMID:25376275

Hu, Fen; Gou, Lixia; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wendian; Luo, Mengmeng; Zhang, Xiujun

2015-02-01

164

Cardiac CaM Kinase II Genes ? and ? Contribute to Adverse Remodeling but Redundantly Inhibit Calcineurin-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Ca2+-dependent signaling through CaM Kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin was suggested to contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the relative importance of CaMKII versus calcineurin for adverse cardiac remodeling remained unclear. Methods and Results We generated double-knockout mice (DKO) lacking the 2 cardiac CaMKII genes ? and ? specifically in cardiomyocytes. We show that both CaMKII isoforms contribute redundantly to phosphorylation not only of phospholamban, ryanodine receptor 2, and histone deacetylase 4, but also calcineurin. Under baseline conditions, DKO mice are viable and display neither abnormal Ca2+ handling nor functional and structural changes. On pathological pressure overload and ?-adrenergic stimulation, DKO mice are protected against cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis. But surprisingly and paradoxically, DKO mice develop cardiac hypertrophy driven by excessive activation of endogenous calcineurin, which is associated with a lack of phosphorylation at the auto-inhibitory calcineurin A site Ser411. Likewise, calcineurin inhibition prevents cardiac hypertrophy in DKO. On exercise performance, DKO mice show an exaggeration of cardiac hypertrophy with increased expression of the calcineurin target gene RCAN1-4 but no signs of adverse cardiac remodeling. Conclusions We established a mouse model in which CaMKII’s activity is specifically and completely abolished. By the use of this model we show that CaMKII induces maladaptive cardiac remodeling while it inhibits calcineurin-dependent hypertrophy. These data suggest inhibition of CaMKII but not calcineurin as a promising approach to attenuate the progression of heart failure. PMID:25124496

Kreusser, Michael M.; Lehmann, Lorenz H.; Keranov, Stanislav; Hoting, Marc-Oscar; Oehl, Ulrike; Kohlhaas, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Neumann, Kay; Schneider, Michael D.; Hill, Joseph A.; Dobrev, Dobromir; Maack, Christoph; Maier, Lars S.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Katus, Hugo A.; Olson, Eric N.; Backs, Johannes

2014-01-01

165

Lentiviral vector transduction of a dominant-negative Rev gene into human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication.  

PubMed

Gene therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 may be performed by introducing into hematopoietic stem cells genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1 using lentiviral vectors. However, production of lentiviral vectors derived from HIV-1 may be inhibited by the gene being carried to inhibit HIV-1 and these vectors could be mobilized by wild-type HIV-1 infecting transduced cells. This study investigates these problems for the delivery of a dominant-negative rev gene humanized revM10 (huM10) by a lentiviral vector. Although most packaging plasmids suffered inhibition of expression of HIV-1 virion proteins by vectors expressing huM10, the packaging plasmids that expressed the highest levels of HIV-1 virion proteins produced vectors at titers that would be sufficient for clinical applications. The vectors carrying huM10 were used to transduce primary human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells and yielded high-level transduction without toxicity and conferred potent inhibition of HIV-1. The use of lentiviral vectors with deletion of the enhancers and promoter from the LTR (self-inactivating (SIN) vectors) decreased the frequency of vector mobilization by wild-type HIV-1; SIN vectors carrying huM10 were not mobilized detectably. These studies indicate that lentiviral vectors can be made effective for use in gene therapy for HIV-1. PMID:17164778

Bahner, Ingrid; Sumiyoshi, Teiko; Kagoda, Mercy; Swartout, Robin; Peterson, Denise; Pepper, Karen; Dorey, Fred; Reiser, Jacob; Kohn, Donald B

2007-01-01

166

Sleeping Beauty-based gene therapy with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibits lung allograft fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a nat- ural nonviral gene transfer system that can mediate long-term transgene expression. Its potential utility in treating organ transplantation-associated long-term complications has not yet been explored. In the present study we generated an improved SB transposon encod- ing the human gene indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), an enzyme that possesses both T cell-suppres- sive and antioxidant properties

Hanzhong Liu; Li Liu; Bradley S. Fletcher; Gary A. Visner

2006-01-01

167

A novel growth-related nuclear protein binds and inhibits rat aldolase B gene promoter.  

PubMed

The promoter of the rat aldolase B (AldB) gene that confers liver-specific transcription has an additional role. It functions in vivo as an origin region of DNA replication in the cells in which the gene is repressed (Zhao, Y., Tsutsumi, R., Yamaki, M., Nagatsuka, N., Ejiri, S., Tsutsumi, K., 1994. Initiation zone of DNA replication at the rat aldolase B locus encompasses transcription promoter region. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5385-5390). This promoter/origin region has multiple protein-binding sites and, thus, binding of a particular set of protein factors in AldB-expressing or non-expressing cells seems to correlate with functional switch of this promoter/origin region. In the present study, we characterized two closely related proteins, termed AlF-C1 and AlF-C2, which are assumed to be involved in repression of the AldB gene. These two proteins share an identical amino acid sequence except for a 47-residue-insertion in AlF-C1, and are members of a gene family including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) and CCAAT-binding factor subunit A (CBF-A) genes. Bacterially expressed AlF-C1 can bind sequence-specifically to the AldB gene promoter, whereas AlF-C2 can only weakly. Transfection experiments using mammalian expression vectors showed that AlF-C1 down-regulates the AldB gene promoter in rat hepatoma cells, while AlF-C2 had no or little effect. Expressions of mRNAs encoding these two proteins are enriched in fetal livers and in regenerating livers. These results implied that AlF-C1 and/or C2 is involved in growth-regulated repression of the AldB gene. PMID:11245986

Yabuki, T; Miyagi, S; Ueda, H; Saitoh, Y; Tsutsumi, K

2001-02-01

168

Inhibition of human lung cancer growth following adenovirus-mediated mda-7 gene expression in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overexpression of the melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) in vitro results in suppression of lung cancer cell proliferation. However, the ability of MDA-7 to suppress lung cancer in vivo has not been previously demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the possibility of inducing overexpression of the mda-7 gene in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vivo and its effects

Tomoyuki Saeki; Abner Mhashilkar; Xin Swanson; X Helena Zou-Yang; Kerry Sieger; Shinichiro Kawabe; Cynthia D Branch; Louis Zumstein; Raymond E Meyn; Jack A Roth; Sunil Chada; Rajagopal Ramesh

2002-01-01

169

Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Besides the calcitonin (CT) precursor, the calcitonin gene also encodes another peptide—calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).\\u000a We have previously reported that CGRP lowers plasma calcium in the rat. In the present study we have evaluated the effect\\u000a of CGRP on resorption of bone by isolated rat osteoclasts and have compared these effects to those produced by calcitonins\\u000a from three species (salmon,

Mone Zaidi; Karen Fuller; Peter J. R. Bevis; Rose E. GainesDas; Timothy J. Chambers; Iain MacIntyre

1987-01-01

170

4'-Acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone, a chalcone derivative, inhibits glioma growth and invasion through regulation of the tropomyosin 1 gene  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} 4'-Acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone (AHC) has anti-cancer property for glioma. {yields} 4'-Acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone (AHC) increased tropomyosin expreesion through activattion of PKA signaling. {yields} 4'-Acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone (AHC) inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion. {yields} In vivo administration of 4'-acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone (AHC) reduced tumor growth. -- Abstract: Chalcones are precursors of flavonoids and have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Here, we identify the synthetic chalcone derivative 4'-acetoamido-4-hydroxychalcone (AHC) as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of glioma. Treatment with AHC reduced glioma cell invasion, migration, and colony formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, AHC inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration, invasion, and tube formation in HUVECs. To determine the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of AHC on glioma cell invasion and migration, we investigated the effect of AHC on the gene expression change and found that AHC affects actin dynamics in U87MG glioma cells. In actin cytoskeleton regulating system, AHC increased tropomyosin expression and stress fiber formation, probably through activation of PKA. Suppression of tropomyosin expression by siRNA or treatment with the PKA inhibitor H89 reduced the inhibitory effects of AHC on glioma cell invasion and migration. In vivo experiments also showed that AHC inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft mouse tumor model. Together, these data suggest that the synthetic chalcone derivative AHC has potent anti-cancer activity through inhibition of glioma proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis and is therefore a potential chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioma.

Ku, Bo Mi [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyung Won [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), EB-NCRC, Institute of Agriculture Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), EB-NCRC, Institute of Agriculture Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Choi, Jungil [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hee Jun [Department of Microbiology, Research Institute of Life Science, College of Natureal Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, Research Institute of Life Science, College of Natureal Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Hun, E-mail: khpark@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), EB-NCRC, Institute of Agriculture Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang Soo, E-mail: kangss@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-19

171

Gene silencing of ?-galactosamide ?-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 inhibits human influenza virus infection of airway epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Human influenza virus hemagglutinin prefers to use sialic acid (SA) receptors via ?-2,6 linkages. The ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) protein is encoded by the ST6GAL1 gene and is responsible for the addition of ?-2,6 linked SA to the Gal?1-4GlcNAc disaccharide of glycans and glycoproteins found on the cellular surface. Therefore, ST6GAL1 could be a potential target for anti-influenza therapeutics. We used specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to block expression of ST6GAL1 and limit distribution of SA receptors on the surface of airway epithelial cells. Results The siRNA duplexes we used inhibited ST6GAL1 mRNA expression and subsequent expression of the encoding protein. As a result, synthesis of ?-2,6 SA galactose was inhibited. Adsorption of influenza virus particles to the surface of cells transfected with appropriate specific siRNAs was significantly reduced. Intracellular viral genome copy number and virus titer within the supernatant of cells transfected with siRNAs was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner compared with those for untransfected cells and cells transfected with non-specific siRNAs. Conclusions We used siRNAs targeting ST6GAL1 to inhibit the expression of certain cell surface receptors, thereby preventing virus adsorption. This resulted in the inhibition of human influenza virus infection. Our findings are a significant development in the identification of potential new anti-influenza drug targets. PMID:24670114

2014-01-01

172

Genome wide transcriptional profiling in breast cancer cells reveals distinct changes in hormone receptor target genes and chromatin modifying enzymes after proteasome inhibition  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormone receptors, like glucocorticoid (GR) and estrogen receptors (ER), are master regulators of genes that control many biological processes implicated in health and disease. Gene expression is dependent on receptor levels which are tightly regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies have shown that proteasome inhibition increases GR, but decreases ER-mediated gene expression. At the gene expression level this divergent role of the proteasome in receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We have used a genomic approach to examine the impact of proteasome activity on GR and ER-mediated gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with dexamethasone (DEX) or 17?-estradiol (E2), the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (MG) or MG132 and either hormone (MD or ME2) for 24h. Transcript profiling reveals that inhibiting proteasome activity modulates gene expression by GR and ER in a similar manner in that several GR and ER target genes are up-regulated and down-regulated after proteasome inhibition. In addition, proteasome inhibition modulates receptor-dependent genes involved in the etiology of a number of human pathological states, including multiple myeloma, leukemia, breast/prostate cancer, HIV/AIDS and neurodegenerative disorders. Importantly, our analysis reveals that a number of transcripts encoding histone and DNA modifying enzymes, prominently histone/DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, are altered after proteasome inhibition. As proteasome inhibitors are currently in clinical trials as therapy for multiple myeloma, HIV/AIDs and leukemia, the possibility that some of the target molecules are hormone regulated and by chromatin modifying enzymes is intriguing in this era of epigenetic therapy. PMID:18381591

Kinyamu, H. Karimi; Collins, Jennifer B.; Grissom, Sherry F.; Hebbar, Pratibha B.; Archer, Trevor K.

2010-01-01

173

Pharmacological Inhibition of DNA Methylation Induces Proinvasive and Prometastatic Genes In Vitro and In Vivo1  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of action of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR), a potential anticancer agent is believed to be activated by the demethylation of tumor suppressor genes. We tested here the hypothesis that demethylating agents also demethylate and activate genes involved in invasion and metastasis and therefore might increase the risk of developing tumor metastasis. The effect of 5-aza-CdR on noninvasive human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 was evaluated by cell proliferation, invasion, and migration assay. The ability of 5-aza-CdR to activate a panel of silenced prometastatic and tumor suppressor genes was evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite DNA sequence analysis in vitro and for change in tumor growth and gene expression in vivo. Treatment of MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 with 5-aza-CdR diminished cell proliferation, induced tumor suppressor RASSF1A, and altered cell cycle kinetics' G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. While these effects of 5-aza-CdR slowed the growth of tumors in nude mice, it also induced a battery of prometastatic genes, namely, uPA, CXCR4, HEPARANASE, SYNUCLEIN ?, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), by demethylation of their promoters. These results draw attention to the critical role of demethylation as a potential mechanism that can promote the development and progression of tumor metastasis after demethylation therapy as an anticancer treatment. PMID:18320071

Ateeq, Bushra; Unterberger, Alexander; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

2008-01-01

174

The Drosophila over compensating males gene genetically inhibits dosage compensation in males.  

PubMed

Male Drosophila are monosomic for the X chromosome, but survive due to dosage compensation. They use the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex composed of noncoding roX RNA and histone modifying enzymes to hypertranscribe most genes along the X ?1.6-1.8 fold relative to each female allele. It is not known how the MSL complex achieves this precise adjustment to a large and diverse set of target genes. We carried out a genetic screen searching for novel factors that regulate dosage compensation in flies. This strategy generated thirty alleles in a previously uncharacterized gene, over compensating males (ocm) that antagonizes some aspect of MSL activity. The mutations were initially recovered because they derepressed an MSL-dependent eye color reporter. Null ocm mutations are lethal to both sexes early in development revealing an essential function. Combinations of hypomorphic ocm alleles display a male specific lethality similar to mutations in the classic msl genes, but ocm males die due to excessive, rather than lack of dosage compensation. Males that die due to very low MSL activity can be partially rescued by ocm mutations. Likewise, males that would die from ocm mutations can be rescued by reducing the dose of various msl and roX genes. ocm encodes a large nuclear protein that shares a novel cysteine rich motif with known transcription factors. PMID:23565249

Lim, Chiat Koo; Kelley, Richard L

2013-01-01

175

Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia by gene transfer of beta-interferon.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Balloon injury of the arterial wall induces increased vascular smooth cell proliferation, enhanced elastic recoil, and abnormalities in thrombosis, each of which contribute to regrowth of intima and the lesion of restenosis. Several gene transfer approaches have been used to inhibit such intimal smooth muscle cell growth. In this report, adenoviral gene transfer of beta-interferon (beta-IFN) was analyzed in a porcine model of balloon injury to determine whether a secreted growth inhibitory protein might affect the regrowth of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An adenoviral vector encoding beta-interferon (ADV-beta-IFN) was prepared and used to infect porcine vascular smooth muscle cells in a porcine balloon injury model. Its antiproliferative effect was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Expression of recombinant porcine beta-IFN in vascular smooth muscle cells reduced cell proliferation significantly in vitro, and supernatants derived from the beta-IFN vector inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation relative to controls. When introduced into porcine arteries after balloon injury, a reduction in cell proliferation was observed 7 days after gene transfer measured by BrdC incorporation (ADV-delta E1 arteries 14.5 +/- 1.2%, ADV-beta IFN 6.8 +/- 0.8%, p < 0.05, unpaired, two-tailed t-test). The intima-to-media area ratio was also reduced (nontransfected arteries, 0.70 +/- 0.05; ADV-delta E1 infected arteries, 0.69 +/- 0.06; ADV-beta-IFN infected arteries, 0.53 +/- 0.03; p < 0.05, ANOVA with Dunnett t-test). No evidence of organ toxicity was observed, and regrowth of the endothelial cell surface was observed 3-6 weeks after balloon injury. CONCLUSIONS: Gene transfer of an adenoviral vector encoding beta-IFN into balloon-injured arteries reduced vascular smooth muscle proliferation and intimal formation. Expression of this gene product may have potential application for the treatment of vascular proliferative diseases. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:9323710

Stephan, D.; San, H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Gordon, D.; Goelz, S.; Nabel, G. J.; Nabel, E. G.

1997-01-01

176

Reversible Inhibition of Tomato Fruit Gene Expression at High Temperature (Effects on Tomato Fruit Ripening).  

PubMed

The reversible inhibition of three ripening-related processes by high-temperature treatment (38[deg]C) was examined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Daniella) fruit. Ethylene production, color development, and softening were inhibited during heating and recovered afterward, whether recovery took place at 20[deg]C or fruit were first held at chilling temperature (2[deg]C) after heating and then placed at 20[deg]C. Ethylene production and color development proceeded normally in heated fruit after 14 d of chilling, whereas the unheated fruit had delayed ethylene production and uneven color development. Levels of mRNA for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, phytoene synthase, and polygalacturonase decreased dramatically during the heat treatment but recovered afterward, whereas the mRNA for HSP17 increased during the high-temperature treatment and then decreased when fruit were removed from heat. As monitored by western blots, the HSP17 protein disappeared from fruit tissue after 3 d at 20[deg]C but remained when fruit were held at 2[deg]C. The persistence of heat-shock proteins at low temperature may be relevant to the protection against chilling injury provided by the heat treatment. Protein levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase and polygalacturonase also did not closely follow the changes in their respective mRNAs. This implied both differences in relative stability and turnover rates of mRNA compared to protein and nontranslation of the message that accumulated in low temperature. The results suggest that high temperature inhibits ripening by inhibiting the accumulation of ripening-related mRNAs. Ripening processes that depend on continuous protein synthesis including ethylene production, lycopene accumulation, and cell-wall dissolution are thereby diminished. PMID:12226253

Lurie, S.; Handros, A.; Fallik, E.; Shapira, R.

1996-04-01

177

A Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib, Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth and Reduces Osteolysis by Downregulating Metastatic Genes  

PubMed Central

Purpose The incidence of bone metastasis in advanced breast cancer exceeds 70%. Bortezomib (Bzb), a proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of multiple myeloma, also promotes bone formation. We tested the hypothesis that proteasome inhibitors can ameliorate breast cancer osteolytic disease. Experimental Design To address the potentially beneficial effect of Bzb in reducing tumor growth in the skeleton and counteracting bone osteolysis, human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer (BrCa) cells were injected into the tibia of mice to model bone tumor growth for in vivo assessment of treatment regimens pre- and post-tumor growth. Results Controls exhibited tumor growth destroying trabecular and cortical bone and invading muscle. Bzb treatment initiated following inoculation of tumor cells strikingly reduced tumor growth, restricted tumor cells mainly to the marrow cavity, and almost completely inhibited osteolysis in the bone microenvironment over a 3–4 week period demonstrated by 18F-FDG PET, micro-CT scanning, radiography, and histology. Thus, proteasome inhibition is effective in killing tumor cells within bone. Pre-treatment with Bzb for 3 weeks prior to inoculation of tumor cells was also effective in reducing osteolysis. Our in vitro and in vivo studies indicate mechanisms by which Bzb inhibits tumor growth and reduces osteolysis result from inhibited cell proliferation, necrosis and decreased expression of factors that promote BrCa tumor progression in bone. Conclusion These findings provide a basis for a novel strategy to treat patients with breast cancer osteolytic lesions, and represent an approach for protecting the entire skeleton from metastatic bone disease. PMID:20843837

Jones, Marci D.; Liu, Julie C.; Barthel, Thomas K.; Hussain, Sadiq; Lovria, Erik; Cheng, Dengfeng; Schoonmaker, Jesse.A.; Mulay, Sudhanshu; Ayers, David C.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Stein, Gary S.; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Lian, Jane B.

2010-01-01

178

Effective inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus replication by small interfering RNAs targeting the NS5 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes an acute infection of the central nervous system resulting in encephalitis of humans and many kinds of animals. NS5, the largest and most conserved flavivirus protein, is homologous to methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. RNA interference is an effective anti-viral strategy to inhibit viral replication in vitro. In this study, four short

Wen-Bao Qi; Rong-Hong Hua; Li-Ping Yan; Guang-Zhi Tong; Gui-Hong Zhang; Tao Ren; Dong-Lai Wu; Ming Liao

2008-01-01

179

Dynamic Telomerase Gene Suppression via Network Effects of GSK3 Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Telomerase controls telomere homeostasis and cell immortality and is a promising anti-cancer target, but few small molecule telomerase inhibitors have been developed. Reactivated transcription of the catalytic subunit hTERT in cancer cells controls telomerase expression. Better understanding of upstream pathways is critical for effective anti- telomerase therapeutics and may reveal new targets to inhibit hTERT expression. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: In

Alan E. Bilsland; Stacey Hoare; Katrina Stevenson; Jane Plumb; Natividad Gomez-Roman; Claire Cairney; Sharon Burns; Kyle Lafferty-Whyte; Jon Roffey; Tim Hammonds; W. Nicol Keith

2009-01-01

180

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer of antisense cyclin G1 (CYCG1) inhibits proliferation of human osteogenic sarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Genetic changes found in human osteogenic sarcoma cells, including loss of the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor elements and overexpression of the cyclin G1 (CYCG1) proto-oncogene, suggest the potential of gene transfer as a treatment for metastatic disease. In this study, we examined the effects of antisense cyclin G1, in comparison with antisense cyclin D1 (CYCD1) and enforced expression of the universal cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 on the proliferation of human MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Retroviral vectors bearing antisense CYCG1 as well as antisense CYCD1 and WAF1/CIP1 (in sense orientation) driven by the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat promoter inhibited the growth and/or survival of transduced MG-63 cells in 2-7 day cultures. This represents the first demonstration that cyclin G1 is essential for the survival and/or growth of human osteosarcoma cells. Cytostatic and cytopathic effects were accompanied by a significant increase in the incidence of apoptosis, as determined by immunocytochemical analysis of DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, transduction of MG-63 cells with a retroviral vector bearing the suicide gene, herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HStk), induced cell death on treatment with ganciclovir, exhibiting pronounced bystander effects. Taken together, the data affirm the feasibility of modulating inducible cell cycle control enzymes as a potential gene therapy approach in the clinical management of osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:7585620

Skotzko, M; Wu, L; Anderson, W F; Gordon, E M; Hall, F L

1995-12-01

181

A novel 3p22.3 gene CMTM7 represses oncogenic EGFR signaling and inhibits cancer cell growth.  

PubMed

Deletion of 3p12-22 is frequent in multiple cancer types, indicating the presence of critical tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) at this region. We studied a novel candidate TSG, CMTM7, located at the 3p22.3 CMTM-gene cluster, for its tumor-suppressive functions and related mechanisms. The three CMTM genes, CMTM6, 7 and 8, are broadly expressed in human normal adult tissues and normal epithelial cell lines. Only CMTM7 is frequently silenced or downregulated in esophageal and nasopharyngeal cell lines, but uncommon in other carcinoma cell lines. Immunostaining of tissue microarrays for CMTM7 protein showed its downregulation or absence in esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, liver, lung and cervix tumor tissues. Promoter CpG methylation and loss of heterozygosity were both found contributing to CMTM7 downregulation. Ectopic expression of CMTM7 in carcinoma cells inhibits cell proliferation, motility and tumor formation in nude mice, but not in immortalized normal cells, suggesting a tumor inhibitory role of CMTM7. The tumor-suppressive function of CMTM7 is associated with its role in G1/S cell cycle arrest, through upregulating p27 and downregulating cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and 6 (CDK6). Moreover, CMTM7 could promote epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization, and further suppress AKT signaling pathway. Thus, our findings suggest that CMTM7 is a novel 3p22 tumor suppressor regulating G1/S transition and EGFR/AKT signaling during tumor pathogenesis. PMID:23893243

Li, H; Li, J; Su, Y; Fan, Y; Guo, X; Li, L; Su, X; Rong, R; Ying, J; Mo, X; Liu, K; Zhang, Z; Yang, F; Jiang, G; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Ma, D; Tao, Q; Han, W

2014-06-12

182

A Cucumber DELLA Homolog CsGAIP May Inhibit Staminate Development through Transcriptional Repression of B Class Floral Homeotic Genes  

PubMed Central

In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates stamen development by opposing the DELLA repression of B and C classes of floral homeotic genes. GA can promote male flower formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a typical monoecious vegetable with unisexual flowers, and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we characterized a DELLA homolog CsGAIP in cucumber, and we found that CsGAIP is highly expressed in stem and male flower buds. In situ hybridization showed that CsGAIP is greatly enriched in the stamen primordia, especially during the hermaphrodite stage of flower development. Further, CsGAIP protein is located in nucleus. CsGAIP can partially rescue the plant height, stamen development and fertility phenotypes of Arabidopsis rga-24/gai-t6 mutant, and ectopic expression of CsGAIP in wide-type Arabidopsis results in reduced number of stamens and decreased transcription of B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). Our data suggest that monoecious CsGAIP may inhibit staminate development through transcriptional repression of B class floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24632777

Zhang, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; An, Jingbo; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Huazhong

2014-01-01

183

Inhibition of Intracellular Antiviral Defense Mechanisms Augments Lentiviral Transduction of Human Natural Killer Cells: Implications for Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adoptive immunotherapy with genetically modified natural killer (NK) cells is a promising approach for cancer treatment. Yet, optimization of highly efficient and clinically applicable gene transfer protocols for NK cells still presents a challenge. In this study, we aimed at identifying conditions under which optimum lentiviral gene transfer to NK cells can be achieved. Our results demonstrate that stimulation of NK cells with interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 supports efficient transduction using a VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vector. Moreover, we have identified that inhibition of innate immune receptor signaling greatly enhances transduction efficiency. We were able to boost the efficiency of lentiviral genetic modification on average 3.8-fold using BX795, an inhibitor of the TBK1/IKK? complex acting downstream of RIG-I, MDA-5, and TLR3. We have also observed that the use of BX795 enhances lentiviral transduction efficiency in a number of human and mouse cell lines, indicating a broadly applicable, practical, and safe approach that has the potential of being applicable to various gene therapy protocols. PMID:22779406

Sutlu, Tolga; Nyström, Sanna; Gilljam, Mari; Stellan, Birgitta; Applequist, Steven E.

2012-01-01

184

Conditional deletion of MSX homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity  

PubMed Central

An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/?-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. PMID:22100262

Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K.

2011-01-01

185

Glutamine depletion and glucose depletion trigger growth inhibition via distinctive gene expression reprogramming  

PubMed Central

Glutamine (Gln) and glucose (Glc) represent two important nutrients for proliferating cells, consistent with the observations that oncogenic processes are associated with enhanced glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Gln depletion and Glc depletion have been shown to trigger growth arrest and eventually cell death. Solid tumors often outgrow the blood supply, resulting in ischemia, which is associated with hypoxia and nutrient insufficiency. Whereas oxygen-sensing and adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia have been well-studied, how cells directly sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency remains unclear. Using mRNA profiling techniques, we compared the gene expression profiles of acute Gln-depleted cells, Glc-depleted cells and cells adapted to Gln depletion. Here we report the global changes of the gene expression in those cells cultured under the defined nutrient conditions. Analysis of mRNA profiling data revealed that Gln and Glc depletion triggered dramatic gene expression reprogramming. Either Gln or Glc deletion leads to changes of the expression of cell cycle genes, but these conditions have distinctive effects on transcription regulators and gene expression profiles. Moreover, Gln and Glc depletion triggered distinguishable ER-stress responses. The gene expression patterns support that Gln and Glc have distinctive metabolic roles in supporting cell survival and proliferation, and cells use different mechanisms to sense and respond to Gln and Glc insufficiency. Our mRNA profiling database provides a resource for further investigating the nutrient-sensing mechanisms and potential effects of Glc and Gln abundance on the biological behaviors of cells. PMID:22935705

Qie, Shuo; Liang, Dongming; Yin, Chengqian; Gu, Weiting; Meng, Meng; Wang, Chenguang; Sang, Nianli

2012-01-01

186

High glucose inhibits gene expression of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in osteoblast cells.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that bone metabolism disorders are one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus. However, the exact mechanisms as to how diabetes affects bone metabolism are yet to be determined. In the present study, we have searched for high glucose regulated genes in osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells. UMR-106 cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mM), high glucose (16.5 mM or 30.5 mM) and mannitol (16.5 mM) as a hyperosmotic control. Following the isolation of total RNA, GeneFishing differential display-PCR (DDPCR) was carried out and followed by cloning, sequencing and searching in a gene bank data base to identify the high glucose induced gene(s). Through the DD-PCR technique which employs Annealing Control Primer, or ACP, it has been found that expression of a PCR product was significantly decreased by high glucose treatment: it was identified as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Furthermore, reverse transcriptase PCR analysis confirmed that high glucose significantly decreases mRNA expression of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, whereas mannitol treatment does not cause any change in such expression. These results suggest that high glucose may play a significant role in the protein synthesis process of osteoblast cells by decreasing expression of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. In a Western blot analysis, the protein expression of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase was also decreased by high glucose treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that high glucose could affect bone metabolism by regulating the expression of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase genes. PMID:20140272

Kim, Jun Hoe; Kim, Yun-Young; Kim, Sung-Jin

2009-12-01

187

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was shown by the observation that HIV-2 did not significantly downmodulate the expression of the unrelated murine leukemia virus; neither did the murine leukemia virus markedly affect HIV-1 or HIV-2 expression. Moreover, while HIV-2 potently inhibited HIV-1, the reverse did not happen, thus identifying yet another and remarkable difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Mutational analysis of the HIV-2 genome suggested that the inhibition follows a complex pathway, possibly involving multiple genes and redundant mechanisms. Introduction of inactivating mutations into the structural and regulatory/accessory genes did not render the HIV-2 provirus ineffective. Some of the HIV-2 gene defects, such as that of tat and rev genes, were phenotypically transcomplemented by HIV-1. The HIV-2 proviruses with deletions in the putative packaging signal and defective for virus replication were effective in inducing the suppressive phenotype. Though the exact mechanism remains to be defined, the inhibition appeared to be mainly due to an intracellular molecular event because it could not be explained solely on the basis of cell surface receptor mediated interference. The results support the notion that the inhibition likely occurred at the level of viral RNA, possibly involving competition between viral RNAs for some transcriptional factor essential for virus replication. Induction of a cytokine is another possibility. These findings might be relevant to the clinical-epidemiological data suggesting that infection with HIV-2 may offer some protection against HIV-1 infection. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633095

Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

1996-01-01

188

Irradiation Selectively Inhibits Expression from the Androgen-Dependent Pem Homeobox Gene Promoter in Sertoli Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

How radiation blocks spermatogenesis in certain strains of rats, such as LBNF1, is not known. Because the block depends on androgen, we propose that androgen affects Sertoli cell function in irradiated LBNF1 rats, resulting in the failure of spermatogonial differentiation. To begin to identify genes that may participate in this irradiation- induced blockade of spermatogenesis, we investigated the expression of

SOURINDRA MAITI; MARVIN L. MEISTRICH; GENE WILSON; GUNAPALA SHETTY; MARCO MARCELLI; MICHAEL J. MCPHAUL; PATRICIA L. MORRIS; MILES F. WILKINSON

2010-01-01

189

Overexpression of PYL5 in rice enhances drought tolerance, inhibits growth, and modulates gene expression.  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that plays important roles in the regulation of seed dormancy and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Previous work identified OsPYL/RCARs as functional ABA receptors regulating ABA-dependent gene expression in Oryza sativa. OsPYL/RCARs thus are considered to be good candidate genes for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crops. This work demonstrates that the cytosolic ABA receptor OsPYL/RCAR5 in O. sativa functions as a positive regulator of abiotic stress-responsive gene expression. The constitutive expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 in rice driven by the Zea mays ubiquitin promoter induced the expression of many stress-responsive genes even under normal growth conditions and resulted in improved drought and salt stress tolerance in rice. However, it slightly reduced plant height under paddy field conditions and severely reduced total seed yield. This suggests that, although exogenous expression of OsPYL/RCAR5 is able to improve abiotic stress tolerance in rice, fine regulation of its expression will be required to avoid deleterious effects on agricultural traits. PMID:24474809

Kim, Hyunmi; Lee, Kyeyoon; Hwang, Hyunsik; Bhatnagar, Nikita; Kim, Dool-Yi; Yoon, In Sun; Byun, Myung-Ok; Kim, Sun Tae; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kim, Beom-Gi

2014-02-01

190

Construction of Expression Vector for Anti-Alpha-Fetoprotein Gene and Its Inhibition Effects on Alpha-Fetoprotein Positive Hepg2 Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As research previously demonstrated, suppression of AFP expression or its biological activities might inhibit the proliferation of AFP positive human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In this study, we constructed an anti-AFP gene vector and transfected it to HepG2 cells. RT-PCR showed AFP gene expression in the transfected cells was reduced. MTT assay suggested the proliferation of the transfected cells was also inhibited comparing with the untransfected cells. This result provides a new insight into AFP as the target for preventing and treating hepatocellular carcinoma.

Wang, Ze; Zhang, Hui

191

A possible mechanism for the inhibition of ribosomal RNA gene transcription during mitosis  

PubMed Central

When cells enter mitosis, RNA synthesis ceases. Yet the RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription machinery involved in the production of pre- rRNA remains bound to the nucleolus organizing region (NOR), the chromosome site harboring the tandemly repeated rRNA genes. Here we examine whether rDNA transcription units are transiently blocked or "frozen" during mitosis. By using fluorescent in situ hybridization we were unable to detect nascent pre-rRNA chains on the NORs of mouse 3T3 and rat kangaroo PtK2 cells. Appropriate controls showed that our approach was sensitive enough to visualize, at the light microscopic level, individual transcriptionally active rRNA genes both in situ after experimental unfolding of nucleoli and in chromatin spreads ("Miller spreads"). Analysis of the cell cycle-dependent redistribution of transcript-associated components also revealed that most transcripts are released from the rDNA at mitosis. Upon disintegration of the nucleolus during mitosis, U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the nucleolar proteins fibrillarin and nucleolin became dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and were excluded from the NORs. Together, our data rule out the presence of "frozen Christmas-trees" at the mitotic NORs but are compatible with the view that inactive pol I remains on the rDNA. We propose that expression of the rRNA genes is regulated during mitosis at the level of transcription elongation, similarly to what is known for a number of genes transcribed by pol II. Such a mechanism may explain the decondensed state of the NOR chromatin and the immediate transcriptional reactivation of the rRNA genes following mitosis. PMID:7730396

1995-01-01

192

Molecular Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression of the Polygalacturonase-inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Gene in Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA sequence encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from mulberry, which we designated MPGIP (GenBank accession no.: HM044383), was cloned based on mulberry expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence analysis showed\\u000a that the MPGIP is 1,274 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.29 kDa and an isoelectric\\u000a point of 7.25. The expression levels

Dongqing Hu; Ruiqiang Dai; Yuhua Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Zhaoyue Liu; Rongjun Fang; Weiguo Zhao; Long Li; Qiang Lin; Liu Li

193

Selection on Glycine ?-1,3-Endoglucanase Genes Differentially Inhibited by a Phytophthora Glucanase Inhibitor Protein  

PubMed Central

Plant endo-?-1,3-glucanases (EGases) degrade the cell wall polysaccharides of attacking pathogens and release elicitors of additional plant defenses. Isozymes EGaseA and EGaseB of soybean differ in susceptibility to a glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP1) produced by Phytophthora sojae, a major soybean pathogen. EGaseA, the major elicitor-releasing isozyme, is a high-affinity ligand for GIP1, which completely inhibits it, whereas EGaseB is unaffected by GIP1. We tested for departures from neutral evolution on the basis of partial sequences of EGaseA and EGaseB from 20 widespread accessions of Glycine soja (the wild progenitor of soybean), from 4 other Glycine species, and across dicotyledonous plants. G. soja exhibited little intraspecific variation at either locus. Phylogeny-based codon evolution models detected strong evidence of positive selection on Glycine EGaseA and weaker evidence for selection on dicot EGases and Glycine EGaseB. Positively selected peptide sites were identified and located on a structural model of EGase bound to GIP1. Positively selected sites and highly variable sites were found disproportionately within 4.5 Å of bound GIP1. Low variation within G. soja EGases, coupled with positive selection in both Glycine and dicot lineages and the proximity of rapidly evolving sites to GIP1, suggests an arms race involving repeated adaptation to pathogen attack and inhibition. PMID:15545660

Bishop, J. G.; Ripoll, D. R.; Bashir, S.; Damasceno, C. M. B.; Seeds, J. D.; Rose, J. K. C.

2005-01-01

194

Isolation and characterization of two genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from Populus deltoides.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are extracellular proteins that belong to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein superfamily. PGIPs inhibit fungal polygalacturonases (PGs) and promote accumulation of oligogalacturonides, which activate plant defense responses. PGIPs play important roles in resistance to infection of pathogens. In this study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were used to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Populus deltoides (GenBank accession no. of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4: EF684913 and EF684912). Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4 had a typical PGIP topology. Phylogenetic analysis of known PGIPs indicated that the two PdPGIPs were clustered to the defense-related PGIP clade. Using real-time RT-PCR, the expression patterns of the two PdPGIPs following treatment with a fungal pathogen and defense-related signaling molecules were studied. The expression levels of PdPGIP2 and PdPGIP4 were both up-regulated when inoculated with the phytopathogenic fungus Marssonina brunnea. Therefore, it was proposed that the two PGIPs might be involved in the resistance to Marssonina brunnea in P. deltoides. PMID:18937920

Cheng, Qiang; Cao, Youzhi; Pan, Huixin; Wang, Mingxiu; Huang, Minren

2008-10-01

195

Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKC? gene.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKC? overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild-type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKC? during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase to examine whether melatonin modulates PKC?-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild-type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild-type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKC?((-/-)) mice or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKC?. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition and that PKC? is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine. PMID:25407782

Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Lee, Jaehwi; Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Nam, Yunsung; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Park, Dae Hun; Jang, Choon-Gon; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

2015-01-01

196

Vasopressin inhibits type-I collagen and albumin gene expression in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms that regulate collagen gene expression in hepatic cells are poorly understood. Accelerated Ca2+ fluxes are associated with inhibiting collagen synthesis selectively in human fibroblasts. In suspension cultures of isolated hepatocytes, the Ca2+ agonist vasopressin increases cytosolic levels of free Ca2+. However, whether vasopressin's interactions with plasma membrane V1 receptors attenuate hepatic collagen production is unknown. We investigated this problem by studying vasopressin's effects on collagen synthesis and Ca2+ efflux in long-term primary cultures of differentiated and proliferation-competent adult rat hepatocytes. Twelve-day-old quiescent cultures were exposed to test substances and labeled with (5-3H)proline. Determinations of radioactivity in collagenase-sensitive and collagenase-resistant proteins were used to calculate the relative levels of collagen production. Synthetic (8-arg)vasopressin stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux within 1 min and inhibited hepatocyte collagen production within 3 h by 50%; overall rates of protein synthesis were not affected significantly. In cultures labeled with (35S)methionine, vasopressin also decreased the levels of newly synthesized and secreted albumin, but not fibrinogen, detected in specific immunoprecipitates analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Northern blot analyses using specific (32P)cDNA probes revealed 70% decreases in hybridizable levels of collagen alpha 1(I) mRNA in hepatocyte cultures treated with either vasopressin or Ca2+ ionophore A23187; hybridizable levels of albumin mRNA also fell approximately 50% following vasopressin treatment.

Chojkier, M.; Brenner, D.A.; Leffert, H.L.

1989-06-05

197

PIAS1 selectively inhibits interferon-inducible genes and is important in innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon (IFN) activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to regulate immune responses. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family has been suggested to negatively regulate STAT signaling. To understand the physiological function of PIAS1, we generated Pias1?\\/? mice. Using PIAS1-deficient cells, we show that PIAS1 selectively regulates a subset of IFN-?- or IFN-?-inducible genes by

Bin Liu; Sheldon Mink; Kelly A Wong; Natalie Stein; Crescent Getman; Paul W Dempsey; Hong Wu; Ke Shuai

2004-01-01

198

Gene-Silencing Antisense Oligomers Inhibit Acinetobacter Growth In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background.?Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMOs) are synthetic DNA/RNA analogues that silence expression of specific genes. We studied whether PPMOs targeted to essential genes in Acinetobacter lwoffii and Acinetobacter baumannii are active in vitro and in vivo. Methods.?PPMOs were evaluated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays, and in vivo using murine pulmonary infection models with intranasal PPMO treatment. Results.?MICs of PPMOs ranged from 0.1 to 64 µM (approximately 0.6–38 µg/mL). The most effective PPMO tested was (RXR)4-AcpP, which is targeted to acpP. (RXR)4-AcpP reduced viability of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii by >103 colony-forming units/mL at 5–8 times MIC. Mice treated with ?0.25 mg/kg of (RXR)4-AcpP survived longer and had less inflammation and bacterial lung burden than mice treated with a scrambled-sequence PPMO or phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment could be delayed after infection and still increase survival. Conclusions.?PPMOs targeted to essential genes of A. lwoffii and A. baumannii were bactericidal and had MICs in a clinically relevant range. (RXR)4-AcpP increased survival of mice infected with A. lwoffii or A. baumannii, even when initial treatment was delayed after infection. PPMOs could be a viable therapeutic approach in dealing with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species. PMID:24130069

Geller, Bruce L.; Marshall-Batty, Kimberly; Schnell, Frederick J.; McKnight, Mattie M.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Greenberg, David E.

2013-01-01

199

Knockdown of DNA methyltransferase-1 inhibits proliferation and derepresses tumor suppressor genes in myeloma cells.  

PubMed

DNA methyltransferases (including DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B), catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to cytosine position 5; this methylation in promoter regions silences gene expression. In addition, DNMT1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic DNA methylation during DNA replication. In the present study, silencing of DNMT1 with siRNA was performed in RPMI-8226 human multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and the impact on gene methylation status and proliferation of the cells was analyzed. Upon DNMT1 downregulation, proliferation decreased significantly compared with that in the control, non-transfected cells. The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and nuclear factor ?B proteins was also significantly reduced. Furthermore, nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that methylation of the tumor suppressor genes, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and p16, was significantly reduced upon DNMT1 knockdown. Our results suggest that DNMT1 silencing may be a promising strategy to consider during development of novel MM treatment strategies. PMID:25289094

Zhou, Wenwen; Chen, Huying; Hong, Xiuli; Niu, Xiaoqing; Lu, Quanyi

2014-11-01

200

Evolution of the Retroviral Restriction Gene Fv1: Inhibition of Non-MLV Retroviruses  

PubMed Central

Fv1 is the prototypic restriction factor that protects against infection by the murine leukemia virus (MLV). It was first identified in cells that were derived from laboratory mice and was found to be homologous to the gag gene of an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). To understand the evolution of the host restriction gene from its retroviral origins, Fv1s from wild mice were isolated and characterized. Most of these possess intact open reading frames but not all restricted N-, B-, NR-or NB-tropic MLVs, suggesting that other viruses could have played a role in the selection of the gene. The Fv1s from Mus spretus and Mus caroli were found to restrict equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and feline foamy virus (FFV) respectively, indicating that Fv1 could have a broader target range than previously thought, including activity against lentiviruses and spumaviruses. Analyses of the Fv1 sequences revealed a number of residues in the C-terminal region that had evolved under positive selection. Four of these selected residues were found to be involved in the novel restriction by mapping studies. These results strengthen the similarities between the two capsid binding restriction factors, Fv1 and TRIM5?, which support the hypothesis that Fv1 defended mice against waves of retroviral infection possibly including non-MLVs as well as MLVs. PMID:24603659

Yap, Melvyn W.; Colbeck, Emily; Ellis, Scott A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

201

Wogonin but not Nor-wogonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid-induced iNOS gene expression and NO production in macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wogonin (Wog; 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxy flavone) has been shown to effectively inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and nitric oxide production in our previous study. In the present study, we found that Nor-wogonin (N-Wog; 5,7,8-trihydroxyl flavone), a structural analogue of Wog with an OH substitution at C8, performed different effect on LPS- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced iNOS gene

Guan-Cheng Huang; Jyh-Ming Chow; Shing-Chuan Shen; Liang-Yo Yang; Cheng-Wei Lin; Yen-Chou Chen

2007-01-01

202

The promoter of a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is activated by wounding but not by elicitors or pathogen infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins evolutionarily related to several plant\\u000a resistance genes, bind to and regulate the action of fungal endopolygalacturonases. In Phaseolus vulgaris L., PGIPs are encoded by a gene family comprising at least five members. As a start for a systematic analysis of the regulation\\u000a of the pgip family, we have analysed the ability of

Alessandra Devoto; Fiona Leckie; Elisabetta Lupotto; Felice Cervone; Giulia de Lorenzo

1998-01-01

203

Berberine inhibits mouse insulin gene promoter through activation of AMP activated protein kinase and may exert beneficial effect on pancreatic ?-cell.  

PubMed

Berberine is one of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma coptidis, proven to have anti-diabetic potentials through activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle. However, the role of berberine on the insulin gene is unknown. Therefore, the effect of berberine on insulin gene transcription was investigated in the present study. Reporter gene assays were used in the mouse ?-cell line NIT-1 to test the effect of berberine on the promoter of mouse insulin gene Ins2. The mRNA and protein levels of insulin were also detected. Diet induced glucose intolerant mice were used to explore the effect of berberine on blood glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in vivo. The insulin content in islet was semi-quantified by an image analysis software in the immunohistochemistry sections. The results revealed that berberine caused a reversible concentration-dependent inhibition of insulin gene transcription in NIT-1 cells which showed a significant difference from the long term used AMPK activator metformin. Such inhibition on insulin promoter resulted in the reduction of mRNA and protein of insulin. Furthermore, the inhibition of insulin promoter was totally abolished by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Berberine significantly improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of mice. Likewise, insulin content in islets of berberine treated mice was also decreased. Thus, the insulin gene represents a novel target of AMPK that may contribute to the action of berberine in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22955013

Shen, Ning; Huan, Yi; Shen, Zhu-fang

2012-11-01

204

Immediate and Delayed Effects of E-Cadherin Inhibition on Gene Regulation and Cell Motility in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The invasion suppressor protein, E-cadherin, plays a central role in epithelial cell-cell adhesion. Loss of E-cadherin expression or function in various tumors of epithelial origin is associated with a more invasive phenotype. In this study, by expressing a dominant-negative mutant of E-cadherin (Ec1WVM) in A431 cells, we demonstrated that specific inhibition of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion led to the genetic reprogramming of tumor cells. In particular, prolonged inhibition of cell-cell adhesion activated expression of vimentin and repressed cytokeratins, suggesting that the effects of Ec1WVM can be classified as epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Both short-term and prolonged expression of Ec1WVM resulted in morphological transformation and increased cell migration though to different extents. Short-term expression of Ec1WVM up-regulated two AP-1 family members, c-jun and fra-1, but was insufficient to induce complete mesenchymal transition. AP-1 activity induced by the short-term expression of Ec1WVM was required for transcriptional up-regulation of AP-1 family members and down-regulation of two other Ec1WVM-responsive genes, S100A4 and igfbp-3. Using a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) and RNA interference-mediated silencing of c-Jun and Fra-1, we demonstrated that AP-1 was required for cell motility stimulated by the expression of Ec1WVM. In contrast, Ec1WVM-mediated changes in cell morphology were AP-1-independent. Our data suggest that mesenchymal transition induced by prolonged functional inhibition of E-cadherin is a slow and gradual process. At the initial step of this process, Ec1WVM triggers a positive autoregulatory mechanism that increases AP-1 activity. Activated AP-1 in turn contributes to Ec1WVM-mediated effects on gene expression and tumor cell motility. These data provide novel insight into the tumor suppressor function of E-cadherin. PMID:16199889

Andersen, Henriette; Mejlvang, Jakob; Mahmood, Shaukat; Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel; Lukanidin, Eugene; Kriajevska, Marina; Mellon, J. Kilian; Tulchinsky, Eugene

2005-01-01

205

Biological and virulence characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium following deletion of glucose-inhibited division (gidA) gene.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a frequent cause of enteric disease due to the consumption of contaminated food. Identification and characterization of bacterial factors involved in Salmonella pathogenesis would help develop effective strategies for controlling salmonellosis. To investigate the role of glucose-inhibited division gene (gidA) in Salmonella virulence, we constructed a Salmonella mutant strain in which gidA was deleted. Deletion of gidA rendered Salmonella deficient in the invasion of intestinal epithelial cells, bacterial motility, intracellular survival, and induction of cytotoxicity in host cells. Deletion of gidA rendered the organism to display a filamentous morphology compared to the normal rod-shaped nature of Salmonella. Furthermore, a significant attenuation in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, histopathological lesions, and systemic infection was observed in mice infected with the gidA mutant. Most importantly, a significant increase in LD(50) was observed in mice infected with the gidA mutant, and mice immunized with the gidA mutant were able to survive a lethal dose of wild-type Salmonella. Additionally, deletion of gidA significantly altered the expression of several bacterial factors associated with pathogenesis as indicated by global transcriptional and proteomic profiling. Taken together, our data indicate GidA as a potential regulator of Salmonella virulence genes. PMID:21320585

Shippy, Daniel C; Eakley, Nicholas M; Bochsler, Philip N; Chopra, Ashok K; Fadl, Amin A

2011-06-01

206

Suppressing N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 reactivates senescence signaling and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most lethal malignancy worldwide with no curative therapies. To discover potentially novel therapeutic targets for HCC, we previously studied the gene expression profiles of HCC patients and identified that significant upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is associated with more aggressive phenotypes and poorer overall survival of HCC patients. In this study, we further used a loss-of-function approach (RNA interference) to understand the role of NDRG1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We found that suppression of NDRG1 significantly impaired HCC cell growth through inducing extensive cellular senescence of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. The observed antitumor effects of NDRG1 suppression were correlated with activation of major senescence-associated signaling pathways, such as upregulation of tumor suppressors p53, p21 and p16, and decreased phosphorylated Rb. To obtain further insights into the clinical significance of NDRG1-modulated senescence in HCC patients, immunohistochemistry staining of 92 cases of HCC patients was done. We found that high NDRG1 expression (n = 66) is associated with low p21 (n = 82; P < 0.001) and low p16 (n = 86; P < 0.001) levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that NDRG1 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC because its suppression triggers senescence of HCC cells through activating glycogen synthase kinase-3?-p53 pathway, thereby inhibiting tumor progression. PMID:24302615

Lu, Wen-Jing; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel K

2014-04-01

207

TBLR1 as an AR coactivator selectively activates AR target genes to inhibit prostate cancer growth  

PubMed Central

Androgen Receptor (AR), a steroid hormone receptor, is critical for prostate cancer growth. However, activation of AR by androgens can also lead to growth suppression and differentiation. Transcriptional cofactors play an important role in this switch between proliferative and anti-proliferative AR target gene programs. TBLR1, a core component of the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) complex, shows both co-repressor and co-activator activities on nuclear receptors, but little is known about its effects on AR and prostate cancer. We characterized TBLR1 as a coactivator of AR in prostate cancer cells and the activation is both phosphorylation and 19S proteosome dependent. We showed that TBLR1 physically interacts with AR and directly occupies the androgen response elements of affected AR target genes in an androgen-dependent manner. TBLR1 is primarily localized in the nucleus in benign prostate cells and nuclear expression is significantly reduced in prostate cancer cells in culture. Similarly, in human tumor samples, the expression of TBLR1 in the nucleus is significantly reduced in the malignant glands compared to the surrounding benign prostatic glands (p<0.005). Stable ectopic expression of nuclear TBLR1 leads to androgen-dependent growth suppression of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by selective activation of androgen regulated genes associated with differentiation (e.g. KRT18) and growth suppression (e.g. NKX3.1), but not cell proliferation of the prostate. Understanding the molecular switches involved in the transition from AR dependent growth promotion to AR dependent growth suppression will lead to more successful prostate cancer treatments. PMID:24243687

Daniels, Garrett; Li, Yirong; Gellert, Lan Lin; Zhou, Albert; Melamed, Jonathan; Wu, Xinyu; Zhang, Xinming; Zhang, David; Meruelo, Daniel; Logan, Susan K.; Basch, Ross; Lee, Peng

2014-01-01

208

Aerosol Azacytidine Inhibits Orthotopic Lung Cancers in Mice through Its DNA Demethylation and Gene Reactivation Effects  

PubMed Central

We devised an aerosol based demethylation therapy to achieve therapeutic efficacy in premalignant or in situ lesions of lung cancer, without systemic toxicity. Optimum regimens of aerosolized azacytidine (Aza) were designed and used in orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft models. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of aerosol Aza were compared with intravenously administered Aza. We observed that 80% of the droplets of the aerosol Aza measured ?0.1–5 microns, which resulted in deposition in the lower bronchial airways. An animal model that phenocopies field carcinogeneisis in humans was developed by intratracheal inoculation of the human lung cancer cells in mice, thus resulting in their distribution throughout the entire airway space. Aerosolized Aza significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing endo-bronchial lung tumors. The aerosol treatment did not cause any detectable lung toxicity or systemic toxicity. A pre-pharmacokinetic study in mice demonstrated that lung deposition of aerosolized Aza was significantly higher than the intravenous route. Lung tumors were resected after aerosol treatment and the methylation levels of 24 promoters of tumor-suppresser genes related to lung cancer were analyzed. Aerosol Aza significantly reduced the methylation level in 9 of these promoters and reexpressed several genes tested. In conclusion, aerosol Aza at non-cytotoxic doses appears to be effective and results in DNA demethylation and tumor suppressor gene re-expression. The therapeutic index of aerosol Aza is >100-fold higher than that of intravenous Aza. These results provide a preclinical rationale for a phase I clinical trial of aerosol Aza to be initiated at our Institution. PMID:25347303

Qiu, Xuan; Liang, Yuanxin; Sellers, Rani S.; Perez-Soler, Roman; Zou, Yiyu

2014-01-01

209

Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum-graecum generally known as fenugreek, has been normally cultivated in Asia and Africa for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used widely for therapeutic purposes. Fenugreek seed is recognized to show anti-diabetic and anti-nociceptive properties and other things such as hypocholesterolaemic, and anti-cancer. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin from therapeutic herbs, fenugreek (T. foenum-graceum L.), has been well-known to have anticancer properties. Telomerase activity is not identified in usual healthy cells, while in carcinogenic cell telomerase expression is reactivated. Therefore telomerase illustrates a promising cancer therapeutic target. We deliberate the inhibitory effect of pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin on human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) expression which is critical for telomerase activity. MTT-assay and qRT-PCR analysis were achieved to discover cytotoxicity effects and hTERT gene expression inhibition properties, separately. MTT results exhibited that IC50 for pure diosgenin were 47, 44 and 43 µM and for fenugreek extract diosgenin were 49, 48 and 47 µM for 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Culturing cells with pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin treatment caused in down regulation of hTERT expression. These results indication that pure and impure diosgenin prevents telomerase activity by down regulation of the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line, with the difference that pure compound is more effective than another. PMID:24973886

Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Ghareghomi, Somayyeh; Haddadchi, Gholamreza; Milani, Morteza; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Daroushnejad, Hasan

2014-09-01

210

The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (Pgip) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and determined the properties of the encoded protein products. Sequence analysis showed that these genes form two clusters: one cluster of about 5 kbp containing Gmpgip1 and Gmpgip2, and the other containing Gmpgip3 and Gmpgip4 within a 60 kb fragment of a separate BAC clone. Sequence diversification of the four members resides mainly in the xxLxLxx region that includes residues forming the beta-sheet B1. When compared with other legume Pgip genes, Gmpgip3 groups with the bean genes Pvpgip1 and Pvpgip2, suggesting that these genes are closer to the ancestral gene. At the protein level, only GmPGIP3 shows the capability to inhibit fungal PGs. The spectrum of inhibition of GmPGIP3 against eight different fungal PGs mirrors that of the PGIP purified from soybean tissues and is similar to that of the bean PvPGIP2, one of the most efficient inhibitors so far characterized. We also report that the four Gmpgip genes are differentially regulated after wounding or during infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Following fungal infection Gmpgip3 is up regulated promptly, while Gmpgip2 is delayed. PMID:16501991

D'Ovidio, R; Roberti, S; Di Giovanni, M; Capodicasa, C; Melaragni, M; Sella, L; Tosi, P; Favaron, F

2006-08-01

211

Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

2000-02-01

212

Transgenic expression of a delta 12-epoxygenase gene in Arabidopsis seeds inhibits accumulation of linoleic acid.  

PubMed

The Crepis palaestina cDNA Cpal2 encodes a delta 12-epoxygenase that can catalyse the synthesis of 12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1E) from linoleic acid (18:2). When the Cpal2 gene was expressed under the control of the napin seed-specific promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the seed lipids accumulated only low levels of 18:1E and also 12,13-epoxy-cis-9,15-octadec-2-enoic acid (18:2E). Despite the fact that the levels of these epoxy fatty acids comprised only up to 6.2% of the total fatty acids, there was a very marked increase in oleic acid (18:1) and decrease in linoleic (18:2) and alpha-linolenic (18:3) acids in these plants, indicating that endogenous delta 12-desaturation was greatly reduced in these plants. Significant between-line differences in the levels of Cpal2 mRNA were observed during seed development, but were not associated with any major variation in mRNA levels for the endogenous Arabidopsis delta 12-desaturase (Fad2). This suggests that if an unfavourable interaction occurs between the transgenic delta 12-epoxygenase and the endogenous delta 12-desaturase, which decreases the level of desaturation, it occurs at either the translational or post-translational level. We further show that the co-expression of a delta 12-desaturase gene from C. palaestina in Cpal2 transgenic Arabidopsis returns the relative proportions of the C18 seed fatty acids to normal levels and results in an almost twofold increase in total epoxy fatty acids. PMID:11346964

Singh, S; Thomaeus, S; Lee, M; Stymne, S; Green, A

2001-04-01

213

Inhibition of pancreatic glucagon gene expression in mice bearing a subcutaneous glucagon-producing GLUTag transplantable tumor.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice that express a glucagon gene-simian virus-40 large T-antigen (GLUTag) fusion gene develop neuroendocrine carcinoma of the large bowel. This glucagon-producing tumor was implanted sc and reproducibly formed tumors in nude mice. The transplanted GLUTag tumor expressed large amounts of proglucagon mRNA transcripts, and the levels of proglucagon mRNA transcripts remained constant during 2-8 weeks of tumor growth. The posttranslational processing of proglucagon in the transplantable tumor resembled that detected in the original transgenic tumor, with the liberation of glicentin, oxyntomodulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide (1-37) [GLP-1-(1-37)] and GLP-1-(7-37). Tumor-bearing mice demonstrated progressive elevations in the plasma levels of proglucagon-derived peptides. Elevated plasma levels of glucagon-like immunoreactive peptides and immunoreactive glucagon were associated with a marked reduction in the levels of pancreatic glucagon mRNA transcripts by 4 weeks, and after 8 weeks of tumor growth, the levels of glucagon mRNA transcripts in the pancreas were not detectable by Northern blot analysis. Synthesis of the proglucagon-derived peptides was also significantly suppressed at 4-8 weeks in the pancreas of tumor-bearing animals. Histological examination of the endocrine pancreas in mice carrying the GLUTag tumor for 6-8 weeks demonstrated a marked reduction in the number and size of the islets of Langerhans and a disproportionately greater decrease in the number of cells exhibiting glucagon immunoreactivity. By electron microscopy, the residual A-cells were small, compressed at the periphery of the islets, and had poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles. In contrast, no changes in mouse glucagon gene expression or islet morphology were detected in control animals without tumors or mice carrying a sc v-jun-induced fibrosarcoma. The suppression of pancreatic A-cell function and islet size in mice with elevated plasma levels of the proglucagon-derived peptides raises the possibility that a proglucagon-derived peptide may participate in a negative feedback loop, inhibiting expression of the glucagon gene in the A-cells of the endocrine pancreas. PMID:1491697

Drucker, D J; Lee, Y C; Asa, S L; Brubaker, P L

1992-12-01

214

CK2 Phosphorylates and Inhibits TAp73 Tumor Suppressor Function to Promote Expression of Cancer Stem Cell Genes and Phenotype in Head and Neck Cancer12  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSC) and genes have been linked to cancer development and therapeutic resistance, but the signaling mechanisms regulating CSC genes and phenotype are incompletely understood. CK2 has emerged as a key signal serine/threonine kinase that modulates diverse signal cascades regulating cell fate and growth. We previously showed that CK2 is often aberrantly expressed and activated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), concomitantly with mutant (mt) tumor suppressor TP53, and inactivation of its family member, TAp73. Unexpectedly, we observed that classical stem cell genes Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4, are overexpressed in HNSCC with inactivated TAp73 and mtTP53. However, the potential relationship between CK2, TAp73 inactivation, and CSC phenotype is unknown. We reveal that inhibition of CK2 by pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA inhibits the expression of CSC genes and side population (SP), while enhancing TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, CK2 inhibitor attenuation of CSC protein expression and the SP by was abrogated by TAp73 siRNA. Bioinformatic analysis uncovered a single predicted CK2 threonine phosphorylation site (T27) within the N-terminal transactivation domain of TAp73. Nuclear CK2 and TAp73 interaction, confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, was attenuated by CK2 inhibitor, or a T27A point-mutation of this predicted CK2 threonine phospho-acceptor site of TAp73. Further, T27A mutation attenuated phosphorylation, while enhancing TAp73 function in repressing CSC gene expression and SP cells. A new CK2 inhibitor, CX-4945, inhibited CSC related SP cells, clonogenic survival, and spheroid formation. Our study unveils a novel regulatory mechanism whereby aberrant CK2 signaling inhibits TAp73 to promote the expression of CSC genes and phenotype. PMID:25379016

Lu, Hai; Yan, Carol; Quan, Xin Xin; Yang, Xinping; Zhang, Jialing; Bian, Yansong; Chen, Zhong; Van Waes, Carter

2014-01-01

215

Alteration of splice site selection in the LMNA gene and inhibition of progerin production via AMPK activation.  

PubMed

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype and an average life span of 13years. Patients typically exhibit extensive pathophysiological vascular alterations, eventually resulting in death from stroke or myocardial infarction. A silent point mutation at position 1824 (C1824T) of the LMNA gene, generating a truncated form of lamin A (progerin), has been shown to be the cause of most cases of HGPS. Interestingly, this mutation induces the use of an internal 5' cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, leading to the generation of progerin via aberrant alternative splicing. The serine-arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1 or ASF/SF2) has been shown to function as an oncoprotein and is upregulated in many cancers and other age-related disorders. Indeed, SRSF1 inhibition results in a splicing ratio in the LMNA pre-mRNA favoring lamin A production over that of progerin. It is our hypothesis that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular metabolism, may lead to a reduction in SRSF1 and thus a decrease in the use of the LMNA 5' cryptic splice site in exon 11 through upregulation of p32, a splicing factor-associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone that has been shown to inhibit SRSF1 and enhance mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and oxidative phosphorylation. AMPK activation by currently available compounds such as metformin, resveratrol, and berberine may thus have wide-ranging implications for disorders associated with increased production and accumulation of progerin. PMID:25216752

Finley, Jahahreeh

2014-11-01

216

Arthrophytum scoparium inhibits melanogenesis through the down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expressions in B16 melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Melanin performs a crucial role in protecting the skin against harmful ultraviolet light. However, hyperpigmentation may lead to aesthetic problems and disorders such as solar lentigines (SL), melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and even melanoma. Arthrophytum scoparium grows in the desert in the North African region, and given this type of environment, A. scoparium exhibits adaptations for storing water and produces useful bioactive factors. In this study, the effect of A. scoparium ethanol extract (ASEE) on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. Cells treated with 0.017% (w/v) ASEE showed a significant inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. To clarify the mechanism behind the ASEE-treated melanogenesis regulation, the expressions of tyrosinase enzyme and melanogenesis-related genes were determined. Results showed that the expression of tyrosinase enzyme was significantly decreased and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated. LC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis of the extract identified the presence of six phenolic compounds: coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, chrysoeriol, cyanidin, catechol and caffeoylquinic acid. The melanogenesis inhibitory effect of ASEE may therefore be attributed to its catechol and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative content. We report here that ASEE can inhibit melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner by decreasing the tyrosinase protein and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions. This is the first report on the antimelanogenesis effect of A. scoparium and on its potential as a whitening agent. PMID:23362872

Chao, Hui-Chia; Najjaa, Hanen; Villareal, Myra O; Ksouri, Riadh; Han, Junkyu; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

2013-02-01

217

New synthetic sulfone derivatives inhibit growth, adhesion and the leucine arylamidase APE2 gene expression of Candida albicans in vitro.  

PubMed

The successful preventing and effective treatment of invasive Candida albicans infections required research focused on synthesis of new classes of agents and antifungal activity studies. Bromodichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named compound 6); dichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named 7); and chlorodibromomethyl-4-hydrazino-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named 11) on inhibition of planktonic cells' growth, leucine arylamidase APE2 gene expression, and adhesion to epithelial cells were investigated. In vitro anti-Candida activities were determined against wild-types, and the morphogenesis mutants: ?efg1 and ?cph1. MICs of compounds 6, 7 and 11 (concentrated at 0.25-16?g/ml) were determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Broth Microdilution Method (M27-A3 Document). APE2 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR; relative quantification was normalized against ACT1 in cells growth in YEPD and on Caco-2 cell line. Adherence assay of C. albicans to Caco-2 was performed in 24-well-plate. The structure activity relationship suggested that sulfone containing hydrazine function at C-1 (compound 11) showed higher antifungal activity (cell inhibition%=100 at 1-16?g/ml) than the remaining sulfones with chlorine at C-1. ?cph1/?efg1 was highly sensitive to compound 11, while the sensitivity was reduced in ?cph1/?efg1::EFG1 (%=100 at 16-fold higher concentration). Compound 11 significantly affected adherence to epithelium (P ?0.05) and hyphae formation. The APE2 up-regulation plays role in sulfones' resistance on MAP kinase pathway. Either CPH1 or EFG1 play a role in the resistance mechanism in sulfones. The strain-dependent phenomenon is a factor in the sulfone resistance mechanism. Sulfones' mode of action was attributed to reduced virulence arsenal in terms of adhesiveness and pathogenic potential related to the APE2 expression and morphogenesis. PMID:25515956

Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Ma?gorzata; Ochal, Zbigniew

2015-01-15

218

Momordica charantia (bitter melon) inhibits primary human adipocyte differentiation by modulating adipogenic genes  

PubMed Central

Background Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM) that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ) on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR). Results Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor ? (PPAR?) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and adipocytokine, resistin. Similarly, adipocytes treated with BMJ for 48 h demonstrated reduced lipid content, perilipin mRNA expression, and increased lipolysis as measured by the release of glycerol. Conclusion Our data suggests that BMJ is a potent inhibitor of lipogenesis and stimulator of lipolysis activity in human adipocytes. BMJ may therefore prove to be an effective complementary or alternative therapy to reduce adipogenesis in humans. PMID:20587058

2010-01-01

219

Metformin inhibits food intake and neuropeptide Y gene expression in the hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Metformin may reduce food intake and body weight, but the anorexigenic effects of metformin are still poorly understood. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single intracere-broventricular dose of metformin and compound C, in a broader attempt to investigate the regula-tory effects of metformin on food intake and to explore the possible mechanism. Results showed that central administration of metformin significantly reduced food intake and body weight gain, par-ticularly after 4 hours. A reduction of neuropeptide Y expression and induction of AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hypothalamus were also observed 4 hours after metformin administration, which could be reversed by compound C, a commonly-used antagonist of AMP-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, metformin also improved lipid metabolism by reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein. Our findings suggest that under normal physiological conditions, central regulation of appetite by metformin is related to a decrease in neuropeptide Y gene expres-sion, and that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase may simply be a response to the anorexigenic effect of metformin. PMID:25206548

Duan, Yale; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Min; Sun, Lijuan; Dong, Suzhen; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Zheng

2013-01-01

220

Resveratrol Inhibits Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene Expression and Function in Rat Thyroid Cells  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and berries that has antioxidant, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. For these reasons, it is available as a dietary supplement, and it is under investigation in several clinical trials. Few data are available regarding the effects of resveratrol on thyroid function. A previous study showed that resveratrol transiently increases iodide influx in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Indeed, this increase arises after short treatment times (6–12 h), and no further effects are seen after 24 h. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on iodide uptake and sodium/iodide symporter expression in thyroid cells after longer times of treatment. For this purpose, the effects of resveratrol were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using the rat thyroid FRTL-5 cell line and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In FRTL-5 cells, resveratrol decreased the sodium/iodide symporter RNA and protein expression as a function of time. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased cellular iodide uptake after 48 h of treatment. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on iodide uptake was confirmed in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats. This study demonstrates that with longer-term treatment, resveratrol is an inhibitor of sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and function in the thyroid. These data suggest that resveratrol can act as a thyroid disruptor, which indicates the need for caution as a supplement and in therapeutic use. PMID:25251397

Giuliani, Cesidio; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; Rossi, Cosmo; Grassadonia, Antonino; Mariotti, Marianna; Piantelli, Mauro; Monaco, Fabrizio; Napolitano, Giorgio

2014-01-01

221

MUTATIONS IN THE GABRB1 GENE PROMOTE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION THROUGH INCREASED TONIC INHIBITION  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-dependence is a common, complex and debilitating disorder with genetic and environmental influences. Here we show that alcohol consumption increases following mutations to the ?-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) ?1 subunit gene (Gabrb1). Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis on an alcohol-averse background (F1 BALB/cAnN × C3H/HeH), we develop a mouse model exhibiting strong heritable preference for ethanol resulting from a dominant mutation (L285R) in Gabrb1. The mutation causes spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increases GABA sensitivity of recombinant GABAARs, coupled to increased tonic currents in the nucleus accumbens, a region long-associated with alcohol reward. Mutant mice work harder to obtain ethanol, and are more sensitive to alcohol intoxication. Another spontaneous mutation (P228H) in Gabrb1 also causes high ethanol consumption accompanied by spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increased accumbal tonic current. Our results provide a new and important link between GABAAR function and increased alcohol consumption that could underlie some forms of alcohol abuse. PMID:24281383

Anstee, Quentin M.; Knapp, Susanne; Maguire, Edward P.; Thomas, Philip; Mortensen, Martin; Bhome, Rohan; Martinez, Alonso; Walker, Sophie E.; Dixon, Claire I.; Ruparelia, Kush; Montagnese, Sara; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Herlihy, Amy; Bell, Jimmy D; Robinson, Iain; Guerrini, Irene; McQuillin, Andrew; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Ungless, Mark A.; Gurling, Hugh M.D.; Morgan, Marsha Y.; Brown, Steve D.M.; Stephens, David N.; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Smart, Trevor G.; Thomas, Howard C.

2013-01-01

222

Cross-resistance to herbicides of five ALS-inhibiting groups and sequencing of the ALS gene in Cyperus difformis L.  

PubMed

Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Cyperus difformis has evolved rapidly in many rice areas worldwide. This study identified the mechanism of resistance, assessed cross-resistance patterns to all five chemical groups of ALS-inhibiting herbicides in four C. difformis biotypes, and attempted to sequence the ALS gene. Whole-plant and ALS enzyme activity dose-response assays indicated that the WA biotype was resistant to all ALS-inhibiting herbicides evaluated. The IR biotype was resistant to bensulfuron-methyl, orthosulfamuron, imazethapyr, and propoxycarbazone-sodium and less resistant to bispyribac-sodium and halosulfuron-methyl, and susceptible to penoxsulam. ALS enzyme activity assays indicated that resistance is due to an altered target site yet mutations previously found to endow target-site resistance in weeds were not detected in the sequences obtained. The inability to detect resistance mutations in C. difformis may result from the presence of additional ALS genes, which were not amplified by the primers used. This study reports the first ALS gene sequence from Cyperus difformis. Certain ALS-inhibiting herbicides can still be used to control some resistant C. difformis biotypes. However, because cross-resistance to all five classes of ALS-inhibitors was detected in other resistant biotypes, these herbicides should only be used within an integrated weed management program designed to delay the evolution of herbicide resistance. PMID:19191488

Merotto, Aldo; Jasieniuk, Marie; Osuna, Maria D; Vidotto, Francesco; Ferrero, Aldo; Fischer, Albert J

2009-02-25

223

Sulindac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, selectively inhibits interferon-{gamma}-induced expression of the chemokine CXCL9 gene in mouse macrophages  

SciTech Connect

Sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to exert an anti-tumor effect on several types of cancer. To determine the effect of sulindac on intracellular signaling pathways in host immune cells such as macrophages, we investigated the effect of the drug on interferon gamma (IFN{gamma})-induced expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and other genes in mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Sulindac, but not aspirin or sodium salicylate, inhibited IFN{gamma}-induced expression of the CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9) mRNA, a chemokine for activated T cells, whereas the interferon-induced expression of CXCL10 or IFN regulatory factor-1 was not affected by sulindac. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that sulindac inhibited IFN{gamma}-induced promoter activity of the CXCL9 gene. Surprisingly, sulindac had no inhibitory effect on IFN{gamma}-induced STAT1 activation; however, constitutive nuclear factor {kappa}B activity was suppressed by the drug. These results indicate that sulindac selectively inhibited IFN{gamma}-inducible gene expression without inhibiting STAT1 activation.

Sakaeda, Yoshiichi [Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Oral Biology and Tissue Engineering, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan); Hiroi, Miki [Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Oral Biology and Tissue Engineering, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan); Shimojima, Takahiro [Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan); Iguchi, Mayumi [Division of Orthodontics, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan); Kanegae, Haruhide [Division of Orthodontics, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan); Ohmori, Yoshihiro [Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Oral Biology and Tissue Engineering, Meikai University School of Dentistry, 1-1 Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0283 (Japan)]. E-mail: ohmori@dent.meikai.ac.jp

2006-11-17

224

The mutated human gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? inhibits kidney formation in developing Xenopus embryos  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? (HNF1?) is a tissue-specific regulator that also plays an essential role in early development of vertebrates. In humans, four heterozygous mutations in the HNF1? gene have been identified that lead to early onset of diabetes and severe primary renal defects. The degree and type of renal defects seem to depend on the specific mutation. We show that the frameshift mutant P328L329fsdelCCTCT associated with nephron agenesis retains its DNA-binding properties and acts as a gain-of-function mutation with increased transactivation potential in transfection experiments. Expression of this mutated factor in the Xenopus embryo leads to defective development and agenesis of the pronephros, the first kidney form of amphibians. Very similar defects are generated by overexpressing in Xenopus the wild-type HNF1?, which is consistent with the gain-of-function property of the mutant. In contrast, introduction of the human HNF1? mutant R137-K161del, which is associated with a reduced number of nephrons with hypertrophy of the remaining ones and which has an impaired DNA binding, shows only a minor effect on pronephros development in Xenopus. Thus, the overexpression of both human mutants has a different effect on renal development in Xenopus, reflecting the variation in renal phenotype seen with these mutations. We conclude that mutations in human HNF1? can be functionally characterized in Xenopus. Our findings imply that HNF1? not only is an early marker of kidney development but also is functionally involved in morphogenetic events, and these processes can be investigated in lower vertebrates. PMID:10758154

Wild, Wiltrud; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Nastos, Aristotelis; Senkel, Sabine; Lingott-Frieg, Anja; Bulman, Michael; Bingham, Coralie; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Ryffel, Gerhart U.

2000-01-01

225

Overexpression of the PLAP-1 gene inhibits the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast-like cells.  

PubMed

Periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1) is a newly discovered member of the extracellular matrix family of proteins known as proteoglycans and is a negative regulator that plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of periodontal tissues. It can protect the periodontal ligament from excessive osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of PLAP-1 during osteogenic differentiation and osteogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we constructed a PLAP-1 recombinant retroviral plasmid vector named pBABE-hygro-PLAP-1. We transfected this plasmid into rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) to obtain a stable cell line with overexpression of PLAP-1 to verify whether PLAP-1 also acts as an inhibitory factor in rBMSCs during bone mineralization. A rBMSC line stably overexpressing PLAP-1 was established successfully as determined by the mRNA levels of PLAP-1, which were measured by real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and protein expression, which was measured by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. At the same time, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay did not reveal any statistically significant changes in the transfected cells (P > 0.05). Then, mineral-inducing cultures were performed, and mineralized nodules were observed at weeks 2, 3 and 4 under a microscope. Alizarin Red (Sigma) staining was performed at 4 week to illustrate calcium accumulation. The mineralized nodules in the PLAP-1-transfected rBMSC group were fewer than those in the control groups. The time span of the formation of the mineralized nodules was prolonged. Meanwhile, osteogenic genes were also detected in the mineral-inducing cells by RT-qPCR. An RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that the levels of the osteoblast markers of rBMSCs that were transfected with pBABE-hygro-PLAP-1, including Runx2, Osterix, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, were lower than those in the non-transfected rBMSCs and rBMSCs that were transfected with empty vector (P < 0.01). These results suggest that PLAP-1 has an inhibitory function in rBMSCs when they differentiate into osteoblast-like cells. PMID:25038933

Sun, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Panpan; Lv, Linlin; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu

2014-10-01

226

Inhibition of CD44 Gene Expression in Human Skin Models, Using Self-Delivery Short Interfering RNA Administered by Dissolvable Microneedle Arrays  

PubMed Central

Abstract Treatment of skin disorders with short interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapeutics requires the development of effective delivery methodologies that reach target cells in affected tissues. Successful delivery of functional siRNA to the epidermis requires (1) crossing the stratum corneum, (2) transfer across the keratinocyte membrane, followed by (3) incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with microneedle arrays loaded with self-delivery siRNA (sd-siRNA) can achieve inhibition of reporter gene expression in a transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, treatment of human cultured epidermal equivalents with sd-siRNA resulted in inhibition of target gene expression. Here, we demonstrate inhibition of CD44, a gene that is uniformly expressed throughout the epidermis, by sd-siRNA both in vitro (cultured human epidermal skin equivalents) and in vivo (full-thickness human skin equivalents xenografted on immunocompromised mice). Treatment of human skin equivalents with CD44 sd-siRNA markedly decreased CD44 mRNA levels, which led to a reduction of the target protein as confirmed by immunodetection in epidermal equivalent sections with a CD44-specific antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that sd-siRNA, delivered by microneedle arrays, can reduce expression of a targeted endogenous gene in a human skin xenograft model. PMID:22480249

Lara, Maria Fernanda; González-González, Emilio; Speaker, Tycho J.; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Leake, Devin; Milstone, Leonard M.; Contag, Christopher H.

2012-01-01

227

Polycomb group gene BMI1 controls invasion of medulloblastoma cells and inhibits BMP-regulated cell adhesion  

PubMed Central

Background Medulloblastoma is the most common intracranial childhood malignancy and a genetically heterogeneous disease. Despite recent advances, current therapeutic approaches are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent molecular profiling has suggested the stratification of medulloblastoma from one single disease into four distinct subgroups namely: WNT Group (best prognosis), SHH Group (intermediate prognosis), Group 3 (worst prognosis) and Group 4 (intermediate prognosis). BMI1 is a Polycomb group repressor complex gene overexpressed across medulloblastoma subgroups but most significantly in Group 4 tumours. Bone morphogenetic proteins are morphogens belonging to TGF-? superfamily of growth factors, known to inhibit medulloblastoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Results Here we demonstrate that human medulloblastoma of Group 4 characterised by the greatest overexpression of BMI1, also display deregulation of cell adhesion molecules. We show that BMI1 controls intraparenchymal invasion in a novel xenograft model of human MB of Group 4, while in vitro assays highlight that cell adhesion and motility are controlled by BMI1 in a BMP dependent manner. Conclusions BMI1 controls MB cell migration and invasion through repression of the BMP pathway, raising the possibility that BMI1 could be used as a biomarker to identify groups of patients who may benefit from a treatment with BMP agonists. PMID:24460684

2014-01-01

228

TFE3 inhibits myoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells via down-regulating gene expression of myogenin.  

PubMed

Transcription factor E3 (TFE3) belongs to a basic helix-loop-helix family, and is involved in the biology of osteoclasts, melanocytes and their malignancies. We previously reported the metabolic effects of TFE3 on insulin in the liver and skeletal muscles in animal models. In the present study, we explored a novel role for TFE3 in a skeletal muscle cell line. When TFE3 was overexpressed in C2C12 myoblasts by adenovirus before induction of differentiation, myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells was significantly inhibited. Adenovirus-mediated TFE3 overexpression also suppressed the gene expression of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs), such as MyoD and myogenin, during C2C12 differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of TFE3 using adenovirus encoding short-hairpin RNAi specific for TFE3 dramatically promoted myoblast differentiation associated with significantly increased expression of MRFs. Consistent with these findings, promoter analyses via luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that TFE3 negatively regulated myogenin promoter activity by direct binding to an E-box, E2, in the myogenin promoter. These findings indicated that TFE3 has a regulatory role in myoblast differentiation, and that transcriptional suppression of myogenin expression may be part of the mechanism of action. PMID:23211595

Naka, Ayano; Iida, Kaoruko Tada; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Satoh, Aoi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Ishii, Kiyo-Aki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Shimada, Masako; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

2013-01-11

229

Gene expression analysis reveals inhibition of radiation-induced TGF?-signaling by hyperbaric oxygen therapy in mouse salivary glands.  

PubMed

A side effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region is injury to surrounding healthy tissues such as irreversible impaired function of the salivary glands. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is clinically used to treat radiation-induced damage but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways that are affected by HBOT in mouse salivary glands two weeks after radiation therapy by microarray analysis. Interestingly, HBOT led to significant attenuation of the radiation-induced expression of a set of genes and upstream regulators that are involved in processes such as fibrosis and tissue regeneration. Our data suggest that the TGF?-pathway, which is involved in radiation-induced fibrosis and chronic loss of function after radiation therapy, is affected by HBOT. On the longer term, HBOT reduced the expression of the fibrosis-associated factor ?-smooth muscle actin in irradiated salivary glands. This study highlights the potential of HBOT to inhibit the TGF?-pathway in irradiated salivary glands and to restrain consequential radiation induced tissue injury. PMID:24849810

Spiegelberg, Linda; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; Van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Oole, Edwin; Wolvius, Eppo B; Essers, Jeroen; Braks, Joanna A M

2014-01-01

230

Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Inhibition of Radiation-Induced TGF?-Signaling by Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Mouse Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

A side effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region is injury to surrounding healthy tissues such as irreversible impaired function of the salivary glands. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is clinically used to treat radiation-induced damage but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways that are affected by HBOT in mouse salivary glands two weeks after radiation therapy by microarray analysis. Interestingly, HBOT led to significant attenuation of the radiation-induced expression of a set of genes and upstream regulators that are involved in processes such as fibrosis and tissue regeneration. Our data suggest that the TGF?-pathway, which is involved in radiation-induced fibrosis and chronic loss of function after radiation therapy, is affected by HBOT. On the longer term, HBOT reduced the expression of the fibrosis-associated factor ?-smooth muscle actin in irradiated salivary glands. This study highlights the potential of HBOT to inhibit the TGF?-pathway in irradiated salivary glands and to restrain consequential radiation induced tissue injury. PMID:24849810

Spiegelberg, Linda; Swagemakers, Sigrid MA; van IJcken, Wilfred FJ; Oole, Edwin; Wolvius, Eppo B; Essers, Jeroen; Braks, Joanna AM

2014-01-01

231

Molecular cloning, functional analysis and localization of a novel gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in Chorispora bungeana.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defense proteins. To date, no spatial distribution of PGIPs and interaction between PGIPs and nitric oxide (NO) in plant were described. Here, we first reported the full-length cDNA sequence of PGIP of Chorispora bungeana (CbPGIP1). Notably, immunofluorescence localization showed that the CbPGIP was evenly distributed in leaves but it was mainly localized in epidermis and vascular bundle in stems and roots. Further studies indicated that CbPGIP had higher abundance in roots than in stems and leaves. Conversely, the bulk PGIP of C. bungeana showed a higher activity in leaves than in stems and roots. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that CbPGIP1 expression was induced by Stemphylium solani, salicylic acid (SA), 4, -4 degrees C and NO. This is a first report attempting to predict if NO can induce the PGIP expression. Taken together, these findings showed that the gene was spatially regulated and NO and SA might take part in CbPGIP1 expression induced by biotic and abiotic stresses. This study highlighted the potential importance of CbPGIP1 and NO in plant resistance. PMID:19885675

Di, Cuixia; Li, Ming; Long, Feng; Bai, Muqun; Liu, Yajie; Zheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Shijian; Xiang, Yun; Sun, Zhenglong; An, Lizhe

2009-12-01

232

The OsFOR1 gene encodes a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) that regulates floral organ number in rice.  

PubMed

We have isolated a cDNA clone, OsFOR1, from the immature panicles of rice. The OsFOR1 (Oryza sativa floral organ regulator 1) gene encodes a protein that contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. This domain comprises 10 tandem repeats of a canonical 24-amino acid LRR sequence. The structure and the number of LRRs for OsFOR1 are similar to those of polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) from various other plant species. Moreover, the OsFOR1 recombinant protein, when fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP), shows PGIP activity against the Aspergillus niger polygalacturonase. OsFOR1 is highly expressed in the calli and immature and mature panicles, while detectable at only low levels in seedling roots and mature stems. In situ hybridization experiments showed the transcripts of OsFOR1 are present in young spikelet primordia and in almost all of the young floral organs. Transgenic approaches were used to study in vivo functioning. Antisense expression of OsFOR1 resulted in an increase in the numbers of floral organs, including the stamen, carpel, palea/lemma, stigma, and lodicule. OsFOR1 transcript was not detected in the frizzy panicle mutant, which is defective in its spikelet formation but normal in inflorescence-meristem initiation and maintenance. Therefore, we suggest that OsFOR1 plays a role in the formation and/or maintenance of floral organ primordia. PMID:14750524

Jang, Seonghoe; Lee, Byongho; Kim, Chanhong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Yim, Jieun; Han, Jong-Jin; Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Seong-Ryong; An, Gynheung

2003-10-01

233

Silencing SlELP2L, a tomato Elongator complex protein 2-like gene, inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf, sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit.  

PubMed

The multi-subunit complex Elongator interacts with elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is thought to facilitate transcription through histone acetylation. Elongator is highly conserved in eukaryotes, yet has multiple kingdom-specific functions in diverse organisms. Recent genetic studies performed in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that Elongator functions in plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little is known about its roles in other plant species. Here, we study the function of an Elongator complex protein 2-like gene in tomato, here designated as SlELP2L, through RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Silencing SlELP2L in tomato inhibits leaf growth, accelerates leaf and sepal senescence, and produces dark-green fruit with reduced GA and IAA contents in leaves, and increased chlorophyll accumulation in pericarps. Gene expression analysis indicated that SlELP2L-silenced plants had reduced transcript levels of ethylene- and ripening-related genes during fruit ripening with slightly decreased carotenoid content in fruits, while the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes was up-regulated, indicating that SlELP2L may modulate DNA methylation in tomato. Besides, silencing SlELP2L increases ABA sensitivity in inhibiting seedling growth. These results suggest that SlELP2L plays important roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as in response to ABA in tomato. PMID:25573793

Zhu, Mingku; Li, Yali; Chen, Guoping; Ren, Lijun; Xie, Qiaoli; Zhao, Zhiping; Hu, Zongli

2015-01-01

234

BAY 87-2243, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of hypoxia-induced gene activation has antitumor activities by inhibition of mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

The activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in tumor development, tumor progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In order to identify compounds targeting the HIF pathway, a small molecule library was screened using a luciferase-driven HIF-1 reporter cell line under hypoxia. The high-throughput screening led to the identification of a class of aminoalkyl-substituted compounds that inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 target gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Lead structure BAY 87-2243 was found to inhibit HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein accumulation under hypoxic conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H460 but had no effect on HIF-1? protein levels induced by the hypoxia mimetics desferrioxamine or cobalt chloride. BAY 87-2243 had no effect on HIF target gene expression levels in RCC4 cells lacking Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) activity nor did the compound affect the activity of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2. Antitumor activity of BAY 87-2243, suppression of HIF-1? protein levels, and reduction of HIF-1 target gene expression in vivo were demonstrated in a H460 xenograft model. BAY 87-2243 did not inhibit cell proliferation under standard conditions. However under glucose depletion, a condition favoring mitochondrial ATP generation as energy source, BAY 87-2243 inhibited cell proliferation in the nanomolar range. Further experiments revealed that BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity but has no effect on complex III activity. Interference with mitochondrial function to reduce hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity in tumors might be an interesting therapeutic approach to overcome chemo- and radiotherapy-resistance of hypoxic tumors. PMID:24403227

Ellinghaus, Peter; Heisler, Iring; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Haerter, Michael; Beck, Hartmut; Greschat, Susanne; Ehrmann, Alexander; Summer, Holger; Flamme, Ingo; Oehme, Felix; Thierauch, Karlheinz; Michels, Martin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Ziegelbauer, Karl

2013-10-01

235

BAY 87-2243, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of hypoxia-induced gene activation has antitumor activities by inhibition of mitochondrial complex I  

PubMed Central

The activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in tumor development, tumor progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. In order to identify compounds targeting the HIF pathway, a small molecule library was screened using a luciferase-driven HIF-1 reporter cell line under hypoxia. The high-throughput screening led to the identification of a class of aminoalkyl-substituted compounds that inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 target gene expression in human lung cancer cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations. Lead structure BAY 87-2243 was found to inhibit HIF-1? and HIF-2? protein accumulation under hypoxic conditions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H460 but had no effect on HIF-1? protein levels induced by the hypoxia mimetics desferrioxamine or cobalt chloride. BAY 87-2243 had no effect on HIF target gene expression levels in RCC4 cells lacking Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) activity nor did the compound affect the activity of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-2. Antitumor activity of BAY 87-2243, suppression of HIF-1? protein levels, and reduction of HIF-1 target gene expression in vivo were demonstrated in a H460 xenograft model. BAY 87-2243 did not inhibit cell proliferation under standard conditions. However under glucose depletion, a condition favoring mitochondrial ATP generation as energy source, BAY 87-2243 inhibited cell proliferation in the nanomolar range. Further experiments revealed that BAY 87-2243 inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity but has no effect on complex III activity. Interference with mitochondrial function to reduce hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activity in tumors might be an interesting therapeutic approach to overcome chemo- and radiotherapy-resistance of hypoxic tumors. PMID:24403227

Ellinghaus, Peter; Heisler, Iring; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Haerter, Michael; Beck, Hartmut; Greschat, Susanne; Ehrmann, Alexander; Summer, Holger; Flamme, Ingo; Oehme, Felix; Thierauch, Karlheinz; Michels, Martin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Ziegelbauer, Karl

2013-01-01

236

15-Deoxy-? 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory genes in human blood monocytes via a PPAR-?-independent mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) has been implicated in inhibition of the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inducible enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Using real-time RT-PCR the present study investigates the impact of two PPAR-? agonists, 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and ciglitazone, on the expression of several proinflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human blood monocytes. Stimulation of cells with LPS resulted

Burkhard Hinz; Kay Brune; Andreas Pahl

2003-01-01

237

Long-Term Inhibition of Angiotensin Prevents Reduction of Periarterial Innervation of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)-Containing Nerves in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerve fibers in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the effects of long-term inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on these changes. The density of immunocytochemically stained nerve fibers in the mesenteric artery was quantified by computer-assisted image processing. An age-related decrease in the

Narumi Hobara; Noriko Gessei-Tsutsumi; Mitsuhiro Goda; Fusako Takayama; Shinji Akiyama; Yuji Kurosaki; Hiromu Kawasaki

2005-01-01

238

Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed Central

17 beta-Estradiol (E2) induces cathepsin D mRNA levels and intracellular levels of immunoreactive protein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alone does not affect cathepsin D gene expression in this cell line; however, in cells cotreated with TCDD and E2, TCDD inhibited E2-induced cathepsin D mRNA levels, the rate of gene transcription, and levels of immunoreactive protein. The inhibitory responses were observed within 30 to 120 min after the cells were treated with TCDD. TCDD also inhibited E2-induced secreted alkaline phosphatase activity in aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive MCF-7 and wild-type mouse Hepa 1c1c7 cells cotransfected with the human estrogen receptor (hER) and the pBC12/S1/pac plasmid, which contains the 5' promoter region (-296/+57) of the cathepsin D gene and an alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. The E2-responsive ER/Sp1 sequence (-199 to -165) in the cathepsin D 5' region contains an imperfect GTGCGTG (-175/-181) xenobiotic responsive element (XRE); the role of this sequence in Ah responsiveness was investigated in gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays and with plasmid constructs containing a wild-type ER/Sp1 oligonucleotide or a mutant ER/Sp1-"XRE" oligonucleotide containing two C-->A mutations in the XRE sequence (antisense strand). In plasmid constructs which contained a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and the wild-type ER/Sp1 promoter sequence, E2-induced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and mRNA levels were inhibited by TCDD whereas no inhibition was observed with the mutant ER/Sp1-"XRE" plasmids. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the nuclear or transformed cytosolic Ah receptor complex blocked formation of the ER-Sp1 complex with the wild-type but not the ER/Sp1 mutant oligonucleotide. Moreover, incubation of the wild-type bromodeoxyuridine-substituted ER/Sp1 oligonucleotide with the nuclear Ah receptor complex gave a specifically bound cross-linked 200-kDa band. These data demonstrate that Ah receptor-mediated inhibition of E2-induced cathepsin D gene expression is due to disruption of the ER-Sp1 complex by targeted interaction with an overlapping XRE. PMID:8524236

Krishnan, V; Porter, W; Santostefano, M; Wang, X; Safe, S

1995-01-01

239

Regulated expression of the Escherichia coli lepB gene as a tool for cellular testing of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit signal peptidase I in vitro.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli under-expressing lepB was utilized to test cellular inhibition of signal peptidase I (SPase). For the construction of a lepB regulatable strain, the E. coli lepB gene was cloned into pBAD, with expression dependent on L-arabinose. The chromosomal copy of lepB was replaced with a kanamycin resistance gene, which was subsequently removed. SPase production by the lepB regulatable strain in the presence of various concentrations of L-arabinose was monitored by Western blot analysis. At lower arabinose concentrations growth proceeded more slowly, possibly due to a decrease of SPase levels in the cells. A penem SPase inhibitor with little antimicrobial activity against E. coli when tested at 100 micro M was utilized to validate the cell-based system. Under-expression of lepB sensitized the cells to penem, with complete growth inhibition observed at 10 to 30 micro M. Growth was rescued by increasing the SPase levels. The cell-based assay was used to test cellular inhibition of SPase by compounds that inhibit the enzyme in vitro. MD1, MD2, and MD3 are SPase inhibitors with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, although they do not inhibit growth of E. coli. MD1 presented the best spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Both MD1 and MD2 prevented growth of E. coli under-expressing lepB in the presence of polymyxin B nonapeptide, with growth rescue observed when wild-type levels of SPase were produced. MD3 and MD4, a reactive analog of MD3, inhibited growth of E. coli under-expressing lepB. However, growth rescue in the presence of these compounds following increased lepB expression was observed only after prolonged incubation. PMID:12384363

Barbosa, Maria D F S; Lin, Siqi; Markwalder, Jay A; Mills, Jonathan A; DeVito, Joseph A; Teleha, Christopher A; Garlapati, Vasudha; Liu, Charles; Thompson, Andy; Trainor, George L; Kurilla, Michael G; Pompliano, David L

2002-11-01

240

Disease Resistance Gene-Induced Growth Inhibition Is Enhanced by rcd1 Independent of Defense Activation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Activation of plant immune responses is often associated with an inhibition of plant growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying this fitness cost are unknown. Here, we utilize the autoimmune response mutant suppressor of npr1, constitutive1 (snc1) resulting from an activated form of the Disease Resistance (R) gene to dissect the genetic component mediating growth inhibition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The radical-induced cell death1 (rcd1) mutant defective in responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was isolated as an enhancer of the snc1 mutant in growth inhibition but not in defense response activation. Similarly, the vitamin C2 (vtc2) and vtc3 mutants defective in ROS detoxification enhanced the growth defects of snc1. Thus, perturbation of ROS status by R gene activation is responsible for the growth inhibition, and this effect is independent of defense response activation. This was further supported by the partial rescue of growth defects of rcd1 snc1 by the respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (rbohD) and rbohF mutations compromising the generation of ROS burst. Collectively, these findings indicate that perturbation of ROS homeostasis contributes to the fitness cost independent of defense activation. PMID:23365132

Zhu, Ying; Du, Baijuan; Qian, Jun; Zou, Baohong; Hua, Jian

2013-01-01

241

BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses transcriptional responses to cytokine-Jak-STAT signaling in a gene-specific manner in human monocytes.  

PubMed

Disruption of the interaction of bromo and extraterminal (BET) proteins with acetylated histones using small molecule inhibitors suppresses Myc-driven cancers and TLR-induced inflammation in mouse models. The predominant mechanism of BET inhibitor action is to suppress BET-mediated recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b and, thus, transcription elongation. We investigated the effects of BET inhibitor I-BET151 on transcriptional responses to TLR4 and TNF in primary human monocytes and also on responses to cytokines IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-4, and IL-10, which activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and are important for monocyte polarization and inflammatory diseases. I-BET151 suppressed TLR4- and TNF-induced IFN responses by diminishing both autocrine IFN-? expression and transcriptional responses to IFN-?. I-BET151 inhibited cytokine-induced transcription of STAT targets in a gene-specific manner without affecting STAT activation or recruitment. This inhibition was independent of Myc or other upstream activators. IFN-stimulated gene transcription is regulated primarily at the level of transcription initiation. Accordingly, we found that I-BET151 suppressed the recruitment of transcriptional machinery to the CXCL10 promoter and an upstream enhancer. Our findings suggest that BET inhibition reduces inflammation partially through suppressing cytokine activity and expands the understanding of the inhibitory and potentially selective immunosuppressive effects of inhibiting BET proteins. PMID:25345375

Chan, Chun Hin; Fang, Celestia; Qiao, Yu; Yarilina, Anna; Prinjha, Rab K; Ivashkiv, Lionel B

2015-01-01

242

GATA4 represses an ileal program of gene expression in the proximal small intestine by inhibiting the acetylation of histone H3, lysine 27.  

PubMed

GATA4 is expressed in the proximal 85% of small intestine where it promotes a proximal intestinal ('jejunal') identity while repressing a distal intestinal ('ileal') identity, but its molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GATA4 promotes a jejunal versus ileal identity in mouse intestine by directly activating and repressing specific subsets of absorptive enterocyte genes by modulating the acetylation of histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27), a mark of active chromatin, at sites of GATA4 occupancy. Global analysis of mouse jejunal epithelium showed a statistically significant association of GATA4 occupancy with GATA4-regulated genes. Occupancy was equally distributed between down- and up-regulated targets, and occupancy sites showed a dichotomy of unique motif over-representation at down- versus up-regulated genes. H3K27ac enrichment at GATA4-binding loci that mapped to down-regulated genes (activation targets) was elevated, changed little upon conditional Gata4 deletion, and was similar to control ileum, whereas H3K27ac enrichment at GATA4-binding loci that mapped to up-regulated genes (repression targets) was depleted, increased upon conditional Gata4 deletion, and approached H3K27ac enrichment in wild-type control ileum. These data support the hypothesis that GATA4 both activates and represses intestinal genes, and show that GATA4 represses an ileal program of gene expression in the proximal small intestine by inhibiting the acetylation of H3K27. PMID:24878542

Aronson, B E; Rabello Aronson, S; Berkhout, R P; Chavoushi, S F; He, A; Pu, W T; Verzi, M P; Krasinski, S D

2014-11-01

243

A PU.1 Suppressive Target Gene, Metallothionein 1G, Inhibits Retinoic Acid-Induced NB4 Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

We recently revealed that myeloid master regulator SPI1/PU.1 directly represses metallothionein (MT) 1G through its epigenetic activity of PU.1, but the functions of MT1G in myeloid differentiation remain unknown. To clarify this, we established MT1G-overexpressing acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 (NB4MTOE) cells, and investigated whether MT1G functionally contributes to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced NB4 cell differentiation. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the inductions of CD11b and CD11c and reductions in myeloperoxidase and c-myc by ATRA were significantly attenuated in NB4MTOE cells. Morphological examination revealed that the percentages of differentiated cells induced by ATRA were reduced in NB4MTOE cells. Since G1 arrest is a hallmark of ATRA-induced NB4 cell differentiation, we observed a decrease in G1 accumulation, as well as decreases in p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 inductions, by ATRA in NB4MTOE cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays revealed that the proportions of NBT-positive cells were decreased in NB4MTOE cells in the presence of ATRA. Microarray analyses showed that the changes in expression of several myeloid differentiation-related genes (GATA2, azurocidin 1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1, matrix metallopeptidase -8, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 and oncostatin M) induced by ATRA were disturbed in NB4MTOE cells. Collectively, overexpression of MT1G inhibits the proper differentiation of myeloid cells. PMID:25072246

Hirako, Naomi; Nakano, Hiroko; Takahashi, Shinichiro

2014-01-01

244

Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Rescues Gene Knockout Levels Achieved with Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Zinc-Finger Nucleases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) work as dimers to induce double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at predefined chromosomal positions. In doing so, they constitute powerful triggers to edit and to interrogate the function of genomic sequences in higher eukaryotes. A preferred route to introduce ZFNs into somatic cells relies on their cotransduction with two integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) each encoding a monomer of a functional heterodimeric pair. The episomal nature of IDLVs diminishes the risk of genotoxicity and ensures the strict transient expression profile necessary to minimize deleterious effects associated with long-term ZFN activity. However, by deploying IDLVs and conventional lentiviral vectors encoding HPRT1- or eGFP-specific ZFNs, we report that DSB formation at target alleles is limited after IDLV-mediated ZFN transfer. This IDLV-specific underperformance stems, to a great extent, from the activity of chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylases (HDACs). Importantly, the prototypic and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved inhibitors of metal-dependent HDACs, trichostatin A and vorinostat, respectively, did not hinder illegitimate recombination-mediated repair of targeted chromosomal DSBs. This allowed rescuing IDLV-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to levels approaching those achieved by using their isogenic chromosomally integrating counterparts. Hence, HDAC inhibition constitutes an efficacious expedient to incorporate in genome-editing strategies based on transient IDLV-mediated ZFN expression. Finally, we compared two of the most commonly used readout systems to measure targeted gene knockout activities based on restriction and mismatch-sensitive endonucleases. These experiments indicate that these enzymatic assays display a similar performance. PMID:24059449

Pelascini, Laetitia P.L.; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni

2013-01-01

245

Lentiviral-Mediated RNAi Knockdown of Cbfa1 Gene Inhibits Endochondral Ossification of Antler Stem Cells in Micromass Culture  

PubMed Central

Articular cartilage (AC) lacks ability to repair defects due to its avascular nature as healing process relies on cells being brought in by blood vessels. Multiple approaches have been taken to facilitate cartilage repair in clinics, to date there is no effective treatment available that can restores the AC lesion to a normally functioning level over extended periods. In this regard, antler cartilage is unique in being richly vascularised and hence can effectively repair and regenerate. Interestingly, antler stem cells, from which the vascularised cartilage is derived, can form avascular cartilage when taken away from their original niche, suggesting that the vascular or avascular state of antler cartilage is controlled by extrinsic factors. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenotype switch may help us to devise a way to trigger the effective intrinsic repair of AC. However, adoption of antler cartilage model for AC repair requires the demonstration that the cartilage specific signalling pathways also prevail in antler chondrogenesis. To achieve this, in the present study we silenced expression of Cbfa1, a key factor regulatingendochondral ossification, using RNAi, and showed that expression of the downstream genes type I collagen and osteocalcin were suppressed which, in turn, inhibited endochondral ossification process taking place in the antler stem cell-formed nodules. Therefore, we provided further evidence at molecular level that antler could be developed as novel model for the study of AC repair. The eventual identification of the extrinsic factors dictating the phenotype switch between the vascular and avascular state of antler cartilage will open up a new avenue for the cure of osteoarthritis. PMID:23056636

Sun, Hongmei; Yang, Fuhe; Chu, Wenhui; Zhao, Haiping; McMahon, Chris; Li, Chunyi

2012-01-01

246

Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process mediated via small molecules termed autoinducers (AI) that allow bacteria to respond and adjust according to the cell population density by altering the expression of multitudinous genes. Since QS governs numerous bioprocesses in bacteria, including virulence, its inhibition promises to be an ideal target for the development of novel therapeutics. We found that the aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (GLE) exhibited anti-QS properties as evidenced by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The gram-negative bacterium, C. violaceum is a rare pathogen with high mortality rate. In this study, perhaps for the first time, we identified the target genes of GLE in C. violaceum MTCC 2656 by whole transcriptome analysis on Ion Torrent. Our data revealed that GLE significantly down-regulated 816 genes at least three fold, with p value ? 0.01, which comprises 19% of the C. violaceum MTCC 2656 genome. These genes were distributed throughout the genome and were associated with virulence, motility and other cellular processes, many of which have been described as quorum regulated in C. violaceum and other gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, GLE did not affect the growth of the bacteria. However, consistent with the gene expression pattern, GLE treated C. violaceum cells were restrained from causing lysis of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, indicating a positive relationship between the QS-regulated genes and pathogenicity. Overall, our study proposes GLE as a QS inhibitor (QSI) with the ability to attenuate virulence without affecting growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which provides with a plausible set of candidate genes regulated by the QS system in the neglected pathogen C. violaceum. PMID:25229331

Ghosh, Runu; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

2014-01-01

247

Polyamine analogs modulate gene expression by inhibiting lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and altering chromatin structure in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Aberrant epigenetic repression of gene expression has been implicated in most cancers, including breast cancer. The nuclear amine oxidase, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has the ability to broadly repress gene expression by removing the activating mono- and di-methylation marks at the lysine 4 residue of histone 3 (H3K4me1 and me2). Additionally, LSD1 is highly expressed in estrogen receptor ? negative (ER-) breast cancer cells. Since epigenetic marks are reversible, they make attractive therapeutic targets. Here we examine the effects of polyamine analog inhibitors of LSD1 on gene expression, with the goal of targeting LSD1 as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Exposure of the ER-negative human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 to the LSD1 inhibitors, 2d or PG11144, significantly increases global H3K4me1 and H3K4me2, and alters gene expression. Array analysis indicated that 98 (75 up and 23 down) and 477 (237 up and 240 down) genes changed expression by at least 1.5-fold or greater after treatment with 2d and PG11144, respectively. The expression of 12 up-regulated genes by 2d and 14 up-regulated genes by PG11144 was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that up-regulated gene expression by polyamine analogs is associated with increase of the active histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K9act, and decrease of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, in the promoter regions of the relevant target genes. These data indicate that the pharmacologic inhibition of LSD1 can effectively alter gene expression and that this therapeutic strategy has potential. PMID:21805138

Zhu, Qingsong; Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J; Woster, Patrick M; Davidson, Nancy E; Casero, Robert A

2012-02-01

248

Polyamine analogues modulate gene expression by inhibiting Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and altering chromatin structure in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Aberrant epigenetic repression of gene expression has been implicated in most cancers, including breast cancer. The nuclear amine oxidase, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has the ability to broadly repress gene expression by removing the activating mono- and di-methylation marks at the lysine 4 residue of histone 3 (H3K4me1 & me2). Additionally, LSD1 is highly expressed in estrogen receptor ? negative (ER?) breast cancer cells. Since epigenetic marks are reversible, they make attractive therapeutic targets. Here we examine the effects of polyamine analogue inhibitors of LSD1 on gene expression, with the goal of targeting LSD1 as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of breast cancer. Exposure of the ER-negative human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, to the LSD1 inhibitors, 2d or PG11144, significantly increases global H3K4me1 and H3K4me2, and alters gene expression. Array analysis indicated that 98 (75 up and 23 down) and 477 (237 up and 240 down) genes changed expression by at least 1.5-fold or greater after treatment with 2d and PG11144, respectively. The expression of twelve up-regulated genes by 2d and fourteen up-regulated genes by PG11144 was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that up-regulated gene expression by polyamine analogues is associated with increase of the active histone marks H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K9ac, and decrease of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, in the promoter regions of the relevant target genes. These data indicate that the pharmacologic inhibition of LSD1 can effectively alter gene expression and that this therapeutic strategy has potential. PMID:21805138

Zhu, Qingsong; Huang, Yi; Marton, Laurence J.; Woster, Patrick M.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Casero, Robert A.

2011-01-01

249

ATF4-dependent regulation of the JMJD3 gene during amino acid deprivation can be rescued in Atf4-deficient cells by inhibition of deacetylation.  

PubMed

Following amino acid deprivation, the amino acid response (AAR) induces transcription from specific genes through a collection of signaling mechanisms, including the GCN2-eIF2-ATF4 pathway. The present report documents that the histone demethylase JMJD3 is an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent target gene. The JMJD3 gene contains two AAR-induced promoter activities and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that the AAR leads to enhanced ATF4 recruitment to the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) upstream of Promoter-1. AAR-induced histone modifications across the JMJD3 gene locus occur upon ATF4 binding. Jmjd3 transcription is not induced in Atf4-knock-out cells, but the AAR-dependent activation was rescued by inhibition of histone deacetylation with trichostatin A (TSA). The TSA rescue of AAR activation in the absence of Atf4 also occurred for the Atf3 and C/EBP homology protein (Chop) genes, but not for the asparagine synthetase gene. ChIP analysis of the Jmjd3, Atf3, and Chop genes in Atf4 knock-out cells documented that activation of the AAR in the presence of TSA led to specific changes in acetylation of histone H4. The results suggest that a primary function of ATF4 is to recruit histone acetyltransferase activity to a sub-set of AAR target genes. Thus, absolute binding of ATF4 to these particular genes is not required and no ATF4 interaction with the general transcription machinery is necessary. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that ATF4 functions as a pioneer factor to alter chromatin structure and thus, enhance transcription in a gene-specific manner. PMID:22955275

Shan, Jixiu; Fu, Lingchen; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Anthony, Tracy; Kilberg, Michael S

2012-10-19

250

Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPAR{delta} inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. {yields} Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. {yields} GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. {yields} Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {delta} as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPAR{delta} by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPAR{delta}, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPAR{delta} suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPAR{delta}-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

Kim, Hyo Jung; Ham, Sun Ah [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Kyung Shin [Department of Nursing, Semyung University, Jechon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nursing, Semyung University, Jechon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Seok; Jung, Si Young; Kim, Min Young; Jin, Hanna; Kang, Eun Sil; Woo, Im Sun; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chang Woo [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han Geuk, E-mail: hgseo@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-25

251

Identification of functional domains of the IR2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication  

SciTech Connect

The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) negative regulatory IR2 protein (IR2P), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (IEP), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for IEP activation functions but retains domains for binding DNA, TFIIB, and TBP and the nuclear localization signal. IR2P mutants of the N-terminal region which lack either DNA-binding activity or TFIIB-binding activity were unable to down-regulate EHV-1 promoters. In EHV-1-infected cells expressing full-length IR2P, transcription and protein expression of viral regulatory IE, early EICP0, IR4, and UL5, and late ETIF genes were dramatically inhibited. Viral DNA levels were reduced to 2.1% of control infected cells, but were vey weakly affected in cells that express the N-terminal 706 residues of IR2P. These results suggest that IR2P function requires the two N-terminal domains for binding DNA and TFIIB as well as the C-terminal residues 707 to 1116 containing the TBP-binding domain. - Highlights: > We examine the functional domains of IR2P that mediates negative regulation. > IR2P inhibits at the transcriptional level. > DNA-binding mutant or TFIIB-binding mutant fails to inhibit. > C-terminal aa 707 to 1116 are required for full inhibition. > Inhibition requires the DNA-binding domain, TFIIB-binding domain, and C-terminus.

Kim, Seong K., E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu; Kim, Seongman; Dai Gan; Zhang Yunfei; Ahn, Byung C.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

2011-09-01

252

The major volatile compound 2-phenylethanol from the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, inhibits growth and expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes of Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous saprophyte that is able to produce the most potent natural carcinogenic compound known as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). This toxin frequently contaminates crops including corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts causing substantial economic loss worldwide. Consequently, more than 100 countries have strict regulations limiting AFB1 in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. Plants and microbes are able to produce volatile compounds that act as a defense mechanism against other organisms. Pichia anomala strain WRL-076 is a biocontrol yeast currently being tested to reduce AF contamination of tree nuts in California. We used the SPME-GC/MS analysis and identified the major volatile compound produced by this strain to be 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). It inhibited spore germination and AF production of A. flavus. Inhibition of AF formation by 2-PE was correlated with significant down regulation of clustering AF biosynthesis genes as evidenced by several to greater than 10,000-fold decrease in gene expression. In a time-course analysis we found that 2-PE also altered the expression patterns of chromatin modifying genes, MYST1, MYST2, MYST3, gcn5, hdaA and rpdA. The biocontrol capacity of P. anomala can be attributed to the production of 2-PE, which affects spore germination, growth, toxin production, and gene expression in A. flavus. PMID:24504634

Hua, Sui Sheng T; Beck, John J; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Gee, Wai

2014-05-01

253

Transcriptional inhibition of progressive renal disease by gene silencing pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting of the transforming growth factor-?1 promoter.  

PubMed

Pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamides are small synthetic molecules that recognize and attach to the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting gene transcription by blocking transcription factor binding. These derivatives can act as gene silencers inhibiting target gene expression under stimulatory conditions such as disease. To evaluate PI polyamides as treatments for the progression of renal diseases, we examined morphological effects, pharmacological properties, and the specificity of PI polyamides targeted to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 promoter during salt-induced hypertensive nephrosclerosis in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The targeted PI polyamide markedly reduced glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis without side effects. PI polyamide significantly decreased expression of TGF-?1 and extracellular matrix in the renal cortex. Microarray analysis found that only 3% of the transcripts were affected by PI polyamide, but this included decreased expression of extracellular matrix, TGF-?1-related cytokines, angiogenic, and cell stabilizing factors, proteinases, and renal injury-related factors. Thus, targeted PI polyamides are potential gene silencers for diseases not treatable by current remedies. PMID:20861821

Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Katakawa, Mayumi; Wang, Xiaofei; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Matsui, Sei-Ichi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Saito, Kosuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Nagase, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

254

Antisense expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana AtPGIP1 gene reduces polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulation and enhances susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonases (PGs) hydrolyze the homogalacturonan of plant cell-wall pectin and are important virulence factors of several phytopathogenic fungi. In response to abiotic and biotic stress, plants accumulate PG-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) that reduce the activity of fungal PGs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PGIPs with comparable activity against BcPG1, an important pathogenicity factor of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, are encoded by two genes, AtPGIP1 and AtPGIP2. Both genes are induced by fungal infection through different signaling pathways. We show here that transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an antisense AtPGIP1 gene have reduced AtPGIP1 inhibitory activity and are more susceptible to B. cinerea infection. These results indicate that PGIP contributes to basal resistance to this pathogen and strongly support the vision that this protein plays a role in Arabidopsis innate immunity. PMID:16903359

Ferrari, Simone; Galletti, Roberta; Vairo, Donatella; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia

2006-08-01

255

Thyroid hormone (T3) inhibits ciprofibrate-induced transcription of genes encoding beta-oxidation enzymes: cross talk between peroxisome proliferator and T3 signaling pathways.  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferators cause rapid and coordinated transcriptional activation of genes encoding peroxisomal beta-oxidation system enzymes by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoform(s). Since the thyroid hormone (T3; 3,3',5-triiodothyronine) receptor (TR), another member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, regulates a subset of fatty acid metabolism genes shared with PPAR, we examined the possibility of interplay between peroxisome proliferator and T3 signaling pathways. T3 inhibited ciprofibrate-induced luciferase activity as well as the endogenous peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes in transgenic mice carrying a 3.2-kb 5'-flanking region of the rat peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene fused to the coding region of luciferase. Transfection assays in hepatoma H4-II-E-C3 and CV-1 cells indicated that this inhibition is mediated by TR in a ligand-dependent fashion. Gel shift assays revealed that modulation of PPAR action by TR occurs through titration of limiting amounts of retinoid X receptor (RXR) required for PPAR activation. Increasing amounts of RXR partially reversed the inhibition in a reciprocal manner; PPAR also inhibited TR activation. Results with heterodimerization-deficient TR and PPAR mutants further confirmed that interaction between PPAR and TR signaling systems is indirect. These results suggest that a convergence of the peroxisome proliferator and T3 signaling pathways occurs through their common interaction with the heterodimeric partner RXR. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8524810

Chu, R; Madison, L D; Lin, Y; Kopp, P; Rao, M S; Jameson, J L; Reddy, J K

1995-01-01

256

Honokiol reverses alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting the maturation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and the expression of its downstream lipogenesis genes  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol induces hepatic steatosis via a complex mechanism that is not well understood. Among the variety of molecules that have been proposed to participate in this mechanism, the sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (SREBPs) have been identified as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of honokiol on alcoholic steatosis and investigated its possible effect on the inhibition of SREBP-1c maturation. In in vitro studies, H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells developed increased lipid droplets when exposed to ethanol, but co-treatment with honokiol reversed this effect. Honokiol inhibited the maturation of SREBP-1c and its translocation to the nucleus, the binding of nSREBP-1c to SRE or SRE-related sequences of its lipogenic target genes, and the expression of genes for fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, magnolol, a structural isomer of honokiol, had no effect on nSREBP-1c levels. Male Wistar rats fed with a standard Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet for 4 weeks exhibited increased hepatic triglyceride and decreased hepatic glutathione levels, with concomitantly increased serum alanine aminotransferase and TNF-{alpha} levels. Daily administration of honokiol (10 mg/kg body weight) by gavage during the final 2 weeks of ethanol treatment completely reversed these effects on hepatotoxicity markers, including hepatic triglyceride, hepatic glutathione, and serum TNF-{alpha}, with efficacious abrogation of fat accumulation in the liver. Inhibition of SREBP-1c protein maturation and of the expression of Srebf1c and its target genes for hepatic lipogenesis were also observed in vivo. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated inhibition of specific binding of SREBP-1c to the Fas promoter by honokiol in vivo. These results demonstrate that honokiol has the potential to ameliorate alcoholic steatosis by blocking fatty acid synthesis regulated by SREBP-1c.

Yin Huquan [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Chul [College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Suk; Kim, Young-Chul; Shin, Young-Kee [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Hoon [College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: lee@snu.ac.kr

2009-04-01

257

Wogonin but not Nor-wogonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid-induced iNOS gene expression and NO production in macrophages.  

PubMed

Wogonin (Wog; 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxy flavone) has been shown to effectively inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression and nitric oxide production in our previous study. In the present study, we found that Nor-wogonin (N-Wog; 5,7,8-trihydroxyl flavone), a structural analogue of Wog with an OH substitution at C8, performed different effect on LPS- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. Wog, but not N-Wog, significantly inhibits LPS- or LTA-induced NO production through suppressing iNOS gene expression at both protein and mRNA without affecting NO donor sodium nitroprusside-induced NO production, NOS enzyme activity, and cells viability. Activation of JNKs (not ERKs) via phosphorylation induction, and an increase in c-Jun (not c-Fos) protein expression were involved in LPS- and LTA-treated RAW264.7 cells, and those events were blocked by Wog, but not N-Wog, addition. Furthermore, 5,7-diOH flavone, but not 5-OH flavone, 7-OH flavone, 5-OH-7-OCH(3) flavone, significantly inhibits LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and NO production, and 7,8-diOCH(3) flavone performs more effective inhibitory activity on LPS-induced NO production and iNOS protein expression than 7-OCH(3)-8-OH flavone. These data suggest that OHs at both C5 and C7 are essential for NO inhibition of flavonoids, and OCH(3) at C8 may contribute to this activity, and suppression of JNKs-c-Jun activation is involved. PMID:17570322

Huang, Guan-Cheng; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Yen-Chou

2007-08-01

258

N-Octanoyl Dopamine Inhibits the Expression of a Subset of ?B Regulated Genes: Potential Role of p65 Ser276 Phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Catechol containing compounds have anti-inflammatory properties, yet for catecholamines these properties are modest. Since we have previously demonstrated that the synthetic dopamine derivative N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) has superior anti-inflammatory properties compared to dopamine, we tested NOD in more detail and sought to elucidate the molecular entities and underlying mechanism by which NOD down-regulates inflammation. Experimental Approach Genome wide gene expression profiling of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was performed after stimulation with TNF-? or in the combination with NOD. Confirmation of these differences, NF?B activation and the molecular entities that were required for the anti-inflammatory properties were assessed in subsequent experiments. Key Results Down regulation of inflammatory genes by NOD occurred predominantly for ?B regulated genes, however not all ?B regulated genes were affected. These findings were explained by inhibition of RelA phosphorylation at Ser276. Leukocyte adherence to TNF-? stimulated HUVECs was inhibited by NOD and was reflected by a diminished expression of adhesion molecules on HUVECs. NOD induced HO-1 expression, but this was not required for inhibition of NF?B. The anti-inflammatory effect of NOD seems to involve the redox active catechol structure, although the redox active para-dihydroxy benzene containing compounds also displayed anti-inflammatory effects, provided that they were sufficiently hydrophobic. Conclusions and Implications The present study highlighted important mechanisms and molecular entities by which dihydroxy benzene compounds exert their potential anti-inflammatory action. Since NOD does not have hemodynamic properties, NOD seems to be a promising candidate drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24023820

Gaertner, Sophie; Stamellou, Eleni; Kraaij, Tineke; Mandel, Linda; Loesel, Ralf; Sticht, Carsten; Hoeger, Simone; Ait-Hsiko, Lamia; Schedel, Angelika; Hafner, Mathias; Yard, Benito; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos

2013-01-01

259

Canopy architectural and physiological characterization of near-isogenic wheat lines differing in the tiller inhibition gene tin  

PubMed Central

Tillering is a core constituent of plant architecture, and influences light interception to affect plant and crop performance. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) varying for a tiller inhibition (tin) gene and representing two genetic backgrounds were investigated for tillering dynamics, organ size distribution, leaf area, light interception, red: far-red ratio, and chlorophyll content. Tillering ceased earlier in the tin lines to reduce the frequencies of later primary and secondary tillers compared to the free-tillering NILs, and demonstrated the genetically lower tillering plasticity of tin-containing lines. The distribution of organ sizes along shoots varied between NILs contrasting for tin. Internode elongation commenced at a lower phytomer, and the peduncle was shorter in the tin lines. The flag leaves of tin lines were larger, and the longest leaf blades were observed at higher phytomers in the tin than in free-tillering lines. Total leaf area was reduced in tin lines, and non-tin lines invested more leaf area at mid-canopy height. The tiller economy (ratio of seed-bearing shoots to numbers of shoots produced) was 10% greater in the tin lines (0.73–0.76) compared to the free-tillering sisters (0.62–0.63). At maximum tiller number, the red: far-red ratio (light quality stimulus that is thought to induce the cessation of tillering) at the plant-base was 0.18–0.22 in tin lines and 0.09–0.11 in free-tillering lines at levels of photosynthetic active radiation of 49–53% and 30–33%, respectively. The tin lines intercepted less radiation compared to their free-tillering sisters once genotypic differences in tiller numbers had established, and maintained green leaf area in the lower canopy later into the season. Greater light extinction coefficients (k) in tin lines prior to, but reduced k after, spike emergence indicated that differences in light interception between NILs contrasting in tin cannot be explained by leaf area alone but that geometric and optical canopy properties contributed. The careful characterization of specifically-developed NILs is refining the development of a physiology-based model for tillering to improve understanding of the value of architectural traits for use in cereal improvement. PMID:25520724

Moeller, Carina; Evers, Jochem B.; Rebetzke, Greg

2014-01-01

260

Heterogeneous gene expression changes in colorectal cancer cells share the WNT pathway in response to growth suppression by APHS-mediated COX-2 inhibition  

PubMed Central

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the prostaglandin (PG)-synthesizing enzyme overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), has pleiotropic, cancer-promoting effects. COX-2 inhibitors (CIBs) interfere with many cancer-associated processes and show promising antineoplastic activity, however, a common mechanism of CIB action has not yet been established. We therefore investigated by microarray the global response towards the CIB APHS at a dose significantly inhibiting the growth of three COX-2-positive CRC but not of two COX-2-negative cell lines. None of the genes significantly (p = 0.005) affected by APHS were common to all three cell lines and 83% of the altered pathways were cell line-specific. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) on selected pathways confirmed cell line-specific expression alterations induced by APHS. A low stringency data analysis approach using BRB array tools coupled with QPCR, however, identified small expression changes shared by all COX-2-positive cell lines in genes related to the WNT pathway, the key driver of colonic carcinogenesis. Our data indicates a substantial cell line-specificity of APHS-induced expression alterations in CRC cells and helps to explain the divergent effects reported for CIBs. Further, the shared inhibition of the WNT pathway by APHS suggests one potential common mechanism behind the antineoplastic effects of COX-2 inhibition. PMID:19707365

Humar, Bostjan; McNoe, Les; Dunbier, Anita; Heathcott, Rosemary; Braithwaite, Antony W; Reeve, Anthony E

2008-01-01

261

Molecular targets of the antiinflammatory Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw): inhibition of TNF? and COX-2 gene expression by preventing activation of AP-1.  

PubMed

Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) is often used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeletal system. Although the clinical efficacy in osteoarthritis has been demonstrated in clinical trials, the molecular target(s) of Hp are unclear. This study quantified the effects of the ethanol Hp extract (60% v/v ethanol, sole active ingredient of Pascoe®-Agil), on the expression and release of the major pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human monocytes and the intracellular signalling pathways involved in inflammation. The Hp extract dose-dependently inhibited the release of TNF? as well as that of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1? and prostaglandin E? (PGE?). The Hp prevented TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression in human monocytes and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the Hp extract inhibited LPS-stimulated AP-1-mediated gene transcription activity and binding to the AP-1 response elements. The extract had no effect on the LPS-induced binding of nuclear factor-?B in RAW 264.7 cells, on LPS-induced degradation of I?B? or on LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), p38MAPK and JNK in human monocytes. The data indicate that a standardized ethanol Hp extract inhibits induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression, possibly by blocking the AP-1 pathway. This is novel evidence of a possible mechanism of action of this antiinflammatory drug. PMID:22072539

Fiebich, Bernd L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Rose, Thorsten; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P

2012-06-01

262

Metformin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells: involvement of the tumor suppressor miR30a and its target gene SOX4.  

PubMed

Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic patients treated with metformin have lower PCa risk and better prognosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on EMT in PCa cells and the possible microRNA (miRNA)-based mechanisms. MiRNAs have been shown to regulate various processes of cancer metastasis. We herein showed that metformin significantly inhibits proliferation of Vcap and PC-3 cells, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits invasiveness and motility capacity of Vcap cells. Metformin could inhibit TGF-?-induced EMT in Vcap cells, as manifested by inhibition of the increase of N-cadherin (p=0.013), Vimentin (p=0.002) and the decrease of E-cadherin (p=0.0023) and ?-catenin (p=0.034) at mRNA and protein levels. Notably, we demonstrated significant upregulation of miR30a levels by metformin (P<0.05) and further experiments indicated that miR30a significantly inhibits proliferation and EMT process of Vcap cells. Interestingly, we identified that SOX4, a previously reported oncogenic transcriptional factor and modulator of EMT, is a direct target gene of miR30a. Finally, we screened the expression of miR30a and SOX4 in 84 PCa cases with radical prostatectomy. Of note, SOX4 overexpression is significantly associated with decreased levels of miR30a in PCa cases. In all, our study suggested that inhibition of EMT by metformin in PCa cells may involve upregulation of miR30a and downregulation of SOX4. PMID:25201727

Zhang, Jing; Shen, Chengwu; Wang, Lin; Ma, Quanping; Xia, Pingtian; Qi, Mei; Yang, Muyi; Han, Bo

2014-09-26

263

Ethyl acetate extract from Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by suppressing polycomb gene product Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

Jiedu Xiaozheng Yin (JXY) is a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have demonstrated that JXY can inhibit HCC cell proliferation via induction of G0/G1 phase arrest. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibitory effect of JXY on HCC cells is associated with the inhibition of the Wnt/??catenin pathway and the polycomb gene product Bmi1. Ethyl acetate extract from JXY (EE-JXY) was prepared. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and colony formation assays were used to measure cell proliferation. Immunofluorescence was used to analyze the expression and location of ?-catenin and Bmi1. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-myc and cyclin D1. ?-catenin, Bmi1, c-myc, cyclin D1 and p16INK4A mRNA levels were detected by RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that EE-JXY inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-myc, cyclin D1 and Bmi1, and upregulated the expression of p16INK4A. We also found that EE-JXY could facilitate ?-catenin translocation from the cytoplasm and nuclei to the cytomembrane. Finally, suppression of cell proliferation and expression of Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin by EE-JXY was confirmed in a mouse xenograft model of HCC. Thus, EE-JXY can inhibit the proliferation of HCC partially via suppression of the Bmi1 and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:25333742

Chen, Xu-Zheng; Cao, Zhi-Yun; Li, Jin-Nong; Hu, Hai-Xia; Zhang, You-Quan; Huang, Yun-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Zhen; Hu, Dan; Liao, Lian-Ming; Du, Jian

2014-12-01

264

Detection of neutralizing antibodies to erythropoietin by inhibition of rHuEPO-stimulated EGR1 gene expression in the UT-7/EPO cell line.  

PubMed

Recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is used extensively to treat anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease. However, the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to rHuEPO can result in the development of antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). The detection of NAb in patient sera by in vitro bioassay relies on the inhibition of a cellular response to rHuEPO. Current bioassays for rHuEPO measure proliferation in responsive cell lines such as the erythroleukaemic cell lines, UT-7 and UT-7/EPO, the latter sensitized to EPO. Using these cell lines, we show the dose-responsive induction of both PIM1 and EGR1 gene expression in UT-7 cells and of EGR1 in UT-7/EPO cells. The expression of EGR1 in UT-7/EPO cells in response to rHuEPO was comparable to the proliferative response measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and could be inhibited by serum from a patient with NAb-mediated PRCA in a dilution-dependent manner. Bioassays based on the induction of endogenous gene expression are comparable to current bioassays but are considerably quicker given that incubation time is decreased from 2-3 days to 50 min. Measurement of EGR1 gene expression in response to rHuEPO in UT-7/EPO cells offers a rapid, non-radioactive and automatable alternative to current assays for the detection of rHuEPO NAbs. PMID:23142458

Ferguson, Jackie; Bird, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Burns, Chris

2013-01-31

265

Inhibition of TGF-? and EGF pathway gene expression and migration of oral carcinoma cells by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Background: Expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is inactivated in oral carcinoma patients with worse prognosis. However, the role in carcinoma progression is unknown. Unveiling genes under the control of MALT1 is necessary to understand the pathology of carcinomas. Methods: Gene data set differentially transcribed in MALT1-stably expressing and -marginally expressing oral carcinoma cells was profiled by the microarray analysis and subjected to the pathway analysis. Migratory abilities of cells in response to MALT1 were determined by wound-healing assay and time-lapse analysis. Results: Totally, 2933 genes upregulated or downregulated in MALT1-expressing cells were identified. The subsequent pathway analysis implicated the inhibition of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-? signalling gene expression, and highlighted the involvement in the cellular movement. Wound closure was suppressed by wild-type MALT1 (66.4%) and accelerated by dominant-negative MALT1 (218.6%), and the velocities of cell migration were increased 0.2-fold and 3.0-fold by wild-type and dominant-negative MALT1, respectively. Conclusion: These observations demonstrate that MALT1 represses genes activating the aggressive phenotype of carcinoma cells, and suggest that MALT1 acts as a tumour suppressor and that the loss of expression stimulates oral carcinoma progression. PMID:23778523

Ohyama, Y; Kawamoto, Y; Chiba, T; Maeda, G; Sakashita, H; Imai, K

2013-01-01

266

Interleukin-4 inhibits prostaglandin E2 production by freshly prepared adherent rheumatoid synovial cells via inhibition of biosynthesis and gene expression of cyclo-oxygenase II but not of cyclo-oxygenase I.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on the biosynthesis of cyclo-oxygenases I (COX I) and II (COX II), the rate limiting enzymes of the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in freshly prepared rheumatoid synovial cells. METHODS: Adherent synovial cells were obtained from rheumatoid synovium by collagenase digestion. The concentrations of PGE2 in culture supernatants were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The protein and mRNA concentrations of COX I and COX II were determined by Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: Freshly prepared synovial cells produced large amounts of PGE2. They also showed increased gene expression of COX I and COX II, and synthesised these proteins. IL-4 had suppressive effects on the production of PGE2 by untreated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated synovial cells. In addition, IL-4 inhibited the biosynthesis of COX II at the mRNA level. In contrast, it did not modify the protein concentration of COX I. In tests of cell specificity, IL-4 did not reduce the mRNA concentration of COX II in interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) stimulated cultured synovial fibroblasts at passages 3-6, but it reduced considerably the mRNA concentrations of COX II in an LPS or IL-1 alpha stimulated U937 monocyte/macrophage cell line. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IL-4 might inhibit overproduction of PGE2 in rheumatoid synovia via selective inhibition of the biosynthesis of COX II, and that this inhibition might be specific to macrophage-like synovial cells. Images PMID:8694577

Sugiyama, E; Taki, H; Kuroda, A; Mino, T; Yamashita, N; Kobayashi, M

1996-01-01

267

Impairment of Interferon-Induced IRF-7 Gene Expression due to Inhibition of ISGF3 Formation by Trichostatin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, STAT1 and STAT2, form, together with interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF-9), the ISGF3 complex that activates the expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). The ISGF3 complex also participates in the virus-induced alpha\\/beta interferon (IFN-\\/) gene amplification cascade by up-regulating IRF-7 gene expression. Here, we show that treatment of cells

Pierre Genin; Pierre Morin; Ahmet Civas

2003-01-01

268

Inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, reactivation of DLC1, and modulation of other gene expression by dietary flavone in breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary flavone was previously shown to increase the expression of deleted in liver cancer–1 gene (DLC-1) in HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line (Proteomics 2004;4:2455-64). DLC-1 that encodes a Rho GTPase-activating protein, functions as a tumor suppressor gene and is frequently inactivated or down-regulated in several common cancers. Restoration of DLC-1 expression suppresses in vitro tumor cells proliferation and tumorigenicity in vivo. Methods Here, the effect of flavone was examined in several DLC-1-deficient cell lines derived from different types human cancer using assays for cell proliferation, gene expression and transfer. Results We show that exposure to 150?M flavone increased DLC1 expression in breast but not in liver or prostate carcinoma cells or a nonmalignant breast epithelial cell line. Flavone restored the expression of DLC1 in the breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-361, and BT20 as well as in the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 all of which are DLC-1-negative due to promoter hypermethylation. We further show that flavone inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G2-M, increased p21 Waf1 gene expression, and caused apoptosis. Microarray analysis of these aggressive and metastatic breast carcinoma cells revealed 29 flavone-responsive genes, among which the DNA damage–inducible GADD genes were up-regulated and the proto-oncogene STMN1 and IGFBP3 were down-regulated. Conclusions Flavone-mediated alterations of genes that regulate tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis contribute to chemopreventive and antitumoral effects of flavone. Alone or in combination with demethylating agents, flavone may be an effective adjunct to chemotherapy in preventing breast cancer metastasis. PMID:17418982

Ullmannova, Veronika; Popescu, Nicholas C.

2007-01-01

269

Breast Tumors with Elevated Expression of 1q Candidate Genes Confer Poor Clinical Outcome and Sensitivity to Ras/PI3K Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Genomic aberrations are common in cancers and the long arm of chromosome 1 is known for its frequent amplifications in breast cancer. However, the key candidate genes of 1q, and their contribution in breast cancer pathogenesis remain unexplored. We have analyzed the gene expression profiles of 1635 breast tumor samples using meta-analysis based approach and identified clinically significant candidates from chromosome 1q. Seven candidate genes including exonuclease 1 (EXO1) are consistently over expressed in breast tumors, specifically in high grade and aggressive breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. We derived a EXO1 co-expression module from the mRNA profiles of breast tumors which comprises 1q candidate genes and their co-expressed genes. By integrative functional genomics investigation, we identified the involvement of EGFR, RAS, PI3K / AKT, MYC, E2F signaling in the regulation of these selected 1q genes in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Expression of EXO1 module was found as indicative of elevated cell proliferation, genomic instability, activated RAS/AKT/MYC/E2F1 signaling pathways and loss of p53 activity in breast tumors. mRNA–drug connectivity analysis indicates inhibition of RAS/PI3K as a possible targeted therapeutic approach for the patients with activated EXO1 module in breast tumors. Thus, we identified seven 1q candidate genes strongly associated with the poor survival of breast cancer patients and identified the possibility of targeting them with EGFR/RAS/PI3K inhibitors. PMID:24147022

Viveka Thangaraj, Soundara; Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Bhaskar Rao, Divya; Barnabas, Georgina D.; Raghavan, Swetha; Ganesan, Kumaresan

2013-01-01

270

Inhibition of interferon gene activation by death-effector domain-containing proteins from the molluscum contagiosum virus  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis, NF-?B activation, and IRF3 activation are a triad of intrinsic immune responses that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmunity. FLIPs are a family of viral and cellular proteins initially found to inhibit apoptosis and more recently to either up- or down-regulate NF-?B. As such, a broad role for FLIPs in disease regulation is postulated, but exactly how a FLIP performs such multifunctional roles remains to be established. Here we examine FLIPs (MC159 and MC160) encoded by the molluscum contagiosum virus, a dermatotropic poxvirus causing skin infections common in children and immunocompromised individuals, to better understand their roles in viral pathogenesis. While studying their molecular mechanisms responsible for NF-?B inhibition, we discovered that each protein inhibited IRF3-controlled luciferase activity, identifying a unique function for FLIPs. MC159 and MC160 each inhibited TBK1 phosphorylation, confirming this unique function. Surprisingly, MC159 coimmunoprecipitated with TBK1 and IKK? but MC160 did not, suggesting that these homologs use distinct molecular mechanisms to inhibit IRF3 activation. Equally surprising was the finding that the FLIP regions necessary for TBK1 inhibition were distinct from those MC159 or MC160 regions previously defined to inhibit NF-?B or apoptosis. These data reveal previously unappreciated complexities of FLIPs, and that subtle differences within the conserved regions of FLIPs possess distinct molecular and structural fingerprints that define crucial differences in biological activities. A future comparison of mechanistic differences between viral FLIP proteins can provide new means of precisely manipulating distinct aspects of intrinsic immune responses. PMID:24379396

Randall, Crystal M. H.; Biswas, Sunetra; Selen, Catherine V.; Shisler, Joanna L.

2014-01-01

271

ARTICLES Inhibition of Tumor Growth by Ribozyme-Mediated Suppression of Aberrant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Amplification and rearrangement of the epi- dermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is frequently associated with malignant gliomas. One type of EGFR mu- tation in primary gliomas results in overexpression of an aberrant EGFR messenger RNA (mRNA) that lacks se- quences of exons II through VI of the human EGFR gene. We observed that the aberrantly spliced EGFR mRNA

Hitoshi Yamazaki; Hiroshi Kijima; Yasuyuki Ohnishi; Yoshiyuki Abe; Yoshiro Oshika; Takashi Tsuchida; Tetsuji Tokunaga; Atsushi Tsugu; Yoshito Ueyama; Norikazu Tamaoki; Masato Nakamura

1998-01-01

272

Inhibition of the Proprotein Convertases Represses the Invasiveness of Human Primary Melanoma Cells with Altered p53, CDKN2A and N-Ras Genes  

PubMed Central

Background Altered tumor suppressor p53 and/or CDKN2A as well as Ras genes are frequently found in primary and metastatic melanomas. These alterations were found to be responsible for acquisition of invasive and metastatic potential through their defective regulatory control of metalloproteinases and urokinase genes. Methodology/Principal Findings Using primary human melanoma M10 cells with altered p53, CDKN2A and N-Ras genes, we found that inhibition of the proprotein convertases (PCs), enzymes involved in the proteolytic activation of various cancer-related protein precursors resulted in significantly reduced invasiveness. Analysis of M10 cells and their gastric and lymph node derived metastatic cells revealed the presence of all the PCs found in the secretory pathway. Expression of the general PCs inhibitor ?1-PDX in these cells in a stable manner (M10/PDX) had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of these PCs. Whereas, in vitro digestion assays and cell transfection experiments, revealed that M10/PDX cells display reduced PCs activity and are unable to process the PCs substrates proIGF-1R and proPDGF-A. These cells showed reduced migration and invasion that paralleled decreased gelatinase MMP-2 activity and increased expression and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Furthermore, these cells showed decreased levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that inhibition of PCs activity results in decreased invasiveness of primary human melanoma cells despite their altered p53, CDKN2A and N-Ras genes, suggesting that PCs may serve as novel therapeutic targets in melanoma. PMID:20404912

Lalou, Claude; Scamuffa, Nathalie; Mourah, Samia; Plassa, Francois; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Soufir, Nadem; Dumaz, Nicolas; Calvo, Fabien; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Khatib, Abdel-Majid

2010-01-01

273

Inhibiting eukaryotic transcription  

PubMed Central

This review first discusses ways in which we can evaluate transcription inhibition, describe changes in nuclear structure due to transcription inhibition, and report on genes that are paradoxically stimulated by transcription inhibition. Next, it summarizes the characteristics and mechanisms of commonly used inhibitors: ?-amanitin is highly selective for RNAP II and RNAP III but its action is slow, actinomycin D is fast but its selectivity is poor, CDK9 inhibitors such as DRB and flavopiridol are fast and reversible but many genes escape transcription inhibition. New compounds, such as triptolide, are fast and selective and able to completely arrest transcription by triggering rapid degradation of RNAP II. PMID:21922053

2011-01-01

274

Inhibition of gene expression and growth by antisense peptide nucleic acids in a multiresistant beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes common and severe hospital- and community-acquired infections with a high incidence of multidrug resistance. The emergence and spread of beta-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae strains highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we developed antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) conjugated to the (KFF)(3)K peptide and investigated whether they could mediate gene-specific antisense effects in K. pneumoniae. No outer membrane permeabilization was observed with antisense PNAs when used alone. Antisense peptide-PNAs targeted at two essential genes, gyrA and ompA, were found to be growth inhibitory at concentrations of 20 muM and 40 muM, respectively. Mismatched antisense peptide-PNAs with sequence variations of the gyrA and ompA genes when used as controls were not growth inhibitory. Bactericidal effects exerted by peptide-anti-gyrA PNA and peptide-anti-ompA PNA on cells were observed within 6 h of treatment. The antisense peptide-PNAs specifically inhibited expression of DNA gyrase subunit A and OmpA from the respective targeted genes in a dose-dependent manner. Both antisense peptide-PNAs cured IMR90 cell cultures that were infected with K. pneumoniae (10(4) CFU) in a dose-dependent manner without any noticeable toxicity to the human cells. PMID:17158940

Kurupati, Prathiba; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Kumarasinghe, Gamini; Poh, Chit Laa

2007-03-01

275

Targeted gene delivery in tumor xenografts by the combination of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction and polyethylenimine to inhibit survivin gene expression and induce apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background Noninvasive and tissue-specific technologies of gene transfection would be valuable in clinical gene therapy. This present study was designed to determine whether it could enhance gene transfection in vivo by the combination of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) with polyethylenimine (PEI) in tumor xenografts, and illuminate the effects of gene silencing and apoptosis induction with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference therapy targeting human survivin by this novel technique. Methods Two different expression vectors (pCMV-LUC and pSIREN) were incubated with PEI to prepare cationic complexes (PEI/DNA) and confirmed by the gel retardation assay. Human cervical carcinoma (Hela) tumors were planted subcutaneously in both flanks of nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were administered by tail vein with PBS, plasmid, plasmid and SonoVue microbubble, PEI/DNA and SonoVue microbubble. One tumor was exposed to ultrasound irradiation, while the other served as control. The feasibility of targeted delivery and tissue specificity facilitated by UTMD and PEI were investigated. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analyses about gene silencing and apoptosis induction were detected. Results Electrophoresis experiment revealed that PEI could condense DNA efficiently. The application of UTMD significantly increases the tissue transfection. Both expression vectors showed that gene expressions were present in all sections of tumors that received ultrasound exposure but not in control tumors. More importantly, the increases in transgene expression were related to UTMD with the presence of PEI significantly. Silencing of the survivin gene could induce apoptosis effectively by downregulating survivin and bcl-2 expression, also cause up-regulation of bax and caspase-3 expression. Conclusions This noninvasive, novel combination of UTMD with PEI could enhance targeted gene delivery and gene expression in tumor xenografts at intravenous administration effectively without causing any apparently adverse effect, and might be a promising candidate for gene therapy. Silencing of survivin gene expression with shRNA could be facilitated by this non-viral technique, and lead to significant cell apoptosis. PMID:21092274

2010-01-01

276

Delivery of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) gene significantly inhibits proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence has suggested that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), a novel member of ING family proteins, plays a critical role in the development and progression of different tumors via multiple pathways. However, the function of ING4 in human osteosarcoma remains unclear. To understand its potential roles and mechanisms in inhibiting osteosarcoma, we constructed an expression vector pEGFP-ING4 and transfected the human osteosarcoma cells using this vector. We then studied the effects of over-expressed ING4 in the transfected cells on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of the osteosarcoma cells. The up-regulation of ING4 in the osteosarcoma cells, arising from the stable pEGFP-ING4 gene transfection, was found to significantly inhibit the cell proliferation by the cell cycle alteration with S phase reduction and G0/G1 phase arrest, induce cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway, and suppress cell invasion through the down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression. In addition, increased ING4 level evoked the blockade of NF-?B signaling pathway and down-regulation of its target proteins. Our work suggests that ING4 can suppress osteosarcoma progression through signaling pathways such as mitochondria pathway and NF-?B signaling pathway and ING4 gene therapy is a promising approach to treating osteosarcoma. PMID:25490312

Li, Mei; Zhu, Ye; Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Lihua; He, Peng; Xia, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Chuanbin

2014-01-01

277

Wilms’ Tumor Gene 1 (WT1) Silencing Inhibits Proliferation of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor sNF96.2 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Wilms’ tumor gene 1 (WT1) plays complex roles in tumorigenesis, acting as tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene depending on the cellular context. WT1 expression has been variably reported in both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) by means of immunohistochemistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize its potential pathogenetic role in these relatively uncommon malignant tumors. Firstly, immunohistochemical analyses in MPNST sNF96.2 cell line showed strong WT1 staining in nuclear and perinuclear areas of neoplastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of silencing WT1 by RNA interference. Through Western Blot analysis and proliferation assay we found that WT1 knockdown leads to the reduction of cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. siWT1 inhibited proliferation of sNF96.2 cell lines likely by influencing cell cycle progression through a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that WT1 knockdown attenuates the biological behavior of MPNST cells by decreasing Akt activity, demonstrating that WT1 is involved in the development and progression of MPNSTs. Thus, WT1 is suggested to serve as a potential therapeutic target for MPNSTs. PMID:25474318

Parenti, Rosalba; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Parenti, Carmela; Venuti, Assunta; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Furno, Debora Lo; Magro, Gaetano

2014-01-01

278

Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) silencing inhibits proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor sNF96.2 cell line.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) plays complex roles in tumorigenesis, acting as tumor suppressor gene or an oncogene depending on the cellular context. WT1 expression has been variably reported in both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) by means of immunohistochemistry. The aim of the present study was to characterize its potential pathogenetic role in these relatively uncommon malignant tumors. Firstly, immunohistochemical analyses in MPNST sNF96.2 cell line showed strong WT1 staining in nuclear and perinuclear areas of neoplastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of silencing WT1 by RNA interference. Through Western Blot analysis and proliferation assay we found that WT1 knockdown leads to the reduction of cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner. siWT1 inhibited proliferation of sNF96.2 cell lines likely by influencing cell cycle progression through a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation compared to the control cells. These results indicate that WT1 knockdown attenuates the biological behavior of MPNST cells by decreasing Akt activity, demonstrating that WT1 is involved in the development and progression of MPNSTs. Thus, WT1 is suggested to serve as a potential therapeutic target for MPNSTs. PMID:25474318

Parenti, Rosalba; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Parenti, Carmela; Venuti, Assunta; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Furno, Debora Lo; Magro, Gaetano

2014-01-01

279

Stress responsive gene CIPK14 is involved in phytochrome A-mediated far-red light inhibition of greening in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In this study, we show that CIPK14, a stress responsive CBL-interacting protein kinase gene, is involved in phytochrome A-mediated far-red light inhibition of greening in Arabidopsis seedlings. The CIPK14-impairment mutant cipk14 grown in continuous far-red (FR) light did not show greening when exposed to white light illumination for 15 h. By contrast, the FR-grown phytochrome A null mutant phyA greened within 0.5 h of exposure to white light. Although greening of Col-4 (wild-type) was not completely abolished by FR, it exhibited a significantly decreased greening capacity compared with that of phyA. Further analyses demonstrated that the expression of protochlorophyllide reductase (POR) genes was correlated with the greening ability of the genotypes. In addition, CIPK14 appeared to be regulated by both the circadian clock and PhyA. Taken together, these results suggest that CIPK14 plays a role in PhyA-mediated FR inhibition of seedling greening, and that a Ca-related kinase may be involved in a previously undefined branch point in the phytochrome A signaling pathway. PMID:21046322

Qin, YuZhi; Guo, Ming; Li, Xu; Xiong, XingYao; He, ChangZheng; Nie, XianZhou; Liu, XuanMing

2010-11-01

280

The heterochronic microRNA let-7 inhibits cell motility by regulating the genes in the actin cytoskeleton pathway in breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The heterochronic gene let-7 serves as a tumor suppressor microRNA by targeting various oncogenic pathways in cancer cells. Considerable evidence indicates that reduced expression of let-7 might be associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Here, we report that the expression levels of three let-7 family members, let-7a, let-7b, and let-7g, were significantly decreased in the breast cancer patients with lymph node metastasis compared to those without lymph node metastasis. Enforced expression of let-7b significantly inhibits breast cancer cell motility and affects actin dynamics. Using bioinformatic and experimental approaches, four genes in the actin cytoskeleton pathway, including PAK1, DIAPH2, RDX, and ITGB8, were identified as let-7 direct targets. Blocking the expression of PAK1, DIAPH2, and RDX significantly inhibits breast cancer cell migration induced by let-7b repression. Our results indicate reconstitution of let-7 expression in tumor cells could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metastatic disease. PMID:23339187

Hu, Xiaowen; Guo, Jinyi; Zheng, Lan; Li, Chunsheng; Zheng, Tim M.; Tanyi, Janos L.; Liang, Shun; Benedetto, Chiara; Mitidieri, Marco; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Youcheng; Huang, Qihong; Zhang, Lin

2013-01-01

281

Inhibition of systemic onset of post-transcriptional gene silencing by non-toxic concentrations of cadmium  

E-print Network

of cadmium Shoko Ueki and Vitaly Citovsky* Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, State University±plant interactions. To better understand this process, the heavy metal cadmium was identi®ed as a speci®c inhibitor in two different PTGS systems, constitutive and inducible. The pattern of cadmium-induced inhibition

Citovsky, Vitaly

282

Exploring signatures of positive selection in pigmentation candidate genes in populations of East Asian ancestry  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there is very limited knowledge about the genes involved in normal pigmentation variation in East Asian populations. We carried out a genome-wide scan of signatures of positive selection using the 1000 Genomes Phase I dataset, in order to identify pigmentation genes showing putative signatures of selective sweeps in East Asia. We applied a broad range of methods to detect signatures of selection including: 1) Tests designed to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima’s D, Fay and Wu’s H and Fu and Li’s D* and F*), 2) Tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb) and 3) Tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL). Based on the results obtained from a genome wide analysis of 25 kb windows, we constructed an empirical distribution for each statistic across all windows, and identified pigmentation genes that are outliers in the distribution. Results Our tests identified twenty genes that are relevant for pigmentation biology. Of these, eight genes (ATRN, EDAR, KLHL7, MITF, OCA2, TH, TMEM33 and TRPM1,) were extreme outliers (top 0.1% of the empirical distribution) for at least one statistic, and twelve genes (ADAM17, BNC2, CTSD, DCT, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, MLPH, OPRM1, PDIA6, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) were in the top 1% of the empirical distribution for at least one statistic. Additionally, eight of these genes (BNC2, EGFR, LYST, MC1R, OCA2, OPRM1, PMEL (SILV) and TYRP1) have been associated with pigmentary traits in association studies. Conclusions We identified a number of putative pigmentation genes showing extremely unusual patterns of genetic variation in East Asia. Most of these genes are outliers for different tests and/or different populations, and have already been described in previous scans for positive selection, providing strong support to the hypothesis that recent selective sweeps left a signature in these regions. However, it will be necessary to carry out association and functional studies to demonstrate the implication of these genes in normal pigmentation variation. PMID:23848512

2013-01-01

283

Inhibition of osteosarcoma cell progression by MacroH2A via the downregulation of cyclin D and cyclin?dependent kinase genes.  

PubMed

MacroH2A is a histone modification factor the activity of which has been acutely studied in cancer progression, and a number of studies have shown that the progression of certain types of cancer is under regulation by MacroH2A. However, information regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of MacroH2A inhibition on the cell cycle remains elusive, and elucidating this process may aid in the production of novel treatment strategies. The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of MacroH2A on osteosarcoma cell progression, and the possible molecular mechanisms of this process. MacroH2A overexpression and interference vectors were designed and transfected into U2?OS osteosarcoma cells. The cells underwent reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR), western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assays. The apoptosis rate and cell cycle stage were assayed using flow cytometry. The results revealed that the overexpression of MacroH2A inhibited the progression of U2?OS osteosarcoma cells, and the cells were arrested at the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. The molecular mechanism by which MacroH2A suppresses the cell progression involves the inhibition of the expression of cyclin D and cyclin?dependent kinase (CDK) genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4, CDK6 and CDK8. Taken together, the present results revealed that MacroH2A is an important modifier of chromatin that downregulates the progression of osteosarcoma cells and triggers disturbance of the cell cycle via the downregulation of cyclin D and CDK genes. PMID:25378143

Yang, Pu; Yin, Ke; Zhong, Da; Liao, Qiande; Li, Kanghua

2015-03-01

284

Adenovirus-Mediated Human Tissue Kallikrein Gene Delivery Inhibits Neointima Formation Induced by Interruption of Blood Flow in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

morphometric analysis revealed that Ad.CMV-cHK reduced neointima formation by 52% (P,0.05) compared with Ad.CMV-LacZ. Expression of human tissue kallikrein (HK) mRNA was detected in mouse carotid artery, aorta, kidney, heart, and liver, and recombinant HK was present in the urine and plasma of mice receiving HK gene. Kallikrein gene transfer resulted in increases in urinary kinin, cGMP, and cAMP levels.

Costanza Emanueli; Maria Bonaria Salis; Julie Chao; Lee Chao; Jun Agata; Kuei-Fu Lin; Antonella Munao; Stefania Straino; Alessandra Minasi; Maurizio C. Capogrossi; Paolo Madeddu

2010-01-01

285

Combined inhibition of DNA methylation and histone acetylation enhances gene re-expression and drug sensitivity in vivo.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylation and DNA methylation have a central role in the control of gene expression in tumours, including transcriptional repression of tumour suppressor genes and genes involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. Treatment of cisplatin-resistant cell lines with an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, 2-deoxy-5'azacytidine (decitabine), results in partial reversal of DNA methylation, re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes including hMLH1 and sensitisation to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo. We have investigated whether the combination of decitabine and a clinically relevant inhibitor of histone deacetylase activity (belinostat, PXD101) can further increase the re-expression of genes epigenetically silenced by DNA methylation and enhance chemo-sensitisation in vivo at well-tolerated doses. The cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cell line A2780/cp70 has the hMLH1 gene methylated and is resistant to cisplatin both in vitro and when grown as a xenograft in mice. Treatment of A2780/cp70 with decitabine and belinostat results in a marked increase in expression of epigenetically silenced MLH1 and MAGE-A1 both in vitro and in vivo when compared with decitabine alone. The combination greatly enhanced the effects of decitabine alone on the cisplatin sensitivity of xenografts. As the dose of decitabine that can be given to patients and hence the maximum pharmacodynamic effect as a demethylating agent is limited by toxicity and eventual re-methylation of genes, we suggest that the combination of decitabine and belinostat could have a role in the efficacy of chemotherapy in tumours that have acquired drug resistance due to DNA methylation and gene silencing. PMID:19259094

Steele, N; Finn, P; Brown, R; Plumb, J A

2009-03-10

286

Arachidonic acid inhibits lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through a prostanoid pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the effect of polyunsatu- rated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipogenic gene expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3) suppressed mRNAs encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS) and S14, but had no ef- fect on b -actin. Using a clonal adipocyte cell line containing a stably integrated S14CAT fusion gene, oleic acid

Michelle K. Mater; David Pan; W. G. Bergen; Donald B. Jump

287

Inhibition of primordial germ cell proliferation by the medaka male determining gene Dmrt1bY  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dmrt1 is a highly conserved gene involved in the determination and early differentiation phase of the primordial gonad in vertebrates. In the fish medaka dmrt1bY, a functional duplicate of the autosomal dmrt1a gene on the Y-chromosome, has been shown to be the master regulator of male gonadal development, comparable to Sry in mammals. In males mRNA and protein expression

Amaury Herpin; Detlev Schindler; Anita Kraiss; Ute Hornung; Christoph Winkler; Manfred Schartl

2007-01-01

288

Flavonoids eupatorin and sinensetin present in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves inhibit inflammatory gene expression and STAT1 activation.  

PubMed

Cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E? (PGE?) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively, activate and drive inflammation and therefore serve as targets for anti-inflammatory drug development. Orthosiphon stamineus is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia that has been traditionally used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and other inflammatory disorders. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf chloroform extract (CE), its flavonoid-containing CE fraction 2 (CF2), and the flavonoids eupatorin, eupatorin-5-methyl ether (TMF), and sinensetin, identified from the CF2. It was found that CE (20 and 50 µg/mL) and CF2 (20 and 50 µg/mL) inhibited iNOS expression and NO production, as well as PGE? production. Eupatorin and sinensetin inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and the production of NO (IC?? 5.2 µM and 9.2 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively) and PGE? (IC?? 5.0 µM and 2.7 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts and the compounds also inhibited tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) production (IC?? 5.0 µM and 2.7 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively). Eupatorin and sinensetin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 1? (STAT1?). Furthermore, eupatorin (50 mg/kg i. p.) and sinensetin (50 mg/kg i. p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in mice. The results suggest that CE and CF2, as well as the known constituents of CF2, i.e., eupatorin and sinensetin, have meaningful anti-inflammatory properties which may be utilized in the development of novel anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:22516932

Laavola, Mirka; Nieminen, Riina; Yam, Mun Fei; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Basir, Rusliza; Welling, Jukka; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korhonen, Riku; Moilanen, Eeva

2012-05-01

289

Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.  

PubMed

In our primary studies, we have shown that emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced cytotoxic effects, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells. However, details regarding their effects on DNA damage and repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells are not clear. We investigated whether or not emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 cells. Comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) indicated that incubation of SCC-4 cells with 0, 20, 30 and 40 microM of emodin, 0, 25, 50 and 100 microM of aloe-emodin or rhein led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail). This means that all examined agents induced DNA damage in SCC-4 cells and these effects are dose-dependent but emodin is stronger than that of aloe-emodin or rhein. The results from real-time PCR assay demonstrated that 30 microM of emodin or aloe-emodin used for 24 and 48 h treatment in SCC-4 cells significantly inhibited expression of genes associated with DNA damage and repair [ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR); 14-3-3sigma (14-3-3sigma); breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1); and DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNA-PK)]; only rhein suppressed the expression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) mRNA with 48 h treatment, but had no effect on ATM expression. On 24 h treatment, only aloe-emodin significantly affected ATM expression. These effects may be the vital factors for emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induction of DNA damage in vitro. In conclusion, these agents induced DNA damage followed by the inhibition of DNA repair-associated gene expressions, including ATM, ATR, 14-3-3sigma, BRCA1, DNA-PK and MGMT in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells. PMID:20393018

Chen, Ya-Yin; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Ma, Yi-Shih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Tang, Nou-Ying; Chung, Jing-Gung

2010-03-01

290

TGF-beta 1 inhibits both endotoxin-induced prostaglandin synthesis and expression of the TIS10/prostaglandin synthase 2 gene in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Activated macrophages produce substantial quantities of paracrine mediators, including cytokines, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta) is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-beta inhibits the cytotoxic activity of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage cell lines and primary macrophage cultures, reducing their expression of cytokines and nitric oxide. In this report we demonstrate that TGF-beta also attenuates the LPS-induced synthesis and secretion of prostaglandin E2 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Macrophage activation also induces accumulation of the recently described ligand-responsive prostaglandin synthase (PGS) TIS10/PGS-2. While TGF-beta alone has no effect on expression from the TIS10/PGS-2 gene, this cytokine inhibits LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 protein accumulation and synthesis, as well as LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells. TGF-beta concentrations in the range of 0.1-1.0 ng/ml (4-40 pM) maximally inhibit LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation. In contrast, neither LPS nor TGF-beta has any effect on the level of PGS-1 (EC 1.14.99.1) message. TGF-beta also attenuates LPS-induced accumulation of unspliced TIS10/PGS-2 transcripts in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that this cytokine exerts its effects on TIS10/PGS-2 expression at the transcriptional level. TGF-beta inhibits the LPS-induced accumulation of TIS10/PGS-2 protein and message in cultured murine peritoneal macrophages, as well as in macrophage cell lines. PMID:8301216

Reddy, S T; Gilbert, R S; Xie, W; Luner, S; Herschman, H R

1994-02-01

291

The cancer growth suppressor gene mda-7 selectively induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in nude mice.  

PubMed

A differentiation induction subtraction hybridization strategy is being used to identify and clone genes involved in growth control and terminal differentiation in human cancer cells. This scheme identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7), whose expression is up-regulated as a consequence of terminal differentiation in human melanoma cells. Forced expression of mda-7 is growth inhibitory toward diverse human tumor cells. The present studies elucidate the mechanism by which mda-7 selectively suppresses the growth of human breast cancer cells and the consequence of ectopic expression of mda-7 on human breast tumor formation in vivo in nude mice. Infection of wild-type, mutant, and null p53 human breast cancer cells with a recombinant type 5 adenovirus expressing mda-7, Ad.mda-7 S, inhibited growth and induced programmed cell death (apoptosis). Induction of apoptosis correlated with an increase in BAX protein, an established inducer of programmed cell death, and an increase in the ratio of BAX to BCL-2, an established inhibitor of apoptosis. Infection of breast carcinoma cells with Ad.mda-7 S before injection into nude mice inhibited tumor development. In contrast, ectopic expression of mda-7 did not significantly alter cell cycle kinetics, growth rate, or survival in normal human mammary epithelial cells. These data suggest that mda-7 induces its selective anticancer properties in human breast carcinoma cells by promoting apoptosis that occurs independent of p53 status. On the basis of its selective anticancer inhibitory activity and its direct antitumor effects, mda-7 may represent a new class of cancer suppressor genes that could prove useful for the targeted therapy of human cancer. PMID:9826712

Su, Z Z; Madireddi, M T; Lin, J J; Young, C S; Kitada, S; Reed, J C; Goldstein, N I; Fisher, P B

1998-11-24

292

G Protein-Independent Inhibition of GIRK Current by Adenosine in Rat Atrial Myocytes Overexpressing A1 Receptors after Adenovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels, important regulators of membrane excitability in the heart and central nervous system, are activated by interaction with ?? subunits from heterotrimeric G proteins upon receptor stimulation. In atrial myocytes various endogenous receptors couple to GIRK channels, including the canonical muscarinic M2 receptor (M2AChR) and the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AdoR). Saturating stimulation of A1AdoR in atrial myocytes activates only a fraction of the GIRK current that is activated via M2AChR, which reflects a lower density of A1AdoR. In the present study A1AdoR were overexpressed by means of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter. Confirmatory to a previous study, this resulted in an increased sensitivity of macroscopic GIRK current (ACh-activated K+ current (IK(ACh))) to stimulation by Ado. However, in the majority of GFP-positive myocytes, exposure to Ado at concentrations ? 1 ?m resulted in activation of IK(ACh) followed by a rapid inhibition. In those cells a rebound activation of current was recorded upon washout of Ado. The inhibitory component could be recorded in isolation when IK(ACh) was activated by M2AChR-stimulation and brief pulses of Ado were superimposed. In myocytes loaded with GTP-?-S, IK(ACh), irreversibly activated by brief exposure to agonist, was still reversibly inhibited by Ado, suggesting that inhibition is independent of G protein cycling. In myocytes co-transfected with adenoviral vectors encoding A1AdoR and GIRK4 subunit, no inhibition of GIRK current by Ado was observed. As acute desensitization of atrial GIRK current, which is reminiscent of the inhibition described here, has been shown to be absent in myocytes overexpressing GIRK4, this suggests that acute desensitization and the novel inhibition might share a common pathway whose target is the GIRK channel complex or its GIRK1 subunit. PMID:12815176

Bösche, Leif I; Wellner-Kienitz, Marie-Cécile; Bender, Kirsten; Pott, Lutz

2003-01-01

293

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? positively regulates complement C3 expression but inhibits tumor necrosis factor ?-mediated activation of C3 gene in mammalian hepatic-derived cells.  

PubMed

Complement C3 is a pivotal component of three cascades of complement activation. The liver is the main source of C3 in circulation and expression and secretion of C3 by hepatocytes is increased during acute inflammation. However, the mechanism of the regulation of the C3 gene in hepatocytes is not well elucidated. We showed that the C3 gene is the direct target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells and mouse liver. Using PPAR? siRNA and synthetic PPAR? agonist WY-14643 and antagonist MK886 we showed that activation of PPAR? results in up-regulation of C3 gene expression and protein secretion by HepG2 cells. The PPAR response element (PPRE), which is able to bind PPAR? in vitro and in vivo, was found in the human C3 promoter. PPRE is conserved between human and mouse, and WY-14643 stimulates mouse C3 expression in the liver. TNF? increases C3 gene via NF-?B and, to a lesser extent, MEK1/2 signaling pathways, whereas TNF?-mediated stimulation of C3 protein secretion depends on activation of MEK1/2, p38, and JNK in HepG2 cells. Activation of PPAR? abolishes TNF?-mediated up-regulation of C3 gene expression and protein secretion due to interference with NF-?B via PPRE-dependent mechanism in HepG2 cells. TNF? decreases PPAR? protein content via NF-?B and MEK1/2 signaling pathways and inhibits PPAR? binding with the human C3 promoter in HepG2 cells. These results suggest novel mechanism controlling C3 expression in hepatocytes during acute phase inflammation and demonstrate a crosstalk between PPAR? and TNF? in the regulation of complement system. PMID:23168409

Mogilenko, Denis A; Kudriavtsev, Igor V; Shavva, Vladimir S; Dizhe, Ella B; Vilenskaya, Ekaterina G; Efremov, Alexander M; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

2013-01-18

294

Histone deacetylase inhibition induces long-lasting changes in maternal behavior and gene expression in female mice.  

PubMed

In many species, including mice, maternal responsiveness is experience-dependent and permanent, lasting for long periods (months to years). We have shown that after brief exposures to pups, virgin female mice continue to respond maternally toward pups for at least one month. Administration of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) reduces the amount of maternal experience required to affect maternal behavior and gene expression. In this set of studies, we examined the epigenetic mechanisms that underlie these motivated behaviors. We assessed whether the effects of HDACi persisted 1 month after the initial experience (in the absence of continued pup experience or HDACi treatment) and whether the maintenance of maternal memory was associated with stable changes in gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we examined whether Esr2 and Oxt gene expression might be mediated by recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase cAMP response element binding protein (CBP) to their promoter regions after maternal memory consolidation. We report that HDACi treatment induced long-lasting changes in maternal responsiveness. Maternal learning was associated with increased recruitment of CBP to the Esr2 and Oxt gene promoters during the consolidation of maternal memory as well as a persistent increase in estrogen receptor-? (Esr2) mRNA and decreased expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a within the medial preoptic area. The consolidation of the maternal experience may involve the CBP recruitment and stable changes in gene expression, which maintain increased maternal responsiveness for long periods of time. PMID:24932804

Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Stevens, Jacqueline S; Rissman, Emilie F

2014-09-01

295

Differential regulation of adipose tissue and vascular inflammatory gene expression by chronic systemic inhibition of NOS in lean and obese rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) would result in increased adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. In particular, we utilized the obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat model (n = 20) and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka counterparts (n = 20) to determine the extent to which chronic inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) with N??nitro?l?arginine methyl ester (L?NAME) treatment (for 4 weeks) upregulates expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration in retroperitoneal white AT, subscapular brown AT, periaortic AT as well as in its contiguous aorta free of perivascular AT. As expected, relative to lean rats (% body fat = 13.5 ± 0.7), obese rats (% body fat = 27.2 ± 0.8) were hyperlipidemic (total cholesterol 77.0 ± 2.1 vs. 101.0 ± 3.3 mg/dL), hyperleptinemic (5.3 ± 0.9 vs. 191.9 ± 59.9 pg/mL), and insulin?resistant (higher HOMA IR index [3.9 ± 0.8 vs. 25.2 ± 4.1]). Obese rats also exhibited increased expression of proinflammatory genes in perivascular, visceral, and brown ATs. L?NAME treatment produced a small but statistically significant decrease in percent body fat (24.6 ± 0.9 vs. 27.2 ± 0.8%) and HOMA IR index (16.9 ± 2.3 vs. 25.2 ± 4.1) in obese rats. Further, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that expression of inflammatory genes in all AT depots examined were generally unaltered with L?NAME treatment in both lean and obese rats. This was in contrast with the observation that L?NAME produced a significant upregulation of inflammatory and proatherogenic genes in the aorta. Collectively, these findings suggest that chronic NOS inhibition alters transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory genes to a greater extent in the aortic wall compared to its adjacent perivascular AT, or visceral white and subscapular brown AT depots. PMID:24744894

Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Lansford, Kasey A.; Fleming, Nicholas J.; Bayless, David S.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Rector, R. Scott; Laughlin, M. Harold

2014-01-01

296

Differential regulation of adipose tissue and vascular inflammatory gene expression by chronic systemic inhibition of NOS in lean and obese rats.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that a decrease in bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) would result in increased adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. In particular, we utilized the obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat model (n = 20) and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka counterparts (n = 20) to determine the extent to which chronic inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) with N (?) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment (for 4 weeks) upregulates expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration in retroperitoneal white AT, subscapular brown AT, periaortic AT as well as in its contiguous aorta free of perivascular AT. As expected, relative to lean rats (% body fat = 13.5 ± 0.7), obese rats (% body fat = 27.2 ± 0.8) were hyperlipidemic (total cholesterol 77.0 ± 2.1 vs. 101.0 ± 3.3 mg/dL), hyperleptinemic (5.3 ± 0.9 vs. 191.9 ± 59.9 pg/mL), and insulin-resistant (higher HOMA IR index [3.9 ± 0.8 vs. 25.2 ± 4.1]). Obese rats also exhibited increased expression of proinflammatory genes in perivascular, visceral, and brown ATs. L-NAME treatment produced a small but statistically significant decrease in percent body fat (24.6 ± 0.9 vs. 27.2 ± 0.8%) and HOMA IR index (16.9 ± 2.3 vs. 25.2 ± 4.1) in obese rats. Further, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that expression of inflammatory genes in all AT depots examined were generally unaltered with L-NAME treatment in both lean and obese rats. This was in contrast with the observation that L-NAME produced a significant upregulation of inflammatory and proatherogenic genes in the aorta. Collectively, these findings suggest that chronic NOS inhibition alters transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory genes to a greater extent in the aortic wall compared to its adjacent perivascular AT, or visceral white and subscapular brown AT depots. PMID:24744894

Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Thorne, Pamela K; Lansford, Kasey A; Fleming, Nicholas J; Bayless, David S; Sheldon, Ryan D; Rector, R Scott; Laughlin, M Harold

2014-02-01

297

Molecular cloning, functional analysis and localization of a novel gene encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in Chorispora bungeana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defense proteins. To date, no spatial distribution of PGIPs and interaction\\u000a between PGIPs and nitric oxide (NO) in plant were described. Here, we first reported the full-length cDNA sequence of PGIP of Chorispora bungeana (CbPGIP1). Notably, immunofluorescence localization showed that the CbPGIP was evenly distributed in leaves but it was mainly localized\\u000a in epidermis and

Cuixia Di; Ming Li; Feng Long; Muqun Bai; Yajie liu; Xiaolin Zheng; Shijian Xu; Yun Xiang; Zhenglong Sun; Lizhe An

2009-01-01

298

PAX3-NCOA2 fusion gene has a dual role in promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

We analyzed a complex chromosomal translocation in a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and showed that it generates the fusion gene PAX3 (paired box 3)-NCOA2 (nuclear receptor coactivator 2). To understand the role of this translocation in RMS tumorigenesis, we established two types of stable mouse myoblast C2C12 cell lines expressing PAX3-NCOA2 and PAX3-FOXO1A (forkhead box O1A), respectively. Compared with control cells, PAX3-NCOA2 cells grew faster, were more motile, were less anchorage dependent, progressed more quickly through the G1/S phase of cell cycle and showed greater transcriptional activation of the PAX3 consensus-binding site. However, PAX3-NCOA2 cells proliferated more slowly and differentiated more weakly than did PAX3-FOXO1A cells. Both PAX3-NCOA2 cells and PAX3-FOXO1A cells formed tumors in nude mice, although the PAX3-NCOA2-induced tumors grew more slowly. Our results may explain why NCOA2 rearrangement is mainly found in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, which has a better prognosis than alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, which expresses the PAX3-FOXO1A fusion gene. These results indicate that the PAX3-NCOA2 fusion gene has a dual role in the tumorigenesis of RMS: promotion of the proliferation and inhibition of the myogenic differentiation of RMS cells. PMID:24213582

Yoshida, H; Miyachi, M; Sakamoto, K; Ouchi, K; Yagyu, S; Kikuchi, K; Kuwahara, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Imamura, T; Iehara, T; Kakazu, N; Hojo, H; Hosoi, H

2014-12-01

299

Cold exposure inhibits hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression, serum leptin concentration, and delays reproductive development in male Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold commonly affects growth and reproductive development in small mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that low ambient temperature will affect growth and puberty onset, associated with altered hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression and serum leptin concentration in wild rodents. Male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) were exposed to cold (4 ± 1 °C) and warm (23 ± 1 °C) conditions from the birth and sacrificed on different developmental stages (day 26, day 40, day 60, and day 90, respectively). Brandt's voles increased the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue, mobilized body fat, decreased serum leptin levels, and delayed the reproductive development especially on day 40 in the cold condition. They increased food intake to compensate for the high energy demands in the cold. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression on day 26 was decreased, associated with lower wet testis mass and testis testosterone concentration on day 40, in the cold-exposed voles compared to that in the warm. Serum leptin was positively correlated with body fat, testis mass, and testosterone concentration. These data suggested that cold exposure inhibited hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression during the early stage of development, decreased serum leptin concentration, and delayed reproductive development in male Brandt's voles.

Zhang, Qiang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

2014-08-01

300

Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Access Excellence

2005-03-12

301

Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin-10 (rIL-10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid-expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL-transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen. PMID:24993843

HUANG, YUE-HONG; CHEN, YUN-XIN; ZHANG, LI-JUAN; CHEN, ZHI-XIN; WANG, XIAO-ZHONG

2014-01-01

302

Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by oleanane triterpenoid (CDDO-Me) in pancreatic cancer cells is associated with the suppression of hTERT gene expression and its telomerase activity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT telomerase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDDO-Me inhibits hTERT regulatory proteins. -- Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a multifunctional oleanane synthetic triterpenoid with potent anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties. The mechanisms of the antisurvival and apoptosis-inducing activities of CDDO-Me and related derivatives of oleanolic acid have been defined; however, to date, no study has been carried out on the effect of CDDOs on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene or telomerase activity. Here we report for the first time that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cell lines is associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT expression and activity. Furthermore, abrogation or overexpression of hTERT protein altered the susceptibility of tumor cells to CDDO-Me. These findings suggest that telomerase (hTERT) is a relevant target of CDDO-Me in pancreatic cancer cells.

Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Kim, Sahn-Ho [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Pindolia, Kirit R. [Department of Medical Genetics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Medical Genetics, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Arbab, Ali S. [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Gautam, Subhash C., E-mail: sgautam1@hfhs.org [Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

2012-06-15

303

Short Abstract --Auto-regulatory negative feedback loops, where the protein expressed from a gene inhibits its own  

E-print Network

and translation and low copy numbers of RNAs and proteins within cells, which can lead to large statistical is produced from the gene is a function of the number of protein molecules present in the cell. We refer form of the transcriptional response affects stochastic fluctuations in protein numbers and to quantify

Hespanha, João Pedro

304

TET2 Inhibits Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells but Does Not Overcome Methylation-Induced Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

TET2 is a methylcytosine dioxygenase that is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies, notably myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. TET2 catalyses the conversion of 5?-methylcytosine to 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine within DNA and has been implicated in the process of genomic demethylation. However, the mechanism by which TET2 loss of function results in hematopoietic dysplasia and leukemogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that TET2 is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and that its knockdown results in reduction of 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine in genomic DNA. We also present DNA methylation data from bone marrow samples obtained from patients with TET2-mutated myelodysplasia. Based on these findings, we sought to identify the role of TET2 in regulating pluripotency and differentiation. We show that overexpression of TET2 in a stably integrated transgene leads to increased alkaline phosphatase expression in differentiating ES cells and impaired differentiation in methylcellulose culture. We speculate that this effect is due to TET2-mediated expression of stem cell genes in ES cells via hydroxylation of 5?-methylcytosines at key promoter sequences within genomic DNA. This leads to relative hypomethylation of gene promoters as 5?-hydroxymethylcytosine is not a substrate for DNMT1-mediated maintenance methylation. We sought to test this hypothesis by cotransfecting the TET2 gene with methylated reporter genes. The results of these experiments are presented. PMID:25276435

2014-01-01

305

Inhibition of gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and heart fatty acid binding protein in cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide-induced acute cardiotoxic rat models.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IFO) therapy alters the expression of the key genes engaged in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria, and if so, whether these alterations should be viewed as a mechanism during CP- and IFO-induced cardiotoxicity. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of the six treatment groups: Rats in group 1 (control) and group 2 (L-carnitine) were injected intraperitoneal (i.p.) with normal saline and L-carnitine (200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days. Animals in group 3 (CP group) were injected i.p. with normal saline for 5 days before and 5 days after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats in group 4 (IFO group) received normal saline for 5 successive days followed by IFO (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 successive days. Rats in group 5 (CP-carnitine supplemented) were given the same doses of L-carnitine as group 2 for 5 days before and 5 days after a single dose of CP as group 3. Rats in group 6 (IFO-carnitine supplemented) were given the same doses of L-carnitine as group 2 for 5 days before and 5 days concomitant with IFO as group 4. Immediately, after the last dose of the treatment protocol, blood samples were withdrawn and animals were killed for biochemical, histopathological and gene expression studies. Treatment with CP and IFO significantly decreased expression of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) genes in cardiac tissues. Moreover, CP but not IFO significantly increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase2 mRNA expression. Conversely, IFO but not CP significantly decreased mRNA expression of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Both CP and IFO significantly increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and malonyl-CoA content and histopathological lesions in cardiac tissues. Interestingly, carnitine supplementation completely reversed all the biochemical, histopathological and gene expression changes induced by CP and IFO to the control values, except CPT I mRNA, and protein expression remained inhibited by IFO. Data from the current study suggest, for the first time, that (1) CP and IFO therapy is associated with the inhibition of the expression of H-FABP and CPT I genes in cardiac tissues with the consequent inhibition of mitochondrial transport and oxidation of LCFA. (2) The progressive increase in cardiotoxicity enzymatic indices and the decrease in H-FABP and CPT I expression may point to the possible contribution of these genes to CP- and IFO-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24469765

Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Aldelemy, Meshan L; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Sharary, Shakir D; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M

2014-09-01

306

Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. The dietary intake of RK has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies. Objective: To elucidate a possible mechanism for anti-obese actions of RK, the effects of RK on the adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Materials and methods: 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated from day 2 to day 8 of differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24?h on day 12 with 1, 10, 20, and 50??M of RK. Triacylglycerols were assessed by spectrophotometry and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP?), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10??M of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B). Discussion and conclusion: These findings suggest that RK holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25429790

Park, Kyoung Sik

2014-11-28

307

Onset of lactation in the bovine mammary gland: gene expression profiling indicates a strong inhibition of gene expression in cell proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammary gland undergoes dramatic functional and metabolic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation.\\u000a To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, we analyzed expression profiles of approximately 23,000\\u000a gene transcripts in bovine mammary tissue about day 5 before parturition and day 10 after parturition. At the cutoff criteria\\u000a of the signed fold change ?2 or

Kiera A. Finucane; Thomas B. McFadden; Jeffrey P. Bond; John J. Kennelly; Feng-Qi Zhao

2008-01-01

308

Gene Disruption of the Calcium Channel Orai1 Results in Inhibition of Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation and Impairs Skeletal Development  

PubMed Central

Calcium signaling plays a central role in the regulation of bone cells, though uncertainty remains with regard to the channels involved. In previous studies, we determined that the calcium channel Orai1 was required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. To define the skeletal functions of calcium release-activated calcium currents, we compared mice with targeted deletion of the calcium channel Orai1 to wild-type littermate controls, and examined differentiation and function of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors in vitro with and without Orai1 inhibition. Consistent with in vitro findings, Orai1?/? mice lacked multinucleated osteoclasts. Yet they did not develop osteopetrosis. Mononuclear cells expressing osteoclast products were found in Orai1?/? mice, and in vitro studies showed significantly reduced, but not absent, mineral resorption by the mononuclear osteoclast-like cells that form in culture from peripheral blood monocytic cells when Orai1 is inhibited. More prominent in Orai1?/? mice was a decrease in bone with retention of fetal cartilage. Micro-computed tomography showed reduced cortical ossification and thinned trabeculae in Orai1?/? animals compared to controls; bone deposition was markedly decreased in the knock-out. This suggested a previously unrecognized role for Orai1 within osteoblasts. Analysis of osteoblasts and precursors in Orai1?/? and control mice showed a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblasts. In vitro studies confirmed that inhibiting Orai1 activity impaired differentiation and function of human osteoblasts, supporting a critical function for Orai1 in osteoblasts, in addition to its role as a regulator of osteoclast formation. PMID:22546867

Robinson, Lisa J.; Mancarella, Salvatore; Songsawad, Duangrat; Tourkova, Irina L.; Barnett, John B.; Gill, Donald L.; Soboloff, Jonathan; Blair, Harry C.

2012-01-01

309

Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is due to altered cell division, phytohormone balance and expansin gene expression.  

PubMed

Cyanamide (CA) has been reported as a natural compound produced by hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) and it was shown also to be an allelochemical, responsible for strong allelopathic potential in this species. CA phytotoxicity has been demonstrated on various plant species, but to date little is known about its mode of action at cellular level. Treatment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) roots with CA (1.2 mM) resulted in inhibition of growth accompanied by alterations in cell division, and imbalance of plant hormone (ethylene and auxin) homeostasis. Moreover, the phytotoxic effect of CA was also manifested by modifications in expansin gene expression, especially in expansins responsible for cell wall remodeling after the cytokinesis (LeEXPA9, LeEXPA18). Based on these results the phytotoxic activity of CA on growth of roots of tomato seedlings is likely due to alterations associated with cell division. PMID:22847024

Soltys, Dorota; Rudzi?ska-Langwald, Anna; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Wi?niewska, Anita; Bogatek, Renata

2012-11-01

310

Polyphenolic compounds from Artemisia dracunculus L. inhibit PEPCK gene expression and gluconeogenesis in an H4IIE hepatoma cell line.  

PubMed

An ethanolic extract of Russian tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L., with antihyperglycemic activity in animal models was reported to decrease phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the bioactivity-guided purification of the compounds within the extract that decrease PEPCK expression. The assay was based on the inhibition of dexamethasone-stimulated PEPCK upregulation in an H4IIE hepatoma cell line. Two polyphenolic compounds that inhibited PEPCK mRNA levels were isolated and identified as 6-demethoxycapillarisin and 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone with IC(50) values of 43 and 61 muM, respectively. The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY-294002 showed that 6-demethoxycapillarisin exerts its effect through the activation of the PI3K pathway, similarly to insulin. The effect of 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone is not regulated by PI3K and dependent on activation of AMPK pathway. These results indicate that the isolated compounds may be responsible for much of the glucose-lowering activity of the Artemisia dracunculus extract. PMID:17848630

Govorko, Dmitry; Logendra, Sithes; Wang, Yanxin; Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ribnicky, David; Poulev, Alexander; Wang, Zhong; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya

2007-12-01

311

Reproductive Development Modulates Gene Expression and Metabolite Levels with Possible Feedback Inhibition of Artemisinin in Artemisia annua1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the transition to budding and flowering in Artemisia annua and the production of the antimalarial sesquiterpene, artemisinin (AN), the dynamics of artemisinic metabolite changes, AN-related transcriptional changes, and plant and trichome developmental changes were measured. Maximum production of AN occurs during full flower stage within floral tissues, but that changes in the leafy bracts and nonbolt leaves as the plant shifts from budding to full flower. Expression levels of early pathway genes known to be involved in isopentenyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis leading to AN were not immediately positively correlated with either AN or its precursors. However, we found that the later AN pathway genes, amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and the cytochrome P450, CYP71AV1 (CYP), were more highly correlated with AN’s immediate precursor, dihydroartemisinic acid, within all leaf tissues tested. In addition, leaf trichome formation throughout the developmental phases of the plant also appears to be more complex than originally thought. Trichome changes correlated closely with the levels of AN but not its precursors. Differences were observed in trichome densities that are dependent both on developmental stage (vegetative, budding, and flowering) and on position (upper and lower leaf tissue). AN levels declined significantly as plants matured, as did ADS and CYP transcripts. Spraying leaves with AN or artemisinic acid inhibited CYP transcription; artemisinic acid also inhibited ADS transcription. These data allow us to present a novel model for the differential control of AN biosynthesis as it relates to developmental stage and trichome maturation and collapse. PMID:20724645

Arsenault, Patrick R.; Vail, Daniel; Wobbe, Kristin K.; Erickson, Karen; Weathers, Pamela J.

2010-01-01

312

RNA Interference-Mediated Knockdown of Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Inhibits Growth, Induces Apoptosis, and Increases the Chemosensitivity to 5-Fluorouracil in Renal Cancer Caki-1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a recently discovered oncogene that has been reported to be highly expressed in various types of malignant tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. However, the precise role of AEG-1 in renal cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis has not been clarified. In this study, we transfected the renal cancer cell line Caki-1 with a plasmid expressing AEG-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and obtained cell colonies with stable knockdown of AEG-1. We found that AEG-1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and arrested cell cycle progression at the sub-G1 and G0/G1 phase. Western blot analysis indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 and cyclin E were significantly reduced following AEG-1 down-regulation. In addition, AEG-1 knockdown led to the appearance of apoptotic bodies in renal cancer cells, and the ratio of apoptotic cells significantly increased. Expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was dramatically reduced, whereas the pro-apoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly activated. Finally, AEG-1 knockdown in Caki-1 cells remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis in response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, suggesting that AEG-1 inhibition sensitizes Caki-1 cells to 5-FU. Taken together, our data suggest that AEG-1 plays an important role in renal cancer formation and development and may be a potential target for future gene therapy for renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25431427

Wang, Peng; Yin, Bo; Shan, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Cui, Jun; Zhang, Mo; Song, Yongsheng

2014-01-01

313

Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. Principal Findings We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. Conclusions Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils. PMID:22442737

Gao, Xiang; Lu, Xing; Wu, Man; Zhang, Haiyan; Pan, Ruqian; Tian, Jiang; Li, Shuxian; Liao, Hong

2012-01-01

314

Inhibition of activated NR2B gene- and caspase-3 protein-expression by glutathione following traumatic brain injury in a rat model  

PubMed Central

Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability. Oxidative stress is an important element of the injury cascade following TBI. Progressive compromise of antioxidant defenses and free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation are one of the major mechanisms of secondary TBI. NR2B is a glutamate receptor and its activation is caused by TBI increasing a brain cell death, along with caspase-3 as a hall mark of apoptosis. Glutathione is a potent free radical scavenger that might prevent secondary TBI damage and inhibited apoptosis. Materials and Methods. In the present study, it aims to demonstrate the effect of glutathione on inhibition of brain oxidative damage in a TBI rat model. Results. In this study, the expressions of mRNA NR2B in placebo group and groups with glutathione administration at 0, 3, and 6 hours after TBI were 328.14, 229.90, 178.50, and 136.14, respectively (P<0.001). The highest caspase-3 expression was shown in placebo group with 66.7% showing strong positive results (>80%); as expected, glutathione administered in 0, 3, and 6 hours groups had lower strong positive results of 50%, 16.7%, and 16.7%, respectively, (P=0.025). Conclusion. In conclusion, this study showed that glutathione administration in a TBI rat model decreased NR2B gene- and caspase-3 protein-expression that lead to the inhibition of brain cell death. Our results suggest that glutathione, as a potent free radical scavenger, has a brain cell protective effect against oxidative damage and cell death induced by TBI in rat model. PMID:22347327

Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Faried, Ahmad; Shahib, Muhammad Nurhalim; Wiriadisastra, Kahdar; Bisri, Tatang

2011-01-01

315

Inhibition of activated NR2B gene- and caspase-3 protein-expression by glutathione following traumatic brain injury in a rat model.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND.: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability. Oxidative stress is an important element of the injury cascade following TBI. Progressive compromise of antioxidant defenses and free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation are one of the major mechanisms of secondary TBI. NR2B is a glutamate receptor and its activation is caused by TBI increasing a brain cell death, along with caspase-3 as a hall mark of apoptosis. Glutathione is a potent free radical scavenger that might prevent secondary TBI damage and inhibited apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: In the present study, it aims to demonstrate the effect of glutathione on inhibition of brain oxidative damage in a TBI rat model. RESULTS.: In this study, the expressions of mRNA NR2B in placebo group and groups with glutathione administration at 0, 3, and 6 hours after TBI were 328.14, 229.90, 178.50, and 136.14, respectively (P<0.001). The highest caspase-3 expression was shown in placebo group with 66.7% showing strong positive results (>80%); as expected, glutathione administered in 0, 3, and 6 hours groups had lower strong positive results of 50%, 16.7%, and 16.7%, respectively, (P=0.025). CONCLUSION.: In conclusion, this study showed that glutathione administration in a TBI rat model decreased NR2B gene- and caspase-3 protein-expression that lead to the inhibition of brain cell death. Our results suggest that glutathione, as a potent free radical scavenger, has a brain cell protective effect against oxidative damage and cell death induced by TBI in rat model. PMID:22347327

Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Faried, Ahmad; Shahib, Muhammad Nurhalim; Wiriadisastra, Kahdar; Bisri, Tatang

2011-07-01

316

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), acting via CGRP type 1 receptors, inhibits potassium-stimulated aldosterone secretion and enhances basal catecholamine secretion from rat adrenal gland.  

PubMed

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent hypotensive peptide, that acts via two main subtypes of receptors, named CGRP1 and CGRP2. CGRP belongs to a regulatory-peptide family, that includes adrenomedullin (ADM) whose aldosterone antisecretagogue and catecholamine secretagogue actions are well demonstrated. Quantitative autoradiography showed the presence of [125I]CGRP binding sites in both rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) and medulla. Binding was displaced by the CGRP1-receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37), but not by the CGRP2-receptor agonist [cys(Et)2,7]-alphaCGRP (CGRP2-A). CGRP concentration-dependently inhibited 10 mM-stimulated (but not basal) aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat ZG cells, and enhanced basal catecholamine secretion from rat adrenomedullary fragments. The responses to the maximal effective concentration of CGRP (10-8 M) were blocked by 10-7 M CGRP(8-37). CGRP2-A (10-7 M) neither altered aldosterone response to 10 mM K+ nor enhanced basal catecholamine secretion. The conclusion is drawn that CGRP, like ADM, inhibits agonist-stimulated aldosterone secretion and stimulates basal catecholamine release in the rat, exclusively acting via CGRP1 receptors. PMID:11494052

Tortorella, C; Macchi, C; Forneris, M; Nussdorfer, G G

2001-09-01

317

A potent inhibition of oxidative stress induced gene expression in neural cells by sustained ferulic acid release from chitosan based hydrogel.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an extremely cataclysmic neurological disorder and the inhibition of oxidative stress following TBI could effectively protect the brain from further impairments. An injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/?-Glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel for the controlled release of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid (FA) to inhibit the neurological oxidative stress was demonstrated. The C/G/GP hydrogel ensures an excellent clinical expediency with a gelation temperature of 32.6°C and gelation time of 75.58s. In-vitro cytotoxicity assays of C/G/GP hydrogel and FA have revealed an excellent biocompatibility with the Neuro-2a cells. 500?M of FA was considered to be an effective concentration to reduce the oxidative stress in Neuro-2a cells. TUNEL staining images evidenced that the H2O2 induced DNA fragmentation was comprehensively controlled after FA treatment. The mRNA gene expression profiles markedly authenticate the neuroprotectivity of FA by down-regulating ROS, inflammatory and apoptosis related markers. The outcomes of this study suggest that, C/G/GP hydrogel carrying ferulic acid could effectively protect further secondary traumatic brain injury associated impairments. PMID:25686998

Dong, Guo-Chung; Kuan, Che-Yung; Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Zhao, Jiong-Yao; Sivasubramaniam, Savitha; Chang, Hwan-You; Lin, Feng-Huei

2015-04-01

318

Plasticity-related gene-1 inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and prevents neointima formation.  

PubMed

Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) protects neuronal cells from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) effects. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), LPA was shown to induce phenotypic modulation in vitro and vascular remodeling in vivo. Thus we explored the role of PRG-1 in modulating VSMC response to LPA. PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that PRG-1 is expressed in rat and human vascular media. PRG-1 expression was strongly inhibited in proliferating compared with quiescent VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo (medial vs. neointimal VSMCs), suggesting that PRG-1 expression is dependent on the cell phenotype. In vitro, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PRG-1 specifically inhibited LPA-induced rat VSMC proliferation and migration but not platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was abolished by mutation of a conserved histidine in the lipid phosphate phosphatase family that is essential for interaction with lipid phosphates. In vivo, balloon-induced neointimal formation in rat carotid was significantly decreased in vessels infected with PRG-1 adenovirus compared with ?-galactosidase adenovirus (-71%; P < 0.05). PRG-1 overexpression abolished the activation of the p42/p44 signaling pathway in LPA-stimulated rat VSMCs in culture and in balloon-injured rat carotids. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of a protective role of PRG-1 in the vascular media under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:23015549

Gaaya, Amira; Poirier, Odette; Mougenot, Nathalie; Hery, Tiphaine; Atassi, Fabrice; Marchand, Alexandre; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Amour, Julien; Vogt, Johannes; Lompré, Anne-Marie; Soubrier, Florent; Nadaud, Sophie

2012-11-15

319

Forced expression of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene inhibits proliferation of human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wilms tumor gene (WT1) encodes a zinc-finger containing transcription factor present in primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. WT1 is also highly expressed in most cases of acute myeloid leukemia. Moreover, WT1 can interfere with induced differentiation of leukemic cell lines. These data suggest a function of WT1 in the maintenance of a primitive phenotype and a role in leukemogenesis by

H Svedberg; J Richter; U Gullberg

2001-01-01

320

Sequence Analysis, Overexpression, and Antisense Inhibition of a b-Xylosidase Gene, xylA, from Aspergillus oryzae KBN616  

Microsoft Academic Search

b-Xylosidase secreted by the shoyu koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, is the key enzyme responsible for browning of soy sauce. To investigate the role of b-xylosidase in the brown color formation, a major b-xylosidase, XylA, and its encoding gene were characterized. b-Xylosidase XylA was purified to homogeneity from culture filtrates of A. oryzae KBN616. The optimum pH and temperature of the

NORIYUKI KITAMOTO; SHOKO YOSHINO; KUNIO OHMIYA; NORIHIRO TSUKAGOSHI

1999-01-01

321

Production of antisense RNA leads to effective and specific inhibition of gene expression in C. elegans muscle.  

PubMed

We have used an antisense strategy to effectively disrupt the expression of two genes encoding myofilament proteins present in C. elegans body wall muscles. DNA segments from the unc-22 and unc-54 genes have been placed in reverse orientation in vectors designed to produce RNA in body wall muscles. When the resulting plasmids are injected into oocytes, progeny with defects in muscle function are produced. These animals have phenotypes consistent with reduction and/or elimination of function of the gene to which antisense RNA has been produced: twitching and disorganization of muscle filaments for the unc-22 antisense constructs and lack of muscle tone, slow movement, and egg laying defects for the unc-54 antisense constructs. A fraction of the affected animals transmit the defective-muscle trait to subsequent generations. In these cases the transforming DNA is present at high copy number and cosegregates with the observed muscle defects. We have examined several of the unc-22 antisense plasmid transformed lines to determine the mechanistic basis for the observed phenotypes. The RNA product of the endogenous unc-22 locus is present at normal levels and this RNA is properly spliced in the region homologous to the antisense RNA. No evidence for modification of this RNA by deamination of adenosine to inosine was found. In affected animals the level of protein product from the endogenous unc-22 locus is greatly reduced. Antisense RNA produced from the transforming DNA was detected and was much more abundant than 'sense' RNA from the endogenous locus. These data suggest that the observed phenotypes result from interference with a late step in gene expression, such as transport into the cytoplasm or translation. PMID:1782862

Fire, A; Albertson, D; Harrison, S W; Moerman, D G

1991-10-01

322

High Temperature Inhibits Ascorbate Recycling and Light Stimulation of the Ascorbate Pool in Tomato despite Increased Expression of Biosynthesis Genes  

PubMed Central

Understanding how the fruit microclimate affects ascorbate (AsA) biosynthesis, oxidation and recycling is a great challenge in improving fruit nutritional quality. For this purpose, tomatoes at breaker stage were harvested and placed in controlled environment conditions at different temperatures (12, 17, 23, 27 and 31°C) and irradiance regimes (darkness or 150 µmol m-2 s-1). Fruit pericarp tissue was used to assay ascorbate, glutathione, enzymes related to oxidative stress and the AsA/glutathione cycle and follow the expression of genes coding for 5 enzymes of the AsA biosynthesis pathway (GME, VTC2, GPP, L-GalDH, GLDH). The AsA pool size in pericarp tissue was significantly higher under light at temperatures below 27°C. In addition, light promoted glutathione accumulation at low and high temperatures. At 12°C, increased AsA content was correlated with the enhanced expression of all genes of the biosynthesis pathway studied, combined with higher DHAR and MDHAR activities and increased enzymatic activities related to oxidative stress (CAT and APX). In contrast, at 31°C, MDHAR and GR activities were significantly reduced under light indicating that enzymes of the AsA/glutathione cycle may limit AsA recycling and pool size in fruit pericarp, despite enhanced expression of genes coding for AsA biosynthesis enzymes. In conclusion, this study confirms the important role of fruit microclimate in the regulation of fruit pericarp AsA content, as under oxidative conditions (12°C, light) total fruit pericarp AsA content increased up to 71%. Moreover, it reveals that light and temperature interact to regulate both AsA biosynthesis gene expression in tomato fruits and AsA oxidation and recycling. PMID:24367665

Massot, Capucine; Bancel, Doriane; Lopez Lauri, Félicie; Truffault, Vincent; Baldet, Pierre; Stevens, Rebecca; Gautier, Hélène

2013-01-01

323

Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

2011-01-01

324

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum, and their relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). Inhibiting by PGIPs directly reduces potential PG activity in specific plant pathogenic fungi, reducing their aggressiveness. Here, we isolated and functionally chara...

325

Constitutive activation of SHP2 protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibits ICSBP-induced transcription of the gene encoding gp91PHOX during myeloid differentiation  

PubMed Central

The IFN consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP; also referred to as IFN regulatory factor 8) is a transcription factor which is expressed in myeloid and B cells. In previous studies, we found that ICSBP activated transcription of the gene encoding gp91PHOX (the CYBB gene), a rate-limiting component of the phagocyte respiratory burst oxidase expressed exclusively after the promyelocyte stage of myelopoiesis. Previously, we found that CYBB transcription was dependent on phosphorylation of specific ICSBP tyrosine residues. Since ICSBP is tyrosine-phosphorylated during myelopoiesis, this provided a mechanism of differentiation stage-specific CYBB transcription. In the current studies, we found that ICSBP was a substrate for Src homology-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2-PTP) in immature myeloid cells but not during myelopoiesis. Therefore, SHP2-PTP inhibited CYBB transcription and respiratory burst activity in myeloid progenitor cells by dephosphorylating ICSBP. In contrast, we found that ICSBP was a substrate for a leukemia-associated, constitutively active mutant form of SHP2, described previously, throughout differentiation. Consistent with this, constitutive SHP2 activation blocked ICSBP-induced CYBB transcription and respiratory burst activity in differentiating myeloid cells. ICSBP-deficiency and constitutive SHP2 activation have been described in human myelodysplastic syndromes. As these two abnormalities may coexist, our results identified a potential molecular mechanism for impaired phagocyte function in this malignant myeloid disease. PMID:18089853

Zhu, Chunliu; Lindsey, Stephan; Konieczna, Iwonna; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

326

TGF?3 inhibits E-cadherin gene expression in palate medial-edge epithelial cells through a Smad2-Smad4-LEF1 transcription complex  

PubMed Central

Summary Dissociation of medial-edge epithelium (MEE) during palate development is essential for mediating correct craniofacial morphogenesis. This phenomenon is initiated by TGF?3 upon adherence of opposing palatal shelves, because loss of E-cadherin causes the MEE seam to break into small epithelial islands. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that cause this E-cadherin loss, we isolated and cultured murine embryonic primary MEE cells from adhered or non-adhered palates. Here, we provide the first evidence that lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1), when functionally activated by phosphorylated Smad2 (Smad2-P) and Smad4 (rather than ?-catenin), binds with the promoter of the E-cadherin gene to repress its transcription in response to TGF?3 signaling. Furthermore, we found that TGF?3 signaling stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and cell migration in these cells. LEF1 and Smad4 were found to be necessary for up-regulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin, independently of ?-catenin. We proved that TGF?3 signaling induces EMT in MEE cells by forming activated transcription complexes of Smad2-P, Smad4 and LEF1 that directly inhibit E-cadherin gene expression. PMID:17452626

Nawshad, Ali; Medici, Damian; Liu, Chang-Chih; Hay, Elizabeth D.

2008-01-01

327

VEGF-B inhibits apoptosis via VEGFR-1–mediated suppression of the expression of BH3-only protein genes in mice and rats  

PubMed Central

Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological functions of VEGF-B remain poorly understood. We revealed here a novel function for VEGF-B as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. Using gene expression profiling of mouse primary aortic smooth muscle cells, and confirming the results by real-time PCR using mouse and rat cell lines, we showed that VEGF-B inhibited the expression of genes encoding the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins and other apoptosis- and cell death–related proteins, including p53 and members of the caspase family, via activation of VEGFR-1. Consistent with this, VEGF-B treatment rescued neurons from apoptosis in the retina and brain in mouse models of ocular neurodegenerative disorders and stroke, respectively. Interestingly, VEGF-B treatment at the dose effective for neuronal survival did not cause retinal neovascularization, suggesting that VEGF-B is the first member of the VEGF family that has a potent antiapoptotic effect while lacking a general angiogenic activity. These findings indicate that VEGF-B may potentially offer a new therapeutic option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18259607

Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Nagai, Nobuo; Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Scotney, Pierre; Lennartsson, Johan; Zhu, Chaoyong; Qu, Yi; Fang, Changge; Hua, Jianyuan; Matsuo, Osamu; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Cao, Yihai; Becker, Kevin G.; Nash, Andrew; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Li, Xuri

2008-01-01

328

Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

2000-04-01

329

Induction of Nrf2-mediated genes by Antrodia salmonea inhibits ROS generation and inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.  

PubMed

Antrodia salmonea (AS), a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant genes in RAW264.7 macrophages by the fermented culture broth of AS, studied the resulting protection against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation, and revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective effects. We found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of AS (25-100 ?g mL(-1)) protected macrophages from LPS-induced cell death and ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant potential of AS was directly correlated with the increased expression of the antioxidant genes HO-1, NQO-1, and ?-GCLC, as well as the level of intracellular GSH followed by an increase in the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown diminished the protective effects of AS, as evidenced by the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including PGE2, NO, TNF-?, and IL-1?, in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Notably, AS treatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 expression in macrophages. Our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory potential of Antrodia salmonea is mediated by the activation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms. Results support the traditional usage of this beneficial mushroom for the treatment of free radical-related diseases and inflammation. PMID:25380370

Yang, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Shu-Wei; Lee, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Liao, Chun-Huei; Yang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Hui-Min; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Chi-Rei; Hseu, You-Cheng

2015-01-24

330

Detection of the genetic variation of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene 2 in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using an improved SSCP technique.  

PubMed

In this study, 2 approaches were adopted to obtain good single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) data for autotetraploid alfalfa; primers were added to PCR products, and fluorescent-labeled primers were utilized. PCR-SSCP conditions for a 331-bp fragment in the coding region of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene 2 in alfalfa (MsPGIP2) were optimized, and the results showed that the best SSCP gel pattern could be obtained when the loading mixture was made by mixing 1 ?L PCR products, 0.2 to 0.8 ?L unlabeled primers (50 ?M) and 4 to 16 ?L loading buffer. Furthermore, the use of the fluorescent-labeled primers resulted in 2 separated electrophoresis images from 2 complementary single DNA strands, thus making the determination of alleles and idiotypes a relatively easy task. In addition, the results of sequencing prove that the determination of alleles and idiotypes were accurate based on SSCP analysis. Finally, a total of 9 alleles with 18 SNP sites were identified for MsPGIP2 in the alfalfa variety 'Algonquin'. In conclusion, MsPGIP2 possessed great genetic variation, and the addition of primers to the PCR products in combination with the fluorescent labeling of primers could significantly improve the sensitivity and resolution of SSCP analysis. This technique could be used for genetic diversity detection and marker-assisted breeding of useful genes in autopolyploid species such as alfalfa. PMID:25501230

Gui, Z; Liu, H Q; Wang, Y; Yuan, Q H; Xin, N; Zhang, X; Li, X L; Pi, Y S; Gao, J M

2014-01-01

331

TBLR1 as an androgen receptor (AR) coactivator selectively activates AR target genes to inhibit prostate cancer growth.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor (AR), a steroid hormone receptor, is critical for prostate cancer growth. However, activation of AR by androgens can also lead to growth suppression and differentiation. Transcriptional cofactors play an important role in this switch between proliferative and anti-proliferative AR target gene programs. Transducin ?-like-related protein 1 (TBLR1), a core component of the nuclear receptor corepressor complex, shows both corepressor and coactivator activities on nuclear receptors, but little is known about its effects on AR and prostate cancer. We characterized TBLR1 as a coactivator of AR in prostate cancer cells and determined that the activation is dependent on both phosphorylation and 19S proteosome. We showed that TBLR1 physically interacts with AR and directly occupies the androgen-response elements of the affected AR target genes in an androgen-dependent manner. TBLR1 is primarily localized in the nucleus in benign prostate cells and nuclear expression is significantly reduced in prostate cancer cells in culture. Similarly, in human tumor samples, the expression of TBLR1 in the nucleus is significantly reduced in the malignant glands compared with the surrounding benign prostatic glands (P<0.005). Stable ectopic expression of nuclear TBLR1 leads to androgen-dependent growth suppression of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by selective activation of androgen-regulated genes associated with differentiation (e.g. KRT18) and growth suppression (e.g. NKX3-1), but not cell proliferation of the prostate cancer. Understanding the molecular switches involved in the transition from AR-dependent growth promotion to AR-dependent growth suppression will lead to more successful treatments for prostate cancer. PMID:24243687

Daniels, Garrett; Li, Yirong; Gellert, Lan Lin; Zhou, Albert; Melamed, Jonathan; Wu, Xinyu; Zhang, Xinming; Zhang, David; Meruelo, Daniel; Logan, Susan K; Basch, Ross; Lee, Peng

2014-02-01

332

Reduction of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in ovarian cancer cells by inhibition of HIF-1 alpha gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of silencing HIF-1 alpha gene expression with specific small interfering\\u000a RNA (siRNA) on VEGF production and angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two EOC cell lines, MDAH-2774 and SKOV-3, were cultured under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) conditions using standard techniques. After EOC cells were transfected with

Christopher S. Bryant; Adnan R. Munkarah; Sanjeev Kumar; Ramesh B. Batchu; Jay P. Shah; Jeremy Berman; Robert T. Morris; Zhong L. Jiang; Ghassan M. Saed

2010-01-01

333

EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes  

SciTech Connect

Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCB 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-?B and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ? PCBs cause endothelial inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis. ? Nutrition can modulate toxicity by environmental pollutants. ? We demonstrated that EGCG can decrease PCB-induced inflammation. ? EGCG protection was via inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2 regulatory genes.

Han, Sung Gu [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States) [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Seong-Su [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@uky.edu [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States) [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2012-06-01

334

Identification of a mutation in the tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1) gene associated with brown oculocutaneous albinism (OCA3)  

SciTech Connect

The genes responsible for the two most common types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) have been identified. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene (chromosome 11q14-21) produce OCA1, and mutations of the P gene (chromosome 15q11.2-13) produce OCA2. Another type of OCA known as brown OCA or OCA3 is found commonly in the African and African-American population. OCA3 is characterized by light brown skin and hair with the ocular features of albinism and represents the third most frequent type of OCA. We previously identified dizygotic African-American twin boys who were discordant for OCA3. Melanocytes from the affected twin produced brown melanin and contained no detectable TRP1 protein. We have now characterized the TRP1 gene from the affected twin. The human TRP1 gene, homologous to the murine brown locus, contains 8 exons and maps to chromosome 9p23. Using PCR amplification of each exon coupled with SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing, we found the affected twin to homozygous for a single bp deletion in exon 6. The deletion removes a G in codon 368 leading to a premature stop at codon 384. We also identified a Tsp509 polymorphism in the 3{prime} UTR. We conclude that mutations of the TRP1 gene are responsible for brown OCA or OCA3, making this the third major OCA gene identified in humans.

Wildenberg, S.C.; Oetting, W.S.; Fryer, J.P. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

335

Exome sequencing identifies SLC24A5 as a candidate gene for nonsyndromic oculocutaneous albinism.  

PubMed

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a heterogeneous and autosomal recessive disorder with hypopigmentation in the eye, hair, and skin color. Four genes, TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, and SLC45A2, have been identified as causative genes for nonsyndromic OCA1-4, respectively. The genetic identity of OCA5 locus on 4q24 is unknown. Additional unknown OCA genes may exist as at least 5% of OCA patients have not been characterized during mutational screening in several populations. We used exome sequencing with a family-based recessive mutation model to determine that SLC24A5 is a previously unreported candidate gene for nonsyndromic OCA, which we designate as OCA6. Two deleterious mutations in this patient, c.591G>A and c.1361insT, were identified. We found apparent increase of immature melanosomes and less mature melanosomes in the patient's skin melanocytes. However, no defects in the platelet dense granules were observed, excluding typical Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), a well-known syndromic OCA. Moreover, the SLC24A5 protein was reduced in steady-state levels in mouse HPS mutants with deficiencies in BLOC-1 and BLOC-2. Our results suggest that SLC24A5 is a previously unreported nonsyndromic OCA candidate gene and that the SLC24A5 transporter is transported into mature melanosomes by HPS protein complexes. PMID:23364476

Wei, Ai-Hua; Zang, Dong-Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Xuan-Zhu; He, Xin; Yang, Lin; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Dai, Lan-Lan; Yang, Xiu-Min; Li, Wei

2013-07-01

336

Analysis of TP53 gene expression and p53 level of human hypopharyngeal FaDu (HTB-43) head and neck cancer cell line after microRNA-181a inhibition.  

PubMed

The identification of new biomarkers for early detection of highly recurrent head and neck cancer is urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and non-coding RNAs that regulate cancer-related gene expression, such as tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene expression. This study was carried out to analyze TP53 gene expression using real-time PCR and to determine changes in intracellular p53 level by flow cytometry after downregulation of miRNA-181a miRNA inhibitor in the FaDu cell line. TP53 gene expression showed a 3-fold increment and the p53 protein level was also increased in the miRNA-181a-treated cells. In conclusion, miRNA-181a binds to the TP53 gene and inhibits its expression, decreasing the synthesis of p53. PMID:24535903

Cheah, Y K; Cheng, R W; Yeap, S K; Khoo, C H; See, H S

2014-01-01

337

Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R-IM enantiomer than of the S-IM enantiomer. This study unraveled several IM toxicity targets and mechanisms at the molecular and structural level linked to the toxicity of IM trace concentrations on A. thaliana reproduction. PMID:25348600

Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

2015-01-01

338

Inhibition of trail gene expression by cyclopentenonic prostaglandin 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is a cyclopentenonic prostaglandin endowed with powerful anti-inflammatory activities, as shown in animal models of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, where pharmacological administration of this prostanoid can ameliorate inflammation and local tissue damage via activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and/or covalent modifications of cellular proteins. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily expressed in most of the cells, including those of immune system such as T lymphocytes, in which it is up-regulated upon antigen-specific stimulation. This cytokine plays an important role in regulating various physiological and immunopathological processes, such as immunosurveillance of tumors and tissue destruction associated with different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrate that 15d-PGJ(2) inhibits trail mRNA and protein expression by down-regulating the activity of its promoter in human T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that both the chemically reactive cyclopentenone moiety of 15d-PGJ(2) and the activation of PPARgamma may be involved in this repressive mechanism. We identified nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) as a direct target of the prostanoid. 15d-PGJ(2) significantly decreases the expression and/or DNA binding of c-rel, RelA, and p50 transcription factors to the NF-kappaB1 site of trail promoter. Moreover, 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 may contribute to inhibit trail promoter activity in transfected Jurkat T cells. These results suggest that modulation of TRAIL gene expression by 15d-PGJ(2) in T cells may provide a novel pharmacological tool to modify the onset and the progression of specific autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:17673570

Fionda, Cinzia; Nappi, Filomena; Piccoli, Mario; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela; Cippitelli, Marco

2007-11-01

339

Flavonoids activate pregnane × receptor-mediated CYP3A4 gene expression by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases in HepG2 liver carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is regulated by the pregnane × receptor (PXR), which is modulated by numerous signaling pathways, including the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) pathway. Flavonoids, commonly consumed by humans as dietary constituents, have been shown to modulate various signaling pathways (e.g., inhibiting Cdks). Flavonoids have also been shown to induce CYPs expression, but the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we report the mechanism responsible for flavonoid-mediated PXR activation and CYP expression. Results In a cell-based screen designed to identify compounds that activate PXR-mediated CYP3A4 gene expression in HepG2 human carcinoma cells, we identified several flavonoids, such as luteolin and apigenin, as PXR activators. The flavonoids did not directly bind to PXR, suggesting that an alternative mechanism may be responsible for flavonoid-mediated PXR activation. Consistent with the Cdk5-inhibitory effect of flavonoids, Cdk5 and p35 (a non-cyclin regulatory subunit required to activate Cdk5) were expressed in HepG2. The activation of Cdk5 attenuated PXR-mediated CYP3A4 expression whereas its downregulation enhanced it. The Cdk5-mediated downregulation of CYP3A4 promoter activity was restored by flavonoids, suggesting that flavonoids activate PXR by inactivating Cdk5. In vitro kinase assays showed that Cdk5 directly phosphorylates PXR. The Cdk kinase profiling assay showed that apigenin inhibits multiple Cdks, suggesting that several Cdks may be involved in activation of PXR by flavonoids. Conclusions Our results for the first time link the stimulatory effect of flavonoids on CYP expression to their inhibitory effect on Cdks, through a PXR-mediated mechanism. These results may have important implications on the pharmacokinetics of drugs co-administered with herbal remedy and herbal-drug interactions. PMID:20553580

2010-01-01

340

Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps. PMID:25447412

Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

2014-11-15

341

A novel rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP72A31, confers tolerance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in rice and Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Target-site and non-target-site herbicide tolerance are caused by the prevention of herbicide binding to the target enzyme and the reduction to a nonlethal dose of herbicide reaching the target enzyme, respectively. There is little information on the molecular mechanisms involved in non-target-site herbicide tolerance, although it poses the greater threat in the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds and could potentially be useful for the production of herbicide-tolerant crops because it is often involved in tolerance to multiherbicides. Bispyribac sodium (BS) is an herbicide that inhibits the activity of acetolactate synthase. Rice (Oryza sativa) of the indica variety show BS tolerance, while japonica rice varieties are BS sensitive. Map-based cloning and complementation tests revealed that a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP72A31, is involved in BS tolerance. Interestingly, BS tolerance was correlated with CYP72A31 messenger RNA levels in transgenic plants of rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Moreover, Arabidopsis overexpressing CYP72A31 showed tolerance to bensulfuron-methyl (BSM), which belongs to a different class of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, suggesting that CYP72A31 can metabolize BS and BSM to a compound with reduced phytotoxicity. On the other hand, we showed that the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP81A6, which has been reported to confer BSM tolerance, is barely involved, if at all, in BS tolerance, suggesting that the CYP72A31 enzyme has different herbicide specificities compared with CYP81A6. Thus, the CYP72A31 gene is a potentially useful genetic resource in the fields of weed control, herbicide development, and molecular breeding in a broad range of crop species. PMID:24406793

Saika, Hiroaki; Horita, Junko; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Nonaka, Satoko; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Iwakami, Satoshi; Hori, Kiyosumi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro; Kaku, Koichiro; Shimizu, Tsutomu; Toki, Seiichi

2014-11-01

342

Inhibition of IL-12 production by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Involvement of NF-kappaB downregulation in transcriptional repression of the p40 gene.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 12 (IL-12), produced by myelomonocytic cells, plays a pivotal role in the development of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] inhibits IL-12 production by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, thus providing a novel interpretation to its immunosuppressive properties. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly inhibits mRNA expression for both IL-12 p35 and p40 subunits acting at the transcriptional level. The effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on p40 promoter activation was analyzed by cotransfecting monocytic RAW264.7 cells with p40 promoter/reporter constructs and expression vectors for vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) and/or retinoid X receptor (RXRalpha). We observed transcriptional repression of the p40 gene by 1,25(OH)2D3, which required coexpression of VDR with RXR and an intact VDR DNA-binding domain. The repressive effect maps to a region in the p40 promoter containing a binding site for NF-kappaB (p40-kappaB). Deletion of the p40-kappaB site abrogates part of the inhibitory effect on the p40 promoter, confirming the functional relevance of this site. Activation of monocytic THP-1 cells in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 results in reduced binding to the p40-kappaB site. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 may negatively regulate IL-12 production by downregulation of NF-kappaB activation and binding to the p40-kappaB sequence. PMID:9421488

D'Ambrosio, D; Cippitelli, M; Cocciolo, M G; Mazzeo, D; Di Lucia, P; Lang, R; Sinigaglia, F; Panina-Bordignon, P

1998-01-01

343

Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway enhances carvacrol biosynthesis and DXR gene expression in shoot cultures of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad.  

PubMed

Carvacrol is a major component of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad (?90%) that has significant antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Considering the specific capabilities of S. khuzistanica to produce highly pure carvacrol, this plant is an important potential source of carvacrol that could address the abundant consumption and increasing demand for this monoterpene in current world markets. This research was performed to better understand the process of biosynthesis and accumulation of carvacrol in S. khuzistanica. Tests were performed on shoot cultures of S. khuzistanica in Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) medium treated with different concentrations of fosmidomycin (an inhibitor of the non-mevalonate pathway) and mevinolin (an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway) for 21 days at the following concentrations: 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ?M. The present study demonstrated that the MEP pathway is the major pathway that provides IPP for the biosynthesis of carvacrol, and the expression and activity levels of the DXR enzyme have a critical effect on carvacrol biosynthesis. Surprisingly, Mevinolin at concentrations of 75 and 100 ?M increased the carvacrol content and the DXR activity and gene expression in S. khuzistanica plantlets. PMID:23611428

Ramak, Parvin; Kazempour Osaloo, Shahrokh; Ebrahimzadeh, Hassan; Sharifi, Mozafar; Behmanesh, Mehrdad

2013-09-01

344

Fe65 Ser228 is phosphorylated by ATM/ATR and inhibits Fe65-APP-mediated gene transcription.  

PubMed

Fe65 binds the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulates the secretase-mediated processing of APP into several proteolytic fragments, including amyloid ?-peptides (A?) and APP intracellular domain (AICD). A? accumulation in neural plaques is a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AICD has important roles in the regulation of gene transcription (in complex with Fe65). It is therefore important to understand how Fe65 is regulated and how this contributes to the function and/or processing of APP. Studies have also implicated Fe65 in the cellular DNA damage response with knockout mice showing increased DNA strand breaks and Fe65 demonstrating a gel mobility shift after DNA damage, consistent with protein phosphorylation. In the present study, we identified Fe65 Ser228 as a novel target of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia- and Rad3-related protein) protein kinases, in a reaction that occurred independently of APP. Neither phosphorylation nor mutation of Ser228 affected the Fe65-APP complex, though this was markedly decreased after UV treatment, with a concomitant decrease in the protein levels of APP in cells. Finally, mutation of Ser228 to alanine (thus blocking phosphorylation) caused a significant increase in Fe65-APP transcriptional activity, whereas phosphomimetic mutants (S228D and S228E) showed decreased transcriptional activity. These studies identify a novel phosphorylation site within Fe65 and a novel regulatory mechanism for the transcriptional activity of the Fe65-APP complex. PMID:25397632

Jowsey, Paul A; Blain, Peter G

2015-02-01

345

miR-203 inhibits melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities by targeting the polycomb group gene BMI1.  

PubMed

Metastasis is the major problem in malignant melanoma, posing a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. The investigation of the underlying mechanism driving this progress remains a large unmet need. In this study, we revealed a miR-203-BMI1 axis that regulated melanoma metastasis. We found significantly deregulation of miR-203 and up-regulation of BMI1 in melanoma, particularly in metastatic melanoma. An inverse correlation between the levels of miR-203 and BMI1 was further observed in melanoma tissues and cell lines. We also identified BMI1 as a downstream target gene of miR-203, which bound to the 3'UTR of BMI1. Overexpression of miR-203 was associated with decreased BMI1 expression and impaired cell invasion and tumor sphere formation activities. Re-expression of BMI1 markedly rescued miR-203-mediated suppression of these events. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated melanoma invasive and proliferative abilities in part by targeting BMI1, providing new insights into potential mechanisms of melanoma metastasis. PMID:25475727

Chang, Xiao; Sun, Yong; Han, Siqi; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Haiping; Lian, Shi

2015-01-01

346

Inhibition of AMPK and Krebs cycle gene expression drives metabolic remodeling of Pten-deficient preneoplastic thyroid cells  

PubMed Central

Rapidly proliferating and neoplastically transformed cells generate the energy required to support rapid cell division by increasing glycolysis and decreasing flux through the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), usually without alterations in mitochondrial function. In contrast, little is known of the metabolic alterations, if any, which occur in cells harboring mutations that prime their neoplastic transformation. To address this question, we used a Pten-deficient mouse model to examine thyroid cells where a mild hyperplasia progresses slowly to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Using this model, we report that constitutive PI3K activation caused by PTEN deficiency in non-transformed thyrocytes results in a global down-regulation of Krebs cycle and OXPHOS gene expression, defective mitochondria, reduced respiration and an enhancement in compensatory glycolysis. We found that this process does not involve any of the pathways classically associated with the Warburg effect. Moreover, this process was independent of proliferation but contributed directly to thyroid hyperplasia. Our findings define a novel metabolic switch to glycolysis driven by PI3K-dependent AMPK inactivation with a consequent repression in the expression of key metabolic transcription regulators. PMID:23796563

Antico Arciuch, Valeria G.; Russo, Marika A.; Kang, Kristy S.; Di Cristofano, Antonio

2013-01-01

347

Potent and sustained inhibition of HIF-1? and downstream genes by a polyethyleneglycol-SN38 conjugate, EZN-2208, results in anti-angiogenic effects.  

PubMed

Topoisomerase I inhibitors down-regulate HIF-1? leading to tumor growth inhibition, but only while maintaining sustained levels of drug exposure. EZN-2208, a multi-arm 40 kDa pegylated, releasable SN38-drug conjugate, provides higher, longer lasting exposure of tumors to SN38 in contrast to SN38 that is released from CPT-11. EZN-2208 also consistently has greater antitumor activity than CPT-11 in a variety of solid and hematological tumor models. In this report, the ability of PEG-SN38 to down-regulate HIF-1? and its downstream targets, in a more potent, sustained manner compared with CPT-11 was examined. To do so, U251 glioma xenografts that stably expressed a hypoxia response element-dependent luciferase reporter gene were implanted in mice. After treatment it was found that EZN-2208 induced potent, sustained HIF-1? down-regulation (37% at 48 h and 83% at 120 h) in the tumors, whereas CPT-11 caused only minor, transient HIF-1? down-regulation. In addition, EZN-2208 down-regulated mRNA levels of HIF-1? targeted genes (MMP2, VEGF1, Glut1, Glut3 and TGF?1). Further, western blot analyses of xenograft tumors demonstrated that EZN-2208 had significantly more effect than CPT-11 in down-regulating HIF-1?, VEGF, Glut1 and MMP2 protein levels. Significant down-regulation of HIF-1? and VEGF proteins translated to EZN-2208's superior anti-angiogenic activity compared with CPT-11, confirmed by microvessel density reduction in a chorioallantoic membrane assay and in CD-31 immunohistochemistry studies. Additional studies done with matrigel implants devoid of tumor cells show that EZN-2208 significantly inhibits angiogenesis while CPT-11 has little or no effect. It is concluded that the superior antitumor activity of EZN-2208 compared with CPT-11 is attributed, in part, to an anti-angiogenic effect. Ongoing clinical Phase I and Phase II studies will assess safety and efficacy of EZN-2208. PMID:21452059

Sapra, Puja; Kraft, Patricia; Pastorino, Fabio; Ribatti, Domenico; Dumble, Melissa; Mehlig, Mary; Wang, Maoliang; Ponzoni, Mirco; Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D

2011-09-01

348

Cloning and functional analysis of three genes encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins from Capsicum annuum and transgenic CaPGIP1 in tobacco in relation to increased resistance to two fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). The PGIPs directly reduce the aggressive potential of PGs. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized three members of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) PGIP gene family. Each was up-regulated at a different time following stimulation of the pepper leaves by Phytophthora capcisi and abiotic stresses including salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, wounding and cold treatment. Purified recombinant proteins individually inhibited activity of PGs produced by Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum nicotianae, respectively, and virus-induced gene silencing in pepper conferred enhanced susceptibility to P. capsici. Because three PGIP genes acted similarily in conferring resistance to infection by P. capsici, and because individually purified proteins showed consistent inhibition against PG activity of both pathogens, CaPGIP1 was selected for manipulating transgenic tobacco. The crude proteins from transgenic tobacco exhibited distinct enhanced resistance to PG activity of both fungi. Moreover, the transgenic tobacco showed effective resistance to infection and a significant reduction in the number of infection sites, number of lesions and average size of lesions in the leaves. All results suggest that CaPGIPs may be involved in plant defense response and play an important role in a plant's resistance to disease. PMID:23334855

Wang, Xiuju; Zhu, Xiaoping; Tooley, Paul; Zhang, Xiuguo

2013-03-01

349

Melittin inhibits TGF-?-induced pro-fibrotic gene expression through the suppression of the TGF?RII-Smad, ERK1/2 and JNK-mediated signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Renal fibrosis is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as type I collagen, fibronectin, and by the increased expression of PAI-1. This study evaluated the anti-fibrotic effect of bee venom and its major compounds (melittin and apamin) on TGF-?-induced pro-fibrotic gene expression. Bee venom and melittin significantly suppressed type I collagen, fibronectin, and PAI-1 protein expression in the TGF-?-treated kidney fibroblast. However, apamin only inhibited the expression of fibronectin and type I collagen. These results indicated that the inhibitory effects of bee venom on TGF-?-induced pro-fibrotic gene expression are caused by melittin. Moreover, we attempted to elucidate mechanisms underlying the anti-fibrotic effect of melittin. Melittin dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of TGF?RII and Smad2/3. Also, melittin inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, but not the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and p38. These results suggested that melittin inhibits TGF-?-induced pro-fibrotic genes expression through the suppression of TGF?R-Smad2/3, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation, and melittin can be used as a clinical drug for the treatment of fibrosis associated with renal diseases. PMID:25178280

Park, Su-Hyun; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Jae-Moon; Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Yoon-Yub; Bae, Young-Seuk; Han, Sang-Mi; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae

2014-01-01

350

Pheromone exposure influences preoptic arginine vasotocin gene expression and inhibits social approach behavior in response to rivals, but not potential mates  

PubMed Central

The nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and vasopressin (AVP) mediate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. However, the effects of these peptides on behavior can vary considerably both between and within species. AVT, in particular, stimulates aggressive and courtship responses typical of dominant males in several species, although it can also inhibit social interactions in some cases. Such differential effects may depend upon AVT influences within brain circuits that differ among species or between males that adopt alternative reproductive phenotypes and/or upon the differential activation of those circuits in different social contexts. However, to date, very little is known about how social stimuli that promote alternative behavioral responses influence AVT circuits within the brain. To address this issue, we exposed adult male goldfish to androstenedione (AD), a pheromonal signal that is released by both males and females during the breeding season, and measured social approach responses of males towards same- and other-sex individuals before and after AD exposure. In a second experiment, we measured AD-induced AVT gene expression using in situ hybridization. We found that brief exposure to AD induces social avoidance in response to rival males, but does not affect the level of sociality exhibited in response to sexually receptive females. Exposure to AD also increases AVT gene expression in the preoptic area of male goldfish, particularly in the parvocellular population of the preoptic nucleus. Together, these data suggest that AD is part of a social signaling system that induces social withdrawal specifically during male-male interactions by activating AVT neurons. PMID:23712040

Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Keeney, Alex D.T.; D’Agostino, Erin N.; Thompson, Richmond R.

2013-01-01

351

EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes  

PubMed Central

Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCB 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-?B and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased of GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. PMID:22521609

Han, Sung Gu; Han, Seong-Su; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

2012-01-01

352

Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) signaling of hepatic stellate cells inhibits hepatitis C virus replication in hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is critical in the activation of the type I IFN-dependent antiviral innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We examined whether hepatic stellate cells (HSC; LX-2) possess a functional RIG-I signaling pathway and produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HCV. We showed that LX-2 cells treated with the RIG-I ligand (5?ppp-dsRNA) expressed significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IFN-? than the control cells. The RIG-I activation in LX-2 cells also induced the expression of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), the key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. When HCV Japanese fulminant hepatitis (JFH)-1-infected hepatocytes were co-cultured with LX-2 cells stimulated with 5?ppp-dsRNA or incubated in media conditioned with supernatant (SN) from 5?ppp-dsRNA-stimulated LX-2 cells, HCV replication in hepatocytes was suppressed significantly. This LX-2 cell action on HCV replication was mediated through both IFN-? and IFN-?, as Abs to IFN-?/? or IFN-? receptors could neutralize the LX-2 SN-mediated anti-HCV effect. The role of IFNs in LX-2 cell-mediated anti-HCV activity is further supported by the observation that LX-2 SN treatment induced the expression of IFN stimulated genes, 2?-5?-oligoadenylate synthase-1 (OAS-1) and myxovirus resistance A (MxA), in HCV-infected Huh7 cells. These observations highlight the importance of HSC in liver innate immunity against HCV infection via a RIG-I-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:23060457

Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Wang, Xu; Li, Jieliang; Song, Li; Ho, Wenzhe

2014-01-01

353

Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid potentiates apoptosis, inhibits invasion, and abolishes osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappa B and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression.  

PubMed

Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a component of an Ayurvedic therapeutic plant Boswellia serrata, is a pentacyclic terpenoid active against a large number of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and bronchial asthma, but the mechanism is poorly understood. We found that AKBA potentiated the apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents, suppressed TNF-induced invasion, and inhibited receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, all of which are known to require NF-kappaB activation. These observations corresponded with the down-regulation of the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic, proliferative, and angiogenic gene products. As examined by DNA binding, AKBA suppressed both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation in tumor cells. It also abrogated NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF, IL-1beta, okadaic acid, doxorubicin, LPS, H2O2, PMA, and cigarette smoke. AKBA did not directly affect the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA but inhibited sequentially the TNF-induced activation of IkappaBalpha kinase (IKK), IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha ubiquitination, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. AKBA also did not directly modulate IKK activity but suppressed the activation of IKK through inhibition of Akt. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression activated by TNFR type 1, TNFR-associated death domain protein, TNFR-associated factor 2, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, and IKK, but not that activated by the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Overall, our results indicated that AKBA enhances apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents, inhibits invasion, and suppresses osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. PMID:16493072

Takada, Yasunari; Ichikawa, Haruyo; Badmaev, Vladimir; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2006-03-01

354

Characterization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) viperin expression, and inhibition of bacterial growth and modulation of immune-related gene expression by electrotransfer of viperin DNA into zebrafish muscle.  

PubMed

Viperin is an anti-viral protein, induced by viral infection. In this study, we examined whether over-expression of viperin in fish muscle could inhibit bacterial growth. We first obtained the cDNA sequence of tilapia viperin, through RT-PCR-mediated cloning and sequencing. The cDNA sequence was similar to those of several fish viperins in GenBank, and it was predicted to encode the conserved domain of radical S-adenosylmethionine superfamily proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that tilapia viperin was most closely related to viperin of Sciaenops ocellatus, Coreoperca kawamebari, and C. whiteheadi. Expression of tilapia viperin was significantly up-regulated in the kidney, liver, spleen, and gills upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and poly(I:C) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Injection of Vibrio vulnificus (204) and Streptococcus agalactiae (SA47) bacteria into tilapia resulted in significant induction of viperin expression in the whole body, kidney, liver, and spleen. Electrotransfer of a viperin-expressing plasmid into zebrafish muscles decreased bacterial numbers and altered expression of immune-related genes. These data indicate that such altered expression may account for the improvement in bacterial clearance following electroporation of viperin, suggesting that fish viperin has antiviral and antibacterial activities. PMID:23237906

Lee, Shu-Hua; Peng, Kuan-Chieh; Lee, Lin-Han; Pan, Chieh-Yu; Hour, Ai-Ling; Her, Guor Mour; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chen, Jyh-Yih

2013-02-15

355

Trichostatin A induces mesenchymal-like morphological change and gene expression but inhibits migration and colony formation in human cancer cells.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl from lysine residues in histones and other proteins, which results in gene transcriptional repression and subsequent changes in signaling events. HDACs inhibitors (HDACIs) have been used to reverse the aberrant epigenetic changes associated with cancer. However, the effects of HDACIs on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human cancer cells remain unclear. EMT is a fundamental process governing morphogenesis in multicellular organisms and promotes cancer invasion and metastasis. In this study, human cancer cells were treated with the HDACI trichostatin A (TSA). TSA was found to induce mesenchymal?like morphological changes in BGC-823 human gastric cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and increase the expression levels of the mesenchymal markers Vimentin and Twist. However, the expression levels of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin were also increased in response to TSA treatment, while cell migration was reduced by TSA. Furthermore, TSA decreased cancer cell colony formation in BGC-823 and MCF-7 cells, and led to the deregulation of ?-catenin, a critical signaling molecule involved in EMT. In conclusion, the results suggested that TSA exhibits dual functions in EMT induction and inhibition in human cancer cells, but the detailed mechanisms require further investigation. PMID:25269990

Han, Rong-Fei; Li, Kai; Yang, Zi-Shan; Chen, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Wan-Cai

2014-12-01

356

A study on the inhibition of VEGF expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via iNOS gene RNAi in vitro.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Using RNAi, we transfected chemically synthesised iNOS siRNA into ACC-M cells (a highly metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line) and detected the change in the gene and protein expression levels of iNOS and VEGF by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. A transwell invasiveness assay was used to examine the changes in invasive ability of ACC-M cells. Cell growth was determined using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell-cycle phases were detected by flow cytometry. We found that silencing iNOS down-regulated the expression of VEGF and then inhibited cell growth and invasiveness of SACC cells, while it increased apoptosis. Therefore, we concluded that iNOS can regulate VEGF expression and iNOS may be a therapeutic target. PMID:25065562

Ou Yang, Ke-Xiong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Zi-Nan; Zhao, Jian-Jiang

2015-02-01

357

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION A global view of the OCA2-HERC2 region and pigmentation  

E-print Network

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68 100 Alexandroupoli, Greece University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania V. G. Manolopoulos Laboratory of Pharmacology, Medical School, Democritus

Paschou, Peristera

358

Signal-transducing mechanisms of ketamine-caused inhibition of interleukin-1{beta} gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells  

SciTech Connect

Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1{beta}, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms. Administration of Raw 264.7 cells with a therapeutic concentration of ketamine (100 {mu}M), LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. Exposure to 100 {mu}M ketamine decreased the binding affinity of LPS and LPS-binding protein but did not affect LPS-induced RNA and protein synthesis of TLR4. Treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha} gene expressions in Raw 264.7 cells. Ketamine at a clinically relevant concentration did not affect the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines, but significantly decreased LPS-caused increases in these cytokines. Immunoblot analyses, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and a reporter luciferase activity assay revealed that ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B). Administration of LPS sequentially increased the phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK. However, a therapeutic concentration of ketamine alleviated such augmentations. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA reduced cellular TLR4 amounts and ameliorated LPS-induced RAS activation and IL-1{beta} synthesis. Co-treatment with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA synergistically ameliorated LPS-caused enhancement of IL-1{beta} production. Results of this study show that a therapeutic concentration of ketamine can inhibit gene expression of IL-1{beta} possibly through suppressing TLR4-mediated signal-transducing phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK and subsequent translocation and transactivation of NF{kappa}B.

Chen, T.-L. [Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.-C. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-L. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Drug Abuse Research Center and Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ueng, Y.-F. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, R.-M. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Drug Abuse Research Center and Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: rmchen@tmu.edu.tw

2009-10-01

359

UCN-01, 7-Hydroxyl-staurosporine, Inhibits Kinase Activity of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Reduces the Phosphorylation of the Retinoblastoma Susceptibility Gene Product in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

UCN-01 (7-hydroxyl-staurosporine), which was initially developed as a selective protein kinase C inhibitor, has an anti-tumor effect on several human cancer cell linesin vivo. In this study, we examined whether this compound has an inhibitory effect on cell cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks)in vitroandin vivousing A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. UCN-01 inhibited the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (pRB) kinase activity of

Kimihiro Kawakami; Hitoyasu Futami; Jiro Takahara; Ken Yamaguchi

1996-01-01

360

DNA topoisomerase I inhibition by camptothecin induces escape of RNA polymerase II from promoter-proximal pause site, antisense transcription and histone acetylation at the human HIF-1? gene locus  

PubMed Central

Top1 inhibition by camptothecin (CPT) perturbs RNA polymerase II (Pol II) density at promoters and along transcribed genes suggesting an involvement of Top1 in Pol II pausing. Here, we demonstrate that Top1 inhibition favors Pol II escape from a promoter-proximal pausing site of the human HIF-1? gene in living cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing at exon 11 was markedly altered in nascent HIF-1? mRNAs, and chromatin structure was also affected with enhanced histone acetylation and reduced nucleosome density in a manner dependent on cdk activity. Moreover, CPT increases transcription of a novel long RNA (5?aHIF1?), antisense to human HIF-1? mRNA, and a known antisense RNA at the 3?-end of the gene, while decreasing mRNA levels under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The effects require Top1, but are independent from Top1-induced replicative DNA damage. Chromatin RNA immunoprecipitation results showed that CPT can activate antisense transcription mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activity. Thus, Top1 inhibition can trigger a transcriptional stress, involving antisense transcription and increased chromatin accessibility, which is dependent on cdk activity and deregulated Pol II pausing. A changed balance of antisense transcripts and mRNAs may then lead to altered regulation of HIF-1? activity in human cancer cells. PMID:19854946

Baranello, Laura; Bertozzi, Davide; Fogli, Maria Vittoria; Pommier, Yves; Capranico, Giovanni

2010-01-01

361

Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling components.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. The complex secretes molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), which suppresses production of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ (YO). MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). In our work on Carcinus maenas, however, ESA has limited effects on hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and animals remain in intermolt at 7 days post-ESA, suggesting that adults are refractory to molt induction techniques. Consequently, the effects of ESA and MLA on molting and YO gene expression in C. maenas green and red color morphotypes were determined at intermediate (16 and 24 days) and long-term (~90 days) intervals. In intermediate-interval experiments, ESA of intermolt animals caused transient twofold to fourfold increases in hemolymph ecdysteroid titers during the first 2 weeks. In intermolt animals, long-term ESA increased hemolymph ecdysteroid titers fourfold to fivefold by 28 days post treatment, but there was no late premolt peak (>400 pg ?l(-1)) characteristic of late premolt animals and animals did not molt by 90 days post-ESA. There was no effect of ESA or MLA on the expression of Cm-elongation factor 2 (EF2), Cm-NOS, the beta subunit of GC-I (Cm-GC-I?), a membrane receptor GC (Cm-GC-II) and a soluble NO-insensitive GC (Cm-GC-III) in green morphs. Red morphs were affected by prolonged ESA and MLA treatments, as indicated by large decreases in Cm-EF2, Cm-GC-II and Cm-GC-III mRNA levels. ESA accelerated the transition of green morphs to the red phenotype in intermolt animals. ESA delayed molting in premolt green morphs, whereas intact and MLA animals molted by 30 days post treatment. There were significant effects on YO gene expression in intact animals: Cm-GC-I? mRNA increased during premolt and Cm-GC-III mRNA decreased during premolt and increased during postmolt. Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. PMID:24198255

Abuhagr, Ali M; Blindert, Jennifer L; Nimitkul, Sukkrit; Zander, Ian A; Labere, Stefan M; Chang, Sharon A; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-03-01

362

Gene therapy-mediated reprogramming tumor infiltrating T cells using IL-2 and inhibiting NF-?B signaling improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in a brain cancer model.  

PubMed

Immune-mediated gene therapy using adenovirus expressing Flt3 ligand and thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir administration (Flt3/TK) effectively elicits tumor regression in preclinical glioma models. Herein, we assessed new strategies to optimize Flt3L/TK therapeutic efficacy in a refractory RG2 orthotopic glioblastoma model. Specifically, we aimed to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of Flt3L/TK treatment in the RG2 model by overexpressing the following genes within the brain tumor microenvironment: 1) a TK mutant with enhanced cytotoxicity (SR39 mutant TK), 2) Flt3L-IgG fusion protein that has a longer half-life, 3) CD40L to stimulate DC maturation, 4) T helper cell type 1 polarizing dendritic cell cytokines interleukin-12 or C-X-C motif ligand 10 chemokine (CXCL)-10, 5) C-C motif ligand 2 chemokine (CCL2) or C-C motif ligand 3 chemokine (CCL3) to enhance dendritic cell recruitment into the tumor microenvironment, 6) T helper cell type 1 cytokines interferon-? or interleukin-2 to enhance effector T-cell functions, and 7) I?B? or p65RHD (nuclear factor kappa-B [NF-?B] inhibitors) to suppress the function of Foxp3+ Tregs and enhanced effector T-cell functions. Anti-tumor immunity and tumor specific effector T-cell functions were assessed by cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay and intracellular IFN-? staining. Our data showed that overexpression of interferon-? or interleukin-2, or inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B within the tumor microenvironment, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses and successfully extended the median survival of rats bearing intracranial RG2 when combined with Flt3L/TK. These findings indicate that enhancement of T-cell functions constitutes a critical therapeutic target to overcome immune evasion and enhance therapeutic efficacy for brain cancer. In addition, our study provides novel targets to be used in combination with immune-therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, which are currently being tested in the clinic. PMID:22996231

Mineharu, Yohei; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M; Xiong, Weidong; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Levy, Eva; Lugo, Claudia; Kocharian, Adrina; Allison, James P; Curran, Michael A; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

2012-10-01

363

Products of the porcine group C rotavirus NSP3 gene bind specifically to double-stranded RNA and inhibit activation of the interferon-induced protein kinase PKR.  

PubMed Central

The porcine group C rotavirus (Cowden strain) NSP3 protein (the group C equivalent of the group A gene 7 product, formerly called NS34) shares homology with known double-stranded RNA-binding proteins, such as the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR. A clone of NSP3, expressed both in vitro and in COS-1 cells, led to the synthesis of minor amounts of a product with an M(r) of 45,000 (the expected full-length M(r) of NSP3) and major amounts of products with M(r)s of 38,000 and 8,000. Restriction enzyme digestion analysis prior to expression in vitro and amino-terminal sequence analysis suggest that the products with M(r)s of 38,000 and 8,000 are cleavage products of the protein with an M(r) of 45,000. The full-length protein and the product with an M(r) of 8,000, both of which contain the motif present in double-stranded RNA-binding proteins, bound specifically to double-stranded RNA. The products with M(r)s of 45,000 and 8,000 were also detected in Cowden strain-infected MA104 cells. NSP3 products expressed in COS-1 cells were capable of inhibiting activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase similar to other double-stranded RNA-binding proteins, and NSP3 products expressed in HeLa cells were capable of rescuing the replication of an interferon-sensitive deletion mutant of vaccinia virus. Images PMID:7514679

Langland, J O; Pettiford, S; Jiang, B; Jacobs, B L

1994-01-01

364

Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice  

PubMed Central

The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed