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Sample records for gene p48 ac103

  1. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Meijin; Wu Wenbi; Liu Chao; Wang Yanjie; Hu Zhaoyang; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-09-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. In the present study, we generated a knockout of the p48 gene in an AcMNPV bacmid and investigated the role of P48 in baculovirus life cycle. The p48-null Bacmid vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to propagate in cell culture, while a 'repair' Bacmid vAc{sup P48-REP-PH-GFP} was able to replicate in a manner similar to a wild-type Bacmid vAc{sup PH-GFP}. Titration assays and Western blotting confirmed that vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to produce budded viruses (BVs). qPCR analysis showed that p48 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that P48 was required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and their subsequent occlusion. Confocal analysis showed that P48 prominently condensed in the centre of the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that P48 plays an essential role in BV production and ODV envelopment in the AcMNPV life cycle.

  2. A conserved role for p48 homologs in protecting dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bou Dib, Peter; Gnägi, Bettina; Daly, Fiona; Sabado, Virginie; Tas, Damla; Glauser, Dominique A; Meister, Peter; Nagoshi, Emi

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Although several genes linked to rare familial PD have been identified, endogenous risk factors for sporadic PD, which account for the majority of PD cases, remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sporadic PD in neurodevelopmental genes including the transcription factor p48/ptf1a. Here we investigate whether p48 plays a role in the survival of DA neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a Drosophila p48 homolog, 48-related-2 (Fer2), is expressed in and required for the development and survival of DA neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Loss of Fer2 expression in adulthood causes progressive PAM neuron degeneration in aging flies along with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to the progressive locomotor deficits. The oxidative stress challenge upregulates Fer2 expression and exacerbates the PAM neuron degeneration in Fer2 loss-of-function mutants. hlh-13, the worm homolog of p48, is also expressed in DA neurons. Unlike the fly counterpart, hlh-13 loss-of-function does not impair development or survival of DA neurons under normal growth conditions. Yet, similar to Fer2, hlh-13 expression is upregulated upon an acute oxidative challenge and is required for the survival of DA neurons under oxidative stress in adult worms. Taken together, our results indicate that p48 homologs share a role in protecting DA neurons from oxidative stress and degeneration, and suggest that loss-of-function of p48 homologs in flies and worms provides novel tools to study gene-environmental interactions affecting DA neuron survival. PMID:25340742

  3. Identification of P48 and P54 as components of bacteriophage T4 baseplates.

    PubMed Central

    Berget, P B; Warner, H R

    1975-01-01

    The involvement of two bacteriophage T4 gene products in the initiation of T4 tail tube and sheath polymerization on mature baseplates has been studied by radioautography of acrylamide gels of various partially completed tail structures. The products of genes 48 and 54 (P48[the nomenclature P48 refers to the protein product of bacteriophage T4 gene 48] and P54), which are known to be required for the synthesis of mature baseplates, have been shown to be structural components of the baseplate. These gene products have molecular weights of 42,000 and 33,000, respectively. The addition of P54 to the baseplate not only permits the polymerization of the core protein, P19, onto the baseplate, but also caused the disappearance of a polypeptide of molecular weight about 15,000 from the supernatant fraction of infected cells. Another gene product, P27, has been identified in the crude extracts of infected cells. This gene product, which is required for the synthesis of baseplate structures, has the same mobility as one of the unidentified structural polypeptides of the baseplate and is therefore probably also a baseplate component. Images PMID:1202250

  4. Long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein, p48, mediates protein kinase B/Akt-dependent HDM2 stabilization and nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 ; Um, Sung Hee; Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 ; Kim, Jihoe; Ahn, Jee-Yin; Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746

    2012-01-15

    p48 is a long isoform of the ErbB3 binding protein that has oncogenic functions including promotion of carcinogenesis and induction of malignant transformation through negative regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that high level of p48 protein expression leads to enhance HDM2 phosphorylation by Akt and inhibits the self-ubiquitination of HDM2 by up-regulation of Akt activity, thereby promoting its protein stability. Moreover, p48 expression leads to accumulated nuclear localization of HDM2, whereas p48 depletion disturbs its nuclear localization. Hence, higher expression of p48 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels through modulation of HDM2 nuclear localization and protein stability via regulation of its Akt-mediated phosphorylation.

  5. Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p48 forms a complex with the SNARE regulator VAP-A and prevents cell surface expression of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein.

    PubMed

    Ettayebi, Khalil; Hardy, Michele E

    2003-11-01

    Norwalk virus (NV), a reference strain of human calicivirus in the Norovirus genus of the family Caliciviridae, contains a positive-strand RNA genome with three open reading frames. ORF1 encodes a 1,789-amino-acid polyprotein that is processed into nonstructural proteins that include an NTPase, VPg, protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The N-terminal protein p48 of ORF1 shows no significant sequence similarity to viral or cellular proteins, and its function in the human calicivirus replication cycle is not known. The lack of sequence similarity to any protein in the public databases suggested that p48 may have a unique function in the NV replication cycle or, alternatively, may perform a characterized function in replication by a unique mechanism. In this report, it is shown that p48 displays a vesicular localization pattern in transfected cells when fused to the fluorescent reporter EYFP. A predicted transmembrane domain at the C terminus of p48 was not necessary for the observed localization pattern, but this domain was sufficient to redirect localization of EYFP to a fluorescent pattern consistent with the Golgi apparatus. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified the SNARE regulator vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAP-A) as a binding partner of p48. Biochemical assays confirmed that p48 and VAP-A interact and form a stable complex in mammalian cells. Furthermore, expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus G glcyoprotein on the cell surface was inhibited when cells coexpressed p48, suggesting that p48 disrupts intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:14557663

  6. Gene expression patterns associated with in vitro tracheary element formation in isolated single mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z H; Varner, J E

    1993-01-01

    Tracheary element formation from isolated Zinnia leaf mesophyll cells is an excellent system for the dissection of patterned secondary cell wall thickening and lignification. We used mRNAs from cells cultured for 48 h in the induction medium to isolate differentially regulated genes. Thirteen unique cDNA clones were isolated using a subtractive hybridization method. These clones can be divided into three distinct groups according to their characteristic gene expression in different media. The first group includes those genes whose expression is induced in the basal medium without 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine; this indicates that the expression of these genes is regulated by chemical and physical factors other than these hormones. Three of these clones, p48h-229, p48h-114, and p48h-102, show significant homology to a pathogenesis-related protein II, a serine proteinase inhibitor, and a sunflower anther-specific proline-rich protein, respectively. The second group includes those genes whose expression is mainly NAA induced. One of these clones, p48h-10, shows high protein sequence homology to a barley aleurone-specific cDNA, B11E. The p48h-10-encoded protein shares some common characteristics of plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (low molecular weight, the secretion signal peptide, eight conserved cysteine residues, and a basic protein), although no significant protein sequence homology is found between p48-10 and other plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. The third group includes those genes whose expression is induced primarily in the induction medium; this indicates that the expression of these genes is closely associated with the process of tracheary element formation. Two of these clones, p48h-107 and p48h-17, show high homology to adenylate kinase and papaya proteinase I, respectively. The possible roles of these differentiation-specific genes during tracheary element formation are discussed. PMID:8022936

  7. Genes and Gene Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  8. Studying Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many ... material in an organism. This includes genes and DNA elements that control the activity of genes. Does ...

  9. Gene Concepts, Gene Talk, and Gene Patents

    E-print Network

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    concepts have exerted strong effects on institutions such as medicine, the biotechnology industry, politics, and the law. A particularly rich example of this is the interplay between gene concepts and patent law. Over the last century, biology has...

  10. Trichoderma genes

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  11. Studying Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one generation to the next. What is a genome? A genome is all of the genetic material in an ... activity of genes. Does everybody have the same genome? While the human genome is mostly the same ...

  12. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  13. Designer Genes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Genetic technologies may soon help fill some of the most important needs of humanity from food to energy to health care. The research of major designer genes companies and reasons why the initial mad rush for biotechnology has slowed are reviewed. (SR)

  14. What Is a Gene?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their lungs as healthy as possible. What Is Gene Therapy? Gene therapy is a new kind of medicine — so new ... tested is replacing sick genes with healthy ones. Gene therapy trials — where the research is tested on people — ...

  15. Genes and Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diet Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode Genes and Psoriasis Genes hold the key to understanding ... is responsible for causing psoriatic disease. How do genes work? Genes control everything from height to eye ...

  16. Genes and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  17. Multivariate detection of gene-gene interactions

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    interactions is crucial to obtaining a more complete picture of complex diseases. It is thought that gene-gene-mediated disease. Interactions among genes are de...ned as pheno- typic e¤ects that di¤er from those observed and ongoing e¤orts have centered on disease associations with single genes (a single nucleotide polymorphism

  18. Compare Gene Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linux environment in serial or parallel mode.

  19. Hemophilia and Gene Therapy

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Hemophilia and Gene Therapy Jackie Chu June 4, 2008 #12;Overview Hemophilia, the disease Gene therapy Hemophilia as a target for gene therapy Gene delivery systems Clinical trials New methods Future of gene therapy for hemophilia #12;Hemophilia, the disease X-linked, recessive bleeding disorder

  20. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    PubMed

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

  1. Autism and Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  2. Compare Gene Profiles

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-31

    Compare Gene Profiles (CGP) performs pairwise gene content comparisons among a relatively large set of related bacterial genomes. CGP performs pairwise BLAST among gene calls from a set of input genome and associated annotation files, and combines the results to generate lists of common genes, unique genes, homologs, and genes from each genome that differ substantially in length from corresponding genes in the other genomes. CGP is implemented in Python and runs in a Linuxmore »environment in serial or parallel mode.« less

  3. Gene symbol precision.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Baiti, Barbara; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2012-01-10

    Several gene databases, including heavily used ones such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, erroneously assign, on occasion, literature references to genes or proteins. These mistakes are mostly due to an overlap in gene aliases, whereby two distinct genes share a pseudonym. This is particularly confusing when the gene products have also biological properties in common, are part of signaling pathways that cross-talk to one another, or are regulated by the same effectors. We present examples spanning several research fields including apoptosis, ubiquitin-dependent degradation, signaling by Notch, Wnt, and small G proteins, transporters of glutathione conjugates of electrophiles, and mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes. To solve the problem, we argue in favor of including Entrez gene numbers in papers submitted for publication as unique gene identifiers to allow precise identification of genes and species studied. PMID:22019431

  4. Speciation genes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Rieseberg, Loren H.; Blackman, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Analyses of speciation genesgenes that contribute to the cessation of gene flow between populations – can offer clues regarding the ecological settings, evolutionary forces and molecular mechanisms that drive the divergence of populations and species. This review discusses the identities and attributes of genes that contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) in plants, compares them with animal speciation genes and investigates what these genes can tell us about speciation. Scope Forty-one candidate speciation genes were identified in the plant literature. Of these, seven contributed to pre-pollination RI, one to post-pollination, prezygotic RI, eight to hybrid inviability, and 25 to hybrid sterility. Genes, gene families and genetic pathways that were frequently found to underlie the evolution of RI in different plant groups include the anthocyanin pathway and its regulators (pollinator isolation), S RNase-SI genes (unilateral incompatibility), disease resistance genes (hybrid necrosis), chimeric mitochondrial genes (cytoplasmic male sterility), and pentatricopeptide repeat family genes (cytoplasmic male sterility). Conclusions The most surprising conclusion from this review is that identities of genes underlying both prezygotic and postzygotic RI are often predictable in a broad sense from the phenotype of the reproductive barrier. Regulatory changes (both cis and trans) dominate the evolution of pre-pollination RI in plants, whereas a mix of regulatory mutations and changes in protein-coding genes underlie intrinsic postzygotic barriers. Also, loss-of-function mutations and copy number variation frequently contribute to RI. Although direct evidence of positive selection on speciation genes is surprisingly scarce in plants, analyses of gene family evolution, along with theoretical considerations, imply an important role for diversifying selection and genetic conflict in the evolution of RI. Unlike in animals, however, most candidate speciation genes in plants exhibit intraspecific polymorphism, consistent with an important role for stochastic forces and/or balancing selection in development of RI in plants. PMID:20576737

  5. Gene Ontology Driven Classification of Gene

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    evaluation on leukemia · Limitations and future work · Conclusions #12;Introduction 23-Jul-02 3 / 17Claudio · Identifier, name, description · Children (other GO nodes) · Probe-set annotations · One logistic regression genes and direct children) #12;GO driven gene expression classification 23-Jul-02 7 / 17Claudio Lottaz

  6. From Gene Networks to Gene Function

    PubMed Central

    Schlitt, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Rung, Johan; Dietmann, Sabine; Lappe, Michael; Ukkonen, Esko; Brazma, Alvis

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel method to identify functionally related genes based on comparisons of neighborhoods in gene networks. This method does not rely on gene sequence or protein structure homologies, and it can be applied to any organism and a wide variety of experimental data sets. The character of the predicted gene relationships depends on the underlying networks;they concern biological processes rather than the molecular function. We used the method to analyze gene networks derived from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, a large-scale gene deletion study, and from the genomic positions of consensus binding sites for transcription factors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 816 functional relationships between 159 genes and show that these relationships correspond to protein–protein interactions, co-occurrence in the same protein complexes, and/or co-occurrence in abstracts of scientific articles. Our results suggest functions for seven previously uncharacterized yeast genes: KIN3 and YMR269W may be involved in biological processes related to cell growth and/or maintenance, whereas IES6, YEL008W, YEL033W, YHL029C, YMR010W, and YMR031W-A are likely to have metabolic functions. PMID:14656964

  7. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  8. Gene Carlson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

    2009-12-10

    Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his decision to join...

  9. Proto-genes and de novo gene birth

    E-print Network

    Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra

    Novel protein-coding genes can arise either through re-organization of pre-existing genes or de novo. Processes involving re-organization of pre-existing genes, notably after gene duplication, have been extensively described. ...

  10. Sandro Rusconi Gene transfer

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Sandro Rusconi aaaaaa UNIFR Rusconi 2003 Gene transfer: limits and potential as doping vehicle Geneva 30.09.03 AISTS 'genes & sport' workshop 1972-75 Primary school teacher (Locarno, Switzerland) 1975 on 'molecular medicine' & molecular doping: applications and problems, Gene-based doping applications

  11. Sandro Rusconi Gene transfer

    E-print Network

    Málaga, Universidad de

    Sandro Rusconi UNIFR Rusconi 2003 Gene transfer: limits and potential as doping vehicle Geneva 30.09.03 AISTS 'genes & sport' workshop 1972-75 Primary school teacher (Locarno, Switzerland) 1975-79 Graduation medicine' & molecular doping: applications and problems, Gene-based doping applications, comparison

  12. Reading and Generalist Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…

  13. Evolution of Gene Expression after Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nelson; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat–maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that ?-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a ?-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators. PMID:25912045

  14. Immunoglobulin ? Gene Rearrangement Can Precede ? Gene Rearrangement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berg, Jörg; Mcdowell, Mindy; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1990-01-01

    Immunoglobulin genes are generated during differentiation of B lymphocytes by joining gene segments. A mouse pre-B cell contains a functional immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, but no light-chain gene. Although there is only one heavy-chain locus, there are two lightchain loci: ? and ? .It has been reported that ? loci in the germ-line configuration are never (in man) or very rarely (in the mouse) present in cells with functionally rearranged ? -chain genes. Two explanations have been proposed to explain this: (a) the ordered rearrangement theory, which postulatesmore »that light-chain gene rearrangement in the pre-B cell is first attempted at the ? locus, and that only upon failure to produce a functional ? chain is there an attempt to rearrange the ? locus; and (b) the stochastic theory, which postulates that rearrangement at the ? locus proceeds at a rate that is intrinsically much slower than that at the ? locus. We show here that ? -chain genes are generated whether or not the ? locus has lost its germ-line arrangement, a result that is compatible only with the stochastic theory. « less

  15. Connectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression

    E-print Network

    Bonner, Anthony

    Therapy. Identifying gene function based on gene expression data is much easier in prokaryotes than ways, especially in Gene Therapy [5]. Identifying gene function in prokaryotes is much easier thanConnectionist Approaches for Predicting Mouse Gene Function from Gene Expression Emad Andrews

  16. Genes Help Set Menopause Timing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Menopause Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Menopause About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  17. Gene hunting in autoinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Steady progress in our understanding of the genetic basis of autoinflammatory diseases has been made over the past 16 years. Since the discovery of the familial Mediterranean fever gene MEFV (also known as marenostrin) in 1997, 18 other genes responsible for monogenic autoinflammatory diseases have been identified to date. The discovery of these genes was made through the utilisation of many genetic mapping techniques, including next generation sequencing platforms. This review article clearly describes the gene hunting approaches, methods of data analysis and the technological platforms used, which has relevance to all those working within the field of gene discovery for Mendelian disorders. PMID:24070009

  18. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system. PMID:26611578

  19. Do Housekeeping Genes Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingyun

    2015-01-01

    The searching of human housekeeping (HK) genes has been a long quest since the emergence of transcriptomics, and is instrumental for us to understand the structure of genome and the fundamentals of biological processes. The resolved genes are frequently used in evolution studies and as normalization standards in quantitative gene-expression analysis. Within the past 20 years, more than a dozen HK-gene studies have been conducted, yet none of them sampled human tissues completely. We believe an integration of these results will help remove false positive genes owing to the inadequate sampling. Surprisingly, we only find one common gene across 15 examined HK-gene datasets comprising 187 different tissue and cell types. Our subsequent analyses suggest that it might not be appropriate to rigidly define HK genes as expressed in all tissue types that have diverse developmental, physiological, and pathological states. It might be beneficial to use more robustly identified HK functions for filtering criteria, in which the representing genes can be a subset of genome. These genes are not necessarily the same, and perhaps need not to be the same, everywhere in our body. PMID:25970694

  20. The gap gene network

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Gap genes are involved in segment determination during the early development of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as well as in other insects. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge of the gap gene network through a comprehensive survey of the experimental literature. I focus on genetic and molecular evidence, which provides us with an almost-complete picture of the regulatory interactions responsible for trunk gap gene expression. I discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved, and highlight the remaining ambiguities and gaps in the evidence. This is followed by a brief discussion of molecular regulatory mechanisms for transcriptional regulation, as well as precision and size-regulation provided by the system. Finally, I discuss evidence on the evolution of gap gene expression from species other than Drosophila. My survey concludes that studies of the gap gene system continue to reveal interesting and important new insights into the role of gene regulatory networks in development and evolution. PMID:20927566

  1. Gene expression data analysis.

    PubMed

    Brazma, A; Vilo, J

    2001-08-01

    Microarrays are one of the latest breakthroughs in experimental molecular biology, which allow monitoring of gene expression for tens of thousands of genes in parallel and are already producing huge amounts of valuable data. Analysis and handling of such data is becoming one of the major bottlenecks in the utilization of the technology. The raw microarray data are images, which have to be transformed into gene expression matrices, tables where rows represent genes, columns represent various samples such as tissues or experimental conditions, and numbers in each cell characterize the expression level of the particular gene in the particular sample. These matrices have to be analyzed further if any knowledge about the underlying biological processes is to be extracted. In this paper we concentrate on discussing bioinformatics methods used for such analysis. We briefly discuss supervised and unsupervised data analysis and its applications, such as predicting gene function classes and cancer classification as well as some possible future directions. PMID:11580977

  2. Mammalian suppressor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.A.; Capecchi, M.R.; Raj Bhandary, U.L.; Laski, F.A.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of suppressing a nonsense codon in a gene for production of a protein of interest in mammalian cells, the method comprising: (a) preparing an oligonucleotide primer comprising a region complementary to the nonsense codon; (b) preparing a DNA template for production of a tRNA molecule; (c) forming a suppressor gene from the template and primer by site specific mutagenesis; and (d) transforming the suppressor gene into a mammalian cell, whereby the nonsense codon will be suppressed.

  3. Green genes gleaned.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2005-07-01

    A recent paper by Ayumi Tanaka and colleagues identifying an Arabidopsis thaliana gene for 3,8-divinyl(proto)chlorophyllide 8-vinyl reductase brings a satisfying conclusion to the hunt for genes encoding enzymes for the steps in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Now, at least in angiosperm plants represented by Arabidopsis, genes for all 15 steps in the pathway from glutamyl-tRNA to chlorophylls a and b have been identified. PMID:15951223

  4. History of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. PMID:23618815

  5. Selecting Informative Genes from Microarray Dataset by Incorporating Gene Ontology

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Selecting Informative Genes from Microarray Dataset by Incorporating Gene Ontology Xian Xu Aidong 14224, USA xianxu,azhang@cse.buffalo.edu Abstract Selecting informative genes from microarray experi, namely large num- ber of genes and limited number of samples, the statistical soundness of gene selection

  6. Essential Genes Are More Evolutionarily Conserved Than Are Nonessential Genes

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    Essential Genes Are More Evolutionarily Conserved Than Are Nonessential Genes in Bacteria I. King The "knockout-rate" prediction holds that essential genes should be more evolutionarily conserved than are nonessential genes. This is because negative (purifying) selection acting on essential genes is expected

  7. Analysis of Gene Order Evolution beyond Single-Copy Genes

    E-print Network

    El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    -chromosomal rearrangement events, which do not change gene content, but may radically alter gene order. InferringAnalysis of Gene Order Evolution beyond Single-Copy Genes Nadia El-Mabrouk D´epartement d genomics based on representation of genomes as ordered sequences of signed genes. We specifically focus

  8. Library Generation by Gene Shuffling

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Adam J.; Ellefson, JaredW.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes the process of gene shuffling (also known as sexual PCR). Gene shuffling is a facile method for the generation of sequence libraries containing the information from a family of related genes. Essentially, related genes are fragmented by DNase I digestion and reassembled by primerless PCR. The resulting chimeric genes can then be screened or selected for a desired function. PMID:24510437

  9. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

  11. Ocular Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J Peter; McFarland, Trevor J; Stout, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy involves the introduction of an exogenous gene product to a host's cellular and genetic machinery for endogenous production of a desired gene product. The eye represents an ideal target organ due to its easy visibility and accessibility, and several trials have demonstrated proof-of-principle safety and efficacy in a subtype of Leber's congenital amaurosis. There are numerous ongoing clinical trials exploring gene therapy in other retinal diseases. In autosomal recessively inherited retinal degenerations, the introduced gene product replaces a known genetically deficient gene product and provides restoration of function. In other disease states, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, the delivered gene product modulates existing proteins within a cell, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, for a desired therapeutic effect. This latter approach may have broader applications in other diseases such as diabetes and other retinal vascular diseases that are as yet unrealized. This review summarizes the current state of clinical research in ocular gene therapy focusing on those diseases in which the technology has reached clinical trials. PMID:26502313

  12. Gene promoters dictate histone occupancy within genes.

    PubMed

    Perales, Roberto; Erickson, Benjamin; Zhang, Lian; Kim, Hyunmin; Valiquett, Elan; Bentley, David

    2013-10-01

    Spt6 is a transcriptional elongation factor and histone chaperone that reassembles transcribed chromatin. Genome-wide H3 mapping showed that Spt6 preferentially maintains nucleosomes within the first 500 bases of genes and helps define nucleosome-depleted regions in 5' and 3' flanking sequences. In Spt6-depleted cells, H3 loss at 5' ends correlates with reduced pol II density suggesting enhanced transcription elongation. Consistent with its 'Suppressor of Ty' (Spt) phenotype, Spt6 inactivation caused localized H3 eviction over 1-2 nucleosomes at 5' ends of Ty elements. H3 displacement differed between genes driven by promoters with 'open'/DPN and 'closed'/OPN chromatin conformations with similar pol II densities. More eviction occurred on genes with 'closed' promoters, associated with 'noisy' transcription. Moreover, swapping of 'open' and 'closed' promoters showed that they can specify distinct downstream patterns of histone eviction/deposition. These observations suggest a novel function for promoters in dictating histone dynamics within genes possibly through effects on transcriptional bursting or elongation rate. PMID:24013117

  13. Virtual Gene: Using Correlations Between Genes to Select Informative Genes on Microarray Datasets

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Virtual Gene: Using Correlations Between Genes to Select Informative Genes on Microarray Datasets State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA Abstract. Gene Selection is one class of most used data analysis algorithms on microarray datasets. The goal of gene selection algorithms

  14. Genes from scratch – the evolutionary fate of de novo genes

    PubMed Central

    Schlötterer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although considered an extremely unlikely event, many genes emerge from previously noncoding genomic regions. This review covers the entire life cycle of such de novo genes. Two competing hypotheses about the process of de novo gene birth are discussed as well as the high death rate of de novo genes. Despite the high death rate, some de novo genes are retained and remain functional, even in distantly related species, through their integration into gene networks. Further studies combining gene expression with ribosome profiling in multiple populations across different species will be instrumental for an improved understanding of the evolutionary processes operating on de novo genes. PMID:25773713

  15. Gene expression data analysis.

    PubMed

    Brazma, A; Vilo, J

    2000-08-25

    Microarrays are one of the latest breakthroughs in experimental molecular biology, which allow monitoring of gene expression for tens of thousands of genes in parallel and are already producing huge amounts of valuable data. Analysis and handling of such data is becoming one of the major bottlenecks in the utilization of the technology. The raw microarray data are images, which have to be transformed into gene expression matrices--tables where rows represent genes, columns represent various samples such as tissues or experimental conditions, and numbers in each cell characterize the expression level of the particular gene in the particular sample. These matrices have to be analyzed further, if any knowledge about the underlying biological processes is to be extracted. In this paper we concentrate on discussing bioinformatics methods used for such analysis. We briefly discuss supervised and unsupervised data analysis and its applications, such as predicting gene function classes and cancer classification. Then we discuss how the gene expression matrix can be used to predict putative regulatory signals in the genome sequences. In conclusion we discuss some possible future directions. PMID:10967323

  16. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ?12bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are grossly misaligned, and numerous loci with >50% missing data for taxa that are misplaced in their gene trees. These problems were compounded by inadequate tree searches with nearest neighbor interchange branch swapping and inadvertent application of substitution models that did not account for among-site rate heterogeneity. Sixty-six gene trees imply unrealistic deep coalescences that exceed 100 million years (MY). Gene trees that were obtained with better justified models and search parameters show large increases in both likelihood scores and congruence. Coalescence analyses based on a curated set of 413 improved gene trees and a superior coalescence method (ASTRAL) support a Scandentia (treeshrews)+Glires (rabbits, rodents) clade, contradicting one of the three primary systematic conclusions of Song et al. (2012). Robust support for a Perissodactyla+Carnivora clade within Laurasiatheria is also lost, contradicting a second major conclusion of this study. Song et al.'s (2012) MP-EST species tree provided the basis for circular simulations that led these authors to conclude that the multispecies coalescent accounts for 77% of the gene tree conflicts in their dataset, but many internal branches of their MP-EST tree are stunted by an order of magnitude or more due to wholesale gene tree reconstruction errors. An independent assessment of branch lengths suggests the multispecies coalescent accounts for ?15% of the conflicts among Song et al.'s (2012) 447 gene trees. Unfortunately, Song et al.'s (2012) flawed phylogenomic dataset has been used as a model for additional simulation work that suggests the superiority of shortcut coalescence methods relative to concatenation. Investigator error was passed on to the subsequent simulation studies, which also incorporated further logical errors that should be avoided in future simulation studies. Illegitimate branch length switches in the simulation routines unfairly protected coalescence methods from their Achilles' heel, high gene tree reconstruction error at short internodes. These simulations therefore provide no

  17. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73 000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards’ unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene’s functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database URL: www.genecards.org PMID:20689021

  18. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  19. Gene Mutations Gene a finite segment of DNA specified

    E-print Network

    Massey, Thomas N.

    Mutation only appear in both parents contribute the same gene. · It may take generations for a recessive a large amount of DNA. · This allows expression of recessive genes on the X chromosome. · There are moreModule 5 Gene Mutations · Gene ­ a finite segment of DNA specified by an exact sequence of bases

  20. Functional Grouping of Genes Using Spectral Clustering and Gene Ontology

    E-print Network

    Zell, Andreas

    Functional Grouping of Genes Using Spectral Clustering and Gene Ontology Nora Speer, Holger amounts of biological data. During the analysis of such data the need for a functional grouping of genes arises. In this paper, we propose a new method based on spectral clustering for the partitioning of genes

  1. A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh

    E-print Network

    A Gene Scrapbook A Tribute to Gene Loh on the Occasion of His Retirement Feb 22, 2003 #12;The Early of Technology, 1961 #12;The Missing Years Not much is known about Gene's whereabouts between 1961 until his (probably kelp) for transport by sea. #12;Why did Gene leave Cornell? He got tired of shoveling all

  2. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts. PMID:25708001

  4. Reading and Generalist Genes.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called generalist genes. This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading ability in a study of 4,258 7-year-old children that screened 100,000 SNPs. Using the same sample, we show that this early reading SNP set also correlates with other aspects of literacy, components of mathematics, and more general cognitive abilities. These results provide support for the generalist genes hypothesis. Although the effect size of the current SNP set is small, such SNP sets could eventually be used to predict genetic risk for learning disabilities as well as to prescribe genetically tailored intervention and prevention programs. PMID:20383260

  5. Microfluidic gene synthesis

    E-print Network

    Kong, David Sun, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The ability to synthesize custom de novo DNA constructs rapidly, accurately, and inexpensively is highly desired by researchers, as synthetic genes and longer DNA constructs are enabling to numerous powerful applications ...

  6. Classification of genes based on gene expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, M.; Myers, C.; Faith, J.

    2008-05-01

    Systems biology and bioinformatics are now major fields for productive research. DNA microarrays and other array technologies and genome sequencing have advanced to the point that it is now possible to monitor gene expression on a genomic scale. Gene expression analysis is discussed and some important clustering techniques are considered. The patterns identified in the data suggest similarities in the gene behavior, which provides useful information for the gene functionalities. We discuss measures for investigating the homogeneity of gene expression data in order to optimize the clustering process. We contribute to the knowledge of functional roles and regulation of E. coli genes by proposing a classification of these genes based on consistently correlated genes in expression data and similarities of gene expression patterns. A new visualization tool for targeted projection pursuit and dimensionality reduction of gene expression data is demonstrated.

  7. Classification of genes based on gene expression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelova, M. Myers, C. Faith, J.

    2008-05-15

    Systems biology and bioinformatics are now major fields for productive research. DNA microarrays and other array technologies and genome sequencing have advanced to the point that it is now possible to monitor gene expression on a genomic scale. Gene expression analysis is discussed and some important clustering techniques are considered. The patterns identified in the data suggest similarities in the gene behavior, which provides useful information for the gene functionalities. We discuss measures for investigating the homogeneity of gene expression data in order to optimize the clustering process. We contribute to the knowledge of functional roles and regulation of E. coli genes by proposing a classification of these genes based on consistently correlated genes in expression data and similarities of gene expression patterns. A new visualization tool for targeted projection pursuit and dimensionality reduction of gene expression data is demonstrated.

  8. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  9. GeneCards Version 3: the human gene integrator.

    PubMed

    Safran, Marilyn; Dalah, Irina; Alexander, Justin; Rosen, Naomi; Iny Stein, Tsippi; Shmoish, Michael; Nativ, Noam; Bahir, Iris; Doniger, Tirza; Krug, Hagit; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Olender, Tsviya; Golan, Yaron; Stelzer, Gil; Harel, Arye; Lancet, Doron

    2010-01-01

    GeneCards (www.genecards.org) is a comprehensive, authoritative compendium of annotative information about human genes, widely used for nearly 15 years. Its gene-centric content is automatically mined and integrated from over 80 digital sources, resulting in a web-based deep-linked card for each of >73,000 human gene entries, encompassing the following categories: protein coding, pseudogene, RNA gene, genetic locus, cluster and uncategorized. We now introduce GeneCards Version 3, featuring a speedy and sophisticated search engine and a revamped, technologically enabling infrastructure, catering to the expanding needs of biomedical researchers. A key focus is on gene-set analyses, which leverage GeneCards' unique wealth of combinatorial annotations. These include the GeneALaCart batch query facility, which tabulates user-selected annotations for multiple genes and GeneDecks, which identifies similar genes with shared annotations, and finds set-shared annotations by descriptor enrichment analysis. Such set-centric features address a host of applications, including microarray data analysis, cross-database annotation mapping and gene-disorder associations for drug targeting. We highlight the new Version 3 database architecture, its multi-faceted search engine, and its semi-automated quality assurance system. Data enhancements include an expanded visualization of gene expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues, an integrated alternative splicing pattern display, and augmented multi-source SNPs and pathways sections. GeneCards now provides direct links to gene-related research reagents such as antibodies, recombinant proteins, DNA clones and inhibitory RNAs and features gene-related drugs and compounds lists. We also portray the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score annotation landscape tool for scoring a gene's functional information status. Finally, we delineate examples of applications and collaborations that have benefited from the GeneCards suite. Database URL: www.genecards.org. PMID:20689021

  10. Gene Therapy Current Methods and

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Gene Therapy Current Methods and Research for Cystic Fibrosis Alexis Wallen June 4, 2001 #12;What membrane · "Subtle defects in pulmonary function" #12;Gene Therapy for CF · General Principles of gene therapy is to cure disease by altering the genome to include or exclude a desired set of genes

  11. Gene Center Munich Genzentrum Mnchen

    E-print Network

    Frey, Erwin

    Gene Center Munich Genzentrum München Symposium December 1, 2010 'From Genes to Networks ­ Systems:50 ­ 12:50 Prof. Dr. Ulrike Gaul (Alexander von Humboldt Professor, LMU Munich) "Decoding regulatory gene. Patrick Cramer (LMU Munich) "Global mechanisms of gene transcription" 14:30 ­ 15:10 Prof. Dr. Gertrud

  12. How old is my gene?

    PubMed

    Capra, John A; Stolzer, Maureen; Durand, Dannie; Pollard, Katherine S

    2013-11-01

    Gene functions, interactions, disease associations, and ecological distributions are all correlated with gene age. However, it is challenging to estimate the intricate series of evolutionary events leading to a modern-day gene and then to reduce this history to a single age estimate. Focusing on eukaryotic gene families, we introduce a framework that can be used to compare current strategies for quantifying gene age, discuss key differences between these methods, and highlight several common problems. We argue that genes with complex evolutionary histories do not have a single well-defined age. As a result, care must be taken to articulate the goals and assumptions of any analysis that uses gene age estimates. Recent algorithmic advances offer the promise of gene age estimates that are fast, accurate, and consistent across gene families. This will enable a shift to integrated genome-wide analyses of all events in gene evolutionary histories in the near future. PMID:23915718

  13. How old is my gene?

    PubMed Central

    Capra, John A.; Stolzer, Maureen; Durand, Dannie; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Gene functions, interactions, disease associations, and ecological distributions are all correlated with gene age. However, it is challenging to estimate the intricate series of evolutionary events leading to a modern day gene and then reduce this history to a single age estimate. Focusing on eukaryotic gene families, we introduce a framework in which to compare current strategies for quantifying gene age, discuss key differences between these methods, and highlight several common problems. We argue that genes with complex evolutionary histories do not have a single well-defined age. As a result, care must be taken to articulate the goals and assumptions of any analysis that uses gene age estimates. Recent algorithmic advances offer the promise of gene age estimates that are fast, accurate, and consistent across gene families. This will enable a shift to integrated genome-wide analyses of all events in gene evolutionary histories in the near future. PMID:23915718

  14. FunGene: the functional gene pipeline and repository

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jordan A.; Chai, Benli; Wang, Qiong; Sun, Yanni; Brown, C. Titus; Tiedje, James M.; Cole, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer. While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/) offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes. PMID:24101916

  15. Virus induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis gene homologues in wheat identify genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat, functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for wheat breeding. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited tra...

  16. GeneTIER: prioritization of candidate disease genes using tissue-specific gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Antanaviciute, Agne; Daly, Catherine; Crinnion, Laura A.; Markham, Alexander F.; Watson, Christopher M.; Bonthron, David T.; Carr, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: In attempts to determine the genetic causes of human disease, researchers are often faced with a large number of candidate genes. Linkage studies can point to a genomic region containing hundreds of genes, while the high-throughput sequencing approach will often identify a great number of non-synonymous genetic variants. Since systematic experimental verification of each such candidate gene is not feasible, a method is needed to decide which genes are worth investigating further. Computational gene prioritization presents itself as a solution to this problem, systematically analyzing and sorting each gene from the most to least likely to be the disease-causing gene, in a fraction of the time it would take a researcher to perform such queries manually. Results: Here, we present Gene TIssue Expression Ranker (GeneTIER), a new web-based application for candidate gene prioritization. GeneTIER replaces knowledge-based inference traditionally used in candidate disease gene prioritization applications with experimental data from tissue-specific gene expression datasets and thus largely overcomes the bias toward the better characterized genes/diseases that commonly afflict other methods. We show that our approach is capable of accurate candidate gene prioritization and illustrate its strengths and weaknesses using case study examples. Availability and Implementation: Freely available on the web at http://dna.leeds.ac.uk/GeneTIER/. Contact: umaan@leeds.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25861967

  17. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  18. Engineered Gene Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasty, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    Uncovering the structure and function of gene regulatory networks has become one of the central challenges of the post-genomic era. Theoretical models of protein-DNA feedback loops and gene regulatory networks have long been proposed, and recently, certain qualitative features of such models have been experimentally corroborated. This talk will focus on model and experimental results that demonstrate how a naturally occurring gene network can be used as a ``parts list'' for synthetic network design. The model formulation leads to computational and analytical approaches relevant to nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics, and the utility of such a formulation will be demonstrated through the consideration of specific design criteria for several novel genetic devices. Fluctuations originating from small molecule-number effects will be discussed in the context of model predictions, and the experimental validation of these stochastic effects underscores the importance of internal noise in gene expression. Potential biotech applications will be highlighted within the framework of cellular control schemes. Specifically, the coupling of an oscillating cellular process to a synthetic oscillator will be considered, and the resulting model behavior will be analyzed in the context of synchronization. The underlying methodology highlights the utility of engineering-based methods in the design of synthetic gene regulatory networks.

  19. Characterizing gene family evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements. PMID:19461954

  20. Beyond the Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fox Keller, Evelyn; Harel, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a response to the increasing difficulty biologists find in agreeing upon a definition of the gene, and indeed, the increasing disarray in which that concept finds itself. After briefly reviewing these problems, we propose an alternative to both the concept and the word gene—an alternative that, like the gene, is intended to capture the essence of inheritance, but which is both richer and more expressive. It is also clearer in its separation of what the organism statically is (what it tangibly inherits) and what it dynamically does (its functionality and behavior). Our proposal of a genetic functor, or genitor, is a sweeping extension of the classical genotype/phenotype paradigm, yet it appears to be faithful to the findings of contemporary biology, encompassing many of the recently emerging—and surprisingly complex—links between structure and functionality. PMID:18043738

  1. Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors present an attractive approach for gene therapy applications due to the rapid and simple recombinant virus particle production and their broad range of mammalian host cell transduction. Mainly three types of alphavirus vectors, namely naked RNA, recombinant particles and DNA/RNA layered vectors, have been subjected to preclinical studies with the goal of achieving prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy, particularly in oncology. In this context, immunization with alphavirus vectors has provided protection against challenges with tumor cells. Moreover, alphavirus intratumoral and systemic delivery has demonstrated substantial tumor regression and significant prolonged survival rates in various animal tumor models. Recent discoveries of the strong association of RNA interference and disease have accelerated gene therapy based approaches, where alphavirus-based gene delivery can play an important role. PMID:25961488

  2. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. wiley.co.uk/genmed/ clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC. PMID:25309069

  3. Multidimensional gene search with Genehopper

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Matthias; Tönnies, Sascha; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Simon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The high abundance of genetic information enables researchers to gain new insights from the comparison of human genes according to their similarities. However, existing tools that allow the exploration of such gene-to-gene relationships, apply each similarity independently. To make use of multidimensional scoring, we developed a new search engine named Genehopper. It can handle two query types: (i) the typical use case starts with a term-to-gene search, i.e. an optimized full-text search for an anchor gene of interest. The web-interface can handle one or more terms including gene symbols and identifiers of Ensembl, UniProt, EntrezGene and RefSeq. (ii) When the anchor gene is defined, the user can explore its neighborhood by a gene-to-gene search as the weighted sum of nine normalized gene similarities based on sequence homology, protein domains, mRNA expression profiles, Gene Ontology Annotation, gene symbols and other features. Each weight can be adjusted by the user, allowing flexible customization of the gene search. All implemented similarities have a low pairwise correlation (max r2 = 0.4) implying a low linear dependency, i.e. any change in a single weight has an effect on the ranking. Thus, we treated them as separate dimensions in the search space. Genehopper is freely available at http://genehopper.ifis.cs.tu-bs.de. PMID:25990726

  4. Multidimensional gene search with Genehopper.

    PubMed

    Munz, Matthias; Tönnies, Sascha; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Simon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The high abundance of genetic information enables researchers to gain new insights from the comparison of human genes according to their similarities. However, existing tools that allow the exploration of such gene-to-gene relationships, apply each similarity independently. To make use of multidimensional scoring, we developed a new search engine named Genehopper. It can handle two query types: (i) the typical use case starts with a term-to-gene search, i.e. an optimized full-text search for an anchor gene of interest. The web-interface can handle one or more terms including gene symbols and identifiers of Ensembl, UniProt, EntrezGene and RefSeq. (ii) When the anchor gene is defined, the user can explore its neighborhood by a gene-to-gene search as the weighted sum of nine normalized gene similarities based on sequence homology, protein domains, mRNA expression profiles, Gene Ontology Annotation, gene symbols and other features. Each weight can be adjusted by the user, allowing flexible customization of the gene search. All implemented similarities have a low pairwise correlation (max r(2) = 0.4) implying a low linear dependency, i.e. any change in a single weight has an effect on the ranking. Thus, we treated them as separate dimensions in the search space. Genehopper is freely available at http://genehopper.ifis.cs.tu-bs.de. PMID:25990726

  5. Origin of?Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Walter; de Souza, Sandro J.; Long, Manyuan

    1997-01-01

    We discuss two tests of the hypothesis that the first genes were assembled from exons. The hypothesis of exon shuffling in the progenote predicts that intron phases will be correlated so that exons will be an integer number of codons and predicts that the exons will be correlated with compact regions of polypeptide chain. These predictions have been tested on ancient conserved proteins (proteins without introns in prokaryotes but with introns in eukaryotes) and hold with high statistical significance. We conclude that introns are correlated with compact features of proteins 15-, 22-, or 30-amino acid residues long, as was predicted by “The Exon Theory of Genes.” PMID:9223251

  6. Phospholipid – Driven gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Musille, Paul M.; Kohn, Jeffrey A.; Ortlund, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids (PLs), well known for their fundamental role in cellular structure, play critical signaling roles via their derivatives and cleavage products acting as second messengers in signaling cascades. Recent work has shown that intact PLs act as signaling molecules in their own right by modulating the activity of nuclear hormone transcription factors responsible for tuning genes involved in metabolism, lipid flux, steroid synthesis and inflammation. As such, PLs have been classified as novel hormones. This review highlights recent work in PL-driven gene regulation with a focus on the unique structural features of phospholipid-sensing transcription factors and what sets them apart from well known soluble phospholipid transporters. PMID:23333623

  7. Genes and Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in primates, rodents and birds suggests that FoxP2 and other language-related genes are interactors in the neuromolecular networks that underlie subsystems of language, such symbolic understanding, vocal learning and theory of mind. The whole picture will only come together through comparative and integrative study into how the human language singularity evolved. PMID:19913899

  8. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were ?-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and ?-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, ?-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  9. Differentially Coexpressed Genes

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    Fine-tuning #12;Do these pattern exist in real data ? Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia · About 1/3 of all compared cytogenetically normal children to those with the phil+ translocation Yeoh EJ, RossMEet al. (2002) Classication, subtype discovery, and prediction of outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia by gene

  10. Gene electrotransfer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Heller, Richard; Heller, Loree C

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid or non-viral gene therapy offers an alternative to classic viral gene delivery that negates the need for a biological vector. In this case, delivery is enhanced by a variety of approaches including lipid or polymer conjugation, particle-mediated delivery, hydrodynamic delivery, ultrasound or electroporation. Electroporation was originally used as a laboratory tool to deliver DNA to bacterial and mammalian cells in culture. Electrode development allowed this technique to be modified for in vivo use. After preclinical therapeutic studies, clinical delivery of cell impermeant chemotherapeutic agents progressed to clinical delivery of plasmid DNA. One huge benefit of this delivery technique is its malleability. The pulse protocol used for plasmid delivery can be fine-tuned to control the levels and duration of subsequent transgene expression. This fine-tuning allows transgene expression to be tailored to each therapeutic application. Effective and appropriate expression induces the desired clinical response that is a critical component for any gene therapy. This chapter focuses on clinical trials using in vivo electroporation or electrotransfer as a plasmid delivery method. The first clinical trial was initiated in 2004, and now more than fifty trials use electric fields for gene delivery. Safety and tolerability has been demonstrated by several groups, and early clinical efficacy results are promising in both cancer therapeutic and infectious disease vaccine applications. PMID:25620013

  11. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA microarray technology is fast becoming a standard tool for gene expression analysis. The laboratory methods and protocols for array construction, processing, and hybridization are well established. Many of the initial plant genome sequencing projects are providing large sets of expressed seque...

  12. Inferring Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lassalle, Florent; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal or Lateral Gene Transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. In the presence of HGT events, different fragments of the genome are the result of different evolutionary histories. This can therefore complicate the investigations of evolutionary relatedness of lineages and species. Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages [1]. Computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average, whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. The evaluation and benchmarking of HGT inference methods typically rely upon simulated genomes, for which the true history is known. On real data, different methods tend to infer different HGT events, and as a result it can be difficult to ascertain all but simple and clear-cut HGT events. PMID:26020646

  13. Naming genes beyond Caenorhabditis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclature of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans is based on long-standing, successful guidelines established in the late 1970s. Over time these guidelines have matured into a comprehensive, systematic nomenclature that is easy to apply, descriptive and therefore highly informative. Recently, a f...

  14. IBMFS - gene mutations

    Cancer.gov

    A "mutation" is a change in a gene that prevents it from working properly. A "germline" mutation is a change that occurs in the egg or the sperm, or both, and is passed from one parent or both parents to the child.

  15. Genes and Vocal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in…

  16. GENES REGULATING CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    GENES REGULATING CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM Chau Vu Bio 118 #12;FUNCTIONS OF CHOLESTEROL Maintain atherosclerosis #12;SYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL Occurs in cytoplasm and microsomes acetyl-CoA ­ starting material OF CHOLESTEROL #12;REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL Synthesis and dietary intake: Normal Adult: produce1g/day; consume

  17. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  18. Your Genes, Your Choices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to science literacy and the public understanding of science. Through its Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, AAAS has been a ... Your Genes, Your Choices is a publication of Science + Literacy for Health, a project of ... for Education and Human Resources . The publication was funded by ...

  19. Gene Manipulation In Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum, the most abundant metal on earth, is detrimental to plant growth and agricultural production. There are about 2.5 billion hectares of acid soils high in aluminum around the world. Molecular markers linked to aluminum tolerance gene complexes in rye would be of value in marker-mediated ge...

  20. Gene-Environment Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Behavioural genetics was initially concerned with partitioning population variance into that due to genetics and that due to environmental influences. The implication was that the two were separate and it was assumed that gene-environment interactions were usually of so little importance that they could safely be ignored. Theoretical…

  1. GENE METHYLATION CHANGES IN TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES INDUCED BY ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The choice of a dose-response model used for extrapolation can be influenced by knowledge of mechanism of action. We have already showed that arsenic affects methylation of the human p53 gene promoter. Evidence that genes other than the p53 tumor suppressor gene are affected woul...

  2. The Gene Ontology (GO) database and informatics Gene Ontology Consortium*

    E-print Network

    The Gene Ontology (GO) database and informatics resource Gene Ontology Consortium* GO-EBI, EMBL and Accepted September 12, 2003 ABSTRACT The Gene Ontology (GO) project (http://www. geneontology and sequences. Many model organism databases and genome annotation groups use the GO and contribute

  3. [Gene pool and gene geography of the USSR population].

    PubMed

    Rychkov, Iu G; Balanovskaia, E V

    1992-01-01

    Gene pool and gene geography are discussed from the point of view of their conceptual history beginning from the original concept of A.S. Serebrovski? (1928). Difference between the present-day gene geography and gene geography of gene pool is accentuated: the former only represents a portion of the latter. Historical and territorial integrity of the USSR population gene pool, in conjunction with its huge diversity, is the main problem being analysed by various means of computerized genetic cartography. Coupled with the gene frequency mapping, following methods were also used: mapping of average heterozygosity, of interpopulation differentiation, of principal component scores and mapping of geographical trend for each mapped genetic parameter. The work is based on 100 allelic genes and haplotypes from 30 independent loci studied on the average in 225 local populations. Statistical analysis of gene geographical maps is based on 3975 nodes of regular cartographic net for the USSR territory. The wind rose of systematic changes in the USSR gene pool has three main geographic orientations: W-E, SW-NE and S-N. At the same time, there are only two main systematic forces of gene pool evolution: the force of social history with predominant W-E orientation and the force of natural history with predominant S-N orientation of their actions. The heterozygosity level of gene pool declines strictly in accordance with the resultant in the SW-NE direction. PMID:1582574

  4. Spectral Clustering Gene Ontology Terms to Group Genes by Function

    E-print Network

    Zell, Andreas

    Spectral Clustering Gene Ontology Terms to Group Genes by Function Nora Speer, Christian Spieth throughput me- thods like DNA microarrays, biologists are capable of producing huge amounts of data. During the analysis of such data the need for a group- ing of the genes according to their biological function arises

  5. Proto-genes and de novo gene birth

    PubMed Central

    Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Rolland, Thomas; Wapinski, Ilan; Calderwood, Michael A.; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Simonis, Nicolas; Charloteaux, Benoit; Hidalgo, César A.; Barbette, Justin; Santhanam, Balaji; Brar, Gloria A.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Regev, Aviv; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Cusick, Michael E.; Vidal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Novel protein-coding genes can arise either through re-organization of pre-existing genes or de novo1,2. Processes involving re-organization of pre-existing genes, notably following gene duplication, have been extensively described1,2. In contrast, de novo gene birth remains poorly understood, mainly because translation of sequences devoid of genes, or “non-genic” sequences, is expected to produce insignificant polypeptides rather than proteins with specific biological functions1,3-6. Here, we formalize an evolutionary model according to which functional genes evolve de novo through transitory proto-genes4 generated by widespread translational activity in non-genic sequences. Testing this model at genome-scale in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we detect translation of hundreds of short species-specific open reading frames (ORFs) located in non-genic sequences. These translation events appear to provide adaptive potential7, as suggested by their differential regulation upon stress and by signatures of retention by natural selection. In line with our model, we establish that S. cerevisiae ORFs can be placed within an evolutionary continuum ranging from non-genic sequences to genes. We identify ~1,900 candidate proto-genes among S. cerevisiae ORFs and find that de novo gene birth from such a reservoir may be more prevalent than sporadic gene duplication. Our work illustrates that evolution exploits seemingly dispensable sequences to generate adaptive functional innovation. PMID:22722833

  6. Intervention in gene regulatory networks 

    E-print Network

    Choudhary, Ashish

    2006-10-30

    In recent years Boolean Networks (BN) and Probabilistic Boolean Networks (PBN) have become popular paradigms for modeling gene regulation. A PBN is a collection of BNs in which the gene state vector transitions according to the rules of one...

  7. Chapter 15: Disease Gene Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Disease-causing aberrations in the normal function of a gene define that gene as a disease gene. Proving a causal link between a gene and a disease experimentally is expensive and time-consuming. Comprehensive prioritization of candidate genes prior to experimental testing drastically reduces the associated costs. Computational gene prioritization is based on various pieces of correlative evidence that associate each gene with the given disease and suggest possible causal links. A fair amount of this evidence comes from high-throughput experimentation. Thus, well-developed methods are necessary to reliably deal with the quantity of information at hand. Existing gene prioritization techniques already significantly improve the outcomes of targeted experimental studies. Faster and more reliable techniques that account for novel data types are necessary for the development of new diagnostics, treatments, and cure for many diseases. PMID:23633938

  8. Regulation of eucaryotic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Brent, R.; Ptashne, M.S

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a method of regulating the expression of a gene in a eucaryotic cell. The method consists of: providing in the eucaryotic cell, a peptide, derived from or substantially similar to a peptide of a procaryotic cell able to bind to DNA upstream from or within the gene, the amount of the peptide being sufficient to bind to the gene and thereby control expression of the gene.

  9. Deconstructing cell determination: proneural genes

    E-print Network

    Montpellier II, Université

    involved in the development of sense organs in Drosophila, which itself has been the starting point genes in vertebrates. The first event leading to the formation of a sense organ in flies: for example, the genes achaete and scute confer the competence to form external sense organs, while the gene

  10. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  11. Evolutionary Origin of Orphan Genes

    E-print Network

    Evolutionary Origin of Orphan Genes Diethard Tautz, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology Orphangenesaregenesthatoccurinspecificevolutionary lineages without similarity to genes outside of these lin- eages and have, therefore, alternatively been named taxonomically restricted genes. They were so far con- sidered to emerge through

  12. Clinical Perspective Genes Associated with

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Clinical Perspective Genes Associated with Alcohol Dependence There is good evidence from studies, hundreds of genes likely are involved in this complex disorder, with each variant contributing only a very small effect. Therefore, identifying individual risk genes is difficult. Using a new approach

  13. PLANT MORPHOGENESIS AND KNOX GENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KNOX genes function in plant meristems, which produce leaves and stems. Three recent studies show that the dwarf phenotype, brevipedicellus, is caused by a recessive mutation in a KNOX gene. A fourth study shows that misexpression of KNOX genes leads to novel features that may have selective value....

  14. Eukaryotic Gene Prediction Kelli Davies

    E-print Network

    Eukaryotic Gene Prediction Kelli Davies 2009 December 12 Introduction: The advent of large in 1977, that of a small bacteriophage consisting of 11 genes over 5.4kb of DNA. In the bacteriophage, coding genes comprise 95% of the genome.1 Since then, numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes have

  15. From SNPs to Genes: Disease Association at the Gene Level

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Benjamin; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Schlitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) at a gene level is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes that lead to disease. In order to incorporate prior biological knowledge such as pathways and protein interactions in the analysis of GWAS data it is necessary to derive one measure of association for each gene. We compare three different methods to obtain gene-wide test statistics from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based association data: choosing the test statistic from the most significant SNP; the mean test statistics of all SNPs; and the mean of the top quartile of all test statistics. We demonstrate that the gene-wide test statistics can be controlled for the number of SNPs within each gene and show that all three methods perform considerably better than expected by chance at identifying genes with confirmed associations. By applying each method to GWAS data for Crohn's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes we identified new potential disease genes. PMID:21738570

  16. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & ... by a "bad" gene. Continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: Somatic ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: What is gene therapy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Precision Medicine Next Handbook > Gene Therapy > What is gene therapy? Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses ... have no other cures. For general information about gene therapy: MedlinePlus from the National Library of Medicine offers ...

  18. Biometrics 000, 000000 DOI: 000 Powerful tests for detecting a gene effect in the presence of possible gene-gene

    E-print Network

    Maity, Arnab

    Biometrics 000, 000­000 DOI: 000 000 0000 Powerful tests for detecting a gene effect in the presence of possible gene-gene interactions using garrote kernel machines Arnab Maity Department a gene effect on a continuous outcome in the presence of possible gene-gene interactions (epistasis

  19. Graphene based gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Thickness distribution of GO and GO-PEI; IR and TGA data; and confocal images of HeLa cells treated with bare EGFP pDNA and GO + pDNA. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00680g

  20. Brains, genes, and primates.

    PubMed

    Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Callaway, Edward M; Caddick, Sarah J; Churchland, Patricia; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A; Miller, Cory T; Mitchell, Jude F; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R; Movshon, J Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Silva, Afonso C; Strick, Peter L; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-05-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators, and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  1. Genes and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, E J

    2000-11-01

    Drug addiction, like all psychiatric disorders, is defined solely in behavioural terms. For example, addiction can be considered a loss of control over drug-taking, or compulsive drug-seeking and -taking despite horrendous consequences. Abnormal behaviours are a consequence of aberrant brain function, which means that it is a tangible goal to identify the biological underpinnings of addiction. The genetic basis of addiction encompasses two broad areas of enquiry. One of these is the identification of genetic variation in humans that partly determines susceptibility to addiction. The other is the use of animal models to investigate the role of specific genes in mediating the development of addiction. Whereas recent advances in this latter effort are heartening, a major challenge remains: to understand how the many genes implicated in rodent models interact to yield as complex a phenotype as addiction. PMID:11062465

  2. Alphaviruses in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Alphaviruses are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses, which as gene therapy vectors provide high-level transient gene expression. Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus have been engineered as efficient replication-deficient and -competent expression vectors. Alphavirus vectors have frequently been used as vehicles for tumor vaccine generation. Moreover, SFV and SIN vectors have been applied for intratumoral injections in animals implanted with tumor xenografts. SIN vectors have demonstrated natural tumor targeting, which might permit systemic vector administration. Another approach for systemic delivery of SFV has been to encapsulate replication-deficient viral particles in liposomes, which can provide passive targeting to tumors and allow repeated administration without host immune responses. This approach has demonstrated safe delivery of encapsulated SFV particles to melanoma and kidney carcinoma patients in a phase I trial. Finally, the prominent neurotropism of alphaviruses make them attractive for the treatment of CNS-related diseases. PMID:21994535

  3. Pure genes, pure genius.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Steven L

    2012-09-14

    The 2012 Albert Lasker Special Achievement Award in Medical Science will be shared by Donald Brown and Tom Maniatis for their scientific work leading to the purification and study of single genes by physical and molecular biological methodologies. Brown and Maniatis are also recognized for their extraordinary commitment and generosity in promoting the careers of young scientists. The impact of these accomplishments has transformed biological and medical science over the past four decades. PMID:22980972

  4. Gene Expression in Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  5. DETECTING CANCER-RELATED GENES AND GENE-GENE INTERACTIONS BY MACHINE LEARNING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Han, Bing

    2011-12-31

    an integrative method based on the bootstrapping K-S test to evaluate a large number of microarray datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that my method can find meaningful alterations in gene relations. For gene-gene interaction detection, I propose...

  6. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  7. GENE DELIVERY TO BONE

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    Gene delivery to bone is useful both as an experimental tool and as a potential therapeutic strategy. Among its advantages over protein delivery are the potential for directed, sustained and regulated expression of authentically processed, nascent proteins. Although no clinical trials have been initiated, there is a substantial pre-clinical literature documenting the successful transfer of genes to bone, and their intraosseous expression. Recombinant vectors derived from adenovirus, retrovirus and lentivirus, as well as non-viral vectors, have been used for this purpose. Both ex vivo and in vivo strategies, including gene-activated matrices, have been explored. Ex vivo delivery has often employed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), partly because of their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. MSCs also have the potential to home to bone after systemic administration, which could serve as a useful way to deliver transgenes in a disseminated fashion for the treatment of diseases affecting the whole skeleton, such as osteoporosis or osteogenesis imperfecta. Local delivery of osteogenic transgenes, particularly those encoding bone morphogenetic proteins, has shown great promise in a number of applications where it is necessary to regenerate bone. These include healing large segmental defects in long bones and the cranium, as well as spinal fusion and treating avascular necrosis. PMID:22480730

  8. Venom evolution through gene duplications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Belov, Katherine

    2012-03-15

    Venoms contain highly complex mixtures that typically include hundreds of different components and have evolved independently in a diverse range of animals including platypuses, shrews, snakes, lizards, fishes, echinoderms, spiders, wasps, centipedes, sea snails, cephalopods, jellyfish and sea anemones. Many venom genes evolved through gene duplication. Gene duplication occurs in all domains of life and provides the raw substrate from which novel function arise. In this review, we focus on the role that gene duplication has played in the origin and diversification of venom genes. We outline the selective advantages of venom gene duplicates and the role that selection has played in the retention of these duplicates. We use toxin gene intermediates to help trace the evolution of toxin innovation. We also focus on other genomic processes, such as exon and domain duplications, in venom evolution. Finally, we conclude by focusing on the use of high throughput sequencing technology in understanding venom evolution. PMID:22285376

  9. Progress in gene targeting and gene therapy for retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, M.M.; Erven, A.

    1994-09-01

    Previously, we localized disease genes involved in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), an inherited retinal degeneration, close to the rhodopsin and peripherin genes on 3q and 6p. Subsequently, we and others identified mutations in these genes in RP patients. Currently animal models for human retinopathies are being generated using gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Genomic clones for retinal genes including rhodopsin and peripherin have been obtained from a phage library carrying mouse DNA isogenic with the ES cell line (CC1.2). The peripherin clone has been sequenced to establish the genomic structure of the mouse gene. Targeting vectors for rhodopsin and peripherin including a neomycin cassette for positive selection and thymidine kinase genes enabling selection against random intergrants are under construction. Progress in vector construction will be presented. Simultaneously we are developing systems for delivery of gene therapies to retinal tissues utilizing replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5). Efficacy of infection subsequent to various methods of intraocular injection and with varying viral titers is being assayed using an adenovirus construct containing a CMV promoter LacZ fusion as reporter and the range of tissues infected and the level of duration of LacZ expression monitored. Viral constructs with the LacZ reporter gene under the control of retinal specific promoters such as rhodopsin and IRBP cloned into pXCJL.1 are under construction. An update on developments in photoreceptor cell-directed expression of virally delivered genes will be presented.

  10. Alternative Gene Form Discovery and Candidate Gene Selection from Gene Indexing?Projects

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John; Wang, Hui; Hide, Winston; Davison, Daniel B.

    1998-01-01

    Several efforts are under way to partition single-read expressed sequence tag (EST), as well as full-length transcript data, into large-scale gene indices, where transcripts are in common index classes if and only if they share a common progenitor gene. Accurate gene indexing facilitates gene expression studies, as well as inexpensive and early gene sequence discovery through assembly of ESTs that are derived from genes that have not been sequenced by classical methods. We extend, correct, and enhance the information obtained from index groups by splitting index classes into subclasses based on sequence dissimilarity (diversity). Two applications of this are highlighted in this report. First it is shown that our method can ameliorate the damage that artifacts, such as chimerism, inflict on index integrity. Additionally, we demonstrate how the organization imposed by an effective subpartition can greatly increase the sensitivity of gene expression studies by accounting for the existence and tissue- or pathology-specific regulation of novel gene isoforms and polymorphisms. We apply our subpartitioning treatment to the UniGene gene indexing project to measure a marked increase in information quality and abundance (in terms of assembly length and insertion/deletion error) after treatment and demonstrate cases where new levels of information concerning differential expression of alternate gene forms, such as regulated alternative splicing, are discovered. [Tables 2 and 3 can be viewed in their entirety as Online Supplements at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:9521931

  11. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  12. Improvements to cardiovascular gene ontology.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Ruth C; Dimmer, Emily C; Talmud, Philippa J

    2009-07-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) provides a controlled vocabulary to describe the attributes of genes and gene products in any organism. Although one might initially wonder what relevance a 'controlled vocabulary' might have for cardiovascular science, such a resource is proving highly useful for researchers investigating complex cardiovascular disease phenotypes as well as those interpreting results from high-throughput methodologies. GO enables the current functional knowledge of individual genes to be used to annotate genomic or proteomic datasets. In this way, the GO data provides a very effective way of linking biological knowledge with the analysis of the large datasets of post-genomics research. Consequently, users of high-throughput methodologies such as expression arrays or proteomics will be the main beneficiaries of such annotation sets. However, as GO annotations increase in quality and quantity, groups using small-scale approaches will gradually begin to benefit too. For example, genome wide association scans for coronary heart disease are identifying novel genes, with previously unknown connections to cardiovascular processes, and the comprehensive annotation of these novel genes might provide clues to their cardiovascular link. At least 4000 genes, to date, have been implicated in cardiovascular processes and an initiative is underway to focus on annotating these genes for the benefit of the cardiovascular community. In this article we review the current uses of Gene Ontology annotation to highlight why Gene Ontology should be of interest to all those involved in cardiovascular research. PMID:19046747

  13. Reverse engineering transcriptional gene networks.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is a step-by-step guide on how to infer gene networks from gene expression profiles. The definition of a gene network is given in Subheading 1, where the different types of networks are discussed. The chapter then guides the readers through a data-gathering process in order to build a compendium of gene expression profiles from a public repository. Gene expression profiles are then discretized and a statistical relationship between genes, called mutual information (MI), is computed. Gene pairs with insignificant MI scores are then discarded by applying one of the described pruning steps. The retained relationships are then used to build up a Boolean adjacency matrix used as input for a clustering algorithm to divide the network into modules (or communities). The gene network can then be used as a hypothesis generator for discovering gene function and analyzing gene signatures. Some case studies are presented, and an online web-tool called Netview is described. PMID:24233783

  14. Imprinting genes associated with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Much work has been carried out to investigate the genetic and epigenetic basis of endometriosis and proposed that endometriosis has been described as an epigenetic disease. The purpose of this study was to extract the imprinting genes that are associated with endometriosis development. Methods: The information on the imprinting genes can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://www.geneimprint.com/site/genes-by-species. Results: In the current version, the database contains 150 human imprinted genes derived from the literature. We searched gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis of endometriosis. From the genomic imprinting database, we picked 10 genes that were highly associated with female reproduction; prominent among them were paternally expressed genes (DIRAS3, BMP8B, CYP1B1, ZFAT, IGF2, MIMT1, or MIR296) and maternally expressed genes (DVL1, FGFRL1, or CDKN1C). These imprinted genes may be associated with reproductive biology such as endometriosis, pregnancy loss, decidualization process and preeclampsia. Discussion: This study supports the possibility that aberrant epigenetic dysregulation of specific imprinting genes may contribute to endometriosis predisposition. PMID:26417259

  15. Broker genes in human disease.

    PubMed

    Cai, James J; Borenstein, Elhanan; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2010-01-01

    Genes that underlie human disease are important subjects of systems biology research. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mendelian and complex disease genes have distinct and consistent protein-protein interaction (PPI) properties. We show that five different network properties can be reduced to two independent metrics when applied to the human PPI network. These two metrics largely coincide with the degree (number of connections) and the clustering coefficient (the number of connections among the neighbors of a particular protein). We demonstrate that disease genes have simultaneously unusually high degree and unusually low clustering coefficient. Such genes can be described as brokers in that they connect many proteins that would not be connected otherwise. We show that these results are robust to the effect of gene age and inspection bias variation. Notably, genes identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS) have network patterns that are almost indistinguishable from the network patterns of nondisease genes and significantly different from the network patterns of complex disease genes identified through non-GWAS means. This suggests either that GWAS focused on a distinct set of diseases associated with an unusual set of genes or that mapping of GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms onto the causally affected neighboring genes is error prone. PMID:20937604

  16. Broker Genes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, James J.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2010-01-01

    Genes that underlie human disease are important subjects of systems biology research. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mendelian and complex disease genes have distinct and consistent protein–protein interaction (PPI) properties. We show that five different network properties can be reduced to two independent metrics when applied to the human PPI network. These two metrics largely coincide with the degree (number of connections) and the clustering coefficient (the number of connections among the neighbors of a particular protein). We demonstrate that disease genes have simultaneously unusually high degree and unusually low clustering coefficient. Such genes can be described as brokers in that they connect many proteins that would not be connected otherwise. We show that these results are robust to the effect of gene age and inspection bias variation. Notably, genes identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS) have network patterns that are almost indistinguishable from the network patterns of nondisease genes and significantly different from the network patterns of complex disease genes identified through non-GWAS means. This suggests either that GWAS focused on a distinct set of diseases associated with an unusual set of genes or that mapping of GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms onto the causally affected neighboring genes is error prone. PMID:20937604

  17. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  18. Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer by Triangulating Gene Expression, Gene Location, and Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates – or integrates – three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25949096

  19. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating complex traits and conditions. PMID:25617623

  20. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garth R; Hem, Vichet; Katz, Kenneth S; Ovetsky, Michael; Wallin, Craig; Ermolaeva, Olga; Tolstoy, Igor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Pruitt, Kim D; Maglott, Donna R; Murphy, Terence D

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP. PMID:25355515

  1. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garth R.; Hem, Vichet; Katz, Kenneth S.; Ovetsky, Michael; Wallin, Craig; Ermolaeva, Olga; Tolstoy, Igor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Pruitt, Kim D.; Maglott, Donna R.; Murphy, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP. PMID:25355515

  2. Heterochromatic Genes in Drosophila: A Comparative Analysis of Two Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Sandra R.; McAllister, Bryant F.; Sinclair, Donald A. R.; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen A.; Marchetti, Marcella; Pimpinelli, Sergio; Honda, Barry M.

    2006-01-01

    Centromeric heterochromatin comprises ?30% of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, forming a transcriptionally repressive environment that silences euchromatic genes juxtaposed nearby. Surprisingly, there are genes naturally resident in heterochromatin, which appear to require this environment for optimal activity. Here we report an evolutionary analysis of two genes, Dbp80 and RpL15, which are adjacent in proximal 3L heterochromatin of D. melanogaster. DmDbp80 is typical of previously described heterochromatic genes: large, with repetitive sequences in its many introns. In contrast, DmRpL15 is uncharacteristically small. The orthologs of these genes were examined in D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. In situ hybridization and whole-genome assembly analysis show that these genes are adjacent, but not centromeric in the genome of D. pseudoobscura, while they are located on different chromosomal elements in D. virilis. Dbp80 gene organization differs dramatically among these species, while RpL15 structure is conserved. A bioinformatic analysis in five additional Drosophila species demonstrates active repositioning of these genes both within and between chromosomal elements. This study shows that Dbp80 and RpL15 can function in contrasting chromatin contexts on an evolutionary timescale. The complex history of these genes also provides unique insight into the dynamic nature of genome evolution. PMID:16648646

  3. Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The concept of using gene transfer strategies for cartilage repair originates from the idea of transferring genes encoding therapeutic factors into the repair tissue, resulting in a temporarily and spatially defined delivery of therapeutic molecules to sites of cartilage damage. This review focuses on the potential benefits of using gene therapy approaches for the repair of articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage, including articular cartilage defects resulting from acute trauma, osteochondritis dissecans, osteonecrosis, and osteoarthritis. Possible applications for meniscal repair comprise meniscal lesions, meniscal sutures, and meniscal transplantation. Recent studies in both small and large animal models have demonstrated the applicability of gene-based approaches for cartilage repair. Chondrogenic pathways were stimulated in the repair tissue and in osteoarthritic cartilage using genes for polypeptide growth factors and transcription factors. Although encouraging data have been generated, a successful translation of gene therapy for cartilage repair will require an ongoing combined effort of orthopedic surgeons and of basic scientists. PMID:26069580

  4. XLMR genes: Update 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lubs, H.A.; Tranebjaerg, L.; Arena, J.F.

    1996-07-12

    A current list of all known forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and a slightly revised classification are presented. The number of known disorders has not increased because 6 disorders have been combined based on new molecular data or on clinical grounds and only 6 newly described XLMR disorders have been reported. Of the current 105 XLMR disorders, 34 have been mapped, and 18 disorders and 1 non-specific XLMR (FRAXE) have been cloned. The number of families with nonspecific XLMR with a LOD score of {ge}2.0 has more than doubled, with 42 (including FRAXE) now being known. A summary of the localization of presumed nonspecific mental retardation (MR) genes from well-studied X-chromosomal translocations and deletions is also included. Only 10-12 nonoverlapping loci are required to explain all localizations of non-specific MR from both approaches. These new trends mark the beginning of a significantly improved understanding of the role of genes on the X chromosome in producing MR. Continued close collaboration between clinical and molecular investigators will be required to complete the process. 105 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    Conotoxins are the peptidic components of the venoms of marine cone snails (genus Conus). They are remarkably diverse in terms of structure and function. Unique potency and selectivity profiles for a range of neuronal targets have made several conotoxins valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics, and has resulted in a concerted and increasing drive to identify and characterise new conotoxins. Conotoxins are translated from mRNA as peptide precursors, and cDNA sequencing is now the primary method for identification of new conotoxin sequences. As a result, gene superfamily, a classification based on precursor signal peptide identity, has become the most convenient method of conotoxin classification. Here we review each of the described conotoxin gene superfamilies, with a focus on the structural and functional diversity present in each. This review is intended to serve as a practical guide to conotoxin superfamilies and to facilitate interpretation of the increasing number of conotoxin precursor sequences being identified by targeted-cDNA sequencing and more recently high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. PMID:25522317

  6. Genes of aging.

    PubMed

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne

    2003-10-01

    According to developmental genetics theories, aging is a genetically programmed and controlled continuum of development and maturation. Being dynamic and malleable processes, development and aging are controlled not only by genes but also by environmental and epigenetic influences that predominate in the second half of life. Genetic mutations affect many phenotypes in flies, worms, rodents, and humans which share several diseases or their equivalents, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious disorders as well as their susceptibility to them. Life span and stress resistance are closely linked. Oxidative stress actually constitutes a defined hypothesis of aging in that macromolecule oxidative damage accumulates with age and tends to be associated with life expectancy. DNA methylation, a force in the regulation of gene expression, is also one of the biomarkers of genetic damage. The mitotic clock of aging is marked, if not guided, by telomeres, essential genetic elements stabilizing natural chromosomic ends. The dream of humans to live longer, healthy lives is being tested by attempts to modify longevity in animal models, frequently by dietary manipulation. The quest continues to understand the mechanisms of healthy aging, one of the most compelling areas of research in the 21st century. PMID:14577056

  7. Peptide-based gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahat, R I; Monera, O D; Smith, L C; Rolland, A

    1999-04-01

    To achieve effective plasmid-based gene therapy, the control of cellular access and uptake, intracellular trafficking and nuclear retention of plasmids must be achieved. Inefficient endosomal release, cytoplasmic transport and nuclear entry of plasmids are amongst some of the key limiting factors in the use of plasmids for effective gene therapy. A number of non-viral gene delivery systems have been designed to overcome these limiting factors. The most common approach to protect and control plasmid distribution is to complex plasmids with cationic lipids or polymers through electrostatic interactions. Endosomal release of plasmids can be achieved, for instance, by using pH-sensitive lipids, inactivated viral particles, endosomolytic peptides and polymers. Among the least explored gene delivery systems are those that consist mainly of synthetic, short peptides. Peptides can be incorporated into multicomponent gene delivery complexes for specific purposes, such as for DNA condensation, cell-specific targeting, endosomolysis or nuclear transport. The aims of this review are to: (i) explore the conceptual and experimental aspects of peptide-DNA interactions; (ii) critically assess the possible use of peptides for efficient gene transfer; and (iii) present an overview on the use of peptides to enhance the effectiveness of other gene delivery systems. On balance, peptide-based gene delivery systems appear to have a significant potential as commercially viable gene delivery products. PMID:11715946

  8. Comparative genomics of metabolic pathways in Mycobacterium species: gene duplication, gene decay and lateral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Bannantine, John P; Golding, Geoffrey B

    2006-11-01

    The genus Mycobacterium comprises significant pathogenic species that infect both humans and animals. One species within this genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the primary killer of humans resulting from bacterial infections. Five mycobacterial genomes belonging to four different species (M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis) have been sequenced to date and another 14 mycobacterial genomes are at various stages of completion. A comparative analysis of the gene products of key metabolic pathways revealed that the major differences among these species are in the gene products constituting the cell wall and the gene families encoding the acidic glycine-rich (PE/PPE/PGRS) proteins. Mycobacterium leprae has evolved by retaining a minimal gene set for most of the gene families, whereas M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis has acquired some of the virulence factors by lateral gene transfer. PMID:17064286

  9. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  10. In This Issue Gene Therapy ........................................1

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ying

    In This Issue · Gene Therapy ........................................1 · US / Australia Joint such as HIV may all be treatable in the future thanks to the field of research called gene therapy. A major challenge with gene therapy is the risks associated with gene delivery. Normally, genes are delivered across

  11. MRI-guided gene therapy Xiaoming Yanga

    E-print Network

    Atalar, Ergin

    Minireview MRI-guided gene therapy Xiaoming Yanga , Ergin Atalara,b,* a Department of Radiology gene expression. This review summarizes the current status of MRI- guided gene therapy. Ó 2006 resonance imaging; MRI-guided therapy; Gene therapy 1. Introduction Gene therapy is an exciting frontier

  12. Computing Gene Functional Similarity Using Combined Graphs

    E-print Network

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham

    way to explore the functional relationships between genes. We conducted the evaluation on a dataset gene functions and identifying gene disease associations are also based on GO. Gene ontologyComputing Gene Functional Similarity Using Combined Graphs Anurag Nagar Hisham Al-Mubaid Said

  13. REGULATORY GENES IN CREATING FLOWER COLOR PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in structural gene expression are responsible for a wide range of responses from human cancer to patterned flowers. Gene silencing is one of the ways in which gene expression is controlled. We have developed a model system to study gene silencing using a gene silencing mutation in Petun...

  14. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  15. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24604063

  16. New genes for boys

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.H.

    1995-11-01

    Sex is a fascinating topic, particularly at the level of molecular genetics, since it represents a wonderful paradigm for mammalian organ development. Recently, interest in the molecular basis for mammalian sex determination has been heating up as new pieces are added to the jigsaw puzzle of testis development. In mammals, the Y chromosome is male determining and encodes a gene referred to as TDF (testis-determining factor), which induces the indifferent embryonic gonad to develop as a testis. Subsequent male sexual differentiation is largely a consequence of hormonal secretion from the testis. In the absence of the Y chromosome, the testis-determining pathway fails to be initiated, and the embryonic gonad develops as an ovary, resulting in female development. 32 refs.

  17. Cardiac Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chaanine, Antoine H.; Kalman, Jill; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic progressive disorder where frequent and recurrent hospitalizations are associated with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence and the prevalence of this disease will increase with the increase in the number of the aging population of the United States. Understanding the molecular pathology and pathophysiology of this disease will uncover novel targets and therapies that can restore the function or attenuate the damage of malfunctioning cardiomyocytes by gene therapy that becomes an interesting and a promising field for the treatment of heart failure as well as other diseases in the future. Of equal importance is developing vectors and delivery methods that can efficiently transduce the majority of the cardiomyocytes, that can offer a long term expression and that can escape the host immune response. Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors have the potential to become a promising novel therapeutic vehicles for molecular medicine in the future. PMID:21092890

  18. Reconciling Gene and Genome Duplication Events: Using Multiple Nuclear Gene Families to Infer the Phylogeny of the

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    Reconciling Gene and Genome Duplication Events: Using Multiple Nuclear Gene Families to Infer represents a single genealogical sample with no recombination among genes, potentially limiting polyploidization, gene duplication, and gene extinction can result in homologous gene copies that are difficult

  19. Gene transfer and cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    French, B A

    1993-08-01

    Within the past four years, basic recombinant techniques (such as molecular cloning, sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, PCR, and transfection) have been combined to yield a "second generation" of recombinant DNA technology with experimental potential which could barely have been envisioned only a decade ago. This review will focus upon the genesis and cardiovascular application of two recent developments in gene transfer technology: gene targeting by homologous recombination and direct in vivo gene transfer. Gene targeting evolved from transgenic mouse technology but is distinguished by its ability to precisely disrupt or "knock-out" specific genes in the murine genome. This not only provides decisive answers to functional questions, but also produces accurate models of human genetic disorders. In vivo gene transfer provides for the direct introduction of genetic information into living tissues. In vivo gene transfer not only facilitates basic research by providing a simple and direct way to analyze gene structure and function in intact animals, but may also find direct clinical application in the treatment of genetic and acquired disorders such as familial hypercholesterolemia and restenosis. PMID:8375802

  20. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  1. Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Science > Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions By ... to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  2. Gene Expression in Oligodendroglial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Elisabeth J.; Haylock, Brian; Husband, David; du Plessis, Daniel; Sibson, D. Ross; Warnke, Peter C.; Walker, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss are more likely to be chemosensitive and have longer survival than those with intact 1p/19q, but not all respond to chemotherapy, warranting investigation of the biological basis of chemosensitivity. Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed using amplified antisense RNA from 28 oligodendroglial tumors treated with chemotherapy (26 serial stereotactic biopsy, 2 resection). Expression of differentially expressed genes was validated by real-time PCR. Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clustering of multiple samples from the same case in 14/17 cases and identified subgroups associated with tumor grade and 1p/19q status. 176 genes were differentially expressed, 164 being associated with 1p/19q loss (86% not on 1p or 19q). 94 genes differed between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy; 12 were not associated with 1p/19q loss. Significant differential expression was confirmed in 11/13 selected genes. Novel genes associated with response to therapy included SSBP2, GFRA1, FAP and RASD1. IQGAP1, INA, TGIF1, NR2F2 and MYCBP were differentially expressed in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss. Conclusion: Gene expression profiling using serial stereotactic biopsies indicated greater homogeneity within tumors than between tumors. Genes associated with 1p/19q status or response were identified warranting further elucidation of their role in oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:20966545

  3. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  4. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was also explored. Positively charged CPPs were complexed with pDNA or siRNA, which resulted in 'loose' (˜1 micron) particles. These were then condensed into small nanoparticles by using calcium, which formed "soft" crosslinks by interacting with both phosphates on nucleic acids and amines on CPPs. An optimal amount of CaCl2 produced stable, ˜100 nm complexes that exhibited higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than PEI polyplexes. CPPs also displayed negligible cytotoxicity up to 5 mg/mL. Biophysical studies of the pDNA structure within complexes suggested that pDNA within CPP complexes (condensed with calcium) had similar structure, but enhanced thermal stability compared to PEI complexes. Thus, CPP complexes emerged as simple, attractive candidates for future studies on nonviral gene delivery in vivo.

  5. GenePRIMP: A GENE PRediction IMprovement Pipeline for Prokaryotic genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-04-01

    We present 'gene prediction improvement pipeline' (GenePRIMP; http://geneprimp.jgi-psf.org/), a computational process that performs evidence-based evaluation of gene models in prokaryotic genomes and reports anomalies including inconsistent start sites, missed genes and split genes. We found that manual curation of gene models using the anomaly reports generated by GenePRIMP improved their quality, and demonstrate the applicability of GenePRIMP in improving finishing quality and comparing different genome-sequencing and annotation technologies.

  6. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    E-print Network

    Jose M. G. Vilar; Leonor Saiz

    2013-07-03

    Gene expression is a central process to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges among traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses.

  7. Nanoparticles for Retinal Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Shannon M.; Naash, Muna I.

    2010-01-01

    Ocular gene therapy is becoming a well-established field. Viral gene therapies for the treatment of Leber’s congentinal amaurosis (LCA) are in clinical trials, and many other gene therapy approaches are being rapidly developed for application to diverse ophthalmic pathologies. Of late, development of non-viral gene therapies has been an area of intense focus and one technology, polymer-compacted DNA nanoparticles, is especially promising. However, development of pharmaceutically and clinically viable therapeutics depends not only on having an effective and safe vector but also on a practical treatment strategy. Inherited retinal pathologies are caused by mutations in over 220 genes, some of which contain over 200 individual disease-causing mutations, which are individually very rare. This review will focus on both the progress and future of nanoparticles and also on what will be required to make them relevant ocular pharmaceutics. PMID:20452457

  8. Gene expression profiling in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C T M; van Baarsen, Lisa G M; Rustenburg, François; Baltus, Belinda; Fero, Mike; Verweij, Cornelis L

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the analysis of gene expression in tissues and cells has evolved from the analysis of a selected set of genes to an efficient high throughput whole-genome screening approach of potentially all genes expressed. Development of sophisticated methodologies such as microarray technology allows an open-ended survey to identify comprehensively the fraction of genes that are differentially expressed between samples and that define the samples' unique biology. By a global analysis of the genes that are expressed in cells and tissues of an individual under different conditions and during disease, we can build up "gene expression profiles (signatures)" which characterize the dynamic functioning of the genome under pathophysiological conditions. This strategy also provides the means to subdivide patients that suffer from a complex heterogeneous disease into more homogeneous subgroups. Such discovery-based research identifies biological processes that may include new genes with unknown function or genes not previously known to be involved in this process. The latter category may hold surprises that sometimes urge us to redirect our thinking. We have used microarrays to disclose the heterogeneity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients at the level of gene expression of the affected synovial tissues. Analysis of the expression profiles of synovial tissues from different patients with RA revealed considerable variability, resulting in the identification of at least two molecularly distinct forms of RA tissues. One is characterized by genes that indicate an active inflammatory infiltrate with high immunoglobulin production, whereas the other type shows little immune activation and instead shows a higher stromal cell activity. These results confirm the heterogeneous nature of RA and suggest the existence of distinct pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to RA. The differences in expression profiles provide opportunities to stratify patients for intervention therapies based on molecular criteria. PMID:17983157

  9. Gene Discovery Methods from Large-Scale Gene Expression Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Akifumi; Yano, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    Microarrays provide genome-wide gene expression changes. In current analyses, the majority of genes on the array are frequently eliminated for further analysis just in order for computational effort to be affordable. This strategy risks failure to discover whole sets of genes related to a quantitative trait of interest, which is generally controlled by several loci that might be eliminated in current approaches. Here, we describe a high-throughput gene discovery method based on correspondence analysis with a new index for expression ratios [arctan (1/ratio)] and three artificial marker genes. This method allows us to quickly analyze the whole microarray dataset without elimination and discover up/down-regulated genes related to a trait of interest. We employed an example dataset to show the theoretical advantage of this method. We then used the method to identify 88 cancer-related genes from a published microarray data from patients with breast cancer. This method can be easily performed and the result is also visible in three-dimensional viewing software that we have developed. Our method is useful for revaluating the wealth of microarray data available from web-sites.

  10. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  11. Dependence Relationships between Gene Ontology Terms based TIGR Gene Product Annotations

    E-print Network

    Borgelt, Christian

    , biological processes annotation of genes and gene products. These constitute three separate ontologiesDependence Relationships between Gene Ontology Terms based TIGR Gene Product Annotations Anand.de/~borgelt/ Abstract Gene Ontology important tool representation and processing information about gene products

  12. Neural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene expression in mouse

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    , especially in gene therapy [18]. Identifying gene function in prokaryotes is much easier than eukaryotes dueNeural networks approaches for discovering the learnable correlation between gene function and gene Keywords: Gene function prediction Self organizing maps (SOM) Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) Gene expression

  13. The GeneMANIA prediction server: biological network integration for gene prioritization

    E-print Network

    Morris, Quaid

    , OMIM and phenotype data sets may receive high weight and GeneMANIA will output genes that likely screen can use GeneMANIA to return ranked lists of genes likely to share phenotypes with thoseThe GeneMANIA prediction server: biological network integration for gene prioritization

  14. Comparing the evolutionary conservation between human essential genes, human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenhua; Zheng, Jiajia; Luan, Meiwei; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-01

    Human housekeeping genes are often confused with essential human genes, and several studies regard both types of genes as having the same level of evolutionary conservation. However, this is not necessarily the case. To clarify this, we compared the differences between human housekeeping genes and essential human genes with respect to four aspects: the evolutionary rate (dN/dS), protein sequence identity, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density and level of linkage disequilibrium (LD). The results showed that housekeeping genes had lower evolutionary rates, higher sequence identities, lower SNP densities and higher levels of LD compared with essential genes. Together, these findings indicate that housekeeping and essential genes are two distinct types of genes, and that housekeeping genes have a higher level of evolutionary conservation. Therefore, we suggest that researchers should pay careful attention to the distinctions between housekeeping genes and essential genes. Moreover, it is still controversial whether we should substitute human orthologs of mouse essential genes for human essential genes. Therefore, we compared the evolutionary features between human orthologs of mouse essential genes and human housekeeping genes and we got inconsistent results in long-term and short-term evolutionary characteristics implying the irrationality of simply replacing human essential genes with human orthologs of mouse essential genes. PMID:25911641

  15. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical University of Vienna The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy ASGCT's MISSION is to advance knowledge, awareness, and ... Manuscript Submission Podcast Batten Disease May Benefit From Gene Therapy Friday, November 20th, 2015 Gene Therapies Offer Dramatic ...

  16. Gene Therapy for Diseases and Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Home ASGCT Gene Therapy for Diseases Gene Therapy has made important medical advances in less than two decades. Within this short time ... Among the most notable advancements are the following: Gene Therapy for Genetic Disorders Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (ADA- ...

  17. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Losing Weight Safely The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Health Basics > The Basics ... endless number of possible combinations! Continue Genes and Heredity Heredity is the passing of genes from one ...

  18. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Mukul S.

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event, a gene is transferred between two species that do not have an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two ...

  19. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun; Vang, SÃ ¸ ren; Li, Ruiqiang; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoguang

    2008-02-25

    Background: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene ...

  20. Linking Genes to Cardiovascular Diseases: Gene Action and Gene-Environment Interactions.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-12-01

    A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases. Current technologies can identify candidate genes variously involved in diverse normal/abnormal morphomechanical phenotypes, and offer insights into multiple genetic factors implicated in complex cardiovascular syndromes. The expression profiles of thousands of genes are regularly ascertained under diverse conditions. Global analyses of gene expression levels are useful for cataloging genes and correlated phenotypes, and for elucidating the role of genes in maladies. Comparative expression of gene networks coupled to complex disorders can contribute insights as to how "modifier genes" influence the expressed phenotypes. Increasingly, a more comprehensive and detailed systematic understanding of genetic abnormalities underlying, for example, various genetic cardiomyopathies is emerging. Implementing genomic findings in cardiology practice may well lead directly to better diagnosing and therapeutics. There is currently evolving a strong appreciation for the value of studying gene anomalies, and doing so in a non-disjointed, cohesive manner. However, it is challenging for many-practitioners and investigators-to comprehend, interpret, and utilize the clinically increasingly accessible and affordable cardiovascular genomics studies. This survey addresses the need for fundamental understanding in this vital area. PMID:26545598

  1. Simulating evolution by gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Ohta, T

    1987-01-01

    By considering the recent finding that unequal crossing over and other molecular interactions are contributing to the evolution of multigene families, a model of the origin of repetitive genes was studied by Monte Carlo simulations. Starting from a single gene copy, how genetic systems evolve was examined under unequal crossing over, random drift and natural selection. Both beneficial and deteriorating mutations were incorporated, and the latter were assumed to occur ten times more frequently than the former. Positive natural selection favors those chromosomes with more beneficial mutations in redundant copies than others in the population, but accumulation of deteriorating mutations (pseudogenes) have no effect on fitness so long as there remains a functional gene. The results imply the following: Positive natural selection is needed in order to acquire gene families with new functions. Without it, too many pseudogenes accumulate before attaining a functional gene family. There is a large fluctuation in the outcome even if parameters are the same. When unequal crossing over occurs more frequently, the system evolves more rapidly. It was also shown, under realistic values of parameters, that the genetic load for acquiring a new gene is not as large as J.B.S. Haldane suggested, but not so small as in a model in which a system for selection started from already redundant genes. PMID:3557113

  2. GENES IN SPORT AND DOPING

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszewski, P.; Majorczyk, E.; Zembro?-?acny, A.

    2013-01-01

    Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes’ genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes’ genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques. PMID:24744482

  3. Gene therapy: here to stay.

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, I D; Cournoyer, D

    1995-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated in experiments using tumour viruses. This led to the development of a variety of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Two main approaches emerged: in-vivo modification, in which gene transfer vehicles are delivered directly into patients, and ex-vivo manipulation, in which cells from the patient are grown in culture, genetically modified and then returned to the patient. In 1990, shortly after the safety of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was demonstrated in patients with malignant melanoma, the first clinical trial of gene therapy was initiated for adenosine deaminase deficiency. Since then, the number of clinical protocols initiated worldwide has increased exponentially. Although some clinical trials now in progress are concerned with relatively rare inborn errors of metabolism, most are concerned with more commonly encountered cancers and infectious diseases. Preliminary results suggest that by the turn of the century the dream of treating diseases by replacing or supplementing the products of defective genes or introducing novel therapeutic genes will become a reality. PMID:7743447

  4. Genes in sport and doping.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, A; Kaliszewski, P; Majorczyk, E; Zembro?-?acny, A

    2013-09-01

    Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes' genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes' genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques. PMID:24744482

  5. Antisense genes in plants: an overview.

    PubMed

    van der Krol, A R; Mol, J N; Stuitje, A R

    1988-12-10

    Plants are the first multicellular higher eukaryotic organisms in which artificial antisense genes have been shown to down-regulate target gene expression. Manipulations with an antisense gene can serve as a tool to study the effect of a particular plant gene inactivation, the interaction of gene products whose genes are coordinately expressed, or the functional analysis of cryptic genes. Transgenic plants harbouring an antisense gene already gave rise to patentable new characteristics, showing that the technique has great scientific and economic value. PMID:2468574

  6. Gene regulation by transmembrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Mahren, Susanne; Sauter, Annette

    2006-04-01

    Studies of the ferric citrate transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12 have revealed a novel type of transcriptional regulation. The inducer, ferric citrate, binds to an outer membrane protein and must not be transported into the cells to initiate transcription of the ferric citrate transport genes. Rather, a signaling cascade from the cell surface across the outer membrane, the periplasm, and the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm transmits information on the presence of the inducer in the culture medium into the cytoplasm, where gene transcription occurs. The outer membrane protein FecA serves as a signal receiver and as a signal transmitter across the outer membrane. The FecR protein serves as a signal receiver in the periplasm and as a signal transmitter across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, where the FecI sigma factor is activated to bind RNA polymerase and specifically initiate transcription of the fecABCDE transport genes by binding to the promoter upstream of the fecA gene. Transcription of the fecI fecR regulatory genes is repressed by Fe2+ bound to the Fur repressor protein. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur is not loaded with Fe2+, the fecI and fecR genes are transcribed, and the FecI and FecR proteins are synthesized and respond to the presence of ferric citrate in the medium when ferric citrate binds to the FecA protein. Regulation of the fec genes represents the paradigm of a growing number of gene regulation systems involving transmembrane signaling across three cellular compartments. PMID:16718597

  7. Gene regulation by transmembrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Mahren, Susanne; Sauter, Annette

    2005-10-01

    Studies of the ferric citrate transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12 have revealed a novel type of transcriptional regulation. The inducer, ferric citrate, binds to an outer membrane protein and must not be transported into the cells to initiate transcription of the ferric citrate transport genes. Rather, a signaling cascade from the cell surface across the outer membrane, the periplasm, and the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm transmits information on the presence of the inducer in the culture medium into the cytoplasm, where gene transcription occurs. The outer membrane protein FecA serves as a signal receiver and as a signal transmitter across the outer membrane. The FecR protein serves as a signal receiver in the periplasm and as a signal transmitter across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, where the FecI sigma factor is activated to bind RNA polymerase and specifically initiate transcription of the fecABCDE transport genes by binding to the promoter upstream of the fecA gene. Transcription of the fecI fecR regulatory genes is repressed by Fe(2+) bound to the Fur repressor protein. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur is not loaded with Fe(2+), the fecI and fecR genes are transcribed, and the FecI and FecR proteins are synthesized and respond to the presence of ferric citrate in the medium when ferric citrate binds to the FecA protein. Regulation of the fec genes represents the paradigm of a growing number of gene regulation systems involving transmembrane signaling across three cellular compartments. PMID:16333751

  8. Evolution of Genes and Gene Networks in Filamentous Fungi 

    E-print Network

    Greenwald, Charles Joaquin

    2011-10-21

    involving the mitogen activated protein kinase gene network, we chose the species A. nidulans (saprophyte), Botrytis cinerea (necrotrophic plant pathogen), Chaetomium globosum (plant and soil associated), Fusarium graminearum (cereal grain pathogen...

  9. RNA splicing and genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.A.

    1988-11-25

    The splicing of long transcripts RNA (copied from DNA in the cell nucleus) into smaller specific mRNA is an important event in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The splicing reaction occurs as a late step in the nuclear pathway for synthesis of mRNAs. This pathway commences with initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and probably involves an integrated series of steps each dependent on previous events. Splicing of precursors to mRNAs involves the formation of a spliceosome complex containing 5' and 3' splice sites. This complex contains the evolutionary highly conserved small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) Us, U4, U5, and U6. The most abundant snRNA, U1, is required to form the spliceosome and may be a part of the spliceosome. Analogues of these snRNAs have been identified in yeast. Assembly of the spliceosome probably involves the binding of a multi-snRNA complex containing U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs. Several observations suggest that the association of snRNAs in such complexes is quite dynamic. It is argued that the snRANs in the spliceosome form a catalytic RNA structure that is responsible for the cleavage and ligation steps during splicing.

  10. Environment, genes, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, J.

    1996-03-01

    In January, comedian George Burns turned 100 years old. In recent appearances in the media, he still seems sharp as a tack, and is still seen smoking his trademark cigars. Others of us, however, were never very funny, and would die of cancer at age 60 if we continuously smoked cigars or cigarettes. Burns presents a common but perplexing paradox; some people are able to tolerate at least moderate exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke with little adverse affect, while others develop cancer, emphysema, or heart disease. New studies support the idea that there is an interaction between genes and the environment, and that this interaction may be an important determinant of cancer risk. To understand such risks, it is essential to look at both an individual`s genetic makeup and environmental exposures. Such studies require the collaboration of molecular epidemiologists and molecular biologists. At the NIEHS, Jack A. Taylor, a lead clinical investigator in the Epidemiology Branch, and Douglas A. Bell, an investigator with the Genetic Risk Group of the Laboratory of Biochemical Risk Analysis, have worked together and with other scientists to uncover new information in this area.

  11. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  12. The design of synthetic genes.

    PubMed Central

    Presnell, S R; Benner, S A

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs are described that aid in the design of synthetic genes coding for proteins that are targets of a research program in site directed mutagenesis. These programs "reverse-translate" protein sequences into general nucleic acid sequences (those where codons have not yet been selected), map restriction sites into general DNA sequences, identify points in the synthetic gene where unique restriction sites can be introduced, and assist in the design of genes coding for hybrids and evolutionary intermediates between homologous proteins. Application of these programs therefore facilitates the use of modular mutagenesis to create variants of proteins, and the implementation of evolutionary guidance as a strategy for selecting mutants. PMID:2451218

  13. Gene networks controlling petal organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest unanswered questions in developmental biology is how growth is controlled. Petals are an excellent organ system for investigating growth control in plants: petals are dispensable, have a simple structure, and are largely refractory to environmental perturbations that can alter their size and shape. In recent studies, a number of genes controlling petal growth have been identified. The overall picture of how such genes function in petal organogenesis is beginning to be elucidated. This review will focus on studies using petals as a model system to explore the underlying gene networks that control organ initiation, growth, and final organ morphology. PMID:26428062

  14. Statistical mechanics of gene competition 

    E-print Network

    Venegas-Ortiz, Juan; Ortiz, Juan Venegas

    2013-11-28

    Statistical mechanics has been applied to a wide range of systems in physics, biology, medicine and even anthropology. This theory has been recently used to model the complex biochemical processes of gene expression and ...

  15. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    E-print Network

    Vilar, Jose M G

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a central process to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges among traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and...

  16. Fusion genes in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Batty, Elizabeth

    2012-02-07

    and lung cancer suggests that fusion genes may play an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis, and that they have been previously under-reported due to the difficulties of cytogenetic analysis of solid tumours. In particular, breast cancers often...

  17. Clock genes and female reproduction 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of clock genes in the temporal regulation of the function and lifespan of the corpus luteum (CL) has not been investigated in detail. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR techniques were used ...

  18. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Bryan J.; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined thirty years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: 1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes, 2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific transcription factors, 3) chromatin remodeling coupled to promoter assembly of the general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, and 4) phosphorylation states of RNA polymerase II coupled to chromatin modification states during transcription. The wealth of new insights arising from the tools of biochemistry, genomics, cell biology, and genetics is providing a remarkable view into the mechanics of gene regulation. PMID:19514890

  19. Sleep deprivation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    da Costa Souza, Annie; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occurs in a wide range of animal species as a vital process for the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolic restoration, physiological regulation, and adaptive cognitive functions in the central nervous system. Long-term perturbations induced by the lack of sleep are mostly mediated by changes at the level of transcription and translation. This chapter reviews studies in humans, rodents, and flies to address the various ways by which sleep deprivation affects gene expression in the nervous system, with a focus on genes related to neuronal plasticity, brain function, and cognition. However, the effects of sleep deprivation on gene expression and the functional consequences of sleep loss are clearly not restricted to the cognitive domain but may include increased inflammation, expression of stress-related genes, general impairment of protein translation, metabolic imbalance, and thermal deregulation. PMID:25646722

  20. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a decreased risk for addiction to heroin or cocaine. The other linked variants in two genes— OPRM1 , ...

  1. Revisiting Global Gene Expression Analysis

    E-print Network

    Loven, Jakob

    Gene expression analysis is a widely used and powerful method for investigating the transcriptional behavior of biological systems, for classifying cell states in disease, and for many other purposes. Recent studies indicate ...

  2. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters September 26, 2011 Genes that Influence Blood Pressure In one of the largest genomic studies ever, ... consortium identified 29 genetic variations that influence blood pressure. More than half of these variants were previously ...

  3. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denyer, Rachel; Douglas, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field. PMID:22619738

  4. Gene Therapy for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tilemann, Lisa; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Weber, Thomas; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Congestive heart failure accounts for half a million deaths per year in the US. Despite its place among the leading causes of morbidity, pharmcalogical and mechanic remedies have been able to slow the progression of the disease, today’s science has yet to provide a cure and there are few therapeutic modalities available for patients with advanced heart failure. There is a critical need to explore new therapeutic approaches in heart failure and gene therapy has emerged as a viable alternative. Recent advances in understanding of the molecular basis of myocardial dysfunction, together with the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology, has placed heart failure within reach of gene-based therapy. The recent successful and safe completion of a phase 2 trial targeting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump (SERCA2a) along with the start of more recent phase 1 trials opens a new era for gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:22383712

  5. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    E-print Network

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-04-26

    , two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were...

  6. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  7. Cancer genetics of epigenetic genes.

    PubMed

    Miremadi, Ahmad; Oestergaard, Mikkel Z; Pharoah, Paul D P; Caldas, Carlos

    2007-04-15

    The cancer epigenome is characterised by specific DNA methylation and chromatin modification patterns. The proteins that mediate these changes are encoded by the epigenetics genes here defined as: DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins, histone acetyltransferases (HAT), histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone methyltransferases (HMT) and histone demethylases. We review the evidence that these genes can be targeted by mutations and expression changes in human cancers. PMID:17613546

  8. Gene-culture shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughan, B.

    2013-11-01

    A hyperbolic model is presented which generalises Aoki's parabolic system for the combined propagation of a mutant gene together with a cultural innovation. It is shown that this model allows for the propagation of a shock wave and the shock amplitude is calculated numerically. Particular attention is paid to the case where the shock moves into a region where the frequencies of the mutant gene and of the individuals adopting the innovation are zero.

  9. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, T.G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Why genes overlap in viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genes—two or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length. PMID:20610432

  11. Functional analysis of the mospd gene family 

    E-print Network

    Buerger, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Mospd3, a gene located on mouse chromosome 5, was identified in a gene trap screen in ES cells. The gene trap vector integration in multiple copies into the putative promoter of the gene, resulted in a loss of expression of Mospd3 at the trapped...

  12. Practice Note Establishing and managing gene

    E-print Network

    Practice Note Establishing and managing gene conservation units 1FCPN021 Jason Hubert and Joan are called gene conservation units. This Practice Note sets out what you need to do to establish a gene in a way that would make them suitable, but a more formal recognition of a network of gene conservation

  13. Advancement and prospects of tumor gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qing-Tao; Liu, He; Zhang, Zhen-Zhu; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in tumor therapy. In past decades, significant progress has been achieved. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. Several therapeutic strategies have evolved, including gene-based (tumor suppressor genes, suicide genes, antiangiogenic genes, cytokine and oxidative stress-based genes) and RNA-based (antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference) approaches. In addition, immune response-based strategies (dendritic cell– and T cell–based therapy) are also under investigation in tumor gene therapy. This review highlights the progress and recent developments in gene delivery systems, therapeutic strategies, and possible clinical directions for gene therapy. PMID:21352695

  14. Evolution of Hemoglobin and Its Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hardison, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Insights into the evolution of hemoglobins and their genes are an abundant source of ideas regarding hemoglobin function and regulation of globin gene expression. This article presents the multiple genes and gene families encoding human globins, summarizes major events in the evolution of the hemoglobin gene clusters, and discusses how these studies provide insights into regulation of globin genes. Although the genes in and around the ?-like globin gene complex are relatively stable, the ?-like globin gene clusters are more dynamic, showing evidence of transposition to a new locus and frequent lineage-specific expansions and deletions. The cis-regulatory modules controlling levels and timing of gene expression are a mix of conserved and lineage-specific DNA, perhaps reflecting evolutionary constraint on core regulatory functions shared broadly in mammals and adaptive fine-tuning in different orders of mammals. PMID:23209182

  15. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, N.; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874

  16. Noninvasive tracking of gene transcript and neuroprotection after gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Chen, Y I; Liu, C H; Chen, P-C; Prentice, H; Wu, J-Y; Liu, P K

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy holds exceptional potential for translational medicine by improving the products of defective genes in diseases and/or providing necessary biologics from endogenous sources during recovery processes. However, validating methods for the delivery, distribution and expression of the exogenous genes from such therapy can generally not be applicable to monitor effects over the long term because they are invasive. We report here that human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) complimentary DNA (cDNA) encoded in self-complementary adeno-associated virus-type 2 adeno-associated virus, as delivered through eye drops at multiple time points after cerebral ischemia using bilateral carotid occlusion for 60?min (BCAO-60) led to significant reduction in mortality rates, cerebral atrophy and neurological deficits in C57black6 mice. Most importantly, we validated hG-CSF cDNA expression using translatable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in living brains. This noninvasive approach for monitoring exogenous gene expression in the brains has potential for great impact in the area of experimental gene therapy in animal models of heart attack, stroke, Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disorder and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and the translation of such techniques to emergency medicine. PMID:26207935

  17. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  18. Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene(s) and enzyme(s). Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Two Genes for DNA polymerase delta were identified from the wild type Chinese hamster ovary cells. These genes were cloned via RT-PCR from mRNA prepared the Chinese hamster ovary cells using primers specific to conserved sequences of the DNA polymerase {delta} gene. The first gene encodes a PCNA dependent DNA polymerase {delta} gene whereas the second gene encodes a PCNA independent DNA polymerase {delta} gene. Methods were developed to clone these genes in expression vector and host systems. The role of the two genes in DNA replication and repair was determined.

  19. Neural Networks Approaches for Discovering the Learnable Correlation between Gene Function and Gene

    E-print Network

    Bonner, Anthony

    in many ways, especially in Gene Therapy [18]. Identifying gene function in prokaryotes is much easierNeural Networks Approaches for Discovering the Learnable Correlation between Gene Function and Gene University of Toronto Toronto, ON. emad@cs.toronto.edu Abstract. Identifying gene function has many useful

  20. DNA SEQUENCE OF THE YEDK GENE WITHIN THE TABTOXIN BIOSYNTHETIC GENE CLUSTER OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predicted gene product of the P. syringae gene is similar to the yedK gene of Escherichia coli (accession:NP 288392) and the 'Gyfsy-2' prophage in Salmonella typhimiurium (accession: NP 460027). The gene also contains significant identity to similar gene in Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi (accessi...

  1. Microfluidic approaches for gene delivery and gene therapy Jungkyu Kim,a

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yu

    Microfluidic approaches for gene delivery and gene therapy Jungkyu Kim,a Inseong Hwang,b Derek for gene delivery and therapy. The micro-scaled environment within microfluidic systems enables precise are producing increased efficiency in gene delivery and promise improved gene therapy results. Introduction Many

  2. Gene, 39 (1985) 181-189 Rapid repeated cloning of mutant lac repressor genes

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    be gained from studies of mutant genes. The E. coli lad gene, coding for the repressor of the lac operonGene, 39 (1985) 181-189 Elsevier 181 GENE 1428 Rapid repeated cloning of mutant lac repressor genes recover lac repressor mutations (luc1-) from F'luc onto a single-stranded Ml3 phage vector. The recovery

  3. Exploring candidate genes for human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network

    E-print Network

    Jiang,Tianzi

    Exploring candidate genes for human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network Bing Liu identifying multiple candidate genes for genetic human brain diseases from a brain-specific gene network knowledge of a specific brain disease, we can effectively iden- tify multiple candidate genes

  4. Mining Association Rules among Gene Functions in Clusters of Similar Gene Expression Maps

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    and conditions have been used to extract interesting patterns from gene expression datasets. One goal of gene, what genes are expressed in diseased cells that are not expressed in healthy cells. Related work hasMining Association Rules among Gene Functions in Clusters of Similar Gene Expression Maps Li An1

  5. Feature Selection and Gene Clustering from Gene Expression Data Pabitra Mitra

    E-print Network

    Mitra, Pabitra

    with a tissue category or disease [4]. A related task is gene clustering or partition- ing of genes into wellFeature Selection and Gene Clustering from Gene Expression Data Pabitra Mitra Machine Intelligence@isical.ac.in Abstract In this article we describe an algorithm for feature se- lection and gene clustering from high

  6. Byron KnowlesByron Knowles Characterization of the GenesCharacterization of the Genes

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Byron KnowlesByron Knowles Characterization of the GenesCharacterization of the Genes Involved offrom activating the promoter, and inhibits transcription of the corresponding gene.the corresponding gene. Barrier ActivityBarrier Activity Boundary Elements can also protect genes fromBoundary Elements

  7. Clustering Genes and Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks using Multiple Information Sources

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Clustering Genes and Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks using Multiple Information Sources A Thesis This is to certify that the work contained in the thesis entitled "Clustering Genes and Inferring Gene Regulatory Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur #12;Abstract Gene

  8. Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks from Time-Ordered Gene Expression Data Using

    E-print Network

    Imoto, Seiya

    following some experimental manipulation. A gene regulatory network can be in- ferred by describing the geneInferring Gene Regulatory Networks from Time-Ordered Gene Expression Data Using Differential,imoto,miyano}@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract. Recently, cDNA microarray experiments have generated large amounts of gene expression data

  9. Multi-gene linear separability of gene expression data in linear time

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, Asish

    Multi-gene linear separability of gene expression data in linear time Md. Shafiul Alam, Satish] Unger and Chor showed how to test for linear sep- arability of gene expression data with respect to pairs of genes. Their method however is not amenable to an efficient test when more than 2 genes

  10. Gene targeting using a promoterless gene trap vector (``targeted trapping'') is an efficient method to

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Susan

    Gene targeting using a promoterless gene trap vector (``targeted trapping'') is an efficient method to mutate a large fraction of genes Roland H. Friedel* , Andrew Plump* , Xiaowei Lu* , Kerri Spilker-Lavigne, July 11, 2005 A powerful tool for postgenomic analysis of mammalian gene function is gene targeting

  11. Sexy Gene Conversions: Locating Gene Conversions on the X-Chromosome

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liqing

    Sexy Gene Conversions: Locating Gene Conversions on the X-Chromosome Mark J. Lawson1 , Liqing Zhang Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short-term and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human, chimp, mouse

  12. Gene Age Predicts the Strength of Purifying Selection Acting on Gene Expression Variation in Humans

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    ARTICLE Gene Age Predicts the Strength of Purifying Selection Acting on Gene Expression Variation,2,4,10 and Stylianos E. Antonarakis1,2,* Gene expression levels can be subject to selection. We hypothesized that the age of gene origin is associated with expression constraints, given that it affects the level of gene

  13. Virtual Gene: a Gene Selection Algorithm for Sample Classification on Microarray Datasets

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Virtual Gene: a Gene Selection Algorithm for Sample Classification on Microarray Datasets Xian Xu, USA Abstract. Gene Selection is one class of most used data analysis algorithms on microarray dataset. The goal of gene selection algorithms is to filter out a small set of informative genes that best explains

  14. From Genes to Flower Patterns and Evolution: Dynamic Models of Gene

    E-print Network

    Aldana, Maximino

    From Genes to Flower Patterns and Evolution: Dynamic Models of Gene Regulatory Networks A´ lvaro and Elena R. Alvarez-Buylla1 * 1 Laboratorio de Gene´tica Molecular, Desarrollo y Evolucio´n de Plantas Genes and proteins form complex dynamical sys- tems or gene regulatory networks (GRN) that can reach

  15. Gene tree of the HoxA11 genes in vertebrates illustrating several

    E-print Network

    Gene tree of the HoxA11 genes in vertebrates illustrating several whole genome duplications (WGD with all the other vertebrate animals, and many developmental genes with invertebrate animals as well. The Hox genes are one class of toolkit genes that specify body plan features such as limbs and fins

  16. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  17. Decationized polyplexes for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís; Mastrobattista, Enrico; van Nostrum, Cornelus F; Lammers, Twan; Hennink, Wim E

    2015-04-01

    Gene therapy has received much attention in the field of drug delivery. Synthetic, nonviral gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention as vectors for gene therapy mainly due to a favorable immunogenicity profile and ease of manufacturing as compared to viral vectors. The great majority of these formulations are based on polycationic structures, due to their ability to interact with negatively charged nucleic acids to spontaneously form nanoparticles. In recent years, several polycationic systems have demonstrated high transfection in vitro. However, progress toward clinical applications has been slow, mainly because the cationic nature of these systems leads to intolerable toxicity levels, inappropriate biodistribution and unsatisfactory efficiency in vivo, particularly after systemic administration. Decationized polyplexes are a new class of gene delivery systems that have been developed as an alternative for conventional polycation-based systems. The major innovation introduced by decationized polyplexes is that these systems are based on neutral polymers, without any detrimental effect on the physicochemical stability or encapsulation ability, due to the transient presence of cationic charge and disulfide cross-links between the polymer chains by which the nucleic acids are physically entrapped in the particles. This editorial summarizes the most important features of decationized polyplexes and discusses potential implications for the development of new safe and efficient gene delivery systems. PMID:25425332

  18. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  19. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  20. Combinatorial methods for gene recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pevzner, P.A.

    1997-10-29

    The major result of the project is the development of a new approach to gene recognition called spliced alignment algorithm. They have developed an algorithm and implemented a software tool (for both IBM PC and UNIX platforms) which explores all possible exon assemblies in polynomial time and finds the multi-exon structure with the best fit to a related protein. Unlike other existing methods, the algorithm successfully performs exons assemblies even in the case of short exons or exons with unusual codon usage; they also report correct assemblies for the genes with more than 10 exons provided a homologous protein is already known. On a test sample of human genes with known mammalian relatives the average overlap between the predicted and the actual genes was 99%, which is remarkably well as compared to other existing methods. At that, the algorithm absolute correctly reconstructed 87% of genes. The rare discrepancies between the predicted and real axon-intron structures were restricted either to extremely short initial or terminal exons or proved to be results of alternative splicing. Moreover, the algorithm performs reasonably well with non-vertebrate and even prokaryote targets. The spliced alignment software PROCRUSTES has been in extensive use by the academic community since its announcement in August, 1996 via the WWW server (www-hto.usc.edu/software/procrustes) and by biotech companies via the in-house UNIX version.

  1. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  2. GeneSigDB: a manually curated database and resource for analysis of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schröder, Markus S.; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Shaita C.; Martinelli, Enzo N.; Kelly, Caroline; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kapushesky, Misha; St Pierre, Anne-Alyssa; Flahive, William; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Papenhausen, Gerald; O'Connor, Niall; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    GeneSigDB (http://www.genesigdb.org or http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb/) is a database of gene signatures that have been extracted and manually curated from the published literature. It provides a standardized resource of published prognostic, diagnostic and other gene signatures of cancer and related disease to the community so they can compare the predictive power of gene signatures or use these in gene set enrichment analysis. Since GeneSigDB release 1.0, we have expanded from 575 to 3515 gene signatures, which were collected and transcribed from 1604 published articles largely focused on gene expression in cancer, stem cells, immune cells, development and lung disease. We have made substantial upgrades to the GeneSigDB website to improve accessibility and usability, including adding a tag cloud browse function, facetted navigation and a ‘basket’ feature to store genes or gene signatures of interest. Users can analyze GeneSigDB gene signatures, or upload their own gene list, to identify gene signatures with significant gene overlap and results can be viewed on a dynamic editable heatmap that can be downloaded as a publication quality image. All data in GeneSigDB can be downloaded in numerous formats including .gmt file format for gene set enrichment analysis or as a R/Bioconductor data file. GeneSigDB is available from http://www.genesigdb.org. PMID:22110038

  3. Analysis of human genes with protein-protein interaction network for detecting disease genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shun-yao; Shao, Feng-jing; Sun, Ren-cheng; Sui, Yi; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jin-long

    2014-03-01

    The topological features of disease genes and non-disease genes were widely utilized in disease genes prediction. However, previous studies neglected to exploit essential genes to distinguish disease genes and non-disease genes. Therefore, this paper firstly takes essential genes as reference to analyze the topological properties of human genes with protein-protein interaction network. Empirical results demonstrate that nonessential disease genes are topologically more important and closer to the center of the network than other genes (unknown genes, which are deemed as non-disease genes in disease genes prediction). Although disease genes are closer to essential genes, we find that the influence of disease genes on essential genes is similar with other genes, or even weaker. Further, we generate new topological features according to our findings and validate the effectiveness of combining the additional features for detecting disease genes. In addition, we find that the k-shell index (ks) of protein-protein network follows a power law distribution, and the function of the proteins with the largest ks may deserve further research.

  4. Global gene disruption in human cells to assign genes to phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Ploegh, Hidde

    Insertional mutagenesis in a haploid background can disrupt gene function[superscript 1]. We extend our earlier work by using a retroviral gene-trap vector to generate insertions in >98% of the genes expressed in a human ...

  5. Using co-expression to redefine functional gene sets for gene set enrichment analysis

    E-print Network

    Kodysh, Yuliya

    2007-01-01

    Manually curated gene sets related to a biological function often contain genes that are not tightly co-regulated transcriptionally. which obscures the evidence of coordinated differential expression of these gene sets in ...

  6. Validating Gene Clusterings by Selecting Informative Gene Ontology Terms with Mutual

    E-print Network

    Validating Gene Clusterings by Selecting Informative Gene Ontology Terms with Mutual Information Ontology structure guided by mutual information. Our approach yields a global assessment of the clustering approaches. Keywords: cluster validation, external index, gene ontology, mutual information. 1 Introduction

  7. Gene Therapy for Bone Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Balmayor, Elizabeth Rosado; van Griensven, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Bone has an intrinsic healing capacity that may be exceeded when the fracture gap is too big or unstable. In that moment, osteogenic measures need to be taken by physicians. It is important to combine cells, scaffolds and growth factors, and the correct mechanical conditions. Growth factors are clinically administered as recombinant proteins. They are, however, expensive and needed in high supraphysiological doses. Moreover, their half-life is short when administered to the fracture. Therefore, gene therapy may be an alternative. Cells can constantly produce the protein of interest in the correct folding, with the physiological glycosylation and in the needed amounts. Genes can be delivered in vivo or ex vivo by viral or non-viral methods. Adenovirus is mostly used. For the non-viral methods, hydrogels and recently sonoporation seem to be promising means. This review will give an overview of recent advancements in gene therapy approaches for bone regeneration strategies. PMID:25699253

  8. Differential gene expression in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2014-07-01

    In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system. PMID:24985133

  9. Codon usage in plant genes.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, E E; Lotzer, J; Eberle, M

    1989-01-01

    We have examined codon bias in 207 plant gene sequences collected from Genbank and the literature. When this sample was further divided into 53 monocot and 154 dicot genes, the pattern of relative use of synonymous codons was shown to differ between these taxonomic groups, primarily in the use of G + C in the degenerate third base. Maize and soybean codon bias were examined separately and followed the monocot and dicot codon usage patterns respectively. Codon preference in ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate and chlorophyll a/b binding protein, two of the most abundant proteins in leaves was investigated. These highly expressed are more restricted in their codon usage than plant genes in general. PMID:2644621

  10. Composite nanoparticles for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated gene and siRNA delivery has been an appealing area to gene therapists when they attempt to treat the diseases by manipulating the genetic information in the target cells. However, the advances in materials science could not keep up with the demand for multifunctional nanomaterials to achieve desired delivery efficiency. Researchers have thus taken an alternative approach to incorporate various materials into single composite nanoparticle using different fabrication methods. This approach allows nanoparticles to possess defined nanostructures as well as multiple functionalities to overcome the critical extracellular and intracellular barriers to successful gene delivery. This chapter will highlight the advances of fabrication methods that have the most potential to translate nanoparticles from bench to bedside. Furthermore, a major class of composite nanoparticle-lipid-based composite nanoparticles will be classified based on the components and reviewed in details. PMID:25409605

  11. Metagenomics and novel gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Culligan, Eamonn P; Sleator, Roy D; Marchesi, Julian R; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics provides a means of assessing the total genetic pool of all the microbes in a particular environment, in a culture-independent manner. It has revealed unprecedented diversity in microbial community composition, which is further reflected in the encoded functional diversity of the genomes, a large proportion of which consists of novel genes. Herein, we review both sequence-based and functional metagenomic methods to uncover novel genes and outline some of the associated problems of each type of approach, as well as potential solutions. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for metagenomic biotherapeutic discovery, with a particular focus on the human gut microbiome and finally, we outline how the discovery of novel genes may be used to create bioengineered probiotics. PMID:24317337

  12. Gene Therapy in Corneal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Yureeda; Hamrah, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most commonly performed organ transplantation. Immune privilege of the cornea is widely recognized, partly because of the relatively favorable outcome of corneal grafts. The first-time recipient of corneal allografts in an avascular, low-risk setting can expect a 90% success rate without systemic immunosuppressive agents and histocompatibility matching. However, immunologic rejection remains the major cause of graft failure, particularly in patients with a high risk for rejection. Corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of immune rejection. However, current pharmacological measures are limited in their side-effect profiles, repeated application, lack of targeted response, and short duration of action. Experimental ocular gene therapy may thus present new horizons in immunomodulation. From efficient viral vectors to sustainable alternative splicing, we discuss the progress of gene therapy in promoting graft survival and postulate further avenues for gene-mediated prevention of allogeneic graft rejection. PMID:24138037

  13. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Tsai, Fong-Ying (New York, NY)

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  14. Gene therapy in cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Praveen, S V; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K

    2006-01-01

    Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV node mimicking beta blockade can be therapeutic in the management of atrial fibrillation. G protein overexpression to modify the AV node also is experimental. Modification and expression of potassium channel genes altering the delayed rectifier potassium currents may permit better management of congenital long QT syndromes. Arrhythmias in a failing heart are due to abnormal calcium cycling. Potential targets for genetic modulation include the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, calsequestrin and sodium calcium exchanger. Lastly the ethical concerns need to be addressed. PMID:16943902

  15. Gene Patents robert cook-deegan, "Gene Patents," in From Birth to Death and Bench

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Dan

    cHAPtEr 15 Gene Patents robert cook-deegan, "Gene Patents," in From Birth to Death and Bench from Birth to death and Bench to clinic #12;Gene pATenTS 69 gene patents n There are 3,000­5,000 U.S. patents on human genes and 47,000 on inventions involving genetic material. n Gene patenting is unethical

  16. JavaGenes Molecular Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason; Smith, David; Frank, Jeremy; Globus, Al; Crawford, James

    2007-01-01

    JavaGenes is a general-purpose, evolutionary software system written in Java. It implements several versions of a genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, stochastic hill climbing, and other search techniques. This software has been used to evolve molecules, atomic force field parameters, digital circuits, Earth Observing Satellite schedules, and antennas. This version differs from version 0.7.28 in that it includes the molecule evolution code and other improvements. Except for the antenna code, JaveGenes is available for NASA Open Source distribution.

  17. Gene therapy for retinal disease

    PubMed Central

    McClements, Michelle E; MacLaren, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy strategies for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases have made major advances in recent years. This review focuses on adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector approaches to treat retinal degeneration and thus prevent or delay the onset of blindness. Data from human clinical trials of gene therapy for retinal disease show encouraging signs of safety and efficacy from AAV vectors. Recent progress in enhancing cell-specific targeting and transduction efficiency of the various retinal layers plus the use of AAV-delivered growth factors to augment the therapeutic effect and limit cell death suggest even greater success in future human trials is possible. PMID:23305707

  18. Identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research methods to identify and characterize genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways have evolved considerably over the years. Before whole genome sequences were available (e.g. pre-genomics), work focused primarily on chemistry, biosynthetic mutant strains and molecular analysis of sing...

  19. The frustrated gene: origins of eukaryotic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Madhani, Hiten D.

    2014-01-01

    Eukarytotic gene expression is frustrated by a series of steps that are generally not observed in prokaryotes and are therefore not essential for the basic chemistry of transcription and translation. Their evolution may have been driven by the need to defend against parasitic nucleic acids. PMID:24209615

  20. Third party data gene data set of eutherian growth hormone genes

    PubMed Central

    Premzl, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Among 146 potential coding sequences, the most comprehensive eutherian growth hormone gene data set annotated 100 complete coding sequences. The eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol first described 5 major gene clusters of eutherian growth hormone genes. The present updated gene classification and nomenclature of eutherian growth hormone genes integrated gene annotations, phylogenetic analysis and protein molecular evolution analysis into new framework of future experiments. The curated third party data gene data set of eutherian growth hormone genes was deposited in European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers LM644135–LM644234. PMID:26697363

  1. Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistep process attributable to both gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Currently, most molecular targeted therapies are inhibitors of oncogenes, because inactivated tumor suppressor genes have proven harder to “drug.” Nevertheless, in cancers, tumor suppressor genes undergo alteration more frequently than do oncogenes. In recent years, several promising strategies directed at tumor suppressor genes, or the pathways controlled by these genes, have emerged. Here, we describe advances in a number of different methodologies aimed at therapeutically targeting tumors driven by inactivated tumor suppressor genes. PMID:25557041

  2. Gene therapy on demand: site specific regulation of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Florczyk, Urszula; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2013-08-10

    Since 1990 when the first clinical gene therapy trial was conducted, much attention and considerable promise have been given to this form of treatment. Gene therapy has been used with success in patients suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency syndromes (X-SCID and ADA-deficiency), Leber's congenital amaurosis, hemophilia, ?-thalassemia and adrenoleukodystrophy. Last year, the first therapeutic vector (Glybera) for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency has been registered in the European Union. Nevertheless, there are still several numerous issues that need to be improved to make this technique more safe, effective and easily accessible for patients. Introduction of the therapeutic gene to the given cells should provide the level of expression which will restore the production of therapeutic protein to normal values or will provide therapeutic efficacy despite not fully physiological expression. However, in numerous diseases the expression of therapeutic genes has to be kept at certain level for some time, and then might be required to be switched off to be activated again when worsening of the symptoms may aggravate the risk of disease relapse. In such cases the promoters which are regulated by local conditions may be more required. In this article the special emphasis is to discuss the strategies of regulation of gene expression by endogenous stimuli. Particularly, the hypoxia- or miRNA-regulated vectors offer the possibilities of tight but, at the same time, condition-dependent and cell-specific expression. Such means have been already tested in certain pathophysiological conditions. This creates the chance for the translational approaches required for development of effective treatments of so far incurable diseases. PMID:23566848

  3. Gene Therapy in the Cornea: 2005-present

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Rajiv R.; Tovey, Jonathan C.K.; Sharma, Ajay; Tandon, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Successful restoration of vision in human patients with gene therapy affirmed its promise to cure ocular diseases and disorders. The efficacy of gene therapy is contingent upon vector and mode of therapeutic DNA introduction into targeted cells/tissues. The cornea is an ideal tissue for gene therapy due to its ease of access and relative immune-privilege. Considerable progress has been made in the field of corneal gene therapy in last 5 years. Several new gene transfer vectors, techniques and approaches have evolved. Although corneal gene therapy is still in its early stages of development, the potential of gene-based interventions to treat corneal abnormalities have begun to surface. Identification of next generation viral and nanoparticle vectors, characterization of delivered gene levels, localization, and duration in the cornea, and significant success in controlling corneal disorders, particularly fibrosis and angiogenesis, in experimental animal disease models, with no major side effects have propelled gene therapy a step closer towards establishing gene-based therapies for corneal blindness. Recently, researchers have assessed the delivery of therapeutic genes for corneal diseases and disorders due to trauma, infections, chemical, mechanical, and surgical injury, and/or abnormal wound healing. This review provides an update on the developments in gene therapy for corneal diseases and discusses the barriers that hinder its utilization for delivering genes in the cornea. PMID:21967960

  4. Differential Gene Expression in Human Cerebrovascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Elliott, J. Paul; Diener, Katrina; Gault, Judith; Hu, Ling-Jia; Cohrs, Randall J.; Phang, Tzulip; Hunter, Lawrence; Breeze, Robert E.; Awad, Issam A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to identify genes with differential expression in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and to confirm differential expression of genes previously implicated in the pathobiology of these lesions. METHODS Total ribonucleic acid was isolated from four CCM, four AVM, and three STA surgical specimens and used to quantify lesion-specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels on human gene arrays. Data were analyzed with the use of two separate methodologies: gene discovery and confirmation analysis. RESULTS The gene discovery method identified 42 genes that were significantly up-regulated and 36 genes that were significantly down-regulated in CCMs as compared with AVMs and STAs (P = 0.006). Similarly, 48 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in AVMs as compared with CCMs and STAs (P = 0.006). The confirmation analysis showed significant differential expression (P < 0.05) in 11 of 15 genes (angiogenesis factors, receptors, and structural proteins) that previously had been reported to be expressed differentially in CCMs and AVMs in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION We identify numerous genes that are differentially expressed in CCMs and AVMs and correlate expression with the immunohistochemistry of genes implicated in cerebrovascular malformations. In future efforts, we will aim to confirm candidate genes specifically related to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular malformations and determine their biological systems and mechanistic relevance. PMID:12535382

  5. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  6. Conversion events in gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene clusters containing multiple similar genomic regions in close proximity are of great interest for biomedical studies because of their associations with inherited diseases. However, such regions are difficult to analyze due to their structural complexity and their complicated evolutionary histories, reflecting a variety of large-scale mutational events. In particular, conversion events can mislead inferences about the relationships among these regions, as traced by traditional methods such as construction of phylogenetic trees or multi-species alignments. Results To correct the distorted information generated by such methods, we have developed an automated pipeline called CHAP (Cluster History Analysis Package) for detecting conversion events. We used this pipeline to analyze the conversion events that affected two well-studied gene clusters (?-globin and ?-globin) and three gene clusters for which comparative sequence data were generated from seven primate species: CCL (chemokine ligand), IFN (interferon), and CYP2abf (part of cytochrome P450 family 2). CHAP is freely available at http://www.bx.psu.edu/miller_lab. Conclusions These studies reveal the value of characterizing conversion events in the context of studying gene clusters in complex genomes. PMID:21798034

  7. DOE to map expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1990-11-16

    The Department of Energy is launching a new effort to map and partially sequence all the expressed genes, or complementary DNAs, in the human genome. It's not a radical departure but rather a reorientation of the chromosome mapping effort that DOE is conducting as part of the Human Genome Project. DOE is proposing to scour clone collections, or libraries, to find all the cDNAs and then sequence a small stretch of each one, about 200 to 500 base pairs, to create a special type of marker known as a sequence-tagged site, or STS. Once the sequence tag is stored in a database, any researcher can quickly recreate that piece of DNA by using polymerase chain reaction techniques. The biggest technical obstacle is finding a complete set of cDNAs. DOE expects to support efforts to improve cDNA libraries and to sequence the expressed genes outside the national labs. As the cDNA markers are generated, they will then be turned over to the national labs- and to the mapping community-where they will be positioned along the human chromosomes. This will instantly pinpoint the location of all the genes. So far, only about 2,000 of the 50,000 to 100,000 human genes have been mapped by any technique.

  8. Making Your Own Gene Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Ortin, Jose E.; Li Del Olmo, Marcel; Matallana, Emilia; Tordera, Vicente

    1997-01-01

    Presents an experiment aimed at constructing a genomic library that can be carried out over a week. Helps students learn concepts such as donor and vector DNAs, construction of recombinant DNA, host strain, and experiments in gene cloning more clearly. (PVD)

  9. (gene expression) DNA (DNA microarrays).

    E-print Network

    Athens, University of

    Lymphoblastic Leukemia - ALL, 25 Acute Myeloid Leukemia - AML) µ 7129 [10]. µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ DNA. 62 µ, 22 40 , µ 2000 [6]. µ 72 µ µ (47 Acute," Cytometry, vol. 43, pp. 229-238, Mar. 2001. [3] D. Slonim, "From patterns to pathways: gene expression data

  10. Gene Expression in Trypanosomatid Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago; Vizuet-de-Rueda, Juan C.; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E.; Manning-Cela, Rebeca G.; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.

    2010-01-01

    The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively. These organisms possess unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes and trans-splicing. Little is known about either the DNA sequences or the proteins that are involved in the initiation and termination of transcription in trypanosomatids. In silico analyses of the genome databases of these parasites led to the identification of a small number of proteins involved in gene expression. However, functional studies have revealed that trypanosomatids have more general transcription factors than originally estimated. Many posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified in trypanosomatids, and recent genome-wide studies showed that epigenetic regulation might play a very important role in gene expression in this group of parasites. Here, we review and comment on the most recent findings related to transcription initiation and termination in trypanosomatid protozoa. PMID:20169133

  11. Ethics of Gene Therapy Debated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the highlights of a press conference featuring biomedical ethicist LeRoy Walters of Georgetown University and attorney Andrew Kimbrell of the Foundation on Economic Trends. The opposing points of view of these two speakers serve to outline the pros and cons of the gene therapy issue. (CW)

  12. Patching genes to fight disease

    SciTech Connect

    Holzman, D.

    1990-09-03

    The National Institutes of Health has approved the first gene therapy experiments, one of which will try to cure cancer by bolstering the immune system. The applications of such therapy are limited, but the potential aid to people with genetic diseases is great.

  13. Gene transfer in intact animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M. J.; Stang, H.; Mercola, K.; Morse, L.; Ruprecht, R.; Browne, J.; Salser, W.

    1980-04-01

    Resistance to methotrexate was induced in bone marrow cells of mice by transformation in vitro with DNA from a drug-resistant cell line. Transformed cells were injected in vivo and haematopoietic cells expressing resistance were selected by drug treatment of recipients. Transformed cells had elevated levels of dihydrofolate reductase and demonstrated a proliferative advantage over untransformed cells, indicating successful gene transfer.

  14. Huntington's disease Between genes and

    E-print Network

    Levin, Yan

    Huntington's disease Between genes and environment Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 3498­3503 (2004) The fatal, inherited neurodegenerative disorder called Huntington's disease is caused by a three when the disease will strike. But there's the question of why people with identical repeats nonetheless

  15. Genes and Surroundings: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO. Center for Education in Human and Medical Genetics.

    This teacher's guide is intended to be used with "Genes and Surroundings," an activity unit on human and medical genetics for junior high and middle school students. The unit emphasizes variability and diversity in genetics and is organized around five themes: (1) individuality; (2) continuity; (3) variability in relation to others; (4)…

  16. Seed Targeted Gene Confinement Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic improvement of plants using biotechnology is now centrally important to agriculture, food security, and the biofuels industry. It is also important to the continued health of the environment as the need for food (on existing arable land) and renewable energy becomes critical. New genes c...

  17. Gene duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hansche, P E; Beres, V; Lange, P

    1978-04-01

    Five independent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  18. Gene Duplication in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Hansche, P. E.; Beres, V.; Lange, P.

    1978-01-01

    Five indepdendent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  19. Fevers, genes, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J G; Kastner, D L

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of patients with recurrent inflammatory syndromes into distinct clinical phenotypes provided early clues to the mode of inheritance of these conditions and facilitated the subsequent identification of causative gene mutations. The prototype autoinflammatory syndrome, familial Mediterranean fever, is characterized by self-limiting episodes of localized inflammation. Hallmarks of the classical autoimmune response are largely absent. The use of positional cloning techniques led to the identification of the causative gene, MEFV, and its product pyrin. This previously unrecognized protein plays an important role in modulating the innate immune response. Cryopyrin, the protein encoded by CIAS1, is mutated in a spectrum of autoinflammatory conditions, the cryopyrinopathies. In response to a wide range of potential pathogens, it forms a macromolecular complex termed the "inflammasome," resulting in caspase-1 activation and subsequent release of the active proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The role of an established biochemical pathway in regulating inflammation was uncovered by the discovery that the hyperimmunoglobulin D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) results from mutations in MVK, which encodes an enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway. The discovery that mutations in the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1) cause a proinflammatory phenotype was unanticipated, as it seemed more likely that such mutations would instead have resulted in an immunodeficiency pattern. This review describes the clinical phenotypes of autoinflammatory syndromes, the underlying gene mutations, and current concepts regarding their pathophysiology. PMID:18727492

  20. Gene-Culture Coevolutionary Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blute, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Gene-culture interactions have largely been modelled employing population genetic-type models. Moreover, in the most notable application to date, the "interactive" modes have been one way rather than bidirectional. This paper suggests using game theoretic, fully interactive models. Employing the logic utilized in population ecology for coevolution…

  1. Impulse Control: Temporal Dynamics in Gene Transcription

    E-print Network

    Yosef, Nir

    Regulatory circuits controlling gene expression constantly rewire to adapt to environmental stimuli, differentiation cues, and disease. We review our current understanding of the temporal dynamics of gene expression in ...

  2. BIOINFORMATICS Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks From Multiple

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    . On the other hand, gene expression data generated by different groups worldwide are increasingly accumulated. We have developed GNR (Gene Network Reconstruction tool) based on linear programming and a decom

  3. NewGenesSyndromes060305.pdf

    Cancer.gov

    New Cancer Genes and Syndromes Mark H. Greene, M.D. Chief, Clinical Genetics Branch Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics National Cancer Institute Less Familiar Cancer Genes and Syndromes Heterozygous ATM Mutation Carriers • This

  4. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  5. In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section In The Genes? Searching for Methuselah Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table ... 18 million effort to learn more about the genes, lifestyle or other factors that contribute to long, ...

  6. PAX Genes in Cancer; Friends or Foes?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Caiyun G.; Eccles, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    PAX genes have been shown to be critically required for the development of specific tissues and organs during embryogenesis. In addition, PAX genes are expressed in a handful of adult tissues where they are thought to play important roles, usually different from those in embryogenesis. A common theme in adult tissues is a requirement for PAX gene expression in adult stem cell maintenance or tissue regeneration. The connections between adult stem cell PAX gene expression and cancer are intriguing, and the literature is replete with examples of PAX gene expression in either situation. Here we systematically review the literature and present an overview of postnatal PAX gene expression in normal and cancerous tissue. We discuss the potential link between PAX gene expression in adult tissue and cancer. In addition, we discuss whether persistent PAX gene expression in cancer is favorable or unfavorable. PMID:22303411

  7. Gene Expression in the Stallion Testes 

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Andy M.

    2011-08-08

    Understanding the genes that regulate spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the testis is critical for enhancement of stallion fertility. Stallion testicular samples were used to identify candidate genes by cDNA microarrays that simultaneously...

  8. Enhanced polymeric nanoparticles for gene delivery

    E-print Network

    Green, Jordan Jamieson

    2007-01-01

    The potential of gene therapy to treat disease and improve human health is tremendous. The failure of viral gene therapy clinical trials due to toxicity, immunogenicity, and carcinogenicity has been tragic and strongly ...

  9. Genes and Disease: Prader-Willi Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicine, National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show ...

  10. Leader genes in osteogenesis: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Bruno; Giacomelli, Luca; Ricci, Massimiliano; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Little is still known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of osteogenesis. In this paper, the leader genes approach, a new bioinformatics method which has already been experimentally validated, is adopted in order to identify the genes involved in human osteogenesis. Interactions among genes are then calculated and genes are ranked according to their relative importance in this process. In total, 167 genes were identified as being involved in osteogenesis. Genes were divided into 4 groups, according to their main function in the osteogenic processes: skeletal development; cell adhesion and proliferation; ossification; and calcium ion binding. Seven genes were consistently identified as leader genes (i.e. the genes with the greatest importance in osteogenesis), while 14 were found to have slightly less importance (class B genes). It was interesting to notice that the larger part of leader and class B genes belonged to the cell adhesion and proliferation or to the ossification sub-groups. This finding suggested that these two particular sub-processes could play a more important role in osteogenesis. Moreover, among the 7 leader genes, it is interesting to notice that RUNX2, BMP2, SPARC, PTH play a direct role in bone formation, while the 3 other leader genes (VEGF, IL6, FGF2) seem to be more connected with an angiogenetic process. Twenty-nine genes have no known interactions (orphan genes). From these results, it may be possible to plan an ad hoc experimentation, for instance by microarray analyses, focused on leader, class B and orphan genes, with the aim to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenesis. PMID:22884391

  11. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  12. [Detection of transgenic crop with gene chip].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Chun-Yun; Feng, Hong; Hu, Xiao-Dong; Yin, Hai-Bin

    2003-05-01

    Some selected available sequences of reporter genes,resistant genes, promoters and terminators are amplified by PCR for the probes of transgenic crop detection gene chip. These probes are arrayed at definite density and printed on the surface of amino-slides by bioRobot MicroGrid II. Results showed that gene chip worked quickly and correctly, when transgenic rice, pawpaw,maize and soybean were applied. PMID:15639876

  13. Sorghum bioenergy genotypes, genes and pathways 

    E-print Network

    Plews, Ian Kenneth

    2009-05-15

    by Applied Biosystems). Fold inductions were calculated as 2^?DCTcontrol_ DCTtreatment?. Variability of RT-PCR results among biological replicates was determined by analyzing the mRNA levels of two genes in RNA derived from three biological replicates.... Sorghum genes encoding cellulose synthase were identified using maize and rice cellulose synthase gene sequences to identify the corresponding sorghum genes (Blast analysis). Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) primers were developed for two...

  14. Problem-Solving Test: Targeted Gene Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of a specific gene is the most powerful technique to analyze the biological function of the gene. This approach has been used for a long time in viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fruit fly, but looked quite hopeless in more complex organisms. Targeted inactivation of specific genes (also known as knock-out mutation) in mice is…

  15. Beyond the Gene Evelyn Fox Keller1

    E-print Network

    Harel, David

    Beyond the Gene Evelyn Fox Keller1 , David Harel2 * 1 Program in Science, Technology, and Society. Citation: Fox Keller E, Harel D (2007) Beyond the Gene. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1231. doi:10.1371/journal what, if anything, a gene actually is.'' Helen Pearson [2] Indeed, in recent years it has become even

  16. Discovery of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1995-01-01

    This is an update of a 1991 review on tumor suppressor genes written at a time when understanding of how the genes work was limited. A recent major breakthrough in the understanding of the function of tumor suppressor genes is discussed. (LZ)

  17. Penalized Logistic Regression for Detecting Gene Interactions

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    Penalized Logistic Regression for Detecting Gene Interactions Mee Young Park Trevor Hastie May 25, 2006 Abstract We propose using a variant of logistic regression with L2 regularization to fit gene are influenced by interaction of certain genes. Logistic regression models with quadratic penalization not only

  18. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-02-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of alternative splicing in duplicate genes may occur shortly after the gene duplication. These results support the subfunctionization model of alternative splicing in the early stage after gene duplication. Further analysis of the alternative splicing distribution in human duplicate pairs showed the asymmetric evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplications; i.e., the AS forms between duplicates may differ dramatically. We therefore conclude that alternative splicing and gene duplication may not evolve independently. In the early stage after gene duplication, young duplicates may take over a certain amount of protein function diversity that previously was carried out by the alternative splicing mechanism. In the late stage, the gain and loss of alternative splicing seem to be independent between duplicates. PMID:16365379

  19. Human Lineage-Specific Gene Inactivation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Human Lineage-Specific Gene Inactivation Wendy E Grus, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan vestiges of genes. Inves- tigating genes that were inactivated specifically on the human lineage or within humans can reveal the genetic basis of interspecies differences between humans and chimpanzees

  20. Human Lineage-specific Gene Inactivation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Human Lineage-specific Gene Inactivation Wendy E Grus, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan vestiges of genes. Investigating genes that were inactivated specifically on the human lineage can reveal the genetic basis of inter- species differences between humans and chimpanzees and inter

  1. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    DOEpatents

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  2. INVESTIGATION Gene Genealogies Within a Fixed Pedigree,

    E-print Network

    INVESTIGATION Gene Genealogies Within a Fixed Pedigree, and the Robustness of Kingman's Coalescent, not as a random quantity. Gene genealogical models should describe the outcome of the percolation of genetic provide a surprisingly accurate description of gene genealogies on a fixed pedigree. We study

  3. Chromatin, gene silencing and HIV latency

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hoi-Ping; Lever, Andrew ML

    2007-01-01

    One of the cellular defenses against virus infection is the silencing of viral gene expression. There is evidence that at least two gene-silencing mechanisms are used against the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV). Paradoxically, this cellular defense mechanism contributes to viral latency and persistence, and we review here the relationship of viral latency to gene-silencing mechanisms. PMID:18036274

  4. Assignment of Orthologous Genes via Genome Rearrangement

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Assignment of Orthologous Genes via Genome Rearrangement Xin Chen, Jie Zheng, Zheng Fu, Peng Nan, Yang Zhong, Stefano Lonardi, and Tao Jiang Abstract--The assignment of orthologous genes between a pair sequence similarity does not clearly delineate the evolutionary relationship among genes of the same

  5. WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT GENE

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK ABOUT GENE THERAPY? A report published by the Wellcome Trust August 2005 MC-3465.p/08­2005/SW #12;1 What do People Think about Gene Therapy? A report published by the Wellcome of the Sendai virus. It is being investigated as a vector for gene therapy in diseases such as cystic fibrosis

  6. Phylogenetic Reconstruction from Gene-Order and

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    Foundation, IBM Corp. ­ p. #12;Overview · Gene-Order Data vs. Sequence Data · Phylogenetic ReconstructionPhylogenetic Reconstruction from Gene-Order and Gene-Content Data Bernard M.E. Moret ¡ ¢£ ¤¥ ¡§¦ ¨© ¢¦ ¨Department of Computer Science University of New Mexico ­ p. #12;Acknowledgments · Main collaborators: David

  7. Jumping Genes: The Transposable DNAs of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Claire M.; Berg, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Transposons are transposable elements that carry genes for antibiotic resistance. Provides background information on the structure and organization of these "jumping genes" in bacteria. Also describes the use of transposons in tagging genes and lists pertinent references and resource materials. (DH)

  8. Chapter 12 Gene Genealogies Noah A. Rosenberg

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Chapter 12 ­ Gene Genealogies Noah A. Rosenberg Program in Molecular and Computational Biology can be viewed as the result of mutations on a scaffold of genetic relationships ­ a gene genealogy, migration, species divergence, and changes in population size, an understanding of gene genealogies

  9. Gene Expression Profiling in Developing Human Hippocampus

    E-print Network

    Gene Expression Profiling in Developing Human Hippocampus Yan Zhang,1,2 Pinchao Mei,1­3 Rong Lou,1 Molecular Biology, Beijing, China 4 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York The gene into the developmental and functional character- istics, we analyzed the expression profile of active genes in developing

  10. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    , processes such as differentiation are controlled by tightly regulated genes that are only expressed analysis of gene expression, making the system less affected by background fluorescence and cell density14Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping John R

  11. CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    CG gene body DNA methylation changes and evolution of duplicated genes in cassava Haifeng Wanga. Here we present genome- wide methylation patterns at single-base pair resolution for cassava (Manihot) of many genes. Consistent with these patterns, at least one cassava gene copy of all of the known

  12. Evaluation of Quantitative PCR Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Tribolium castaneum After Fungal Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate gene expression in Tribolium castaneum exposed to Beauveria bassiana, reference genes for qPCR were evaluated. Of these, the widely used genes for ß-actin, a-tubulin, and RPS6 were not stable. The most stable were ribosomal protein genes, RPS3, RPS18, and RPL13a. Syntaxin1, syntaxin6...

  13. Identifying The Most Significant Genes From Gene Expression Profiles For Sample Classification

    E-print Network

    Al-Mubaid, Hisham

    and manipulation of gene expression data. These data include H. Al-Mubaid and N. Ghaffari are with the ComputerIdentifying The Most Significant Genes From Gene Expression Profiles For Sample Classification Hisham Al-Mubaid and Noushin Ghaffari, Member, IEEE Abstract-- The gene expression data generated

  14. THE JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE RESEARCH ARTICLE J Gene Med 2003; 5: 300310.

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) promoter for ovarian cancer gene therapy Shannon D. Barker1,2,5 Candace J of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Surgery 2 Gene Therapy Center 3 Department gene therapy of ovarian carcinomas. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Keywords secretory

  15. Gene loss, adaptive evolution and the co-evolution of plumage coloration genes

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptionsGene loss, adaptive evolution and the co-evolution of plumage coloration genes with opsins in birds Open Access Gene loss, adaptive evolution and the co-evolution of plumage coloration genes with opsins

  16. Genes in Context GeneEnvironment Interplay and the Origins of Individual

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Genes in Context Gene­Environment Interplay and the Origins of Individual Differences in Behavior implications for our understanding of the origins of individual differences in behavior and may provide new these new findings illustrate the importance of putting genes in context. KEYWORDS--epigenetic; gene

  17. Analysis of Multiple Association Studies Provides Evidence of an Expression QTL Hub in Gene-Gene

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    -Gene Interaction Network Affecting HDL Cholesterol Levels Li Ma1¤ , Christie Ballantyne2 , Ariel Brautbar2 report an analysis of gene-gene interactions affecting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a candidate gene and rs12980554 (P = 7.161027 ) in their effect on HDL- C levels, which is significant after Bonferroni

  18. Horizontal Gene Transfer in Cyanobacterial Signature Genes Shailaja Yerrapragada, Janet L. Siefert, and George E. Fox

    E-print Network

    Fox, George

    /Prochlorococcus species. In this case, it was found that 13% of the signature genes had likely been involved in within group HGT. In order to compare this level of likely HGT to other gene types, the analysis was extendedChapter 20 Horizontal Gene Transfer in Cyanobacterial Signature Genes Shailaja Yerrapragada, Janet

  19. Gene identication in bacterial and organellar genomes using GeneScan

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Ram

    Gene identi®cation in bacterial and organellar genomes using GeneScan Ramaswamy Ramakrishnaa, 110 067, India Received 23 June 1998; accepted 13 November 1998 Abstract The performance of the GeneScan algorithm for gene identi®cation has been improved by incorporation of a directed iterative scanning

  20. Mining Coherent Gene Clusters from Gene-Sample-Time Microarray Data

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Mining Coherent Gene Clusters from Gene-Sample-Time Microarray Data Daxin Jiang Jian Pei Murali research and biomedical applications. In this paper, we explore a novel type of gene- sample-time microarray data sets, which records the expres- sion levels of various genes under a set of samples during

  1. Gene clustering pattern, promoter architecture, and gene expression stability in eukaryotic genomes

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Gene clustering pattern, promoter architecture, and gene expression stability in eukaryotic genomes by Wen-Hsiung Li, January 5, 2011 (sent for review November 5, 2010) A balance between gene expression studied whether the genetic and epigenetic properties of the promoter affect gene expression variability

  2. Special Issue: Gene Expression in the Immune System Gene regulatory networks in the

    E-print Network

    Dinner, Aaron

    Special Issue: Gene Expression in the Immune System Gene regulatory networks in the immune system transitionsandcellularactivation states within the immune system. The architectures of simple gene regulatory networks (GRNs cascades to regulators of gene expres- sion. The latter include transcription factors (TFs), chro- matin

  3. gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein to the repressor gene, and quantify

    E-print Network

    Weeks, Eric R.

    gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein to the repressor gene, and quantify of gene expression in the feedback network, compared with the control networks. They also show concentrations of anhydrotetra- cycline--achemicalinhibitorofTetR. In past theoretical studies of gene

  4. Estimation of Gene Induction Enables a Relevance-Based Ranking of Gene Sets

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    Estimation of Gene Induction Enables a Relevance-Based Ranking of Gene Sets KILIAN BARTHOLOME´,1 produced by microarray ex- periments, the analysis of sets of genes with a common biological functionality has been shown to be advantageous compared to single gene analyses. Some statistical methods have been

  5. From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem Roderic The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylog- enies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from

  6. Gene loss rate: a probabilistic measure for the conservation of eukaryotic genes

    E-print Network

    Sharan, Roded

    Gene loss rate: a probabilistic measure for the conservation of eukaryotic genes Elhanan Borenstein; Accepted October 2, 2006 ABSTRACT The rate of conservation of a gene in evolution is believed for genes and have shown that they are correlated with several biological characteristics of functional

  7. Gene-gene interactions in breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Clare; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Hughes, Deborah; Elliott, Anna; Pernet, David; Peock, Susan; Adlard, Julian W; Barwell, Julian; Berg, Jonathan; Brady, Angela F; Brewer, Carole; Brice, Glen; Chapman, Cyril; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemarie; Donaldson, Alan; Douglas, Fiona; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Henderson, Alex; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Ajith; Lalloo, Fiona; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J; Paterson, Joan; Porteous, Mary; Rogers, Mark T; Shanley, Susan; Walker, Lisa; Ahmed, Munaza; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D Gareth; Donnelly, Peter; Easton, Douglas F; Stratton, Michael R; Rahman, Nazneen

    2012-02-15

    There have been few definitive examples of gene-gene interactions in humans. Through mutational analyses in 7325 individuals, we report four interactions (defined as departures from a multiplicative model) between mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes ATM and CHEK2 with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (case-only interaction between ATM and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 5.9 × 10(-4); ATM and BRCA1, P= 0.01; ATM and BRCA2, P= 0.02; CHEK2 and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 2.1 × 10(-4); CHEK2 and BRCA1, P= 0.01; CHEK2 and BRCA2, P= 0.01). The interactions are such that the resultant risk of breast cancer is lower than the multiplicative product of the constituent risks, and plausibly reflect the functional relationships of the encoded proteins in DNA repair. These findings have important implications for models of disease predisposition and clinical translation. PMID:22072393

  8. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45?Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  9. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows

    PubMed Central

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L.; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45?Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  10. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  11. Structure of Brassica napus phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase genes: missing introns causing polymorphisms among gene family members.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Y; Okumura, S; Shimada, H

    1994-05-01

    The Brassica napus genome contains more than four phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) genes. Although the nucleotide sequences of these genes highly resemble each other, an intron corresponding to the 7th intron in the maize gene is present in PE15- and PE105-PEPCase genes but absent in PE3-PEPCase. The intron corresponding to the maize 3rd intron is absent in PE15- and PE105-PEPCase genes. Deletion of these introns occurred precisely such that the coding sequence is faithfully preserved with respect to the maize gene. The PE19-PEPCase gene contains a deletion in the 8th exon instead of the presence of those introns. PMID:7764981

  12. A Review for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods in Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ching Lee; Liew, Mei Jing; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in genetic epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. These gene-gene interactions are also denoted as epitasis in which this phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs), support vector machine (SVM), and random forests (RFs) in such common and multifactorial disease. This paper gives an overview on machine learning methods, describing the methodology of each machine learning methods and its application in detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Lastly, this paper discussed each machine learning method and presents the strengths and weaknesses of each machine learning method in detecting gene-gene interactions in complex human disease. PMID:24228248

  13. Gene Study of Liver Tumor Reveals Versatile DNA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All rights reserved. More Health News on: Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  14. Black Women at Raised Risk of Carrying Breast Cancer Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  15. Racial Differences in Breast Cancer Linked to Genes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on: African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African American Health Breast Cancer Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  16. Common Gene Variant May Raise Miscarriage Risk, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: Assisted Reproductive Technology Genes and Gene Therapy Miscarriage Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Genes and Gene Therapy Miscarriage About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  17. Genes May Help Shield Seniors from Mental Decline

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reserved. More Health News on: Dementia Genes and Gene Therapy Seniors' Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dementia Genes and Gene Therapy Seniors' Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  18. Researchers Pinpoint Genes Linked to Height, Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Heart Diseases About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  19. Gene Tied to Adult Depression After Childhood Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health News on: Child Abuse Depression Genes and Gene Therapy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Depression Genes and Gene Therapy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  20. Diametric gene-dosage effects as windows into neurogenetic architecture

    E-print Network

    Crespi, Bernard J.

    Diametric gene-dosage effects as windows into neurogenetic architecture Bernard Crespi Gene diametric changes in gene dosage influence neurological development and function? Recent studies of transgenic and knockout mouse models, genomic copy-number variants, imprinted- gene expression alterations

  1. Routes to Binary Gene Expression

    E-print Network

    Indrani Bose

    2012-07-30

    Systems biology approaches combining theoretical modeling with experiments have been singularly successful in uncovering novel features of cellular phenomena. One such feature is that of binary gene expression in which the expression level is either low or high, i.e., digital in nature. This gives rise to two distinct subpopulations in a population of genetically identical cells. The fraction of cells in the high expression state is raised as the strength of the inducing signal is increased indicating that the response is not graded. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of binary gene expression with emphasis on three principal mechanisms: purely stochastic, positive feedback-based and emergent bistability. In the latter case, two stable expression states are obtained due to an autoregulatory positive feedback loop in protein synthesis along with cell growth retardation by the proteins synthesized. The theoretical foundations of the observed phenomena are described in each case.

  2. Taste Genes Associatedwith Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, S.; Wang, X.; Brown, M.; Cooper, M.E.; DeSensi, R.S.; Weyant, R.J.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. Previous reports have characterized the influence of genetic variation on taste preferences and dietary habits. We therefore hypothesized that genetic variation in taste pathway genes (TAS2R38, TAS1R2, GNAT3) may be associated with dental caries risk and/or protection. Families were recruited by the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) for collection of biological samples, demographic data, and clinical assessment of oral health, including caries scores. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for each gene were performed and analyzed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis (FBAT software) for three dentition groups: primary, mixed, and permanent. Statistically significant associations were seen in TAS2R38 and TAS1R2 for caries risk and/or protection. PMID:20858777

  3. Seasonal Effects on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Goldinger, Anita; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Henders, Anjali K.; McRae, Allan F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Powell, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Many health conditions, ranging from psychiatric disorders to cardiovascular disease, display notable seasonal variation in severity and onset. In order to understand the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon, we have examined seasonal variation in the transcriptome of 606 healthy individuals. We show that 74 transcripts associated with a 12-month seasonal cycle were enriched for processes involved in DNA repair and binding. An additional 94 transcripts demonstrated significant seasonal variability that was largely influenced by blood cell count levels. These transcripts were enriched for immune function, protein production, and specific cellular markers for lymphocytes. Accordingly, cell counts for erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, and CD19 cells demonstrated significant association with a 12-month seasonal cycle. These results demonstrate that seasonal variation is an important environmental regulator of gene expression and blood cell composition. Notable changes in leukocyte counts and genes involved in immune function indicate that immune cell physiology varies throughout the year in healthy individuals. PMID:26023781

  4. Reconstruction of a Functional Human Gene Network, with an Application for Prioritizing Positional Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Lude; Bakel, Harm van; Fokkens, Like; de Jong, Edwin D.; Egmont-Petersen, Michael; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2006-01-01

    Most common genetic disorders have a complex inheritance and may result from variants in many genes, each contributing only weak effects to the disease. Pinpointing these disease genes within the myriad of susceptibility loci identified in linkage studies is difficult because these loci may contain hundreds of genes. However, in any disorder, most of the disease genes will be involved in only a few different molecular pathways. If we know something about the relationships between the genes, we can assess whether some genes (which may reside in different loci) functionally interact with each other, indicating a joint basis for the disease etiology. There are various repositories of information on pathway relationships. To consolidate this information, we developed a functional human gene network that integrates information on genes and the functional relationships between genes, based on data from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, the Biomolecular Interaction Network Database, Reactome, the Human Protein Reference Database, the Gene Ontology database, predicted protein-protein interactions, human yeast two-hybrid interactions, and microarray coexpressions. We applied this network to interrelate positional candidate genes from different disease loci and then tested 96 heritable disorders for which the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database reported at least three disease genes. Artificial susceptibility loci, each containing 100 genes, were constructed around each disease gene, and we used the network to rank these genes on the basis of their functional interactions. By following up the top five genes per artificial locus, we were able to detect at least one known disease gene in 54% of the loci studied, representing a 2.8-fold increase over random selection. This suggests that our method can significantly reduce the cost and effort of pinpointing true disease genes in analyses of disorders for which numerous loci have been reported but for which most of the genes are unknown. PMID:16685651

  5. Gene doping: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Mansour, Mai M H; Christenson, Robert H

    2009-04-01

    Gene doping is the newest threat to the spirit of fair play in sports. Its concept stemmed out from legitimate gene therapy trials, but anti-doping authorities fear that they now may be facing a form of doping that is virtually undetectable and extremely appealing to athletes. This paper presents studies that generated mouse models with outstanding physical performance, by manipulating genes such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), which are likely to be targeted for gene doping. The potential transition from super mice to super athletes will also be discussed, in addition to possible strategies for detection of gene doping. PMID:19272337

  6. Thermostable cellulase from a thermomonospora gene

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Walker, L.P.; Zhang, S.

    1997-10-14

    The invention relates to a gene isolated from Thermomonospora fusca, wherein the gene encodes a thermostable cellulase. Disclosed is the nucleotide sequence of the T. fusca gene; and nucleic acid molecules comprising the gene, or a fragment of the gene, that can be used to recombinantly express the cellulase or a catalytically active polypeptide thereof, respectively. The isolated and purified recombinant cellulase or catalytically active polypeptide may be used to hydrolyze substrate either by itself; or in combination with other cellulases, with the resultant combination having unexpected hydrolytic activity. 3 figs.

  7. Rotavirus gene structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, M K; Cohen, J

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the structure and function of the genes and proteins of the rotaviruses has expanded rapidly. Information obtained in the last 5 years has revealed unexpected and unique molecular properties of rotavirus proteins of general interest to virologists, biochemists, and cell biologists. Rotaviruses share some features of replication with reoviruses, yet antigenic and molecular properties of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 (a protein whose cleavage is required for infectivity, possibly by mediating fusion with the cell membrane) and VP7 (a glycoprotein), show more similarities with those of other viruses such as the orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and alphaviruses. Rotavirus morphogenesis is a unique process, during which immature subviral particles bud through the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During this process, transiently enveloped particles form, the outer capsid proteins are assembled onto particles, and mature particles accumulate in the lumen of the ER. Two ER-specific viral glycoproteins are involved in virus maturation, and these glycoproteins have been shown to be useful models for studying protein targeting and retention in the ER and for studying mechanisms of virus budding. New ideas and approaches to understanding how each gene functions to replicate and assemble the segmented viral genome have emerged from knowledge of the primary structure of rotavirus genes and their proteins and from knowledge of the properties of domains on individual proteins. Localization of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing epitopes on the outer capsid proteins is becoming increasingly useful in dissecting the protective immune response, including evaluation of vaccine trials, with the practical possibility of enhancing the production of new, more effective vaccines. Finally, future analyses with recently characterized immunologic and gene probes and new animal models can be expected to provide a basic understanding of what regulates the primary interactions of these viruses with the gastrointestinal tract and the subsequent responses of infected hosts. Images PMID:2556635

  8. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costas D. (Port Matilda, PA); Burgard, Anthony R. (State College, PA); Pharkya, Priti (State College, PA)

    2011-09-27

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  9. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOEpatents

    Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

    2013-06-04

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  10. Comparative genome analysis of PHB gene family reveals deep evolutionary origins and diverse gene function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background PHB (Prohibitin) gene family is involved in a variety of functions important for different biological processes. PHB genes are ubiquitously present in divergent species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Human PHB genes have been found to be associated with various diseases. Recent studies by our group and others have shown diverse function of PHB genes in plants for development, senescence, defence, and others. Despite the importance of the PHB gene family, no comprehensive gene family analysis has been carried to evaluate the relatedness of PHB genes across different species. In order to better guide the gene function analysis and understand the evolution of the PHB gene family, we therefore carried out the comparative genome analysis of the PHB genes across different kingdoms. Results The relatedness, motif distribution, and intron/exon distribution all indicated that PHB genes is a relatively conserved gene family. The PHB genes can be classified into 5 classes and each class have a very deep evolutionary origin. The PHB genes within the class maintained the same motif patterns during the evolution. With Arabidopsis as the model species, we found that PHB gene intron/exon structure and domains are also conserved during the evolution. Despite being a conserved gene family, various gene duplication events led to the expansion of the PHB genes. Both segmental and tandem gene duplication were involved in Arabidopsis PHB gene family expansion. However, segmental duplication is predominant in Arabidopsis. Moreover, most of the duplicated genes experienced neofunctionalization. The results highlighted that PHB genes might be involved in important functions so that the duplicated genes are under the evolutionary pressure to derive new function. Conclusion PHB gene family is a conserved gene family and accounts for diverse but important biological functions based on the similar molecular mechanisms. The highly diverse biological function indicated that more research needs to be carried out to dissect the PHB gene function. The conserved gene evolution indicated that the study in the model species can be translated to human and mammalian studies. PMID:20946606

  11. NME genes in epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The NME family of genes encodes highly conserved multifunctional proteins that have been shown to participate in nucleic acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, cell signaling, and cancer progression. Some family members, particularly isoforms 1 and 2, have attracted extensive interests because of their potential anti-metastasis activity. Unfortunately, there have been few consensus mechanistic explanations for this critical function because of the numerous molecular functions ascribed to these proteins, including nucleoside diphosphate kinase, protein kinase, nuclease, transcription factor, growth factor, among others. In addition, different studies showed contradictory prognostic correlations between NME expression levels and tumor progression in clinical samples. Thus, analyses using pliable in vivo systems have become critical for unraveling at least some aspects of the complex functions of this family of genes. Recent works using the Drosophila genetic system have suggested a role for NME in regulating epithelial cell motility and morphogenesis, which has also been demonstrated in mammalian epithelial cell culture. This function is mediated by promoting internalization of growth factor receptors in motile epithelial cells, and the adherens junction components such as E-cadherin and ?-catenin in epithelia that form the tissue linings. Interestingly, NME genes in epithelial cells appear to function in a defined range of expression levels. Either down-regulation or over-expression can perturb epithelial integrity, resulting in different aspects of epithelial abnormality. Such biphasic functions provide a plausible explanation for the documented anti-metastatic activity and the suspected oncogenic function. This review summarizes these recent findings and discusses their implications. PMID:21336542

  12. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  13. Collaborative computing for gene mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gatewood, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    The authors are investigating mechanisms for utilizing advances in high performance computing and alignment algorithm development which will allow the analysis of newly acquired sequence data in real time and eliminate the global alignments problems associated with existing datasets. The presence of repetitive DNA sequences in the human genome complicates the process of homology comparisons. Three approaches have been used to address this problem. Two of the approaches involve elimination of the repetitive elements either by removing the repetitive element from the query or scoring words due to the repetitive elements poorly or not at all during the alignment process. The approach involves identification of the repetitive element in the query by comparison to a known repeat set prior to comparison to the large database. Any homologies returned which are contained within a previously identified repeat are ignored unless the homology exceeds set quality parameters. The homologies which extend outside the bounds of the repetitive element are reported. Using this approach the repeat is not eliminated from larger homologous units which may exist, and is returned as part of the overall homology result. The method the authors utilize in the laboratory for gene mapping is fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). This approach involves labelling a gene segment with a fluorescent molecule and then mixing the labeled gene segment (probe) with chromosomes.

  14. GeneTack database: genes with frameshifts in prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Ivan; Baranov, Pavel; Borodovsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Database annotations of prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences pay relatively low attention to frame transitions that disrupt protein-coding genes. Frame transitions (frameshifts) could be caused by sequencing errors or indel mutations inside protein-coding regions. Other observed frameshifts are related to recoding events (that evolved to control expression of some genes). Earlier, we have developed an algorithm and software program GeneTack for ab initio frameshift finding in intronless genes. Here, we describe a database (freely available at http://topaz.gatech.edu/GeneTack/db.html) containing genes with frameshifts (fs-genes) predicted by GeneTack. The database includes 206?991 fs-genes from 1106 complete prokaryotic genomes and 45?295 frameshifts predicted in mRNA sequences from 100 eukaryotic genomes. The whole set of fs-genes was grouped into clusters based on sequence similarity between fs-proteins (conceptually translated fs-genes), conservation of the frameshift position and frameshift direction (-1, +1). The fs-genes can be retrieved by similarity search to a given query sequence via a web interface, by fs-gene cluster browsing, etc. Clusters of fs-genes are characterized with respect to their likely origin, such as pseudogenization, phase variation, etc. The largest clusters contain fs-genes with programed frameshifts (related to recoding events). PMID:23161689

  15. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with ?-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  16. Evaluation of candidate genes for familial brachydactyly.

    PubMed Central

    Mastrobattista, J M; Dollé, P; Blanton, S H; Northrup, H

    1995-01-01

    Type A1 brachydactyly in humans is a recognisable syndrome characterised by shortening of the middle phalanx of all digits with occasional fusion of the middle and terminal phalanges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate genes for type A1 brachydactyly in two families with multiple affected members. Several classes of genes have been implicated in the control of distal limb development including homeobox containing genes (MSX1, MSX2) some members of the homeobox gene family, and genes encoding growth factors of the FGF, TGF, and PDGF families. Homeobox (Hox) genes are a family of developmental control genes activated early in embryogenesis that encode positional information along the anterior-posterior body axis and specify distinct spatial domains within developing limbs. Growth factor genes can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various embryonic structures including limb buds and have been shown to influence Hox gene expression. Candidate genes HOXD, MSX1, MSX2, FGF-1, and FGF-2 were excluded in one family. The brachydactyly type A1 gene or locus was not found in either of the two families studied. PMID:8592325

  17. Cellular Targeting for Cochlear Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Allen F.; Mullen, Lina M.; Doherty, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy has considerable potential for the treatment of disorders of the inner ear. Many forms of inherited hearing loss have now been linked to specific locations in the genome, and for many of these the genes and specific mutations involved have been identified. This information provides the basis for therapy based on genetic approaches. However, a major obstacle to gene therapy is the targeting of therapy to the cells and the times that are required. The inner ear is a very complex organ, involving dozens of cell types that must function in a coordinated manner to result in the formation of the ear, and in hearing. Mutations that result in hearing loss can affect virtually any of these cells. Moreover, the genes involved are active during particular times, some for only brief periods of time. In order to be effective, gene therapy must be delivered to the appropriate cells, and at the appropriate times. In many cases, it must also be restricted to these cells and times. This requires methods with which to target gene therapy in space and time. Cell-specific gene promoters offer the opportunity to direct gene therapy to a desired cell type. Moreover, conditional promoters allow gene expression to be turned off and on at desired times. Theoretically, these technologies offer a mechanism by which to deliver gene therapy to any cell, at any given time. This chapter will examine the potential for such targeting to deliver gene therapy to the inner ear in a precisely controlled manner. PMID:19494575

  18. Biological Gene Delivery Vehicles: Beyond Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Yiqi; Wood, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy covers a broad spectrum of applications, from gene replacement and knockdown for genetic or acquired diseases such as cancer, to vaccination, each with different requirements for gene delivery. Viral vectors and synthetic liposomes have emerged as the vehicles of choice for many applications today, but both have limitations and risks, including complexity of production, limited packaging capacity, and unfavorable immunological features, which restrict gene therapy applications and hold back the potential for preventive gene therapy. While continuing to improve these vectors, it is important to investigate other options, particularly nonviral biological agents which include bacteria, bacteriophage, virus-like particles (VLPs), erythrocyte ghosts, and exosomes. Exploiting the natural properties of these biological entities for specific gene delivery applications will expand the repertoire of gene therapy vectors available for clinical use. Here, we review the prospects for nonviral biological delivery vehicles as gene therapy agents with focus on their unique evolved biological properties and respective limitations and potential applications. The potential of these nonviral biological entities to act as clinical gene therapy delivery vehicles has already been shown in clinical trials using bacteria-mediated gene transfer and with sufficient development, these entities will complement the established delivery techniques for gene therapy applications. PMID:19277019

  19. Image-Guided Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dexi

    2009-03-01

    Gene delivery by rapid injection of a large volume of DNA solution into a blood vessel, commonly called hydrodynamic gene delivery, has become a common method for gene therapy studies in rodents. In this presentation, I will focus on our recent work aiming at establishment of an image-guided hydrodynamic procedure for gene delivery in humans. Our study employed swine as an animal model and the procedure developed includes image-guided insertion of a balloon catheter into the selected blood vessel of the targeted organ from the jugular vein and hydrodynamic injection of plasmid DNA in saline. The talk will cover the rationale of our approach, the effectiveness of procedure for gene delivery to liver and muscle, and the impact of the procedure on physiological functions and serum chemistry of the animals. The results will be discussed with respect to potential applications of the hydrodynamic gene delivery to human gene therapy.

  20. Nucleolar dominance and ribosomal RNA gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Sarah; Vitins, Alexa; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon that occurs in genetic hybrids and describes the expression of 45S rRNA genes inherited from one progenitor due to the silencing of the other progenitor’s rRNA genes. Nucleolar dominance is a manifestation of rRNA gene dosage control, which also occurs in non-hybrids, regulating the number of active rRNA genes according to the cellular demand for ribosomes and protein synthesis. Ribosomal RNA gene silencing involves changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications, but the molecular basis for choosing which genes to silence remains unclear. Recent studies indicate a role for short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or structured regulatory RNAs in rRNA gene silencing in plants or mammals, respectively, suggesting that RNA may impart specificity to the choice mechanism. PMID:20392622

  1. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Edward (Berkeley, CA); Pennacchio, Len A. (Sebastopol, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  2. Gene Flow in Seed Alfalfa: A Summary of Recent Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene flow is the mechanism by which a gene from one population becomes established in another population. There are two types of gene flow: pollen-mediated gene flow and seed-mediated gene flow. Pollen-mediated gene flow results from the movement of pollen from one location to another resulting in f...

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Deciphering the association between gene

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Jianlin Jack

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Deciphering the association between gene function and spatial gene-gene of factors have been investigated in the context of gene function prediction and analysis, such as sequence identity, gene expressions, and gene co-evolution. However, three-dimensional (3D) conformation

  4. Evolutionary Signatures amongst Disease Genes Permit Novel Methods for Gene Prioritization and Construction of Informative Gene-Based Networks

    PubMed Central

    Priedigkeit, Nolan; Wolfe, Nicholas; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting “disease map” network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks. PMID:25679399

  5. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    PubMed

    Priedigkeit, Nolan; Wolfe, Nicholas; Clark, Nathan L

    2015-02-01

    Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC), is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks. PMID:25679399

  6. Gene therapy: Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miake, Junichiro; Marbán, Eduardo; Nuss, H. Bradley

    2002-09-01

    The pacemaker cells of the heart initiate the heartbeat, sustain the circulation, and dictate the rate and rhythm of cardiac contraction. Circulatory collapse ensues when these specialized cells are damaged by disease, a situation that currently necessitates the implantation of an electronic pacemaker. Here we report the use of viral gene transfer to convert quiescent heart-muscle cells into pacemaker cells, and the successful generation of spontaneous, rhythmic electrical activity in the ventricle in vivo. Our results indicate that genetically engineered pacemakers could be developed as a possible alternative to implantable electronic devices.

  7. A portal to gene-centered information from different sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    NCBI Gene A portal to gene-centered information from different sources http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene of Health · Department of Health and Human Services NCBI Handout Series | Gene | Last Update May 8, 2015 Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov NCBI Gene A portal to gene-centered information from different sources

  8. Highthroughput soybean gene expression analysis The changes in the atmosphere are altering gene expression and affecting the interaction

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    High­throughput soybean gene expression analysis The changes in the atmosphere are altering gene soybean oligoarrays to analyze changes in the gene expression profile. Affymetrix GeneChip® Soybean Genome with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) VIGS is used to suppress genes at transcript level by using a viral

  9. Detecting sequence homology at the gene cluster level with MultiGeneBlast.

    PubMed

    Medema, Marnix H; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    The genes encoding many biomolecular systems and pathways are genomically organized in operons or gene clusters. With MultiGeneBlast, we provide a user-friendly and effective tool to perform homology searches with operons or gene clusters as basic units, instead of single genes. The contextualization offered by MultiGeneBlast allows users to get a better understanding of the function, evolutionary history, and practical applications of such genomic regions. The tool is fully equipped with applications to generate search databases from GenBank or from the user's own sequence data. Finally, an architecture search mode allows searching for gene clusters with novel configurations, by detecting genomic regions with any user-specified combination of genes. Sources, precompiled binaries, and a graphical tutorial of MultiGeneBlast are freely available from http://multigeneblast.sourceforge.net/. PMID:23412913

  10. Genes Downregulated in Endometriosis Are Located Near the Known Imprinting Genes

    PubMed Central

    Higashiura, Yumi; Koike, Natsuki; Akasaka, Juria; Uekuri, Chiharu; Iwai, Kana; Niiro, Emiko; Morioka, Sachiko; Yamada, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    There is now accumulating evidence that endometriosis is a disease associated with an epigenetic disorder. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon known to regulate DNA methylation of either maternal or paternal alleles. We hypothesize that hypermethylated endometriosis-associated genes may be enriched at imprinted gene loci. We sought to determine whether downregulated genes associated with endometriosis susceptibility are associated with chromosomal location of the known paternally and maternally expressed imprinting genes. Gene information has been gathered from National Center for Biotechnology Information database geneimprint.com. Several researchers have identified specific loci with strong DNA methylation in eutopic endometrium and ectopic lesion with endometriosis. Of the 29 hypermethylated genes in endometriosis, 19 genes were located near 45 known imprinted foci. There may be an association of the genomic location between genes specifically downregulated in endometriosis and epigenetically imprinted genes. PMID:24615936

  11. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future. PMID:25227756

  12. Functional Analysis of the Molecular Interactions of TATA Box-Containing Genes and Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jisook

    2015-01-01

    Genes can be divided into TATA-containing genes and TATA-less genes according to the presence of TATA box elements at promoter regions. TATA-containing genes tend to be stress-responsive, whereas many TATA-less genes are known to be related to cell growth or “housekeeping” functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there are striking differences among four gene sets defined by the presence of TATA box (TATA-containing) and essentiality (TATA-less) with respect to number of associated transcription factors, amino acid usage, and functional annotation. Extending this research in yeast, we identified KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways that are statistically enriched in TATA-containing or TATA-less genes and evaluated the possibility that the enriched pathways are related to stress or growth as reflected by the individual functions of the genes involved. According to their enrichment for either of these two gene sets, we sorted KEGG pathways into TATA-containing-gene-enriched pathways (TEPs) and essential-gene-enriched pathways (EEPs). As expected, genes in TEPs and EEPs exhibited opposite results in terms of functional category, transcriptional regulation, codon adaptation index, and network properties, suggesting the possibility that the bipolar patterns in these pathways also contribute to the regulation of the stress response and to cell survival. Our findings provide the novel insight that significant enrichment of TATA-binding or TATA-less genes defines pathways as stress-responsive or growth-related. PMID:25789484

  13. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  14. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the ? -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  15. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  16. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Endogenously imprinted genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Lori A; Bartlett, Nicholas J; Lloyd, Vett K

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic state that results from differential processing of chromosomes during gametogenesis and which can cause differential expression of genes depending on the sex of the parent transmitting that gene. In Drosophila, many examples of imprinted marker genes have been documented and imprinting of these genes involves highly conserved epigenetic regulators. However, no endogenously imprinted genes have yet been identified. Here we present a phenotypic and transcriptional analysis of parthenogenetic (gynogenetic) and genotypically identical but sexually produced adult female Drosophila. We find that while parthenogenetic females have a superficially normal phenotype and are viable and fertile, their lifespan is extended relative to their sexually-produced counterparts. Microarray/transcriptional analysis of parthenogenetic versus sexually-produced females reveals 76 genes with consistently altered patterns of expression, 36 upregulated and 40 downregulated, some with known effects on aging. Analysis of individuals with uniparental inheritance of only portions of their genome suggest that many of these genes may be indirectly imprinted, responding to either other imprinted genes or redistribution of chromatin components that are differentially allocated to sex and autosomal heterochromatin in a sex-dependent manner during gametogenesis. As gene expression dependent on the parental origin of the genome meets the definition of genomic imprinting, our study provides evidence that endogenous genes are imprinted in Drosophila. PMID:24658702

  18. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. PMID:23808390

  19. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Paul-Ludwig; Mundry, Marvin; Sassenberg, Christoph; Lorkowski, Stefan; Fuellen, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Background In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. Results We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in the gene tree. Such a simplification may fail, for example, due to genes in the gene tree that are misplaced. In this way, misplaced genes can be identified. Optionally, our tool glosses over a limited degree of "paraphyly" in a further simplification step. In both simplification steps, species can be summarized into groups and treated as equivalent. In the present study we used our tool to derive a simplified tree of 397 leaves from a tree of 1138 leaves. Comparing the simplified tree to a "cartoon tree" created manually, we note that both agree to a high degree. Conclusion Our automatic simplification tool for gene trees is fast, accurate, and effective. It yields results of similar quality as manual simplification. It should be valuable in phylogenetic studies of large protein families. The software is available at . PMID:16643669

  20. Detection of EPO gene doping in blood.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Elmo W I; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Moser, Dirk A; Simon, Perikles

    2012-11-01

    Gene doping--or the abuse of gene therapy--will continue to threaten the sports world. History has shown that progress in medical research is likely to be abused in order to enhance human performance. In this review, we critically discuss the progress and the risks associated with the field of erythropoietin (EPO) gene therapy and its applicability to EPO gene doping. We present typical vector systems that are employed in ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy trials. Due to associated risks, gene doping is not a feasible alternative to conventional EPO or blood doping at this time. Nevertheless, it is well described that about half of the elite athlete population is in principle willing to risk its health to gain a competitive advantage. This includes the use of technologies that lack safety approval. Sophisticated detection approaches are a prerequisite for prevention of unapproved and uncontrolled use of gene therapy technology. In this review, we present current detection approaches for EPO gene doping, with a focus on blood-based direct and indirect approaches. Gene doping is detectable in principle, and recent DNA-based detection strategies enable long-term detection of transgenic DNA (tDNA) following in vivo gene transfer. PMID:22508654

  1. The Dynein Gene Family in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Porter, M. E.; Knott, J. A.; Myster, S. H.; Farlow, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    To correlate dynein heavy chain (Dhc) genes with flagellar mutations and gain insight into the function of specific dynein isoforms, we placed eight members of the Dhc gene family on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. Using a PCR-based strategy, we cloned 11 Dhc genes from Chlamydomonas. Comparisons with other Dhc genes indicate that two clones correspond to genes encoding the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer dynein arm. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences spanning the nucleotide binding site indicates that the remaining nine clones can be subdivided into three groups that are likely to include representatives of the inner-arm Dhc isoforms. Gene-specific probes reveal that each clone represents a single-copy gene that is expressed as a transcript of the appropriate size (>13 kb) sufficient to encode a high molecular weight Dhc polypeptide. The expression of all nine genes is upregulated in response to deflagellation, suggesting a role in axoneme assembly or motility. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms between divergent C. reinhardtii strains have been used to place each Dhc gene on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. These studies lay the groundwork for correlating defects in different Dhc genes with specific flagellar mutations. PMID:8889521

  2. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  3. Application of multidisciplinary analysis to gene expression.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuefel; Kang, Huining; Fields, Chris; Cowie, Jim R.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Sibirtsev, Valeriy; Mosquera-Caro, Monica P.; Xu, Yuexian; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Helman, Paul; Andries, Erik; Ar, Kerem; Potter, Jeffrey; Willman, Cheryl L.; Murphy, Maurice H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cancer, at the genomic level, could lead to individualized patient diagnostics and treatments. The developments to follow will signal a significant paradigm shift in the clinical management of human cancer. Despite our initial hopes, however, it seems that simple analysis of microarray data cannot elucidate clinically significant gene functions and mechanisms. Extracting biological information from microarray data requires a complicated path involving multidisciplinary teams of biomedical researchers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and computational linguists. The integration of the diverse outputs of each team is the limiting factor in the progress to discover candidate genes and pathways associated with the molecular biology of cancer. Specifically, one must deal with sets of significant genes identified by each method and extract whatever useful information may be found by comparing these different gene lists. Here we present our experience with such comparisons, and share methods developed in the analysis of an infant leukemia cohort studied on Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. In particular, spatial gene clustering, hyper-dimensional projections, and computational linguistics were used to compare different gene lists. In spatial gene clustering, different gene lists are grouped together and visualized on a three-dimensional expression map, where genes with similar expressions are co-located. In another approach, projections from gene expression space onto a sphere clarify how groups of genes can jointly have more predictive power than groups of individually selected genes. Finally, online literature is automatically rearranged to present information about genes common to multiple groups, or to contrast the differences between the lists. The combination of these methods has improved our understanding of infant leukemia. While the complicated reality of the biology dashed our initial, optimistic hopes for simple answers from microarrays, we have made progress by combining very different analytic approaches.

  4. Antagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, A A; Vassetzky, Y S; Kavsan, V M

    2013-10-25

    Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and "paradoxical" effects of different anticancer drugs depending on the cellular genetic context/signaling network are discussed. PMID:23933273

  5. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium. PMID:21865877

  6. RapGene: a fast and accurate strategy for synthetic gene assembly in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Stevens, Pauline Rees; Pachebat, Justin A; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Mur, Luis A J; Hayes, Finbarr

    2015-01-01

    The ability to assemble DNA sequences de novo through efficient and powerful DNA fabrication methods is one of the foundational technologies of synthetic biology. Gene synthesis, in particular, has been considered the main driver for the emergence of this new scientific discipline. Here we describe RapGene, a rapid gene assembly technique which was successfully tested for the synthesis and cloning of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes through a ligation independent approach. The method developed in this study is a complete bacterial gene synthesis platform for the quick, accurate and cost effective fabrication and cloning of gene-length sequences that employ the widely used host Escherichia coli. PMID:26062748

  7. RapGene: a fast and accurate strategy for synthetic gene assembly in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Stevens, Pauline Rees; Pachebat, Justin A.; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Mur, Luis A. J.; Hayes, Finbarr

    2015-01-01

    The ability to assemble DNA sequences de novo through efficient and powerful DNA fabrication methods is one of the foundational technologies of synthetic biology. Gene synthesis, in particular, has been considered the main driver for the emergence of this new scientific discipline. Here we describe RapGene, a rapid gene assembly technique which was successfully tested for the synthesis and cloning of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes through a ligation independent approach. The method developed in this study is a complete bacterial gene synthesis platform for the quick, accurate and cost effective fabrication and cloning of gene-length sequences that employ the widely used host Escherichia coli. PMID:26062748

  8. Direct Introduction of Genes into Rats and Expression of the Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenisty, Nissim; Reshef, Lea

    1986-12-01

    A method of introducing actively expressed genes into intact mammals is described. DNA precipitated with calcium phosphate has been injected intraperitoneally into newborn rats. The injected genes have been taken up and expressed by the animal tissues. To examine the generality of the method we have injected newborn rats with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase prokaryotic gene fused with various viral and cellular gene promoters and the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, and we observed appearance of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and hepatitis B surface antigen in liver and spleen. In addition, administration of genes coding for hormones (insulin or growth hormone) resulted in their expression.

  9. BB Seminar: Detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case-control studies

    Cancer.gov

    Gene-gene interactions have long been recognized to be fundamentally important to understand genetic causes of complex disease traits. At present, identifying gene-gene interactions from genome-wide case-control studies is computationally and methodologically challenging. In this talk, we introduce a new method, named Boolean Operation based Screening and Testing(BOOST). To discover unknown gene-gene interactions that underlie complex diseases, BOOST allows examining all pair-wise interactions in genome-wide case-control studies in a remarkably fast manner.

  10. Effects of G-gene Deletion and Replacement on Rabies Virus Vector Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sho; Ohara, Shinya; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein-gene (G gene) -deleted rabies virus (RV) vector is a powerful tool to examine the function and structure of neural circuits. We previously reported that the deletion of the G gene enhances the transgene expression level of the RV vector. However, the mechanism of this enhancement remains to be clarified. We presume that there are two possible factors for this enhancement. The first factor is the glycoprotein of RV, which shows cytotoxicity; thus, may cause a dysfunction in the translation process of infected cells. The second possible factor is the enhanced expression of the L gene, which encodes viral RNA polymerase. In the RV, it is known that the gene expression level is altered depending on the position of the gene. Since G-gene deletion displaces the L gene in the genome, the expression of the L gene and viral transcription may be enhanced. In this study, we compared the transgene expression level and viral transcription of three recombinant RV vectors. The effect of glycoprotein was examined by comparing the viral gene expression of G-gene-intact RV and G-gene-replaced RV. Despite the fact that the L-gene transcription level of these two RV vectors was similar, the G-gene-replaced RV vector showed higher viral transcription and transgene expression level than the G-gene-intact RV vector. To examine the effect of the position of the L gene, we compared the viral gene expression of the G-gene-deleted RV and G-gene-replaced RV. The G-gene-deleted RV vector showed higher L-gene transcription, viral transcription, and transgene expression level than the G-gene-replaced RV vector. These results indicate that G-gene deletion enhances the transgene expression level through at least two factors, the absence of glycoprotein and enhancement of L-gene expression. These findings enable investigators to design a useful viral vector that shows a controlled desirable transgene expression level in applications. PMID:26023771

  11. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  12. Gene flow and bacterial transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.

    1993-07-01

    It is common knowledge that Salmonella which should be removed during the processing of sewage can persist is sewage sludge that is sprayed as agricultural fertilizer. Currently, researchers have found that Salmonella may become nonculturable by conventional means, while remaining viable. The issue raised by this article is the knowledge of lateral gene flow as secure as scientist suppose The author sites several research papers that suggest that intergeneric transformation can and does take place in marine environments such as tropical and subtropical estuaries.

  13. Homeobox genes expressed during echinoderm arm regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ben Khadra, Yousra; Said, Khaled; Thorndyke, Michael; Martinez, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Regeneration in echinoderms has proved to be more amenable to study in the laboratory than the more classical vertebrate models, since the smaller genome size and the absence of multiple orthologs for different genes in echinoderms simplify the analysis of gene function during regeneration. In order to understand the role of homeobox-containing genes during arm regeneration in echinoderms, we isolated the complement of genes belonging to the Hox class that are expressed during this process in two major echinoderm groups: asteroids (Echinaster sepositus and Asterias rubens) and ophiuroids (Amphiura filiformis), both of which show an extraordinary capacity for regeneration. By exploiting the sequence conservation of the homeobox, putative orthologs of several Hox genes belonging to the anterior, medial, and posterior groups were isolated. We also report the isolation of a few Hox-like genes expressed in the same systems. PMID:24309817

  14. TAFFEL: Independent Enrichment Analysis of gene sets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major challenge in genomic research is identifying significant biological processes and generating new hypotheses from large gene sets. Gene sets often consist of multiple separate biological pathways, controlled by distinct regulatory mechanisms. Many of these pathways and the associated regulatory mechanisms might be obscured by a large number of other significant processes and thus not identified as significant by standard gene set enrichment analysis tools. Results We present a novel method called Independent Enrichment Analysis (IEA) and software TAFFEL that eases the task by clustering genes to subgroups using Gene Ontology categories and transcription regulators. IEA indicates transcriptional regulators putatively controlling biological functions in studied condition. Conclusions We demonstrate that the developed method and TAFFEL tool give new insight to the analysis of differentially expressed genes and can generate novel hypotheses. Our comparison to other popular methods showed that the IEA method implemented in TAFFEL can find important biological phenomena, which are not reported by other methods. PMID:21592412

  15. Non-random sharing of Plantae genes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-05-01

    The power of eukaryote genomics relies strongly on taxon sampling. This point was underlined in a recent analysis of red algal genome evolution in which we tested the Plantae hypothesis that posits the monophyly of red, green (including plants) and glaucophyte algae. The inclusion of novel genome data from two mesophilic red algae enabled us to robustly demonstrate the sisterhood of red and green algae in the tree of life. Perhaps more exciting was the finding that >1,800 putative genes in the unicellular red alga Porphyridium cruentum showed evidence of gene-sharing with diverse lineages of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Here we assessed the correlation between the putative functions of these shared genes and their susceptibility to transfer. It turns out that genes involved in complex interactive networks such as biological regulation and transcription/translation are less susceptible to endosymbiotic or horizontal gene transfer, when compared to genes with metabolic and transporter functions. PMID:21980581

  16. Guinea pig preproinsulin gene: an evolutionary compromise?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S J; Episkopou, V; Zeitlin, S; Karathanasis, S K; MacKrell, A; Steiner, D F; Efstratiadis, A

    1984-01-01

    We characterized a clone carrying the guinea pig preproinsulin gene, which, in contrast to other mammalian preproinsulin genes, is highly divergent in its regions encoding the B and A chains of mature insulin. Blot hybridization analysis indicates that this gene is present in only one copy in the guinea pig genome and that other normal or mutated preproinsulin genes do not exist in this animal. Moreover, the position of introns in this gene and the homology of its 3' flanking region to the corresponding regions of other sequenced mammalian genes show that it has been derived from the common mammalian stock. The rapid evolution of the region encoding the B and A chains can be interpreted, according to our sequence-divergence analysis, as due to the fixation of both neutral and adaptive mutations. Images PMID:6591179

  17. Major Sperm Protein Genes from Globodera rostochiensis

    PubMed Central

    Novitski, Charles E.; Brown, Shiela; Chen, Ru; Corner, Adam S.; Atkinson, Howard J.; McPherson, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Three genes in the major sperm protein (MSP) gene family from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to the absence of introns in Caenorhabditis elegans MSP genes, these genes in G. rostochiensis contained a 57 nucleotide intron, with normal exon-intron boundaries, in the same relative location as the intron in Onchocerca volvulus. The MSP genes of G. rostochiensis had putative CAAT, TATA, and polyadenylation signals. The predicted G. rostochiensis MSP gene product is 126 amino acids long, one residue shorter than the products in the other species. The comparison of MSP amino acid sequences from four diverse nematode species suggests that O. volvulus, Ascaris suum, and C. elegans may be more closely related to each other than they are to G. rostochiensis. PMID:19279808

  18. Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Maekinen, Kimmo

    2002-03-15

    Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes.

  19. Gene Signatures in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    PubMed Central

    Studach, Leo; Merle, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant human cancer globally, with poor prognosis. New and efficacious therapy strategies are needed as well as new biomarkers for early detection of at-risk patients. In this review, we discuss select microarray studies of human HCCs, and propose a gene signature that has promise for clinical/translational application. This gene signature combines the proliferation cluster of genes and the hepatic cancer initiating/stem cell gene cluster for identification of HCCs with poor prognosis. Evidence from cell-based assays identifies the existence of a mechanistic link between these two gene clusters, involving the proliferation cluster gene Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). We propose that PLK1 is a promising therapy target for HCC. PMID:20851183

  20. Rhizobium tropici chromosomal citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lucas, I; Pardo, M A; Segovia, L; Miranda, J; Martínez-Romero, E

    1995-01-01

    Two genes encoding citrate synthase, a key enzyme in the Krebs cycle, have been found in Rhizobium tropici. One of them is in the bacterial chromosome, while the other is in the symbiotic plasmid. We sequenced the chromosomal gene and found that it is very similar to the previously reported plasmidic gene sequence in its structural region but not in its regulatory region. The chromosomal gene is able to complement an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant. In R. tropici, a mutant in the chromosomal citrate synthase gene has a diminished citrate synthase activity (in free-living bacteria), a diminished nodulation capacity, and forms nitrogen-fixing nodules. In contrast, the citrate synthase double mutant forms ineffective nodules devoid of bacteroids and forms less nodules than the single chromosomal mutant. It is inferred that both genes are functional and required during the nodulation process in R. tropici. PMID:8526514

  1. The evolution of heart gene delivery vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wasala, Nalinda B.; Shin, Jin-Hong; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy holds promise for treating numerous heart diseases. A key premise for the success of cardiac gene therapy is the development of powerful gene transfer vehicles that can achieve highly efficient and persistent gene transfer specifically in the heart. Other features of an ideal vector include negligible toxicity, minimal immunogenicity and easy manufacturing. Rapid progress in the fields of molecular biology and virology has offered great opportunities to engineer various genetic materials for heart gene delivery. Several nonviral vectors (e.g. naked plasmids, plasmid lipid/polymer complexes and oligonucleotides) have been tested. Commonly used viral vectors include lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus. Among these, adeno-associated virus has shown many attractive features for pre-clinical experimentation in animal models of heart diseases. We review the history and evolution of these vectors for heart gene transfer. PMID:21837689

  2. Gene and genome duplications: the impact of dosage-sensitivity on the fate of nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGDs) followed by diploidization, which includes gene loss, have been an important recurrent process in the evolution of higher eukaryotes. Gene retention is biased to specific functional gene categories during diploidization. Dosage-sensitive genes, which include transcription factors, are significantly over-retained following WGDs. By contrast, these same functional gene categories exhibit lower retention rates following smaller scale duplications (e.g., local and tandem duplicates, segmental duplicates, aneuploidy). In light of these recent observations, we review current theories that address the fate of nuclear genes following duplication events (i.e., Gain of Function Hypothesis, Subfunctionalization Hypothesis, Increased Gene Dosage Hypothesis, Functional Buffering Model, and the Gene Balance Hypothesis). We broadly review different mechanisms of dosage-compensation that have evolved to alleviate harmful dosage-imbalances. In addition, we examine a recently proposed extension of the Gene Balance Hypothesis to explain the shared single copy status for a specific functional class of genes across the flowering plants. We speculate that the preferential retention of dosage-sensitive genes (e.g., regulatory genes such as transcription factors) and gene loss following WGDs has played a significant role in the development of morphological complexity in eukaryotes and facilitating speciation, respectively. Lastly, we will review recent findings that suggest polyploid lineages had increased rates of survival and speciation following mass extinction events, including the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction. PMID:19802709

  3. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Mark J.; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-01-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions. PMID:19487239

  4. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions. PMID:19487239

  5. Origin and Ascendancy of a Chimeric Fusion Gene: The ?/?-Globin Gene of Paenungulate Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Sloan, Angela M.; Campbell, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    The ?-globin gene (HBD) of eutherian mammals exhibits a propensity for recombinational exchange with the closely linked ?-globin gene (HBB) and has been independently converted by the HBB gene in multiple lineages. Here we report the presence of a chimeric ?/? fusion gene in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) that was created by unequal crossing-over between misaligned HBD and HBB paralogs. The recombinant chromosome that harbors the ?/? fusion gene in elephants is structurally similar to the “anti-Lepore” duplication mutant of humans (the reciprocal exchange product of the hemoglobin Lepore deletion mutant). However, the situation in the African elephant is unique in that the chimeric ?/? fusion gene supplanted the parental HBB gene and is therefore solely responsible for synthesizing the ?-chain subunits of adult hemoglobin. A phylogenetic survey of ?-like globin genes in afrotherian and xenarthran mammals revealed that the origin of the chimeric ?/? fusion gene and the concomitant inactivation of the HBB gene predated the radiation of “Paenungulata,” a clade of afrotherian mammals that includes three orders: Proboscidea (elephants), Sirenia (dugongs and manatees), and Hyracoidea (hyraxes). The reduced fitness of the human Hb Lepore deletion mutant helps to explain why independently derived ?/? fusion genes (which occur on an anti-Lepore chromosome) have been fixed in a number of mammalian lineages, whereas the reciprocal ?/? fusion gene (which occurs on a Lepore chromosome) has yet to be documented in any nonhuman mammal. This illustrates how the evolutionary fates of chimeric fusion genes can be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin. PMID:19332641

  6. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhan-Kui

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer. PMID:14606062

  7. Clustering of gene ontology terms in genomes.

    PubMed

    Tiirikka, Timo; Siermala, Markku; Vihinen, Mauno

    2014-10-25

    Although protein coding genes occupy only a small fraction of genomes in higher species, they are not randomly distributed within or between chromosomes. Clustering of genes with related function(s) and/or characteristics has been evident at several different levels. To study how common the clustering of functionally related genes is and what kind of functions the end products of these genes are involved, we collected gene ontology (GO) terms for complete genomes and developed a method to detect previously undefined gene clustering. Exhaustive analysis was performed for seven widely studied species ranging from human to Escherichia coli. To overcome problems related to varying gene lengths and densities, a novel method was developed and a fixed number of genes were analyzed irrespective of the genome span covered. Statistically very significant GO term clustering was apparent in all the investigated genomes. The analysis window, which ranged from 5 to 50 consecutive genes, revealed extensive GO term clusters for genes with widely varying functions. Here, the most interesting and significant results are discussed and the complete dataset for each analyzed species is available at the GOme database at http://bioinf.uta.fi/GOme. The results indicated that clusters of genes with related functions are very common, not only in bacteria, in which operons are frequent, but also in all the studied species irrespective of how complex they are. There are some differences between species but in all of them GO term clusters are common and of widely differing sizes. The presented method can be applied to analyze any genome or part of a genome for which descriptive features are available, and thus is not restricted to ontology terms. This method can also be applied to investigate gene and protein expression patterns. The results pave a way for further studies of mechanisms that shape genome structure and evolutionary forces related to them. PMID:24995610

  8. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Bachkirova, Elena (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA)

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  9. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  10. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Bachkirova, Elena (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA)

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  11. Intergrin gene expression profiles of humanhepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lian-Xin; Jiang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Hui; Zhu, An-Long; Wang, Xiu-Qin; Wu, Min

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gene expression profiles of intergrin genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through the usage of Atlas Human Cancer Array membranes, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot. METHODS: Hybridization of cDNA array membrane was performed with ? 32P-labeled cDNA probes synthesized from RNA isolated from hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-cirrhotic liver. AtlasImage, which is a software specific to array, was used to analyze the result. RT-PCR of 24 pairs specimen and Northern blot of 4 pairs specimen were used to confirm the expression pattern of some intergrin genes identified by Atlas arrays hybridization. RESULTS: Among 588 genes spotted in membrane, 17 genes were related to intergrin. Four genes were up-regulated, such as intergrin alpha8, beta1, beta7 and beta8 in HCC. Whereas there were no genes down-regulated in HCC. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis of intergrin beta1 gene gave results consistent with cDNA array findings. CONCLUSION: Investigation of these intergrin genes should help to disclose the molecular mechanism of the cell adhesion, invasive and metastasis of HCC. A few genes are reported to have changed in HCC for the first time. The quick and high-throughout method of profiling gene expression by cDNA array provides us overview of key factors that may involved in HCC, and may find the clue of the study of HCC metastasis and molecular targets of anti-metastasis therapy. The precise relationship between the altered genes and HCC is a matter of further investigation. PMID:12174369

  12. Genomic Arrays: Tools for cancer gene discovery

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Ian

    2008-06-26

    Genomic gains (oncogenes) Genomic losses (tumour suppressor genes) Applications Research ? disease gene discovery Clinical ? diagnostic tests Comparative genomic hybridisation Tumour DNA (Test) Normal DNA (Reference) + Available probe GAIN: More test... stream_source_info Ian_Roberts.ppt.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3455 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ian_Roberts.ppt.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Genomic Arrays: Tools for cancer gene discovery...

  13. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Hacein-Bey Abina, S; Touzot, F; Cavazzana, M

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy has effectively entered Medicine via the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Because hematopoietic stem cells are accessible and because it was understood that genetic correction of lymphocyte progenitor cells carrying a genetic defect impairing differentiation, could result in the production of long-lived T lymphocytes, it was reasoned that ex vivo gene transfer in hematopoietic cells could lead to disease phenotype correction. Retroviral vectors were designed to ex vivo transduce such cells. This has indeed been shown to lead to sustained correction of the T cell immunodeficiency associated with two forms of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) for now more than ten years. Occurrence in some patients of genotoxicity related to retroviral vectors integration close to and transactivation of oncogenes has led to the development of retroviral vectors devoid of its enhancer element. Results of recent trials performed for several forms of PID indeed suggest that their use is both safe and efficacious. It is thus anticipated that their application to the treatment of many more life threatening PID will be developed over the coming years. PMID:25708106

  14. Gene Ontology annotations and resources.

    PubMed

    Blake, J A; Dolan, M; Drabkin, H; Hill, D P; Li, Ni; Sitnikov, D; Bridges, S; Burgess, S; Buza, T; McCarthy, F; Peddinti, D; Pillai, L; Carbon, S; Dietze, H; Ireland, A; Lewis, S E; Mungall, C J; Gaudet, P; Chrisholm, R L; Fey, P; Kibbe, W A; Basu, S; Siegele, D A; McIntosh, B K; Renfro, D P; Zweifel, A E; Hu, J C; Brown, N H; Tweedie, S; Alam-Faruque, Y; Apweiler, R; Auchinchloss, A; Axelsen, K; Bely, B; Blatter, M -C; Bonilla, C; Bouguerleret, L; Boutet, E; Breuza, L; Bridge, A; Chan, W M; Chavali, G; Coudert, E; Dimmer, E; Estreicher, A; Famiglietti, L; Feuermann, M; Gos, A; Gruaz-Gumowski, N; Hieta, R; Hinz, C; Hulo, C; Huntley, R; James, J; Jungo, F; Keller, G; Laiho, K; Legge, D; Lemercier, P; Lieberherr, D; Magrane, M; Martin, M J; Masson, P; Mutowo-Muellenet, P; O'Donovan, C; Pedruzzi, I; Pichler, K; Poggioli, D; Porras Millán, P; Poux, S; Rivoire, C; Roechert, B; Sawford, T; Schneider, M; Stutz, A; Sundaram, S; Tognolli, M; Xenarios, I; Foulgar, R; Lomax, J; Roncaglia, P; Khodiyar, V K; Lovering, R C; Talmud, P J; Chibucos, M; Giglio, M Gwinn; Chang, H -Y; Hunter, S; McAnulla, C; Mitchell, A; Sangrador, A; Stephan, R; Harris, M A; Oliver, S G; Rutherford, K; Wood, V; Bahler, J; Lock, A; Kersey, P J; McDowall, D M; Staines, D M; Dwinell, M; Shimoyama, M; Laulederkind, S; Hayman, T; Wang, S -J; Petri, V; Lowry, T; D'Eustachio, P; Matthews, L; Balakrishnan, R; Binkley, G; Cherry, J M; Costanzo, M C; Dwight, S S; Engel, S R; Fisk, D G; Hitz, B C; Hong, E L; Karra, K; Miyasato, S R; Nash, R S; Park, J; Skrzypek, M S; Weng, S; Wong, E D; Berardini, T Z; Huala, E; Mi, H; Thomas, P D; Chan, J; Kishore, R; Sternberg, P; Van Auken, K; Howe, D; Westerfield, M

    2013-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium (GOC, http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that classifies gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. Over the past year, the GOC has implemented several processes to increase the quantity, quality and specificity of GO annotations. First, the number of manual, literature-based annotations has grown at an increasing rate. Second, as a result of a new 'phylogenetic annotation' process, manually reviewed, homology-based annotations are becoming available for a broad range of species. Third, the quality of GO annotations has been improved through a streamlined process for, and automated quality checks of, GO annotations deposited by different annotation groups. Fourth, the consistency and correctness of the ontology itself has increased by using automated reasoning tools. Finally, the GO has been expanded not only to cover new areas of biology through focused interaction with experts, but also to capture greater specificity in all areas of the ontology using tools for adding new combinatorial terms. The GOC works closely with other ontology developers to support integrated use of terminologies. The GOC supports its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources. PMID:23161678

  15. Genes That Bias Mendelian Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion. PMID:24830502

  16. Gene Ontology Annotations and Resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium (GOC, http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that classifies gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. Over the past year, the GOC has implemented several processes to increase the quantity, quality and specificity of GO annotations. First, the number of manual, literature-based annotations has grown at an increasing rate. Second, as a result of a new ‘phylogenetic annotation’ process, manually reviewed, homology-based annotations are becoming available for a broad range of species. Third, the quality of GO annotations has been improved through a streamlined process for, and automated quality checks of, GO annotations deposited by different annotation groups. Fourth, the consistency and correctness of the ontology itself has increased by using automated reasoning tools. Finally, the GO has been expanded not only to cover new areas of biology through focused interaction with experts, but also to capture greater specificity in all areas of the ontology using tools for adding new combinatorial terms. The GOC works closely with other ontology developers to support integrated use of terminologies. The GOC supports its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources. PMID:23161678

  17. Obesity Gene Atlas in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kunej, Tanja; Jevsinek Skok, Dasa; Zorc, Minja; Ogrinc, Ana; Michal, Jennifer J.; Kovac, Milena; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in humans has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades and has become one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. These loci were integrated as orthologs on comparative genomic views in human, cattle, and mouse. The database and genomic views are freely available online at: http://www.integratomics-time.com/fat_deposition. Bioinformatics analyses of the collected data revealed some potential novel obesity related molecular markers which represent focal points for testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments for further studies. We believe that this centralized database on obesity and adipogenesis will facilitate development of comparative systems biology approaches to address this important health issue in human and their potential applications in animals. PMID:25031655

  18. The iojap gene in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  19. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  20. Large Variations in Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungtaek; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, essential to all forms of life, have been viewed as highly conserved and evolutionarily stable, partly because very little is known about their natural variations. Here, we explored large-scale variations of rRNA genes through bioinformatic analyses of available complete bacterial genomic sequences with an emphasis on formation mechanisms and biological significance. Interestingly, we found bacterial genomes in which no 16S rRNA genes harbor the conserved core of the anti–Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5?-CCTCC-3?). This loss was accompanied by elimination of Shine-Dalgarno–like sequences upstream of their protein-coding genes. Those genomes belong to 1 or 2 of the following categories: primary symbionts, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Flavobacteria. We also found many rearranged rRNA genes and reconstructed their history. Conjecturing the underlying mechanisms, such as inversion, partial duplication, transposon insertion, deletion, and substitution, we were able to infer their biological significance, such as co-orientation of rRNA transcription and chromosomal replication, lateral transfer of rRNA gene segments, and spread of rRNA genes with an apparent structural defect through gene conversion. These results open the way to understanding dynamic evolutionary changes of rRNA genes and the translational machinery. PMID:22446745

  1. ASDB: database of alternatively spliced genes.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, M S; Dubchak, I; Dralyuk, I; Zorn, M

    1999-01-01

    A database of alternatively spliced genes (ASDB) has been constructed based on (i) the results of the analysis of Swiss-Prot entries containing products of these genes and (ii) clustering procedure joining proteins that could arise by alternative splicing of the same gene. ASDB incorporates information about alternatively spliced genes, their products and expression patterns. It can be searched in order to find all products of alternative splicing produced in a particular tissue or a given organism, or all variants generated by a particular transcript. ASDB currently contains about 1700 protein sequences and can be accessed via the Internet at URL http://cbcg.nersc.gov/asdb PMID:9847209

  2. Differential gene detection incorporating common expression patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Shin

    2009-12-01

    In detection of differentially expressed (DE) genes between different groups of samples based on a high-throughput expression measurement system, we often use a classical statistical testing based on a simple assumption that the expression of a certain DE gene in one group is higher or lower in average than that in the other group. Based on this simple assumption, the theory of optimal discovery procedure (ODP) (Storey, 2005) provided an optimal thresholding function for DE gene detection. However, expression patterns of DE genes over samples may have such a structure that is not exactly consistent with group labels assigned to the samples. Appropriate treatment of such a structure can increase the detection ability. Namely, genes showing similar expression patterns to other biologically meaningful genes can be regarded as statistically more significant than those showing expression patterns independent of other genes, even if differences in mean expression levels are comparable. In this study, we propose a new statistical thresholding function based on a latent variable model incorporating expression patterns together with the ODP theory. The latent variable model assumes hidden common signals behind expression patterns over samples and the ODP theory is extended to involve the latent variables. When applied to several gene expression data matrices which include cluster structures or 'cancer outlier' structures, the newly-proposed thresholding functions showed prominently better detection performance of DE genes than the original ODP thresholding function did. We also demonstrate how the proposed methods behave through analyses of real breast cancer and lymphoma datasets.

  3. Smart Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The massive amount of human genetic information already available has accelerated the identification of target genes, making gene and nucleic acid therapy the next generation of medicine. Nanoparticle (NP)-based anticancer gene therapy treatment has received significant interest in this evolving field. Recent advances in vector technology have improved gene transfection efficiencies of nonviral vectors to a level similar to viruses. This review serves as an introduction to surface modifications of NPs based on polymeric structural improvements and target moieties. A discussion regarding the future perspective of multifunctional NPs in cancer therapy is also included. PMID:25531409

  4. Pichia stipitis genomics, transcriptomics, and gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas W; Van Vleet, Jennifer R Headman

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and subsequent global gene expression studies have advanced our understanding of the lignocellulose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. These studies have provided an insight into its central carbon metabolism, and analysis of its genome has revealed numerous functional gene clusters and tandem repeats. Specialized physiological traits are often the result of several gene products acting together. When coinheritance is necessary for the overall physiological function, recombination and selection favor colocation of these genes in a cluster. These are particularly evident in strongly conserved and idiomatic traits. In some cases, the functional clusters consist of multiple gene families. Phylogenetic analyses of the members in each family show that once formed, functional clusters undergo duplication and differentiation. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals that regulatory patterns of clusters are similar after they have duplicated and that the expression profiles evolve along with functional differentiation of the clusters. Orthologous gene families appear to arise through tandem gene duplication, followed by differentiation in the regulatory and coding regions of the gene. Genome-wide expression analysis combined with cross-species comparisons of functional gene clusters should reveal many more aspects of eukaryotic physiology. PMID:19659741

  5. Characterization of the PSG11 gene

    SciTech Connect

    McLenachan, P.A.; Rutherfurd, K.J.; Beggs, K.T.

    1994-07-15

    The pregnancy-specific {beta}{sub 1}-glycoproteins (PSG) form the major group of proteins synthesized in the human placenta. There are over 30 proteins in the family, encoded by 11 genes located on chromosome 19q13.1-13.3. The genes can be divided into three subgroups based on the C-terminal exons expressed. The subgroup 1 genes have been well characterized. In this study the organization and sequence of a complete, functional, subgroup 3 gene is described. It contains the C-terminal exons, C{sub w}, C{sub t}, and C{sub s}, which are expected from the transcripts characterized. Downstream from these exons are sequences homologous to the C-termini of the subgroup 1 type genes. This demonstrates that the subgroup 1, 2, and 3 genes are related via insertions/deletions. Comparison of the C-terminal sequences of the three subgroups of genes shows that the subgroup 2 and 3 genes are more closely related than, and are distinct from, the subgroup 1 genes. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

  7. Recent gene therapy advancements for neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Sahana; Khan, Nadia N; Gray, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    The past few years have seen rapid advancements in vector-mediated gene transfer to the nervous system and modest successes in human gene therapy trials. The purpose of this review is to describe commonly-used viral gene transfer vectors and recent advancements towards producing meaningful gene-based treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Gene therapy trials for Canavan disease, Batten disease, adrenoleukodystrophy, and Parkinson's disease are discussed to illustrate the current state of clinical gene transfer to the CNS. Preclinical studies are under way for a number of diseases, primarily lysosomal storage disorders, using a newer generation of vectors and delivery strategies. Relevant studies in animal models are highlighted for Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB and Krabbe disease to provide a prelude for what can be expected in the coming years for human gene transfer trials, using recent advancements in gene transfer technology. In conclusion, recent improvements in CNS gene transfer technology are expected to significantly increase the degree of disease rescue in future CNS-directed clinical trials, exceeding the modest clinical successes that have been observed so far. PMID:23449113

  8. Detecting Highways of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Mukul S.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Shamir, Ron

    In a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event a gene is transferred between two species that do not share an ancestor-descendant relationship. Typically, no more than a few genes are horizontally transferred between any two species. However, several studies identified pairs of species between which many different genes were horizontally transferred. Such a pair is said to be linked by a highway of gene sharing. We present a method for inferring such highways. Our method is based on the fact that the evolutionary histories of horizontally transferred genes disagree with the corresponding species phylogeny. Specifically, given a set of gene trees and a trusted rooted species tree, each gene tree is first decomposed into its constituent quartet trees and the quartets that are inconsistent with the species tree are identified. Our method finds a pair of species such that a highway between them explains the largest (normalized) fraction of inconsistent quartets. For a problem on n species, our method requires O(n 4) time, which is optimal with respect to the quartets input size. An application of our method to a dataset of 1128 genes from 11 cyanobacterial species, as well as to simulated datasets, illustrates the efficacy of our method.

  9. Predicting the Proportion of Essential Genes in Mouse Duplicates Based on Biased Mouse Knockout Genes

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    (paralogous) gene has been thought to be an important factor in the genetic robustness (Conant and Wagner 2004 single-copy genes in both the yeast and the nematode (Gu et al. 2003; Conant and Wagner 2004; Kamath et

  10. Using the bioconductor GeneAnswers package to interpret gene lists.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Shaw, Pamela; Rosen, Steven T; Lin, Simon M; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-01-01

    Use of microarray data to generate expression profiles of genes associated with disease can aid in identification of markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets. Pathway analysis methods further extend expression profiling by creating inferred networks that provide an interpretable structure of the gene list and visualize gene interactions. This chapter describes GeneAnswers, a novel gene-concept network analysis tool available as an open source Bioconductor package. GeneAnswers creates a gene-concept network and also can be used to build protein-protein interaction networks. The package includes an example multiple myeloma cell line dataset and tutorial. Several network analysis methods are included in GeneAnswers, and the tutorial highlights the conditions under which each type of analysis is most beneficial and provides sample code. PMID:22130876

  11. Combining gene sequence similarity and textual information for gene function annotation in the literature

    E-print Network

    Kihara, Daisuke

    Ontology terms for target genes. Empirical studies on two testbeds demonstrate that the combination as an important information source for gene function annotation. The automatic process of function annotation from

  12. When Noisy Neighbors Are a Blessing: Analysis of Gene Expression Noise Identifies Coregulated Genes

    E-print Network

    Junker, Jan Philipp

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Stewart-Ornstein et al. (2012) use systematic pair-wise correlation analysis of expression noise in a large number of yeast genes to identify clusters of functionally related genes and ...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT GENES USING A DATABASE OF RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray data from independent labs and studies can be compared to potentially identify toxicologically and biologically relevant genes. The Baseline Animal Database working group of HESI was formed to assess baseline gene expression from microarray data derived from control or...

  14. Gene duplication and the evolution of ribosomal protein gene regulation in yeast

    E-print Network

    Regev, Aviv

    Coexpression of genes within a functional module can be conserved at great evolutionary distances, whereas the associated regulatory mechanisms can substantially diverge. For example, ribosomal protein (RP) genes are tightly ...

  15. Gene Body Methylation can alter Gene Expression and is a Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojing; Han, Han; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation in promoters is well known to silence genes and is the presumed therapeutic target of methylation inhibitors. Gene body methylation is positively correlated with expression yet its function is unknown. We show that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment not only reactivates genes but decreases the over-expression of genes, many of which are involved in metabolic processes regulated by c-MYC. Down-regulation is caused by DNA demethylation of the gene bodies and restoration of high levels of expression requires remethylation by DNMT3B. Gene body methylation may therefore be an unexpected therapeutic target for DNA methylation inhibitors, resulting in the normalization of gene over-expression induced during carcinogenesis. Our results provide direct evidence for a causal relationship between gene body methylation and transcription. PMID:25263941

  16. Improved gene tree error correction in the presence of horizontal gene transfer

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Mukul S.

    Motivation: The accurate inference of gene trees is a necessary step in many evolutionary studies. Although the problem of accurate gene tree inference has received considerable attention, most existing methods are only ...

  17. Bacterial reference genes for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR: survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Danilo J P; Santos, Carolina S; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2015-09-01

    The appropriate choice of reference genes is essential for accurate normalization of gene expression data obtained by the method of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In 2009, a guideline called the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) highlighted the importance of the selection and validation of more than one suitable reference gene for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR results. Herein, we searched the recent literature in order to identify the bacterial reference genes that have been most commonly validated in gene expression studies by RT-qPCR (in the first 5 years following publication of the MIQE guidelines). Through a combination of different search parameters with the text mining tool MedlineRanker, we identified 145 unique bacterial genes that were recently tested as candidate reference genes. Of these, 45 genes were experimentally validated and, in most of the cases, their expression stabilities were verified using the software tools geNorm and NormFinder. It is noteworthy that only 10 of these reference genes had been validated in two or more of the studies evaluated. An enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology classifications demonstrated that genes belonging to the functional categories of DNA Replication (GO: 0006260) and Transcription (GO: 0006351) rendered a proportionally higher number of validated reference genes. Three genes in the former functional class were also among the top five most stable genes identified through an analysis of gene expression data obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center. These results may provide a guideline for the initial selection of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in several different bacterial species. PMID:26149127

  18. mGene: Accurate SVM-based gene finding with an application to nematode genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schweikert, Gabriele; Zien, Alexander; Zeller, Georg; Behr, Jonas; Dieterich, Christoph; Ong, Cheng Soon; Philips, Petra; De Bona, Fabio; Hartmann, Lisa; Bohlen, Anja; Krüger, Nina; Sonnenburg, Sören; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    We present a highly accurate gene-prediction system for eukaryotic genomes, called mGene. It combines in an unprecedented manner the flexibility of generalized hidden Markov models (gHMMs) with the predictive power of modern machine learning methods, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Its excellent performance was proved in an objective competition based on the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Considering the average of sensitivity and specificity, the developmental version of mGene exhibited the best prediction performance on nucleotide, exon, and transcript level for ab initio and multiple-genome gene-prediction tasks. The fully developed version shows superior performance in 10 out of 12 evaluation criteria compared with the other participating gene finders, including Fgenesh++ and Augustus. An in-depth analysis of mGene's genome-wide predictions revealed that ?2200 predicted genes were not contained in the current genome annotation. Testing a subset of 57 of these genes by RT-PCR and sequencing, we confirmed expression for 24 (42%) of them. mGene missed 300 annotated genes, out of which 205 were unconfirmed. RT-PCR testing of 24 of these genes resulted in a success rate of merely 8%. These findings suggest that even the gene catalog of a well-studied organism such as C. elegans can be substantially improved by mGene's predictions. We also provide gene predictions for the four nematodes C. briggsae, C. brenneri, C. japonica, and C. remanei. Comparing the resulting proteomes among these organisms and to the known protein universe, we identified many species-specific gene inventions. In a quality assessment of several available annotations for these genomes, we find that mGene's predictions are most accurate. PMID:19564452

  19. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  20. DAWN: a framework to identify autism genes and subnetworks using gene expression and genetics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background De novo loss-of-function (dnLoF) mutations are found twofold more often in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) probands than their unaffected siblings. Multiple independent dnLoF mutations in the same gene implicate the gene in risk and hence provide a systematic, albeit arduous, path forward for ASD genetics. It is likely that using additional non-genetic data will enhance the ability to identify ASD genes. Methods To accelerate the search for ASD genes, we developed a novel algorithm, DAWN, to model two kinds of data: rare variations from exome sequencing and gene co-expression in the mid-fetal prefrontal and motor-somatosensory neocortex, a critical nexus for risk. The algorithm casts the ensemble data as a hidden Markov random field in which the graph structure is determined by gene co-expression and it combines these interrelationships with node-specific observations, namely gene identity, expression, genetic data and the estimated effect on risk. Results Using currently available genetic data and a specific developmental time period for gene co-expression, DAWN identified 127 genes that plausibly affect risk, and a set of likely ASD subnetworks. Validation experiments making use of published targeted resequencing results demonstrate its efficacy in reliably predicting ASD genes. DAWN also successfully predicts known ASD genes, not included in the genetic data used to create the model. Conclusions Validation studies demonstrate that DAWN is effective in predicting ASD genes and subnetworks by leveraging genetic and gene expression data. The findings reported here implicate neurite extension and neuronal arborization as risks for ASD. Using DAWN on emerging ASD sequence data and gene expression data from other brain regions and tissues would likely identify novel ASD genes. DAWN can also be used for other complex disorders to identify genes and subnetworks in those disorders. PMID:24602502

  1. Reference genes for the normalization of gene expression in eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Breton, Michèle Claire; Bastolla, Fernanda Macedo; Camargo, Sandro da Silva; Margis, Rogério; Frazzon, Jeverson; Pasquali, Giancarlo

    2012-02-01

    Gene expression analysis is increasingly important in biological research, with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) becoming the method of choice for high-throughput and accurate expression profiling of selected genes. Considering the increased sensitivity, reproducibility and large dynamic range of this method, the requirements for proper internal reference gene(s) for relative expression normalization have become much more stringent. Given the increasing interest in the functional genomics of Eucalyptus, we sought to identify and experimentally verify suitable reference genes for the normalization of gene expression associated with the flower, leaf and xylem of six species of the genus. We selected 50 genes that exhibited the least variation in microarrays of E. grandis leaves and xylem, and E. globulus xylem. We further performed the experimental analysis using RT-qPCR for six Eucalyptus species and three different organs/tissues. Employing algorithms geNorm and NormFinder, we assessed the gene expression stability of eight candidate new reference genes. Classic housekeeping genes were also included in the analysis. The stability profiles of candidate genes were in very good agreement. PCR results proved that the expression of novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes was the most stable in all Eucalyptus organs/tissues and species studied. We showed that the combination of these genes as references when measuring the expression of a test gene results in more reliable patterns of expression than traditional housekeeping genes. Hence, novel Eucons04, Eucons08 and Eucons21 genes are the best suitable references for the normalization of expression studies in the Eucalyptus genus. PMID:22197885

  2. Novel genes induce uterine receptivity: the characterization of a specific gene product in the ewe uterus 

    E-print Network

    De Graauw, Jennifer Ann

    2013-02-22

    -1 NOVEL GENES INDUCE UTERINE RECEPTIVITY: THF. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPECIFIC GENE PRODUCT IN THE EWE UTERUS A Senior Honors Thesis By JENNIFER ANN DE GRAAUW Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs 4 Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University... In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS APRIL 2000 Group: Molecular Genetics NOVEL GENES INDUCE UTERINE RECEPTIVITY: THE CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPECIFIC GENE PRODUCT IN THE EWE UTERUS A Senior Honors...

  3. Identifying Housekeeping Gene Primers in Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum)

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Louis A.

    Identifying Housekeeping Gene Primers in Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum quantification is accurate. High quality reference genes are stably expressed genes, commonly housekeeping genes reference gene primers are required for stability experimentation. Therefore, more housekeeping gene primers

  4. THE JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE RESEARCH ARTICLE J Gene Med 2004; 6: 13331342.

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    Akseli Hemminki4,6* 1 Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Pathology and Surgery, and the Gene Therapy Center 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology 3 Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA 4 Cancer Gene Therapy Group

  5. THE JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE RESEARCH ARTICLE J Gene Med 2005; 7: 898907.

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    not significantly enhance enzyme prodrug cancer gene therapy as a part of a VP22-HSVTk-GFP triple fusion construct, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland 2 Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Rational Drug Design Program, Biomedicum Hospital, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland 4 Gene Therapy Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

  6. Analysis of N-ras gene mutation and p53 gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Liu, Qi-Fu; Gove, C; Naomov, NV; Su, Jian-Jia; Williams, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between N-ras gene mutation and p53 gene expression in the carcinogenesis and the development of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). METHODS: The N-ras gene mutation and the p53 gene expression were analyzed in 29 cases of HCC by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Thirteen cases of HCCs were p53 positive (44.8%), which showed a rather high percentage of p53 gene mutation in Guangxi. The aberrations at N-ras codon 2-37 were found in 79.31% of HCCs and 80.77% of adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. More than 2 point mutations of N-ras gene were observed in 22 cases (75.86%). Twelve cases (41.37%) of HCCs showed both N-ras gene mutation and p53 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: N-ras gene and p53 gene may be involved in the carcinogenesis and the development of HCC. That 38% of HCCs with N-ras gene mutation did not express p53 protein indicates that some other genes or factors may participate in the carcinogenesis and the development of HCC. PMID:11819246

  7. Logical Gene Ontology Annotations (GOAL): Exploring gene ontology annotations with OWL

    E-print Network

    2012-04-24

    with the appropriate property described above. For example, for the mitochondrion class in GO we create a new class called mitochondrial gene product as follows: Class: ’mitochondrion gene product’ EquivalentTo: ’gene product’ that is_located_in some ’mitochondrion...

  8. A new gene in A. rubens: A sea star Ig kappa gene.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Nadine; Osteras, Magne; Otten, Patricia; Leclerc, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The sea star Asterias rubens reacts specifically to the antigen:HRP (horse-radish peroxydase) and produces an antibody anti-HRP. We previously identified a candidate Ig kappa gene corresponding to this manuscript. We show now the gene referred to as: "sea star Ig kappa gene in its specificity". PMID:25606415

  9. Mutations in nuclear genes alter post-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial genes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear gene products are required for the expression of mitochondrial genes and elaboration of functional mitochondrial protein complexes. To better understand the roles of these nuclear genes, we exploited the mitochondrial encoded S-type of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) and developed a nove...

  10. Evolution of the rodent eosinophil-associated RNase gene family by rapid gene sorting and

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    Evolution of the rodent eosinophil-associated RNase gene family by rapid gene sorting and positive functional genes and 23 pseudogenes of the eosinophil-associated RNase (EAR) family from 5 rodent species physiological function of the rodent EARs. The discovery of a large number of divergent EARs suggests

  11. Decreasing the stochasticity of mammalian gene expression by a synthetic gene circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Zal, Tomasz; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    Gene therapy and functional genetic studies usually require precisely controlled and uniform gene expression in a population of cells for reliable level of protein production. Due to this requirement, stochastic gene expression is perceived as undesirable in these fields and ideally has to be minimized. The number of approaches for decreasing gene expression stochasticity in mammalian cells is limited. This creates an unmet need to develop new gene expression systems for this purpose. Based on earlier synthetic constructs in yeast, we developed and assessed a negative feedback-based mammalian gene circuit, with uniform and low level of stochasticity in gene expression at different levels of induction. In addition, this new synthetic construct enables highly precise gene expression control in mammalian cells, due to the linear dependence of gene expression on the inducer concentration applied to the system. This mammalian gene expression circuit has potential applicability for the development of new treatment modalities in gene therapy and research tools in functional genetics. In addition, this work creates a roadmap for moving synthetic gene circuits from microbes into mammalian cells.

  12. Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria John R, the best studied homeobox gene from the phylum Cnidaria, a very ancient lineage of animals. Among three of the surprisingly high degree of variability in gsx expression within the Cnidaria, it is currently not possible

  13. Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa and E150K Mutation in the Opsin Gene*S Received group of hered- itary disorders of the retina caused by mutation in genes of the photoreceptor proteins with an autosomal dominant (adRP), autosomal recessive (arRP), or X-linked pattern of inheritance. Although

  14. Reversing Gene Erosion--Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene-Content and Order Data

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis EscherichiaReversing Gene Erosion--Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene-Content and Order Data into the other) and in terms of genomes at internal nodes, on small, duplication-free genomes. Current gene

  15. Reversing Gene Erosion---Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from GeneContent and Order Data

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis EscherichiaReversing Gene Erosion---Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene­Content and Order into the other) and in terms of genomes at internal nodes, on small, duplication­free genomes. Current gene

  16. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  17. Identifying Good Diagnostic Gene Groups from Gene Expression Profiles Using the Concept of Emerging Patterns

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    that are significantly related to a disease can be detected by conducting a series of gene expression experiments the patterns from these genes. According to our studies on the ALL/AML dataset and the colon tumor dataset genes to treat a disease. Emerging patterns (Dong and Li, 1999) ---EPs for short---are an important

  18. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common tool for quantifying mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a reference gene is mandatory. Aphis glycines is a significant soybean pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable reference genes. We evalu...

  19. Visual gene developer: a fully programmable bioinformatics software for synthetic gene optimization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Direct gene synthesis is becoming more popular owing to decreases in gene synthesis pricing. Compared with using natural genes, gene synthesis provides a good opportunity to optimize gene sequence for specific applications. In order to facilitate gene optimization, we have developed a stand-alone software called Visual Gene Developer. Results The software not only provides general functions for gene analysis and optimization along with an interactive user-friendly interface, but also includes unique features such as programming capability, dedicated mRNA secondary structure prediction, artificial neural network modeling, network & multi-threaded computing, and user-accessible programming modules. The software allows a user to analyze and optimize a sequence using main menu functions or specialized module windows. Alternatively, gene optimization can be initiated by designing a gene construct and configuring an optimization strategy. A user can choose several predefined or user-defined algorithms to design a complicated strategy. The software provides expandable functionality as platform software supporting module development using popular script languages such as VBScript and JScript in the software programming environment. Conclusion Visual Gene Developer is useful for both researchers who want to quickly analyze and optimize genes, and those who are interested in developing and testing new algorithms in bioinformatics. The software is available for free download at http://www.visualgenedeveloper.net. PMID:21846353

  20. Gene Expression Patterns and Gene Copy Number Changes in Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    :22), which fuses the COL1A1 and PDGF genes. We determined the characteristic gene expression profile of DFSP results. Large areas of chromosomes 17q and 22q, bounded by COL1A1 and PDGF , respectively, were amplified chro- mosomes 17q and 22q, demarcated by the COL1A1 and PDGF genes, respectively, was associated

  1. Dependence Relationships between Gene Ontology Terms based on TIGR Gene Product Annotations

    E-print Network

    Borgelt, Christian

    vocabularies for the designations of cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes usedDependence Relationships between Gene Ontology Terms based on TIGR Gene Product Annotations Anand for the representation and processing of information about gene products and functions. It provides controlled

  2. Expression of flowering time genes in soybean E1 gene isolines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of soybean flowering time is important for geographic adaptation, and maximizing yield. A series of genes (E genes) that condition time to flowering have been identified, however, these E genes have not been sequenced, nor is their mechanism of control of flowering clearly understood. The E...

  3. A short perspective on gene therapy: Clinical experience on gene therapy of gliomablastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    More than two decades have passed since the first gene therapy clinical trial was conducted. During this time, we have gained much knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the fear that persists in society. We have experienced drawbacks and successes. More than 1700 clinical trials have been conducted where gene therapy is used as a means for therapy. In the very first trial, patients with advanced melanoma were treated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes genetically modified ex-vivo to express tumor necrosis factor. Around the same time the first gene therapy trial was conducted, the ethical aspects of performing gene therapy on humans was intensively discussed. What are the risks involved with gene therapy? Can we control the technology? What is ethically acceptable and what are the indications gene therapy can be used for? Initially, gene therapy was thought to be implemented mainly for the treatment of monogenetic diseases, such as adenosine deaminase deficiency. However, other therapeutic areas have become of interest and currently cancer is the most studied therapeutic area for gene therapy based medicines. In this review I will be giving a short introduction into gene therapy and will direct the discussion to where we should go from here. Furthermore, I will focus on the use of the Herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase for gene therapy of malignant gliomas and highlight the efficacy of gene therapy for the treatment of malignant gliomas, but other strategies will also be mentioned. PMID:24520527

  4. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  5. Medea genes, handedness and other traits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Medea factors or genes are maternal-effects mechanisms, found in many species, in which the mother's body selectively kills embryos of a certain genotype.Humans have a similar genetic mechanism, the gene RHD which produces Rh-factor involved in blood type.Recently I proposed that RHD acts as a maternal-effects gene that determines handedness (i.e., right handed or non-right handed) in individuals of our species. Here, I argue that RHD functions as a Medea gene as well.The handedness gene (and also RHD itself in some cases) has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder, cerebral laterality (i.e., right-brained or left-brained speech laterality), hair-whorl rotation, schizophrenia, sexual orientation, and speech dyslexia.Identifying the gene or genes that determine handedness or cerebral laterality may help uncover the mechanisms underlying these behavioral phenotypes in our species.A relatively simple test of the handedness hypothesis has been proposed:In a sample of humans for whom handedness has been evaluated, we would need to genotype for RHD by determining whether Rh+ individuals have one or two copies of the dominant allele. If RHD and perhaps also an interaction with RHCE are involved in sexual orientation, it explains how selection could favor a gene or genes which cause some people to become non-heterosexual.The literature on Medea genes provides the explanation:A Medea allele must increase in frequency, sometimes to fixation (i.e., 100% frequency) even if it reduces fecundity (e.g., birth rate).In addition, treatment for RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility, which allows more fetuses to survive to term now, may be one explanation for why ASD appears to be increasing in frequency in some populations, if RHD is indeed the handedness gene, although many other mechanisms have also been suggested. One wonders if bipolar disorder and the other alternative phenotypes are also increasing in frequency.

  6. Improving gene annotation of complete viral genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Ryan; Rozanov, Michael; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Tatusova, Tatiana; Borodovsky, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Gene annotation in viruses often relies upon similarity search methods. These methods possess high specificity but some genes may be missed, either those unique to a particular genome or those highly divergent from known homologs. To identify potentially missing viral genes we have analyzed all complete viral genomes currently available in GenBank with a specialized and augmented version of the gene finding program GeneMarkS. In particular, by implementing genome-specific self-training protocols we have better adjusted the GeneMarkS statistical models to sequences of viral genomes. Hundreds of new genes were identified, some in well studied viral genomes. For example, a new gene predicted in the genome of the Epstein–Barr virus was shown to encode a protein similar to ?-herpesvirus minor tegument protein UL14 with heat shock functions. Convincing evidence of this similarity was obtained after only 12 PSI-BLAST iterations. In another example, several iterations of PSI-BLAST were required to demonstrate that a gene predicted in the genome of Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 encodes a BALF1-like protein which is thought to be involved in apoptosis regulation and, potentially, carcinogenesis. New predictions were used to refine annotations of viral genomes in the RefSeq collection curated by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Importantly, even in those cases where no sequence similarities were detected, GeneMarkS significantly reduced the number of primary targets for experimental characterization by identifying the most probable candidate genes. The new genome annotations were stored in VIOLIN, an interactive database which provides access to similarity search tools for up-to-date analysis of predicted viral proteins. PMID:14627837

  7. Computational algorithms to predict Gene Ontology annotations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene function annotations, which are associations between a gene and a term of a controlled vocabulary describing gene functional features, are of paramount importance in modern biology. Datasets of these annotations, such as the ones provided by the Gene Ontology Consortium, are used to design novel biological experiments and interpret their results. Despite their importance, these sources of information have some known issues. They are incomplete, since biological knowledge is far from being definitive and it rapidly evolves, and some erroneous annotations may be present. Since the curation process of novel annotations is a costly procedure, both in economical and time terms, computational tools that can reliably predict likely annotations, and thus quicken the discovery of new gene annotations, are very useful. Methods We used a set of computational algorithms and weighting schemes to infer novel gene annotations from a set of known ones. We used the latent semantic analysis approach, implementing two popular algorithms (Latent Semantic Indexing and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) and propose a novel method, the Semantic IMproved Latent Semantic Analysis, which adds a clustering step on the set of considered genes. Furthermore, we propose the improvement of these algorithms by weighting the annotations in the input set. Results We tested our methods and their weighted variants on the Gene Ontology annotation sets of three model organism genes (Bos taurus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster ). The methods showed their ability in predicting novel gene annotations and the weighting procedures demonstrated to lead to a valuable improvement, although the obtained results vary according to the dimension of the input annotation set and the considered algorithm. Conclusions Out of the three considered methods, the Semantic IMproved Latent Semantic Analysis is the one that provides better results. In particular, when coupled with a proper weighting policy, it is able to predict a significant number of novel annotations, demonstrating to actually be a helpful tool in supporting scientists in the curation process of gene functional annotations. PMID:25916950

  8. Learning Gene Regulatory Networks via Globally Regularized Risk Minimization

    E-print Network

    Guo, Yuhong

    Learning Gene Regulatory Networks via Globally Regularized Risk Minimization Yuhong Guo and Dale,dale}@cs.ualberta.ca Abstract. Learning the structure of a gene regulatory network from time-series gene expression data of each target gene individually, but fail to share regulatory information between related genes

  9. An Introduction to Gene Therapy What is it?

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    An Introduction to Gene Therapy What is it? Genes are strings and strings of nucleotides, causes diseases. Gene therapy is the use of genetics as medication and a cure for diseases. Rather than using pharmaceutical drugs that treat the effects of a disease, gene therapy is used to target the gene

  10. A Theoretical Analysis of Gene Selection S. N. Mukherjee

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Stephen

    for differentially expressed genes can be a little like looking for a needle in the proverbial haystack. A largeA Theoretical Analysis of Gene Selection S. N. Mukherjee and S. J. Roberts Department genes from microarray data (`gene selection'). Numerous gene selec- tion algorithms have been proposed

  11. The fate of duplicated genes: loss or new function?

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Andreas

    mutations. Thus, as long as one duplicate gene functions normally, the other may go the more likely routeThe fate of duplicated genes: loss or new function? Andreas Wagner Summary Gene duplication events are important sources of novel gene functions. However, more often than not, a duplicate gene may lose its

  12. Voxelwise gene-wide association study (vGeneWAS): multivariate gene-based association testing in 731 elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Kohannim, Omid; Jahanshad, Neda; Saykin, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Kim, Sungeun; Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Potkin, Steven G.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging traits provide a powerful and biologically relevant substrate to examine the influence of genetics on the brain. Interest in genome-wide, brain-wide search for influential genetic variants is growing, but has mainly focused on univariate, SNP-based association tests. Moving to gene-based multivariate statistics, we can test the combined effect of multiple genetic variants in a single test statistic. Multivariate models can reduce the number of statistical tests in gene-wide or genome-wide scans and may discover gene effects undetectable with SNP-based methods. Here we present a gene-based method for associating the joint effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18,044 genes across 31,662 voxels of the whole brain in 731 elderly subjects (mean age: 75.56 ± 6.82SD years; 430 males) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Structural MRI scans were analyzed using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to compute 3D maps of regional brain volume differences compared to an average template image based on healthy elderly subjects. Using the voxel-level volume difference values as the phenotype, we selected the most significantly associated gene (out of 18,044) at each voxel across the brain. No genes identified were significant after correction for multiple comparisons, but several known candidates were re-identified, as were other genes highly relevant to brain function. GAB2, which has been previously associated with late-onset AD, was identified as the top gene in this study, suggesting the validity of the approach. This multivariate, gene-based voxelwise association study offers a novel framework to detect genetic influences on the brain. PMID:21497199

  13. Gene regulation by mechanical forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluwole, B. O.; Du, W.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo from the flow of blood across the luminal surface of the blood vessel. The purpose of this review was to examine the data available on how these mechanical forces, in particular cyclic strain, affect the expression and regulation of endothelial cell function. Studies from various investigators using models of cyclic strain in vitro have shown that various vasoactive mediators such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin are induced by the effect of mechanical deformation, and that the expression of these mediators may be regulated at the transcription level by mechanical forces. There also seems to be emerging evidence that endothelial cells may also act as mechanotransducers, whereby the transmission of external forces induces various cytoskeletal changes and second messenger cascades. Furthermore, it seems these forces may act on specific response elements of promoter genes.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

  15. Halogenase Genes in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Clusters of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria): Sporadic Distribution and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Cadel-Six, Sabrina; Dauga, Catherine; Castets, Anne Marie; Rippka, Rosmarie; Bouchier, Christiane; Welker, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis are known to produce secondary metabolites of large structural diversity by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathways. For a number of such compounds, halogenated congeners have been reported along with nonhalogenated ones. In the present study, chlorinated cyanopeptolin- and/or aeruginosin-type peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in 17 out of 28 axenic strains of Microcystis. In these strains, a halogenase gene was identified between 2 genes coding for NRPS modules in respective gene clusters, whereas it was consistently absent when the strains produced only nonchlorinated corresponding congeners. Nucleotide sequences were obtained for 12 complete halogenase genes and 14 intermodule regions of gene clusters lacking a halogenase gene or containing only fragments of it. When a halogenase gene was found absent, a specific, identical excision pattern was observed for both synthetase gene clusters in most strains. A phylogenetic analysis including other bacterial halogenases showed that the NRPS-related halogenases of Microcystis form a monophyletic group divided into 2 subgroups, corresponding to either the cyanopeptolin or the aeruginosin peptide synthetases. The distribution of these peptide synthetase gene clusters, among the tested Microcystis strains, was found in relative agreement with their phylogeny reconstructed from 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer sequences, whereas the distribution of the associated halogenase genes appears to be sporadic. The presented data suggest that in cyanobacteria these prevalent halogenase genes originated from an ancient horizontal gene transfer followed by duplication in the cyanobacterial lineage. We propose an evolutionary scenario implying repeated gene losses to explain the distribution of halogenase genes in 2 NRPS gene clusters that subsequently defines the seemingly erratic production of halogenated and nonhalogenated aeruginosins and cyanopeptolins among Microcystis strains. PMID:18614525

  16. Genes with minimal phylogenetic information are problematic for coalescent analyses when gene tree estimation is biased.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Liu, Liang; Davis, Charles C

    2015-11-01

    The development and application of coalescent methods are undergoing rapid changes. One little explored area that bears on the application of gene-tree-based coalescent methods to species tree estimation is gene informativeness. Here, we investigate the accuracy of these coalescent methods when genes have minimal phylogenetic information, including the implementation of the multilocus bootstrap approach. Using simulated DNA sequences, we demonstrate that genes with minimal phylogenetic information can produce unreliable gene trees (i.e., high error in gene tree estimation), which may in turn reduce the accuracy of species tree estimation using gene-tree-based coalescent methods. We demonstrate that this problem can be alleviated by sampling more genes, as is commonly done in large-scale phylogenomic analyses. This applies even when these genes are minimally informative. If gene tree estimation is biased, however, gene-tree-based coalescent analyses will produce inconsistent results, which cannot be remedied by increasing the number of genes. In this case, it is not the gene-tree-based coalescent methods that are flawed, but rather the input data (i.e., estimated gene trees). Along these lines, the commonly used program PhyML has a tendency to infer one particular bifurcating topology even though it is best represented as a polytomy. We additionally corroborate these findings by analyzing the 183-locus mammal data set assembled by McCormack et al. (2012) using ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and flanking DNA. Lastly, we demonstrate that when employing the multilocus bootstrap approach on this 183-locus data set, there is no strong conflict between species trees estimated from concatenation and gene-tree-based coalescent analyses, as has been previously suggested by Gatesy and Springer (2014). PMID:26115844

  17. CancerGenes: a gene selection resource for cancer genome projects.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Maureen E; Claremont, Martine; Major, John E; Sander, Chris; Lash, Alex E

    2007-01-01

    The genome sequence framework provided by the human genome project allows us to precisely map human genetic variations in order to study their association with disease and their direct effects on gene function. Since the description of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes several decades ago, both germ-line variations and somatic mutations have been established to be important in cancer-in terms of risk, oncogenesis, prognosis and response to therapy. The Cancer Genome Atlas initiative proposed by the NIH is poised to elucidate the contribution of somatic mutations to cancer development and progression through the re-sequencing of a substantial fraction of the total collection of human genes-in hundreds of individual tumors and spanning several tumor types. We have developed the CancerGenes resource to simplify the process of gene selection and prioritization in large collaborative projects. CancerGenes combines gene lists annotated by experts with information from key public databases. Each gene is annotated with gene name(s), functional description, organism, chromosome number, location, Entrez Gene ID, GO terms, InterPro descriptions, gene structure, protein length, transcript count, and experimentally determined transcript control regions, as well as links to Entrez Gene, COSMIC, and iHOP gene pages and the UCSC and Ensembl genome browsers. The user-friendly interface provides for searching, sorting and intersection of gene lists. Users may view tabulated results through a web browser or may dynamically download them as a spreadsheet table. CancerGenes is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/cancergenes. PMID:17088289

  18. Integrating alternative splicing detection into gene prediction

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Sylvain; Schiex, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is now considered as a major actor in transcriptome/proteome diversity and it cannot be neglected in the annotation process of a new genome. Despite considerable progresses in term of accuracy in computational gene prediction, the ability to reliably predict AS variants when there is local experimental evidence of it remains an open challenge for gene finders. Results We have used a new integrative approach that allows to incorporate AS detection into ab initio gene prediction. This method relies on the analysis of genomically aligned transcript sequences (ESTs and/or cDNAs), and has been implemented in the dynamic programming algorithm of the graph-based gene finder EuGÈNE. Given a genomic sequence and a set of aligned transcripts, this new version identifies the set of transcripts carrying evidence of alternative splicing events, and provides, in addition to the classical optimal gene prediction, alternative optimal predictions (among those which are consistent with the AS events detected). This allows for multiple annotations of a single gene in a way such that each predicted variant is supported by a transcript evidence (but not necessarily with a full-length coverage). Conclusions This automatic combination of experimental data analysis and ab initio gene finding offers an ideal integration of alternatively spliced gene prediction inside a single annotation pipeline. PMID:15705189

  19. Does evolution in body patterning genes drive

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Antónia

    and dorsoventral, along which broad body regions, segments, and specific segment identi- ties are successivelyDoes evolution in body patterning genes drive morphological change-- or vice versa? Graham E. Budd Summary Increased understanding of the regulation of body patterning genes in develop- ment, especially

  20. Penalized Logistic Regression for Detecting Gene Interactions

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    Penalized Logistic Regression for Detecting Gene Interactions Mee Young Park Trevor Hastie February 3, 2007 Abstract We propose using a variant of logistic regression with L2 regularization to fit are influenced by interaction of certain genes. Logistic regression models with quadratic penalization not only

  1. Noise minimization in eukaryotic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Giaever, Guri; Kumm, Jochen; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-01-15

    All organisms have elaborate mechanisms to control rates of protein production. However, protein production is also subject to stochastic fluctuations, or noise. Several recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli have investigated the relationship between transcription and translation rates and stochastic fluctuations in protein levels, or more generally, how such randomness is a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, the fundamental question of whether stochasticity in protein expression is generally biologically relevant has not been addressed, and it remains unknown whether random noise in the protein production rate of most genes significantly affects the fitness of any organism. We propose that organisms should be particularly sensitive to variation in the protein levels of two classes of genes: genes whose deletion is lethal to the organism and genes that encode subunits of multiprotein complexes. Using an experimentally verified model of stochastic gene expression in S. cerevisiae, we estimate the noise in protein production for nearly every yeast gene, and confirm our prediction that the production of essential and complex-forming proteins involves lower levels of noise than does the production of most other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that noise in gene expression is a biologically important variable, is generally detrimental to organismal fitness, and is subject to natural selection.

  2. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING BY MASSIVELY PARALLEL SEQUENCING

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    (SAGE). #12;Gene Expression Profiling #12;SAGE Source: sagenet.org · Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population. · Description of SAGE: 1. A short sequence tag (10-14bp) contains enough information to uniquely identify

  3. Mechanisms of control of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, B.; Gage, L.P.; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.; Skalka, A.M.; Weissbach, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines an array of topics on the regulation of gene expression, including an examination of DNA-protein interactions and the role of oncogene proteins in normal and abnormal cellular responses. The book focuses on the control of mRNA transcription in eykaryotes and delineates other areas including gene regulation in prokaryotes and control of stable RNA synthesis.

  4. Cancer gene discovery using digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Scheurle, D; DeYoung, M P; Binninger, D M; Page, H; Jahanzeb, M; Narayanan, R

    2000-08-01

    The Cancer Gene Anatomy Project database of the National Cancer Institute has thousands of expressed sequences, both known and novel, in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These ESTs, derived from diverse normal and tumor cDNA libraries, offer an attractive starting point for cancer gene discovery. Using a data-mining tool called Digital Differential Display (DDD) from the Cancer Gene Anatomy Project database, ESTs from six different solid tumor types (breast, colon, lung, ovary, pancreas, and prostate) were analyzed for differential expression. An electronic expression profile and chromosomal map position of these hits were generated from the Unigene database. The hits were categorized into major classes of genes including ribosomal proteins, enzymes, cell surface molecules, secretory proteins, adhesion molecules, and immunoglobulins and were found to be differentially expressed in these tumorderived libraries. Genes known to be up-regulated in prostate, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas were discovered by DDD, demonstrating the utility of this technique. Two hundred known genes and 500 novel sequences were discovered to be differentially expressed in these select tumor-derived libraries. Test genes were validated for expression specificity by reverse transcription-PCR, providing a proof of concept for gene discovery by DDD. A comprehensive database of hits can be accessed at http:// www.fau.edu/cmbb/publications/cancergenes. htm. This solid tumor DDD database should facilitate target identification for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:10945605

  5. RNA Interference for Wheat Functional Gene Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to a common mechanism of RNA-based post-transcriptional gene silencing in eukaryotic cells. In model plant species such as Arabidopsis and rice, RNAi has been routinely used to characterize gene function and to engineer novel phenotypes. In polyploid species, this appr...

  6. Gene silencing in severe systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    McCall, Charles E; Yoza, Barbara K

    2007-04-15

    This critical care perspective appraises reprogramming of gene expression in inflammatory diseases as an emerging concept of clinical importance. We emphasize gene reprogramming that "silences" acute proinflammatory genes during severe systemic inflammation, wherein in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) exists as a continuum during severe sepsis, septic shock, and the multiorgan dysfunction and failure phenotypes without infection. In contrast, silencing of acute proinflammatory genes is not apparent in sites of localized inflammatory processes like rheumatoid arthritis. We discuss in three parts the clinical context and the translational basic science associated with gene silencing during the SIRS continuum of severe systemic inflammation: (1) reprogramming of acute proinflammatory genes; (2) a "nuclear factor-kappaB paradox," coupled with RelB expression, that combine to silence genes using an epigenetic (inherited and reversible) signature on the nucleosome; and (3) the potential clinical importance of compartmentalization in gene silencing. Our emergent understanding of these physiologic processes may provide a novel framework for developing treatments. PMID:17255558

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation

    E-print Network

    Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation Martin A. Nowak*§ , Franziska Michor, and approved May 27, 2004 (received for review February 3, 2004) Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are important, and zero rate-limiting steps to inactivate a TSG. We also study the effect of chromosomal and other genetic

  8. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  9. Switchgrass Gene Pools for Conservation and Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) is a perennial grass native to the North American tallgrass prairie and broadly adapted to the central and eastern USA. Movement of plant materials throughout this region creates the potential of contaminating local gene pools with genes that are not native to a lo...

  10. EcoGene 3.0.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jindan; Rudd, Kenneth E

    2013-01-01

    EcoGene (http://ecogene.org) is a database and website devoted to continuously improving the structural and functional annotation of Escherichia coli K-12, one of the most well understood model organisms, represented by the MG1655(Seq) genome sequence and annotations. Major improvements to EcoGene in the past decade include (i) graphic presentations of genome map features; (ii) ability to design Boolean queries and Venn diagrams from EcoArray, EcoTopics or user-provided GeneSets; (iii) the genome-wide clone and deletion primer design tool, PrimerPairs; (iv) sequence searches using a customized EcoBLAST; (v) a Cross Reference table of synonymous gene and protein identifiers; (vi) proteome-wide indexing with GO terms; (vii) EcoTools access to >2000 complete bacterial genomes in EcoGene-RefSeq; (viii) establishment of a MySql relational database; and (ix) use of web content management systems. The biomedical literature is surveyed daily to provide citation and gene function updates. As of September 2012, the review of 37 397 abstracts and articles led to creation of 98 425 PubMed-Gene links and 5415 PubMed-Topic links. Annotation updates to Genbank U00096 are transmitted from EcoGene to NCBI. Experimental verifications include confirmation of a CTG start codon, pseudogene restoration and quality assurance of the Keio strain collection. PMID:23197660

  11. A Critical Review of Gene Prediction Software

    E-print Network

    gene The very best gene predictor should (in theory) be able to identify the exact boundaries of many lies the translational start, indicated by an ATG sequence, and somewhere else downstream, also within an exon, lies the translational stop, indicated by a TAG, TAA, or TGA sequence. These sequences should

  12. Regulation of gene expression by biotin (review).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2003-12-01

    In mammals, biotin serves as coenzyme for four carboxylases, which play essential roles in the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids. Biotin deficiency causes decreased rates of cell proliferation, impaired immune function, and abnormal fetal development. Evidence is accumulating that biotin also plays an important role in regulating gene expression, mediating some of the effects of biotin in cell biology and fetal development. DNA microarray studies and other gene expression studies have suggested that biotin affects transcription of genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, oncogenes, genes involved in glucose metabolism, and genes that play a role in cellular biotin homeostasis. In addition, evidence has been provided that biotin affects expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor and propionyl-CoA carboxylase at the post-transcriptional level. Various pathways have been identified by which biotin might affect gene expression: activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by biotinyl-AMP, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB (in response to biotin deficiency), and remodeling of chromatin by biotinylation of histones. Some biotin metabolites that cannot serve as coenzymes for carboxylases can mimic biotin with regard to its effects on gene expression. This observation suggests that biotin metabolites that have been considered "metabolic waste" in previous studies might have biotin-like activities. These new insights into biotin-dependent gene expression are likely to lead to a better understanding of roles for biotin in cell biology and fetal development. PMID:14690760

  13. An Algorithmic Approach to Gene Regulatory Sequence

    E-print Network

    Rouchka, Eric

    An Algorithmic Approach to Gene Regulatory Sequence Analysis Eric C. Rouchka1 TR-ULBL-2008-01 March Approach to Gene Regulatory Sequence Analysis Eric C. Rouchka1,* 1 Department of Computer Engineering important regulatory signals. A method for detect- ing common regulatory motifs using a modified Bernoulli

  14. Resistance Gene Analogs in Cherries (Prunus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic studies have shown that NBS-LRR Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) tend to occur in clusters and often map to major resistances gene or QTL. The identification and use of specific RGAs as molecular markers among plant material displaying differential resistance phenotypes has the potential to di...

  15. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-01-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this…

  16. The selfish goal meets the selfish gene.

    PubMed

    Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark

    2014-04-01

    The connection between selfish genes and selfish goals is not merely metaphorical. Many goals that shape contemporary cognition and behavior are psychological products of evolutionarily fundamental motivational systems and thus are phenotypic manifestations of genes. An evolutionary perspective can add depth and nuance to our understanding of "selfish goals" and their implications for human cognition and behavior. PMID:24775141

  17. Efficient Designs for Multiple Gene Knockdown Experiments

    E-print Network

    Nazer, Bobak

    to investigate these effects in yeast [3]. This massive undertaking required testing over 5 million gene pairs experiments, each with a single gene suppressed or knocked down. However, certain effects are not revealed a significant impact. In fact, for many model organisms, such as yeast and the fruit fly, "single-deletion" cell

  18. Gene coding for the E1 endoglucanase

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Laymon, Robert A. (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The gene encoding Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endoglucanase is cloned and expressed in heterologous microorganisms. A new modified E1 endoglucanase enzyme is produced along with variants of the gene and enzyme. The E1 endoglucanase is useful for hydrolyzing cellulose to sugars for simultaneous or later fermentation into alcohol.

  19. Module-Based Gene Networks with

    E-print Network

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    in a particular period (e.g., during cell cycles), a time course of which dimension is equal to the number of the mechanism to regulate expressions of many genes and responses of gene expressions to drugs, etc. Let yn. In the con- text of signal processing, the state vector xn is often regarded as some unknown signals in yn

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePLUS

    The BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene test is a blood test that can tell you if you have a higher risk of getting cancer. The name ... BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress tumors in humans. When these ... mutations) they do not suppress tumors like they should. So ...